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Sample records for low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid

  1. Frequency of vacA Genotypes and Cytotoxin Activity in Helicobacter pylori Associated with Low-Grade Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miehlke, Stephan; Meining, Alexander; Morgner, Andrea; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Lehn, Norbert; Stolte, Manfred; Graham, David Y.; Go, Mae F.

    1998-01-01

    The vacA genotypes s1,m1 and s1,m2 were detected in 44 and 30% of Helicobacter pylori isolates, respectively, from patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, compared to 26 and 56% of isolates, respectively, from individuals with gastritis. The vacA s1 genotype was significantly associated with, but not predictive of, the presence of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. PMID:9666027

  2. Low-grade B cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type) require CD40-mediated signaling and Th2-type cytokines for in vitro growth and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, A.; Knörr, C.; Qin, Y.; Sebald, W.; Schimpl, A.; Banchereau, J.; Müller-Hermelink, H. K.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of T cell dependence underlying the development of extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type B cell lymphomas, the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphoma B cells were studied using ligand binding to the CD40 membrane receptor. The activation and proliferative response of all investigated low-grade MALT-type lymphomas (n = 6) was strongly dependent on anti-CD40-mediated signals and was complemented by cytokines produced by T helper cells of the Th2 type (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and/or IL-10). Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and/or interferon-gamma) bad little effect. Low-grade, but less so high-grade, MALT-type lymphoma B cells were induced to secrete large amounts of tumor immunoglobulin in response to IL-10. In contrast, high-grade MALT-type lymphomas (n = 5) proliferated in response to both Th2- and Th1-type cytokines and CD40 stimulation, whereas Burkitt lymphomas (n = 3) could not be rescued from apoptosis by CD40 stimulation with or without cytokines. These results suggest that CD40 signaling in combination with Th2 cytokines are essential for the development and progression of low-grade MALT-type B cell lymphoma. We conclude that T cells, which activate B cells in a CD40-dependent fashion, may contribute to lymphoma pathogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9137085

  3. Therapy of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Morgner, Andrea; Schmelz, Renate; Thiede, Christian; Stolte, Manfred; Miehlke, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has recently been incorporated into the World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification, termed as extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT-type. In about 90% of cases this lymphoma is associated with H pylori infection which has been clearly shown to play a causative role in lymphomagenesis. Although much knowledge has been gained in defining the clinical features, natural history, pathology, and molecular genetics of the disease in the last decade, the optimal treatment approach for gastric MALT lymphomas, especially locally advanced cases, is still evolving. In this review we focus on data for the therapeutic, stage dependent management of gastric MALT lymphoma. Hence, the role of eradication therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is critically analyzed. Based on these data, we suggest a therapeutic algorithm that might help to better stratify patients for optimal treatment success. PMID:17659705

  4. Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma revisited.

    PubMed

    Borie, Raphael; Wislez, Marie; Antoine, Martine; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Thieblemont, Catherine; Cadranel, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    This general review sought to clarify the pathophysiological, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic features of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.MALT lymphoma is the most common pulmonary B-cell lymphoma, which usually occurs in the context of acquired MALT. The disease is slow-growing with an asymptomatic chronic alveolar opacity visible on radiography. Diagnosis requires tissue samples that should be retrieved using minimally invasive techniques, such as bronchoscopy or computed tomography-guided biopsies. The pathophysiology includes cytogenetic abnormalities and autoimmune diseases, whereas an association with a chronic pulmonary infection is still suspected but not yet demonstrated. Disease prognosis is typically excellent and the current available treatments are discussed in this review, including the decision not to treat, surgery, and single- or double-agent chemotherapy. PMID:26797028

  5. Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kokuho, Nariaki; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Morimoto, Taisuke; Azuma, Arata; Usuda, Jitsuo; Gemma, Akihiko; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Differentiating low-grade lymphoma from preexisting sarcoidosis is difficult because of their pathological similarity. This article describes a case of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis. The patient, a 45-year-old Japanese man, presented with a 10-year history of pulmonary sarcoidosis and 5-year history of ocular sarcoidosis with histologic findings. Because only the right S3 lung nodule had gradually enlarged, partial resection was performed. Pathological study revealed noncaseous epithelioid granulomas with lymphoplasmacytic proliferation but also marked lymphoid cell proliferation with lymphoepithelial lesion findings that differed from findings of typical sarcoid lesions. Our lymphoepithelial lesion evaluation via immunohistochemistry and analysis of Ig heavy-chain gene rearrangements with assessment of Propionibacterium acnes-specific antibody reactions allow us to report, for the first time, this case of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis in exactly the same location, which may be significant for differentiating these diseases and understanding their pathogenic association. PMID:27067783

  6. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subcutaneous mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takatoshi; Fujimoto, Kazumi; Shima, Midori

    2013-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those of congenital von Willebrand disease. We herein report a case of AVWS associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subcutaneous mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. An IgG autoantibody against von Willebrand factor (VWF) was detected. The antibody bound to VWF but did not inhibit VWF activity. Rapid clearance of VWF seemed to be the cause of AVWS in the present case. VWF-containing concentrates stopped the bleeding. Even if such a complication is rare, for AVWS patients, prompt recognition of the underlying mechanism can save lives. PMID:24292759

  7. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the third eyelid conjunctiva in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Bae, Sun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ji, Ae-Ri; Ki, Mi-Ran; Han, Seon-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; You, Sang-Young; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old, neutered female Cocker Spaniel was presented to the veterinary clinic for protrusion of the left third eyelid. When the third eyelids from both eyes were everted, lobulated masses were present on the bulbar surface. The left third eyelid had a larger protrusion. There was no apparent associated ocular or systemic involvement. The tumor of left third eyelid was removed and referred for histological examination. Histologically, there were proliferations of lymphoid follicles surrounded by lymphoid cells forming a marginal zone. Those lymphoid cells occasionally infiltrated into conjunctival epithelium. A few apoptotic bodies with karyopyknotic and karyorrhexic nuclei were observed in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles. Mitotic figures were rare. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells expressed CD79a but not CD3. A diagnosis of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the third eyelid was established based on the histological and immunophenotypical features. At the 1-year follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence of the mass at the area of excision of the left third eyelid and the remaining tumor of the right third eyelid was still a similar size. The dog still showed no significant findings, except those of the tumor, and no evidence of systemic involvement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of MALT lymphoma of the third eyelid in a dog. PMID:21199281

  8. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marta-Isabel; Medeiros, José Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an indolent extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, originating in acquired MALT that is induced in mucosal barriers as part of a normal adaptive immune response to a chronic immunoinflammatory stimulus, most notably chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This antigenic stimulation initially leads to lymphoid hyperplasia; the acquisition of additional genetic aberrations culminates in the activation of intracellular survival pathways, with disease progression due to proliferation and resistance to apoptosis, and the emergence of a malignant clone. There are descriptions of MALT lymphomas affecting practically every organ and system, with a marked geographic variability partially attributable to the epidemiology of the underlying risk factors; nevertheless, the digestive system (and predominantly the stomach) is the most frequently involved location, reflecting the gastrointestinal tract’s unique characteristics of contact with foreign antigens, high mucosal permeability, large extension and intrinsic lymphoid system. While early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma can frequently regress after the therapeutic reversal of the chronic immune stimulus through antibiotic eradication of H. pylori infection, the presence of immortalizing genetic abnormalities, of advanced disease or of eradication-refractoriness requires a more aggressive approach which is, presently, not consensual. The fact that MALT lymphomas are rare neoplasms, with a worldwide incidence of 1-1.5 cases per 105 population, per year, limits the ease of accrual of representative series of patients for robust clinical trials that could sustain informed evidence-based therapeutic decisions to optimize the quality of patient care. PMID:24574742

  9. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Julie; Eaton, Michael S; Ma, Yanling; Streeter, Oscar; Kumar, Parvesh

    2010-01-01

    Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the prostate is a rare disease that characteristically follows an indolent course. It is believed that infection or chronic inflammation may be triggers for malignant transformation in the prostate, but it is of unknown etiology. Reports of MALT lymphomas of the prostate with other concurrent primary prostate cancers are even more limited. We present the unique case of a 67-year-old male with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate and primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate. The patient was treated with standard therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma, which would also treat a primary MALT lymphoma. He has been disease-free for over one year for both his primary malignancies. This case confirms that MALT lymphoma can arise concurrently with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. PMID:21139969

  10. [Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma coexisting with intratumoral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Morihiro; Iwaki, Yasunobu; Hua, Jiang; Hagihara, Masao

    2012-11-01

    A mass in the right upper lobe of the lung was observed in a chest X-ray examination of a 66-year-old woman. Pathological examination of the lung biopsy revealed a mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma within the lesion. A systemic survey demonstrated no other lesions, and the patient was diagnosed as having a solitary pulmonary MALT lymphoma (Stage IE). After 9 months of careful monitoring, progressive enlargement of the lung tumor and involvement of right hilar lymph nodes were observed using positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Therefore, surgical resection of the right upper lobe and right hilar lymph nodes was performed, and coexistence of MALT lymphoma with tuberculosis was identified by pathological investigations. The association of chronic inflammation with the development of MALT lymphomas has been widely accepted. In the present case, pulmonary tuberculosis may have played a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. PMID:23257674

  11. Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

  12. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marta-Isabel; Medeiros, José Augusto

    2014-01-21

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an indolent extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, originating in acquired MALT that is induced in mucosal barriers as part of a normal adaptive immune response to a chronic immunoinflammatory stimulus, most notably chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This antigenic stimulation initially leads to lymphoid hyperplasia; the acquisition of additional genetic aberrations culminates in the activation of intracellular survival pathways, with disease progression due to proliferation and resistance to apoptosis, and the emergence of a malignant clone. There are descriptions of MALT lymphomas affecting practically every organ and system, with a marked geographic variability partially attributable to the epidemiology of the underlying risk factors; nevertheless, the digestive system (and predominantly the stomach) is the most frequently involved location, reflecting the gastrointestinal tract's unique characteristics of contact with foreign antigens, high mucosal permeability, large extension and intrinsic lymphoid system. While early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma can frequently regress after the therapeutic reversal of the chronic immune stimulus through antibiotic eradication of H. pylori infection, the presence of immortalizing genetic abnormalities, of advanced disease or of eradication-refractoriness requires a more aggressive approach which is, presently, not consensual. The fact that MALT lymphomas are rare neoplasms, with a worldwide incidence of 1-1.5 cases per 10⁵ population, per year, limits the ease of accrual of representative series of patients for robust clinical trials that could sustain informed evidence-based therapeutic decisions to optimize the quality of patient care. PMID:24574742

  13. Occult pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting as catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    PubMed Central

    REGUNATH, HARIHARAN; SHORTRIDGE, JAMES; RAZA, SHAHZAD; NISTALA, PUJA; HUFFMAN, BRANDON M.; WANG, MICHAEL X.; XIANG, DONG

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS) is characterized by fulminant thrombosis of the arterial and venous beds of multiple organ systems over a relatively short period of time and with a high mortality rate. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the lung has never been reported as a causative or precipitating factor for CAPS in the CAPS registry database. The present study describes a rare case of pulmonary MALT lymphoma of the lung that presented as CAPS. A 19-year-old Hispanic female presented with shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen revealed multiple portal vein thromboses and bilateral pulmonary nodules. Within one week of presentation, the patient developed a straight sinus thrombosis and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, which led to shortness of breath. A biopsy of the lung nodule revealed MALT lymphoma. The present case illustrates a rarely reported pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting as CAPS in a young female. The patient was successfully treated with 90 mg/m2 bendamustine on days one and two and rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day one of each 28-day cycle. Complete remission of the lung nodules was observed following three cycles of treatment, as visualized by positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. Fondaparinux was identified as a feasible anticoagulation drug of choice for this case. At seven months post-treatment, the patient continues to be stable with no further evidence of thrombosis and is currently undergoing rituximab maintenance therapy every six months for two years. A repeat lupus anticoagulant antibody assay turned and remained negative during the clinical follow-up period. A prompt diagnosis and early aggressive treatment is potentially curative and may dramatically decrease the mortality risk. Future studies should explore the role of rituximab in the management of CAPS-associated B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:24179505

  14. Clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment of marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).

    PubMed

    Raderer, Markus; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) accounts for 7% to 8% of newly diagnosed lymphomas. Because of its association with infectious causes, such as Helicobacter pylori (HP) or Chlamydophila psittaci (CP), and autoimmune diseases, it has become the paradigm of an antigen-driven malignancy. MALT lymphoma usually displays an indolent course, and watch-and-wait strategies are justified initially in a certain percentage of patients. In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma or ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, antibiotic therapy against HP or CP, respectively, is the first-line management of choice, resulting in lymphoma response rates from 75% to 80% after HP eradication and from 33% to 65% after antibiotic therapy for CP. In patients who have localized disease that is refractory to antibiotics, radiation is widely applied in various centers with excellent local control, whereas systemic therapies are increasingly being applied, at least in Europe, because of the potentially systemic nature of the disease. Therefore, the objective of this review is to briefly summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics of this distinct type of lymphoma along with current data on management strategies. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:152-171. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26773441

  15. Crystal structure of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1) paracaspase region.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jong W; Jeffrey, Philip D; Ha, Jun Yong; Yang, Xiaolu; Shi, Yigong

    2011-12-27

    The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1) paracaspase, a key component of the Carma1/Bcl10/MALT1 signalosome, is critical for NF-κB signaling in multiple contexts. MALT1 is thought to function as a scaffold and protease to promote signaling; however, the biochemical and structural basis of paracaspase action remains largely unknown. Here we report the 1.75-Å resolution crystal structure of the MALT1 paracaspase region, which contains the paracaspase domain and an ensuing Ig-like domain. The paracaspase and the Ig domains appear as a single folding unit and interact with each other through extensive van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonds. The paracaspase domain adopts a fold that is nearly identical to that of classic caspases and homodimerizes similarly to form an active protease. Unlike caspases, the active and mature form of the paracaspase domain remains a single uncleaved polypeptide and specifically recognizes the bound peptide inhibitor Val-Arg-Pro-Arg. In particular, the carboxyl-terminal amino acid Arg of the inhibitor is coordinated by three highly conserved acidic residues. This structure serves as an important framework for deciphering the function and mechanism of paracaspases exemplified by MALT1. PMID:22158899

  16. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of Thyroid with the Serial Ultrasound Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eon Ju; Shon, Ho Sang; Jung, Eui Dal

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the thyroid gland is uncommon. Even though its natural history is not well defined, it is known to be indolent course. We present a case of primary MALT thyroid lymphoma with the serial sonographic findings in the patient presenting as the focal nodule. A 45-year-old woman visited our hospital for neck examination. Initially, fine-needle aspiration cytology in the focal hypoechoic lesion in the left thyroid lobe on ultrasound sonography was performed and consistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, the results of serial ultrasounds and core-needle biopsy revealed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT on 4-year follow-up. Patients with a focal hypoechoic nodule with linear echogenic strands and segmental pattern in the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis on ultrasonography should undergo careful surveillance for malignancy. Serial sonographic features in this case are meaningful in the understanding of the natural history of the extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT of the thyroid. PMID:27099797

  17. Stage IV intramucosal gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Shouji; Sueki, Ryouta; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Iwao, Noriaki; Kirito, Keita; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A discolored area was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric upper body. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the second sonographic layer indicating that the depth of invasion was confined to the mucosa. A urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test were negative. A computed tomography scan showed a consolidation at the right lung. Gastric biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated a monotonous proliferation of atypical small lymphocytes. A diagnosis of gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) was made. The clinical stage was stage IV. A genetic analysis showed rearrangement of the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and identical clones in both lesions. An API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected in the gastric lesion. After H. pylori eradication treatment, combination treatment with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) was performed; 6 months later an endoscopy revealed complete disappearance of the lesion. Multiple gastric biopsies showed no infiltrating atypical lymphocytes. Similarly, the lesion in the lung showed complete remission (CR) on CT and TBLB. This report shows that a gastric MALT lymphoma located in the mucosa and disseminated to the lung maintained CR by R-CHOP. PMID:26181449

  18. Primary thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with multiple thin walled lung cysts: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lung-Yun; Ho, Szu-Pei; Chou, Yi-Pin

    2013-06-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thymus is rare. We reported a case of a 37-year-old Chinese female with Sjögren's syndrome and hyperglobulinemia. She suffered from chronic cough for 3 weeks. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a multiloculated cystic mass in mediastinum prevascular space and multiple lung cysts. Laboratory exam of autoimmune markers showed positive of antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA), Sjögren's syndrome B (SSB), and rheumatoid factors (RF). Thymectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The pathology report revealed thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Under immunohistochemical stains, CD20 and Bcl-2 were positive. No evidence of recurrence of disease was found. PMID:23825913

  19. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A review

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Since Isaacson and Wright first reported on the extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the stomach in 1983, following studies have clarified many aspects of this disease. We now know that the stomach is the most affected organ by this disease, and approximately 90% of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This implies that approximately 10% of gastric MALT lymphomas occur independent of H. pylori infection. The pathogenesis of these H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. To date, there have been several speculations. One possibility is that genetic alterations result in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Among these alterations, t(11;18)(q21;q21) is more frequently observed in H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas, and such translocation results in the synthesis of fusion protein API2-MALT1, which causes canonical and noncanonical NF-κB activation. Another possibility is infection with bacteria other than H. pylori. This could explain why H. pylori eradication therapy can cure some proportions of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients, although the bacteria responsible for MALT lymphomagenesis are yet to be defined. Recent advances in endoscopy suggest magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging as a useful tool for both detecting gastric MALT lymphoma lesions and judging the response to treatment. A certain proportion of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients respond to eradication therapy; hence, H. pylori eradication therapy could be considered as a first-line treatment for gastric MALT lymphomas regardless of their H. pylori infection status. PMID:26185372

  20. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Masaharu; Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi; Tomita, Naoto; Iijima, Yasuhito; Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko; Ogino, Ichiro; Inoue, Tomio

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  1. Surgical Management of Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Associated With Light-Chain Deposition Disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Largacha, Juan A; O'Hara, Carl J; Sloan, J Mark; Fernando, Hiran C; Litle, Virginia R

    2016-06-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a right middle lobe (RML) lung nodule suspicious for malignancy. Thoracoscopic middle lobectomy was performed. The pathology report revealed a pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in association with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Pulmonary MALT lymphoma and LCDD are unusual disorders presenting in the lung, and the association between these 2 conditions is even more uncommon. The optimal management for these patients is controversial, although surgical resection of localized well-circumscribed lesions may represent an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:27211983

  2. Central Role of Core Binding Factor β2 in Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Organogenesis in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nagatake, Takahiro; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Sato, Shintaro; Okura, Hideaki; Tachibana, Masashi; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Ito, Kosei; Shimojou, Michiko; Matsumoto, Naomi; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a group of secondary and organized lymphoid tissue that develops at different mucosal surfaces. Peyer’s patches (PPs), nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and tear duct-associated lymphoid tissue (TALT) are representative MALT in the small intestine, nasal cavity, and lacrimal sac, respectively. A recent study has shown that transcriptional regulators of core binding factor (Cbf) β2 and promotor-1-transcribed Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) are required for the differentiation of CD3−CD4+CD45+ lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, which initiate and trigger the developmental program of PPs, but the involvement of this pathway in NALT and TALT development remains to be elucidated. Here we report that Cbfβ2 plays an essential role in NALT and TALT development by regulating LTi cell trafficking to the NALT and TALT anlagens. Cbfβ2 was expressed in LTi cells in all three types of MALT examined. Indeed, similar to the previous finding for PPs, we found that Cbfβ2−/− mice lacked NALT and TALT lymphoid structures. However, in contrast to PPs, NALT and TALT developed normally in the absence of P1-Runx1 or other Runx family members such as Runx2 and Runx3. LTi cells for NALT and TALT differentiated normally but did not accumulate in the respective lymphoid tissue anlagens in Cbfβ2−/− mice. These findings demonstrate that Cbfβ2 is a central regulator of the MALT developmental program, but the dependency of Runx proteins on the lymphoid tissue development would differ among PPs, NALT, and TALT. PMID:26001080

  3. Expression of nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity on follicular dendritic cells from human mucosa associated lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Pezzati, P; Stanisz, A M; Marshall, J S; Bienenstock, J; Stead, R H

    1992-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally considered as a trophic factor for peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurones; however, recent reports indicate that NGF may induce proliferation of immune and haematopoietic cells. Histochemical studies conducted in human spleen and lymph nodes have suggested the presence of NGF receptor (NGF-R) immunoreactive elements in secondary follicles; however the nature of the cells bearing the NGF-R in lymphoid tissue has not been determined. In this paper we report the results of an immunohistochemical study conducted on mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Using a specific monoclonal antibody to human NGF-R (mAb 20.4) we observed an NGF-R-immunoreactive population in all secondary lymphoid follicles examined. Double immunostaining revealed that this population was composed of follicular dendritic cells (FDC); lymphoid cells within the germinal centres did not appear to be 20.4 immunoreactive. Cell suspensions from tonsillar follicles also contained NGF-R immunopositive dendritic cells which were enriched by a 20.4 labelled magnetic bead procedure, revealing cells with the morphological characteristics of FDC. Mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood did not contain any NGF-R-immunoreactive elements using our techniques. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1326478

  4. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; Şlencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 μg/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 μg/kg bw/day; E3: 1 μg/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

  5. Diagnosis of preclinical CWD in farmed white-tailed deer in Canada by the immunohistochemical examination of recto-anal mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in two white-tailed deer farms from Saskatchewan, Canada. The apparent prevalence of disease in these two farms was 21% and 31%. None of these deer were demonstra...

  6. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the esophagus masquerading as a benign tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bardisi, Ekhlas S.; Alghanmi, Najla; Merdad, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of primary esophageal low-grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type in a 50-year-old Saudi male patient who presented to our hospital with a history of dysphagia and heartburn for more than 2 years. Endoscopy showed a large esophageal mass with an intact mucosa located in the distal esophagus, 28 cm–35 cm from the incisor teeth. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a large well demarcated sub-epithelial lesion 4 cm in width and 10 cm in length arising from the muscularis mucosa with mixed echogenicity consistent with benign leiomyoma. Subsequently, the patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor; the histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal lymphoma. The tumor was considered to be completely resected and therefore additional treatment was not administered. The patient was doing well on follow up after treatment. Clinically and radiologically he did not reveal any signs of recurrence. Surgical resection is beneficial as a primary treatment option in incipient primary low grade MALT esophageal lymphomas. PMID:25568784

  7. [A Case of Concurrent Primary Gastric Malignant T-Cell Lymphoma and Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Takeno, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Ishida, Tomo; Sato, Yasufumi; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Kusama, Hiroki; Matsushita, Katsunori; Kimura, Kei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Sakisaka, Hideki; Egawa, Chiyomi; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type 2- like ulcerative lesion in the posterior wall of the upper and middle part of the stomach. Endoscopic biopsies showed malignant T-cell lymphoma histologically. A chest CT scan revealed a nodule in the apex of right lung, suggestive of primary lung cancer. A total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Seventy-three days after surgery, the patient developed a lung abscess in the middle lobe of the right lung. A wedge-shaped resection of the upper lobe and total resection of the middle lobe of the right lung was performed. Histological examination revealed a primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the upper lobe of right lung and an abscess caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the middle lobe of the right lung. Twelve months after surgery the man died of suffocation because of aspiration due to esophageal stenosis caused by progression of metastasis of the paraesophageal lymph node. PMID:26805184

  8. Primary Sjögren's syndrome initially presenting as submandibular mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LIANG-YU; TSAI, MING-HSUI; TSAI, LI-TAI; LU, HSIN-MAN; JAN, CHIA-ING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 24-year-old female affected with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), who presented with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the submandibular gland. Reports of such cases, particularly in young patients, are very rare. The patient, who presented no oral or ocular symptoms prior to the development of the mass, underwent surgical ablation of the gland, and MALT lymphoma was diagnosed by histopathology. Since MALT lymphoma in the submandibular gland is rarely observed in otherwise healthy young females, a rheumatologist and an oncologist were consulted. Following a number of immunological tests, the results of the Schirmer's and Saxon tests were negative. However, the antinuclear antibody test revealed a speckled appearance, and there was also strong positivity for the serological markers of Sjögren's syndrome. Consequently, pSS was diagnosed, despite the fact that the patient did not fulfill all the diagnostic criteria for the disease. Therefore, MALT lymphoma in a single salivary gland should be used as a differential diagnosis for Sjögren's syndrome in young asymptomatic patients. Additionally, a multidisciplinary team is required for the treatment and management of these patients. PMID:26893669

  9. Distinct gene expression profiles characterize the histopathological stages of disease in Helicobacter-induced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Anne; O'Rourke, Jani; Grimm, Jan; Guillemin, Karen; Dixon, Michael F.; Lee, Adrian; Falkow, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Long-term colonization of humans with Helicobacter pylori can cause the development of gastric B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, yet little is known about the sequence of molecular steps that accompany disease progression. We used microarray analysis and laser microdissection to identify gene expression profiles characteristic and predictive of the various histopathological stages in a mouse model of the disease. The initial step in lymphoma development is marked by infiltration of reactive lymphocytes into the stomach and the launching of a mucosal immune response. Our analysis uncovered molecular markers of both of these processes, including genes coding for the immunoglobulins and the small proline-rich protein Sprr 2A. The subsequent step is characterized histologically by the antigen-driven proliferation and aggregation of B cells and the gradual appearance of lymphoepithelial lesions. In tissues of this stage, we observed increased expression of genes previously associated with malignancy, including the laminin receptor-1 and the multidrug-resistance channel MDR-1. Finally, we found that the transition to destructive lymphoepithelial lesions and malignant lymphoma is marked by an increase in transcription of a single gene encoding calgranulin A/Mrp-8. PMID:12552104

  10. Prevalence of Achromobacter xylosoxidans in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in different regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Adam, Patrick; Czapiewski, Piotr; Colak, Seba; Kosmidis, Perikles; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Boudova, Ludmila; Oko?, Krzysztof; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Du, Ming-Qing; Fend, Falko

    2014-03-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) comprises 7-8% of B-cell lymphomas and commonly originates from a background of long-standing chronic inflammation. An association with distinct bacteria species has been confirmed for several anatomical sites of MALT lymphoma. For pulmonary MALT lymphoma, however, a clear link with an infectious agent or autoimmune disorder has not yet been reported. Using a 16S rRNA gene-based approach, we have recently identified Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans in eight of nine cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. A. xylosoxidans is a gram-negative betaproteobacterium with low virulence, but high resistance to antibiotic treatment. To further examine a potential association with A. xylosoxidans, 124 cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma and 82 control tissues from six European countries were analysed using a specific nested PCR. Although prevalence rates for A. xylosoxidans varied significantly from country to country, they were consistently higher for MALT lymphoma as compared to controls. Overall, 57/124 (46%) pulmonary MALT lymphomas and 15/82 (18%) control tissues were positive for A. xylosoxidans (P = 0004). Whether the significant association of A. xylosoxidans with pulmonary MALT lymphoma demonstrated in our study points to a potential causal role in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma will require further studies. PMID:24372375

  11. Mixed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the lung: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMOTO, TAKESHI; IMAI, YUKIHIRO; KOSAKA, YASUHIRO; SHINTANI, TAKASHI; TOMII, KEISUKE

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a 79-year-old male was referred to Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital due to an abnormal shadow that was revealed on a chest X-ray. The patient possessed a five-year history of consolidation in the right lower lobe, which was diagnosed as chronic aspiration pneumonia and followed up. However, the abnormal shadow adjacent to the pleura gradually increased in size and a novel mass appeared in the right lower lobe that rapidly increased in size. A repeat biopsy revealed a combination of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with a clinical tumor-node-metastasis (cTNM) stage of cT2bN2M0 (stage 3A) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma at Ann Arbor stage 1E. Chemoradiotherapy markedly affected the lesion and the size of the mass was significantly reduced subsequent to four cycles of chemotherapy, which was considered to be a near complete response. The present study reports an extremely rare combination of tumors. The disease course was followed over a period of six years, which included the onset of disease, and the present case may therefore be valuable in clarifying the mechanism of lung cancer development. PMID:26137014

  12. Characterization of elongated Helicobacter pylori isolated from a patient with gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Yokota, Kenji; Mizuno, Motowo; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Takenaka, Ryuta; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Shunji; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Oguma, Keiji; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2004-03-01

    To date, two Helicobacter species, Helicobacter pylori and 'Helicobacter heilmannii' (formerly named 'Gastrospirillum hominis'), have been identified from the human stomach. In this study, we observed non-H. pylori-shaped bacteria in gastric tissue sections and successfully isolated them by cultivation. Elongated bacteria were isolated from a patient with gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma who had been diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by culture, rapid urease test and histopathology in another hospital. The bacteria were grown only on chocolate agar in a CO2 incubator, appeared more than 10 microm long in histological sections, formed small colonies and showed poor growth in a brain heart infusion broth; these characteristics apparently differed from common clinical isolates of H. pylori. However, the bacteria were identified as H. pylori by PCR of the urease gene, 16S rDNA sequencing, protein profile and antigenicity examined by anti-H. pylori polyclonal antibody. These observations suggest that the H. pylori strain identified in this study may contribute to the development of gastroduodenal diseases in cases judged as H. pylori-negative by ordinary methods. PMID:14970245

  13. C-MYC overexpression predicts aggressive transformation and a poor outcome in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenting; Guo, Lei; Liu, Hongyan; Zheng, Bo; Ying, Jianming; Lv, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively common, indolent B-cell lymphoma. MALT lymphoma with large tumor cells (LTCs) is believed to have the potential to transform to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which may have a poor prognosis. C-MYC is a transcription factor. Its translocation and overexpression predicts an inferior prognosis and poor response to therapy in cases of DLBCL. In the current study, C-MYC expression was detected in MALT lymphomas, and its relationship to the occurrence of LTCs, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis was assessed. A total of 69 cases were enrolled in the study, including 42 cases of MALT lymphoma without LTCs, 20 cases of MALT lymphoma with LTCs and 7 cases of DLBCL with a MALT lymphoma component (DLBCL+MALT). Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed. In total, 15/42 (35.7%) cases were nuclear positive for C-MYC expression in the group without LTCs, whereas 15/20 (75.0%) and 4/7 (57.1%) cases were positive in the group with LTCs and in the group with DLBCL+MALT, respectively (P=0.004). Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the correlations of C-MYC expression and clinicopathological parameters with overall survival (OS). C-MYC expression, Ann Arbor stage, LDH level and IPI were considerably associated with OS according to the univariate analysis. However, only C-MYC expression ? 20% showed a statistical significance in the multivariate analysis (HR=20.604, 95% CI: 1.909-222.412, P=0.013). Therefore, C-MYC overexpression may play an important role in aggressive transformation and is an independent prognostic factor in MALT lymphoma. PMID:25337204

  14. Bone marrow involvement is not associated with the clinical outcomes of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Jung, Kyoungwon; Cho, Charles J; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Yoon, Dok Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Objective Bone marrow (BM) examination is recommended as part of the initial staging work-up in patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, the clinical significance of BM involvement in gastric MALT lymphoma patients has not been evaluated. Materials and methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 496 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and underwent BM examination were eligible to be included in this study. BM involvement was found in 33 patients (6.7%) by retrospective review, and after exclusions, the clinical outcomes of 28 patients with BM involvement and 412 patients without BM involvement were evaluated. Results When comparing the characteristics of patients, age (median 60 vs. 53 years, p = 0.007) and Helicobacter pylori infection rate (71.0% vs. 85.5%, p = 0.040) were different between patients with and without BM involvement, while the location, macroscopic findings, and depth of invasion were similar. The overall complete remission (CR) rate was 85.2% during a median follow-up period of 42 months (interquartile range, 23-66 months) and did not differ between the two groups (78.6 and 85.7%, p = 0.280). Eradication therapy was performed as the first-line treatment in 18 of the 28 patients (64.3%) with BM involvement, and CR was achieved in 13 patients (72.2%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age and location in the upper part of the stomach were factors related to remission failure. Conclusion Gastric MALT lymphoma has a favorable outcome, and eradication therapy can be justified in selected cases even with BM involvement, when these patients are closely monitored. PMID:27149022

  15. Evaluation of the clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of 103 patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAOWU; WANG, XIANG; ZHAN, ZHONGLI; ZHANG, LIANYU; SUN, BAOCHUN; ZHANG, YIZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is difficult owing to its non-specific symptoms and various endoscopic findings. Treatments such as radiotherapy (RT) for localized and chemotherapy (CT) for advanced stages of the disease are employed. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication (HPE) in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. The medical records of 103 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma for the period 2001–2013, were analyzed. The 103 median age of the patients was 53 years and the male to female ratio was 1:1. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and β2-microglobulin were within normal range. Macroscopically, the most commonly involved site was the antrum, followed by the corpus and fundus. A total of 97 patients (94%) tested positive for H. pylori. Forty patients (39%) had stage I, 35 patients (35%) had local or distant nodal involvement, 20 of 103 patients had stage IIIE (19%) and 8 of 103 patients had stage IV (7%) disease. Complete remission, after HPE, was achieved in 54 of the 69 patients (78%) that were H. pylori-positive and in 2 of the 4 patients (50%) that were H. pylori-negative. HPE had a superior trend in the H. pylori-positive patients although no significant difference was identified in the two groups (p=0.194). In patients with advanced disease, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) estimates were significantly improoved for patients receiving HPE with CT or RT than those receiving CT or RT (p=0.046 and 0.035, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that, the advanced stages were independently associated with shorter PFS, and the modified-International Prognostic Index (m-IPI) (≥2) was associated with shorter OS. In conclusion, gastric MALT lymphoma had a favorable outcome with a high OS rate. HPE was an effective treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma. The patients with advanced stages and m-IPI (≥2) had a much worse prognosis. PMID:26998066

  16. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anacak, Yavuz; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos; Mamusa, Angela M.; Epelbaum, Ron; Li Yexiong; Calduch, Anna Lucas; Kowalczyk, Anna; Weber, Damien C.; Kadish, Sidney P.; Poortmans, Philip; Kamer, Serra; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

  17. Concurrent Gastric and Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas with Pre-Existing Intrinsic Chronic Inflammation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sooyeon; Kim, Nayoung; Oh, Dong Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Ju Yub; Lee, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ho Il; Yang, Hee Chul; Paik, Jin Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a rare case of concurrent gastric and pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma received eradication therapy and achieved complete remission. During follow-up, he developed de novo pulmonary MALT lymphoma as a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis, accompanied by recurrent gastric MALT lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the CDR3 region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene showed an overall polyclonal pattern with bands at 400 base pairs (bp) and 200 bp predominant in the pulmonary tissue, as well as two distinctive bands in the gastric tissue at 400 bp and 200 bp. This case suggests that multiorgan lymphomas are more likely to be independent from each other when they are far apart, involve different organ systems, and have independent precipitating factors. PMID:25918263

  18. CT-guided needle biopsy in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma accompanied by extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a rare combination

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Panwen; Wang, Ye; Wan, Chun; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    We represent a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma accompanied by extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). The patient was a 66-year-old male presented with 1 month history of recurrent cough and hemoptysis. Chest CT showed solitary ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the upper lobe of the right lung and mediastinal lymph node enlargement in station 3p. A CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy was performed. Tissue specimens of the GGO revealed a typical adenocarcinoma. Histopathologic diagnosis of mediastinal lymph node was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT. Because of its rarity, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT should be considered in the differential diagnosis when we encounter mediastinal lymphadenopathy in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25973107

  19. Primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma combined with cytomegalovirus colitis.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Motoyasu, Osawa; Murao, Takahisa; Ishii, Manabu; Fujita, Minoru; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Akiyama, Takashi; Wada, Hideho; Sugihara, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2016-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The macroscopic findings of colonoscopy revealed multiple submucosal tumors and multiple ulcers, which were localized in the sigmoid colon, and diffuse granular mucosa which extended to the total colon. The pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, because the large lymphoma cells were CD20+, CD10-, and CD5-. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal biopsy samples from multiple ulcers revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive cells. The patient was diagnosed with primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of DLBCL and MALT lymphoma combined with CMV colitis. She received anti-viral medication and chemotherapy. PMID:27015999

  20. Molecular pathogenesis of lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue--from (auto)antigen driven selection to the activation of NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YiAn; Wei, Zheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are typically present at sites such as the stomach, lung or urinary tract, where lymphoid tissues scatter in mucosa lamina propria, intra- or sub-epithelial cells. The infection of certain pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydophila psittaci, Borrelia burgdorferi, hepatitis C virus, or certain autoantigens cause these sites to generate a germinal center called the "acquired lymphoid tissue". The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma is a multi-step process. Receptor signaling, such as the contact stimulation of B cell receptors and CD4 positive T cells mediated by CD40/CD40-ligand and T helper cell type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4, contributes to tumor cell proliferation. A number of genetic alterations have been identified in MALT lymphoma, and among them are important translocations, such as t(11;18)(q21;q21), t(1;14)(p22;q32), t(14;18)(q32;q21) and t(3;14)(p13;q32). Fusion proteins generated by these translocations share the same NF-κB signaling pathway, which is activated by the caspase activation and recruitment domain containing molecules of the membrane associated guanylate kinase family, B cell lymphoma-10 and MALT1 (CBM) protein complex. They act downstream of cell surface receptors, such as B cell receptors, T cell receptors, B cell activating factors and Toll-like receptors, and participate in the biological process of MALT lymphoma. The discovery of therapeutic drugs that exclusively inhibit the antigen receptor signaling pathway will be beneficial for the treatment of B cell lymphomas in the future. PMID:26612043

  1. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with large cell transformation on the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review literature.

    PubMed

    Hengjeerajarus, Natavuth; Klaisuwan, Teerada; Norasetthada, Lalita; Kosachunhanun, Natapong

    2015-05-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of malignancy that occurs in 0.5% of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), followed by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We described the case of a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma in the background of autoimmune thyroiditis with focal area of DLBCL transformation. The patient was a 70-year-old man with rapidly growing mass of the thyroid gland with compressive symptom over two months. The laboratory data revealed primary hypothyroidism with positively anti-thyroid antibodies. The computerized tomography scan showed right thyroid mass extended to anterior mediastinum and compressed adjacent airway with multiple cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The pathology from incisional biopsy showed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT lymphoma with large cell transformation. The patient received four courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with involved field radiation therapy. The mass was dramatically decreased in size after treatment, leading to a complete resolution of compressive symptoms. Thyroid lymphoma is quite rare; however the incidence may be higher in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A rapidly growing thyroid gland should be considered as PTL. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstays of treatment. PMID:26058282

  2. A case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in which magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging was useful in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arai, Shin; Nakao, Masamitsu; Shimizu, Michio; Sakurai, Takaki; Nagata, Koji; Nishimura, Makoto; Togawa, Osamu; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kita, Hiroto

    2012-04-16

    Recently, we reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma presenting with unique vascular features. In the report, we defined the tree-like appearance (TLA) on the images of abnormal blood vessels which resembled branches from the trunk of a tree in the shiny mucosa, in which the glandular structure was lost. The 67-year-old female was diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma. The patient received eradication therapy for H. pylori. Conventional endoscopy revealed multiple ill-delineated brownish depressions in the stomach and cobblestone-like mucosa was observed at the greater curvature to the posterior wall of the upper gastric body 7 mo after successful eradication. Unsuccessful treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma was suspected on conventional endoscopy. Conventional endoscopic observations found focal depressions and cobblestone-like appearance, and these lesions were subsequently observed using magnified endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging to identify abnormal vessels presenting with a TLA within the lesions. Ten biopsies were taken from the area where abnormal vessels were present within these lesions. Ten biopsies were also taken from the lesions without abnormal vessels as a control. A total of 20 biopsy samples were evaluated to determine whether the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma could be obtained histologically from each sample. A positive diagnosis was obtained in 8/10 TLA (+) sites and in 2/10 TLA(-) sites. Target biopsies of the site with abnormal blood vessels can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of gastric MALT lymphoma. PMID:22523617

  3. A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract showing extensive plasma cell differentiation with prominent Russell bodies.

    PubMed

    Kai, Keita; Miyahara, Masaharu; Tokuda, Yasunori; Kido, Shinich; Masuda, Masanori; Takase, Yukari; Tokunaga, Osamu

    2013-08-16

    A 73-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized for detailed examination of nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Atypical erosion in the ileum was found on endoscopy. Biopsy of this erosion showed proliferation of cells containing numerous Russell bodies. Differential diagnoses considered were Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis, Mott cell tumor, immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The cells containing prominent Russell bodies showed diffuse positivity for CD79a and CD138, but negative results for CD20, CD3, UCHL-1, CD38 and CD68. Russell bodies were diffusely positive for lambda light chain, but negative for kappa light chain, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM. Based on these findings, Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis and IPSID were ruled out. As the tumor formed no mass lesions and was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphoma with extensive plasma cell differentiation was finally diagnosed. The patient showed an unexpectedly aggressive clinical course. The number of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood gradually increased and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) emerged. The patient died of T-PLL 7 mo after admission. Autopsy was not permitted. PMID:24303496

  4. Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, Theodore; Paumier, Amaury; Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent; Leroy-Ladurie, Francois; Ghalibafian, Mithra

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

  5. A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Koichi Kagami, Yoshikazu; Higuchi, Keiko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Nakazawa, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Kana; Teshima, Teruki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

  6. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Adam J. Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  7. Primary Radiation Therapy in Patients With Localized Orbital Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Gi Won; Yang, Suk Woo; Hong, Young Seon; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, Yeon Sil

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 patients who were treated with RT for pathologically confirmed localized stage IE marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The radiation dose ranged from 21.6 to 45 Gy (median, 30.6 Gy) at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction. Median follow-up duration was 32.3 months (range, 3.1-113.6 months). Results: Forty-three patients (93%) achieved complete remission (CR), and three patients (7%) achieved partial remission (PR). Five-year relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 93%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among the patients with CR, two had recurrence at three sites. One patient relapsed locally and was successfully salvaged with reirradiation. The other patient relapsed in a distant site and was successfully treated with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Late complications were noted in four patients. Two patients developed cataracts at 26 and 37 months after completion of RT. The other two patients developed nasolacrimal duct obstructions at 4 and 11 months after completion of RT. Conclusion: Our study showed that a modest dose of RT is an excellent treatment modality with low complication and recurrence rates. We suggest that a dose of 30.6 Gy is tolerable and sufficient for treating orbital MALT lymphoma. Even following recurrence, successful salvage is possible with RT or chemotherapy.

  8. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  9. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Tobinai, Kensei; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  10. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for κ-chain but negative for λ-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. PMID:23638229

  11. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Prez de Diego, Rebeca; Snchez-Ramn, Silvia; Lpez-Collazo, Eduardo; Martnez-Barricarte, Rubn; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdn, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor ?B in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of eachof the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. PMID:26277595

  12. Primary Pulmonary Lymphoid Lesions: Radiologic and Pathologic Findings.

    PubMed

    Sirajuddin, Arlene; Raparia, Kirtee; Lewis, Vanessa A; Franks, Teri J; Dhand, Sabeen; Galvin, Jeffrey R; White, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    The pulmonary lymphoid system is complex and is composed of two compartments: the pulmonary lymphatics and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Additional important cells that function in the pulmonary lymphoid system include dendritic cells, Langherhans cells, macrophages, and plasma cells. An appreciation of the normal lymphoid anatomy of the lung as well as its immunology is helpful in understanding the radiologic and pathologic findings of the primary pulmonary lymphoid lesions. Primary lymphoid lesions of the lung arise from the BALT and are uncommon. However, they are increasingly recognized within the growing number of posttransplant patients as well as other patients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Last, a miscellaneous group of primary lymphoid lesions includes lymphomatoid granulomatosis, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma, and intravascular lymphoma/lymphomatosis. These lesions are best evaluated with multidetector chest computed tomography. The radiologic findings of the primary lymphoid lesions are often nonspecific and are best interpreted in correlation with clinical data and pathologic findings. The purpose of this article is to review pulmonary lymphoid anatomy as well as the most common primary pulmonary lymphoid disorders. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26761531

  13. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. PMID:26888899

  14. Primary low-grade B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of MALT type simultaneously arising in the colon and in the lung: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sallach, S; Schmidt, T; Pehl, C; Gallenberger, S; Keiditsch, E; Starostik, P; Ott, G; Schepp, W

    2001-03-01

    zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type according to the Revised European American Lymphoma classification). Other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas arise in the salivary glands, thyroid gland, and in the lung (bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue). Here, we report the first case of a monoclonal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with simultaneous manifestation in the colonic and bronchial mucosa in a 62-year-old patient. With mitoxantrone, chlorambucil, and prednisone polychemotherapy, a complete year-long remission was achieved. PMID:11289295

  15. Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Forst, Deborah A.; Nahed, Brian V.; Loeffler, Jay S.

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated. PMID:24664484

  16. Low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kumthekar, Priya; Raizer, Jeffrey; Singh, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas are slower growing than their high-grade counterparts. They account for 10-20 % of all primary brain tumors. Median survival is between 4.7 and 9.8 years. The goal of treatment is to prolong overall survival while maintaining good quality of life (QOL). Recent data favors early surgical resection. EOR is associated with delayed tumor recurrence and improved survival. Additional therapy with chemotherapy or radiation is indicated in patients with high-risk features. Lower doses (between 45 and 50.4 Gy) have been shown to be as effective without adverse effects compared to higher doses. Recent trials have shown benefit in combining chemotherapy with radiation compared to radiation alone. The optimal chemotherapeutic regimen (PCV or temozolomide (TMZ)) remains unknown, although TMZ is easier to administer and better tolerated by patients. Novel molecular markers including 1p/19q chromosomal codeletion and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation have been correlated with treatment response and survival. PMID:25468226

  17. Low Grade Gliomas in Children.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Alan; Ramaswamy, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas represent the most common solid tumor of the nervous system, and can occur as both low and high-grade tumors. Current risk stratification and treatment approaches rely heavily on the morphological classification of gliomas whereby low-grade gliomas have an excellent prognosis, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas, while high-grade gliomas have a poor prognosis. The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in scholars' knowledge of the biology of pediatric low-grade gliomas particularly through the advent of integrated genomics and next generation sequencing. Indeed, many of these biological advances are changing treatment paradigms, particularly in low-grade gliomas, where rationale targeted therapies are currently being explored in clinical trials. In this review the authors summarize the current approach to pediatric low grade gliomas and outline the biological advances over the past 10 years, which will be driving the next generation of clinical trials. PMID:26286938

  18. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E−05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E−05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  19. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  20. Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Tissue Type Involving the Dura

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Young; Chung, Ji Hwan; Park, Young Jun; Jung, Geun Yong; Yoon, Tae Wook; Kim, Yoon Jung; Lim, Tae kyu; Kim, Bong Seog; Nam, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) is very rare, with only a few reported cases worldwide. It has an indolent disease course with high cure potential. We experienced a rare case of dural MZBCL of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in a 69-year-old man who presented with headache. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain showed a 1.9×3.6-cm-sized extra-axial mass with a broad based dural attachment to the anterosuperior aspect of the falx cerebri, radiographically consistent with meningioma. Surgical resection yielded a MZBCL of the MALT type. Histopathology revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the dura, and immunohistochemical study showed a B-cell phenotype with CD20, bcl-2, MUM-1, Ki-67 positive. He was treated with chemotherapy after complete surgical resection and remained free of disease at 30 months after chemotherapy. MALT lymphoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting radiographically with meningioma. PMID:26194368

  1. Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Tissue Type Involving the Dura.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon Young; Chung, Ji Hwan; Park, Young Jun; Jung, Geun Yong; Yoon, Tae Wook; Kim, Yoon Jung; Lim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Bong Seog; Nam, Seung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Primary central nervous system marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) is very rare, with only a few reported cases worldwide. It has an indolent disease course with high cure potential. We experienced a rare case of dural MZBCL of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in a 69-year-old man who presented with headache. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain showed a 1.9×3.6-cm-sized extra-axial mass with a broad based dural attachment to the anterosuperior aspect of the falx cerebri, radiographically consistent with meningioma. Surgical resection yielded a MZBCL of the MALT type. Histopathology revealed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the dura, and immunohistochemical study showed a B-cell phenotype with CD20, bcl-2, MUM-1, Ki-67 positive. He was treated with chemotherapy after complete surgical resection and remained free of disease at 30 months after chemotherapy. MALT lymphoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting radiographically with meningioma. PMID:26194368

  2. TLR9 Agonist SD-101, Ipilimumab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Recurrent B-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-23

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  3. Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Angela J.; Fisher, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas encompass a heterogeneous set of tumors of different histologies. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas. Recent research has implicated activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK pathway in tumorigenesis of these tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Overall survival rates for patients whose tumors are completely resected are 90% or greater, 10 years from diagnosis. Conversely, most optic pathway/hypothalamic, deep midline, and brain stem gliomas have minimal potential for resection; these tumors can be difficult to treat and deserve special attention. Combination chemotherapy is currently recommended as front-line adjuvant treatment for progressive or recurrent tumors. Second-line radiotherapy can also improve overall survival but is associated with more frequent and significant neurocognitive, endocrine, and other long-term toxicities. PMID:19841428

  4. Characterization of the lymphoid stroma in Warthin's tumor of salivary gland by immunohistochemistry, heavy chain gene and Bcl-2 gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunchang; Cotelingam, James D; Lowery-Nordberg, Mary; Sun, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is rarely associated with malignant lymphoma. Only 18 cases were reported in the literature so far. In most cases the latter is a low grade process, including Marginal zone/Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and rarely diffuse large cell lymphoma which may arise de novo or secondary to low grade lymphoma. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of occult B cell monoclones and genetic alterations in Warthin's tumor. Fourteen cases of Warthin's tumor were stained with antibodies to CD3, CD20, kappa and lambda light chains. On six cases of randomly selected Warthin's tumor, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of IgH gene rearrangement (IgH-GR) was performed on genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue. One case of primary salivary gland indolent B-cell lymphoma and 3 cases of sialadenitis were analyzed by the same methods for comparison. In all Warthin's tumor and sialadenitis cases most of lymphoid stroma was B cell phenotype and concentrated in germinal centers. T cells were mostly located between germinal centers. No light chain restriction was demonstrable by kappa and lambda immunostains. Molecular genetic studies failed to show IgH-GR by FISH and showed polyclonal by IgH PCR. In contrast, the lymphoma case showed a diffuse proliferation of small B cells with light chain restriction and a minor component of reactive T cells. FISH showed IgH-GR and bcl-2 gene translocation with monoclonality by IgH PCR. Our study concludes that the lymphoid stroma of Warthin's tumor is reactive. PMID:19956447

  5. Pembrolizumab Alone or With Idelalisib or Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Other Low-Grade B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  6. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lower lip in a child.

    PubMed

    Bombeccari, Gian Paolo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo; Ruffoni, Diego; Gianatti, Andrea; Mariani, Umberto; Spadari, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip in a child is a very rare clinical entity whose cause is poorly understood. We describe an 11-year-old boy who presented with a 5-month history of an asymptomatic nodule on the lower lip with the clinical appearance of a benign mucocele. After surgical excision of the lower lip lesion, lymphocyte phenotypic analysis and histologic examination of the specimen disclosed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue type of the buccal minor salivary glands. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip may clinically resemble a large mucocele. To prevent a delayed detection of lip mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma, an incisional biopsy of large mucous cysts of the oral mucosa before marsupialization is recommended. PMID:22152894

  7. Rituximab and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-08-11

    Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  8. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  9. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions.

  10. Review article: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of ocular adnexa. Biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Annibali, Ombretta; Sabatino, Francesco; Mantelli, Flavio; Olimpieri, Odoardo Maria; Bonini, Stefano; Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, we have witnessed an increase in the incidence of primary ocular adnexa lymphomas (POALs) probably because advances in imaging techniques have enabled precise biopsies of the tumors. The ocular tissue biopsy, before the initiation of the appropriate treatment, is mandatory and necessary for a correct diagnosis of POALs by the use of immunophenotyping and a correct molecular classification. Only in a minority of cases the ocular adnexa are secondarily affected by a systemic disease. Among the POALs, the most common is the primary extra nodal lymphoma of MALT-type (POAML). POAML is rarely symptomatic in the early phase of the disease. As a consequence, often we see a delay in ophthalmic consultations and diagnosis. The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and its management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, hematologists and radiotherapists. PMID:26857986

  11. Diffuse low-grade gliomas and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Duffau, H

    2014-10-01

    The traditional approach in neuro-oncology is to study the tumor in great detail and ultimately give little consideration to the brain itself. Choosing the best treatment strategy for each patient with a diffuse low-grade glioma, in other words optimizing the oncologic and functional balance, implies not only a full knowledge of the natural history of this chronic disease, but also an understanding of the adaptation of the brain in response to growth and spread of the glioma. The aim of this review is to examine the mechanisms underlying this neuroplasticity, allowing functional compensation when the tumor progresses, and opening the way to new treatments with the principle of shifting towards "functional personalized neuro-oncology", improving both median survival and quality of life. PMID:25218490

  12. Large retroperitoneal low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Jaipuria, Jiten; Kumar, Ashok; Rao, Adla Satyanarayan; Kataria, Satya Pal

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma is an extremely rare neoplasm with only nine cases reported in the literature, in which only one case involved the retroperitoneum. Tendency to dedifferentiate as well as recur with high-grade variant is known and management principles are not well defined, necessitating a continuous review of literature. We report management of the largest such retroperitoneal tumour (18.0 cm× 18.3 cm×17.8 cm) in a 38-year-old man, which was treated with surgery followed by six cycles of cisplatin (90 mg/m2 days 1 and 2) and doxorubicin (75 mg/m2 day 3), cycled every 3 weeks (with granulocyte colony stimulating factor support as necessary). The patient is disease free after 3 years of follow-up. PMID:24658529

  13. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23821212

  14. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed

    Van Den Bent, Martin J; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Buckner, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have long attracted interest because of their sensitivity to chemotherapy, in particular in the subset of 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Recent molecular studies have shown that all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have IDH mutations and most of them also have TERT mutations. Because of the presence of similar typical genetic alterations in astrocytoma and glioblastoma, the current trend is to diagnose these tumors on the basis of their molecular profile. Further long-term follow-up analysis of both EORTC and RTOG randomized studies on (neo)adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy indeed improves outcome, and this is now standard of care. It is also equally clear that benefit to PCV chemotherapy is not limited to the 1p/19q co-deleted cases; potential other predictive factors are IDH mutations and MGMT promoter methylation. Moreover, a recent RTOG study on low-grade glioma also noted an improved outcome after adjuvant PCV chemotherapy, thus making (PCV) chemotherapy now standard of care for all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors regardless of grade. It remains unclear whether temozolomide provides the same survival benefit, as no data from well-designed clinical trials on adjuvant temozolomide in this tumor type are available. Another question that remains is whether one can safely leave out radiotherapy as part of initial treatment to avoid cognitive side-effects of radiotherapy. The current data suggest that delaying radiotherapy and treatment with chemotherapy only may be detrimental for overall survival. PMID:26948366

  15. Targeting of Nasal Mucosa-Associated Antigen-Presenting Cells In Vivo with an Outer Membrane Protein A Derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Goetsch, Liliane; Gonzalez, Alexandra; Plotnicky-Gilquin, Hélène; Haeuw, Jean François; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Beck, Alain; Bonnefoy, Jean Yves; Corvaïa, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Administration of vaccines by the nasal route has recently proven to be one of the most efficient ways for inducing both mucosal and systemic antibody responses in experimental animals. Our results demonstrate that P40, a well-defined outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae, is indeed a carrier molecule suitable for nasal immunization. Using fragments from the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (RSV-A) G protein as antigen models, it has been shown that P40 is able to induce both systemic and mucosal immunity when fused or coupled to a protein or a peptide and administered intranasally (i.n.) to naive or K. pneumoniae-primed mice. Confocal analyses of nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue after i.n. instillation of P40 showed that this molecule is able to cross the nasal epithelium and target CD11c-positive cells likely to be murine dendritic cells or macrophages. More importantly, this targeting of antigen-presenting cells following i.n. immunization with a subunit of the RSV-A molecule in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant results in both upper and lower respiratory tract protection against RSV-A infection. PMID:11553588

  16. Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in stressor-exposed CD-1 mice, but not C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions These data illustrate that stressor exposure can affect microbial populations, including the lactobacilli, that are closely associated with the colonic mucosa. Because the lactobacilli can have beneficial effects on human health, stressor-induced reductions of their population could have important health implications. PMID:25028050

  17. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated. PMID:26440010

  18. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of freshwater along with the waste heat released from the condenser of air-conditioning system. This additional energy requirement is about 60% of the energy required by a multi stage flash distillation process. The experimental studies were conducted in three phases. In the first phase, electric power from grid as energy source was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. These tests showed that freshwater production rate of 0.25 kg/hr can be sustained at evaporation temperatures as low as 40°C with specific energy input of 3,370 kJ/kg, at efficiencies ranging from 65 to 70% during the winter. In the second phase, experiments were conducted utilizing direct solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy as well. Four different combinations of energy sources were studied. The following results were obtained from these experimental studies: (1) Utilizing direct solar energy produced 4.9 L/d of freshwater with an evaporator area of 1 m2 with an average efficiency of 61%. This yield is two times that can be obtained from a flat solar still. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 4157 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (2) Utilizing direct solar energy with aid of a reflector produced 7.5 L/d of freshwater with an average efficiency more than 80%. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 3118 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (3) Utilizing direct solar energy during sunlight hours and photovoltaic energy during non-sunlight hours produced 12 L/d of freshwater with 1 m2 evaporator area and 6 m2 photovoltaic areas respectively. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 2926 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater. Finally, the feasibility of this process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant was studied. The process was able to achieve the following reductions: total dissolved solids from 727 mg/L to 21 mg/L (97%); nitrates from 2.4 mg/L to <0.1 mg/L (> 95%); ammonia from 23.2 mg/L to < 0.5 mg/L (> 97%); and coliform from 77 to <0 mg/L (100%).

  19. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel

    PubMed Central

    Langlands, S J; Hopkins, M J; Coleman, N; Cummings, J H

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mucosa associated flora of the large intestine is important in determining mucosal function although what controls its composition is unknown. This study has determined the effect of the prebiotic carbohydrates oligofructose and inulin on the mucosal flora. Methods: An in vitro chemostat model of both planktonic and surface associated bacteria was used followed by an intervention study in 29 subjects undergoing colonoscopy. Subjects: Fourteen subjects, recruited from colonoscopy waiting lists, supplemented their diet for two weeks with a mix of 7.5 g of oligofructose and 7.5 g inulin. Fifteen subjects were recruited at the time of colonoscopy and given no supplement. Multiple endoscopic biopsies were taken from the caecum, transverse and descending colon, and rectum. The mucosal flora was characterised by culture and to species level by cellular fatty acid profiles. Cell proliferation was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for minichromosome maintenance protein 2, Ki67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results: In vitro prebiotics increased surface counts of bifidobacteria from 6.6 to 7.3 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per slide (p<0.0006) with no significant changes in planktonic bacteria. In the feeding study, prebiotics increased mucosal bifidobacteria (log CFU/g mucosa (SEM)) in both the proximal (control 5.3 (0.4) v prebiotic 6.3 (0.3)) (p = 0.059) and distal (control 5.2 (0.3) v prebiotic 6.4 (0.3)) colon (p = 0.01). Lactobacilli were also increased (3.0 (0.1) v 3.7 (0.2) (p = 0.02) in the proximal and 3.1 (0.1) v 3.6 (0.2) (p = 0.04) in the distal colon, respectively). There were significantly more eubacteria in fed subjects but no changes in total anaerobes clostridia, bacteroides, or coliforms, nor in proliferation indices. Conclusion: Prebiotic carbohydrates can change the composition of the mucosa associated flora significantly. PMID:15479681

  20. Characteristics of Fecal and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Chinese Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Rui; Ng, Siew C.; Li, Jin; Huang, Meifang; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Bo; A. Kamm, Michael; Wu, Kaichun; Xia, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and geographical and genetic backgrounds impact the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the overall changes and characteristics of fecal-associated microbiota (FAM) and mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM) in Chinese patients with IBD. We recruited 26 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 46 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 21 healthy individuals; we collected matched fresh fecal and mucosal samples from the same subjects. The microbial communities were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. Community-wide changes in FAM and MAM were observed in patients with IBD. The proportion of several butyrate-producing bacteria, such as of the genera Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Ruminococcus were significantly reduced, whereas the pathogens Escherichia-Shigella and Enterococcus were prevalent in patients with IBD. FAM and MAM were similar between CD and UC. FAM differed from MAM in healthy individuals and patients with UC. In conclusion, the compositions of FAM and MAM were altered in patients with IBD. The reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria and the increase in opportunistic pathogens might be associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:25121355

  1. Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Wu, Wen; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that probiotics may have a beneficial role in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of interventional probiotic treatment on gut microbiota has remained elusive. In the present study, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was conducted in order to determine the extent to which probiotics alter the microbiota. The observations of the present study indicated that the microbial structure of cancerous tissue differed significantly from that of healthy individuals and that the CRC microbiota exhibited lower diversity. It was indicated that interventional treatment with probiotics increased the density and diversity of mucosal microbes, and altered the mucosa‑associated microbiota. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that probiotics significantly reduced (5‑fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to the genus Fusobacterium, which had been previously suggested to be a contributing factor to increase tumorigenesis. Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC. PMID:26238090

  2. Pathological and Molecular Advances in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Lim, Kah Suan; Bowers, Daniel; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric low grade astrocytomas are the commonest brain tumors in children. They sometimes have similar microscopic and clinical features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. For patients whose tumors are in locations that do not permit full resection, or those with an intrinsically aggressive biology, more effective therapies are required. Until recently, little was known about the molecular changes that drive the initiation and growth of pilocytic and other low grade astrocytomas beyond the association of a minority of cases, primarily in the optic nerve, with neurofibromatosis type 1. Over the last several years, a wide range of studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene and other members of this signaling cascade in the pathobiology of pediatric low grade astrocytoma. In this review, we attempt to summarize this rapidly developing field, and discuss the potential for translating our growing molecular knowledge into improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new targeted therapies. PMID:23121055

  3. Human Intestinal Lumen and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; howerer the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host. PMID:22761885

  4. Mucosa-Associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Phylotype Richness Is Reduced in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Abellà, Carles; Busquets, David; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Aldeguer, Xavier; Flint, Harry J.

    2015-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26296733

  5. Low-grade astrocytoma in a child with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Brassesco, María Sol; Valera, Elvis Terci; Becker, Aline Paixão; Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; de Aboim Machado, André; Santos, Antônio Carlos; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Oliveira, Ricardo Santos; Machado, Hélio Rubens; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2010-02-01

    Encephalocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), or Haberland syndrome, is an uncommon congenital disorder with unique cutaneous, ocular and neurological features. In the present article, we describe a 3-year-old boy with ECCL who developed an extensive and recurring intraventricular low-grade glioma with atypical pathological features and elevated mitotic index. Cytogenetic analysis from tumor sample was also performed. This is the first report of a low-grade astrocytoma occurring in a child with ECCL. Whether or not the origin of the tumor is associated to the pathogenesis of the underlying syndrome is a matter for further investigation. PMID:19652916

  6. Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Microbiome of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs and Dynamics Linked to Dietary Calcium-Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Zebeli, Qendrim; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary composition largely influences pig’s gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. PMID:24466298

  7. Characterization of the gastrointestinal mucosa-associated microbiota of pigs and chickens using culture-based and molecular methodologies.

    PubMed

    Collado, M Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda

    2007-12-01

    The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) can play an important role in the healthy status of farm animals and in the safety of the whole food chain. In this study, the mucosa-associated microbiota of the GIT of pigs and chickens was analyzed by culture methods and fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flow cytometry (FCM-FISH). In all pig GIT sections, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Atopobium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium histolyticum were the predominant bacterial groups. Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus were detected at higher levels (P < 0.05) in the intestine than in the stomach. In all broilers' GIT sections, lactic acid bacteria, Atopobium, Bacteroides, and Escherichia coli were the predominant bacterial groups. Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, E. coli, and Eubacterium rectale--Clostridium coccoides counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the crop, while those of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus were higher (P < 0.05) in the large intestine. Lactic acid bacteria were one of the predominant GIT mucosa-associated bacteria of pigs and broilers, which could be an index of their healthy status. FCM-FISH analysis also allowed the detection of bacterial groups hard to cultivate yet quantitatively important. The distribution of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides followed the same trend in both animal species, whereas that of Atopobium and Bifidobacterium was the opposite. These results contribute to the knowledge on the diversity and distribution of the animal GIT mucosa-associated microbiota. PMID:18095433

  8. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. PMID:27088915

  9. Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Robert E.

    The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading…

  10. Low-grade inflammatory polarization of monocytes impairs wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruoxi; Geng, Shuo; Chen, Keqiang; Diao, Na; Chu, Hong Wei; Li, Liwu

    2016-03-01

    Impaired wound healing often accompanies low-grade inflammatory conditions, during which circulating levels of subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin may persist. Low-grade inflammatory monocyte polarization may occur during chronic inflammation and deter effective wound repair. However, little is understood about the potential mechanisms of monocyte polarization by sustained insult of subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin. We observed that super-low-dose endotoxin preferentially programmes a low-grade inflammatory monocyte state in vitro and in vivo, as represented by the elevated population of CD11b(+) Ly6C(high) monocytes and sustained expression of CCR5. Mechanistically, super-low-dose endotoxin caused cellular stress, altered lysosome function and increased the transcription factor IRF5. TUDCA, a potent inhibitor of cellular stress, effectively blocked monocyte polarization and improved wound healing in mice injected with super-low-dose endotoxin. Our data revealed the polarization of low-grade inflammatory monocytes by sustained endotoxin challenge, its underlying mechanisms and a potential intervention strategy. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26690561

  11. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

  12. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Jayant Sastri; Le, Lisa W.; Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Simpson, Rand; Tsang, Richard W.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses of RT but results in significant late morbidity. The majority of late effects were successfully managed. Lens shielding reduced the risk of cataracts and other late sequelae.

  13. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

  14. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L.; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications. PMID:26834416

  15. Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa: Single Center Experience of 60 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Lukas, Julius; Kuchar, Andreas; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Streubel, Berthold; Lagler, Heimo; Müllauer, Leonhard; Wöhrer, Stefan; Fischbach, Julia; Raderer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background Orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (OAML) constitutes for the most frequent diagnosis in orbital lymphoma. Relatively little data, however, have been reported in larger cohorts of patients staged in a uniform way and no therapy standard exists to date. Material and Methods We have retrospectively analyzed 60 patients diagnosed and treated at our institution 1999–2012. Median age at diagnosis was 64 years (IQR 51–75) and follow-up time 43 months (IQR 16–92). All patients had undergone uniform extensive staging and histological diagnosis was made by a reference pathologist according to the WHO classification. Results The majority of patients presented with stage IE (n = 40/60, 67%), three had IIE/IIIE and the remaining 17 stage IVE. Seven patients with IVE had bilateral orbital disease whereas the others showed involvement of further organs. Treatment data were available in 58 patients. Local treatment with radiotherapy (14/58, 24%) or surgery (3/58, 5%) resulted in response in 82% of patients. A total of 26 patients (45%) received systemic treatment with a response rate of 85%. Nine patients received antibiotics as initial therapy; response rate was 38%. Watchful-waiting was the initial approach in 6/58 patients. In total 28/58 patients (48%) progressed and were given further therapy. Median time-to-progression in this cohort was 20 months (IQR 9–39). There was no difference in time-to-progression after first-line therapy between the different therapy arms (p = 0.14). Elevated beta-2-microglobulin, plasmacytic differentiation, autoimmune disorder and site of lymphoma were not associated with a higher risk for progress. Conclusion Our data underscore the excellent prognosis of OAML irrespective of initial therapy, as there was no significant difference in time-to-progression and response between local or systemic therapy. In the absence of randomized trials, the least toxic individual approach should be chosen for OAML. PMID:25077481

  16. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  17. Notch Signaling Activation in Pediatric Low-Grade Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Bar, Eli E.; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in development, stem cell biology, and the pathogenesis of several cancers but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomical sites compared to non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res 186 and Res 259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable but significant reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  18. Notch signaling activation in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Brandt, William D; Schreck, Karisa C; Bar, Eli E; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-02-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in the development, stem cell biology, and pathogenesis of several cancers, but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomic sites compared with non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res186 and Res259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable, but significant, reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  20. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B; Brenner, David A; Hooper, Lora V; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-02-10

    Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  1. Decompression without Fusion for Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective series. Purpose Assess results of decompression-only surgery for low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with consideration of instability. Overview of Literature There is no consensus on whether fusion or decompression-only surgery leads to better outcomes for patients with low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. Current trends support fusion but many studies are flawed due to over-generalization without consideration of radiological instability and their variable presentations and natural history. Methods Patients with surgically treated degenerative spondylolisthesis from 1990–2013 were included. Clinical and radiological instability measures were included. Any residual or recurrence of symptoms, revision surgery performed and functional outcome scores including the numerical global rate of change scale, visual analogue scale, and modified Barthel index were measured. Follow-up periods for patients were divided into short-term (<5 years), mid-term (5–10 years) and long-term (>10 years). Results A total of 64 patients were recruited. Mechanical low back pain was noted in 48 patients and most (85.4%) had relief of back pain postoperatively. Radiological instability was noted in 4 subjects by flexion-extension radiographs and 12 subjects with prone traction radiographs by increased disc height and reduction of olisthesis and slip angle. From the results of the short-term, mid-term and long-term follow-up, reoperation only occurred within the first 5-year follow-up period. All functional scores improved from preoperative to postoperative 1-year follow-up. Conclusions Decompression-only for low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis has good long-term results despite instability. Further higher-level studies should be performed on this patient group with radiological instability to suggest the superior surgical option. PMID:26949462

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery of deeply seated low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Barcia-Salorio, J L; Ferrer, C; Ferrer, E; Algás, R; Hernández, G

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of a series of 16 cases of low-grade gliomas in whom radiosurgery was performed. This series started in 1977. All the tumours received a single radiosurgical session (with a mean dose of 21.7 Gy, 5-10 mm. collimator; one patient received two sessions and in another patient two different targets were irradiated in the same session). Prior to radiosurgery, six patients received conventional external fractionated radiotherapy, with two lateral fields of up to 10 x 10 cm. and a mean dose of 55.1 Gy and another six patients with tumours less than 5 cm. in diameter, received stereotactic radiotherapy using four fields of up to 5 x 5 cm. and a mean dose of 53.1 Gy. In both cases, conventional fractionation was used, giving a dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy/day. The tumour disappeared in 8 cases (50%) and shunk or ceased its growth in 5 additional cases (31%). In 3 cases of brainstem gliomas in which the clinical condition was previously very poor there was no evolutional change and the patients eventually died. We conclude that radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of deeply seated low-grade gliomas, where it may become the treatment of choice in the absence of other more definitive choices. PMID:7717138

  3. Low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, D M

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, the strategy for clinical trial design in making progress against epithelial cancers of the ovary/peritoneum/fallopian tube has changed dramatically. The NRG (GOG) Rare Tumor Committee has been a leader in this transformation. No longer does 'one size fit all'. Rather, separate clinical trials for rare subtypes have been developed and, in some cases, completed. An enhanced understanding of their pathologic diagnosis, molecular biology, and clinical behavior has galvanized this change. Low-grade serous carcinoma may occur de novo or following an initial diagnosis of serous tumor of low malignant potential. It is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged survival compared with high-grade serous carcinoma. Historically, conventional chemotherapy has demonstrated very limited activity in this subtype. Hormonal therapy may provide benefit in this subtype. Preclinical studies have identified and elucidated genes and pathways-MAP kinase pathway, IGF1-R, the angiogenesis pathway, and possibly, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in low-grade serous carcinoma. To date, clinical evidence supports the activity of MEK and BRAF inhibitors and bevacizumab. Further pursuit of targeted therapy trials is clearly warranted. PMID:27141071

  4. CD95 Ligand (CD95L) in Normal Human Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sträter, Jörn; Mariani, Sara M.; Walczak, Henning; Rücker, Frank G.; Leithäuser, Frank; Krammer, Peter H.; Möller, Peter

    1999-01-01

    CD95(Fas/APO-1)-ligand (CD95L) mediates apoptosis by trimerization of the CD95 receptor on the surface of sensitive cells. In vitro studies have shown CD95L expression mainly by activated T cells and suggested a role for CD95L in the regulation of immune responses. Little is known, however, about the cellular distribution of CD95L in situ in the normal human immune system. We investigated CD95L expression in tissue sections of the thymus, lymph node, spleen, tonsil, and gastrointestinal tract using in situ hybridization and two monoclonal antibodies. In all these organs, cells expressing CD95L message and protein were scarce and comprised scattered lymphocytes, rare nonlymphoid cells, and a subset of epithelioid endothelial cells. Surprisingly, a subset of plasma cells turned out to be the most prominent producers of CD95L, matching the reports on CD95L in myeloma cells. CD95L+ plasma cells were most numerous in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. This also applied to acquired mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in chronic gastritis in which CD95L+ plasma cells were found scattered in the lamina propria. Our data suggest that plasma cells as yet may be neglected modulators of immune responses. PMID:9916933

  5. Extrachromosomal driver mutations in glioblastoma and low grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Garieri, Marco; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Falconnet, Emilie; Guipponi, Michel; Vannier, Anne; Radovanovic, Ivan; Bena, Frederique; Forestier, Françoise; Schaller, Karl; Dutoit, Valerie; Clement-Schatlo, Virginie; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of the number of copies of Double Minutes (DMs) with oncogenic EGFR mutations in response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is a novel adaptive mechanism of glioblastoma. Here we provide evidence that such mutations in DMs, called here Amplification-Linked Extrachromosomal Mutations (ALEMs), originate extrachromosomally and could therefore be completely eliminated from the cancer cells. By exome sequencing of 7 glioblastoma patients we reveal ALEMs in EGFR, PDGFRA and other genes. These mutations together with DMs are lost by cancer cells in culture. We confirm the extrachromosomal origin of such mutations by showing that wild type and mutated DMs may coexist in the same tumor. Analysis of 4198 tumors suggests the presence of ALEMs across different tumor types with the highest prevalence in glioblastomas and low grade gliomas. The extrachromosomal nature of ALEMs explains the observed drastic changes in the amounts of mutated oncogenes (like EGFR or PDGFRA) in glioblastoma in response to environmental changes. PMID:25471132

  6. Low-grade heat recuperation by the organic Rankine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verneau, A.

    1980-11-01

    The use of an organic Rankine cycle engine in the conversion of low-grade industrial waste heat into mechanical energy is examined. The principles of a Rankine system using a vapor as the working fluid at operating temperatures from 100 to 500 C are presented, and the advantages of using organic vapors rather than water in the Rankine cycle are pointed out. Attention is then given to the Rankine cycle itself, the organic fluids employed, the multistage low-power turbines and the evaporator, which acts as a countercurrent heat exchanger. Economic aspects of the use of Rankine cycle systems for industrial waste heat recovery are then considered, and examples are presented of the calculation of power recovered and investment costs for the examples of heat recovery from diesel exhaust and from low-pressure steam.

  7. Interaction of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov

    2007-06-15

    How conditions of alkylation of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid influence the yield of extractable matter was experimentally studied and relevant regression equations were obtained. It was shown that catalytic methylation considerably increases the yield of the extractable matter, as well as reducing the thermal stability of modified samples and alters the elemental composition of the samples and their extracts. A possible mechanism of coal methylation is discussed on the basis of regression models and experimental results. The interaction of the coal matter with the alkylating agent presumably involves the formation of the carbocation and its reaction with the coal organic matter. Both depolymerization reactions and the addition reactions of a portion of extractable compounds, the alkylating agent, and the catalyst with the high-molecular mass coal matrix take place.

  8. Low Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Batra, Swaraj; Ahmad, Ayesha; Elahi, Arifa Anwar; Gupta, Monika; Saith, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare malignant tumor of the endometrium, occurring in the age group of 40–50 years. We report a case of low-grade ESS in a 39-year-old woman, presenting as rapid enlargement of a uterine fibroid polyp associated with irregular and excessive vaginal bleeding. Polypectomy followed by pan hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed LGESS. As the tumor is rarely encountered, management protocols are still questionable. In our case, we tried a different post-surgical protocol and the patient is being closely followed up. Although rare, ESS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all women who present with a rapid enlargement of a uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25648534

  9. Reductive Leaching of Low-Grade Pyrolusite with Formic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Youzhi; Ma, Huaju; Huang, Runjun; Yuan, Aiqun; Huang, Zengwei; Zhou, Zeguang

    2015-08-01

    The extraction of manganese from low-grade pyrolusite is investigated using formic acid as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. The effects of volumes of formic acid, concentration of sulfuric acid, liquid to solid ratio (L/S), leaching time, and temperature on leaching efficiency of manganese, iron, and aluminum are valuated with single-factor experiments. The results show that the leaching efficiency of manganese reached 90.08 pct with 80.70 pct of iron and 31.55 pct of aluminum under the optical conditions: 15 pct H2SO4(v/v) 60 ml, 4 ml formic acid, and 2 hours leaching time at 363 K (90 °C).

  10. Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mark A; Fakiris, Achilles J; Timmerman, Robert D; Worth, Robert M; Lo, Simon S; Witt, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures. A median dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line, which covered the gross tumor. The median patient age was 17.4 years. The median target volume was 4.4 cm(3). With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 4-year tumor control and overall survival were 77 and 83%, respectively. Only 2 patients experienced symptomatic treatment-related toxicity. GKSRS can provide local control in cases of unresectable or recurrent LGA with a low incidence of side effects in carefully selected patients. PMID:19321969

  11. Lymphoid microenvironments and innate lymphoid cells in the gut.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Claire; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2012-06-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a sensor region for luminal content and plays an important role in lymphoid maturation, activation and differentiation. It comprises isolated and aggregated lymphoid follicles, cryptopatches (CPs) and tertiary lymphoid tissue. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role within GALT. Prenatal GALT development is dependent on ILC lymphoid-inducer function. Postnatally, these cells rapidly respond to commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria, parasites and food components by polarized cytokine production [such as interleukin (IL)-22, IL-17 or IL-13] and further contribute to GALT formation and function. Here, we discuss how ILCs shape lymphoid intestinal microenvironments and act as amplifier cells for innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:22578693

  12. Rare case of sclerosing mesenteritis and low grade follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema; Mahy, Gillian; Roche, Enrico

    2016-04-16

    An unusual case of long standing sclerosing mesenteritis; initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a mesenteric mass with surrounding fat oedema and stranding with a pseudocapsule and fat ring sign were clearly visualised on the initial computed tomography scan. Laparotomy showed diffuse thickening at the root of the mesentery and histology from this specimen revealed fat necrosis and reactive lymphoid tissue consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. Initial treatment with steroids and tamoxifen relieved the symptoms and the mass. He was maintained on tamoxifen. Three years later he developed a recurrence of his symptoms and abdominal mass that responded to a course of steroids. Two years following this, he developed a follicular Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:27099861

  13. Rare case of sclerosing mesenteritis and low grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema; Mahy, Gillian; Roche, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of long standing sclerosing mesenteritis; initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a mesenteric mass with surrounding fat oedema and stranding with a pseudocapsule and fat ring sign were clearly visualised on the initial computed tomography scan. Laparotomy showed diffuse thickening at the root of the mesentery and histology from this specimen revealed fat necrosis and reactive lymphoid tissue consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. Initial treatment with steroids and tamoxifen relieved the symptoms and the mass. He was maintained on tamoxifen. Three years later he developed a recurrence of his symptoms and abdominal mass that responded to a course of steroids. Two years following this, he developed a follicular Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:27099861

  14. Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes∙h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier related to nocturnal hypoxemia and sympathetic activation which are induced by obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:23228180

  15. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Kevin S.; Hung, Jonathan; Robertson, Patricia L.; Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  16. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ius, Tamara; Pauletto, Giada; Cesselli, Daniela; Isola, Miriam; Turella, Luca; Budai, Riccardo; DeMaglio, Giovanna; Eleopra, Roberto; Fadiga, Luciano; Lettieri, Christian; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR) are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs) that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR) (P < 0.002), ΔVT2T1 value (P < 0.001), histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P = 0.017), and mutation of IDH1 (P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P < 0.001). Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery. PMID:26539503

  17. The evolving molecular genetics of low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Venneti, Sriram; Huse, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute grade I and grade II tumors of astrocytic and grade II tumors of oligodendroglial lineage. Although these tumors are typically slow growing, they may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to recurrence and malignant progression, even in the setting of optimal resection. LGG in pediatric and adult age groups are currently classified by morphologic criteria. Recent years have heralded a molecular revolution in understanding brain tumors, including LGG. Next generation sequencing has definitively demonstrated that pediatric and adult LGG fundamentally differ in their underlying molecular characteristics, despite being histologically similar. Pediatric LGG show alterations in FGFR1 and BRAF in pilocytic astrocytomas and FGFR1 alterations in diffuse astrocytomas, each converging on the MAP kinase-signaling pathway. Adult LGG are characterized by IDH1/2 mutations and ATRX mutations in astrocytic tumors and IDH1/2 mutations and 1p/19q codeletions in oligodendroglial tumors. TERT promoter mutations are also noted in LGG and are mainly associated with oligodendrogliomas. These findings have considerably refined approaches to classifying these tumors. Moreover, many of the molecular alterations identified in LGG directly impact on prognosis, tumor biology, and the development of novel therapies. PMID:25664944

  18. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  19. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  20. Regional differences in colonic mucosa-associated microbiota determine the physiological expression of host heat shock proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shien; Wang, Yunwei; Lichtenstein, Lev; Tao, Yun; Musch, Mark W.; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Claud, Erika C.

    2010-01-01

    Cytoprotective heat shock proteins (Hsps) are critical for intestinal homeostasis and are known to be decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases. Signals responsible for maintenance of Hsp expression are incompletely understood. In this study, we find that Hsp25/27 and Hsp70 protein expressions are differentially regulated along the longitudinal length of the large intestine, being highest in the proximal colon and decreasing to the distal colon. This longitudinal gradient was similar in both conventionally colonized mouse colon as well as biopsies of human proximal and distal colon but was abolished in the colon of germ-free mice, suggesting a role of intestinal microbiota in the Hsp regional expression. Correspondingly, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria from each colonic segment indicated increased bacterial richness and diversity in the proximal colon. The mechanism of regulation is transcriptional, as Hsp70 mRNA followed a similar pattern to Hsp70 protein expression. Lysates of mucosa-associated bacteria from the proximal colon stimulated greater Hsp25 and Hsp70 mRNA transcription and subsequent protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells than did lysates from distal colon. In addition, transrectal administration of cecal contents stimulated Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in the distal colon. Thus host-microbial interactions resulting in differential Hsp expression may have significant implications for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and possibly for development of inflammatory diseases of the bowel. PMID:20864653

  1. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  2. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  3. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  4. Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma1

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Sridharan; Fisher, Michael J.; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Herndon, James E.; Quinn, Jennifer A.; Reardon, David A.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Desjardins, Annick; Phillips, Peter C.; Watral, Melody A.; Krauser, Jeanne M.; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a phase II study to assess the efficacy of oral temozolomide (TMZ) in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Thirty eligible patients were enrolled on this study. Median age at enrollment was 10 years (range, 4–18 years). Eligible patients received TMZ (200 mg/m2 per day) by mouth for five days every four weeks. Patients received a median of nine cycles (range, 2–12 cycles) of treatment. Best responses in the 26 patients (86%) with optic pathway glioma (OPG)/pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) included partial response in 3 patients (11%), minor response in 1 (4%), stable disease in 10 (38%), and progressive disease in 12 (46%). Only one of four patients with fibrillary astrocytoma had stable disease for 29 months after TMZ. The overall disease stabilization rate in patients with OPG/PA was 54%, and disease control was maintained for a median interval of 34 months. Seventeen of 26 patients had progressive disease either on or off therapy, and three have died of disease. The two-year progression-free and overall survivals in patients with OPG/PA were 49% (95% CI, 30%–67%) and 96% (95% CI, 89%–100%), respectively. Worst toxicity related to TMZ in all 30 patients included grade 2–4 thrombocytopenia in seven patients, grade 2–4 neutropenia in seven, grade 2 skin rash in one, and intratumor hemorrhage in one. TMZ given in this schedule was successful in stabilizing disease in a significant proportion of the patients with OPG/PA, with manageable toxicity. PMID:17347491

  5. Current Management of Adult Diffuse Infiltrative Low Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, Emilie; Taillibert, Sophie; Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-02-01

    Diffuse infiltrative low grade gliomas (LGG) account for approximately 15 % of all gliomas. The prognosis of LGG differs between high-risk and low-risk patients notwithstanding varying definitions of what constitutes a high-risk patient. Maximal safe resection optimally is the initial treatment. Surgery that achieves a large volume resection improves both progression-free and overall survival. Based on results of three randomized clinical trials (RCT), radiotherapy (RT) may be deferred in patients with low-risk LGG (defined as age <40 years and having undergone a complete resection), although combined chemoradiotherapy has never been prospectively evaluated in the low-risk population. The recent RTOG 9802 RCT established a new standard of care in high-risk patients (defined as age >40 years or incomplete resection) by demonstrating a nearly twofold improvement in overall survival with the addition of PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy following RT as compared to RT alone. Chemotherapy alone as a treatment of LGG may result in less toxicity than RT; however, this has only been prospectively studied once (EORTC 22033) in high-risk patients. A challenge remains to define when an aggressive treatment improves survival without impacting quality of life (QoL) or neurocognitive function and when an effective treatment can be delayed in order to preserve QoL without impacting survival. Current WHO histopathological classification is poorly predictive of outcome in patients with LGG. The integration of molecular biomarkers with histology will lead to an improved classification that more accurately reflects underlying tumor biology, prognosis, and hopefully best therapy. PMID:26750130

  6. Relative survival of patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Smoll, Nicolas R.; Gautschi, Oliver P.; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Schaller, Karl; Weber, Damien C.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to assess the population-based estimates of age-standardized survival among patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) and to determine the impact of age and time on relative survival (RS). Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of NCI from 1973 through 2006 were analyzed to assess survival among 5037 patients. Relationships were modeled using Dickman's piecewise constant hazards RS model. The 3- and 10-year age-standardized RS were 67% and 37%, respectively. When analyzed by age group, the 10-year overall survival (OS) and RS for children (age, <16 years), young adults (age, 16–39 years), adults (age, 40–64 years), and older patients (age, ≥65 years) were 86% and 86%, 61% and 62%, 40% and 43%, and 10% and 14%, respectively. The observed difference between OS and RS was larger among older patients (4%) and smallest among children (<1%). Older patients were 30.5 times (excess hazard ratio [eHR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.3–50.0) as likely as young adults to die during the first year and 18.2 times as likely to die during the second year. Adults were 5.3 (eHR; 95% CI, 3.5–8.1) times as likely to die during their first year as young adults. In the remaining years, the observed survival differences were substantially decreased, and the presence of an age-by-follow-up interaction was observed. Survival among older patients with LGG was substantially different from the one computed for young adults and children. Despite the hazards across age groups not being proportional, RS does not provide additional information, compared with OS, in patients with LGG. PMID:22773277

  7. Relative survival of patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Smoll, Nicolas R; Gautschi, Oliver P; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Schaller, Karl; Weber, Damien C

    2012-08-01

    We sought to assess the population-based estimates of age-standardized survival among patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) and to determine the impact of age and time on relative survival (RS). Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of NCI from 1973 through 2006 were analyzed to assess survival among 5037 patients. Relationships were modeled using Dickman's piecewise constant hazards RS model. The 3- and 10-year age-standardized RS were 67% and 37%, respectively. When analyzed by age group, the 10-year overall survival (OS) and RS for children (age, <16 years), young adults (age, 16-39 years), adults (age, 40-64 years), and older patients (age, ≥65 years) were 86% and 86%, 61% and 62%, 40% and 43%, and 10% and 14%, respectively. The observed difference between OS and RS was larger among older patients (4%) and smallest among children (<1%). Older patients were 30.5 times (excess hazard ratio [eHR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.3-50.0) as likely as young adults to die during the first year and 18.2 times as likely to die during the second year. Adults were 5.3 (eHR; 95% CI, 3.5-8.1) times as likely to die during their first year as young adults. In the remaining years, the observed survival differences were substantially decreased, and the presence of an age-by-follow-up interaction was observed. Survival among older patients with LGG was substantially different from the one computed for young adults and children. Despite the hazards across age groups not being proportional, RS does not provide additional information, compared with OS, in patients with LGG. PMID:22773277

  8. Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcomas of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    QIU, JIN-YU; LIU, PENG; SHI, CE; HAN, BING

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) is a distinct mesenchymal myofibroblastic malignancy. The tumor may occur at a variety of sites, but is particularly associated with the head and neck. Of the two maxillary sarcomas that were analyzed in the present study, one was misdiagnosed as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor during pre-operative excision biopsy, and later presented with a different immunophenotype upon recurrence. Representative paraffin blocks from formalin-fixed tissues were selected from each patient and designated as case 1 and case 2. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 3-μm thick sections using primary antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), muscle-specific actin (MSA), desmin, vimentin, calponin, h-caldesmon, fibronectin, cytokeratin, cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), S-100 protein, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and Ki-67. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The tumor cells from the two maxillary LGMSs, including the recurrent lesion, were positive for vimentin and fibronectin, and negative for S-100 protein, CD34, EMA, h-caldesmon, ALK, MSA and calponin. The tumor cells from case 1 demonstrated positive staining for α-SMA protein and negative staining for desmin. By contrast, the tumor cells from the primary lesion in case 2 presented with negative staining for α-SMA and positive staining for desmin, while the cells of the recurrent lesion were α-SMA-positive and desmin-negative. The present study concluded that cases of LGMS with immunoprofile alterations are predictive of relatively poor prognoses. PMID:25624890

  9. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  10. Human Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Accumulate in Colon Adenocarcinomas but Produce Reduced Amounts of IFN-γ.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Patrik; Ahlmanner, Filip; Akéus, Paulina; Sundquist, Malin; Alsén, Samuel; Yrlid, Ulf; Börjesson, Lars; Sjöling, Åsa; Gustavsson, Bengt; Wong, S B Justin; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells with a conserved TCR α-chain recognizing bacterial metabolites presented on the invariant MHC-related 1 molecule. MAIT cells are present in intestinal tissues and liver, and they rapidly secrete IFN-γ and IL-17 in response to bacterial insult. In colon cancer, IL-17-driven inflammation promotes tumor progression, whereas IFN-γ production is essential for antitumor immunity. Thus, tumor-associated MAIT cells may affect antitumor immune responses by their secreted cytokines. However, the knowledge of MAIT cell presence and function in tumors is virtually absent. In this study, we determined the frequency, phenotype, and functional capacity of MAIT cells in colon adenocarcinomas and unaffected colon lamina propria. Flow cytometric analyses showed significant accumulation of MAIT cells in tumor tissue, irrespective of tumor stage or localization. Colonic MAIT cells displayed an activated memory phenotype and expression of chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR9. Most MAIT cells in unaffected colon tissues produced IFN-γ, whereas only few produced IL-17. Colonic MAIT cells also produced TNF-α, IL-2, and granzyme B. In the tumors, significantly lower frequencies of IFN-γ-producing MAIT cells were seen, whereas there were no differences in the other cytokines analyzed, and in vitro studies showed that secreted factors from tumor tissue reduced IFN-γ production from MAIT cells. In conclusion, MAIT cells infiltrate colon tumors but their ability to produce IFN-γ is substantially reduced. We suggest that MAIT cells have the capacity to promote local immune responses to tumors, but factors in the tumor microenvironment act to reduce MAIT cell IFN-γ production. PMID:26297765

  11. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; D'Avanzo, B; Franceschi, S

    1989-09-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  12. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages. PMID:27168240

  13. Infectious agents and environmental factors in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Toren, A; Ben-Bassat, I; Rechavi, G

    1996-06-01

    A strong association was found to exist between patterns of lymphoid malignancies and socioeconomic status. B-cell lymphomas and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia are much more prevalent in developing countries where the chances of acquiring infections especially at a younger age are high. B-cell precursor acute lymphatic leukemia, however, are much more prevalent in the Western world. Many infectious agents are associated with lymphatic malignancies. Epstein-Barr virus is involved in African Burkitt's lymphoma, human immunodeficiency virus-related Burkitt's lymphoma, lymphoproliferative syndrome post-transplantation, and Hodgkin's disease. Other infectious agents which may play a role in lymphoproliferative disorders are human immunodeficiency virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated lymphoma, human T-lymphotropic virus in adult T-cell lymphoma, Helicobacter pylori in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, theileriosis in lymphoproliferative syndrome in cattle, Avian leukosis virus in chicken bursal lymphoma, and possibly a bacterial infection in immunoproliferative small intestine disease, potentially reversed by antibiotic therapy. The association between infectious agents and hematologic malignancies may be explained by the creation of large populations of activated cells followed by higher occurrences of 'genetic accidents'. This theory may be reinforced in at least some malignancies with the existence of viral proteins which either have complex relationships with key cellular gene products like p53 and Rb which have roles in cell cycle control, or share common motifs with bc1-2, therefore operating as anti-apoptotic elements. Whenever these genes are deranged, cell deoxysibonucleic acid repair or apoptosis are no longer possible, thereby creating a state of genome instability, increased acquisition of mistakes, and increased chances for malignant transformation. PMID:8813340

  14. Laryngeal Lymphoma: The High and Low Grades of Rare Lymphoma Involvement Sites

    PubMed Central

    Degaetano, James; Farrugia, Eric; Magri, Claude; Refalo, Nicholas; Camilleri, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The larynx is an extremely rare site of involvement by lymphomatous disease. We present two cases of isolated laryngeal high-grade and another low-grade lymphoma, together with a literature review of laryngeal lymphoma management. PMID:25140179

  15. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the epiglottis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LARBCHAROENSUB, NOPPADOL; SANPAPHANT, SUDA; WITOONPANICH, PATAMINTITA; TUNTIYATORN, LOJANA; TUNGKEERATICHAI, JUMROON; CHEEWARUANGROJ, WICHIT

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignant tumor derived from the terminal duct cells of the salivary glands. The present study described a rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, T2N0M0 stage 2, in a 65-year-old man, who presented with a sore throat and painful dysphagia. Computed tomography revealed an infiltrative heterogenous enhancing mass involving the left aryepiglottic fold. He underwent a tumor removal with frozen section for evaluating the surgical margin. Subsequent supraglottic laryngectomy was performed. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma was diagnosed histologically, characterized by cytologic uniformly, morphologic diversity and an infiltrative growth pattern. Epiglottic cartilaginous invasion by the tumor is demonstrated. Clinical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological features with briefly reviewed relevant literatures are discussed. This is the first reported description in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, of an epiglottic polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma receiving successful supraglottic laryngectomy with 7 year disease free survival.

  16. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer ... PCPT) continue to show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the ...

  17. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrev, Sergei; Bogomolov, Aleksandr; Alekssev, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  18. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOEpatents

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  19. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  20. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-01

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  1. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  2. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated

  3. The current perspective of low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke

    2016-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) without increased blasts, i.e., low-grade MDS, is the most common subtype of pediatric MDS and has characteristics different from adult form of the disease. Although histological findings of bone marrow (BM) biopsies suggest that low-grade MDS is a morphologically distinctive entity, a subset of pediatric low-grade MDS may clinically overlap with aplastic anemia (AA), such as high likelihood of hypocellular marrow and normal karyotype. In addition, children with low-grade MDS are as likely to respond to immunosuppressive therapy as those with AA, which indicates that a part of these disorders might share a common pathogenesis, that is, T cell-mediated inhibition of hematopoiesis. In contrast, a small part of children with low-grade MDS experience disease progression to advanced MDS. Given that the clinical courses of pediatric low-grade MDS are heterogeneous, assessing prognostic values of clinical, morphological, histological and cytogenetic findings is critical. Thus far, monosomy 7 and multilineage dysplasia have been suggested as prognostic factors that could predict disease progression. Treatment strategy will be optimized based on more precise prognostic factors. In the future, molecular findings may also help prognostification in children with hypoplastic BM disorders. PMID:26939774

  4. High endothelial differentiation in human lymphoid and inflammatory tissues defined by monoclonal antibody HECA-452.

    PubMed Central

    Duijvestijn, A. M.; Horst, E.; Pals, S. T.; Rouse, B. N.; Steere, A. C.; Picker, L. J.; Meijer, C. J.; Butcher, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Lymphocyte traffic into lymph nodes and into mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues is regulated by specialized postcapillary high endothelial venules (HEVs). The authors have produced a rat monoclonal antibody, HECA-452, that detects a human endothelial cell differentiation antigen selectively expressed on high endothelium. In immunoperoxidase studies, HECA-452 intensely stains all HEVs within lymphoid organs. In normal nonlymphoid tissues the antibody stains no vascular endothelium. The antibody, in addition to reacting with high endothelium, cross-reacts with a set of monocytic cells. In pathologic states such as autoimmune thyroiditis and Crohn's disease, known for the development of dense, frequently organized, lymphocytic infiltrates, HECA-452 detects HEV-like vessels containing luminal and intramural lymphocytes, presumably in the process of extravasating. The antigen was not expressed at detectable levels by venules in less heavily infiltrated chronic inflammatory sites nor in acutely inflamed tissues. In lymphoid malignancies, the only vessels stained were morphologically characteristic HEVs in association with areas of residual normal lymphoid tissue or reactive lymphocytic infiltrates. The specificity of HECA-452 for high endothelial cells confirms the highly specialized nature of these vessels and will permit studies of the regulation of high endothelial cell differentiation in vivo and in vitro. The HECA-452 antigen is preserved in paraffin sections of sublimate formaldehyde- and also routinely formalin-fixed tissues. Thus, HECA-452 will be widely applicable for the immunohistologic detection of endothelium specialized for the support of highly increased lymphocyte extravasation in inflammatory sites. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3276207

  5. Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Willenbrock, Klaus; Kriener, Susanne; Oeschger, Sabine; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2006-02-01

    Nodular lymphoid lesion (NLL) of the liver is a rare but unique entity and has also been termed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver. We describe the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biologic findings of a case with NLL and two other tumors of the liver. The nodular lymphoid mass found in the liver was composed of heterogeneous small lymphocytes forming reactive follicles. Plasma cells, few immunoblasts, centroblasts, few macrophages, epithelioid cells, and giant cells were seen. The lymphoid infiltrate displaced the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. By immunohistochemistry and molecular studies, the lymphocytes were found to be polyclonal. The diagnosis of NLL was made. In addition to NLL, focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma were detected. The discrimination of NLL from primary hepatic malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type may pose diagnostic difficulties and may require the use of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. The simultaneous occurrence of NLL with focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma in the liver has not been described before. PMID:16331470

  6. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Lymphatic Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Kirsh, Andrew L.; Cushing, Sharon L.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Schwartz, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Examine lymphatic malformation lymphoid aggregates for the expression of tertiary lymphoid organ markers. Determine how lymphoid aggregate density relates to lymphatic malformation clinical features. Methods and Results Retrospective cohort study. Tissue and clinical data were reviewed from 29 patients in the Vascular Anomaly Database who represented the spectrum of head and neck lymphatic malformations and had >5 years of follow-up. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphatic malformation tissue was immunohistochemically stained with antibodies for tertiary lymphoid organ markers, which included follicular and mature myeloid dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, segregated B and T-cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and lymphoid homing chemokines (CXCL13, CCL21). Lymphoid aggregate density (count/mm2) was quantified by 2 independent, blinded reviewers. Lymphoid aggregate density and lymphatic malformation clinical features were characterized using analysis of variance. Larger lymphatic malformation tissue lymphoid aggregates stained consistently for tertiary lymphoid organ markers. In oral cavity and neck specimens from the same patients (n = 9), there were more tertiary lymphoid organ in oral cavity than in neck specimens (p = 0.0235). In lymphatic malformation neck tissue, de Serres stage 4 lymphatic malformations displayed the highest tertiary lymphoid organ density. No significant association was seen between tertiary lymphoid organ density and other clinical features. Conclusion This study demonstrates that some lymphoid aggregates within lymphatic malformations represent tertiary lymphoid organs. There was an association between tertiary lymphoid organ density and lymphatic malformation location. Further study is required to define the role of lymphoid neogenesis and tertiary lymphoid organ formation in lymphatic malformation pathogenesis. PMID:21688977

  7. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of work absence, disability, and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances) can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium, and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:26029209

  8. GNAS mutations are not detected in parosteal and low-grade central osteosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Souza, Carolina; De Andrea, Carlos; Bihl, Michel; Kovac, Michal; Pillay, Nischalan; Forshew, Tim; Gutteridge, Alice; Ye, Hongtao; Amary, M Fernanda; Tirabosco, Roberto; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada; Baumhoer, Daniel; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2015-10-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma, low-grade central osteosarcoma, and fibrous dysplasia share similar histological features that may pose a diagnostic challenge. The detection of GNAS mutations in primary bone tumors has been useful in clinical practice for diagnosing fibrous dysplasia. However, the recent report of GNAS mutations being detected in a significant proportion of parosteal osteosarcoma challenges the specificity of this mutation. As the number of cases reported in this study was small we set out to determine if these results could be reproduced. We studied 97 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded low-grade osteosarcomas from 90 patients including 62 parosteal osteosarcomas, of which MDM2 amplification was detected in 79%, 11 periosteal osteosarcomas and 24 low-grade central osteosarcoma samples. The mutational status of GNAS was analyzed in codons p.R201, p.Q227, and other less common GNAS alterations by bidirectional Sanger sequencing and/or next generation sequencing using the Life Technologies Ion Torrent platform. GNAS mutations were not detected in any of the low-grade osteosarcomas from which informative DNA was extracted. Our findings therefore support prior observations that GNAS mutations are highly specific for fibrous dysplasia and occur rarely, if ever, in parosteal and other low-grade osteosarcomas. PMID:26248895

  9. Delayed osseous metastasis from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: Uncommon occurrence deserving recognition.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2015-10-01

    Despite excellent prognosis, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is notorious for late recurrence even in stage I disease. Bone metastases are distinctly rare and only six cases have so far been reported. Two patients presented with back pain due to spinal metastatic low-grade ESS after 15 and 9 years free of disease after resection of the stage 1 primary uterine tumor. Plain radiograph showed an ivory first lumbar vertebra in the first patient and an osteolytic lesion involving the second thoracic vertebra in the second. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging showed vertebral tumor with intra-spinal extension and spinal cord compression; biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic low-grade ESS. The first patient received palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy while the second underwent surgical decompression followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The neurologic symptoms in both patients returned 12 months afterwards and progressed relentlessly despite adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The first patient developed multiple bone and lung metastasis, culminating in death 44 months after recurrence. While surviving at 24 months from recurrent disease, the second became paraplegic with double incontinence and was wheelchair bound. Delayed osseous metastatic low-grade ESS, although uncommon, deserves recognition given the predilection for spine as the site of involvement. In such a location, where complete surgical removal is notoriously difficult, if not impossible, the prognosis of spinal metastatic low-grade ESS appears grave with considerable morbidity and mortality. PMID:26171849

  10. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. PMID:24679467

  11. Clarity and caution in the natural history of low-grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, John B; Loftus, Edward V

    2015-10-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the safety of conservative endoscopic polypectomy for discrete, adenomatous-appearing colonic polyps in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Much less is known about the clinicopathologic factors of low-grade dysplastic lesions at risk for subsequent high-grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer. In this issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, Choi et al. examine the outcome of patients with low-grade dysplasia participating in a surveillance cohort at St Mark's Hospital, one of the oldest and largest programs of its kind. Long-term follow-up of many, well-phenotyped, low-grade dysplasia cases sheds new light, and raises new questions, on our UC surveillance practice. PMID:26465907

  12. The Emerging Role of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Pathophysiology of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena; de Courten, Barbora; Lambert, Gavin; Boyle, Jacqueline; Moran, Lisa J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has become increasingly common over recent years and is associated with reproductive features as well as cardiometabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose homeostasis, and potentially cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that these long-term metabolic effects are linked to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state with the triad of hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism, and low-grade inflammation acting together in a vicious cycle in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system may also act as an important component, potentially creating a tetrad in the pathophysiology of PCOS. The aim of this review is to examine the role of chronic inflammation and the sympathetic nervous system in the development of obesity and PCOS and review potential therapeutic options to alleviate low-grade inflammation in this setting. PMID:26132930

  13. Plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma: A diffusion tensor imaging study☆

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Xiaolei; Xu, Bainan; Zhang, Jiashu; Lv, Xueming; Li, Jinjiang; Li, Fangye; Hu, Shen; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma is important for neurosurgeons to achieve maximum resection while preserving neurological function. The current study sought to investigate changes in the ventral language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma located in regions likely to affect the dorsal language pathways. The results revealed no significant difference in fractional anisotropy values in the arcuate fasciculus between groups or between hemispheres. However, fractional anisotropy and lateralization index values in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and lateralization index values in the left inferior fronto-occpital fasciculus were higher in patients than in healthy subjects. These results indicate plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma. The ventral language pathways may perform more functions in patients than in healthy subjects. As such, it is important to protect the ventral language pathways intraoperatively. PMID:25206710

  14. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  15. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type

  16. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  17. Low grade astrocytomas in the West of Scotland 1987-96: treatment, outcome, and cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Yule, S; Hide, T; Cranney, M; Simpson, E; Barrett, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Low grade astrocytomas are among the most common central nervous system tumours in children.
AIMS—To identify risk factors for the development of persistent intellectual handicap.
METHODS—The notes of 30 children with histologically proven low grade astrocytoma who presented during the period 1987-96 were reviewed. Thirteen of these children who were diagnosed with intracranial tumours between 1992 and 1996 underwent cognitive assessment one year after the completion of treatment.
RESULTS—Low grade astrocytomas were found in the cerebellum (59%), thalamus (17%), cerebral hemispheres (10%), and the cervical spinal cord (9%). Where possible all patients were treated with gross total resection of the tumour. Symptomatic children with tumours judged to be inoperable underwent biopsy followed by radiotherapy (13%). Three patients developed progressive disease following surgery and underwent repeat surgery and radiotherapy. Survival at a median follow up of 75 months (range 30-131) is 97%. At one year after the completion of treatment persisting cognitive impairment was common. The strongest predictor of IQ scores was the duration of symptoms of increased intracranial pressure preoperatively.
CONCLUSIONS—Although the overall survival rate of children with low grade astrocytoma is excellent, significant long term disability occurs. Early diagnosis is essential to reduce postoperative cognitive morbidity.

 PMID:11124789

  18. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  19. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a healthy enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  20. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (−3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −6.41, −1.42]) and language (−3.19 [−6.19, −0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

  1. Expression of TYMS in lymph node metastasis from low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    DING, BINGQIAN; GAO, MING; LI, ZHENJIANG; XU, CHENYANG; FAN, SHAOKANG; HE, WEIYA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma, and to analyze the function of TYMS in the lymph node metastases from low-grade glioma. The study included 93 cases of surgically resected and pathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, form patients treated at Huaihe Hospital of Henan University (Kaifeng, China). The following clinical data was obtained from each patient: Gender, age, subjective symptoms (dizziness, headache, a feeling of pressure in the head, etc.), site of disease, tumor type, pathological stage, degree of differentiation and lymph node involvement. The surgically resected gliomas and dissected cervical lymph nodes were immunohistochemically stained, and DNA was extracted from the tumor and lymph node tissues samples for polymerase chain reaction sequencing and amplification. The expression of TYMS in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma was examined. Additionally, the association between pathological features and the postoperative survival rate of the patients was analyzed. The primary lesions of all 93 cases exhibited positive TYMS expression and 43/157 (27.39%) lymph nodes exhibited positive TYMS expression. Factors that significantly influenced the postoperative survival rate of the patients, included the metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01), the number of dissected cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01) and the degree of differentiation (P<0.05). The metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was the only independent risk factor affecting postoperative disease-free survival. The risk of recurrence in patients with metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was 6.3-fold higher than in those without metastasis (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study provide a theoretical basis for accurately predicting the prognosis of patients with low-grade malignant brain glioma, reducing the conjecture involved in selecting postoperative treatment strategies and improving therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26622711

  2. Involution of lymphoid organs in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the western Gulf of Mexico: implications for life in an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lance S; Turner, Jason P; Cowan, Daniel F

    2005-01-01

    Involution of lymphoid tissues in relation to age has not been defined for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Twenty-five bottlenose dolphins from the coast of Texas and western Louisiana were examined and complete necropsies were performed with histological samples taken of nearly all tissues. Ages ranged from several days to 27 years. The histology of four lymphoid organs-thymus, pharyngeal tonsil, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the colon, and anal tonsil-was assessed. Numerical scores were assigned to specific morphological features, thus creating an involution score. Definable and scorable features of each organ were selected for evaluation and determination of loss of lymphoid elements. Neonatal dolphins were recorded as the reference standard for no involution. The highest score for each organ represented the greatest amount of retention of tissue elements. Thus, the lower the score, the greater degree of involution. Comparing involution scores to tooth age permitted an assessment of involution over time. The greatest degree of involution was found in the MALT of the colon. The MALT of the colon declined dramatically so that after age 10 it was absent from 4 of 14 animals and minimally present in 8 others. Thymic tissue also suffered a precipitous drop in volume after about age 5, but was found in animals up to 24 years of age. Involution was moderate and variable in both pharyngeal and anal tonsils. In some animals, these tissues were reduced in volume early, and prominent in others well into adult life (over 20 years). PMID:15622514

  3. Analytical Detection of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Rearrangements in Gastric Lymphoid Infiltrates by Peak Area Analysis of the Melting Curve in the LightCycler System

    PubMed Central

    Retamales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Luis; Guzman, Leda; Aguayo, Francisco; Palma, Mariana; Backhouse, Claudia; Argandona, Jorge; Riquelme, Erick; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Because it is difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from chronic gastritis in gastric lymphoid infiltrates, molecular detection of monoclonality through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements is commonly performed. However, heterogeneity in the performance and results obtained from IgH gene rearrangements has been reported. To improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric lymphoid infiltrates, we developed an analytical approach based on one-peak area analysis of the melting curve in the LightCycler System. Using a training-testing approach, the likelihood ratio method was selected to find a discriminative function of 4.64 in the training set (10 gastric MALT lymphomas and 10 chronic gastritis cases). This discriminative function was validated in the testing set (five gastric MALT lymphomas, six abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates with subsequently demonstrated gastric MALT lymphomas, and six cases of chronic gastritis). All but one case of gastric MALT lymphoma, as well as abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates, clustered under 4.64, and all chronic gastritis cases clustered above 4.64. These results were validated by conventional electrophoreses confirming one or two sharp bands in cases of gastric MALT lymphomas and a smear of multiple bands in cases of chronic gastritis. Analytical detection of IgH gene rearrangement in gastric lymphoid infiltrates by one-peak area analysis correctly distinguishes gastric MALT lymphomas from chronic gastritis, even in cases with diagnosis of abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates. PMID:17591935

  4. Glycated haemoglobin A1c is associated with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Yulin; Xu, Baihui; Sun, Wanwan; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Xu, Yu; Ning, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, whereas few studies have investigated simultaneously the associations of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (fasting plasma glucose (FPG)) and 2 h postload blood glucose (2 h PG) with low-grade albuminuria, which is an earlier marker of cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Our study aimed to investigate and compare associations of HbA1c, FPG, and 2 h PG levels with risks of low-grade albuminuria in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Design and methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 9188 participants aged 40 years or older. All participants underwent a standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Low-grade albuminuria was defined as the highest quartile of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (>6.10 mg/g in males and >8.76 mg/g in females) in respondents without microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. Results HbA1c, FPG and 2 h PG were all significantly correlated with urinary ACR after adjustment for confounders (all p values <0.0001). After adjustment for HbA1c, the relationships of FPG and 2 h PG with ACR reduced to null. HbA1c levels were still significantly associated with ACR after further adjustment for FPG and 2 h PG. Multiple logistic regression showed that risks of low-grade albuminuria were positively associated with HbA1c levels in a dose–response manner. Compared with participants with HbA1c ≤37 mmol/mol (5.5%), ORs (95% CIs) for low-grade albuminuria were 1.05 (0.94 to 1.18), 1.25 (1.04 to 1.50), 1.40 (1.04 to 1.90) and 2.21 (1.61 to 3.03) for HbA1c categories of 38–42 mmol/mol (5.6–6.0%), 43–48 mmol/mol (6.1–6.5%), 49–53 mmol/mol (6.6–7.0%), and >53 mmol/mol (7.0%), respectively (pfor trend <0.0001). Conclusions HbA1c, but not FPG or 2 h PG, was independently associated with an increased risk of low-grade albuminuria in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26243552

  5. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  6. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Kazakov, Alexander V.; Cherkashina, Galina A.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  7. Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung Jun

    2015-02-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25741469

  8. Classification and grading of low-grade astrocytic tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Giannini, C; Scheithauer, B W

    1997-04-01

    This article reviews current perspectives in the classification and grading of astrocytomas in children and calls attention to several histologically distinct groups of low-grade tumors that characteristically arise during childhood. Recognition of these tumors and the range of histological features that they may exhibit is essential for making rational assessments regarding their expected behavior and, more importantly, for guiding therapeutic intervention. For example, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, which may exhibit "anaplastic" features, generally carries a relatively favorable prognosis and should not be classified with other high-grade gliomas, such as anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Similarly, the finding of anaplastic features, such as vascular proliferation or necrosis, in pilocytic astrocytomas does not automatically portend the unfavorable prognosis that such features would imply for "diffuse" astrocytomas. Increased appreciation of the morphological diversity of astrocytomas in children should help to improve the management of children with low-grade astrocytic tumors by avoiding potentially dangerous overtreatment of otherwise indolent lesions. PMID:9161729

  9. Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25741469

  10. Very low-grade metamorphic rocks in some representative districts in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, X.; Mo, X.

    2011-12-01

    *Response author: Bi,Xianmei,bixm10@sina.com Very low grade metamorphic rocks are widely distributed in Tibet, providing an insight into deformation and metamorphism during the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Eighty five Samples of clay mineral-bearing rocks has been collected from various strata including D, P1, T1, T2, T3, J1, J3, K1, K2 and N strata in the Qiangtang terrane, the Gangdese, the Yarlung Zangbo suture and the Tethyan Himalaya. Analyses and refining of clay minerals in samples have been conducted in the Laboratory of X-ray Diffraction, Institute of Petroleum Exploration. Index of illite crystallinity (Ic) along with average thickness of crystal layers of illite, reflectivity of vitrinite and of clay mineral association have been employed as indicators of degree of very low-grade metamorphism. The scheme of classification[1,2] of very-low grade metamorphism based on clay mineral indexes ( mainly index of illite crystallinity) has been used in the present work, that is, low metamorphism (Ic<0.25), higher very-low grade metamorphism (Ic = 0.25-0.30), lower very-low grade metamorphism (Ic = 0.30-0.42) and diagenesis (Ic>0.42). The analytical results show interesting information. In the Qiangtang terrane, clay minerals in the Jurassic strata have indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) 0.47-0.70, indicating higher diagenesis and in favor of petroleum-generation. However, index of illite crystalinity (Ic) for the Devonian is 0.23, indicating low metamorphism. Indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) for the J-K strata in middle Gangdese are mostly 0.37-0.25 (very-low grade metamorphism) and a few 0.78-0.48 (diagenesis). Indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) for the C-P strata in eastern Gangdese are mostly 0.25-0.42 (very-low grade metamorphism) and a few 0.20-0.25 (low metamorphism). The Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism and related mineralization are very strong in the Gangdese, which may affect in some extent on indexes of illite crystalinity. In Tethyan Himalaya, clay mineral-bearing rocks from P1, T1, T2, T3, J1 and J3 strata underwent low-very low grade metamorphism, having indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) 0.12 for P1 stratum, 0.21 for T1 stratum and 0.22-0.33 for the strata from T2 to J3, whereas K1 and N strata underwent diagenesis, having Ic = 0.52 and 1.61, respectively. Metamorphic degree generally reduced from older strata to younger strata according to clay mineral indexes. The rocks affected by magmatism or by major faulting, however, were out of the general trend and increased their metamorphic degree by 0.1-0.3 units reduction of index of illite crystallinity. Rocks within Yarlung Zangbo suture show higher metamorphic degree than those in Tethyan Himalaya. For instance, while the late Triassic has 0.19 of index of illite crystallinity in the former (the Yarlung Zangbo suture), 0.27-0.33 of indexes of illite crystallinity in the latter. The early Cretaceous has 0.28 of index of illite crystallinity in the former, whereas 0.52 in the latter. However, the late Cretaceous Xigaze Group formed in a fore-arc environment was weakly metamorphosed, having Ic 0.7-1.6 and all falling into diagenesis field.

  11. Primary low-grade diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Mehar; Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Khan, Roobina; Afroz, Nishat

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old Indian woman presented in neurosurgery outpatient with seizures, headache and vomiting for the past 1 month. MRI of the brain was suggestive of a malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumour. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations of stereotactic biopsy of the tumour were diagnostic of a low-grade diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of the CNS. No evidence of any occult systemic lymphoma was observed, confirming its ‘primary’ origin in the CNS. The diagnosis of a low-grade primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is difficult as clinical and neuroradiological features are wide and variable. The clinical course is more indolent than a high-grade PCNSL and thus, a less aggressive and localised targeted treatment could be sufficient rather than the high dose, neurotoxic methotrexate-based chemotherapeutic treatment, recommended for high-grade PCNSL. Histological and immunohistological confirmation is therefore mandatory for early, appropriate treatment and prognostic implications. PMID:24729110

  12. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as “villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix.” PMID:27169015

  13. Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

  14. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  15. Platelet Turnover in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Influence of Thrombopoietin and Low-Grade Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sanne Bjet; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Kristensen, Steen Dalby

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly formed platelets are associated with increased aggregation and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The mechanisms involved in the regulation of platelet turnover in patients with CAD are largely unknown. Aim To investigate associations between platelet turnover parameters, thrombopoietin and markers of low-grade inflammation in patients with stable CAD. Furthermore, to explore the relationship between platelet turnover parameters and type 2 diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, age, gender and renal insufficiency. Methods We studied 581 stable CAD patients. Platelet turnover parameters (immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell-ratio) were determined using automated flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-2100). Furthermore, we measured thrombopoietin and evaluated low-grade inflammation by measurement of high-sensitive CRP and interleukin-6. Results We found strong associations between the immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio (r?=?0.610.99, p<0.0001). Thrombopoietin levels were inversely related to all of the platelet turnover parameters (r?=??0.17?0.25, p<0.0001). Moreover, thrombopoietin levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes (p?=?0.03) and in smokers (p?=?0.003). Low-grade inflammation evaluated by high-sensitive CRP correlated significantly, yet weakly, with immature platelet count (r?=?0.10, p?=?0.03) and thrombopoietin (r?=?0.16, p<0.001). Also interleukin-6 correlated with thrombopoietin (r?=?0.10, p?=?0.02). Conclusion In stable CAD patients, thrombopoietin was inversely associated with platelet turnover parameters. Furthermore, thrombopoietin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and in smokers. However, low-grade inflammation did not seem to have a substantial impact on platelet turnover parameters. PMID:24465602

  16. Active surveillance in Canadian men with low-grade prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Octav; Lavallée, Luke T.; Montroy, Joshua; Stokl, Andrew; Cnossen, Sonya; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Fergusson, Dean; Momoli, Franco; Cagiannos, Illias; Morash, Christopher; Breau, Rodney H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent guidelines recommend against routine screening for prostate cancer, partly because of the risks associated with overtreatment of clinically indolent tumours. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients whose low-grade prostate cancer was managed by active surveillance instead of immediate treatment. Methods: We reviewed data for patients who were referred to the Ottawa regional Prostate Cancer Assessment Clinic with abnormal results for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or prostate examination between Apr. 1, 2008, and Jan. 31, 2013. Patients with subsequent biopsy-proven low-grade (Gleason score 6) cancer were included. Active surveillance was defined a priori as monitoring by means of PSA, digital rectal examination and repeat biopsies, with the potential for curative-intent treatment in the event of disease progression. Results: Of 477 patients with low-grade cancer, active surveillance was used for 210 (44.0%), and the annual proportion increased from 32% (11/34) in 2008 to 67% (20/30) in 2013. Factors associated with immediate treatment were palpable tumour, PSA density above 0.2 ng/mL2 and more than 2 positive biopsy cores. Factors associated with surveillance were age over 70 years and higher Charlson comorbidity index. Of 173 men who received immediate surgical treatment, 103 (59.5%) had higher-grade or advanced-stage disease on final pathologic examination. Of the 210 men with active surveillance, 62 (29.5%) received treatment within a median of 1.3 years, most commonly (52 [84%]) because of upgrading of disease on the basis of surveillance biopsy. Interpretation: Active surveillance has become the most common management strategy for men with low-grade prostate cancer at our regional diagnostic centre. Factors associated with immediate treatment reflected those that increase the risk of higher-grade tumours. PMID:26927971

  17. The microtubule binding drug EM011 inhibits the growth of paediatric low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ajeawung, Norbert F; Joshi, Harish C; Kamnasaran, Deepak

    2013-07-10

    Low grade gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours representing the most common form of neoplasms in the central nervous system among children. Although gross total resection remains the principal treatment, it is often impractical especially for the resection of tumours within eloquent regions of the brain. Instead Radiotherapy is utilised in such cases, but because of its associated toxicities, it is refrained from use among younger children. These limitations coupled with hypersensitivity and toxicities associated with some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, have ignited the need to search for safer and more effective treatments for paediatric low grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated the EM011 drug on the growth of two pilocytic and one diffuse paediatric astrocytoma cell lines, using an assortment of cancer assays. We discovered that treatments of low grade gliomas with EM011 abrogated cell viability by inducing a decrease in cell proliferation and an arrest in the S and G2M cell cycle phases, followed by a converse increase in apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell migratory and invasion indices, as well as anchorage independent growth in soft agarose, were significantly attenuated. These findings were mechanistically associated with a transient release of AIF, a disruption of microtubule architecture, and a decline in the expression of key genes which drive cancer progression including EGFR, mTORC1, JUN and multiple MMPs. In fact, the activity of MMP2 was also perturbed by EM011. These findings, in conjunction with the insignificant adverse side effects established from other studies, make EM011 an appealing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of paediatric low grade gliomas. PMID:23402815

  18. The insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin R.; Zu, Zhifei; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To validate the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC), and to investigate whether the IGF-1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade SOC. Methods Gene expression profiling was performed on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) and low-grade SOC, and overexpression of IGF-1 in low-grade SOC was validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous IGF-1 on cell proliferation was determined in cell lines by cell proliferation assays, cell migration assays, and Western blot. Signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1 and the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were investigated by Western blot analysis and by generating IGF-1R short hairpin RNA stable knockdown cell lines. Low- and high-grade cell lines were treated with the dual IGF-1R- and insulin receptor-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906, and cellular proliferation was measured. Results mRNA analysis and immunostaining revealed significantly higher IGF-1 expression in low-grade SOCs than in SBOTs or high-grade SOCs. In response to exogenous treatment with IGF-1, low-grade cell lines exhibited more intense upregulation of phosphorylated AKT than did high-grade cell lines, an effect that was diminished with IGF-1R knockdown and MK-2206 treatment. Low-grade SOC cell lines were more sensitive to growth inhibition with OSI-906 than were high-grade cell lines. Conclusions IGF-1 is overexpressed in low-grade SOCs compared with SBOTs and high-grade SOCs. Additionally, low-grade SOC cell lines were more responsive to IGF-1 stimulation and IGF-1R inhibition than were high-grade lines. The IGF-1 pathway is therefore a potential therapeutic target in low-grade SOC. PMID:21726895

  19. Low-grade mucinous neoplasia in a cecal diverticulum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Kazuyoshi; Tokuhara, Katsuji; Sakaguchi, Tatsuma; Ryota, Hironori; Yoshioka, Kazuhiko; Kon, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-grade mucinous neoplasia is an uncommon benign tumor that develops in the appendix. The development of mucocele disease has never been reported in a colonic diverticulum. We present a case developing low-grade mucinous neoplasia in a cecal diverticulum. Presentation of case A tumor in the ileocecal region was found during a medical examination of a 66-year-old woman. Three months later, the tumor was still present and the patient developed abdominal pain. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection with D2 lymph node dissection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm in a cecal diverticulum. Discussion Colonic mucoceles reportedly originate from the appendix. There are no previous reports of mucocele disease in a colonic diverticulum worldwide. This report reviews and discusses the management of the appendiceal mucoceles. Conclusion The incidence of colonic diverticula has recently begun to increase in Japan. The possibility of a mucocele within a colonic diverticulum should be considered in patients with submucosal colonic tumors. PMID:26318130

  20. Alteration of Lysosome Fusion and Low-grade Inflammation Mediated by Super-low-dose Endotoxin*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Bianca; Geng, Shuo; Chen, Keqiang; Diao, Na; Yuan, Ruoxi; Xu, Xiguang; Dougherty, Sean; Stephenson, Caroline; Xiong, Huabao; Chu, Hong Wei; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin LPS is a risk factor for the establishment of low-grade inflammation during the pathogenesis and progression of chronic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. At the cellular level, a disruption of lysosome fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes may contribute to the potentiation of low-grade inflammation. In this study, we identified that subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin LPS can potently inhibit the process of endosome acidification and lysosome fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes in primary macrophages. Super-low-dose LPS induced the inhibitory phosphorylation of VPS34, thus leading to the disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion. This effect may depend upon the clearance and relocation of Tollip in macrophages by super-low-dose LPS. Consistent with this notion, Tollip-deficient macrophages had constitutively elevated levels of VPS34 inhibitory phosphorylation and constitutive disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion. By employing a skin excision wound-healing model, we observed that Tollip-deficient mice had significantly elevated levels of cell stress and reduced wound repair. This study reveals a novel mechanism responsible for the modulation of endosome-lysosome fusion and low-grade inflammation in innate macrophages. PMID:25586187

  1. Paravertebral Low-grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma with Supernumerary Ring Chromosome: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Che Chang; Károlyi, Katalin; Kovács, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with a deceptively benign histological appearance and low-grade malignant potential which is often mistaken for other reactive or benign lesions. It most frequently harbors balanced t(7;16) translocation, and leads to the fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes which can be detected by cytogenetic methods. Young adults are most commonly affected and it typically arises in the deep proximal extremities or trunk with frequent recurrences. It may metastasize to the lungs several years later. Paravertebral LGFMS is exceedingly rare and only few cases have been published in the literature. In those cases the novel immunohistochemical markers and cytogenetic studies were not performed and morphological mimickers could not be confidently excluded.We present a rare case of paravertebral LGFMS from a 54-years-old male patient, which previously was misdiagnosed as a neurofibroma with subsequent tumor recurrence. The concrete diagnosis was established by using MUC4 immunohistochemical stain and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which showed diffuse membranous positivity and supernumerary ring chromosome with unbalanced FUS gene rearrangement, respectively. The latter finding is also rare and may cause diagnostic dilemma if one is not aware of such uncommon, but well-documented phenomenon. Differential diagnosis with other low-grade spindle cell tumors will also be discussed along with the literature review. PMID:26927350

  2. 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of mucosa-associated bacterial community and phylogeny in the chicken gastrointestinal tracts: from crops to ceca.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jianhua; Si, Weiduo; Forster, Robert J; Huang, Ruilin; Yu, Hai; Yin, Yulong; Yang, Chengbo; Han, Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Mucosa-associated microbiota from different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of adult broilers was studied by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The microbiota mainly comprised Gram-positive bacteria along the GI tract. Fifty-one operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (from 98 clones) were detected in the ceca, as compared with 13 OTUs (from 49 clones) in the crops, 11 OTUs (from 51 clones) in the gizzard, 14 OTUs (from 52 clones) in the duodenum, 12 OTUs (from 50 clones) in the jejunum and nine OTUs (from 50 clones) in the ileum. Ceca were dominantly occupied by clostridia-related sequences (40%) with other abundant sequences being related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (14%), Escherichia coli (11%), lactobacilli (7%) and Ruminococcus (6%). Lactobacilli were predominant in the upper GI tract and had the highest diversity in the crop. Both Lactobacillus aviarius and Lactobacillus salivarius were the predominant species among lactobacilli. Candidatus division Arthromitus was also abundant in the jejunum and ileum. PMID:17233749

  3. Early lesions in lymphoid neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fend, Falko; Cabecadas, Jos; Gaulard, Philippe; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kluin, Philip; Kuzu, Isinsu; Peterson, LoAnn; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Sundstrm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of immunophenotypic and molecular techniques on lymphoid tissue samples without obvious involvement by malignant lymphoma has resulted in the increased detection of early lymphoid proliferations, which show some, but not all the criteria necessary for a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. In most instances, these are incidental findings in asymptomatic individuals, and their biological behaviour is uncertain. In order to better characterize these premalignant conditions and to establish diagnostic criteria, a joint workshop of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society of Hematopathology was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in September 2010. The panel reviewed and discussed more than 130 submitted cases and reached consensus diagnoses. Cases representing the nodal equivalent of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) were discussed, as well as the in situ counterparts of follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), topics that also stimulated discussions concerning the best terminology for these lesions. The workshop also addressed the borderland between reactive hyperplasia, and clonal proliferations such as pediatric marginal zone lymphoma and pediatric FL, which may have very limited capacity for progression. Virus-driven lymphoproliferations in the grey zone between reactive lesions and manifest malignant lymphoma were covered. Finally, early manifestations of T-cell lymphoma, both nodal and extranodal, and their mimics were addressed. This workshop report summarizes the most important conclusions concerning diagnostic features, as well as proposals for terminology and classification of early lymphoproliferations and tries to give some practical guidelines for diagnosis and reporting. PMID:24307917

  4. Circulating anti-filamin C autoantibody as a potential serum biomarker for low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers. Methods We searched for novel glioma-associated antigens by serological identification of antigens utilizing recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), and found FLNC as a candidate protein. Tissue expressions of FLNC (both in normal and tumor tissues) were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was measured by ELISA in normal volunteers and in the patients with various grade gliomas. Results FLNC was expressed in glioma tissues and its level got higher as tumor grade advanced. Anti-FLNC autoantibody was also detected in the serum of glioma patients, but its levels were inversely correlated with the tissue expression. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was significantly higher in low-grade glioma patients than in high-grade glioma patients or in normal volunteers, which was confirmed in an independent validation set of patients’ sera. The autoantibody levels in the patients with meningioma or cerebral infarction were at the same level of normal volunteers, and they were significantly lower than that of low-grade gliomas. Total IgG and anti-glutatione S-transferase (GST) antibody level were not altered among the patient groups, which suggest that the autoantibody response was specific for FLNC. Conclusions The present results suggest that serum anti-FLNC autoantibody can be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of low-grade gliomas while it needs a large-scale clinical study. PMID:24946857

  5. Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Johannes; Krepler, Petra; Matzner, Michael; Grohs, Josef G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients with a minimum age of 60 years were scheduled for interlaminar decompression for clinically and radiologically confirmed lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty-two of these patients (group DS) with concomitant degenerative low-grade lumbar instability up to 5 mm translational slip were treated by interlaminar decompression and additional dynamic IS implantation. The control group (D) with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments included 28 patients and underwent only interlaminar decompression. The mean follow-up was 46 months in group D and 44 months in group DS. A visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and walking distance were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The segmental instability was evaluated in flexion-extension X-rays. The implantation of an IS significantly reduced the lumbar instability on flexion-extension X-rays. At the time of follow-up walking distance, VAS and ODI showed a significant improvement in both groups, but no statistical significance between groups D and DS. Four patients each in groups D and DS had revision surgery during the period of evaluation. The stabilising effect of dynamic IS in combination with interlaminar decompression offers an opportunity for an effective treatment for degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:20419452

  6. Imaging growth and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation are independent predictors for diffuse low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Gozé, Catherine; Blonski, Marie; Le Maistre, Guillaume; Bauchet, Luc; Dezamis, Edouard; Page, Philippe; Varlet, Pascale; Capelle, Laurent; Devaux, Bertrand; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Pallud, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background We explored whether spontaneous imaging tumor growth (estimated by the velocity of diametric expansion) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation (estimated by IDH1 immunoexpression) were independent predictors of long-term outcomes of diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. Methods One hundred thirty-one adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas were retrospectively studied. Results Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations were present in 107 patients. The mean spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion was 5.40 ± 5.46 mm/y. During follow-up (mean, 70 ± 54.7 mo), 56 patients presented a malignant transformation and 23 died. The median malignant progression-free survival and the overall survival were significantly longer in cases of slow velocity of diametric expansion (149 and 198 mo, respectively) than in cases of fast velocity of diametric expansion (46 and 82 mo; P < .001 and P < .001, respectively) and in cases with IDH1 mutation (100 and 198 mo, respectively) than in cases without IDH1 mutation (72 mo and not reached; P = .028 and P = .001, respectively). In multivariate analyses, spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion and IDH1 mutation were independent prognostic factors for malignant progression-free survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.81–9.40 and P = .019; hazard ratio, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.19–4.66, respectively) and for overall survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 26.3; 95% CI, 5.42–185.2 and P = .007; hazard ratio, 17.89; 95% CI, 2.15–200.1, respectively). Conclusions The spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion and IDH1 mutation status are 2 independent prognostic values that should be obtained at the beginning of the management of diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. PMID:24847087

  7. The role of secondary cytoreduction in low-grade serous ovarian cancer or peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erin K; Sun, Charlotte C; Ramirez, Pedro T; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Malpica, Anais; Gershenson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the benefit of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCRS) in patients with low-grade serous ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma, and whether cytoreduction to no gross residual disease affects survival. Methods A single institution retrospective chart review was conducted in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma who underwent SCRS between 1995–2012. Data including demographics, survival, chemotherapy, disease characteristics at the time of surgery, residual disease, and operative complications were collected. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to examine survival outcomes. Results Forty-one patients met inclusion criteria. The median time between primary tumor debulking and SCRS was 33.2 months. Of 41 eligible patients who underwent SCRS, 32 (78%) had gross residual disease at the completion of secondary surgery. The median PFS for patients with no gross residual disease after SCRS was 60.3 months, compared to 10.7 months for patients with gross residual disease (p=0.008). Median OS from diagnosis for patients with no gross residual disease after SCRS was 167.5 months compared to 88.9 months (p=0.10). Median OS from the time of SCRS for patients with no gross residual disease was 93.6 months compared to 45.8 months (p=0.04). Complications occurred in 61% of patients after SCRS; there were no deaths directly attributable to surgery. Conclusion Our results suggest a benefit to SCRS in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma. Efforts to maximally cytoreduce patients should be made as patients with no gross residual disease had a better PFS and a trend toward better OS. PMID:25448453

  8. Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of mink but not in hamsters. Thus mink are a relevant animal model for further study of this unique strain, which ultimately may have been introduced through consumption of a TSE of ruminant origin. PMID:22595634

  9. 125I Brachytherapy Seeds Implantation for Inoperable Low-Grade Leiomyosarcoma of Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongzheng; Liu, Bin; Li, Zheng; Wang, Wujie

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and tenderness of five-day duration. Contrast enhanced CT showed a mass of 9 × 6 × 5.5 cm in size with almost complete obliteration of the inferior vena cava and massive extension to the extravascular space. CT-guided biopsy demonstrated a low-grade leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent 125Iodine seeds implantation in two sessions, and another balloon cavoplasty. Abdominal pain and tenderness gradually improved and the patient continues to remain as disease free state for three years after the procedures. PMID:23482299

  10. Fluidized bed combustion of solid organic wastes and low-grade coals: Research and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.; Stanchits, L.K.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental studies were carried out to investigate devolatilization and combustion of single spherical particles of wood, hydrolytic lignin from ethanol production, leather processing sewage sludge, and low-grade Belarusian brown coals in a fluidized bed of sand. A two-phase model of fluidized bed combustion of biowaste is proposed. The model takes into account combustion of both volatiles and char in the bed as well as in the freeboard. Experimentally obtained characteristics of devolatilization and char combustion are used as parameters of the model proposed.

  11. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Presenting as a Surgical Emergency: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Athanassiou, Evangelos; Spyridakis, Michail; Karasavvidou, Fotini; Vamvakopoulou, Dimitra; Karaiskou, Evangelia; Vamvakopoulos, Nikolaos; Theodosiou, Paraskevi; Hatzitheofilou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient admitted to our University Hospital with acute abdominal pain mimicking an intraperitoneal septic condition caused possibly by acute appendicitis. CT and ultrasound scan showed a mass situated in the right iliac fossa. The patient was submitted to laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. The operative findings were suggestive of an appendiceal mucocele. The histology report revealed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. The patient had no clinical, biochemical or visual signs of disease recurrence 6 months postoperatively. PMID:20740138

  12. Epithelial Control of Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Formation through p38α-Dependent Restraint of NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Franco, Celia; Guma, Monica; Choo, Min-Kyung; Sano, Yasuyo; Enzler, Thomas; Karin, Michael; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Park, Jin Mo

    2016-03-01

    The protein kinase p38α mediates cellular responses to environmental and endogenous cues that direct tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Studies of mice lacking p38α in several different cell types have demonstrated that p38α signaling is essential to maintaining the proliferation-differentiation balance in developing and steady-state tissues. The mechanisms underlying these roles involve cell-autonomous control of signaling and gene expression by p38α. In this study, we show that p38α regulates gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) formation in a noncell-autonomous manner. From an investigation of mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of the p38α gene, we find that p38α serves to limit NF-κB signaling and thereby attenuate GALT-promoting chemokine expression in the intestinal epithelium. Loss of this regulation results in GALT hyperplasia and, in some animals, mucosa-associated B cell lymphoma. These anomalies occur independently of luminal microbial stimuli and are most likely driven by direct epithelial-lymphoid interactions. Our study illustrates a novel p38α-dependent mechanism preventing excessive generation of epithelial-derived signals that drive lymphoid tissue overgrowth and malignancy. PMID:26792803

  13. Endometrial sarcomas: an immunohistochemical and JAZF1 re-arrangement study in low-grade and undifferentiated tumors.

    PubMed

    Jakate, Kiran; Azimi, Farshad; Ali, Rola H; Lee, Cheng-Han; Clarke, Blaise A; Rasty, Golnar; Shaw, Patricia A; Melnyk, Nataliya; Huntsman, David G; Laframboise, Stephane; Rouzbahman, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The current World Health Organization classification divides endometrial sarcomas into low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. Recent studies suggest undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma is a heterogeneous group and a subgroup with uniform nuclei is more akin to low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in terms of morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features. We classified endometrial sarcomas treated at our institution from 1998 to 2011 into low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, the latter being further categorized into a group with either uniform or pleomorphic nuclei. Morphological features, immunoprofile and fluorescence in situ hybridization rearrangements of JAZF1 and PHF1 genes were correlated with tumor category and outcome. A total of 40 cases were evaluated comprising 23 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, 10 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with nuclear uniformity and 7 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with nuclear pleomorphism. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas were more often estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (83%) compared with undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma with nuclear uniformity (10%) or with nuclear pleomorphism (0%) (P<0.001). Positivity for p53 was restricted to undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas with more frequent expression in the group with nuclear pleomorphism (57%) than with nuclear uniformity (10%) (P=0.06). Ki-67 proliferation index in >10% of tumor cells more frequent in undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma than low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (P=<0.001). JAZF1 rearrangement was detected in 32% of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and in none of the undifferentiated sarcomas. Rearrangement of PHF1 was found in two patients, one with JAZF1-PHF1 fusion. There were no significant differences in clinical behavior between undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma with nuclear uniformity versus nuclear pleomorphism. In conclusion, we found undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma subtypes and low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma have distinct immunohistochemical and cytogentic profiles. Our data do not show any difference in clinical behavior between subgroups in undifferentiated sarcomas. PMID:22918161

  14. Lymphoid immunohistochemistry of macaque primates.

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, L D; Osborn, K G; Lowenstine, L J; Meyer, P R; Parker, J W; Smith, R E; Taylor, C R

    1988-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localizations of 53 monoclonal antibodies with specificities expressed in human lymphoid tissue were investigated on lymph node tissues from Macaca mulatta, M. speciosa, and M. fascicularis using immunoperoxidase techniques. Thirty antibodies showed comparative cross-reactivity. The micro-anatomic distribution of these antigens was closely homologous to that observed in man and antigen densities appeared to be similar. A useful monoclonal antibody panel for immunopathological investigations in macaques was, thereby, defined. Of several pan-T antibodies studied, only OKT11(CD2) showed cross-reactivity. A detailed analysis of the immunocyto-architecture of five rhesus lymph nodes was undertaken. Automated flow cytometry of M. mulatta and M. speciosa peripheral blood showed a broadly similar pattern to man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3233792

  15. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W.; Krause, Denis O.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that this dynamic network of microorganisms had an active role in intestinal homeostasis. PMID:27065983

  16. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W; Krause, Denis O; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that this dynamic network of microorganisms had an active role in intestinal homeostasis. PMID:27065983

  17. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  18. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-25

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  19. Tectonic setting of the low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Orogen, central eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shutong; Wu, Weiping; Lu, Yiqun; Wang, Dehua

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic setting on both the northern and southern sides of the Dabie Mountains reveals that low-grade metamorphic rocks are important constituents produced by the subduction of the oceanic crust prior to collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Zhangbaling Group/Mulanshan schist is a pre-Ordovician oceanic crust. The Sujiahe and Xinyang/Foziling Groups are trench sediments of the Ordovician-Devonian age, and constitute an accretionary prism associated with subduction. The Yangshan coal measures/Meishan Group was a forearc basin sediment of Carboniferous age, and was overthrust by the accretionary prism during collision. The Susong Group is composed of passive continental margin sediments of the Yangtze craton. Backarc basin sediments are postulated to be concealed by Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments to the north of the Dabie Mountains. High-ultrahigh pressure terrains are exotic tectonic slices exhumed from depths, located between low-grade metamorphic rocks, and disturb the integrity of the earlier subduction orogen. Subduction occurred during the Ordovician to Devonian periods, and collision initiated at the beginning of the Permian.

  20. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

    2013-06-01

    The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

  1. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders; Andreasen, Anne S.; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3. PMID:25104880

  2. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver with low grade dysplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Pirdopska, T; Terziev, I; Taneva, I; Dimitrova, V

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) with low grade dysplasia of the liver is rare. It had been previously called hepatobiliary cystadenoma and is seen almost exclusively in women without an associated invasive carcinoma. There are different theories for development of MCN of the liver. One of these is developing from endodermal immature stroma or primary yolk cells implanted during embryogenesis. Another theory refers to the prevalence of hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm in segment IV, which may support an implant origin because hamartomatous lesions commonly develop in segment IV. The third theory concerns the expression of oestrogen receptor or progesterone receptor in ovarian-like stroma, which also supports a putative role for female hormones in the tumorogenesis. MCN of the liver is a cystic-forming epithelial neoplasm, usually showing no communication with the bile ducts, composed of cuboidal to columnar, variably mucin-producing epithelium, associated with ovarian-type subepithelial stroma. We present a case of MCN with low grade dysplasia of the liver in a young woman whose working surgical diagnosis was Echinococcus cyst. The MCN diagnosis was confirmed with Immunohistochemical study. PMID:25799624

  3. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.

    PubMed

    Minihane, Anne M; Vinoy, Sophie; Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Roche, Helen M; Tuohy, Kieran M; Teeling, Jessica L; Blaak, Ellen E; Fenech, Michael; Vauzour, David; McArdle, Harry J; Kremer, Bas H A; Sterkman, Luc; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Williams, Christine M; Calder, Philip C

    2015-10-14

    The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled 'Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies'. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation-health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims. PMID:26228057

  4. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Kamali, Mahtab; Gibbs, Bernard F

    2004-07-01

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient, economic technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulfuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition, different auxiliary processes were evaluated in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron co-dissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. PMID:15177728

  5. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63−/4− redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  6. In vitro radiation-induced neoplastic progression of low-grade uroepithelial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzaglia, S. ENEA CRE-Casaccia, Rome ); Chen, Xiao-Rong; Aamodt, C.B.; Wu, Shi-Qi; Kao, Chinghai; Gilchrist, K.W.; Reznikoff, C.A.; Ritter, M.A. ); Oyasu, R. )

    1994-04-01

    Recent interest has focused on the identification of molecular genetic mechanisms in multistep neoplastic transformation. In vitro exposure of simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC) that are environmentally relevant to bladder carcinogens has been shown to produce tumorigenic transformation, as assessed by the ability of cells exposed to a carcinogen to form xenograph tumors with heterogeneous cancer phenotypes ranging from very aggressive, invasive high-grade carcinomas to superficial low-grade indolent tumors. In addition, exposure of a low-grade indolent tumor generated in the SV-HUC system, MC-T11, to the same carcinogens results in neoplastic progression as assessed by the production of high-grade aggressive cancers. In the present study, we show neoplastic progression of MC-T11 after in vitro exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy X-rays. In addition, we show that the chromosome deletions, including losses of 4q, 11p, 13q and 18, observed in these radiation-induced tumors are similar to those observed in carcinogen-induced tumors, thus supporting the hypothesis that the experimental cell system, not the transforming agent, dictates the genetic losses required for tumorigenic transformation and progression. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

  8. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

  9. Low-Grade, Nonintestinal Nonsalivary Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma Associated With an Exophytic Schneiderian Papilloma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Jeffrey M; Escobar-Stein, Juliana; Vining, Eugenia M; Prasad, Manju L

    2015-12-01

    Sinonasal adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of the head and neck accounting for 10% to 20% of all primary malignancies of the nose and paranasal sinuses. There tumors are classified as salivary, intestinal and nonintestinal, nonsalivary. Low-grade nonintestinal nonsalivary are rare tumors whose diagnosis is essentially that of exclusion. Here we present the first case of one such tumor associated with an exophyic Schneiderian papilloma. A 71-year-old retired aerospace engineer presented with a 1-year history of severe nasal obstruction. Endoscopy and compted tomography imaging demonstrated a polypoid lesion occupying his entire right nasal cavity extending into and filling the nasopharynx. Biopsy suggested adenocarcinoma, at least in situ and the patient subsequently underwent complete resection. Pathologic evaluation demonstrated polypoid tumor consistent with a low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary architecture associated with a small amount of residual exophytic Schneiderian papilloma. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse expression of CK7, CK 5/6, and S100 protein in tumor cells. Expression of p63 was seen in basal cells only. Tumor cells did not show expression of CK20, CDX2 (intestinal markers), mammaglobin, GATA3 (salivary markers), PAX8, WT1, nor estrogen, progesterone, or androgen receptors confirming its nonintestinal nonsalivary differentiation. PMID:26261100

  10. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Dalton, James D.; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A.; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Dooling, David J.; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L.; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G.; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Downing, James R.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Ellison, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The commonest pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We utilized whole genome sequencing to discover multiple novel genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24/39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes containing TKD-duplicated FGFR1 into brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. TKD-duplicated FGFR1 induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs/LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

  11. Anatomical Involvement of the Subventricular Zone Predicts Poor Survival Outcome in Low-Grade Astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Ma, Jun; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) has been implicated in the origination, development, and biological behavior of gliomas. Tumor-SVZ contact is also postulated to be a poor prognostic factor in glioblastomas. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic consequence of the anatomical involvement of low-grade gliomas with the SVZ. To that end, we reviewed 143 patients with diffuse astrocytomas, and tumor lesions were manually delineated on magnetic resonance images. We initially investigated the prognostic role of SVZ contact in all patients. Additionally, we investigated the influence of the anatomical proximity of the tumor lesion centroids to the SVZ in the SVZ-involved patient cohorts, as well as location within the SVZ. We found SVZ contact with tumors to be a significant prognostic factor of overall survival in all patients with diffuse astrocytomas (p = 0.027). In the SVZ-involved cohort, a shorter distance from the tumor centroid to the SVZ (≤30 mm) correlated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.022) on univariate analysis. However, there was no significant difference in overall survival with respect to the SVZ region involved with the tumor (p = 0.930). Multivariate analysis showed that a shorter distance between the tumor centroid and the SVZ (p = 0.039) was significantly associated with poor overall survival in SVZ-involved patients. Hence, this study helps establish the prognostic role of the anatomical interaction of tumors with the SVZ in low-grade astrocytomas. PMID:27120204

  12. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-01

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials. PMID:26258439

  13. Effect of desliming on the magnetic separation of low-grade ferruginous manganese ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Banerjee, P. K.; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-07-01

    In the present investigation, magnetic separation studies using an induced roll magnetic separator were conducted to beneficiate low-grade ferruginous manganese ore. The feed ore was assayed to contain 22.4% Mn and 35.9% SiO2, with a manganese-to-iron mass ratio (Mn:Fe ratio) of 1.6. This ore was characterized in detail using different techniques, including quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that the ore is extremely siliceous in nature and that the associated gangue minerals are more or less evenly distributed in almost all of the size fractions in major proportion. Magnetic separation studies were conducted on both the as-received ore fines and the classified fines to enrich their manganese content and Mn:Fe ratio. The results indicated that the efficiency of separation for deslimed fines was better than that for the treated unclassified bulk sample. On the basis of these results, we proposed a process flow sheet for the beneficiation of low-grade manganese ore fines using a Floatex density separator as a pre-concentrator followed by two-stage magnetic separation. The overall recovery of manganese in the final product from the proposed flow sheet is 44.7% with an assay value of 45.8% and the Mn:Fe ratio of 3.1.

  14. Mineralogical and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Iron Ore Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, R. K.; Rao, D. S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out, to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation. Mineralogical studies, with the help of microscope as well as XRD, SEM-EDS revealed that the sample consists of magnetite, hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as quartz and kaolinite form the gangue minerals in the sample. Processes involving combination of classification, dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product. The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible. The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator. Dry beneficiation studies by Permaroll separator indicated that it is possible to get a product with 60.2 % Fe at 22 % weight recovery. It is possible to get an over all concentrate with 54 % Fe at 32.4 % weight recovery by combination of size reduction followed by LIMS and WHIMS.

  15. Low-grade, metastasizing splenic littoral cell angiosarcoma presenting with hepatic cirrhosis and splenic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brandon T; Bishop, Maria C; Hunter, Glenn C; Renner, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of littoral cell neoplasms ranges from benign (littoral cell angioma, LCA) to highly malignant (angiosarcoma). Two unusual cases of low-grade metastatic littoral cell angiosarcoma (LCAS) have been reported with late recurrence and bulky metastases. We present the third case of this rare neoplasm in a 38-year-old man with cirrhosis and a large splenic artery aneurysm, without extrasplenic masses. The spleen showed nodules resembling LCA, immunoreactive for CD31, factor VIII, CD68, and CD163 but not CD8 or CD34. Also present were solid areas of immunophenotypically identical bland spindle cells, although lighter CD31 immunostaining distinguished them from LCA-like angiomatous channels. Similar cells diffusely infiltrated the cirrhotic liver. After splenectomy, pancytopenia resolved, and he is asymptomatic 19 months later. Low-grade LCAS is a previously unreported cause of cirrhosis and may metastasize without forming masses. In cases of LCA, CD31 immunohistochemistry may facilitate detection of LCAS and indicate metastatic potential. PMID:23426963

  16. Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wiencke, John K.; Zheng, Shichun; Jelluma, Nanette; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott; Tamgüney, Tanja; Baumber, Rachel; Parsons, Ramon; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne Adele; Stokoe, David

    2007-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas. Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics. PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors. Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs. Methylation of the PTEN promoter correlates with protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation, reflecting functional activation of the PI3K pathway. Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors. PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations. We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients. PMID:17504928

  17. Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Zheng, Shichun; Jelluma, Nanette; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott; Tamgüney, Tanja; Baumber, Rachel; Parsons, Ramon; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Berger, Mitchel S; Wrensch, Margaret R; Haas-Kogan, Daphne Adele; Stokoe, David

    2007-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas. Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics. PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors. Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs. Methylation of the PTEN promoter correlates with protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation, reflecting functional activation of the PI3K pathway. Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors. PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations. We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients. PMID:17504928

  18. Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Santacreu, Eugenio M.; Ortiz-Cruz, Eduardo J.; González-López, José Manuel; Pérez Fernández, Elia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the validity of clinical and radiological features of enchondroma and low grade chondrosarcoma, and contrast the biopsy results with the clinical diagnosis based on the history and imaging. Material and Method. The study included 96 patients with cartilage type lesions suggestive of an enchondroma (E) or an low grade chondrosarcoma (LGC) according to the clinical and imaging data. The hypotheses were contrasted with the biopsy. Results. Of the 82 patients studied completely, 56 were considered E (68.29%), 8 as LGC (8.33%) and in 18 (18.75%) were doubtful cases and considered as suspected LGC. Of these, the biopsy showed 4 E (25%), 10 LGC (50%) and 4 were not definitive. On the other hand, of the 56 cases diagnosed as E, 15 were biopsied, 5 of these biopsies turned out to be LGC (33.3%). The 8 cases diagnosed as LGC, were also biopsied and only 4 biopsies (50%) confirmed the initial diagnosis. Features analyzed in the study showed no statistically significant difference. Correlation analysis between the diagnosis issued initially and the biopsy result gave a value of 0.69 (kappa coefficient), which was considered a good correlation. Conclusion. Features analyzed did not have any statistical significance. However, there was a good correlation between initial diagnosis and biopsy's result. PMID:22593766

  19. Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. δ13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

  20. Simultaneous Purification and Perforation of Low-Grade Si Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Bin; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zong, Linqi; Zhu, Jia

    2015-11-11

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes because of its abundance and high theoretical capacity. Various silicon nanostructures have been heavily investigated to improve electrochemical performance by addressing issues related to structure fracture and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). However, to further enable widespread applications, scalable and cost-effective processes need to be developed to produce these nanostructures at large quantity with finely controlled structures and morphologies. In this study, we develop a scalable and low cost process to produce porous silicon directly from low grade silicon through ball-milling and modified metal-assisted chemical etching. The morphology of porous silicon can be drastically changed from porous-network to nanowire-array by adjusting the component in reaction solutions. Meanwhile, this perforation process can also effectively remove the impurities and, therefore, increase Si purity (up to 99.4%) significantly from low-grade and low-cost ferrosilicon (purity of 83.4%) sources. The electrochemical examinations indicate that these porous silicon structures with carbon treatment can deliver a stable capacity of 1287 mAh g(-1) over 100 cycles at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This type of purified porous silicon with finely controlled morphology, produced by a scalable and cost-effective fabrication process, can also serve as promising candidates for many other energy applications, such as thermoelectrics and solar energy conversion devices. PMID:26492222

  1. Mouse low-grade gliomas contain cancer stem cells with unique molecular and functional properties

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hsien; McGowan, Lucy D’Agostino; Cimino, Patrick J.; Dahiya, Sonika; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Da Yong; Gutmann, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The availability of adult malignant glioma stem cells (GSCs) has provided unprecedented opportunities to identify the mechanisms underlying treatment resistance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of comparable reagents for the study of pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG). Leveraging a neurofibromatosis-1 (Nf1) genetically-engineered mouse LGG model, we report the isolation of CD133+ multi-potent low-grade glioma stem cells (LG-GSCs), which generate glioma-like lesions histologically similar to the parent tumor following injection into immunocompetent hosts. In addition, we demonstrate that these LG-GSCs harbor selective resistance to currently-employed conventional and biologically-targeted anti-cancer agents, which reflect the acquisition of new targetable signaling pathway abnormalities. Using transcriptomal analysis to identify additional molecular properties, we discovered that mouse and human LG-GSCs harbor high levels of Abcg1 expression critical for protecting against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced mouse LG-GSC apoptosis. Collectively, these findings establish that LGG cancer stem cells have unique molecular and functional properties relevant to brain cancer treatment. PMID:25772366

  2. Innate lymphoid cells involve in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) promptly initiate cytokine responses to pathogen exposure in the mucosa and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. ILCs were recently categorized as being of the lymphoid lineage and have been classified into three groups. ILCs play important roles in immunity against pathogens, and an anti-tumor immune-related function was recently demonstrated. In this review we discuss whether and how ILCs involve in the tumorigenesis, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying the particular functions of ILCs as well as the potential targets for tumor intervention. PMID:25604320

  3. Investigation of denitrifying microbial communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth H; Kröger, Robert; Brooks, John P; Smith, Renotta K; Czarnecki, Joby M Prince

    2015-12-15

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. A major objective of utilizing low-grade weirs as a BMP includes fostering environments suitable for the biogeochemical removal of nitrogen via denitrification. This study examined the spatial resolution of microbial communities involved in denitrification in agricultural drainage systems fitted with low-grade weirs. Appropriate sampling scales of microbial communities were investigated using 16S rRNA and denitrification functional genes nosZ, nirS, and nirK via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Genes 16S rRNA, nosZ, and nirS were all successfully detected in soil samples, while nirK was below the detection limit throughout the study. Utilizing a combination of three sampling regimes (management, reach, catchment) was found to be effective in capturing microbial community patterns, as ANOVA results revealed nosZ gene abundance was significantly greater at the management rather than reach scale (p = 0.045; F = 3.311), although, no significant differences were observed in 16S rRNA or nirS between sampling scales (p > 0.05). A Pearson correlation matrix confirmed that 16S rRNA and nosZ gene abundances were positively correlated with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and moisture, while nirS abundance was only positively correlated with soil C and soil moisture. This highlights the potential for wetland-like characteristics to be recovered in agricultural drainage systems, as weir proximity is observed to enhance soil moisture and conditions for N remediation. This study provides the basis for additional investigations of these unique environments in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and a starting point for adaptive management to enhance agricultural drainage systems for microbial communities towards nutrient remediation goals. PMID:26414296

  4. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Chronic Low-Grade Neuroinflammation in the Dorsal Hippocampus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sapin, Emilie; Peyron, Christelle; Roche, Frédéric; Gay, Nadine; Carcenac, Carole; Savasta, Marc; Levy, Patrick; Dematteis, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces cognitive impairment that involves intermittent hypoxia (IH). Because OSA is recognized as a low-grade systemic inflammatory disease and only some patients develop cognitive deficits, we investigated whether IH-related brain consequences shared similar pathophysiology and required additional factors such as systemic inflammation to develop. Design: Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 day, 6 or 24 w of IH (alternating 21–5% FiO2 every 30 sec, 8 h/day) or normoxia. Microglial changes were assessed in the functionally distinct dorsal (dH) and ventral (vH) regions of the hippocampus using Iba1 immunolabeling. Then the study concerned dH, as vH only tended to be lately affected. Seven proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) were assessed at all time points using semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Similar mRNA analysis was performed after 6 w IH or normoxia associated for the past 3 w with repeated intraperitoneal low-dose lipopolysaccharide or saline. Measurements and Results: Chronic (6, 24 w) but not acute IH induced significant microglial changes in dH only, including increased density and morphological features of microglia priming. In dH, acute but not chronic IH increased IL-1β and RANTES/CCL5 mRNA, whereas the other cytokines remained unchanged. In contrast, chronic IH plus lipopolysaccharide increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL10 mRNA whereas lipopolysaccharide alone did not affect these cytokines. Conclusion: The obstructive sleep apnea component intermittent hypoxia (IH) causes low-grade neuroinflammation in the dorsal hippocampus of mice, including early but transient cytokine elevations, delayed but long-term microglial changes, and cytokine response alterations to lipopolysaccharide inflammatory challenge. These changes may contribute to IH-induced cognitive impairment and pathological brain aging. Citation: Sapin E, Peyron C, Roche F, Gay N, Carcenac C, Savasta M, Levy P, Dematteis M. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces chronic low-grade neuroinflammation in the dorsal hippocampus of mice. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1537–1546. PMID:26085297

  5. Human leukocyte antigen-G overexpression predicts poor clinical outcomes in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-05-15

    Overexpression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class-I molecule associated with immunosuppression, has been reported in various human malignancies. In the present study, we examined the role of HLA-G in gliomas. Clinical characteristics, mRNA expression microarrays and follow-up data pertaining to 293 patients with histologically confirmed gliomas were analyzed. The expression levels of HLA-G were compared between different grades of gliomas and correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) to evaluate its prognostic value. We found that HLA-G was overexpressed in gliomas as compared to that in normal brain tissue samples (-1.288±0.265). The highest expression levels were in glioblastomas (GBMs), anaplastic gliomas (AGs) and low-grade gliomas (LGGs), in that order (0.328±0.778, 0.176±0.881, -0.388±0.686, respectively). Significant inter-group differences were observed between low-grade and high-grade glioma tissues (p<0.001 and p<0.001, t-test, AGs and GBMs, respectively). More astrocytoma patients exhibited increased HLA-G expression as compared to other LGG patients (p=0.004, Chi-square test). Significant differences were observed with respect to PFS and OS (p=0.009 and 0.032, log-rank test, for PFS and OS, respectively) between the high- and low-expression subgroups in patients with LGGs. On Cox regression analysis, overexpression of HLA-G appeared to be an independent predictor of clinical outcomes (p=0.007 and 0.026, for PFS and OS, respectively). Our results suggest that HLA-G expression may serve as a potential biomarker for predicting aggressive tumor grades of gliomas and for histological subtype of LGGs. Elevated HLA-G expression could serve as an independent predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients with low-grade gliomas. PMID:27138095

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  7. Roles of chronic low-grade inflammation in the development of ectopic fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lulu; Mei, Mei; Yang, Shumin; Li, Qifu

    2014-01-01

    Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders. PMID:25143667

  8. A Rare Pathology: Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, Simon; Bredt, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Jehn, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor with a benign histologic appearance and fully malignant behavior. To date, only 5 cases of LGFMS in the maxillofacial region have been reported. This report describes the case of a 16-year-old boy who was referred to the authors' hospital with an intraosseous myxofibroblastic tumor, probably of the LGFMS type, of the right maxilla. Radical resection with wide safe margins and secondary reconstruction with a free forearm flap were performed. Six-month follow-up showed no sign of recurrence or metastasis. The authors review the scientific literature and discuss different tumor locations and treatment strategies for those in the maxillofacial region. The present case is the sixth reported case of LGFMS in the maxillofacial region (intraosseous LGFMS of the maxilla), adding another facet to the literature regarding this rare soft tissue tumor. PMID:26455471

  9. Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma involving the cervix mimicking a cervical primary.

    PubMed

    Malpica, Anais; Deavers, Michael T

    2011-11-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of the first reported case of an ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma metastatic to the cervix mimicking a cervical primary. The patient, a 55-year-old woman, was found to have an abnormal cervix and an abnormal Pap smear during a preoperative workup for a rectocele repair. A subsequent cervical biopsy contained moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and the patient underwent a cold knife conization. An infiltrating adenocarcinoma was found in the anterior cervical lip, the neoplasm reached the surface of the endocervical canal and was composed of mildly to moderately atypical, eosinophilic or amphophilic columnar cells arranged in glands and papillae. Mitotic figures were rare and no apoptotic bodies were seen. Psammoma bodies and intraglandular mucinous material were also noted. There was extensive vascular/lymphatic invasion. The tumor extended to all margins and was interpreted as a moderately differentiated (grade 2) adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with a linear spread of at least 1.4 cm and a depth of at least 0.6 cm (FIGO stage 1B1). The patient was treated with radiotherapy and cisplatin. Six months later, surveillance imaging studies showed that the patient's ovaries seemed to be enlarging. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, right pelvic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, and pelvic washings. The ovaries contained bilateral cystic tumors. There was gross tumor involving multiple peritoneal sites. Microscopic examination of the ovaries showed the typical features of low-grade serous carcinoma associated with a serous neoplasm of low malignant potential with a cribriform pattern. Metastatic low-grade serous carcinoma was detected in multiple peritoneal sites and in the pelvic washings. A consultation was obtained, with the consultant concurring that the tumors represented independent primaries. The patient received carboplatin and taxol. Two and 4 years after the initial diagnosis, she experienced recurrences and was treated with carboplatin and taxol each time. After the second recurrence, the patient decided to seek additional advice about treatment options. The latter prompted a re-review of her histologic material. Upon this re-review, it was noted that the tumor in the cervix had some rather unusual features for a primary cervical adenocarcinoma, such as the lack of conspicuous mitotic activity, extensive vascular/lymphatic invasion in the context of a tumor with no solid areas, and only mild-to-moderate cytologic atypia. In addition, the tumor in the cervix had areas that were similar to the metastatic tumor present in the omentum. Immunoperoxidase staining for WT-1, estrogen receptor, and p16 was performed on the tumor in the cervix and on the ovarian tumor. The neoplastic cells in both tumors stained in a similar manner; the tumor cells were diffusely positive for WT-1 and estrogen receptor (90%) and focally positive for p16. No detectable signal for high-risk human papillomavirus was seen in the in-situ hybridization performed on the section of the tumor in the cervix. In summary, the histologic and immunohistochemical features and the in-situ hybridization results were in keeping with a diagnosis of metastatic ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma involving the cervix. This case underscores the importance of attentive histopathologic examination and the use of ancillary tests to ensure the recognition of the site of origin of a neoplasm involving the cervix. PMID:21979600

  10. Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vidhi, Rachana; Goswami, Yogi D.; Chen, Huijuan; Stefanakos, Elias; Kuravi, Sarada; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-01-01

    Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

  11. Low-grade geothermal energy conversion by organic Rankine cycle turbine generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Aspnes, J.D.

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports results of a demonstration project which helped determine the feasibility of converting low-grade thermal energy in 49/sup 0/C water into electrical energy via an organic Rankine cycle 2500 watt (electrical) turbine-generator. The geothermal source which supplied the water is located in a rural Alaskan village. The primary reasons an organic Rankine cycle turbine-generator was investigated as a possible source of electric power in rural Alaska are: high cost of operating diesel-electric units and their poor long-term reliability when high-quality maintenance is unavailable; and the extremely high level of long-term reliability reportedly attained by commercially available organic Rankine cycle turbines. The important contribution made by this project is data provided on the thermal and electrical operating characteristics of an experimental organic Rankine cycle turbine-generator operating at a uniquely low vaporizer temperature.

  12. New Strategies in Pediatric Gliomas: Molecular Advances in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Eric; Kieran, Mark W.; Cohen, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGG) account for more brain tumors in children than any other histologic subtype. While surgery, chemotherapy and radiation remain the mainstay of upfront treatment, recent advances in molecular interrogation of pLGG have shown a small number of recurring genetic mutations in these tumors that might be exploited therapeutically. Notable findings include abnormalities in the RAS/MAP kinase pathway such as NF-1 loss or BRAF activation and mTOR activation. Recent identification of activating re-arrangements in c-MYB and MYBL1 in pediatric diffuse astrocytoma also provide candidates for therapeutic intervention. Targeting these molecularly identified pathways may allow for improved outcomes for patients as pediatric oncology moves into the era of biology-driven medicine. PMID:23881924

  13. Multiplex ligation-depending probe amplification is not suitable for detection of low-grade mosaicism.

    PubMed

    van Veghel-Plandsoen, Monique M; Wouters, Cokkie H; Kromosoeto, Joan N R; den Ridder-Klünnen, Mariska C; Halley, Dicky J J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W

    2011-09-01

    'Apparent non-penetrance' occurs in several genetic disorders, including tuberous sclerosis complex and neurofibromatosis type 1: clinically unaffected parents may have multiple affected offspring. Germ line or somatic mosaicism in one of the parents of the index patient is the probable cause and results in an enhanced recurrence risk. Therefore, it is of great importance to use the most sensitive technology for testing DNA of the parents of the index patient for the presence/absence of the familial mutation. To detect large rearrangements multiplex ligation-depending probe amplification (MLPA) is often used. Here we show that MLPA is less sensitive in detecting low-grade somatic mosaicism than fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or a mutation-specific PCR test. Therefore, we recommend FISH (if possible) or PCR analysis for the analysis of parental DNA. PMID:21487440

  14. A preliminary report on the rapid fluorimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Levine, Harry

    1950-01-01

    A simple and very rapid fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of uranium in low-grade shale and phosphate ores. The best working range is from 0.001 to about 0.04 percent U. The procedure employs batch extraction of uranium nitrate by ethyl acetate, using aluminum nitrate as the salting agent, prior to the visual fluorimetric estimation. The procedure is especially designed to save reagents; only 9.5 g of aluminum nitrate and 10 ml of ethyl acetate being used for one analysis. The solution of the sample by means of a fusion with NaOH-NaNO3 flux is rapid. After fusion the sample is immediately extracted without removing silica and other hydrolytic precipitates. Aluminum nitrate very effectively ties up fluoride and phosphate, thus eliminating steps required for their removal.

  15. Plantar fibromatosis may adopt the brain gyriform pattern of a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Touraine, Sébastien; Bousson, Valérie; Kaci, Rachid; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Haddad, Samuel; Laouisset, Liess; Petrover, David; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man with histologically proven plantar fibromatosis (Ledderhose disease) demonstrating an uncommon brain gyriform pattern at MRI, so far exclusively described in the low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). An acoustic posterior enhancement at ultrasound, a high intensity on T2w and post-contrast T1wMR images were unusual and related to a high tumor cellularity at histology with no myxoid tissue. The juxtaposition of areas of high and low cellularity (with more fibrous material) in a multilobulated mass built a brain gyriform pattern at MR, similar to what was so far described exclusively in LGFMS. This case demonstrates that the brain gyriform pattern may also be observed in other soft tissue fibrous tumors with no myxoid material but with high cellularity areas alternating with fibrous zones of low cellularity. PMID:23415764

  16. Bilateral Serous Psammocarcinoma of Ovary: Rare Variant Low Grade Serous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Mishra, Pritinanda; Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Serous psammocarcinoma is a rare variant of serous carcinoma arising from either ovary or peritoneum, characterized by massive psammoma body formation, low grade cytologic features, and invasiveness. Its clinical behavior is similar to serous borderline tumors with relatively favorable prognosis. We report herein a case of a 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distension. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed calcified pelvic masses with ascites. Elevated serum CA-125 (970 U/mL) suggested malignant ovarian neoplasm. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with primary debulking surgery. Histopathology showed bilateral serous psammocarcinoma of ovary with invasive implants on omentum. Adjuvant chemotherapy was advised in view of advanced stage disease, although its benefits are poorly defined due to rarity of the tumor. However, patient opted out of it and is now on follow-up. PMID:26557397

  17. Polymorphous Low-grade Adenocarcinoma: A Case Series and Determination of Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Adam J.; Austin, Grace K.; Shah, Rupali N.; Welch, Chris M.; Funkhouser, William K.; Zanation, Adam M.; Shockley, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Information on polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) consists primarily of case reports and small institutional series with varying recurrence rates. In this report, we describe our institutional experience and conduct a review of the literature to assess the overall incidence of PLGA among oral salivary gland tumors and determine recurrence rates. Study Design A retrospective case series and literature based review was performed. Methods Retrospective case series at an academic tertiary referral center. Review of clinical records and pathological analysis of tissue specimens from 20 patients treated for PLGA from July 1, 1990 to July 1, 2011. A literature-based review on PLGA was also performed. Results Twenty patients (mean age 54 years, 8 males) with PLGA based on pathologic diagnosis were included. The most common initial presentation was an asymptomatic mass (45%) and the most frequent site was the palate (60%). Our literature review identified 54 case reports, 8 case series, and 17 large series. In total 456 cases of PLGA were identified with an overall recurrence rate of 19%. Half of the recurrences occurred by 36 months; however, recurrences were reported up to 24 years after initial resection. Conclusion PLGA arises from minor salivary glands and is characteristically slow growing and indolent. While these tumors may be histologically low-grade, our review highlights the high rates of recurrence of these tumors as well as the ability to metastasis to local lymph nodes and distant organs. The mainstay of treatment should be wide surgical excision with long-term oncologic follow up. PMID:25229805

  18. Effects of walking on low-grade inflammation and their implications for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Morettini, Micaela; Storm, Fabio; Sacchetti, Massimo; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Mazz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammatory cytokines released by hypertrophic adipocytes contribute to low-grade inflammation, a characteristic of Type 2 Diabetes. Skeletal muscle contraction during physical activity stimulates the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines able to counteract this inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to review the evidence of the effectiveness of walking as a physical activity intervention to reduce inflammation. The interplay between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle contributions was also investigated. Method A structured literature review of papers available up to December 2014 was carried out within the PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases using the keywords walking and inflammation in order to identify the studies involving healthy subjects and subjects diagnosed with, or at increased risk of, Type 2 Diabetes. Results Thirty-two studies were reviewed, five investigating the acute effects of walking and twenty-seven its chronic effects (n=21 interventional and n=6 observational). Acute effects of walking bouts led to an increase of interleukin-6 in one study, although without any increase in the concentration of the anti-inflammatory marker interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Eight interventional studies showed a significant reduction of inflammation. A reduction in tumour necrosis factor-? concentration was often associated with an adiposity reduction. The observational studies showed that individuals who walk more present a lower inflammatory status. Conclusion There is no consensus regarding the efficacy of walking in the reduction of low-grade systemic inflammation, even though a relationship cannot be excluded. In each walking bout, no anti-inflammatory effect due to the IL-6-stimulated myokine cascade can be demonstrated. PMID:26844115

  19. Stand-Alone Lateral Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luis; Abdala, Nitamar; Oliveira, Leonardo; Amaral, Rodrigo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6 ± 10 y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4 ± 3.4 BMI) with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.). The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P < 0.001) and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P < 0.001). Segmental lordosis (P < 0.001) and disc height (P < 0.001) were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17%) and 7/52 cases (13%) spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:22545019

  20. Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta

    2009-07-15

    There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

    2014-05-27

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  2. Anatomy of the Canine Skull in Low-grade Otocephaly 12

    PubMed Central

    Fox, M. W.

    1964-01-01

    An inherited low-grade otocephaly in a strain of Beagles was studied. All cases were “mild” with partial agnathia a constant feature in the adult animal. One case of high-grade otocephaly with aprosopus was recorded in an outcrossed animal. Neonatal mortalities in the low-grade type were associated with gross patency of the parietal fontanelle and hydrocephaly. Enlarged lateral ventricles were found in adult dogs, associated with incomplete union of the cranial sutures and occasional membranous-like paietal bone replacement over the patent fontanelle. Partial agnathia was not obvious in the neonate, but became apparent during postnatal skeletal development. The major anatomical differences in the skulls of these dogs were compared with normal Beagles. Malocclusion of the lower mandible and teeth against the upper jaw during development may have resulted in changes in length and width of the upper jaw and certain cranial structures. It was thought that the maloccluding lower jaw acted as a wedge against the upper jaw during mastication and these abnormal pressures, transmitted in an upward, forward, and outward direction, caused lengthening and widening of the palatine and temporal bones, and lengthening of the premaxilla and nasal bones. The nasopharyngeal meatus and palatine fissures were narrower and elongated. The pterygoid processes were pulled into a more horizontal position. It was suggested that a primary inherited abnormality may cause secondary changes in contiguous structures during development, and differentiation between primary (genetic) and secondary (acquired) anatomical abnormalities should be considered. Imagesp107-ap107-bp107-c PMID:17649505

  3. Sagittal Pelvic Radius in Low-Grade Isthmic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis of Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Cheng, Da-Wei; Dong, Fu-Long; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variation of pelvic radius and related parameters in low-grade isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods Seventy-four patients with isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis and 47 controls were included in this study. There were 17 males and 57 females between 30 and 66 years of age, including 30 with grade I slippages and 44 grade II slippages; diseased levels included 34 cases on L4 and 40 cases on L5. Thoracic kyphosis (TK), the pelvic radius (PR), the pelvic angle (PA), pelvic morphology (PR-S1), and total lumbopelvic lordosis (PR-T12) were assessed from radiographs. Results Statistically significant differences were found for the PA, PR-T12, and PR-S1 (24.5±6.6°, 83.7±9.8°, and 25.4±11.2°, respectively) of the patients with spondylolisthesis and the healthy volunteers (13.7±7.8°, 92.9±9.2°, and 40.7±8.9°, respectively). The TK/PR-T12 ratios were between 0.15 and 0.75. However, there were no differences in all the parameters between the L4 and L5 spondylolysis subgroups (p>0.05). The TK and PR-S1 of grade II were less than grade I, but the PA was greater. The PR-T12 of female patients were less than male patients, but the PA was greater (p<0.05). Conclusion Pelvic morphology differed in patients with low-grade isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis compared to controls. Gender and the grade of slippage impacted the sagittal configuration of the pelvis, but the segment of the vertebral slip did not. Overall, the spine of those with spondylolisthesis remains able to maintain sagittal balance despite abnormal pelvic morphology. PMID:27226863

  4. Compositional variations of syntectonic white-mica in low-grade ignimbritic mylonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.

    2005-04-01

    The Silla del Gobernador Shear Zone (SGSZ), Coastal Range of central Chile (32°S), is a low-grade mylonite generated from a Triassic acidic ignimbritic protolith. Different microstructures (e.g. quarter mats and pressure shadow structures) associated with pressure solution and solution transfer processes and well-preserved porphyroclasts can be observed. White-mica generation appears to be favoured by reaction-softening from dissolved quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts. According to the mylonite fabrics three different types of white-mica can be established (A, B and C) representing mylonites with evidences of relatively low, intermediate and high strain conditions. Deformation mechanisms suggest low-grade (350-400 °C) conditions for mylonitic deformation in the presence of fluids, consistent with the temperature estimations based on chlorite chemistry. The geological setting of the SGSZ also suggests low-pressure (<3 kbar) conditions. No major element mobility with respect to protolith composition was observed in low-strained mylonites, whereas for the highly strained mylonites, a marked K 2O secondary input and higher fO 2 conditions during deformation are suggested. The chemical composition of the neoformed white-mica correlates with strain intensity: the high-strained mylonites contain phengitic-celadonitic micas, whereas low-strained mylonites have paragonitic and muscovitic micas. White-mica geobarometry in highly deformed rocks yields pressure values with no geological significance, because the metasomatic K-input favour their high K content, independent of the confining pressure. Thus, the white-mica composition in the mylonites of the SGSZ is controlled by the whole-rock geochemistry and is related to strain conditions.

  5. Molecular profiling of low grade serous ovarian tumours identifies novel candidate driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sally M.; Anglesio, Michael S.; Ryland, Georgina L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Rowley, Simone M.; Doyle, Maria A.; Li, Jason; Gilks, C. Blake; Moss, Phillip; Allan, Prue E.; Stephens, Andrew N.; Huntsman, David G.; deFazio, Anna; Bowtell, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Low grade serous ovarian tumours are a rare and under-characterised histological subtype of epithelial ovarian tumours, with little known of the molecular drivers and facilitators of tumorigenesis beyond classic oncogenic RAS/RAF mutations. With a move towards targeted therapies due to the chemoresistant nature of this subtype, it is pertinent to more fully characterise the genetic events driving this tumour type, some of which may influence response to therapy and/or development of drug resistance. We performed genome-wide high-resolution genomic copy number analysis (Affymetrix SNP6.0) and mutation hotspot screening (KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, ERBB2 and TP53) to compare a large cohort of ovarian serous borderline tumours (SBTs, n = 57) with low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs, n = 19). Whole exome sequencing was performed for 13 SBTs, nine LGSCs and one mixed low/high grade carcinoma. Copy number aberrations were detected in 61% (35/57) of SBTs, compared to 100% (19/19) of LGSCs. Oncogenic RAS/RAF/ERBB2 mutations were detected in 82.5% (47/57) of SBTs compared to 63% (12/19) of LGSCs, with NRAS mutations detected only in LGSC. Some copy number aberrations appeared to be enriched in LGSC, most significantly loss of 9p and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A/2B locus. Exome sequencing identified BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, USP9X and EIF1AX as the most frequently mutated genes. We have identified markers of progression from borderline to LGSC and novel drivers of LGSC. USP9X and EIF1AX have both been linked to regulation of mTOR, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors may be a key companion treatment for targeted therapy trials of MEK and RAF inhibitors. PMID:26506417

  6. Adhesive capsulitis: An age related symptom of metabolic syndrome and chronic low-grade inflammation?

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Max

    2016-03-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is very poorly understood, particularly it's underlying etiology. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are strongly associated with chronic low grade inflammation, are becoming increasingly understood to underlie a raft of morbid states including upper limb pain syndromes, diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and central nervous system dysfunction and degeneration. Notwithstanding age, two of the strongest established risk factors for AC are DM and CVD. The hypothesis argues that similar to DM and CVD, the inflammation and capsular fibrosis seen in AC is precipitated by metabolic syndrome and chronic low grade inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are highly likely to be perpetuated by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, sympathetic dominance of autonomic balance, and neuro-immune activation. The hypothesis predicts and describes how these processes may etiologically underpin and induce each sub-classification of AC. An improved understanding of the etiology of AC may lead to more accurate diagnosis, improved management, treatment outcomes, and reduce or prevent pain, disability and suffering associated with the disease. The paper follows on with a discussion of similarities between the pathophysiology of AC to general systemic inflammatory control mechanisms whereby connective tissue (CT) fibrosis is induced as a storage depot for leukocytes and chronic inflammatory cells. The potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA), the primary component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and CT, in the pathophysiology of AC is also discussed with potential treatment implications. Lastly, a biochemical link between physical and mental health through the ECM is described and the concept of a periventricular-limbic central driver of CT dysfunction is introduced. PMID:26880627

  7. Prognostic Molecular Subtypes of Low-Grade Cancer of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Edward A; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Qasem, Shadi A; Philip, John; Cummins, Kathleen A; Chou, Jeff W; Ruiz, Jimmy; D’Agostino, Ralph; Shen, Perry; Miller, Lance D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Appendiceal cancer (AC) patients treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often demonstrate an unpredictable variability in their survival outcomes. Biomarkers predictive of CRS/HIPEC efficacy could better guide treatment decisions. We hypothesized that variation in the transcriptional programming of AC tumors might distinguish molecular subtypes with differential outcomes after CRS/HIPEC. STUDY DESIGN Gene expression profiles of 2 AC cohorts were analyzed using Affymetrix whole-genome expression microarrays. Hierarchical clustering methods, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox regression models were used to discover and validate prognostic molecular subtypes of AC. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to infer pathologic attributes of the molecular subtypes. RESULTS Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of tumor expression profiles revealed a 139-gene cassette that distinguished 2 molecular subtypes (based on low vs high expression of the gene cassette) with statistically significant survival differences (disease-specific survival, p = 0.0075; progression-free survival, p = 0.0072). In a second AC cohort, the 139-gene cassette reproducibly partitioned tumors into subtypes with significant survival differences. Tumors showing high relative expression of the genes comprising the cassette associated with poor survival outcomes (disease-specific survival, p = 0.047; progression-free survival, p = 0.0079), and exhibited gene expression patterns enriched for oncogenic processes and pathways. The prognostic value of the molecular subtypes was specific for low-grade appendiceal tumors (disease-specific survival, p = 0.028; progression-free survival, p = 0.0016), and remained significant in the presence of conventional prognostic markers, including grade, surgical resection score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, and age. CONCLUSIONS The 139-gene cassette can have actionable clinical utility for identifying low-grade appendiceal tumor molecular subtypes predictive of therapeutic efficacy of CRS/HIPEC. PMID:26821970

  8. Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Darren

    2009-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates. Current therapies rely on neurosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination of these conventional modalities and although histopathology helps to direct therapy, molecular pathology has so far not played a major role in the management of paediatric glioma. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact on drug development towards targeted therapies. Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents. The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma. It is likely that high grade gliomas in children and adults share common aberrant molecular pathways but the frequency and mechanisms involved probably will exhibit key differences and on-going comprehensive molecular analyses of paediatric high grade glioma are essential to determine which targets are important in children. However, selection for specific targeted therapy is unlikely to be based on, or restricted by, age but will require individual case by case testing for target presence in order to direct and maximise the efficacy of molecular therapy. Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets. A new era of molecular based therapies offers the promise of major benefits in the management of paediatric glioma but translating this promise into reality will require further understanding of the biology driving these tumours. PMID:19637006

  9. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  10. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted 'breakthrough' designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®)) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  11. Ultrasonographic findings of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus with a focus on cystic degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic findings associated with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Methods: Ten pathologically confirmed cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma at our institution from January 2007 to April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative transvaginal ultrasound. Two radiologists came to a consensus regarding the location, size, margin, and echogenicity of the tumor, as well as the presence of intratumoral cystic degeneration and its extent and configuration. Results: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma manifested as an intramural mass protruding into the endometrial cavity (n=6) or as a purely intramural mass (n=4). The maximal diameter of the lesion ranged from 4 to 9.1 cm (mean, 6.2 cm). The imaging features of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma were variable: six cases involved predominantly solid masses containing cystic degeneration, one was a predominantly unilocular cystic mass, two were ill-defined infiltrative solid masses, and one was a well-defined solid mass. Among the seven cases with internal cystic degeneration, five patients showed a multiseptated cystic area or a cystic area with multiple small clusters, while a unilocular cystic area within the tumor was found in two patients. Conclusion: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is associated with variable ultrasonographic findings with regard to the location, margin, and configuration of the lesion. Multiseptated cystic areas and multiple small areas of cystic degeneration are common. PMID:26537303

  12. Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Pang, Shujie; Shen, Yan; Liu, Zaiping; Luan, Jing; Shi, Yiquan; Liu, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    The association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) was first reported in endometrium carcinoma, termed with dedifferentiated carcinoma (DC). However, the coexistence of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) or serous carcinoma (LGSC) with UC has received minimal attention in ovary, and the behavior of this kind of neoplasm remains at further discussion. In this study, we reported a case of low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma associated with UC and reviewed another four cases previously reported. We found a histological continuity between the LGEC and UC components in H&E section, which suggested a dedifferentiation from LGEC to UC components. In summary, this kind of pathological type has aggressive behavior and these patients have very poor prognosis regardless of the amount of undifferentiated carcinoma. PMID:25120828

  13. Innate lymphoid cells as novel regulators of obesity and its-associated metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Yang, W; Tian, Z; van Velkinburgh, J C; Song, J; Wu, Y; Ni, B

    2016-06-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity worldwide has been accompanied by increases in risk and rates of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, such as insulin resistance. The chronic, low-grade inflammatory condition of obesity highlights the pathophysiological link between the immune system and the metabolic system, which has yet to be fully understood. Recent studies of obesity have started to uncover potential regulatory roles for the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which under normal conditions serve to regulate development of lymphoid tissue and function of the mucosal immune system. The ILCs are a newly identified immune cell population with complicated composition and subsequently diverse and dynamic functions. Studies to determine the distribution profile of the various ILCs in adipose tissue provide intriguing clues as to their regulatory capacity in obesity and its associated metabolic dysfunctions. Here, we review the recent findings supporting a role for ILCs as regulators of obesity or its associated insulin resistance, and discuss the potential underlying molecular mechanism as well as its promise as a therapeutic target for clinical applications. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26948388

  14. First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Patients and methods Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Results Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Conclusion Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation. PMID:23140402

  15. A clinicopathologic study of diencephalic pediatric low-grade gliomas with BRAF V600 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng-Ying; Mobley, Bret C; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Mason, Gary E; Bornhorst, Miriam; Esbenshade, Adam J; Tehrani, Mahtab; Orr, Brent A; LaFrance, Delecia R; Devaney, Joseph M; Meltzer, Beatrix W; Hofherr, Sean E; Burger, Peter C; Packer, Roger J; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-10-01

    Among brain tumors, the BRAF (V600E) mutation is frequently associated with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) and gangliogliomas (GGs). This oncogenic mutation is also detected in ~5 % of other pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) including pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and diffuse astrocytomas. In the current multi-institutional study of 56 non-PXA/non-GG diencephalic pediatric LGGs, the BRAF (V600) mutation rate is 36 %. V600-mutant tumors demonstrate a predilection for infants and young children (low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs) was 22 ± 12 %, shorter than BRAF (V600)-WT PAs (52 ± 13 %) but higher than PMAs (10 ± 6 %). Of note, long-term PFS was observed in several adolescent patients with BRAF (V600)-mutant tumors. In children aged 0-12 years, 5-year PFS rate and median PFS in BRAF (V600)-mutant LGAs are 9 ± 9 % and 19 months (95 % CI 3-37 months), respectively. The PFS is comparable to that in BRAF (V600)-WT PMAs (5-year PFS rate: 10 ± 9 %; median PFS: 15 months, 95 % CI 3-32 months; p = 0.96) and significantly shorter than BRAF (V600)-WT PAs (5-year PFS rate: 46 ± 13 %; median PFS: 51 months, 95 % CI 20-∞ months; p < 0.05). In summary, diencephalic BRAF (V600)-mutant pediatric LGAs are associated with unique clinicopathologic features and have a more aggressive clinical course, especially in children under age 13. The low rate of CDKN2A deletion also suggests that these tumors are molecularly distinct from secondary pediatric high-grade gliomas. PMID:26264609

  16. The behavior of magnesium isotopes in low-grade metamorphosed mudrocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shui-Jiong; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Li, Shu-Guang

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium isotopic compositions of mudrocks metamorphosed at sub-greenschist facies from three lower Paleozoic basins (northern Lake District, southern Lake District, and Southern Uplands) in the British Caledonides were measured in order to understand the behavior of Mg isotopes during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism. Carbonate-free mudrocks from the northern Lake District have heavy δ26Mg values varying from -0.17 to +0.25. By contrast, Mg isotopic compositions of carbonate-bearing mudrocks from the southern Lake District and Southern Uplands vary more widely, with δ26Mg ranging from -0.74 to -0.08. Acid leaching experiments on the latter show that the leachates have higher Ca/Al and Ca/K ratios than the residues due to the dissolution of leachable carbonates. The δ26Mg values of leachates (-1.54 to -0.21) are always lower than the corresponding residues (δ26Mg = -0.39 to +0.09), consistent with isotopically light Mg in carbonates. A rough, negative correlation between δ26Mg and Mg/Al for the residual silicate fraction of mudrocks suggests that their Mg isotopic compositions are controlled by the relative proportion of illite/muscovite and chlorite. Global clastic sediments display highly variable Mg isotopic compositions that are negatively correlated with CaO/Al2O3 and CaO/TiO2, implying that carbonates introduce light Mg isotopes to sediments, although the silicate end member itself has a wide range of δ26Mg, depending on its mineralogy. Magnesium isotopic compositions of mudrocks, as well as their silicate and carbonate fractions, do not vary systemically as metamorphism proceeds from diagenesis to low-grade metamorphism, suggesting limited Mg isotope fractionation during low-temperature metamorphic dehydration (<300 °C). The general decrease of Mg fraction (by mass) contributed by carbonate with increasing metamorphic grade suggests that dissolution or decomposition of carbonates during metamorphism expelled light Mg isotopes. Thus, the Mg isotopic compositions of the silicate fractions in clastic sediments more faithfully reflect their provenance signatures. Our study shows that Mg isotopes can be used to study sedimentary diagenesis, and Mg isotopes may prove a useful tracer of sediments recycled into the mantle given their heterogeneous δ26Mg values.

  17. Low-grade MgO used to stabilize heavy metals in highly contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    García, M A; Chimenos, J M; Fernández, A I; Miralles, L; Segarra, M; Espiell, F

    2004-08-01

    Low-grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilization of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The use of MgO is described acting as a buffering agent within the pH 9-11 range, minimizing heavy metals solubility and avoiding the redissolution that occurs when lime is used. The effectiveness of LG-MgO has been studied as stabilizer agent of heavily polluted soils mainly contaminated by the flue-dust of the pyrite roasting. The use of LG-MgO as a reactive medium ensures that significant rates of metal fixation, greater than 80%, are achieved. The heavy metals leachate from the stabilized soil samples show a concentration lower than the limit set to classify the waste as non-special residue. Regardless of the quantity of stabilizer employed (greater than 10%), LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir that allows guaranteeing long-term stabilization without varying the pH conditions. PMID:15212914

  18. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Anna F.; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-01-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. PMID:26050593

  19. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Stam, C. J.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J. J.; van Dijk, B. W.; Postma, T. J.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity compared to healthy controls and that particularly global slowing correlates with neurocognitive dysfunction. Patient and methods Resting state MEG recordings were obtained from 17 LGG patients and 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the delta, theta, upper and lower alpha, beta, and gamma frequency band. A battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring 6 neurocognitive domains was administered. Results LGG patients showed a slowing of the resting state brain activity when compared to healthy controls. Decrease in relative power was mainly found in the gamma frequency band in the bilateral frontocentral MEG regions, whereas an increase in relative power was found in the theta frequency band in the left parietal region. An increase of the relative power in the theta and lower alpha band correlated with impaired executive functioning, information processing, and working memory. Conclusion LGG patients are characterized by global slowing of their resting state brain activity and this slowing phenomenon correlates with the observed neurocognitive deficits. PMID:18259691

  20. Optimal radiation fractionation for low-grade gliomas: Insights from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Galochkina, Tatiana; Bratus, Alexander; Pérez-García, Víctor M

    2015-09-01

    We study optimal radiotherapy fractionations for low-grade glioma using mathematical models. Both space-independent and space-dependent models are studied. Two different optimization criteria have been developed, the first one accounting for the global effect of the tumor mass on the disease symptoms and the second one related to the delay of the malignant transformation of the tumor. The models are studied theoretically and numerically using the method of feasible directions. We have searched for optimal distributions of the daily doses dj in the standard protocol of 30 fractions using both models and the two different optimization criteria. The optimal results found in all cases are minor deviations from the standard protocol and provide only marginal potential gains. Thus, our results support the optimality of current radiation fractionations over the standard 6 week treatment period. This is also in agreement with the observation that minor variations of the fractionation have failed to provide measurable gains in survival or progression free survival, pointing out to a certain optimality of the current approach. PMID:26113284

  1. Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kasai, Kazunari; Inoue, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Takanori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hatsushika, Kyousuke; Masuyama, Keisuke; Katoh, Ryohei

    2014-12-01

    Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare neoplasm characterized by morphological analogy to papillary thyroid carcinoma and abnormal expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). Here we report a novel case of TL-LGNPPA with literature review. The patient was a 43-year-old woman complaining of nasal obstruction. Laryngoscopic study and computed tomography identified a pedunculated mass located on the posterior edge of the left nasal septum. Histologically, the tumor consisted of papillary growth of cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Tubular architecture and a spindle cell component were also observed focally. Some tumor cells exhibited intra-nuclear cytoplasmic inclusions. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), CK7, CK19, TTF-1, vimentin and HBME1, but negative for thyroglobulin, Pax8 and CK5/6. Ki67-labeling index reached 5% in the most concentrated spot. Despite the morphological and immunohistochemical similarity to papillary thyroid carcinoma, no BRAF V600E mutation was detected by mutation-specific immunohistochemistry. The patient had neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis 19 months after removal of the tumor. PMID:24893893

  2. A dynamic model for the optimization of oscillatory low grade heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markides, Christos N.; Smith, Thomas C. B.

    2015-01-22

    The efficiency of a thermodynamic system is a key quantity on which its usefulness and wider application relies. This is especially true for a device that operates with marginal energy sources and close to ambient temperatures. Various definitions of efficiency are available, each of which reveals a certain performance characteristic of a device. Of these, some consider only the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the working fluid, whereas others contain additional information, including relevant internal components of the device that are not part of the thermodynamic cycle. Yet others attempt to factor out the conditions of the surroundings with which the device is interfacing thermally during operation. In this paper we present a simple approach for the modeling of complex oscillatory thermal-fluid systems capable of converting low grade heat into useful work. We apply the approach to the NIFTE, a novel low temperature difference heat utilization technology currently under development. We use the results from the model to calculate various efficiencies and comment on the usefulness of the different definitions in revealing performance characteristics. We show that the approach can be applied to make design optimization decisions, and suggest features for optimal efficiency of the NIFTE.

  3. Modeling and simulation of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky, Svetlana; Pisarev, Vladimir; Kashdan, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical model of the initiation and progression of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma. We simulate the crucial processes affecting tumor growth, such as oxygen diffusion, carcinogen penetration, and angiogenesis, within the framework of the urothelial cell dynamics. The cell dynamics are modeled using the discrete technique of cellular automata, while the continuous processes of carcinogen penetration and oxygen diffusion are described by nonlinear diffusion-absorption equations. As the availability of oxygen is necessary for tumor progression, processes of oxygen transport to the tumor growth site seem most important. Our model yields a theoretical insight into the main stages of development and growth of urinary bladder carcinoma with emphasis on the two most common types: bladder polyps and carcinoma in situ. Analysis of histological structure of bladder tumor is important to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong treatment. We expect our model to be a valuable tool in the study of bladder cancer progression due to the exposure to carcinogens and the oxygen dependent expression of genes promoting tumor growth. Our numerical simulations have good qualitative agreement with in vivo results reported in the corresponding medical literature. PMID:25637778

  4. Molecular features assisting in diagnosis, surgery, and treatment decision making in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ricky; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cohen, Adam L; Jensen, Randy L; Salzman, Karen L; Prescot, Andrew P; Colman, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The preferred management of suspected low-grade gliomas (LGGs) has been disputed, and the implications of molecular changes for medical and surgical management of LGGs are important to consider. Current strategies that make use of molecular markers and imaging techniques and therapeutic considerations offer additional options for management of LGGs. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes suggest a role for this abnormal metabolic pathway in the pathogenesis and progression of these primary brain tumors. Use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide preoperative detection of IDH-mutated gliomas and affect surgical planning. In addition, IDH1 and IDH2 mutation status may have an effect on surgical resectability of gliomas. The IDH-mutated tumors exhibit better prognosis throughout every grade of glioma, and mutation may be an early genetic event, preceding lineage-specific secondary and tertiary alterations that transform LGGs into secondary glioblastomas. The O6-methylguanine-DNAmethyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and 1p19q codeletion status can predict sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation in low- and intermediate-grade gliomas. Thus, these recent advances, which have led to a better understanding of how molecular, genetic, and epigenetic alterations influence the pathogenicity of the different histological grades of gliomas, can lead to better prognostication and may lead to specific targeted surgical interventions and medical therapies. PMID:25727224

  5. Low-grade, M1 metamorphism of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberg, G.R. . Dept. of Geology); Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B. )

    1993-04-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex of western Canada and southeastern Alaska that developed as a result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collision of the Alexander terrane and Gravina assemblage on the west against the Yukon Prong and Stikine terranes to the east. Sub-greenschist to lower greenschist facies metabasalts exposed along the west end of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska record the earliest metamorphic event (M1). These low-grade rocks are gradational with younger, higher-grade assemblages that define an inverted metamorphic gradient (metamorphic event M5). The most common metamorphic mineral assemblages are chlorite-epidote-actinolite with or without pumpellyite and stilpnomelane. There is no systematic distribution of metamorphic mineral assemblages in the study area, and all assemblages are in the pumpellyite-actinolite facies near the transition to the lower greenschist facies. Different low-variance assemblages can be attributed to minor differences in pressure, temperature, or X[sub CO[sub 2

  6. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  7. Erythrophagocytic low-grade extranodal T-cell lymphoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Carter, J E; Tarigo, J L; Vernau, W; Cecere, T E; Hovis, R L; Suter, S E

    2008-12-01

    A 13-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented to the referring veterinarian with a 2-month history of weight loss and lethargy. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and hyperbilirubinemia were noted. Results of testing for feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycoplasma sp. were negative. On cytologic examination of aspirates from the enlarged spleen and liver, a population of erythrophagocytic round cells was observed. Splenectomy and a liver biopsy were done which revealed a population of CD3+/CD79a- erythrophagocytic mononuclear round cells localized in the hepatic and splenic sinusoids. T-cell PARR (PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangements) analysis of bone marrow and spleen demonstrated a single band indicative of a clonal proliferation of T cells. Based on the marked splenomegaly, sinusoidal infiltration, lack of lymphadenopathy, and results of cytology, PARR, and immunophenotyping, a diagnosis of low-grade extranodal T-cell lymphoma was made. The cat was treated with chlorambucil and prednisolone; clinical and laboratory abnormalities resolved and the cat has remained clinically normal for 2.5 years. To our knowledge, this report documents the first case of an erythrophagocytic T-cell lymphoma in a cat. The clinicopathologic findings were suggestive of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, a neoplasm described previously only in humans and dogs. PMID:19055577

  8. Low-grade, systemic inflammation in adolescents: association with early-life factors, gender, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Pirkola, Jatta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Bloigu, Aini; Canoy, Dexter; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Miettola, Satu; Paldanius, Mika; Tammelin, Tuija H; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pouta, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade, systemic inflammation is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adults. The proinflammatory state tracks from adolescence to adulthood. Identifying correlates of inflammation in adolescents could provide opportunities to prevent cardiovascular disease in adulthood. However, population-based data on correlates of inflammation in adolescence are limited. Therefore, the authors studied the associations of early-life factors, gender, and lifestyle with inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and leukocyte count) at age 16 years (2001-2002) in the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 Study (n = 5,240). In females, being born small for gestational age and current use of oral contraceptives were associated with the proinflammatory state. The association of birth size with inflammation was not observed in males. In logistic regression analyses, oral contraceptive use (odds ratio (OR) = 2.83), abdominal obesity (OR = 5.17), and smoking (OR = 2.72) were associated with elevation of both inflammation markers in females; abdominal obesity (OR = 5.72) and smoking (OR = 2.02) were associated in males. Thus, females appear more susceptible to the adverse effects of being born small for gestational age than males. Given the widespread use of oral contraceptives and the potential pathophysiologic consequences of the proinflammatory state, the association of oral contraceptive use with inflammation in adolescence may have public health implications. PMID:19917553

  9. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. PMID:25684619

  10. Congenital cystic eye associated with a low-grade cerebellar lesion that spontaneously regressed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital cystic eye is an exceedingly rare ocular malformative disease, originated from the failure in the invagination of the optic vesicle during the fetal period and it can be associated with other ocular and non-ocular abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological features. Case presentation We report a case of a congenital cystic eye associated with a cerebellar lesion accidentally detected at magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy of the mass has not been performed due to parental rejection. Based on radiologic features and absence of clinical signs, a low-grade glioma diagnosis was hypothesized, but histological characterization was not obtained. Follow-up neuro-imaging 6 months after diagnosis showed that intracranial lesion spontaneously regressed without any treatment. Conclusion Our report stresses the importance of early MRI in children with ocular malformations, in order to detect associated intracranial defects, also of non-malformative origin. Additionally, we debate the clinic-radiological features of the intracranial lesions that could allow a wait-and-see policy. We also recommend a strict clinical and neuro-imaging follow-up for these lesions. Finally, biological mechanisms at the base of spontaneous regression of the brain lesions are discussed. PMID:24939368

  11. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Anna F; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-07-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%-2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. PMID:26050593

  12. Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching. PMID:24374030

  13. Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma following a metal implantation in femur: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma that most commonly involves the extremities of elderly people. However, a primary myxofibrosarcoma with bone invasion in young adults is extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old male with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass, who had a history of left femur fracture and received an open reduction and internal fixation with titanium alloy plates and screws 33 months previously. Imaging investigations revealed an irregularly shaped soft tissue mass around the left femur shaft and a partial bone defect in the middle one-third of the left femur. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a multi-nodular appearance, abundant myxoid matrix and elongated curvilinear capillaries. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells was positive for VIM and MDM2, and was negative for CK, MSA, SMA, DES, S-100 and CD34. Labeling index of Ki-67 was 25%. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The clinical and imaging examinations did not reveal the evidence of a primary cancer elsewhere, and the patient had no personal or family history of malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary myxofibrosarcoma developed following a fracture and metal implantation in young adults. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1745984882113605 PMID:24444015

  14. The Changing Landscape of Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas: Clinical Challenges and Emerging Therapies.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro Stucklin, Ana S; Tabori, Uri; Grotzer, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are the most common brain tumors in children. Though histologically benign and associated with excellent outcome, patients with unresectable lesions-mostly young children with midline tumors-experience multiple progressions and are at increased risk for long-term neurological sequelae. PLGGs in children with underlying genetic predisposition syndromes-especially neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis-have a distinct natural history and biology with important treatment implications. Given the complexity of medical issues, optimal management requires a large network of health care providers; treatment decisions must address both tumor control and potential side effects of the therapy. Current treatment strategies often fail to induce sustained tumor regression and many children require several lines of therapy, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Here, we review the current management of PLGG and discuss how new molecular targets-in particular alterations of the Ras/MAPK pathway-are rapidly changing our approach to PLGG. PMID:26764564

  15. Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kelly, Owen J; Kim, Youjin; Spicer, Maria T

    2014-06-01

    Some of the universal characteristics of pre-agricultural hominin diets are strikingly different from the modern human diet. Hominin dietary choices were limited to wild plant and wild animal foods, while the modern diet includes more than 70 % of energy consumed from refined sugars, refined vegetable oils, and highly processed cereals and dairy products. The modern diet, with higher intake of fat has also resulted in a higher ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), contributing to low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) and thus promoting the development of many chronic diseases, including obesity and osteoporosis. In this review, we describe the changes in modern diet, focusing on the kind and amount of consumed fat; explain the shortcomings of the modern diet with regard to inflammatory processes; and delineate the reciprocity between adiposity and inflammatory processes, with inflammation being a common link between obesity and osteoporosis. We present the evidence that overconsumption of n-6 PUFA coupled with under-consumption of n-3 PUFA results in LGCI and, along with the increased presence of reactive oxygen species, leads to a shift in mesenchymal stem cells (precursors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes) lineage commitment toward increased adipogenesis and suppressed osteoblastogenesis. In turn, high n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratios in the modern diet, coupled with increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to adiposity, propagate obesity and osteoporosis by increasing or maintaining LGCI. PMID:24945416

  16. Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Intravenous and Intracardiac Extension: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Inafuku, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Taira, Yusuke; Taira, Rie; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Tamaki, Tomoko; Aoyama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background. A rare case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) extending to inferior vena cava (IVC) and cardiac chambers. Case Report. A 40-year-old woman had IVC tumor, which was incidentally detected by abdominal ultrasonography during a routine medical checkup. CT scan revealed a tumor in IVC, right iliac and ovarian veins, which was derived from the uterus and extended into the right atrium and ventricle. The operation was performed, the heart and IVC were exposed, and cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated. A right atriotomy was performed, and the intracardiac mass was removed. Then the tumor in IVC and the right internal iliac vein were removed after longitudinal venotomies in the suprarenal and infrarenal vena cava, the right common iliac vein. Next the pelvis was explored. Tumors were found originating from the posterior wall of the uterus and continuing into both the right uterine and ovarian vein. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Complete tumor resection was achieved. Histopathological analysis confirmed a diagnosis of LG-ESS. She showed no evidence of disease for 2 years and 3 months. Conclusions. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in treating this rare cardiovascular pathological condition through preoperative assessment to final operation.

  17. Optimization of reaction conditions for the electroleaching of manganese from low-grade pyrolusite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing-ran; Liu, Zuo-hua; Fan, Xing; Lian, Xin; Tao, Chang-yuan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, a response surface methodology was used to optimize the electroleaching of Mn from low-grade pyrolusite. Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate was used in this reaction as a reducing agent in sulfuric acid solutions. The effect of six process variables, including the mass ratio of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to pyrolusite, mass ratio of sulfuric acid to pyrolusite, liquid-to-solid ratio, current density, leaching temperature, and leaching time, as well as their binary interactions, were modeled. The results revealed that the order of these factors with respect to their effects on the leaching efficiency were mass ratio of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to pyrolusite > leaching time > mass ratio of sulfuric acid to pyrolusite > liquid-to-solid ratio > leaching temperature > current density. The optimum conditions were as follows: 1.10:1 mass ratio of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate to pyrolusite, 0.9:1 mass ratio of sulfuric acid to pyrolusite, liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.7:1, current density of 947 A/m2, leaching time of 180 min, and leaching temperature of 73°C. Under these conditions, the predicted leaching efficiency for Mn was 94.1%; the obtained experimental result was 95.7%, which confirmed the validity of the model.

  18. Comparison of immunohistochemical markers between adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2009-12-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) have several common histological and clinicopathological features that may create diagnostic difficulties. In this study, 10 AdCCs, 8 PLGAs, and 5 normal minor salivary glands as a control group were selected. Sections prepared from each tumor were stained using the streptavidin-biotin system for seven marker antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), muscle-specific actin (MSA), vimentin, S100, p53, and Ki-67. Data analysis showed high expression of CEA, MSA and Ki-67 in AdCCs compared with PLGAs, although CEA expression was limited to luminal cells. Ki-67 was expressed in both luminal and non-luminal cells and MSA only in non-luminal cells. Vimentin and S100 showed stronger expression in PLGAs, the expression of vimentin was more noticeable, being focal and widespread. The immunoreactivities of EMA and P53 were not helpful for distinguishing between the two tumors, although the EMA expression pattern in AdCCs was limited to luminal cells, whereas it was present in both luminal and non-luminal cells in PLGAs. Thus, immunohistochemistry can be helpful for differential diagnosis of AdCC and PLGA, particularly that for CEA, vimentin, and Ki-67. PMID:20032601

  19. Optimal management of biopsy-proven low-grade gastric dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Jang, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma generally culminates via the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence progression. The prevalence of gastric adenomas shows marked geographic variation. Recently, the rate of diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) has increased due to increased use of upper endoscopy. Many investigators have reported that gastric high-grade dysplasia has high potential for malignancy and should be removed; however, the treatment for gastric LGD remains controversial. Although the risk of LGD progression to invasive carcinoma has been reported to be inconsistent, progression has been observed during follow-up. Additionally, the rate of upgraded diagnosis in biopsy-proven LGD is high. Therefore, endoscopic resection (ER) may be useful in the treatment and diagnosis of LGD, especially if lesions are found to have risk factors for upgraded histology after ER, such as large size, surface erythema or depressed morphology. Fatal complications in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are extremely low and its therapeutic and diagnostic outcomes are excellent. Therefore, ESD should be applied preferentially instead of endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:25901219

  20. Low grade serous neoplasms of the ovary with transformation to high grade carcinomas: Report of 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Karuna; Park, Kay J.; Soslow, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian borderline tumors usually occur in young patients and are associated with good clinical outcomes. A proportion of these tumors, particularly those with micropapillary features, may progress to low grade serous carcinomas. Evolution of low grade serous neoplasms to high grade carcinomas is rare and infrequently reported. In this case report, we describe 3 cases of serous borderline tumor that progressed to high grade carcinoma. Patient ages were 22, 35 and 47 years. Two patients were initially diagnosed with ovarian serous borderline tumor, and recurred in the pelvis 3 years and 10 years later with sarcomatoid carcinoma. The third patient presented with low grade serous carcinoma arising in a micropapillary serous borderline tumor, and recurred with a carcinosarcoma 3 years later. All three patients had an aggressive clinical course: 2 died of disease and 1 patient has disease progression on chemotherapy. Occasional low grade serous tumors of the ovary may transform to high grade carcinomas, which can occur many years after initial diagnosis. The presence of a high grade component significantly worsens patient outcomes. PMID:22833081

  1. Distant dissemination of mixed low-grade astroblastoma-arteriovenous malformation after initial operation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kun; Wu, Bin; Xi, Mei; Duan, Zejun; Wang, Jiqiang; Qi, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of low-grade astroblastoma coexisting with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) underwent surgery two times in a 38-year-old man. After the first surgery, this case was reported as a mixed low-grade astroblastoma and AVM. The lesion was completely resected surgically along with AVM. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty months later, MRI showed enhanced lesions in suprasellar, pineal region and multiple small lesions in the spinal cord, whereas completely no recurrent lesion at the primary tumor site. So, the patient rationally underwent surgical removal in suprasellar and pineal region. After the second surgery, this case was diagnosed as a high-grade astroblastoma. Cells from the second surgical specimens showed high MIB-1 index and an increased olig-2 index. In addition, it is not common for low-grade astroblastoma metastasis to suprasellar, pineal region and spine with completely no recurrence at the original primary tumor site. Therefore it is difficult to predict tumor behavior and patient’s clinical outcome merely based on histologic features. The important issue is whether the AVM was thought to be the cause of poor progress of this tumor. More cases are needed to confirm this. Classification and histogenesis of this tumor is still debated. Lack of clinicopathological correlation makes the prognosis of this tumor unpredictable. Anyway, we should be very discreet to treat the astroblastoma, even for low-grade astroblastoma. PMID:26261652

  2. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant's bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:27181339

  3. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:27181339

  4. Role of oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation in letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Singh, Anusha; Singh, Ajit; Krishna, Amitabh; Pandey, Uma; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the effects of temporal changes in oxidative stress (OS) and low-grade inflammation in letrozole-treated rats and to correlate these changes with the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like features. Rats were treated with letrozole for 7, 15 and 21 days to induce PCOS. On day 7 of the treatment, a significant increase in serum testosterone and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), the low-grade inflammatory marker, was found in the letrozole treated rats compared to control rats. Moreover, a decreased immunoexpression of insulin receptor coincided with increased body weight. The strong correlation between the levels of hsCRP and lipid peroxidation (LPO) suggests simultaneous development of low-grade inflammation and OS in response to hyperandrogenism, and the role of OS in a formation of cystic follicles in the letrozole animal PCOS model. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that OS and low-grade inflammation (hsCRP) are the major causes of PCOS induction in this model. PMID:26952756

  5. A preliminary study of an alternative controlled drainage strategy in surface drainage ditches: low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined hydrological characteristics of low-grade weirs, an alternative controlled drainage strategy in surface drainage ditches. Hydrographs of vegetated and clear scraped (control) replicates of weir vs. non-weir treatments were compared to determine differences in time to peak (Tp) a...

  6. Fatal encephalopathy complicating lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Michael; Riddoch, D.; Smith, W. Thomas

    1971-01-01

    The case is reported of a young woman who suffered from lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Involvement of the brain by what appeared to be an identical pathological process led to her death, and the orbital tissues were also involved at one stage. The cause of this condition is unknown, but the hypotheses are put forward that it may represent one facet of delayed hypersensitivity or that a slow virus is the responsible aetiological agent. Although lymphoid interstitial pneumonia has previously been reported as an isolated entity, the evidence from this case suggests that it might represent part of pluri-systemic disease. Images PMID:5571322

  7. Reduction of low grade inflammation restores blunting of postprandial muscle anabolism and limits sarcopenia in old rats

    PubMed Central

    Rieu, Isabelle; Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Averous, Julien; Bos, Cécile; Peyron, M A; Combaret, Lydie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by a decline in muscle mass that could be explained by a defect in the regulation of postprandial muscle protein metabolism. Indeed, the stimulatory effect of food intake on protein synthesis and its inhibitory effect on proteolysis is blunted in old muscles from both animals and humans. Recently, low grade inflammation has been suspected to be one of the factors responsible for the decreased sensitivity of muscle protein metabolism to food intake. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of long-term prevention of low grade inflammation on muscle protein metabolism during ageing. Old rats (20 months of age) were separated into two groups: a control group and a group (IBU) in which low grade inflammation had been reduced with a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (ibuprofen). After 5 months of treatment, inflammatory markers and cytokine levels were significantly improved in treated old rats when compared with the controls: −22.3% fibrinogen, −54.2%α2-macroglobulin, +12.6% albumin, −59.6% IL6 and −45.9% IL1β levels. As expected, food intake had no effect on muscle protein synthesis or muscle proteolysis in controls whereas it significantly increased muscle protein synthesis by 24.8% and significantly decreased proteolysis in IBU rats. The restoration of muscle protein anabolism at the postprandial state by controlling the development of low grade inflammation in old rats significantly decreased muscle mass loss between 20 and 25 months of age. In conclusion, the observations made in this study have identified low grade inflammation as an important target for pharmacological, nutritional and lifestyle interventions that aim to limit sarcopenia and muscle weakness in the rapidly growing elderly population in Europe and North America. PMID:19752122

  8. Phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas: possible role for increased mTOR activation in a subset

    PubMed Central

    Jentoft, Mark; Giannini, Caterina; Cen, Ling; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Hoesley, Bridget; Sarkaria, Jann N; Abell-Aleff, Patrice C; Rodriguez, Erika F; Li, Ying; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2011-01-01

    Low grade astrocytomas are the most common CNS tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) patients. While most are classic pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), some are difficult to classify, and have been termed “low grade astrocytoma subtype indeterminate” (LGSI). Some of these tumors exhibit peculiar morphologies, including plump cytoplasmic processes and macronucleoli. In the current study we performed electron microscopy, followed by gene expression, immunohistochemicai and western blot analyses in an effort to identify biological differences underlying phenotypic variation in NF1-associated low grade astrocytoma. Electron microscopy demonstrated intermediate filaments and frequent Rosenthal fiber material in both PA and LGSI. Dense core granules and/or aligned microtubules were present in the LGSI group (2 of 3 cases) and in the PA group (1 of 10 cases). Analysis of global gene expression data obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus2.0 chips (5 PA, 1 LGSI), and western blot analysis for phospho-S6 (1 LGSI, 2 PA) demonstrated a gene expression profile reflecting “neuronal differentiation” and increased phospho-S6 immunoreactivity consistent with mTOR activation in the LGSI compared with PA. These findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry for neuronal markers, as well as combined phospho-S6/ phospho-p70S6K immunoreactivity in 4 (of 4) LGSI vs. 5 (of 13) NF1-associated PA (p=0.02), and 13 (of 39) sporadic PA. Phospho-ERK immunoreactivity was uniformly present in PA and LGSI groups, while BRAF duplication was absent by FISH in 8 NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas. In summary, differential expression of neuronal-related genes and increased mTOR activation may underlie phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas. PMID:21228927

  9. Intranasal immunization with polymer-grafted microparticles activates the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, P L; Brook, M A; Underdown, B J; McDermott, M R

    1998-01-01

    Waldeyer's ring is located at the juncture of the respiratory and alimentary tracts, where it is bombarded by inhaled and ingested antigens. However, knowledge of its exact function or consequences of its removal is incomplete. Recently, the murine nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) has been reported to have functional similarities to Waldeyer's ring and, thus, might be a suitable model to examine the function of oronasopharyngeal lymphoid tissues. To explore the capability of NALT to incite local mucosal and systemic immunity, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (TS-PDMS)-grafted microparticles (MP), an inoculant previously shown to induce robust systemic and mucosal humoral immunity following intragastric (i.g.) administration. We demonstrated that i.n. immunization with low doses of microentrapped, but not soluble, human serum albumin (HSA) evoked robust circulating IgG responses (P < 0.05). Additionally, NALT cells isolated from MP-treated mice proliferated in vitro when restimulated with HSA (P < 0.05), suggesting that i.n. immunization with HSA-containing MP incited specific immunity via NALT cell activation. Coinciding with these observations, after i.n. MP administration HSA-specific spot-forming cells (SFC) were observed in NALT, and later posterior cervical lymph nodes (pCLN) and spleen (SPL), suggesting that the observed MP-induced specific systemic antibody responses emanated from the NALT. We also showed that i.n. immunization with HSA-containing TS-PDMS-grafted MP stimulated interleukin-4 (IL-4)-secreting lymphocytes in the NALT. This cytokine microenvironment was probably responsible for driving the IgG1 sera response observed after i.n. MP administration, via the migration of NALT-derived IgG1-committed B cells. Interestingly, unlike i.g. MP administration, i.n. immunization with HSA-containing MP did not evoke detectable specific IgA in any lymphoid tissue examined, or in nasal secretions, probably reflecting differences between NALT and other mucosae-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). PMID:9616375

  10. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

  11. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  12. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%. PMID:25840036

  13. Disturbed Small-World Networks and Neurocognitive Function in Frontal Lobe Low-Grade Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Xinhua; Ding, Shangwen; Qian, Jingguang; Lei, Ting; Cao, Xuan; Tao, Ling; Qian, Zhiyu; Liu, Hongyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain tumor patients often associated with losses of the small-world configuration and neurocognitive functions before operations. However, few studies were performed on the impairments of frontal lobe low-grade gliomas (LGG) after tumor resection using small-world network features. Methodology/Principal Findings To detect differences in the whole brain topology among LGG patients before and after operation, a combined study of neurocognitive assessment and graph theoretical network analysis of fMRI data was performed. We collected resting-state fMRI data of 12 carefully selected frontal lobe LGG patients before and after operation. We calculated the topological properties of brain functional networks in the 12 LGG, and compared with 12 healthy controls (HCs). We also applied Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in a subset of patients (n = 12, including before and after operation groups) and HCs (n = 12). The resulting functional connectivity matrices were constructed for all 12 patients, and binary network analysis was performed. In the range of , the functional networks in preoperative LGG and postoperative one both fitted the definition of small-worldness. We proposed as small-world network interval, and the results showed that the topological properties were found to be disrupted in the two LGG groups, meanwhile the global efficiency increased and the local efficiency decreased. in the two LGG groups both were longer than HCs. in the LGG groups were smaller than HCs. Compared with the Hcs, MoCA in the two LGG groups were lower than HCs with significant difference, and the disturbed networks in the LGG were negatively related to worse MoCA scores. Conclusions Disturbed small-worldness preperty in the two LGG groups was found and widely spread in the strength and spatial organization of brain networks, and the alterated small-world network may be responsible for cognitive dysfunction in frontal lobe LGG patients. PMID:24714669

  14. A disconnection account of subjective empathy impairments in diffuse low-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Costi, Emanuele; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Human empathic experience is a multifaceted psychological construct which arises from functional integration of multiple neural networks. Despite accumulating knowledge about the cortical circuitry of empathy, almost nothing is known about the connectivity that may be concerned in conveying empathy-related neural information. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we studied dispositional empathy in a large-sized cohort of 107 patients who had undergone surgery for a diffuse low-grade glioma. The self-report questionnaire used enabled us to obtain a global measure of subjective empathy but also, importantly, to assess the two main components of empathy (cognitive and emotional). Data were processed by combining voxelwise and tractwise lesion-symptom analyses. Several major findings emerged from our analyses. First of all, topological voxelwise analyses were inconclusive. Conversely, tractwise multiple regression analyses, including all major associative white matter pathways as potential predictors, yielded to significant models explaining substantial part of the behavioural variance. Among the main results, we found that disconnection of the left cingulum bundle was a strong predictor of a low cognitive empathy (p<0.0005 Bonferroni-corrected). Similarly, we found that disconnection of the right uncinate fasciculus and the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus predicted, respectively, a low (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) and a high (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) subjective empathy. Finally, although we failed to relate emotional empathy to disruption of a specific tract, correlation analyses indicated a positive association between this component of empathy and the volumes of residual lesion infiltration in the right hemisphere (p<0.01). Taken as a whole, these findings provide key fundamental insights into the anatomical connectivity of empathy. They may help to better understand the pathophysiology of empathy impairments in pathological conditions characterized by abnormalities of long-range anatomical connectivity, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and fronto-temporal dementia. PMID:25687031

  15. Phase II Trial of Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The use of radiotherapy in pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG) is controversial, especially for young patients. We conducted a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) to estimate disease control by using a 10-mm clinical target volume (CTV) margin. Materials and Methods Between August 1997 and August 2006, 78 pediatric patients with LGG and a median age of 8.9 years (range, 2.2 to 19.8 years) received 54 Gy CRT by using a 10-mm CTV and by targeting with systematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registration. Tumor locations were diencephalon (n = 58), cerebral hemisphere (n = 3), and cerebellum (n = 17). Sixty-seven patients had documented or presumed WHO grade 1 tumors, 25 patients had prior chemotherapy, and 13 patients had neurofibromatosis type 1. Results During a median follow-up of 89 months, 13 patients experienced disease progression. One patient experienced marginal treatment failure, eight experienced local failures, and four experienced metastatic failure. The mean and standard error 5- and 10-year event-free (87.4% ± 4.4% and 74.3% ± 15.4%, respectively) and overall (98.5% ± 1.6% and 95.9% ± 5.8%, respectively) survival rates were determined. The mean and standard error cumulative incidences of local failure at 5 and 10 years were 8.7% ± 3.5% and 16.4% ± 5.4%, respectively. The mean and standard error cumulative incidence of vasculopathy was 4.79% ± 2.73% at 6 years, and it was higher for those younger than 5 years of age (P = .0105) at the time of CRT. Conclusion This large, prospective series of irradiated children with LGG demonstrates that CRT with a 10-mm CTV does not compromise disease control. The results suggest that CRT should be delayed in young patients to reduce the risk of vasculopathy. PMID:19581536

  16. Survival and long-term health and cognitive outcomes after low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Gregory T.; Conklin, Heather M.; Huang, Sujuan; Srivastava, Deokumar; Sanford, Robert; Ellison, David W.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Hoehn, Mary Ellen; Robison, Leslie L.; Gajjar, Amar; Morris, E. Brannon

    2011-01-01

    Long-term morbidity for children with low-grade glioma (LGG) requires exposure-specific characterization. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated for 361 children diagnosed with LGG between 1985 and 2007 at a single institution. Five-year survivors (n = 240) received risk-based clinical assessment. Cumulative incidence of late effects 15 years from diagnosis were estimated. Risk factors for adverse health were identified using Fine and Gray's approach to Cox's proportional hazards model, accounting for death as a competing risk. OS at 15 years was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82%–90%), and PFS was 55% (95% CI 51%–58%). Among the 240 5-year survivors, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year cumulative incidence of adverse outcomes included blindness: 10%, 13%, and 18%, respectively; hearing loss: 8%, 14%, and 22%; obesity/overweight: 18%, 35%, and 53%; hyperinsulinism: 1%, 5%, and 24%; growth hormone deficiency: 13%, 27%, and 29%;thyroid hormone deficiency: 16%, 28%, and 33%; and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency: 12%, 22%, and 26%. Multivariable models demonstrated radiation therapy to be a significant independent predictor of hearing loss, growth hormone deficiency, abnormal thyroid function, and ACTH deficiency. Diencephalic location was a statistically significant independent risk factor for blindness, growth hormone deficiency, abnormal thyroid function, and ACTH deficiency. Among the 182 5-year survivors assessed for intellectual function, 34% had an intelligence quotient (IQ) below average (<85), associated with younger age at diagnosis, epilepsy, and shunt placement. Survivors of childhood LGG experience substantial long-term adverse effects that continue to increase well beyond the 5-year survival time point. PMID:21177781

  17. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Murchie, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced spatial and spectral resolution provided by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has led to the discovery of numerous hydrated silicate minerals on Mars, particularly in the ancient, cratered crust comprising the southern highlands. Phases recently identified using visible/near-infrared spectra include: smectite, chlorite, prehnite, high-charge phyllosilicates (illite or muscovite), the zeolite analcime, opaline silica, and serpentine. Some mineral assemblages represent the products of aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures. Geologic occurrences of these mineral assemblages are described using examples from west of the Isidis basin near the Nili Fossae and with reference to differences in implied temperature, fluid composition, and starting materials during alteration. The alteration minerals are not distributed homogeneously. Rather, certain craters host distinctive alteration assemblages: (1) prehnite-chlorite-silica, (2) analcime-silica-Fe,Mg-smectite-chlorite, (3) chlorite-illite (muscovite), and (4) serpentine, which furthermore has been found in bedrock units. These assemblages contrast with the prevalence of solely Fe,Mg-smectites in most phyllosilicate-bearing terrains on Mars, and they represent materials altered at depth then exposed by cratering. Of the minerals found to date, prehnite provides the clearest evidence for subsurface, hydrothermal/metamorphic alteration, as it forms only under highly restricted conditions (T = 200 400??C). Multiple mechanisms exist for forming the other individual minerals; however, the most likely formation mechanisms for the characteristic mineralogic assemblages observed are, for (1) and (2), low- grade metamorphism or hydrothermal (400??C has not been found.

  18. White matter compromise predicts poor intellectual outcome in survivors of pediatric low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Scantlebury, Nadia; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Laughlin, Suzanne; Strother, Douglas; McConnell, Dina; Hukin, Juliette; Fryer, Chris; Brière, Marie-Eve; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Keene, Daniel; Wang, Frank; Mabbott, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the impact of cranial radiation on white matter following treatment for pediatric brain tumor has been the focus of many recent studies, the effect of treatment in the absence of radiation has received little attention. The relations between white matter and cognitive outcome have not been explored in patients who have undergone radiation-free treatment. As most patients treated without cranial radiation survive long after their diagnosis, it is critical to identify factors that may impact structural and neurocognitive outcomes. Methods Using diffusion tensor imaging, we examined white matter structure in 32 patients with pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) (19 with subtentorial location and 13 with supratentorial location) and 32 healthy participants. Indices of intellectual functioning were also evaluated. Radiation was not used to treat this cohort, aged 8–19 years. Results We detected evidence of deficits in IQ and compromised supra- and subtentorial white matter in patients relative to healthy children (P < .05). Compromise of supratentorial white matter mediated the impact of treatment for PLGG on IQ. Greater white matter compromise was observed in patients who presented without multiple symptoms, were treated with biopsy/no surgery, had positive neurofibromatosis 1 status, were younger age at diagnosis, and whose parents had lower levels of education (P < .05). Conclusions Our findings provide evidence of increased risk of intellectual and white matter compromise in patients treated for PLGG without radiation. We identify a neural origin of cognitive deficit useful for predicting outcome and mitigating long-term adverse effects in pediatric brain tumor patients treated without cranial radiation. PMID:25395463

  19. Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO.

    PubMed

    Cubukcuoglu, B; Ouki, S K

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of low grade MgO (LGMgO) for the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace wastes. Relevant characteristics such as setting time, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behaviour assessed by acid neutralisation capacity (ANC), monolithic and granular leaching tests were examined in light of the UK landfill Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal. The results demonstrated that all studied mix designs with Portland cement type 1 (CEM1) and LGMgO, CEM1-LGMgO 1:2 and 1:4 at 40% and 70% waste addition met the WAC requirements by means of UCS, initial and final setting times and consistence. Most of the ANC results met the WAC limits where the threshold pH values without acid additions were stable and between 11.9 and 12.2 at 28d. Granular leaching results indicate fixation of most of the metals at all mix ratios. An optimum ratio was obtained at CEM1-LGMgO 1:4 at 40% waste additions where none of the metals leaching exceeded the WAC limits and hence may be considered for landfill disposal. The monolithic leaching test results showed that LGMgO performed satisfactorily with respect to S/S of Zn, as the metal component present at the highest concentration level in the waste exhibited very little leaching and passed the leaching test requirement at all mix ratios studied. However, its performance with respect to Pb, Cd and Cr was less effective in reducing their leaching suggesting a higher cumulative rate under those leaching regimes. PMID:22172635

  20. IDH mutation is associated with higher risk of malignant transformation in low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Leu, Severina; von Felten, Stefanie; Frank, Stephan; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Mariani, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Acquisition of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDHmut) is among the earliest genetic events that take place in the development of most low-grade glioma (LGG). IDHmut has been associated with longer overall patient survival. However, its impact on malignant transformation (MT) remains to be defined. A collection of 210 archived adult LGG previously stratified by IDHmut, MGMT methylation (MGMTmet), 1p/19q combined loss of heterozygosity (1p19qloh) and TP53 immunopositivity (TP53pos) status was analyzed. We used multistate models to assess MT-free survival, considering one initial, one transient (MT), and one absorbing state (death). Missing explanatory variables were multiply imputed. Overall, although associated with a lower risk of death (HRDEATH=0.35, P=0.0023), IDHmut had a non-significantly higher risk of MT (HRMT=1.84; P=0.1683) compared to IDH wild type (IDHwt). The double combination of IDHmut and MGMTmet and the triple combination of IDHmut, MGMTmet and 1p/19qloh, despite significantly lower hazards for death (HRDEATH versus IDHwt: 0.35, P=0.0194 and 0.15, P=0.0008, respectively), had non-significantly different hazards for MT. Conversely, the triple combination of IDHmut/MGMTmet/TP53pos, with a non-significantly different hazard for death, had a significantly higher hazard for MT than IDHwt (HRMT versus IDHwt: 2.83; P=0.0452). Although IDHmut status is associated with longer overall patient survival, all IDHmut/MGMTmet subsets consistently showed higher risks of MT than of death, compared to IDHwt LGG. This supports the findings that molecular events relevant to IDH mutations impact early glioma development prior to malignant transformation. PMID:26780338

  1. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

  2. Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Habrand, Jean-Louis Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic; Petras, Slavo; Datchary, Jean; Grill, Jacques; Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie; Sainte-Rose, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

  3. The Immune Protective Effect of the Mediterranean Diet against Chronic Low-grade Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  4. Ongoing and prolonged response in adult low-grade gliomas treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ducray, F; Kaloshi, G; Houillier, C; Idbaih, A; Ribba, B; Psimaras, D; Marie, Y; Boisselier, B; Alentorn, A; Dainese, L; Navarro, S; Mokhtari, K; Sanson, M; Hoang-Xuan, K; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line radiotherapy on low-grade gliomas (LGGs) growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 39 LGGs was retrospectively measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n = 16) and after radiotherapy onset (n = 39). After radiotherapy, a decrease of the MTD was observed in 37 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 1.9 years (range 0-8.1 years). According to RANO criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 15 and 28 % at the first evaluation after radiotherapy and 36 and 34 % at the time of maximal MTD decrease. The presence of a 1p19q codeletion and the absence of p53 expression were associated with longer durations of MTD decrease (5.3 vs 1 years, p = 0.02 and 2.4 vs 1.8 years, p = 0.05, respectively) while no association was observed between IDH1-R132H expression and duration of MTD decrease. In most patients, MTD decrease after radiotherapy occurred in two phases: an initial phase of rapid MTD decrease followed by a second phase of slower MTD decrease. Patients with a high rate of MTD decrease during the initial phase (>7 mm/year) had both a shorter duration of response (1.9 vs 5.3 years, p = 0.003) and a shorter overall survival (5.5 vs 11.6 years, p = 0.0004). LGGs commonly display a prolonged and ongoing volume decrease after radiotherapy. However, patients who respond rapidly should be carefully monitored because they are at a higher risk of rapid progression. PMID:23955572

  5. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  6. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients' QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  7. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients’ QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  8. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kavita K; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M; Prados, Michael D; Berger, Mitchel S; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2010-10-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3-16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3-20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  9. Low-grade risk of hypercoagulable state in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Rhone, Piotr; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Bielawski, Kornel; Fijałkowska, Agata; Nowakowska, Aleksandra; Rhone, Elżbieta; Rość, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes, including type 1 and type 2, is associated with the hypercoagulable state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentration of selected hemostatic parameters and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in diabetic subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 27 patients having uncontrolled diabetes with microalbuminuria and Group II included 35 well-controlled diabetic patients. The control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. In the citrate plasma, the concentrations of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes, and D-dimer were assayed. Serum concentrations of VEGF-A, lipid profile, creatinine, and plasma fasting glucose were measured and in the versene plasma the concentration of HbA1c was determined. Results: In the patients with uncontrolled diabetes, higher concentrations of TF, TFPI, and VEGF-A were observed, as compared with the well-controlled diabetics group and the control group. A significantly lower activity of antiplasmin was reported in patients from Group I as compared with the control group. In Group I, using the multivariate regression analysis, the glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with VEGF-A and dependently associated with total cholesterol. Conclusions: The study showed higher concentrations of TF and TFPI in the patients with uncontrolled diabetes with microalbuminuria, which is associated with rapid neutralization of the thrombin formation, since TFPI inhibits the complex of TF/VIIa/Ca2+. The manifestation of the above suggestions is the correct TAT complexes and D-dimer, which indicates a low grade of prothrombotic risk in this group of patients, but a higher risk of vascular complications. PMID:26365121

  10. Modulating apoptosis pathways in low-grade B-cell malignancies using biological response modifiers.

    PubMed

    Reed, John C; Kitada, Shinichi; Kim, Youngsoo; Byrd, John

    2002-02-01

    Collectively, low-grade B-cell malignancies constitute the fifth most common form of potentially lethal cancer in North America and Europe, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (FL) representing the most prevalent of these disorders. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and FL represent quintessential examples of human malignancies that are caused primarily by defects in programmed cell death (apoptosis). During the early stages of disease, the mature B lymphocytes that comprise most CLLs and FLs are largely quiescent G(0) phase cells, which accumulate not because they are dividing more rapidly than normal but because they survive longer than their normal counterparts because of defects in the normal pathways for apoptosis. Defects in apoptosis pathways contribute to chemoresistance, rendering tumor cells less sensitive to the cytotoxic actions of currently available anticancer drugs, and can also promote resistance to cellular immune responses. Several biological agents or their synthetic derivatives show promise as apoptosis modulators, having the potential to place neoplastic cells into a more susceptible state or activating latent programs for cell suicide. These biological response modifiers include monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab (Rituxan; Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA, and IDEC Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) that alter signal transduction pathways, cytokines such as TRAIL (Apo2 ligand), ligands for retinoid/steroid family nuclear receptors, and small-molecule compounds that bind and inhibit protein kinases. Knowledge about the mechanisms by which these agents influence apoptosis pathways in neoplastic diseases may suggest strategies for more effective and less toxic therapies for patients suffering from CLL, FL, and other malignancies. PMID:11842384

  11. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21 years –17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20 years–19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at pre-irradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. A total of 588 evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and pre-irradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r = .34; p = .01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (p < .05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions There was relative sparing of post-irradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities prior to the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation. PMID:23245284

  12. Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF-1 children.

    PubMed

    Hernáiz Driever, Pablo; von Hornstein, Stephan; Pietsch, Torsten; Kortmann, Rolf; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Emser, Angela; Gnekow, Astrid K

    2010-11-01

    Pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients are prone to developing low-grade glioma (LGG). The HIT-LGG study 1996 aimed to observe the natural history of pediatric LGG and to postpone irradiation in younger children by using carboplatinum and vincristine in case non-surgical treatment was required. A total of 109 of 1,044 (10.4%) protocol patients had a genetic NF-1 trait [57 female patients; median age 5.1 years (range 1-15.4 years)]. Eighty-three patients (76%) suffered from an optic pathway tumor. Neuroimaging only allowed diagnosis in 67 patients. Histology revealed pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I in 38 of 42 biopsied patients. Sixty-five (60%) patients received non-surgical treatment, either chemotherapy (n = 55) or irradiation (n = 10). The overall survival rate of 96% after a median observation time of 5.25 years contrasts with an event free survival rate (EFS) of 0.24 at 5 years. Progressive LGG were observed even in children older than 11 years. Chiasmatic/postchiasmatic localization was a univariate risk factor for progressive disease. In the chemotherapy group, we observed a 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 0.73. Similarly, the PFS rate in the irradiation group was 0.78. Multivariate analysis revealed surgical intervention and localization within the optic pathway as factors that increased the risk of tumor progression. In this large prospective multinational study, LGG in NF-1 patients did progress in 75% of patients. Chemotherapy yielded acceptable PFS. The biological factors determining progression remain poorly understood. PMID:20352473

  13. CD30L/CD30 is critical for maintenance of IL-17A-producing γδ T cells bearing Vγ6 in mucosa-associated tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Shibata, K; Yamada, H; Guo, Y; Muta, H; Podack, E R; Yoshikai, Y

    2013-11-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L, CD153), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and its receptor CD30 are important for differentiation and activation of CD4(+) T helper type 17 (Th17) cells. In this report, we demonstrate that the interleukin 17A (IL-17A)-producing γδ T cells normally developed in the fetal thymus, whereas Vγ1(-)Vγ4(-) γδ T cells expressed Vγ6/Vδ1 gene transcript selectively decreased in mucosa-associated tissues in naive CD30KO or CD30LKO mice. Moreover, CD30 and CD30L were expressed preferentially by Vγ1(-)Vγ4(-) γδ T cells in naive mice. The bacteria clearance was attenuated by the impaired response of the IL-17A-producing γδ T cells and decreased infiltration of neutrophils in CD30KO or CD30LKO mice. In vivo administration of agonistic anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody restored the ability of protection against Listeria monocytogenes by enhancing Vγ1(-)Vγ4(-) γδ T cells producing IL-17A not only in wild-type but also CD30LKO mice. Taken together, it appears that CD30L/CD30 signaling plays an important role in the maintenance and activation of IL-17A-producing γδ T cells presumably bearing Vγ6 in the mucosa-associated tissues of mice. PMID:23549449

  14. [Lymphoid lesions of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Costes, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Lymphoid lesions of the head and neck mainly affect four regions: Waldeyer's ring, nasal and paranasal sinus, oral cavity and salivary glands. Each site is affected by lymphoid proliferation that reflected the biology of local lymphocytes. Waldeyer's ring, functionally similar to the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract is most commonly affected by large B-cell lymphomas. The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are the typical site of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, a proliferation of cytotoxic, EBV infected cells. This lesion is sometimes difficult to distinguish from inflammatory processes as Wegener disease. Plasmablastic lymphoma have been first described in oral cavity in HIV patients. Endemic Burkitt lymphoma, considered as a polymicrobial disease associated with the t(14;18) translocation presented in the great majority of cases as a jaw tumor with oral extension. Salivary glands, not normally containing lymphoid tissue are the site of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis associated to Sjögren syndrome. It represents a pre lymphomatous state of marginal zone lymphoma. These different lymphoproliferations serve as a model for mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. PMID:19900637

  15. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody and Combination Chemotherapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  16. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with greater arterial stiffness over a 6-year period.

    PubMed

    van Bussel, Bas C; Schouten, Fleur; Henry, Ronald M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; de Boer, Michiel R; Ferreira, Isabel; Smulders, Yvo M; Twisk, Jos W; Stehouwer, Coen D

    2011-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffening plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and, thus, may be a mechanism through which endothelial dysfunction and/or low-grade inflammation lead to cardiovascular disease. We investigated the associations between, on the one hand, biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble endothelial selectin, thrombomodulin, and both vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules 1 and von Willebrand factor) and of low-grade inflammation (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor-α and, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1) and, on the other hand, arterial stiffness over a 6-year period, in 293 healthy adults (155 women). Biomarkers were combined into mean z scores. Carotid, femoral, and brachial arterial stiffness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were determined by ultrasonography. Measurements were obtained when individuals were 36 and 42 years of age. Associations were analyzed with generalized estimating equation and adjusted for sex, height, and mean arterial pressure. The endothelial dysfunction z score was inversely associated with femoral distensibility (β: -0.51 [95% CI: -0.95 to -0.06]) and compliance coefficients (β: -0.041 [95% CI: -0.076 to -0.006]) but not with carotid or brachial stiffness or carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The low-grade inflammation z score was inversely associated with femoral distensibility (β: -0.51 [95% CI: -0.95 to -0.07]) and compliance coefficients (β: -0.050 [95% CI: -0.084 to -0.016]) and with carotid distensibility coefficient (β: -0.910 [95% CI: -1.810 to -0.008]) but not with brachial stiffness or carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with greater arterial stiffness. This provides evidence that arterial stiffening may be a mechanism through which endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation lead to cardiovascular disease. PMID:21859964

  17. GE-01MOLECULAR AND PATHOLOGIC SUBSETS OF LOW GRADE GLIOMAS AND GLIONEURONAL TUMORS IDENTIFIED BY microRNA PROFILING

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Heather; Vizcaino, M. Adelita; Rodriguez, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing. Specific microRNAs are often suppressed during early cell differentiation to promote the expression of mitogenic proteins that are associated with the maintenance of specific stem cell types, a mechanism for growth and survival that is frequently exploited in cancer cells. Identification of these microRNA signatures present in low grade glioma and glioneuronal tumor sub-types could therefore lead to a wealth of candidate biomarkers. We used NanoString technology to analyze the expression levels of 800 microRNAs in nine low-grade glial and glioneuronal tumor subtypes (n = 45) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. We then generated hierarchical clusters following evaluation via significant analysis of microarrays (SAMs). Hierarchical clustering separated tumors from non-neoplastic brain. When looking at individual tumors, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) clustered sharply together, consistent with a unique microRNA expression signature in this tuberous sclerosis associated tumor subtype, compared to other low grade glial and glioneuronal tumors. Candidate microRNAs were validated using qRT-PCR. In SEGAs, microRNAs miR-219-5p, miR-129-2-3p, miR-338-3p, miR-487b, miR-885-5p, and miR-323-3p were significantly down-regulated by more than 15 fold as compared to normal brain and were also significantly down-regulated as compared to other low grade gliomas. In summary, altered microRNA expression is a feature of low grade glial and glioneuronal tumors. MicroRNA profiling may therefore be useful in subtyping these tumors and to provide important insights into their biology.

  18. [Lymphoid tissue in the wall of adult human gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Sapin, M R; Abirova, R E; Aminova, G G; Grigorenko, D E

    1998-01-01

    Lymphoid structures of mucosa and muscular coat from the gall bladder cervix, body and fornix were examined in histological preparations using morphometry and methods of variation statistics. Lymphocyte concentration in the organ walls grows proportionally to age. In the first period of maturity lymphoid nodules are absent in mucosal lamina propria while lymphoid nodules are rarely encountered among the cells of the fibroblastic series. Connective tissue layers of muscular coat are predominant sites of lymphoid aggregations. Senescence is characterised by the appearance of lymphoid nodules in the gall bladder mucosa. Cell concentration, structure and composition per unit area depend on nodule localization and the age of the individual. PMID:9621327

  19. Proposed therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma based on aggressive tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ikuta, Soko; Komori, Takashi; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Iseki, Hiroshi; Tamura, Manabu; Saito, Taiichi; Okamoto, Saori; Chernov, Mikhail; Hayashi, Motohiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT There is no standard therapeutic strategy for low-grade glioma (LGG). The authors hypothesized that adjuvant therapy might not be necessary for LGG cases in which total radiological resection was achieved. Accordingly, they established a treatment strategy based on the extent of resection (EOR) and the MIB-1 index: patients with a high EOR and low MIB-1 index were observed without postoperative treatment, whereas those with a low EOR and/or high MIB-1 index received radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy. In the present retrospective study, the authors reviewed clinical data on patients with primarily diagnosed LGGs who had been treated according to the above-mentioned strategy, and they validated the treatment policy. Given their results, they will establish a new treatment strategy for LGGs stratified by EOR, histological subtype, and molecular status. METHODS One hundred fifty-three patients with diagnosed LGG who had undergone resection or biopsy at Tokyo Women's Medical University between January 2000 and August 2010 were analyzed. The patients consisted of 84 men and 69 women, all with ages ? 15 years. A total of 146 patients underwent surgical removal of the tumor, and 7 patients underwent biopsy. RESULTS Postoperative RT and nitrosourea-based chemotherapy were administered in 48 and 35 patients, respectively. Extent of resection was significantly associated with both overall survival (OS; p = 0.0096) and progression-free survival (PFS; p = 0.0007) in patients with diffuse astrocytoma but not in those with oligodendroglial subtypes. Chemotherapy significantly prolonged PFS, especially in patients with oligodendroglial subtypes (p = 0.0009). Patients with a mutant IDH1 gene had significantly longer OS (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis did not identify MIB-1 index or RT as prognostic factors, but it did identify chemotherapy as a prognostic factor for PFS and EOR as a prognostic factor for OS and PFS. CONCLUSIONS The findings demonstrated that EOR was significantly correlated with patient survival; thus, one should aim for maximum tumor resection. In addition, patients with a higher EOR can be safely observed without adjuvant therapy. For patients with partial resection, postoperative chemotherapy should be administered for those with oligodendroglial subtypes, and repeat resection should be considered for those with astrocytic tumors. More aggressive treatment with RT and chemotherapy may be required for patients with a poor prognosis, such as those with diffuse astrocytoma, 1p/19q nondeleted tumors, or IDH1 wild-type oligodendroglial tumors with partial resection. PMID:25599276

  20. AT-42FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF LOW-GRADE GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, Keisuke; Nitta, Masayuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Saito, Taichi; Ikuta, Shoko; Okada, Yoshikazu; Iseki, Hiroshi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no standard therapeutic regimen for low-grade glioma (LGG). We have suggested extent of resection (EOR) was strongly associated with prognosis of LGG. About half of LGG eventually show malignant transformation (MT), MT is an important factor in determining prognosis of LGG. Therefore, it is important to definite factors associated with MT. In this study, we investigated correlation between MT and genetic profile and adjuvant therapy in LGG. METHOD: 151 patients (Male: Female = 80:71) with LGG treated in our institute from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up period was 41months, follow-up ratio was 96, and the average age was 39.1 year-old (15-65). Diffuse astrocytoma (DA) accounted 47 patients (31), oligodendroglioma (O) was 55 patients (37), oligoastrocytoma (OA) was 44 patients (29). The median Mib-1 index was 4.8. IDH1 mutation and co-deletion of 1p19q locus were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FISH method, respectively. RESULT: The average and median EOR of T2 high area was 85 and 95, respectively. ACNU based chemotherapy was performed in 35 patients and radiotherapy in 48 patients. IDH1 mutation and 1p19q co-deletion were 75 and 57%, respectively. 48 patients out of 151 recurred and 29 patients were MT. Patients without IDH1 mutation (P = 0.025) or 1p19q deletion (P = 0.001) showed significant higher rate of MT. In analysis of all patients, EOR strongly correlated with MT (P = 0.0002). EOR correlated with MT in DA (P = 0.0003) but not in oligodendroglial subtypes (P = 0.7). In IDH1 mutant group, chemotherapy reduced MT (P = 0.004), however, in IDH1 wild-type group, both radiotherapy (P = 0.004) and chemotherapy (P = 0.006) brought higher incidence of MT. CONCLUSION: EOR significantly prevented MT in DA. It was suggested that IDH1 was a predictive factor for MT following radiotherapy and chemotherapy in LGG. Extensive resection is required for IDH1 wild type DA.

  1. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p < 0.05) solid loss and cooked weight. Utilization of PLR flakes in nutritious bar resulted in highly crispy and crunchy texture, enhanced flavor and taste as compared to control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P < 0.05) trend for moisture and FFA content from initial to 90 days of storage. The lowest TPC was observed for noodles and highest for burfi (though in safe limits). Extruded snacks (control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study signifies the utilitarian value of PLRVs in making products of convenience/commercial importance. PMID:25477636

  2. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Methods Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l1l2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. Results We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs, but still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. Conclusions The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs. PMID:23947815

  3. Involvement of gut microbiota in the development of low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes associated with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Patrice D.; Osto, Melania; Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations related to glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. These metabolic alterations are associated with low-grade inflammation that contributes to the onset of these diseases. We and others have provided evidence that gut microbiota participates in whole-body metabolism by affecting energy balance, glucose metabolism, and low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders. Recently, we defined gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (and metabolic endotoxemia) as a factor involved in the onset and progression of inflammation and metabolic diseases. In this review, we discuss mechanisms involved in the development of metabolic endotoxemia such as the gut permeability. We also discuss our latest discoveries demonstrating a link between the gut microbiota, endocannabinoid system tone, leptin resistance, gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2), and metabolic features. Finally, we will introduce the role of the gut microbiota in specific dietary treatments (prebiotics and probiotics) and surgical interventions (gastric bypass). PMID:22572877

  4. Incidental Diagnosis of an Asymptomatic Hydatid Cyst Through Low-Grade 18F-FDG Uptake in the Peripheral Rim.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandigam S; Barve, Ketaki; Joshi, Jyotsna; Basu, Sandip

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a case of an untreated, asymptomatic, pulmonary hydatid cyst incidentally diagnosed on the basis of atypically low-grade (18)F-FDG uptake in the peripheral rim and a minimal increase in uptake on dual-point (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The patient underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT for characterization of a solitary lung lesion found on chest radiography and inconclusive findings on contrast-enhanced CT. Although the diagnosis was confirmed by a serum indirect hemagglutination assay positive for Echinococcus granulosus, the low-grade (18)F-FDG uptake in the context of the asymptomatic presentation was noteworthy, as it could be related to minimal active inflammation. Our case, together with similar previously published findings, leads to the hypothesis that inflammatory (18)F-FDG uptake may be an additional determinant of the cause of symptoms in these patients. PMID:26111709

  5. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  6. Retrospective protein expression and epigenetic inactivation studies of CDH1 in patients affected by low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Pietro Ivo; D'Urso, Oscar Fernando; Storelli, Carlo; Catapano, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Muscella, Antonella; Marsigliante, Santo

    2011-08-01

    Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of tumour cells results in loss of gene function. In addition to genetic lesions, changes in the methylation profile of the promoters may be considered a factor for tumour-specific aberrant expression of the genes.We investigated the methylation status of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter in low-grade glioma and correlated it with clinical outcome. Eighty-four cases of low-grade glioma (43 diffuse astrocytomas, 27 oligodendrogliomas and 14 oligoastrocytomas) with assessable paraffin-embedded tumour blocks and normal brain tissue, derived from non-cancerous tissue adjacent to tumour and commercially normal brain tissue, were collected, from which we determined CDH1 promoter methylation status and E-cadherin protein expression by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CDH1 promoter was found hypermethylated in 54 out of 84 low grade gliomas (64%) compared with 84 normal brain tissue. CDH1 hypermethylation was found in 65% astrocytomas, 66% oligodendrogliomas and 57% oligoastrocytomas. A significant correlation between hypermethylation status, patient survival and progression-free survival was found (P = 0.04). Survival and progression-free survival were lower in patients with hypermethylated CDH1 promoter. We found that 15 astrocytomas, 9 oligodendrogliomas and 6 oligoastrocytomas were immunoreactive for E-cadherin. The incidence of loss of immunoreactivity for E-cadherin decreased significantly with age, overall survival and progression-free survival (P = 0.001, Kaplan-Meier test). We have demonstrated that CDH1 promoter hypermethylation significantly associated with down-regulated E-cadherin expression and overall survival of patients. This may have a bearing on the prognosis of low-grade glioma. PMID:21127944

  7. Upgrading of consumer characteristics of granulated solid fuel from mixture of low-grade coal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Milovanov, O. Yu; Sinelshchikov, V. A.; Sytchev, G. A.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Effect of torrefaction on consumer characteristics of fuel pellets made of low-grade and agricultural waste is shown. Data on the volatile content, ash content, calorific value and hygroscopicity for initial pellets and pellets, heat-treated at various temperatures are presented. The experimental study of the combustion process of initial and heat-treated pellets showed that torrefaction of pellets leads to a decreasing of the ignition temperature and an increasing of the efficiency of boiler plant.

  8. The use of proton therapy in the treatment of benign or low-grade pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Bree R; Yock, Torunn

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays a critical role in the local tumor control of benign and low-grade central nervous system tumors in children but is not without the risk of long-term treatment-related sequelae. Proton therapy (PRT) is an advanced RT modality with a unique dose-deposition pattern that allows for treatment of a target volume with reduced scatter dose delivered to normal tissues compared with conventional photon RT and is now increasingly utilized in children with the hope of mitigating radiation-induced late effects. This article reviews the current literature evaluating the use of PRT in benign and low-grade pediatric central nervous system tumors such as low-grade glioma, craniopharyngioma, and ependymoma. Multiple dosimetric studies support the use of PRT by demonstrating the ability of PRT to better spare critical structures important for cognitive development, endocrine function, and hearing preservation and to reduce the total body dose associated with second malignancy risk. Early clinical data demonstrate that PRT is well tolerated with rates of local tumor control comparable to conventional photon RT series, and long-term clinical data are awaited. PMID:25415686

  9. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

  10. Slip Reduction Rate between Minimal Invasive and Conventional Unilateral Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in Patients with Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Lee, Junho; Hyun, Dong Keun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the slip reduction rate and clinical outcomes between unilateral conventional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (conventional TLIF) and unilateral minimal invasive TLIF (minimal TLIF) with pedicle screw fixation for treatment of one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. Methods Between February 2008 and April 2012, 25 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent conventional TLIF (12 patients) and minimal TLIF (13 patients) in single university hospital by a single surgeon. Lateral radiographs of lumbar spine were taken 12 months after surgery to analyze the degree of slip reduction and the clinical outcome. All measurements were performed by a single observer. Results The demographic data between conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF were not different. Slip percentage was reduced from 15.00% to 8.33% in conventional TLIF, and from 14.15% to 9.62% in minimal TLIF. In both groups, slip percentage was significantly improved postoperatively (p=0.002), but no significant intergroup differences of slip percentage in preoperative and postoperative were found. The reduction rate also not different between conventional TLIF (45.41±28.80%) and minimal TLIF (32.91±32.12%, p=0.318). Conclusion Conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF with pedicle screw fixation showed good slip reduction in patients with one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. The slip percentage and reduction rate were similar in the conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF. PMID:24891854

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in the airways.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer A; McKenzie, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The airways, similar to other mucosal surfaces, are continuously exposed to the outside environment and a barrage of antigens, allergens, and microorganisms. Of critical importance therefore is the ability to mount rapid and effective immune responses to control commensal and pathogenic microbes, while simultaneously limiting the extent of these responses to prevent immune pathology and chronic inflammation. The function of the adaptive immune response in controlling these processes at mucosal surfaces has been well documented but the important role of the innate immune system, particularly the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells, has only lately become apparent. In this review, we give an overview of the innate lymphoid cells that exist in the airways and examine the evidence pertaining to their emerging roles in airways immunity, inflammation, and homeostasis. PMID:22678892

  12. Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are part of a heterogeneous family of innate immune cells with newly identified roles in mediating immunity, tissue homeostasis and pathologic inflammation. Here, we review recent studies delineating the roles of ILCs in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory skin disorders and their unique effector functions. Finally, we address how these studies have informed our understanding of the regulation of ILCs and the therapeutic potential of targeting these cells in the context of skin inflammation. PMID:25339380

  13. Could pathogens be nutrients for lymphoid cells?

    PubMed

    Nacar, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic and immune systems are very important for a living organism to survive. Since they play crucial roles in maintaining homeostasis, both systems work interdependently. In metabolic disorders like obesity and related diseases, lot of reports have been published about immune system impairment. In addition, in the case of malnutrition and calorie restriction, immune system is affected through several mechanisms. Different from the current point of view, I propose an unusual way of thinking about the relationship between immune and metabolic systems. The nutrient-based ecosystemic balance; the simple desires and rules like feeding or reproduction underlying very complex relations among species; the beneficial effects of caloric restriction; and the similarities between the pathways contributing obesity and infection made me look from a different perspective. Based on ecology and systems thinking, the present hypotheses suggest that pathologic organisms could be a kind of dietary source for lymphoid cells. If it is true, it will bring new and hopeful insights to all events related to metabolic and immune systems. At first, new mechanisms could be improved to defeat unbeatable organisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis or HIV. The unphagocytosed organisms could be unknown tastes for our body's defenders. For example, the lymphoid cells could be classified as virovores, bacterivores, or fungivores like herbivores, and carnivores. Secondly, this basic relation could be used to solve huge problems caused by obesity related disorders like diabetes, because insulin would play more important roles for lymphoid cells while regulating the blood glucose level if the hypothesis is true. And the persistence of hyperglycemia would mainly effect lymphoid cells according to the current hypothesis. PMID:17448612

  14. The Role of Lymphoid Neogenesis in Allografts.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H-M; Li, W; Gelman, A E; Krupnick, A S; Kreisel, D

    2016-04-01

    De novo induction of organized lymphoid aggregates at nonlymphoid sites has been observed in many chronic inflammatory conditions where foreign antigens such as infectious agents, autoantigens or alloantigens, persist. The prevailing opinion in the field of transplantation is that lymphoid neogenesis within allografts is detrimental to the establishment of immune tolerance. These structures, commonly referred to as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs), are thought to contribute to graft rejection by generating and propagating local alloimmune responses. However, recent studies have shown that TLOs rich in regulatory Foxp3(+) cells are present in long-term accepting allografts. The notion that TLOs can contribute to the local downregulation of immune responses has been corroborated in other chronic inflammation models. These findings suggest that contrary to previous suggestions that the induction of TLOs in allografts is necessarily harmful, the induction of "tolerogenic" TLOs may prove advantageous. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TLOs are induced and how they regulate immune responses with a particular focus on alloimmunity. PMID:26614734

  15. The lymphoid follicle variant of dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Pehl, Debora; Aronica, Eleonora; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Schneider, Udo; Heppner, Frank L.; de Visser, Marianne; Goebel, Hans H.; Stenzel, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and morphologic spectrum of early adultonset dermatomyositis (DM), an inflammatory disease that affects small vessels of the muscle and the skin. Methods: Histologic evaluation of frozen muscle samples was employed to visualize the cellular organization of ectopic lymphoid structures in muscle biopsies obtained from 2 patients diagnosed with DM. Clinical presentation and morphologic features, as well as treatment and follow-up, were assessed and documented. Electron microscopy was used to confirm the light microscopic diagnosis of DM. Clonality analysis of B-cell populations using PCR was performed. Results: Muscle biopsy of both patients fulfilled the morphologic European Neuromuscular Centre criteria of DM. Analyses of muscle biopsy samples revealed ectopic lymphoid follicle-like structures that showed a remarkable similarity to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) with distinct T- and B-cell compartmentalization. Our 2 patients exhibited an atypical and mild clinical presentation and responded favorably to therapy. Conclusions: The clinical and histopathologic features of DM can be atypical, and the presence of SLOs is not inevitably linked to an unfavorable prognosis. PMID:25340071

  16. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  17. Fluid composition and mineral equilibria in low grade metamorphic rocks, Bündnerschiefer, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, G. D.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions (FI) hosted in quartz veins from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bündnerschiefer (two locations near Thusis and Schiers that represent subgreenschist and lower greenschist facies conditions, respectively), Swiss Alps, was determined by combination of microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis. Elongate-blocky quartz and euhedral quartz crystals were sampled form two sets of veins, which are foliation-parallel and open fissure veins that crosscut the main foliation. The host rocks are organic-rich metapelites, that in places contain relatively high amounts of carbonate. Several metamorphic temperature indicators were used to determine the temperature and pressure during metamorphism of the host rocks. These included the Kübler index (Kübler & Jaboyedoff 2000), Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (Beyssac et al., 2002), Na-Mg and Li-Mg fluid solute geothermometry (Giggenbach, 1988; Kharaka & Mariner, 1989) and mineral assemblages. The geothermometers point to equilibrium temperatures around 320±20 °C (Thusis) and 250±20 °C (Schiers). The results of pseudosection modeling show very close agreement with the pressure-temperature conditions that were derived from conventional geothermobarometry. The FI bulk salinity and homogenization temperatures are 4±0.2 wt% eqv. NaCl and 122-140 °C for Thusis, and 2±0.2 wt% and 82-86 °C at Schiers. Most of the important rock-forming elements have been successfully determined in individual FI, with consistent concentrations obtained for well-constrained fluid inclusion assemblages. The FI contain measurable concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Sr, Ba, B, As, B, Zn, Pb, Cu and S. Typical concentrations are 30-40 ppm Al, 5-7 ppm Mg, 300-400 ppm Ca, 3-5 ppm Mn, and 300-350 ppm S for FI from Thusis. Concentrations for most elements are roughly half an order of magnitude lower for FI from Schiers. The total element concentrations are lower compared with data from similar metamorphic vein settings (Yardley et al., 1993; Yardley, 2005). This likely reflects the lower salinity of fluids in the Bündnerschiefer veins, which exerts a major control on those elements that are complexed by chloride. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbars for Thusis, and around 3.4 kbars for Schiers. The geothermal gradient decreases from the southern location (27-22 °C/km: Thusis) to the northern location (19 °C/km: Schiers), in agreement with their position during metamorphism. The fluid composition data, in conjunction with metamorphic indicators and petrological modeling, demonstrate that fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during metamorphism and vein formation. Fluid composition and pressure-temperature conditions remained essentially unchanged during the evolution of the vein systems. The veins evolved as rock-buffered closed systems, due to the low permeability of the organic-rich metapelites.

  18. In vitro Differentiation of Murine Innate Lymphoid Cells from Common Lymphoid Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey; Kaye, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), defined based on their cytokine secretion profiles and transcription factor expression, are important for host protection from pathogens and maintaining tissue homeostasis. ILCs develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) in the bone marrow. Using the methods described here, we have previously shown that loss of the transcriptional regulator TOX (Thymocyte-selection associated HMG-box protein) leads to specific changes in ILC development and differentiation. Here, we describe how to obtain ILCs from in vivo isolated CLP grown in vitro.

  19. [Morphological characteristics of the lymphoid tissues in the newborn children].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G; Grigorenko, D E; Rusina, A K; Erofeeva, L M

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis and statistical processing of thymus, trachea, duodenum ileum, coecum and appendix in newborns demonstrated that by the moment of birth peripheral immunogenesis organs were not equally formed due to peculiarities of their function in postnatal ontogenesis. Lymphoid nodules were absent in tracheal mucosa and adjacent lymph nodes showed loss of lymphoid noules aswell. However intensive formation of lymphoid structures took place in the walls of the gut, especially large intestine. The appendix, lymphoid tissue of which was not, in fact, developed at all, made an exception. PMID:11210462

  20. Stroma cell priming in enteric lymphoid organ morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The lymphoid system is equipped with a network of specialized platforms located at strategic sites, which grant strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses. The development of these peripheral secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) occurs mainly in utero, while tertiary lymphoid structures can form in adulthood generally in response to persistent infection and inflammation. Regardless of the lymphoid tissue and intrinsic cellular and molecular differences, it is now well established that the recruitment of fully functional lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells to presumptive lymphoid organ sites, and their consequent close and reciprocal interaction with resident stroma cells, are central to SLO formation. In contrast, the nature of events that initially prime resident sessile stroma cells to recruit and retain LTi cells remains poorly understood. Recently, new findings revealed early phases of SLO development putting emphasis on mesenchymal and lymphoid tissue initiator cells. Herein we discuss the main tenets of enteric lymphoid organs genesis and focus in the most recent findings that open new perspectives to the understanding of the early phases of lymphoid morphogenesis. PMID:22837761

  1. Missed low-grade infection in suspected aseptic loosening has no consequences for the survival of total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Willemijn; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Visser, Els; Lehr, A Mechteld; De Windt, Tommy S; Van Hellemondt, Gijs; Geurts, Jan; Tulp, Niek J A; Schreurs, B Wim; Burger, Bart J; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Vogely, H Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Aseptic loosening and infection are 2 of the most common causes of revision of hip implants. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces not only the rate of revision due to infection but also the rate of revision due to aseptic loosening. This suggests under-diagnosis of infections in patients with presumed aseptic loosening and indicates that current diagnostic tools are suboptimal. In a previous multicenter study on 176 patients undergoing revision of a total hip arthroplasty due to presumed aseptic loosening, optimized diagnostics revealed that 413% of the patients had a low-grade infection. These infections were not treated as such, and in the current follow-up study the effect on mid- to long-term implant survival was investigated. Patients and methods Patients were sent a 2-part questionnaire. Part A requested information about possible re-revisions of their total hip arthroplasty. Part B consisted of 3 patient-related outcome measure questionnaires (EQ5D, Oxford hip score, and visual analog scale for pain). Additional information was retrieved from the medical records. The group of patients found to have a low-grade infection was compared to those with aseptic loosening. Results 173 of 176 patients from the original study were included. In the follow-up time between the revision surgery and the current study (mean 7.5 years), 31 patients had died. No statistically significant difference in the number of re-revisions was found between the infection group (2 out of 21) and the aseptic loosening group (13 out of 152); nor was there any significant difference in the time to re-revision. Quality of life, function, and pain were similar between the groups, but only 99 (57%) of the patients returned part B. Interpretation Under-diagnosis of low-grade infection in conjunction with presumed aseptic revision of total hip arthroplasty may not affect implant survival. PMID:26364842

  2. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Kotowska, Dorota; Sand, Elin; Bjursell, Mikael; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Holm, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Berger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF)-induced metabolic alterations. Methods Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2) during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP) as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain. PMID:27125264

  3. Column bioleaching of low-grade mining ore containing high level of smithsonite, talc, sphaerocobaltite and azurite.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Sadia; Chi, Ruan; Bhatti, H N; Bhatti, I A; Ghauri, M A

    2012-03-01

    Present work describes the bioleaching potential of metals from low-grade mining ore containing smithsonite, sphaerocobaltite, azurite and talc as main gangue minerals with adapted consortium of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain-RDB and Thermoplasma acidophilum. Bioleaching potential improved markedly by added energy source, acid preleaching and adaptation of microbial consortium with mixed metal ions. During whole leaching period including acid preleaching stage of 960 h and bioleaching stage of 212 days about 76% Co, 70% Zn, 84% Cu, 72% Ni and 63% Fe leached out. PMID:21947702

  4. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Peters, C P; Mjösberg, J M; Bernink, J H; Spits, H

    2016-04-01

    It is generally believed that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by an aberrant immune response to environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. The exact contribution of the adaptive and innate immune system has not been elucidated. However, recent advances in treatments targeting key inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor highlight the crucial role of the innate immune system in IBD. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have recently been identified to play an important role in immune mediated inflammatory diseases. In this review we recapitulate the current knowledge on ILCs in IBD. PMID:26470815

  5. The development of adult innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  6. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  7. Amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace C H; Kuhel, William I; Scognamiglio, Theresa

    2014-09-01

    Amyloid deposits are unexpected in salivary gland tumors. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1.8 cm, slow-growing parotid mass. Both fine-needle aspiration and frozen section were misinterpreted as pleomorphic adenoma. The final pathology was amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The aspirates consisted of three components: mucin, amyloid, and tumor cells. The mucin was unusually thick, stringy, and metachromatic. The amyloid presented as innumerable concretions scattered solitarily or in small jigsaw puzzle-like aggregates, individually wrapped by tumor cells. The tumor cells had bland oval nuclei and scant-to-abundant cytoplasm, arranged in loosely cohesive small sheets. On histology, the tumor cells were arranged in interconnecting monolayered glands of a wide range of size with small patches of cellular regions composed of plump tumor cells. As the luminal mucin and amyloid deposits enlarged, the lining tumor cells became thin and flat. The glandular lumen molded amyloid concretions into different shapes and sizes. Atrophic or pyknotic tumor cells outlined the amyloid concretions with concentric laminations, reminiscent of corpora amylacea. Alcian blue positive luminal mucin, associated with newly formed amyloid, was present in mucinous regions of the tumor. This is the first description of cytologic features of amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid and the second case in the pathology literature. The literature of amyloid-rich tumors was reviewed and the implication of the presence of abundant amyloid on the death of tumor cells suggested. PMID:24550230

  8. Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

    2007-08-15

    The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation)

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Ma?gorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentn

    2014-01-01

    The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). PMID:25214719

  10. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  11. Multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic type in the setting of HIV and acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Dosal, Jacquelyn; Nelson, Ann M; Shelling, Michael; Romaguera, Rita; Poulos, Evangelos; Alonso-Llamazares, Javier

    2014-10-01

    A 46-year-old white male with a history of HIV (CD4 245), acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis, anal carcinoma in situ, hepatitis B and C presented with 3 asymptomatic, nontender, firm pink/skin-colored nodules involving the arm, left lateral leg, and right third finger. One year later, he developed a similar lesion on his right medial lower leg. Excisional biopsy of one of the lesions showed an atypical spindle cell neoplasm of the dermis compatible with a low-grade sarcoma of fibroblastic origin. Testing for human herpes virus-8, 23 human papillomavirus types, Epstein-Barr virus, and FUS fusion protein were negative. The patient underwent diagnostic imaging with computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis along with positron emission tomography scan to ensure that there was no other occult primary tumor, all of which were negative. The lesions were excised and have not recurred with 3 years of follow-up. The best histopathologic term for these lesions is multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic phenotype. They have been proven to be nonaggressive, with little or no metastatic potential. This is a neoplastic process that has not been well defined in the literature. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of these lesions occurring in multiple sites or in an HIV-positive patient. PMID:23759878

  12. Can Proliferation Biomarkers Reliably Predict Recurrence in World Health Organization 2003 Defined Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma, Low Grade?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Malpica, Anais; Skaland, Ivar; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Robboy, Stanley J.; Dalen, Ingvild; Hua, Keqin; Zhou, Xianrong; Baak, Jan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1500–3000 invasive Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) cases annually occur worldwide. Before 2003, ESS was divided as low and high grade ESS based on mitotic activity. In 2003 the WHO changed the names, excluded mitoses and made nuclear atypia and necrosis the essential diagnostic criteria to distinguish ESS, Low Grade (ESS-LG, recurrence-free survival >90%) and Undifferentiated Endometrial Sarcoma (UES, poor prognosis). We have evaluated in WHO2003 defined ESS-LG whether proliferation biomarkers predict recurrence. Using survival analysis, the prognostic value of classical mitosis counts (Mitotic Activity Index, MAI) in haematoxyllin-eosin (H&E) sections, and immunohistochemical proliferation biomarkers (Ki-67 and PhosphoHistone-3 (PPH3)) were examined in 24 invasive endometrial stromal sarcomas. Three of 24 (12.5%) ESS-LG recurred. The MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 were all prognostic (P = 0.001, 0.002 and 0.03). MAI values were >3 in the recurrent cases, but never exceeded 10 (the classical threshold for low and high grade). Non-recurrent cases had 0≤MAI≤3. PPH3 and Ki67 counts can be easier to perform than MAI and therefore helpful in the diagnosis of ESS, Low Grade. In conclusion, in this small study of WHO2003 defined ESS-LG, high levels of proliferation as measured by MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 are predictive of recurrence. Larger studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:24146786

  13. Can proliferation biomarkers reliably predict recurrence in World Health Organization 2003 defined endometrial stromal sarcoma, low grade?

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Malpica, Anais; Skaland, Ivar; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Robboy, Stanley J; Dalen, Ingvild; Hua, Keqin; Zhou, Xianrong; Baak, Jan P A

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1500-3000 invasive Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) cases annually occur worldwide. Before 2003, ESS was divided as low and high grade ESS based on mitotic activity. In 2003 the WHO changed the names, excluded mitoses and made nuclear atypia and necrosis the essential diagnostic criteria to distinguish ESS, Low Grade (ESS-LG, recurrence-free survival >90%) and Undifferentiated Endometrial Sarcoma (UES, poor prognosis). We have evaluated in WHO2003 defined ESS-LG whether proliferation biomarkers predict recurrence. Using survival analysis, the prognostic value of classical mitosis counts (Mitotic Activity Index, MAI) in haematoxyllin-eosin (H&E) sections, and immunohistochemical proliferation biomarkers (Ki-67 and PhosphoHistone-3 (PPH3)) were examined in 24 invasive endometrial stromal sarcomas. Three of 24 (12.5%) ESS-LG recurred. The MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 were all prognostic (P = 0.001, 0.002 and 0.03). MAI values were >3 in the recurrent cases, but never exceeded 10 (the classical threshold for low and high grade). Non-recurrent cases had 0 ≤ MAI ≤ 3. PPH3 and Ki67 counts can be easier to perform than MAI and therefore helpful in the diagnosis of ESS, Low Grade. In conclusion, in this small study of WHO2003 defined ESS-LG, high levels of proliferation as measured by MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 are predictive of recurrence. Larger studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:24146786

  14. Subclinical-Dose Endotoxin Sustains Low-Grade Inflammation and Exacerbates Steatohepatitis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Diao, Na; Yuan, Ruoxi; Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Li, Mingsong; Li, Liwu

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical circulating bacterial endotoxin LPS has been implicated as an important cofactor in the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that 4-wk injection with superlow-dose LPS significantly promoted neutrophil infiltration and accelerated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis progression, including exacerbated macrovesicular steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice. This effect could sustain for a month after stoppage of LPS injection. LPS also significantly increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei in hepatocytes and expressions of proapoptotic regulators. Moreover, LPS sustained the low-grade activation of p38 MAPK and inhibited the expression of the upstream MAPK phosphatase 7. By applying selective inhibitors, we demonstrated that the activation of p38 MAPKs is required for neutrophil migration induced by superlow-dose LPS in vitro. Together, these data suggest that superlow-dose LPS may sustain the low-grade activation of p38 MAPKs and neutrophil infiltration, leading to the exacerbation of steatohepatitis. PMID:26810228

  15. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)

    PubMed Central

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases. PMID:22895090

  16. Transcriptional regulation of innate lymphoid cell fate.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Nicolas; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Di Santo, James P

    2015-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently described family of lymphoid effector cells that have important roles in immune defence, inflammation and tissue remodelling. It has been proposed that ILCs represent 'innate' homologues of differentiated effector T cells, and they have been categorized into three groups namely, ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s on the basis of their expression of cytokines and transcription factors that are typically associated with T helper 1 (T(H)1)-, T(H)2- and T(H)17-type immune responses, respectively. Indeed, remarkable similarity is seen between the specific transcription factors required for the development and diversification of different ILC groups and those that drive effector T cell differentiation. The recent identification of dedicated ILC precursors has provided a view of the mechanisms that control this first essential stage of ILC development. Here, we discuss the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate ILC development and diversification into distinct effector subsets with key roles in immunity and tissue homeostasis. We further caution against the current distinction between 'helper' versus 'killer' subsets in the evolving area of ILC nomenclature. PMID:26065585

  17. Therapeutic Lymphoid Organogenesis in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aliyah M; Storkus, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory status of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been heavily investigated in recent years. Chemokine- and cytokine-signaling pathways such as CCR7, CXCR5, lymphotoxin, and IL-36, which are involved in the generation of secondary lymphoid organs and effector immune responses, are now recognized as having value both as prognostic factors and as immunomodulatory therapeutics in the context of cancer. Furthermore, when produced in the TME, these mediators have been shown to promote the recruitment of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and other specialized immune cell subsets such as follicular DCs and T follicular helper cells, in association with the formation of "tertiary" lymphoid structures (TLSs) within or adjacent to sites of disease. Although TLSs are composed of a heterogeneous collection of immune cell types, whose composition differs based on cancer subtype, the qualitative presence of TLSs has been shown to represent a biomarker of good prognosis for cancer patients. A comprehensive understanding of the role each of these pathways plays within the TME may support the rational design of future immunotherapies to selectively promote/bolster TLS formation and function, leading to improved clinical outcomes across the vast range of solid cancer types. PMID:26216634

  18. Therapeutic Lymphoid Organogenesis in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Aliyah M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory status of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been heavily investigated in recent years. Chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways such as CCR7, CXCR5, lymphotoxin, and IL-36, which are involved in the generation of secondary lymphoid organs and effector immune responses, are now recognized as having value both as prognostic factors and as immunomodulatory therapeutics in the context of cancer. Furthermore, when produced in the TME, these mediators have been shown to promote the recruitment of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DC), and other specialized immune cell subsets such as follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, in association with the formation of “tertiary” lymphoid structures (TLS) within or adjacent to sites of disease. Although TLS are composed of a heterogeneous collection of immune cell types, whose composition differs based on cancer subtype, the qualitative presence of TLS has been shown to represent a biomarker of good prognosis for cancer patients. A comprehensive understanding of the role each of these pathways plays within the TME may support the rational design of future immunotherapies to selectively promote/bolster TLS formation and function, leading to improved clinical outcomes across the vast range of solid cancer types. PMID:26216634

  19. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response. PMID:24213222

  20. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, Benjamin A.; Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Ebb, David H.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Jones, Robin M.; Butler, William E.; Huang, Mary S.; Marcus, Karen J.; Oberg, Jennifer A.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy{sub RBE} (48.6-54 Gy{sub RBE}). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy{sub RBE} to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  1. The optimisation of stope leaching: a laboratory investigation into the extraction of uranium from a low-grade ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Kristina Mary

    Nuclear power continues to make an important contribution to energy production in many countries around the world. Uranium mining is the first step in the production cycle of nuclear power. In order to enable low-grade uranium ore bodies to be developed as economically viable resources, low input mining techniques, such as stope leaching, are gaining interest. This thesis presents the results of research undertaken into the optimisation of stope leaching from a low grade uranium ore. Stope leaching was simulated in the laboratory by submitting crushed ore samples to successive saturated (flooding) and unsaturated (rest period) cycles. Experiments were carried out over a 52 week period using seven different protocols. The effects of rest period and lixiviant composition on uranium extraction rates were investigated. Rest period was varied by flooding at weekly, twice weekly, 2 weekly and 4 weekly intervals.. Four different lixiviants were investigated, tap water, Fe(III) sulfate, a nutrient solution and recycled leachate. Maximum uranium extractions over 52 weeks were: 57.7% for Fe(III) sulfate lixiviant with a 2 week rest period and 57.4% for tap water with a 4 week rest period. The introduction (via the lixiviant) or development (via oxidation of accessory pyrite) of low pH and Fe(III) and sulfate-rich interstitial water is thought to have provided conditions conducive to uranium oxidation and dissolution. The 4 week rest period is considered to have provided sufficient time for microbially assisted pyrite oxidation to develop similar conditions in the interstitial water as were provided by the addition of a Fe(III) sulfate lixiviant. All other protocols lead to less than 35% uranium extraction. Shorter rest periods did not allow time for sufficient pyrite oxidation to occur and the addition of a nutrient solution buffered pH which did not favour uranium dissolution. These findings have significant implications for low-grade uranium recovery by demonstrating that extraction achieved through the use of costly oxidising agents can be attained, in the same time frame, by using tap water and decreasing the number of cycles..

  2. Recurrence after gross-total resection of low-grade pediatric brain tumors: the frequency and timing of postoperative imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert H.; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Governale, Lance S.; Santa, Catalina; Cahill, Kevin; Kieran, Mark W.; Chi, Susan N.; Ullrich, Nicole J.; Scott, R. Michael; Goumnerova, Liliana C.

    2016-01-01

    Object Low-grade glial and glioneuronal brain tumors are frequently encountered in the pediatric population and can be effectively treated by resection. The authors aimed to use imaging to evaluate how often tumors recurred and to determine if recurrences were associated with any clinical symptoms, along with the financial costs of imaging, in patients with radiographically proven gross-total resection (GTR) at Boston Children’s Hospital. These data were assessed to propose guidelines regarding postoperative surveillance. Methods The authors performed a retrospective cohort analysis of the Pediatric Brain Tumor Program database from 1993 to 2003 to identify patients with glial or glioneuronal tumors initially evaluated at Boston Children’s Hospital. Among the 888 patients evaluated for any type of brain tumor during this period, 67 patients had WHO Grade I glial or glioneuronal lesions with radiographically proven GTR and available follow-up data. The frequency and timing of postoperative imaging was compared with the institutional protocol. Recurrence-free survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Financial costs of imaging were available from 2001 to 2009 and were averaged to extrapolate the postoperative surveillance costs. Results Among the 67 patients with GTR, 13 recurrences were detected radiographically with a mean time to recurrence of 32.4 months (range 2.9–128.5 months). The mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 6.6 years. The recurrence-free survival at 2 and 5 years after GTR for all low-grade glial and glioneuronal tumors was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–0.97) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.73–0.92), respectively. No clinical symptoms were associated with any of the recurrences, and no deaths occurred. Under the institutional protocol of surveillance imaging, the estimated cost per recurrence at 5 years was $104,094 per patient. The proposed protocol would reduce the number of MR scans in the first 5 years from 10 to 5, providing a potential cost savings of $52,047 per recurrence. Conclusions Given the slow-growing, clinically asymptomatic nature of low-grade glial and glioneuronal tumors coupled with the financial and psychological costs of repeated imaging, the authors propose a postoperative surveillance MRI schedule that is less intensive than current institutional practice. PMID:25062303

  3. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

  4. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

  5. Overall survival in adult patients with low-grade, supratentorial glioma: Ten years’ follow up at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi; Rakhsha, Afshin; Houshyari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the second most prevalent type of primary brain tumors in adults. The prognosis for LGGs can differ according to the clinical-pathological prognostic factors determined during diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify 10-year, disease-free survival (DFS), 10-year overall survival (OS), and related clinical-pathological prognostic factors of adult patients with supratentorial, low-grade gliomas who were treated with or without surgery and radiation therapy. Methods: The study included 110 patients who were confirmed to have low-grade, supratentorial gliomas and who had received surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy or salvage radiotherapy as part of their treatment. These patients were followed by the radiation-oncology ward at Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2002 and 2012. The log-rank test (univariate) and the Cox proportional hazards model (multivariate) were used to examine the 10-year DFS and OS and to assess the strengths of various histo-clinical factors relative to 10-year DFS and OS. Results: The study included 110 patients for whom 10-year DFS and OS were found to be 23 and 28%, respectively. Favorable prognostic factors in the univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier 10-year OS analysis were the following: age below 40, karnofsky performance status (KPS) more than 70, the presence of oligodendroglioma, tumor size of < 5 cm, and gross-total resection (p=0.02, p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.01, p=0.02, respectively). Good prognostic factors in multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model were as follows: age below 40, the presence of oligodendroglioma, tumor size< 5 cm, and gross total resection in10-year OS (p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.00, p=0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Gross-total resection, tumor size < 5 cm, age below 40, and the presence of oligodendroglioma had better 10-year DFS and OS rates. We recommend that all patients with LGG tumors be referred to neuro-oncology centers that have sufficient experience to achieve the best results of treatment. PMID:26388977

  6. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Madakkaruppan, V; Pius, Anitha; T, Sreenivas; Giri, Nitai; Sarbajna, Chanchal

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12-0.50M), redox potential (400-500mV), particle size (600-300μm) and temperature (35°-95°C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism. PMID:27045621

  7. An inverse problem formulation for parameter estimation of a reaction-diffusion model of low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Amir; Mang, Andreas; Biros, George

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a parameter estimation problem for a model of low-grade glioma growth. Our goal is to estimate the spatial distribution of tumor concentration, as well as the magnitude of anisotropic tumor diffusion. We use a constrained optimization formulation with a reaction-diffusion model that results in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations. In our formulation, we estimate the parameters using partially observed, noisy tumor concentration data at two different time instances, along with white matter fiber directions derived from diffusion tensor imaging. The optimization problem is solved with a Gauss-Newton reduced space algorithm. We present the formulation and outline the numerical algorithms for solving the resulting equations. We test the method using a synthetic dataset and compute the reconstruction error for different noise levels and detection thresholds for monofocal and multifocal test cases. PMID:25963601

  8. Spiradenocylindrocarcinoma. Report of a case with a low-grade component of spiradenocarcinoma and an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, George; Apostolou, Nikolaos; Chatzipantelis, Paschalis; Biteli, Maria

    2009-08-01

    Spiradenocylindrocarcinoma is a very rare malignant cutaneous neoplasm of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit. We report a case of this hybrid tumor in a 42-year-old woman. The tumor consisted of 2 circumscribed nodules with areas of cylindrocarcinoma and low-grade spiradenocarcinoma. In the overlapping areas, both spiradenomatous and cylindromatous features were observed. Expansion of the tumor beyond the fibrous pseudocapsule into the adjacent tissue was present. Furthermore, tumor cells were demonstrating mild to moderate pleomorphism and an increased mitotic index. p53 and ki-67 were among the positive immunohistochemical markers. A relatively small number of tumor cells expressed estrogen receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of this rare tumor of the skin appendages. PMID:19590412

  9. Thermal Energy Consumption in the Heat-Technology Production of Solid Composite Fuel From Low-Grade Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakaev, Roman; Astafev, Alexander; Kazakov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    An evaluation is made of the thermal energy consumed in the heat-technology production of solid composite fuel from low-grade organic raw materials. It is shown that the heat of decomposition of the organic mass and the combustion of the by-products of heat-technology may be sufficient to cover all the energy needs for processing peat, brown coal and wood chips. Producing solid composite fuel from sapropel requires external resources to compensate for part of the heat consumed. Calculations show that it is possible for the thermal processing of raw materials to proceed autothermally due to the heat of decomposition when the moisture content at the reactor inlet is limited: for peat it should be no more than 35%, 54% for brown coal, and 37% for wood chips. The low heat of decomposition of the sapropel organic mass means that its thermal processing cannot proceed autothermally.

  10. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Low-Grade Cribriform Cystadenocarcinoma with Many Psammoma Bodies of the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Ahn, Dongbin

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a rare salivary gland tumor that was recently defined as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma by the 2005 World Health Orgazniation (WHO) classification system. We report cytologic findings of an unusual case of LGCCC with many psammoma bodies. A 90-year-old man presented a palpable mass on his left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology showed tumor cells that were arranged in clusters and dispersed individually. The tumor cells showed mild atypia and had clear or dense cytoplasm with some vacuoles. Numerous psammoma bodies were noted. After surgical resection, the histologic examination revealed a mixed solid and cystic mass showing intraductal growth with focal stromal invasion. The S-100 protein expressed in the tumor cells, but smooth muscle actin and p63 were positive only in myoepithelial cells. Although LGCCCs resemble other salivary gland tumors, differentiating LGCCC during preoperative FNA is important to avoid unnecessary overtreatment. PMID:24255638

  11. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  12. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  13. Factors Influencing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Young Patients With Benign and Low-Grade Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh; Mallick, Indranil; Dutta, Debnarayan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To present the effect of radiotherapy doses to different volumes of normal structures on neurocognitive outcomes in young patients with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients (median age, 13 years) with residual/progressive brain tumors (10 craniopharyngioma, 8 cerebellar astrocytoma, 6 optic pathway glioma and 4 cerebral low-grade glioma) were treated with SCRT to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Prospective neuropsychological assessments were done at baseline before RT and at subsequent follow-up examinations. The change in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores was correlated with various factors, including dose-volume to normal structures. Results: Although the overall mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) at baseline before RT remained unchanged at 2-year follow-up after SCRT, one third of patients did show a >10% decline in FSIQ as compared with baseline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients aged <15 years had a significantly higher chance of developing a >10% drop in FSIQ than older patients (53% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Dosimetric comparison in patients showing a >10% decline vs. patients showing a <10% decline in IQ revealed that patients receiving >43.2 Gy to >13% of volume of the left temporal lobe were the ones to show a significant drop in FSIQ (p = 0.048). Radiotherapy doses to other normal structures, including supratentorial brain, right temporal lobe, and frontal lobes, did not reveal any significant correlation. Conclusion: Our prospectively collected dosimetric data show younger age and radiotherapy doses to left temporal lobe to be predictors of neurocognitive decline, and may well be used as possible dose constraints for high-precision radiotherapy planning.

  14. Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Clifford G.; Prayson, Richard A.; Hahn, Joseph F.; Kalfas, Iain H.; Whitfield, Melvin D.; Lee, S.-Y.; Suh, John H. . E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

  15. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power. PMID:25839239

  16. Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Head and Neck: A Clinicopathologic Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Thompson, Lester D; Leon, Marino E; Bishop, Justin A

    2016-06-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a deceptively bland malignancy with potential for late recurrence and metastasis, which usually occurs in the deep soft tissues of the extremities and trunk. Most LGFMSs harbor a characteristic gene fusion of FUS-CREB3L2, and recently MUC4 immunostaining has been found to be highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. We present a dedicated series of head and neck LGFMS, including the first reported laryngeal case, as well as a review of reported head and neck cases. The surgical pathology archives of our three institutions were searched for cases of LGFMS arising within the head and neck, and four cases were identified. The H&E slides were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry were performed for pancytokeratin, p63, p40, EMA, S100 protein, β-catenin, actin, CD34, and MUC4. The patients were 6, 43, 45, and 73 years old (mean 41.8 years) and included three males and one female. The tumors were located in the posterior cervical spine, facial skin, mandible, and larynx. The tumors were treated with surgical excision, and all four had histologic features typical for LGFMS including alternating myxoid and fibrous areas with prominent curvilinear vasculature. All tumors were MUC4 positive (100%), 2/4 (50%) were p63 positive, 1/4 (25%) showed focal EMA positivity; all 4 were negative for pancytokeratin, p40, S100 protein, β-catenin, actin, and CD34. LGFMS is a low grade sarcoma that rarely develops in the head and neck. Due to its rarity, a pathologist may not consider LGFMS in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms within the head and neck. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful, but stains should be selected carefully to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26276044

  17. Brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and versican are mainly responsible for the invasiveness of low-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Varga, Imre; Hutóczki, Gábor; Szemcsák, Csaba D; Zahuczky, Gábor; Tóth, Judit; Adamecz, Zsolt; Kenyeres, Annamária; Bognár, László; Hanzély, Zoltán; Klekner, Almos

    2012-04-01

    The extent of tumor removal determines the effectiveness of postoperative oncotherapy. This is especially true for primary brain tumors, where peritumoral invasion usually makes radical resection impossible. The aim of the study was to determinate the specific expression pattern of invasion related molecules of different intracranial tumors and to identify molecules that are principally responsible for the peritumoral invasiveness of grade II astrocytoma mRNA expression of 26 extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules was determined in tissue samples from grade II astrocytoma, schwannoma, intracerebral metastases of non-small cell lung cancer and normal brain. Immunohistochemical staining for brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and versican was also performed for each tumor group. Comparing astrocytoma to metastasis, schwannoma and normal brain; and metastasis and schwannoma to normal brain, 22, 17, 20, 21, and 19 molecules, respectively, were found to be significantly overexpressed at the mRNA level. Cluster analysis of mRNA expression showed a specific gene expression pattern for each histological group. Four molecules of 26 were found to be associated to astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the results of the mRNA analysis at the protein level. Tumors of different origin have a specific invasive phenotype that can evidently determinate on gene expression level. This characteristic expression pattern of the invasion-related molecules might help to screen exact targets for anti-invasion drugs. In case of low-grade astrocytoma. brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and versican were found to correlate principally with the invasive phenotype of low-grade astrocytoma, thus these molecules can potentially serve as targets for anti-invasion therapy in the future. PMID:21997179

  18. Impact of 14-day bed rest on serum adipokines and low-grade inflammation in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Jurdana, Mihaela; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala; Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jakus, Tadeja; Šimunič, Boštjan; Pišot, Rado

    2015-12-01

    Ageing and inactivity both contribute to systemic inflammation, but the effects of inactivity on inflammation in healthy elderly individuals have not been elucidated. We hypothesised that 14-day bed rest could affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in young subjects differently than in older adults. A short-term 14-day horizontal bed rest study (BR14) has been used as a model of inactivity in two groups of healthy male volunteers: 7 aged 18-30 years (young) and 16 aged 55-65 years (older adults). The effects of inactivity on inflammation were compared. Key low-grade inflammation mediators, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), visfatin, resistin, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin were measured in fasting serum samples, collected at baseline (BDC) and post BR14. Young responded to BR14 by increasing serum visfatin and resistin while older adults responded to BR14 by increasing IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, serum adiponectin increased in all participants. Data from correlation analysis demonstrated positive association between Δ serum visfatin and Δ IL-6 in both groups, while Δ serum adiponectin was negatively associated with Δ TNF-α in young and positively associated with Δ resistin in the older adults. As little as 14 days of complete physical inactivity (BR14) negatively affected markers of low-grade inflammation in both groups, but the inflammation after BR14 was more pronounced in older adults. The effect of BR14 on IL-6 and resistin differed between young and older adults. Inflammatory responses to BR14 in older adults differed from those reported in the literature for obese or subjects in pathological states, suggesting potentially different mechanisms between inactivity- and obesity-induced inflammations. PMID:26564239

  19. Reversal of Low-Grade Cerebral Edema After Lactulose/Rifaximin Therapy in Patients with Cirrhosis and Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rahul; Ahuja, Chirag K; Agrawal, Swastik; Kalra, Naveen; Duseja, Ajay; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Chawla, Yogesh; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in the brain characterizes cerebral edema (CE) in patients with liver cirrhosis, but the role of treatment on its reversibility has not been studied in patients who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This study was carried to evaluate the reversibility of CE with lactulose and rifaximin treatment in patients with MHE and role of ammonia, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with cirrhosis (14 with MHE, 9 without MHE (NMHE)) and 6 healthy controls underwent ammonia, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α estimation, and MTR in frontal white matter (FWM), parietal white matter (PWM), internal capsule (IC), and basal ganglia (BG). RESULTS: Ammonia was significantly higher in the cirrhosis group compared with controls and in MHE compared with the NMHE group. Ammonia correlated positively with IL-1 and IL-6. MTRs in FWM, PWM, IC, and BG were significantly lower in the MHE group compared with controls and in PWM, IC, and BG compared with the NMHE group. MHE patients showed significant MTR increase in FWM, PWM, and IC with treatment. IL-6 and ammonia had significant negative and significant positive psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) correlation with MTR in various regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, demonstrated the reversibility of low-grade CE with treatment in patients with MHE. Negative correlation between ammonia, IL-6 levels, and MTR and positive correlation between PHES and MTR in MHE patients suggests the role of inflammation and ammonia in the genesis of low-grade CE. PMID:26378384

  20. Low-grade Metamorphism of Cretaceous Basins from the Colombian Andes: Testing Tectonic Models with Paleogeothermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, D.; Cardona, A.; Collo, G.; Zapata, S.; Leon, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the northern Andes include the formation of several sedimentary basins interpreted formed in rift or arc-back-arc settings. Such basin were formed in association with the subduction of the Pacific plate, the opening of the Caribbean or the growth of allocthonous oceanic arcs and were extensively deformed in the Late Cretaceous initiation of Andean orogeny. Tectonic models for these basins have been mainly postulated from the stratigraphic interpretations or regional characterization of the tectonomagmatic affinity of volcanic rocks. Less attention have been paid on the pontential to evaluate the tectonic history from the characterization of the paleothermal record recorded in diagenetic and very low grade metamorphic evolution of the pelitic rock. In the Central Cordillera outcrops two main Albian Cretaceous units: the Abejorral formation which is characterized by a pelitic succession with minor sandstones beds and the Quebradagrande Complex that include intercalations of volcanic and pelitic rocks. Such relatively deep accumulation environment is contemporaneous with shallow carbonates and pelitic succesions in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. Rocks from the Eastern Cordillera that have been widely characterized due to their relation with petroleum exploration are characterized limited development of cleavage and well defined sedimentary structures. In contrast field field relations have shown that the central Cordillera units are characterized by the development of a well defined slaty cleavage, limited development of quartz veins. Published vitrinite constraints from the Eastern Cordillera have revealed very high burial temperatures which is compatible with proposed extensional setting during burial and accumulation. New illite and chlorite mineralogical characterization is being obtained on the Abejorral and Quebradagrande formation in order to test if the low grade metamorphic record still preserved the high geothermal gradient expected from an accumulation environment and the quick transition from extension to compression.

  1. Presence of Antigen-Experienced T Cells with Low Grade of Differentiation and Proliferative Potential in Chronic Chagas Disease Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza-Meckert, Patricia; Viotti, Rodolfo; Garelli, Fernando; Favaloro, Liliana E.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Laguens, Rubén; Laucella, Susana A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main consequence of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection is the development of myocarditis in approximately 20–30% of infected individuals but not until 10–20 years after the initial infection. We have previously shown that circulating interferon-γ-secreting T cells responsive to Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in chronic Chagas disease patients display a low grade of differentiation and the frequency of these T lymphocytes decreases along with the severity of heart disease. This study thought to explore the expression of inhibitory receptors, transcription factors of type 1 or regulatory T cells, and markers of T cell differentiation, immunosenescence or active cell cycle in cardiac explants from patients with advanced Chagas disease myocarditis. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of different markers for T and B cells as well as for macrophages was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques in cardiac explants from patients with advanced chronic Chagas disease submitted to heart transplantation. Most infiltrating cells displayed markers of antigen-experienced T cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+) with a low grade of differentiation (CD27+, CD57−, CD45RA−, PD-1−). A skewed T helper1/T cytotoxic 1 profile was supported by the expression of T-bet; whereas FOXP3+ cells were scarce and located only in areas of severe myocarditis. In addition, a significant proliferative capacity of CD3+ T cells, assessed by Ki67 staining, was found. Conclusions/Significance The quality of T cell responses and immunoregulatory mechanisms might determine the pattern of the cellular response and the severity of disease in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. PMID:25144227

  2. Bursa Fabricii as a peripheral lymphoid organ

    PubMed Central

    Sorvari, Rita; Sorvari, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    In tracer studies, various particulate and molecular materials applied on the anal lips of chickens were transported to the bursal lumen. From here some of the tracers were further transported into the bursal lymphoid follicles and colloidal carbon even to the bursal stroma. In immunization experiments, Brucella abortus organisms and SRBC were applied on the anal lips of 1-day-old, 4-week-old and 10-week-old chicks on 5 consecutive days. Although Brucella bacteria in tracer studies were not found in the bursal tissue, agglutinin response to Brucella was observed in the 4-week and 10-week groups as early as 3 days after the last application of this antigen. The response to SRBC was strong only in the oldest group of chickens. When stimulated continuously, the agglutinin titres reached their highest values after the 2nd week and then began to decrease to rather low levels. In the youngest age group, the anti-SRBC titres, however, remained low during the whole experimental period, and even in the 4-week group the anti-SRBC response was weak. Bursectomy, carried out at the age of 10 weeks, inhibited the agglutinin response to Brucella but affected only little the response to SRBC. It is concluded that by taking up antigens per anum the chicken possibly gains part of its basic immunity. In this immune response the bursa seems to play an important role at least with some antigens, and thus the bursa may have an immunofunction comparable with that found in peripheral lymphoid organs. PMID:564868

  3. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection. PMID:26507442

  4. Ixazomib Citrate and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Indolent B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-25

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Follicular Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  5. Lymphoid cell line identification and the detection of cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Conner, B R; Ferrone, S; Pellegrino, M A; Glaser, R

    1980-05-01

    Four lymphoid cell lines, presumably recent derivatives from non-neoplastic human tonsils, were identified in actuality as established Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) when tested by chromosome banding and typing for HLA antigens. Additionally, the morphology, growth characteristics, tumorigenicity, expression of Epstein-Barr virus antigens and surface membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg) of the four lymphoid cell lines confirmed the correct identifications. In determining the possibility of cross contamination, the most reliable criteria for the identification of lymphoid cell lines were found to be HLA antigenic profile, karyotype, cellular morphology, and growth characteristics. PMID:6248453

  6. Long-term treatment of residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with aromatase inhibitors: A report of two cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    RYU, HYEWON; CHOI, YOON-SEOK; SONG, IK-CHAN; YUN, HWAN-JUNG; JO, DEOG-YEON; KIM, SAMYONG; LEE, HYO JIN

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) occurs rarely and accounts for only 0.2% of all uterine malignancies. ESS usually expresses estrogen and progesterone receptors, and is regarded as hormone-sensitive. Due to the rarity of these tumors, there are only few case series on the use of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of low-grade ESS. The present study reports the cases of two patients with residual or recurrent low-grade ESS who experienced long-term disease-free survival following treatment with letrozole. The study also reviews the literature with regard to the data on aromatase inhibitors used in patients with low-grade ESS. In total, 30 patients with recurrent or residual low-grade ESS who were treated with aromatase inhibitors were identified, including the present cases. Among the 30 patients, the overall response rate of advanced low-grade ESS to aromatase inhibitors was 77.4% (complete response, 25.8%; partial response, 51.6%) and the disease control rate was 90.3%. The response rate of first-line treatment was similar to that of second-line therapy or higher (84.6 vs. 72.2%; P=0.453). Duration of aromatase inhibitor treatment ranged from 1.5 to 168 months (median, 26.5 months). The aromatase inhibitors showed minimal adverse effects. In conclusion, aromatase inhibitors, particularly third-generation drugs, are a well-tolerated class of medications that are effective in the treatment of advanced low-grade ESS, with a favorable toxicity profile. PMID:26722331

  7. Secondary Lymphoid Organs: Responding to Genetic and Environmental Cues in Ontogeny and the Immune Response1

    PubMed Central

    Ruddle, Nancy H.; Akirav, Eitan M.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) include lymph nodes (LNs), spleen, Peyer’s patches (PPs) and mucosal tissues- the nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), adenoids, and tonsils. Less discretely anatomically defined cellular accumulations include the bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), cryptopatches, and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). All SLOs serve to generate immune responses and tolerance. SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines LTα, LTβ, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. The relative importance of these factors varies between the individual lymphoid organs. Participating in the process are lymphoid tissue initiator (ltin), lymphoid tissue inducer (ltind), and lymphoid tissue organizer (lto) cells. These cells, and others that produce the crucial cytokines, maintain SLOs in the adult. Similar signals regulate the transition from inflammation to ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLOs). PMID:19661265

  8. Primary Pulmonary Low-Grade Angiosarcoma Characterized by Mismatch between 18F-FDG PET and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Han, Joungho; Choi, Joon Young

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. A 38-year-old, asymptomatic woman was hospitalized because of an abnormality on chest radiography. A dynamic contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a 1.2 cm-sized irregular-margined nodule with strong and persistent enhancement in the right lower lobe. The lesion had low metabolic activity on an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent a wedge resection for the lesion, and pathology revealed a primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma. PMID:26357507

  9. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Lymphoid Tissue Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Olga; Hammerschmidt, Swantje I; Moschovakis, G Leandros; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-05-20

    The continuous migration of immune cells between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs is a key feature of the immune system, facilitating the distribution of effector cells within nearly all compartments of the body. Furthermore, reaching their correct position within primary, secondary, or tertiary lymphoid organs is a prerequisite to ensure immune cells' unimpaired differentiation, maturation, and selection, as well as their activation or functional silencing. The superfamilies of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of major importance in guiding immune cells to and within lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this review we focus on the role of the chemokine system in the migration dynamics of immune cells within lymphoid organs at the steady state and on how these dynamics are affected by infectious and inflammatory processes. PMID:26907216

  10. High-throughput clone library analysis of the mucosa-associated microbiota reveals dysbiosis and differences between inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the intestine in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota is thought to play a key role in the development of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Shifts in the composition of resident bacteria have been postulated to drive the chronic inflammation seen in both diseases (the "dysbiosis" hypothesis). We therefore specifically sought to compare the mucosa-associated microbiota from both inflamed and non-inflamed sites of the colon in CD and UC patients to that from non-IBD controls and to detect disease-specific profiles. Results Paired mucosal biopsies of inflamed and non-inflamed intestinal tissue from 6 CD (n = 12) and 6 UC (n = 12) patients were compared to biopsies from 5 healthy controls (n = 5) by in-depth sequencing of over 10,000 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results indicate that mucosal microbial diversity is reduced in IBD, particularly in CD, and that the species composition is disturbed. Firmicutes were reduced in IBD samples and there were concurrent increases in Bacteroidetes, and in CD only, Enterobacteriaceae. There were also significant differences in microbial community structure between inflamed and non-inflamed mucosal sites. However, these differences varied greatly between individuals, meaning there was no obvious bacterial signature that was positively associated with the inflamed gut. Conclusions These results may support the hypothesis that the overall dysbiosis observed in inflammatory bowel disease patients relative to non-IBD controls might to some extent be a result of the disturbed gut environment rather than the direct cause of disease. Nonetheless, the observed shifts in microbiota composition may be important factors in disease maintenance and severity. PMID:21219646

  11. Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhi, Rachana

    Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were then combined into a novel condenser design that uses passive cooling technology to cool the working fluid that was selected in the first part of the study. It was observed that the efficiency of the cycle improved by 2-2.5% when passive cooling system was used.

  12. Genomics of lymphoid malignancies reveal major activation pathways in lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Knoechel, Birgit; Lohr, Jens G.

    2013-01-01

    Breakdown of tolerance leads to autoimmunity due to emergence of autoreactive T or B cell clones. Autoimmune diseases predispose to lymphoid malignancies and lymphoid malignancies, conversely, can manifest as autoimmune diseases. While it has been clear for a long time that a competitive advantage and uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of both lymphoid malignancies as well as autoimmune diseases, the overlap of the underlying mechanisms have been less well described. Next generation sequencing has led to massive expansion of the available genomic data in many diseases over the last five years. These data allow for comparison of the molecular pathogenesis between autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies. Here, we review the similarities between autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies: 1) Both, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies are characterized by activation of the same T and B cell signaling pathways, and dysregulation of these pathways can occur through genetic or epigenetic events. 2) In both scenarios, clonal and subclonal evolution of lymphocytes contribute to disease. 3) Development of both diseases not only depends on T or B cell intrinsic factors, such as germline or somatic mutations, but also on environmental factors. These include infections, the presence of other immune cells in the microenvironment, and the cytokine milieu. A better mechanistic understanding of the parallels between lymphomagenesis and autoimmunity may help the development of precision treatment strategies with rationally designed therapeutic agents. PMID:23880067

  13. Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, S; Bernáth, S; Glávits, R; Medveczky, I

    1988-12-01

    Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells was studied in 23 piglets of four sows (sows A, B, C and D). From the colostrum and blood of the sows the lymphoid cells were isolated with Ficoll-Paque and labelled with technetium (Na99mTcO4). In the 7th hour after birth, 5-ml volumes of the cell suspensions were injected, following laparotomy, directly into the stomach (piglets of sow A) or into the jejunum (piglets of sow B), whereas piglets of sows C and D received the suspensions through a naso-oesophageal tube. Cryostat sections of duodenum, jejunum and lymph node samples of piglets killed by bleeding 8 h after the treatment were examined by autoradiography. It was found that lymphoid cells present in the colostrum of a piglet's own mother were absorbed from the digestive tract and, via the lymphatic vessels, were transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Electron microscopy revealed that absorption took place intercellularly. Colostral cells of sows other than a piglet's own mother were observed only in the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane. The lymphoid cells isolated from the sows' blood and heat-treated colostral lymphoid cells were not absorbed. The results indicate that in the pig, an animal having an epitheliochorial placenta, the colostral lymphoid cells are absorbed from the digestive tract and, hence, they can confer an active cellular immunity on the newborn piglets. PMID:3238920

  14. Immune checkpoint inhibition in lymphoid disease.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Collins, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    It has long been understood that the immune system has intrinsic anti-tumour activity in humans, and that a key mechanism of tumour progression is the ability of a tumour to escape this immune surveillance. A number of attempts have been made to harness this anti-tumour immunity in both solid tumour oncology and haematological malignancies with variable success. Examples include the use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion in haematological cancer and vaccine studies in solid tumours. Enhanced signalling of the Programmed cell death-1 (PDCD1, PD-1)/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) 'immune checkpoint' pathway has emerged recently as a critical mechanism by which tumours can escape the natural anti-tumour immune response. As such, novel therapies have been developed to help enhance this natural immunity by switching off the PDCD1/CTLA4 immune checkpoint pathway. The following review will discuss the pathobiology of these pathways and the exciting new data now available in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:25824455

  15. Changes in Primary Lymphoid Organs With Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Ivan K.; Blackburn, Clare C.; Manley, Nancy R.; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased immune function that leads to increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Immune senescence is accompanied by age-related changes in two primary lymphoid organs, bone marrow and thymus, that result in decreased production and function of B and T lymphocytes. In bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells exhibit reduced self-renewal potential, increased skewing toward myelopoiesis, and decreased production of lymphocytes with aging. These functional sequelae of aging are caused in part by increased oxidative stress, inflammation, adipocyte differentiation, and disruption of hypoxic osteoblastic niches. In thymus, aging is associated with tissue involution, exhibited by a disorganization of the thymic epithelial cell architecture and increased adiposity. This dysregulation correlates with a loss of stroma-thymocyte ‘cross-talk’, resulting in decreased export of naïve T cells. Mounting evidence argues that with aging, thymic inflammation, systemic stress, local Foxn1 and keratinocyte growth factor expression, and sex steroid levels play critical roles in actively driving thymic involution and overall adaptive immune senescence across the lifespan. With a better understanding of the complex mechanisms and pathways that mediate bone marrow and thymus involution with aging, potential increases for the development of safe and effective interventions to prevent or restore loss of immune function with aging. PMID:22559987

  16. Humanized hemato-lymphoid system mice

    PubMed Central

    Theocharides, Alexandre P.A.; Rongvaux, Anthony; Fritsch, Kristin; Flavell, Richard A.; Manz, Markus G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, incrementally improved xenograft mouse models, supporting the engraftment and development of a human hemato-lymphoid system, have been developed and now represent an important research tool in the field. The most significant contributions made by means of humanized mice are the identification of normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem cells, the characterization of the human hematopoietic hierarchy, and their use as preclinical therapy models for malignant hematopoietic disorders. Successful xenotransplantation depends on three major factors: tolerance by the mouse host, correct spatial location, and appropriately cross-reactive support and interaction factors such as cytokines and major histocompatibility complex molecules. Each of these can be modified. Experimental approaches include the genetic modification of mice to faithfully express human support factors as non-cross-reactive cytokines, to create free niche space, the co-transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells, the implantation of humanized ossicles or other stroma, and the implantation of human thymic tissue. Besides the source of hematopoietic cells, the conditioning regimen and the route of transplantation also significantly affect human hematopoietic development in vivo. We review here the achievements, most recent developments, and the remaining challenges in the generation of pre-clinically-predictive systems for human hematology and immunology, closely resembling the human situation in a xenogeneic mouse environment. PMID:26721800

  17. Humanized hemato-lymphoid system mice.

    PubMed

    Theocharides, Alexandre P A; Rongvaux, Anthony; Fritsch, Kristin; Flavell, Richard A; Manz, Markus G

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, incrementally improved xenograft mouse models, supporting the engraftment and development of a human hemato-lymphoid system, have been developed and now represent an important research tool in the field. The most significant contributions made by means of humanized mice are the identification of normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem cells, the characterization of the human hematopoietic hierarchy, and their use as preclinical therapy models for malignant hematopoietic disorders. Successful xenotransplantation depends on three major factors: tolerance by the mouse host, correct spatial location, and appropriately cross-reactive support and interaction factors such as cytokines and major histocompatibility complex molecules. Each of these can be modified. Experimental approaches include the genetic modification of mice to faithfully express human support factors as non-cross-reactive cytokines, to create free niche space, the co-transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells, the implantation of humanized ossicles or other stroma, and the implantation of human thymic tissue. Besides the source of hematopoietic cells, the conditioning regimen and the route of transplantation also significantly affect human hematopoietic development in vivo. We review here the achievements, most recent developments, and the remaining challenges in the generation of pre-clinically-predictive systems for human hematology and immunology, closely resembling the human situation in a xenogeneic mouse environment. PMID:26721800

  18. Use of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria for the improvement of copper extraction from a low-grade ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darezereshki, E.; Schaffie, M.; Lotfalian, M.; Seiedbaghery, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.

    2011-04-01

    Bioleaching was examined for copper extraction from a low grade ore using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic bacteria. Five equal size columns were used for the leaching of the ore. Sulfuric acid solution with a flow rate of 3.12 L·m-2·h-1 and pH 1.5 passed through each column continuously for 90 d. In the first and the second column, bioleaching was performed without agglomeration of the ore and on the agglomerated ore, respectively. 28wt% of the copper was extracted in the first column after 40 d, while this figure was 38wt% in the second column. After 90 d, however, the overall extractions were almost the same for both of them. Bioleaching with mesophilic bacteria was performed in the third column without agglomeration of the ore and in the fourth column on the agglomerated ore. After 40 d, copper extractions in the third and the fourth columns were 62wt% and 70wt%, respectively. Copper extractions were 75wt% for both the columns after 90 d. For the last column, bioleaching was performed with moderate thermophilic bacteria and agglomerated ore. Copper extractions were 80wt% and 85wt% after 40 and 90 d, respectively. It was concluded that crushing and agglomeration of the ore using bacteria could enhance the copper extraction considerably.

  19. Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: Incidence, Treatment Strategy of Metastases, and Clinical Significance of the FUS Gene.

    PubMed

    Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Baerentzen, Steen; Keller, Johnny; Dyrop, Heidi Buvarp; Safwat, Akmal

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), present treatment results of metastatic LGFMS, and investigate the clinical significance of the FUS gene rearrangement. Methods. This study included 14 consecutive LGFMS patients treated at the Aarhus Sarcoma Centre in 1979-2010. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for FUS break-apart was performed for all patients. Results. The incidence of LGFMS was 0.18 per million, representing 0.6% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Four patients needed multiple biopsies/resections before the correct diagnosis was made. Four patients experienced local recurrence, and three patients developed metastases. The treatment of metastatic LGFMS varied from multiagent chemotherapy to repeated, selective surgery of operable metastases. The best response to chemotherapy was short-term stabilization of disease progression, seen with Trabectedin. The prevalence of the FUS break-apart was 21.4%. We found no significant difference in clinical characteristics and outcomes in correlation with the FUS break-apart. Conclusion. LGFMS is a rare disease with multiple challenges. The FUS break-apart was not associated with local recurrence or metastases in our study. To date the only treatment resulting in disease-free periods is surgery; however further investigation into the management of metastatic LGFMS is necessary. PMID:23818812

  20. Volumes and growth rates of untreated adult low-grade gliomas indicate risk of early malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jeremy; Watt, Hilary; Jger, H Rolf; Benton, Chris; Tozer, Daniel; Tofts, Paul; Waldman, Adam

    2009-10-01

    Adult low-grade gliomas (LGG) grow slowly, but most eventually undergo malignant transformation. The relationship between tumour volume, growth rate and the likelihood of transformation is unknown. Twenty-seven patients with biopsy-proven, untreated LGG had at least three MRI studies at 6 monthly intervals. Tumour volumes and growth rates were calculated using semi-automated segmentation, and analysed in a hierarchical regression model. In a 3-year period, patients who showed clinical deterioration and/or new (or significantly increased) contrast enhancement were classified as transformers (T), whilst non-transformers (NT) remained stable clinically and by conventional radiological criteria. All LGG showed progressive growth. Volumes at study entry were smaller in 9NT (57 ml, 95% CI 35-80 ml) than in 18T (83 ml, 95% CI 70-96 ml) (p=0.03). Average annual growth rates were lower in NT (16% (95% CI 9-23%)) than in T (26% (95% CI 20-31%)) (p=0.046), until the penultimate study. Growth in T increased to 56% p.a. (95% CI 20-92%) in the 6 months prior to transformation. In T, tumour volume was the most significant predictor of transformation in the following 12 months. Sequential measurement of LGG volume allows accurate determination of growth rates and identification of patients whose tumours are at high risk of early transformation. PMID:18632238

  1. Detection of KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Transcripts in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yongji; Rich, Benjamin E.; Vena, Natalie; Craig, Justin M.; MacConaill, Laura E.; Rajaram, Veena; Goldman, Stewart; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Ozek, Memet; Sav, Aydin; Longtine, Janina A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ligon, Azra H.; Stiles, Charles D.; Santagata, Sandro; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kieran, Mark W.; Ligon, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of BRAF are the most common known genetic aberrations in pediatric gliomas. They frequently are found in pilocytic astrocytomas, where genomic duplications involving BRAF and the poorly characterized gene KIAA1549 create fusion proteins with constitutive B-Raf kinase activity. BRAF V600E point mutations are less common and generally occur in nonpilocytic tumors. The development of BRAF inhibitors as drugs has created an urgent need for robust clinical assays to identify activating lesions in BRAF. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts have been detected in frozen tissue, however, methods for FFPE tissue have not been reported. We developed a panel of FFPE-compatible quantitative RT-PCR assays for the most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts. Application of these assays to a collection of 51 low-grade pediatric gliomas showed 97% sensitivity and 91% specificity compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization or array comparative genomic hybridization. In parallel, we assayed samples for the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation by PCR pyrosequencing. The data further support previous observations that these two alterations of the BRAF, KIAA1549 fusions and V600E point mutations, are associated primarily with pilocytic astrocytomas and nonpilocytic gliomas, respectively. These results show that fusion transcripts and mutations can be detected reliably in standard FFPE specimens and may be useful for incorporation into future studies of pediatric gliomas in basic science or clinical trials. PMID:21884820

  2. [Cu and Fe bioleaching in low-grade chalcopyrite and bioleaching mechanisms using Penicillium janthinellum strain GXCR].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Huang, Guihai; Bai, Xiaobo; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Youzhi

    2008-11-01

    Bioleaching of Cu and Fe in low-grade chalcopyrite using Penicillium janthinellum strian GXCR was studied. As a result, shaking bioleaching was more efficient than submerged bioleaching; Cu bioleaching was much better than Fe bioleaching; under conditions of optimum carbon source (10% sucrose, W/V), optimum nitrogen source (1.5% NaNO3, W/V), shaking bioleaching and the optimum combination of conditions (initial pH 6.0 in leaching media, 5% (W/V) 200-mesh ore and initial inocula of 3.0x10(5) conidia/mL), Cu bioleaching efficiency reached 87.31% (W/W). One of the most important factors affecting Cu bioleaching in shaking bioleaching was the initial pH in leaching media (F > F0.05). The major organic acids for Cu and Fe bioleaching were citric and oxalic acids, respectively. Low bioleaching efficiency by submerged bioleaching was due to low production of citric and oxalic acids. The mechanisms employed by the GXCR in Cu bioleaching included biochemical functions of citric and oxalic acids as well as ore crack caused by mechanical power generated from mycelial growth. PMID:19256351

  3. Low-grade quarry products, reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes -- their use in unbound mixtures for road pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Rockliff, D.

    1996-12-31

    The UK Specification for Highway Works appears to encourage the use of low-grade quarry products and a range of reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes in earthworks. However, in practice, materials used in earthworks are judged against requirements designed to assess the compatibility of soils. Compliance with compactibility criteria rather than fit for purpose criteria can lead to the use of higher quality aggregates than is strictly necessary. For many years UK clients have had supplies of good quality granular subbase material available at low cost. The use of such aggregates in non-structural fill layers presents few risks, but diverts the aggregate from more appropriate end uses, such as asphalts. Proponents of the greater use of wastes and reclaimed aggregates face the same dilemma. The development of European (CEN) Standards may influence the situation. These Standards are designed to ensure that barriers to trade are removed for products placed on the market. The new Standards aim to be blind to the source of the material and to reflect the wide range of national practices across Europe. The CEN work may give a status to a number of tests that are more appropriate to the control of unbound mixtures than those currently used in the UK.

  4. Morphological observations regarding the origins of atypical cystic lobules (low-grade clinging carcinoma of flat type).

    PubMed

    Koerner, F C; Oyama, T; Maluf, H

    2001-10-01

    This study seeks to define the morphological pathogenesis of a form of cystic transformation of lobules referred to as atypical cystic lobule or low-grade clinging carcinoma of flat type. We collected 25 examples that seem to represent the early stages in the formation of atypical cystic lobules and made a careful study of their morphology. Our observations indicate that this lesion arises from pre-existing, structurally normal terminal duct-lobular units and that it seems to develop by the direct transformation of indigenous luminal cells. The transformed cells first become evident in the small duct or terminal ductule, where they appear as slightly enlarged columnar cells containing atypical nuclei. In more advanced examples, these alterations affect all luminal cells of the terminal duct-lobular unit, but the cells of the terminal ductule continue to show more pronounced changes than the cells lining the acini. The atypical cells within the lobule do not seem to displace the normal acinar cells. Instead, the cells form a continuum, making it impossible to define the point at which atypical cells and normal cells meet. Within the small duct, however, the atypical epithelium comes to an abrupt halt as the duct courses towards the nipple. Considering these observations, we ascribe the formation of atypical cystic lobules to the accumulation of atypical cells in pre-existing terminal duct-lobular units. PMID:11710639

  5. Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriel; Bautista, L Fernando; Melero, Juan A; Iglesias, Jose; Sánchez-Vázquez, Rebeca

    2011-10-01

    Different lipidic wastes and low-grade oils and fats have been characterized and evaluated as feedstocks for the acid-catalyzed production of FAME. The characterization of these materials has revealed significant contents of free fatty acids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, unsaponifiable matter and humidity. Arenesulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 silica catalyst has provided yields to FAME close to 80% in the simultaneous esterification-transesterification of the different feedstocks, regardless of their nature and properties, using methanol under the following reaction conditions: 160 °C, 2 h, methanol to oil molar ratio of 30, 8 wt.% catalyst loading, and 2000 rpm stirring rate. Nevertheless, reutilization of the catalyst is compromised by high levels of impurities, especially because of deactivation by strong interaction of unsaponifiable matter with the catalytic sites. The conditioning of these materials by aqueous washing in the presence of cationic-exchange resin Amberlyst-15, followed by a drying step, resulted in a lower deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:21862322

  6. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. PMID:25690411

  7. DNA methylation analysis of paediatric low-grade astrocytomas identifies a tumour-specific hypomethylation signature in pilocytic astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Doctor, Gabriel T; Jones, Tania A; Alberman, Samuel N; Tep, Alexander; Haria, Chirag M; Schwalbe, Edward C; Morley, Isabel C F; Hill, Alfred A; LeCain, Magdalena; Ottaviani, Diego; Clifford, Steven C; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W; Sheer, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) account for about a third of all brain tumours in children. We conducted a detailed study of DNA methylation and gene expression to improve our understanding of the biology of pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have a distinctive signature at 315 CpG sites, of which 312 were hypomethylated and 3 were hypermethylated. Genomic analysis revealed that 182 of these sites are within annotated enhancers. The signature was not present in diffuse astrocytomas, or in published profiles of other brain tumours and normal brain tissue. The AP-1 transcription factor was predicted to bind within 200 bp of a subset of the 315 differentially methylated CpG sites; the AP-1 factors, FOS and FOSL1 were found to be up-regulated in pilocytic astrocytomas. We also analysed splice variants of the AP-1 target gene, CCND1, which encodes cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. CCND1a was found to be highly expressed in both pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas, but diffuse astrocytomas have far higher expression of the oncogenic variant, CCND1b. These findings highlight novel genetic and epigenetic differences between pilocytic and diffuse astrocytoma, in addition to well-described alterations involving BRAF, MYB and FGFR1. PMID:27229157

  8. Decreased tumor apparent diffusion coefficient correlates with objective response of pediatric low-grade glioma to bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christopher H; Lober, Robert M; Li, Matthew D; Partap, Sonia; Murphy, Patricia A; Barnes, Patrick D; Fisher, Paul G; Yeom, Kristen W

    2015-05-01

    Recent small, retrospective series suggest bevacizumab may be a therapeutic option for recurrent pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG). Assessment of therapeutic responses is complicated by the unpredictable natural history of these tumors. Because diffusion-weighted imaging quantifies microscopic water motion affected by cellular density and histologic features, we hypothesized that it may be helpful in monitoring therapeutic response of LGG to bevacizumab. We retrospectively reviewed eight consecutive patients, median age 4.8 (range 2.3-12.3) years at initiation of bevacizumab therapy for recurrent or refractory LGG. Patients received 10 mg/kg/dose every 2 weeks (median 16 doses/therapy course). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured and analyzed in respect to tumor volume. Following the first treatment course, seven of eight patients had reduced tumor volume (≥25 %) and ADC. The median decrease in tumor volume was 47% (range -6 to 78 %) and the median decrease in ADC was 14 % (range -5 to 30 %). The ADC was significantly decreased during therapy, whereas the decrease in volume was seen only after therapy completion. There was a positive correlation between percent change in tumor volume and ADC (p < 0.05). We report a decrease in tumor ADC during initial bevacizumab therapy that is accompanied by a decrease in volume following therapy. Imaging changes in microscopic water motion associated with histology may be useful in monitoring the therapeutic response of LGG to bevacizumab. PMID:25758812

  9. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

  10. Cortical and Standard Trajectory Pedicle Screw Fixation Techniques in Stabilizing Multisegment Lumbar Spine with Low Grade Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    İnceoğlu, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Cortical screw (CS) fixation has been recently proposed as an alternative to the standard pedicle screw (PS) fixation technique. Biomechanical studies involving individual screw pullout and single level motion segment stabilization showed comparable performance of both techniques. However, whether this new fixation technique can be applied to the stabilization of multilevel lumbar segments with significant destabilization has been unclear. Purpose To compare stability of CS fixation to the traditional PS fixation in an unstable 3 level spondylolisthesis model. Study Design This is a biomechanical study comparing cortical trajectory pedicle screw fixation to traditional trajectory pedicle screw fixation in an unstable cadaveric model using nondestructive flexibility test. Methods Eight fresh frozen cadaveric lumbar spines (T12- S1) were obtained. After intact baseline testing, a 3-level lowgrade spondylolisthesis was simulated at the L1-4. Each specimen was instrumented with the PS and CS fixation systems. Standard nondestructive flexibility test was performed. Range of motion at each level was compared between the constructs during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The destabilization model significantly increased the ROM in all planes (P<0.05). Both fixation techniques provided significant reduction in the ROM (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ROM between the PS and CS groups in any of planes (P>0.05). Conclusions Cortical trajectory pedicle screw fixation provided stabilization to multilevel lumbar segment with low-grade spondylolisthesis comparable to the standard trajectory pedicle screw construct. PMID:26484009

  11. Comparative analytical determination of thorium in medium and low-grade minerals and ores using Semimethylthymol Blue

    SciTech Connect

    Hafez, M.A.H.; Kenawy, I.M.M.; Ramadan, M.A.M.

    1994-05-01

    The composition, stability constants and molar absorption coefficient of the chelate of thorium ion with Semimethylthymol Blue, SMTB is determined spectrophotometrically in a medium of perchloric acid and sodium perchlorate solution (pH 2.0). In the thorium-SMTB system, a purple red Th(SMTB) chelate is formed with logarithmic overall stability constant of 20.76{+-}0.01 and molar absorption coefficient of 1.44{times}10{sup 4} (560 nm) dm{sup 3} mol{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. SMTB was proposed as a new reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of micro-molar amounts of thorium at {lambda}{sub max} 560 nm. The colour development depends on time, temperature, pH and buffer species. The interferences of different anions, cations and organic acids on thorium determination were also investigated. Beer`s law was obeyed for 11.6-104.4 {mu}g Th(IV)/25 ml(0.46-4.18 ppm). SMTB was used for the spectrophotometric determination of thorium in medium and low-grade minerals and ores and the results were reproducible and satisfactory. Comparative study including different statistical tests between the spectrophotometric and complexometric determinations of thorium in its minerals and ores using SMTB has been carried out.

  12. Current Understanding of BRAF Alterations in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapeutic Targeting in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Catherine Louise; Faulkner, Claire; Lowis, Stephen P.; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of many tumors as well as normal development. This often occurs through mutation of the genes encoding RAS and RAF proteins which are involved in signal transduction in this pathway. BRAF is one of three RAF kinases which act as downstream effectors of growth factor signaling leading to cell cycle progression, proliferation, and survival. Initially reported as a point mutation (V600E) in the majority of metastatic melanomas, other alterations in the BRAF gene have now been reported in a variety of human cancers including papillary thyroid cancer, colon carcinomas, hairy cell leukemia, and more recently in gliomas. The identification of oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene have led to a revolution in the treatment of metastatic melanoma using targeted molecular therapies that affect the MAPK pathway either directly through BRAF inhibition or downstream through inhibition of MEK. This review describes the molecular biology of BRAF in the context of pediatric low-grade gliomas, the role of BRAF as a diagnostic marker, the prognostic implications of BRAF, and evidence for therapeutic targeting of BRAF. PMID:25785246

  13. Targeted Radio-Immunotherapy with Bexxar Produces Durable Remissions in Patients with Late Stage Low Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Capizzi, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with low grade (LG) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) typically have a median survival of 8-10 years during which they sustain a series of responses and relapses to therapy. More than 95% of B-cell NHLs express the CD20 surface antigen, affording opportunities for CD20-directed therapy of NHL. Since 1990, 5 trials have tested the safety and efficacy of the murine CD20 MAb Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab (Bexxar((R)) therapeutic regimen) in 250 patients with relapsed, refractory, or transformed LG NHL. The I-131 irradiates MAb-bound cells and those within the path length of the isotope. Response rates were 56% (overall) and 30% (complete). With a median follow-up of 44.6 months, 30% of the patients achieved a long-term, durable response; median time to progressive disease or death was 5 years. Thus, a single treatment with Bexxar may produce durable responses and partially reverse the natural history of LG NHL. PMID:17060972

  14. A Case of Metastatic Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Treated with Letrozole after Ovarian Ablation by Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyung Ho; Shin, Jung A; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Jung, Hae Won; Lee, Hye Ran; Chang, Sunhee; Park, Ji Yeon; Yi, Seong Yoon

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to multiple lung nodules detected incidentally on a chest X-ray. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS). She had undergone a simple hysterectomy 1 year earlier owing to a diagnosis of adenomyosis. A review of her previous hysterectomy specimen showed not endometriosis but LG-ESS. According to the patient’s levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol, she was in the premenopausal state with retained and normally functioning ovaries. She then underwent ovarian ablation by radiotherapy, after which she was administered 2.5 mg of letrozole once per day. Three months later, the size of the metastatic nodules in both lungs had decreased. The patient was followed up for 24 months while continuing on letrozole, and maintained a partial remission. We report herein on a case of metastatic LG-ESS treated with letrozole after ovarian ablation by radiotherapy. PMID:25715770

  15. Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Anal Canal: A Low-grade Lesion That Can Mimic a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Ekman, Deborah; Law, Carmella; Poynten, I Mary; Jin, Fengyi; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Thurloe, Julia K; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions among homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, we identified 15 examples of papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) in anal biopsy samples. PIM has previously been described in the cervix, but not in the anal canal. PIM is a form of exophytic low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (eLSIL) also known as condyloma. In contrast to the maturing keratinocytes and koilocytosis seen in conventional eLSIL, the slender papillary structures of PIM have a surface population of immature squamous cells. In our anal samples PIM was characterized by close proximity to conventional eLSIL, was negative for p16 (p16) expression, and revealed the presence of a single low-risk HPV genotype (either 6 or 11) in laser capture microdissected lesions. The clinical significance of recognizing PIM lies in preventing misdiagnosis as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, (the presumed precursor to anal cancer), due to the morphologic immaturity of the cell population. In routine practice, awareness of anal canal PIM and p16 immunostaining will prevent this. Further study of the natural history of anal canal PIM is needed. PMID:26551619

  16. Longitudinal Relationship of Low Leisure Satisfaction but not Depressive Symptoms With Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to further elucidate the biobehavioral mechanisms linking dementia caregiving with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that both elevated depressive symptoms and a behavioral correlate of depression, low leisure satisfaction, are associated with systemic inflammation. Method. We studied 121 elderly Alzheimer’s disease caregivers who underwent 4 annual assessments for depressive symptoms, leisure satisfaction, and circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We used mixed-regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic and health-relevant covariates to examine longitudinal relationships between constructs of interest. Results. There were inverse relationships between total leisure satisfaction and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; p = .047), interleukin-8 (IL-8; p < .001), and interferon-γ (IFG; p = .020) but not with IL-6 (p = .21) and C-reactive protein (p = .65). Lower enjoyment from leisure activities was related to higher levels of TNF-α (p = .045), IL-8 (p < .001), and IFG (p = .002), whereas lower frequency of leisure activities was related only to higher IL-8 levels (p = .023). Depressive symptoms were not associated with any inflammatory marker (all p values > .17). Depressive symptoms did not mediate the relationship between leisure satisfaction and inflammation. Discussion. Lower satisfaction with leisure activities is related to higher low-grade systemic inflammation. This knowledge may provide a promising way of improving cardiovascular health in dementia caregivers through behavioral activation treatments targeting low leisure satisfaction. PMID:23650246

  17. An Efficient Technology for Smelting Low Grade Bismuth-Lead Concentrate: Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-09-01

    An efficient technology for low-grade bismuth-lead concentrate smelting is reported. In the process, two oxygen-rich side blow furnaces (OSBF) are used for oxidative smelting of the concentrate and reductive smelting of the oxidized slag from the upstream furnace, respectively. Slags are collected from the OSBFs by certain intervals during an operation period and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis for the oxidized slag revealed that spherical or oval metallic inclusions with sizes range from submicron to 40 μm in diameter are randomly embedded in the glassy matrix. On the one hand, the metal content of the inclusions is close to that of the bottom metal alloy, indicating metal inclusions are physically entrained in the oxidized slag. On the other hand, metal inclusions are not identified in the reduced slag, disclosing the strong metal-slag separation ability of the OSBF. The bismuth content of the reduced slag is about 0.05 wt.%, which is 6-10 times lower than that of the traditional pyrometallurgical processes.

  18. How Commonly Is the Diagnosis of Gastric Low Grade Dysplasia Upgraded following Endoscopic Resection? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Xue, Meng; Hu, Yingying; Lai, Sanchuan; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing

    2015-01-01

    Gastric dysplasia is a well-known precancerous lesion. Though the diagnosis of gastric low grade dysplasia (LGD) is generally made from endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB), the accuracy is doubtful after numerous EFB-proven gastric LGD were upgraded to gastric high grade dysplasia (HGD) or even carcinoma (CA) by further diagnostic test with the procedure of endoscopic resection (ER). We aimed to evaluate the upgraded diagnosis rate (UDR) and the risk factors by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions. Two investigators independently searched studies reporting the UDR by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions from databases and analyzed the overall UDR, HGD-UDR and CA-UDR. The pooled UDR by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions was 25.0% (95% CI, 20.2%-29.8%), made up of HGD-UDR and CA-UDR by rates of 16.7% (95% CI, 12.8%-20.6%) and 6.9% (95% CI, 4.2%-9.6%) respectively. Lesion size larger than 2 cm, surface with depression and nodularity under endoscopic examinations were the major risk factors associated with UDR. In conclusion, one quarter of EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions will be diagnosed as advanced lesions, including gastric HGD (16.7%) and gastric CA (6.9%) by ER. The diagnosis of those LGD lesions with an endoscopic diameter larger than 2cm, and depressed or nodular surface are more likely to be upgraded after ER. PMID:26182344

  19. How Commonly Is the Diagnosis of Gastric Low Grade Dysplasia Upgraded following Endoscopic Resection? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Xue, Meng; Hu, Yingying; Lai, Sanchuan; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing

    2015-01-01

    Gastric dysplasia is a well-known precancerous lesion. Though the diagnosis of gastric low grade dysplasia (LGD) is generally made from endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB), the accuracy is doubtful after numerous EFB-proven gastric LGD were upgraded to gastric high grade dysplasia (HGD) or even carcinoma (CA) by further diagnostic test with the procedure of endoscopic resection (ER). We aimed to evaluate the upgraded diagnosis rate (UDR) and the risk factors by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions. Two investigators independently searched studies reporting the UDR by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions from databases and analyzed the overall UDR, HGD-UDR and CA-UDR. The pooled UDR by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions was 25.0% (95% CI, 20.2%-29.8%), made up of HGD-UDR and CA-UDR by rates of 16.7% (95% CI, 12.8%-20.6%) and 6.9% (95% CI, 4.2%-9.6%) respectively. Lesion size larger than 2 cm, surface with depression and nodularity under endoscopic examinations were the major risk factors associated with UDR. In conclusion, one quarter of EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions will be diagnosed as advanced lesions, including gastric HGD (16.7%) and gastric CA (6.9%) by ER. The diagnosis of those LGD lesions with an endoscopic diameter larger than 2cm, and depressed or nodular surface are more likely to be upgraded after ER. PMID:26182344

  20. Delay effects in the response of low-grade gliomas to radiotherapy: a mathematical model and its therapeutical implications.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Víctor M; Bogdanska, Magdalena; Martínez-González, Alicia; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Schucht, Philippe; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis A

    2015-09-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a group of primary brain tumours usually encountered in young patient populations. These tumours represent a difficult challenge because many patients survive a decade or more and may be at a higher risk for treatment-related complications. Specifically, radiation therapy is known to have a relevant effect on survival but in many cases it can be deferred to avoid side effects while maintaining its beneficial effect. However, a subset of LGGs manifests more aggressive clinical behaviour and requires earlier intervention. Moreover, the effectiveness of radiotherapy depends on the tumour characteristics. Recently Pallud et al. (2012. Neuro-Oncology, 14: , 1-10) studied patients with LGGs treated with radiation therapy as a first-line therapy and obtained the counterintuitive result that tumours with a fast response to the therapy had a worse prognosis than those responding late. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model describing the basic facts of glioma progression and response to radiotherapy. The model provides also an explanation to the observations of Pallud et al. Using the model, we propose radiation fractionation schemes that might be therapeutically useful by helping to evaluate tumour malignancy while at the same time reducing the toxicity associated to the treatment. PMID:24860116

  1. Microvessel and lymphatic density in tubular carcinoma of the breast: comparative study with invasive low-grade ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Aguilar, Sergio; Jondet, Michel; Simonart, Thierry; Nöel, Jean-Christophe

    2006-12-01

    Tubular carcinoma (TC) of the breast is an uncommon variant of ductal carcinoma, which has an extremely low metastatic potential and an excellent prognosis. Studies concerning the vascular and lymph vessel status in TC are not numerous and hampered by a lack of specific markers. We immunohistochemically analysed the expression of CD31 and D2-40 antibodies in 15 TC measuring less than 2cm in diameter. We compared the results with those observed in 30 low-grade ductal breast carcinomas (LGDC) of no specific type with similar dimensions. Neither microvascular density (MVD) nor lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was statistically different in the groups: MVD was 26.5+/-28.2 and 32.1+/-17.9 vessels/mm(2) in TC and LGDC, respectively (P=0.08). LVD, low in both tumour types, was 0.5+/-0.3 and 0.6+/-0.4 vessels/mm(2), respectively (P>0.1). These data suggest that the favourable prognosis and the low rate of lymph node metastases in TC are not explained by lymphangiogenetic and angiogenetic potential and are supported by recent analyses in the literature. PMID:16931017

  2. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  3. A Comparison of Brain Wave Patterns of High and Low Grade Point Average Students During Rest, Problem Solving, and Stress Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montor, Karel

    The purpose of this study was to compare brain wave patterns produced by high and low grade point average students, while they were resting, solving problems, and subjected to stress situations. The study involved senior midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The high group was comprised of those whose cumulative grade point average was…

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  5. Biology of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Thorbecke, G J; Amin, A R; Tsiagbe, V K

    1994-08-01

    Germinal centers in lymphoid tissue are the sites of generation of memory B cells undergoing isotype switching and somatic mutation in their Ig genes. Their formation cannot be induced by stimuli other than immunogenic ones. It seems likely that in the function and possibly also in the formation of germinal centers, one important factor is the localization of immune complexes with fixed complement on the surface of follicular dendritic cells. CD4+ T cells, located primarily in the "apical light zones" of the centers, are necessary for germinal center formation. However, their exact role in the process needs clarification, as both cell to cell contact and cytokine production could be involved at different stages of the germinal center generation. These T cells are usually specific for the antigen inducing the germinal center, but they may sometimes respond to other surface components on the B cell surface. In view of the possible stimulatory role of CD4+ T cells in follicular center-derived lymphomas, the functional significance of these T cells in germinal center proliferation is important to unravel. The B cells in germinal centers proliferate extremely rapidly, especially those located in the "dark zones." Many of them undergo apoptosis, particularly in the "basal light zones." The microenvironment of these centers is well suited to the task of expanding and selecting memory B cells of high affinity for the inducing antigen. The interactions of the proliferating B cells with dendritic cells and T cells, unevenly distributed in the various zones of the germinal center, are thought to determine which cells deserve rescue from apoptosis and induction to differentiation into small resting memory B cells. The memory B cells that emerge from the germinal center bear sIg, usually of "switched" isotype, and exhibit somatic mutations in the variable regions of their rearranged Ig genes. PMID:8070632

  6. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  7. Albite crystallographic preferred orientation and grain misorientation distribution in a low-grade mylonite: implications for granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenting; Prior, David J.; Wheeler, John

    2000-11-01

    Crystallographic orientation data from pure albite domains in a low-grade sheared metagabbro from the Combin Zone of the western Italian Alps were measured by electron backscatter diffraction. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in four high-strain domains are non-random and have a triclinic symmetry. The clusters of [100], [010] and [001] show an angular relationship that corresponds to that of the albite crystal lattice. However, the orientations of axis clusters to the kinematic axes vary from domain to domain. CPOs from a low-strain domain also show clustered axes with triclinic symmetry, but with more intense clustering than those in the high-strain domains. Grain misorientation distributions are presented both for the low-strain domain and one of the high-strain domains. In the high-strain domain, the distribution of misorientation angles between neighbouring grains displays a peak at about 70°. The equivalent distribution in the low-strain domain has a peak at 30°. For both domains, the misorientation axis distributions, between neighbouring and non-neighbouring grains, are random, except for some of axes with 160-180° misorientation that exhibit a slight concentration around [010]. The diversity of CPOs among the domains suggests that these CPOs could not be produced by dislocation creep. They are likely to have been inherited from plagioclase parents, as a result of host control on the nucleation of the new albite grains. These CPOs do not contain any direct information about the deformation kinematics. We interpret that deformation of these domains occurred by granular flow. Crystallographic axis dispersion due to grain boundary sliding (GBS) caused weakening of CPOs, modification of misorientation angle distributions and randomisation of misorientation axis distributions. The fact that a CPO can survive GBS even after a high strain indicates that CPO is not always a sensitive indicator of deformation mechanisms. Misorientation distribution may provide a complementary, and possibly a more sensitive indicator of deformation mechanisms.

  8. Surface Papillary Epithelial Hyperplasia (Rough Mucosa) is a Helpful Clue for Identification of Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chi, Angela C; Neville, Brad W

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia, a microscopic finding that corresponds to the clinical finding of rough or stippled mucosa, as a predictor of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). We conducted a retrospective review of minor salivary gland neoplasms submitted to our biopsy service from 1991 to 2013. Our review was limited to lesions involving the oral cavity/soft palate with the following diagnoses: PLGA, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). A total of 202 minor salivary gland neoplasms were included in the study. Among cases in which surface epithelium was present for evaluation (n=112), surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in 30% of PLGA and 1% of non-PLGA (i.e., MEC, ACC, PA). The greater frequency of surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia in the PLGA versus non-PLGA cases and in the benign versus malignant cases was significant (p=.0001 and p=.041, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of papillary epithelial hyperplasia for PLGA were 30% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.97-54.27%) and 99% (95% CI 94-99.82%), respectively. The clinical presentation of PLGA appeared relatively nonspecific, with all analyzed tumor types exhibiting a predilection for females, middle-aged to older adults, palatal location, pink/tan/normal color, and firm consistency. In conclusion, papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in only a minority of PLGA. However, when present within the context of a palatal salivary gland neoplasm, it appears to indicate a high probability of PLGA. Accordingly, rough mucosa may be a useful clinical pearl for identification of PLGA. PMID:25322702

  9. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations. PMID:26143080

  10. KRAS (but not BRAF) mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumor are associated with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yvonne T.; Deavers, Michael T.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Kwan, Suet-Yan; Kuo, Eric; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2014-01-01

    BRAF and KRAS mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumors (OSBTs) and ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) have been previously described. However, whether those OSBTs would progress to LGSCs or those LGSCs were developed from OSBT precursors in previous studies is unknown. Therefore, we assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations in tumor samples from 23 recurrent LGSC patients with known initial diagnosis of OSBT. Paraffin blocks from both OSBT and LGSC samples were available for 5 patients, and either OSBT or LGSC were available for another 18 patients. Tumor cells from paraffin-embedded tissues were dissected out for mutation analysis by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Tumors that appeared to have wild-type KRAS by conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing were further analyzed by full COLD (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature)-PCR and deep sequencing. Full COLD-PCR was able to enrich the amplification of mutated alleles. Deep sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM). By conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing, BRAF mutation was detected only in one patient and KRAS mutations were detected in 10 patients. Full COLD-PCR deep sequencing detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in eight additional patients. Three of the five patients with both OSBT and LGSC samples available had the same KRAS mutations detected in both OSBT and LGSC samples. The remaining two patients had only KRAS mutations detected in their LGSC samples. For patients with either OSBT or LGSC samples available, KRAS mutations were detected in 7 OSBT samples and 6 LGSC samples. To our surprise, patients with the KRAS G12V mutation appeared to have shorter survival times. In summary, KRAS mutations are very common in recurrent LGSC, while BRAF mutations are rare. The findings indicate that recurrent LGSC can arise from proliferation of OSBT tumor cells with or without detectable KRAS mutations. PMID:24549645

  11. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  12. Genetic and epigenetic characterization of low-grade gliomas reveals frequent methylation of the MLH3 gene.

    PubMed

    Lhotska, Halka; Zemanova, Zuzana; Cechova, Hana; Ransdorfova, Sarka; Lizcova, Libuse; Kramar, Filip; Krejcik, Zdenek; Svobodova, Karla; Bystricka, Dagmar; Hrabal, Petr; Dohnalova, Alena; Michalova, Kyra

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) are the most common histological subtypes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Several molecular and epigenetic markers have been identified that predict tumor progression. Our aim was in detail to investigate the genetic and epigenetic background of LGGs and to identify new markers that might play a role in tumor behavior. Twenty-three patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma (LGO) and 22 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (LGA) were investigated using several molecular-cytogenetic and molecular methods to assess their copy number variations, mutational status and level of promoter methylation. The most frequent findings were a 1p/19q codeletion in 83% of LGO and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of 17p in 72% of LGA. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) genes were detected in 96% of LGO and 91% of LGA. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter was methylated in 83% of LGO and 59% of LGA. MutL homolog 3 (MLH3) promoter methylation was observed in 61% of LGO and 27% of LGA. Methylation of the MGMT promoter, 1p/19q codeletion, mutated IDH1, and CN-LOH of 17p were the most frequent genetic aberrations in LGGs. The findings were more diverse in LGA than in LGO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time description of methylation of the MLH3 gene promoter in LGGs. Further studies are required to determine the role of the methylated MLH3 promoter and the other aberrations detected. PMID:26303387

  13. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  14. Significance of a minor high-grade component in a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of bladder.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo O; Taheri, Diana; Chaux, Alcides; Guner, Gunes; Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria A; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Schoenberg, Mark P; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinicopathological features and prognostic significance of the presence of 5% or less high-grade component in otherwise low-grade noninvasive bladder urothelial carcinoma, referred to as mixed-grade (MG) urothelial carcinoma, we reviewed all archival cases with such diagnosis between 2005 and 2014. Clinicopathological and outcome parameters were compared to those in our previously reported low- and high-grade noninvasive bladder urothelial carcinoma cohorts (LGUC and HGUC, respectively). The study included 31 MG urothelial carcinomas. Mean patient age was 67.6 years, and mean follow-up was 39.7 months. Intravesical treatment was administered in 15 patients (48.4%). Recurrence occurred in 14 cases (45.2%): 10 as LGUC and 4 as HGUC; there was no stage progression. Mean time to progression was 9 months (5-17 months), and there was no death of disease. MG urothelial carcinoma stage progression and dead of disease rates were comparable to that of LGUC. MG urothelial carcinoma stage progression was significantly lower than that of HGUC, P = .002, using Pearson χ(2) test. MG urothelial carcinoma patients with no intravesical treatment had higher incidence rate of grade progression (25%) compared to LGUC patients (7.9%); however, the difference was not statistically significant. MG urothelial carcinoma had a prognosis closer to "pure" LGUC than "pure" HGUC. Untreated MG urothelial carcinoma may have a higher rate of grade progression than LGUC, although more data are needed before this issue can be definitively addressed. Until such data are available, it is reasonable to keep MG urothelial carcinoma as a distinct grade category with potential management implications. PMID:26520419

  15. Sephadex and sephadex ion-exchange filtration improves the quality and freezability of low-grade buffalo semen ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Anzar, M; Shahab, M; Ahmad, N; Andrabi, S M H

    2003-03-01

    The effect of sephadex and sephadex ion-exchange filtration on the improvement in quality and freezability of low-grade buffalo semen ejaculates was assessed. Two types of filtration columns were used: one containing only sephadex G-10 (FS) and the other sephadex G-10 along with ion-exchangers (diethyl amino ethane-52 (DEAE-52) cellulose and carboxy methyl-52 (CM-52) cellulose; FS+IE). Unfiltered samples served as controls. Semen ejaculates extended in Tris-citric acid (1:4) (n=16; initial motility 40-50%) were filtered at the rate of 1.5 ml/min under negative pressure at room temperature (28-30 degrees C). The mean recovery rate (%) of motile spermatozoa in the FS (85.9+/-1.51) and FS+IE (77.10+/-2.28) filtrates did not differ significantly. Percentages of sperm motility, normal acrosomes, and intact plasma membranes were highest (P<0.05) in FS+IE, intermediate (P<0.05) in FS and lowest (P<0.05) in controls at the three stages of cryopreservation (postfiltration final dilution, after equilibration, and after freezing). Mean sperm abnormalities were lowest (P<0.05) in the filtrates of FS+IE, moderate (P<0.05) in FS and highest in controls at all stages of freezing. Compared to dilution and equilibration, freezing greatly reduced (P<0.05) the overall percent motility, normal acrosomes and intact plasma membranes. The spermatozoa eluted through FS+IE columns proved more resistant (P<0.05) in bearing dilution, equilibration, freezing and thawing stresses than the spermatozoa from FS and control samples. It is concluded that filtration systems containing an FS+IE column can effectively enhance the quality and freezability of extended, low quality buffalo semen. PMID:12527067

  16. Tight junctions and IBS--the link between epithelial permeability, low-grade inflammation, and symptom generation?

    PubMed

    Piche, T

    2014-03-01

    In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Dr Ewa Wilcz-Villega and colleagues report low expression of E-cadherin, a tight junction protein involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability, in the colonic mucosa of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with predominance of diarrhea (IBS-D) or alternating symptoms (IBS-A). These findings constitute an improvement in our knowledge of epithelial barrier disruption associated with IBS. There is mounting evidence to indicate that a compromised epithelial barrier is associated with low-grade immune activation and intestinal dysfunction in at least a proportion of IBS patients. During the last 10 years of research, much interest has focused on the increase in the number of different types of immune cells in the gut mucosa of IBS patients including: mast cells, T lymphocytes, and other local cells such as enteroendocrine cells. The inflammatory mediators released by these cells or other luminal factors could be at the origin of altered epithelial barrier functions and enteric nervous system signaling, which lead to gut hypersensitivity. A current conceptual framework states that clinical symptoms of IBS could be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the mucosal barrier, highlighting the crucial importance of elucidating the contributory role of epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of IBS. More importantly, disruption of the epithelial barrier could also participate in the generation of persistent abdominal pain and discomfort mimicking IBS in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases considered in remission. This mini review gives a brief summary of clinical and experimental evidence concerning the mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier defects in IBS. PMID:24548256

  17. The role of up-front radiation therapy for incompletely resected pediatric WHO grade II low-grade gliomas1

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Puri, Dev R.; Missett, Brian T.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of early radiation therapy and extent of surgical resection on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with WHO grade II low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We conducted a historical cohort study of 90 patients, ages 21 or younger, diagnosed with WHO grade II LGGs between 1970 and 1995. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 9.4 years (range, 0.5–22.6 years). Tests for variables correlating with OS and PFS were conducted by using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Eleven patients underwent gross total resections (GTRs), 43 had subtotal resections, and 34 underwent biopsy only at diagnosis. Two patients underwent biopsy at time of recurrence. Of the 90 patients, 52 received radiation as part of their initial therapy following diagnosis (early-RT group). The overall five-year PFS and OS rates ± SE were 56% ± 5% and 90% ± 3%, respectively. Ten-year PFS and OS rates were 42% ± 6% and 81% ± 5%, respectively. For patients older than three years and without GTRs, administration of early radiation did not appear to influence PFS or OS (P = 0.98 and P = 0.40, respectively; log-rank test). This was confirmed by multivariate analyses (P = 0.95 and P = 0.33 for PFS and OS, respectively). Of the 11 patients with GTRs, disease progressed in only two, and all were alive with no evidence of disease at last follow-up. Patients who underwent GTRs had significantly longer PFS (P = 0.02), but did not have significantly improved OS. Excellent long-term survival rates were achieved for children with WHO grade II LGGs. We were unable to demonstrate a benefit for administering radiation as part of initial treatment. An outcome benefit was seen with greater extent of resection. PMID:16495375

  18. [Low-grade fever of protracted course. Retrospective study of 30 cases and reflections for a low-cost management].

    PubMed

    Campanella, N; Pergolini, M; Morosini, P

    1998-01-01

    The objects of this paper were the following: 1) to establish in a group of persistent (over four weeks) low grade fever (LGF) patients the percentage of cases in which a definite diagnosis could not be made; 2) where a definite diagnosis could be made, to describe the most commonly occurring diseases; 3) to follow up the uncertain diagnosis cases for at least two years. Thirty cases of persistent LGF were retrospectively studied. They did not include drug hyper-dysthermia and temporary and/or metabolic vasomotor reactions. The data suggest that: 1) two thirds of persistent LGF are likely not to be definitely diagnosed; 2) some certain diagnoses were: dental granulomas, mycobacteria infections, thyroiditis, factitious fever, rheumatic polymyalgia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and pulmonary thromboembolism; 3) in 14/19 undiagnosed cases the fever subsided permanently, without any treatment, within one year, whereas it persisted in 5/19, but no deterioration of the overall clinical status was observed; 4) although some of the undiagnosed cases were examined elsewhere, a certain diagnosis was never achieved in spite of their undergoing sophisticated and expensive clinical, laboratory and X-ray tests. Therefore it is concluded that: 1) persistent LGF should be managed more conservatively than fever of unknown origin so as to preserve resources; 2) some diseases should be included in the differential diagnoses from the beginning of the initial clinical work up; 3) undiagnosed LGF fever either subsides and returns to normal within one year or the fever persists, but no deterioration of the clinical and performance status is likely to occur. PMID:9691731

  19. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L.; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-α (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = −0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  20. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. PMID:26283536

  1. Inhibition of autophagy overcomes glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoid malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; Xu, Lingzhi; Xie, Jiajun; Li, Sisi; Guan, Yanchun; Zhang, Yan; Hou, Zhijie; Guo, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wang, Chang; Fan, Wenjun; Si, Yang; Yang, Ya; Kang, Zhijie; Fang, Meiyun; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Till now, the precise mechanism of GC resistance remains unclear. In the present study, dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle in G0/G1-phase, and induced apoptosis in Dex-sensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, Dex failed to cause cell death in Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells. Intriguingly, we found that autophagy was induced by Dex in resistant cells, as indicated by autophagosomes formation, LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, p62 degradation, and formation of acidic autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, the results showed that Dex reduced the activity of mTOR pathway, as determined by decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR, Akt, P70S6K and 4E-BP1 in resistant cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either chloroquine (CQ) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA) overcame Dex-resistance in lymphoid malignant cells by increasing apoptotic cell death in vitro. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by stably knockdown of Beclin1 sensitized Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells to induction of apoptosis in vivo. Thus, inhibition of autophagy has the potential to improve lymphoid malignancy treatment by overcoming GC resistance. PMID:25778879

  2. Characteristics and significance of colorectal cancer associated lymphoid reaction.

    PubMed

    Väyrynen, Juha P; Sajanti, Sara A; Klintrup, Kai; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karttunen, Tuomo J; Tuomisto, Anne; Mäkinen, Markus J

    2014-05-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) exhibits so-called Crohn's like lymphoid reaction (CLR), an inflammatory reaction pattern that consists of numerous transmural lymphoid aggregates. However, the composition of these aggregates, their biological mechanisms and their prognostic significance are not well-defined. We analyzed two CRC cohorts (418 and 149 patients) and determined clinicopathological features including survival. A new method for evaluating CLR based on counting the areal density of the lymphoid follicles (CLR density) was adopted. Immune cell densities at intratumoral and peritumoral regions, as well as the composition of the lymphoid follicles, were studied by immunohistochemistry. We found that CLR comprised of lymphoid aggregates with no evidence of granuloma formation. High CLR density associated with lower tumor stage, lack of preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and deficient mismatch repair enzyme expression. CLR density had positive correlations with peritumoral and intratumoral densities of CD83(+) mature dendritic cells and T cells. High CLR density associated with better survival and had prognostic value that was independent of stage, Klintrup-Mäkinen score for peritumoral inflammation and the numbers of tumor infiltrating T cells. CLR density evaluation had excellent intraobserver and interobserver agreement. In conclusion, the results suggest that CLR contributes to the adaptive antitumor immunity. Quantitative evaluation of CLR density is a relevant prognostic indicator in CRC. PMID:24154855

  3. Treatment and survival of lymphoid malignancy in the north-west of England: a population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, J. H.; Jones, J. M.; Chang, J. G.; Harris, M.; Banergee, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Classification of lymphoid malignancy has changed markedly in recent years and advances have been made in therapy. This study investigated the variations in treatment and survival of 1622 patients in a population-based registry. A total of 1009 cases of malignant lymphoma (ML) were classified according to the Kiel classification. Pathology review resulted in major diagnostic changes for 24% of cases. Of the ML cases, 39% had not had full staging procedures. Younger patients were more likely to have been treated with multiagent chemotherapy regimens, as were patients with B symptoms. Median survival for ML patients was 12 months for high-grade patients and more than 60 months for low-grade patients. Significant factors affecting the survival of ML patients were performance status, whether treatment had followed a recognised protocol, whether treatment had been carried out at a specialist oncology centre (SOC), grade of disease, stage, gender and age. The same factors had a significant effect on survival of the leukaemia patients, except for treatment at an SOC, which had a significant favourable effect on survival of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients only. Median survival for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 43 months and 7 months for ALL patients. PMID:7669590

  4. IL-22 regulates lymphoid chemokine production and assembly of tertiary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Barone, Francesca; Nayar, Saba; Campos, Joana; Cloake, Thomas; Withers, David R; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Zhang, Yang; Fouser, Lynette; Fisher, Benjamin; Bowman, Simon; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Garcia-Hernandez, Maria de la Luz; Randall, Troy D; Lucchesi, Davide; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino; Luther, Sanjiv A; Buckley, Christopher D

    2015-09-01

    The series of events leading to tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO) formation in mucosal organs following tissue damage remain unclear. Using a virus-induced model of autoantibody formation in the salivary glands of adult mice, we demonstrate that IL-22 provides a mechanistic link between mucosal infection, B-cell recruitment, and humoral autoimmunity. IL-22 receptor engagement is necessary and sufficient to promote differential expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 in epithelial and fibroblastic stromal cells that, in turn, is pivotal for B-cell recruitment and organization of the TLOs. Accordingly, genetic and therapeutic blockade of IL-22 impairs and reverses TLO formation and autoantibody production. Our work highlights a critical role for IL-22 in TLO-induced pathology and provides a rationale for the use of IL-22-blocking agents in B-cell-mediated autoimmune conditions. PMID:26286991

  5. IL-22 regulates lymphoid chemokine production and assembly of tertiary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Nayar, Saba; Campos, Joana; Cloake, Thomas; Withers, David R.; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Zhang, Yang; Fouser, Lynette; Fisher, Benjamin; Bowman, Simon; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Garcia-Hernandez, Maria de la Luz; Randall, Troy D.; Lucchesi, Davide; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The series of events leading to tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO) formation in mucosal organs following tissue damage remain unclear. Using a virus-induced model of autoantibody formation in the salivary glands of adult mice, we demonstrate that IL-22 provides a mechanistic link between mucosal infection, B-cell recruitment, and humoral autoimmunity. IL-22 receptor engagement is necessary and sufficient to promote differential expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 in epithelial and fibroblastic stromal cells that, in turn, is pivotal for B-cell recruitment and organization of the TLOs. Accordingly, genetic and therapeutic blockade of IL-22 impairs and reverses TLO formation and autoantibody production. Our work highlights a critical role for IL-22 in TLO-induced pathology and provides a rationale for the use of IL-22–blocking agents in B-cell–mediated autoimmune conditions. PMID:26286991

  6. Exploring the multifaceted nature of the common lymphoid progenitor compartment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christina T; Strid, Tobias; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    While the common lymphoid progenitor compartment was originally thought to be a rather homogenous cell population, it has become increasingly clear that this compartment is highly heterogeneous both with regard to phenotypic and functional features. The exploration of this cellular complexity has generated novel molecular insights into regulatory events in lymphoid lineage restriction and provided support for the idea that multiple lineage restriction events occur at this developmental stage. Furthermore, the identification of multiple lineage-restricted progenitors with mixed lineage potential challenges a strictly hierarchical model for lymphoid development. Instead we propose a model based on competence windows during which cell fates are established through the action of lineage determining factors. PMID:26871596

  7. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  8. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. PMID:22112591

  9. Neoplastic diseases of the haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues*

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, W. F. H.; Mackey, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Systemic lymphosarcomas are common in all species of domestic mammal. A binomial classification of these tumours, based on both the anatomical form (i.e., distribution of lesions) and the type of cytology, is proposed. Mast cell tumours also are common, especially in the dog. The categories of lymphoid neoplasms described are: lymphosarcoma, lymphoid leukaemia, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, tumours of the immunoglobulin-forming cells, and thymoma. The myeloid neoplasms described are: myeloid leukaemia, erythroleukaemia, acute erythraemia, polycythaemia vera, megakaryocytoid leukaemia, panmyelosis, myelosclerosis, and monocytoid leukaemia. Mast cell tumours are divided into mastocytoma and malignant mastocytosis. ImagesPLATE IIFig. 13Fig. 14PLATE IPLATE IIIFig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4214049

  10. Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and lymphoid chemokines in Sjogren's syndrome: at the interplay between chronic inflammation, autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2012-08-01

    It has long been demonstrated that a subset of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) develop ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) in the salivary glands (SG). These structures are characterised by periductal clusters of T and B lymphocytes, development of high endothelial venules and differentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) networks. Evidence in patients with and animal models of SS demonstrated that the formation and maintenance of ELS in the SG is critically dependent on the ectopic expression of lymphotoxins (LT) and lymphoid chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL12. Several cell types, including resident epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells as well as different subsets of infiltrating immune cells, have been shown to be capable of producing some of these factors during chronic inflammation in SS. In this review we focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the formation of ELS in SS SG, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines. In addition, we summarise accumulating data in support of the notion that ELS in SS represent functional niches whereby autoreactive B cells undergo affinity maturation, clonal selection and differentiation into autoantibody producing cells, thus contributing to autoimmunity over and above secondary lymphoid organs. Furthermore, we review the emerging role of ELS and lymphoid chemokines in driving extranodal B cell lymphomagenesis in SS and we focus on recent evidence suggesting that ELS identify subsets of SS patients at increased risk of developing systemic manifestations and lymphoma. PMID:22208651

  11. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells in antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Giuliana; Cerutti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a heterogeneous family of effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that mediate lymphoid organogenesis, tissue repair, immunity and inflammation. The initial view that ILCs exert their protective functions solely during the innate phase of an immune response has been recently challenged by evidence indicating that ILCs shape adaptive immunity by establishing both contact-dependent and contact-independent interactions with multiple hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, including B cells. Some of these interactions enhance antibody responses both systemically and at mucosal sites of entry. PMID:25621842

  12. Cryosurgical treatment of the lymphoid tissue of Waldeyer's ring.

    PubMed

    Principato, J J

    1987-05-01

    The role of cryosurgery in the treatment of tonsil disease is an unresolved issue. Initial favorable reports failed to provide the necessary incentives for larger well-controlled studies. Bacteriologic and immunologic response to the cryosurgical treatment of tonsils remains unclear. Without appropriate studies, cryosurgery has been relegated to a backup status for conventional tonsil surgery. At present, cryogenic treatment of lymphoid tissue is generally limited to tonsillectomy in patients with blood dyscrasias; elimination of palatine tonsil regrowth and posterior pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia; and occasional laryngeal and lingual tonsillectomy. PMID:3601390

  13. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

  14. Beneficial impact of high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on the efficacy of pediatric low-grade glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Roder, Constantin; Breitkopf, Martin; Ms; Bisdas, Sotirios; Freitas, Rousinelle da Silva; Dimostheni, Artemisia; Ebinger, Martin; Wolff, Markus; Tatagiba, Marcos; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2016-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is assumed to safely improve the extent of resection (EOR) in patients with gliomas. This study focuses on advantages of this imaging technology in elective low-grade glioma (LGG) surgery in pediatric patients. METHODS The surgical results of conventional and 1.5-T iMRI-guided elective LGG surgery in pediatric patients were retrospectively compared. Tumor volumes, general clinical data, EOR according to reference radiology assessment, and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. RESULTS Sixty-five patients were included in the study, of whom 34 had undergone conventional surgery before the iMRI unit opened (pre-iMRI period) and 31 had undergone surgery with iMRI guidance (iMRI period). Perioperative data were comparable between the 2 cohorts, apart from larger preoperative tumor volumes in the pre-iMRI period, a difference without statistical significance, and (as expected) significantly longer surgeries in the iMRI group. According to 3-month postoperative MRI studies, an intended complete resection (CR) was achieved in 41% (12 of 29) of the patients in the pre-iMRI period and in 71% (17 of 24) of those in the iMRI period (p = 0.05). Of those cases in which the surgeon was postoperatively convinced that he had successfully achieved CR, this proved to be true in only 50% of cases in the pre-iMRI period but in 81% of cases in the iMRI period (p = 0.055). Residual tumor volumes on 3-month postoperative MRI were significantly smaller in the iMRI cohort (p < 0.03). By continuing the resection of residual tumor after the intraoperative scan (when the surgeon assumed that he had achieved CR), the rate of CR was increased from 30% at the time of the scan to 85% at the 3-month postoperative MRI. The mean follow-up for the entire study cohort was 36.9 months (3-79 months). Progression-free survival after surgery was noticeably better for the entire iMRI cohort and in iMRI patients with postoperatively assumed CR, but did not quite reach statistical significance. Moreover, PFS was highly significantly better in patients with CRs than in those with incomplete resections (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Significantly better surgical results (CR) and PFS were achieved after using iMRI in patients in whom total resections were intended. Therefore, the use of high-field iMRI is strongly recommended for electively planned LGG resections in pediatric patients. PMID:26926053

  15. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomás Hernández; Girón, Antonio Vargas; López, Carlos Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this infection, as well as monitoring for at least 1 year according to the natural evolution of the disease. PMID:24765393

  16. Dietary xylooligosaccharide downregulates IFN-γ and the low-grade inflammatory cytokine IL-1β systemically in mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla H F; Frøkiær, Hanne; Christensen, Annette G; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Axel K; Metzdorff, Stine B

    2013-04-01

    Dietary carbohydrates improve growth conditions for distinct populations of bacteria that may affect mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we fed in a parallel experiment a 10% xylooligosaccharide (XOS)-supplemented diet or a control diet to 2 groups of male C57BL/6NTac mice for 10 wk from weaning. We found that the XOS diet significantly increased Bifidobacterium throughout the intestine compared with control-fed mice, with the highest proportions found in the ileum after XOS feeding (P < 0.001). In the intestinal epithelium, most innate immune-related genes were unaffected by XOS feeding, whereas expression of interleukin 1β (Il1β) (P < 0.01) and interferon γ (Ifnγ) (P < 0.05) was significantly less in blood from XOS-fed mice than from control-fed mice. In vitro treatment of blood with propionate significantly decreased Il1β (P < 0.01), Ifnγ (P < 0.01), and interleukin 18 (Il18) (P < 0.001) expression, supporting our hypothesis that increased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut, which are transported across the intestine and into the systemic compartments, results in downregulation of low-grade inflammatory cytokines. The defensin regenerating islet-derived protein 3γ (RegIIIγ) was significantly more highly expressed in the small intestine (P < 0.01) in XOS-fed mice compared with control-fed mice, suggesting only minor contact between bifidobacteria and epithelial cells. In support of this, the SCFA-induced sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 expression tended to be greater in the XOS group than in the control group (P = 0.06), indicating an indirect SCFA-mediated antiinflammatory effect of XOS. In conclusion, XOS feeding decreases systemic inflammation, and this effect is most likely caused by higher SCFA concentrations as a result of an increased bifidobacterial saccharolytic fermentation in the entire gut and not only in the large intestine. PMID:23427328

  17. Interbody Fusion in Low Grade Lumbar Spondylolsithesis: Clinical Outcome Does Not Correalte with Slip Reduction and Neural Foraminal Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Atanu; McConnell, Jeffrey R.; Jha, Deepak K.; Chakraburtty, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective nonrandomized study. Purpose To find a possible correlation between clinical outcome and extent of lumbar spondylolisthesis reduction. Overview of Literature There is no consensus in the literature concerning whether a beneficial effect of reduction on outcome can be expected following reduction and surgical fusion for low grade lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods Forty six patients with a mean age of 37.5 years (age, 17–48 years) with isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent interbody fusion with cages with posterior instrumentation (TLIF). Clinical outcome was measured using visual analogue score (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Foraminal dimensions and disc heights were measured in standard digital radiographs. These were analyzed at baseline and 1 year after surgery and changes were compared. Radiographic fusion was judged with computed tomography scans at 1 year. Results Ninety percent of the patients had good or very good clinical results with fusion and instrumentation. Baseline and one-year postoperative mean VAS score was 6.33 (range, 5–8) and 0.76 (range, 0–3), respectively (p=0.004). Baseline and one-year postoperative, mean ODI score was 48 (range, 32–62) and 10 (range, 6–16), respectively (p<0.001). A mean spondylolisthesis slip of 32.1% was reduced to 6.7% at 1 year. Average anterior disc height, posterior disc height, vertical foraminal dimension), and foraminal) diameter improved from 9.8 to 11.7 mm (p=0.005), 4.5 to 5.8 mm (p=0.004), 11.3 to 12.6 mm (p=0.002), and 18.6 to 20.0 mm (p<0.001), respectively. The fusion rate was 75% with TLIF. There is no significant correlation between the improvements of ODI scores and the extent of slip reduction. Conclusions Neural decompression and interbody fusion can significantly improve pain and disability but the clinical outcome does not correlate with radiological improvement in the neural foraminal dimension.

  18. Psychosocial Impact of Alternative Management Policies for Low-Grade Cervical Abnormalities: Results from the TOMBOLA Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Julian; Gray, Nicola M.; Cruickshank, Margaret; Smart, Louise; Thornton, Alison; Waugh, Norman; Walker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Background Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care) and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. Methods Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20–59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n = 1703) or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n = 1696). At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A subgroup (n = 2354) completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (≥8) and significant anxiety (≥11; “30-month percentages”). Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (≥9). Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. Results There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.80–1.21) or anxiety (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.81–1.16) between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR = 0.67 95% CI 0.54–0.84). Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time-points. Conclusions There was no difference in the longer-term psychosocial impact of management policies based on cytological surveillance or initial colposcopy. Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 34841617 PMID:24386076

  19. TEM/AEM characterization of fine-grained clay minerals in very-low-grade rocks: Evaluation of contamination by EMPA involving celadonite family minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gejing; Peacor, D.R.; Coombs, D.S.; Kawachi, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Recent advances in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) have led to many new insights into the structural and chemical characteristics of very fine-grained, optically homogeneous mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks. Chemical compositions obtained by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) on such materials have been shown by TEM/AEM to result from beam overlap on contaminant phases on a scale below resolution of EMPA, which in turn can lead to errors in interpretation and determination of formation conditions. Here we present an in-depth analysis of the relation between AEM and EMPA data, which leads also to the definition of new mineral phases, and demonstrate the resolution power of AEM relative to EMPA in investigations of very fine-grained mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks.

  20. Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas. PMID:23577290

  1. Reductive leaching of manganese from low-grade pyrolusite ore in sulfuric acid using pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust as a reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ya-li; Zhang, Shi-yuan; Li, Hao-ran

    2016-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) leaching and recovery from low-grade pyrolusite ore were studied using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a leachant and pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust as a reductant. The effects of the dosage of pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust to pyrolusite ore, the concentration of sulfuric acid, the liquid/solid ratio, the leaching temperature, and the leaching time on manganese and iron leaching efficiencies were investigated. Analysis of manganese and iron leaching efficiencies revealed that a high manganese leaching efficiency was achieved with low iron extraction. The optimal leaching efficiency was determined to be 20wt% pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust and 3.0 mol/L H2SO4 using a liquid/ solid ratio of 6.0 mL/g for 90 min at 90°C. Other low-grade pyrolusite ores were tested, and the results showed that they responded well with manganese leaching efficiencies greater than 98%.

  2. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development. PMID:26779601

  3. Robust classification of low-grade cervical cytology following analysis with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and subsequent application of self-learning classifier eClass.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jemma G; Angelov, Plamen P; Trevisan, Júlio; Vlachopoulou, Anastasia; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2010-11-01

    Although the UK cervical screening programme has reduced mortality associated with invasive disease, advancement from a high-throughput predictive methodology that is cost-effective and robust could greatly support the current system. We combined analysis by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of cervical cytology with self-learning classifier eClass. This predictive algorithm can cope with vast amounts of multidimensional data with variable characteristics. Using a characterised dataset [set A: consisting of UK cervical specimens designated as normal (n = 60), low-grade (n = 60) or high-grade (n = 60)] and one further dataset (set B) consisting of n = 30 low-grade samples, we set out to determine whether this approach could be robustly predictive. Variously extending the training set consisting of set A with set B data produced good classification rates with three two-class cascade classifiers. However, a single three-class classifier was equally efficient, producing a user-friendly, applicable methodology with improved interpretability (i.e., better classification with only one set of fuzzy rules). As data from set B were added incrementally to the training set, the model learned and evolved. Additionally, monitoring of results of the set B low-grade specimens (known to be low-grade cervical cytology specimens) provided the opportunity to explore the possibility of distinguishing patients likely to progress towards invasive disease. eClass exhibited a remarkably robust predictive power in a user-friendly fashion (i.e., high throughput, ease of use) compared to other classifiers (k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, artificial neural networks). Development of eClass to classify such datasets for applications such as screening exhibits robustness in identifying a dichotomous marker of invasive disease progression. PMID:20857283

  4. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  5. Incidence of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in Low-Grade Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases: A 12-Year Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study From a Single Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal; Kauffman, Eric C; Kandel, Sirisa; George, Saby; Schwaab, Thomas; Xu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma entity after 2004 World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. CCPRCC has unique histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The distinction of CCPRCC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with clear cell morphology is crucial because the former is considered to have a favorable clinical outcome. CCPRCC may be interpreted in the past as other renal cell carcinomas, particularly low-grade clear cell RCC. In this study, the frequency of CCPRCC in previously diagnosed low-grade RCC and its clinicopathologic features were examined. A total of 126 cases of stage T1a with low nuclear grade RCC were identified from 625 consecutive RCCs removed by radical/partial nephrectomy over 12-year period (2000-2011). Archival tissue sections were retrospectively reviewed along with patient medical charts. Eight cases (1.3% of all RCC, 6.3% of pT1a low grade RCC) with characteristic histologic features of CCPRCC were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Seven cases were previously diagnosed as clear cell RCC and one as multilocular cystic RCC. Radiographically, CCPRCC favored a mid-pole location in the kidneys. At a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 20-114.5 months), there were no cases of local or distant recurrence. In conclusion, CCPRCC is not uncommon among small low-grade RCC tumors. CCPRCC can be correctly recognized by its unique histomorphological features and confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies, which is important due to the excellent clinical outcome following resection. PMID:26510859

  6. Composite low grade B-cell lymphomas with two immunophenotypically distinct cell populations are true biclonal lymphomas. A molecular analysis using laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Fend, F; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Kumar, S; Beaty, M W; Blum, L; Sorbara, L; Jaffe, E S; Raffeld, M

    1999-06-01

    Low grade B-cell lymphomas comprise several well defined, clinically and immunophenotypically distinct disease entities. Composite lymphomas showing phenotypic characteristics of more than one of these tumor subtypes in the same site are rare, and both common and separate clonal origins of the two tumor parts have been reported for cases studied by molecular methods. We describe the detailed immunohistochemical and molecular findings in three cases with features of composite low grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). All three neoplasms contained morphologically distinct but interwoven compartments of different cell types, which exhibited discordant expression of several markers, including CD5, CD10, CD43, and cyclin D1. According to their morphology and phenotypes, they were classified as mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma (Case 1), follicular lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma (Case 2), and mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (Case 3). PCR analysis of DNA obtained from whole tissue sections failed to reveal evidence for biclonality in any of the cases. We therefore isolated cell populations with different antigen expression patterns by laser capture microdissection and analyzed them by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and oncogene rearrangements. Sequence analysis revealed unrelated clonal rearrangements in each of the two tumor parts in all three cases, suggesting distinct clonal origins. In addition, Case 1 showed a bcl-2 rearrangement present only in the follicular lymphoma part. Our findings suggest that low grade B-NHL with two distinct morphological and immunophenotypic patterns in the same anatomical site are frequently biclonal. This is in keeping with current classification schemes, which recognize subtypes of low grade B-NHL as separate disease entities. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates the power of laser capture microdissection in revealing molecular microheterogeneity in complex neoplasms. PMID:10362812

  7. Fueling the debate: Are outcomes better after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or after posterolateral fusion (PLF) in adult patients with low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Barbanti Bròdano, G.; Lolli, F.; Martikos, K.; Gasbarrini, A.; Bandiera, S.; Greggi, T.; Parisini, P.; Boriani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Clinical question: Do more adult patients affected by low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis have significant clinical and radiological improvement following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) than those who receive posterolateral fusion (PLF)? Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients affected by adult low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis, treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion or posterolateral fusion, were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed by means of the questionnaires ODI, RMDQ and VAS. Radiographic evaluation included CT, MRI, and x-rays. The results were analyzed using the Student t-test. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and surgical characteristics. At an average follow-up of 62.1 months, 71 patients were completely reviewed. Mean ODI, RMDQ and VAS scores didn't show statistically significant differences. Fusion rate was similar between the two groups (97% in PLIF group, 95% in PLF group). Major complications occurred in 5 of 71 patients reviewed (7%): one in the PLIF group (3.6%), four in the PLF group (9.3%). Pseudarthrosis occurred in one case in the PLIF group (3,6%) and in two cases in PLF group (4.6%). Conclusions: In our series, there does not appear to be a clear advantage of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) over posterolateral fusion (PLF) in terms of clinical and radiological outcome for treatment of adult low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:23544021

  8. The combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide results in a high remission rate with moderate toxicity in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Eucker, Jan; Schille, Claudia; Schmid, Peter; Jakob, Christian; Schetelig, Johannes; Kingreen, Dorothea; Mergenthaler, Hans-Günther; Huhn, Dieter; Possinger, Kurt; Sezer, Orhan

    2002-10-01

    We undertook a prospective study to evaluate the role of the combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with i.v. fludarabine (30 mg/m ) and cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m ) on days 1-3. Cycles were given at 4-week intervals for a maximum of six courses. Fourteen patients (52%) were previously untreated, 13 patients (48%) had been treated with at least one chemotherapy regimen before. Of the 27 patients, 11 (41%) obtained a complete and 13 (48%) a partial remission, thus the overall response rate was 89%. The remission rate in untreated patients was slightly higher than in pretreated patients (93 versus 85%). The toxicity was mild, no treatment-related mortality occurred. Neutropenia was the most common side effect, grade 4 neutropenia of rather short duration was observed in less than 7% of the cycles. At the end of the treatment, the mean CD4 count was 155/ l and the mean CD8 count 204/ l. Severe infections did not occur. These results show that the combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in the doses used in this study is an effective regimen with manageable toxicity in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:12394253

  9. Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis.

  10. Orbital lymphoid tumour located within an extraocular muscle.

    PubMed

    Kert, Gilda; Clement, Colin I; O'Donnell, Brett A

    2004-12-01

    A rare case of an orbital lymphoid tumour within an extraocular muscle is presented. The tumour displayed features of a progressive indolent systemic lymphoma. There was no response to a trial of chemotherapy and so local radiotherapy was instituted. At follow up 2 months later there was no evidence of disease. PMID:15575837

  11. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures shall be prepared from the same cell suspension as the cultures for testing the vaccine. (3... 21 days. They shall be passed when necessary to maintain viability and samples harvested from each... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid...

  12. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cultures shall be prepared from the same cell suspension as the cultures for testing the vaccine. (3... 21 days. They shall be passed when necessary to maintain viability and samples harvested from each... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid...

  13. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cultures shall be prepared from the same cell suspension as the cultures for testing the vaccine. (3... 21 days. They shall be passed when necessary to maintain viability and samples harvested from each... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid...

  14. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cultures shall be prepared from the same cell suspension as the cultures for testing the vaccine. (3... 21 days. They shall be passed when necessary to maintain viability and samples harvested from each... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid...

  15. Direct effects of hepatitis C virus on the lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the direct binding of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or the replication of HCV in the extrahepatic organs and, especially, lymphoid cells, might affect the pathogenesis of extrahepatic diseases with HCV infection. More than one decade ago, several reports described the existence of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, many reports describing the existence of HCV in B lymphocytes and B cell lymphoma have been published. In addition to B lymphocytes, it was reported that HCV replication could be detected in T lymphocytes and T cell lines. Among the extrahepatic diseases with HCV infection, mixed cryoglobulinemia-related diseases and autoimmune-related diseases are important for understanding the immunopathogensis of HCV persistent infection. Moreover, HCV persistent infection can cause malignant lymphoma. The biological significance of lymphotropic HCV has not yet become clear. However, several candidates have been considered for a long time. One is that lymphotropic HCV is an HCV reservoir that might contribute to the recurrence of HCV infection and difficult-to-treat disease status. The other important issue is the carcinogenesis of the lymphoid cells and disturbances of the immune responses. Therefore, the extrahepatic diseases might be induced by direct interaction between HCV and lymphoid cells. In this article, we summarize various studies showing the direct effect of HCV on lymphoid cells and discuss the biological significance of lymphotropic HCV. PMID:24307783

  16. Mechanisms and clinical applications of chromosomal instability in lymphoid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Krem, Maxwell M; Press, Oliver W; Horwitz, Marshall S; Tidwell, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Lymphocytes are unique among cells in that they undergo programmed DNA breaks and translocations, but that special property predisposes them to chromosomal instability (CIN), a cardinal feature of neoplastic lymphoid cells that manifests as whole chromosome- or translocation-based aneuploidy. In several lymphoid malignancies translocations may be the defining or diagnostic markers of the diseases. CIN is a cornerstone of the mutational architecture supporting lymphoid neoplasia, though it is perhaps one of the least understood components of malignant transformation in terms of its molecular mechanisms. CIN is associated with prognosis and response to treatment, making it a key area for impacting treatment outcomes and predicting prognoses. Here we will review the types and mechanisms of CIN found in Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma and the lymphoid leukaemias, with emphasis placed on pathogenic mutations affecting DNA recombination, replication and repair; telomere function; and mitotic regulation of spindle attachment, centrosome function, and chromosomal segregation. We will discuss the means by which chromosome-level genetic aberrations may give rise to multiple pathogenic mutations required for carcinogenesis and conclude with a discussion of the clinical applications of CIN and aneuploidy to diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. PMID:26018193

  17. IDing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  18. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid