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Sample records for low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid

  1. Low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the thymus of a patient with pulmonary amyloid nodules.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, E; Yokose, T; Kodama, T; Matsuno, Y; Hojo, F; Takahashi, K; Nagai, K; Nishiwaki, Y; Ochiai, A

    2000-08-01

    Low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma) is a rare thymic tumor, with only seven previous cases described worldwide to date. We describe the only case to have presented with pulmonary amyloid nodules. A 63-year-old Japanese female was found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules during a medical check-up in 1990 followed by chest radiography and computerized tomography. Because the mediastinal tumor grew larger, she was referred to the National Cancer Center Hospital East and hyperglobulinemia was pointed out. The thymus was resected through median sternotomy and pulmonary nodules were also resected through left thoracotomy. The solid and nodular tumor with several small satellite extensions and cyst formation was completely confined to within the thymus and the resected pulmonary nodules consisted of solid masses with a rough surface. Histologically, monotonous medium-sized centrocyte-like cells occupied the medulla of the thymus and infiltrated Hassall's corpuscles (lymphoepithelial lesions) and the resected pulmonary nodules consisted of eosinophilic amorphous deposits which showed birefringence on Congo Red staining. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD20 and CD79a. IgG and kappa light chain restrictions were also found in plasmacytoid cells in the tumor. Clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. We diagnosed this case as low-grade B-cell MALT-type lymphoma in the thymus and nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. Since the patient had only localized amyloid deposits in the lung far from the thymic malignant lymphoma and had high serum immunoglobulins, the pulmonary amyloid deposits might be derived from a circulating precursor associated with hyperglobulinemia. PMID:11059340

  2. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27380767

  3. Endobronchial recurrence of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Charles R; VanAsselberg, Chad B; Cook-Glen, Celeste L; Bhagat, Rajesh; Abraham, George E

    2012-10-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a diagnostic challenge when arising from bronchiolar submucosal tissue. The case herein describes a man with a lung mass and a remote history of gastric MALT lymphoma. After undergoing a bronchoscopic examination and tissue sampling, he was diagnosed with pulmonary recurrence of gastric MALT lymphoma. The diagnosis of MALT lymphoma in the lung can be challenging. Radiographic findings are typically nonspecific, and tissue biopsy by surgical means is often required. The diagnosis of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been previously demonstrated bronchoscopically when a needle aspiration is performed. This case supports the position that bronchoscopy with needle aspiration, and flow cytometry should be performed in all patients in whom pulmonary MALT lymphoma is suspected. PMID:23207539

  4. Gastric B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a clinicopathological study in 56 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, J M; Montalban, C; Obeso, G; Piris, M A; Rivas, M C

    1992-01-01

    Clinico-pathological features of 56 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. All cases were regraded according to a classification of Isaacson et al into high grade and low grade B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A third group of mixed grade was recognised in 11 patients with low grade who also had occasional areas of high grade. Low grade and mixed grade patients had a 100% actuarial survival at 156 months, which was significantly better (p < 0.01) than that of 52% for patients with high grade disease. Different treatment methods--surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both--did not significantly affect survival. Low grade tumours occurred mainly in men with a history of several years, and who presented with non-specific gastric symptoms without remarkable exploratory or laboratory findings: most patients were in stage IE-IIE and achieved remission and cure. High grade can have a shorter history, systemic symptoms, abnormal exploratory and laboratory findings, gastric tumour masses, stage IV disease, and a worse outcome. The only significant prognostic factors for survival were the type of lymphoma and stage IV disease. These findings support the Isaacson classification system which separates two extreme groups of gastric lymphomas with different morphology, behaviour, and outcome. The presence of limited areas of high grade in a specimen showing low grade does not change the outcome but suggests that primary gastric lymphoma forms a continuum between these extreme types. PMID:1446850

  5. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-12-28

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  6. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  7. [Analysis of prognostic correlated factors of 49 patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jing, Hong-Mei; Ke, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Fei

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical feature of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and clarify the relationship between the pathological, clinical features, the expression of API2-MALT1 and the prognosis. A number of factors including pathological characters, grade, stage, prognosis and treatment of 49 cases of MALT lymphoma were analyzed, and the API2-MALT1 rearrangement was detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that 49 patients were diagnosed as MALT lymphoma, in which median age was 52.4 years. The percentage of patients older than 50 years was 67.3%. The majority of tumors were found in stomach (22 cases), intestine (13 cases), thyroid (6 cases) and so on. Among 49 patients, stage I, II was 77. 6%, stage III, IV was 22.4%. API2-MALT1 rearrangement were found 38.1% in low grade, and 12.5% in transform type. Among 18 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, 9 cases (50.0%) were helicobacter pylori (HP) positive and received antibiotic treatment. The 3 years overall survival was 93.8%. It is concluded that MALT lymphoma is often seen in older patients, most of them were in low grade with slow progression. The site, grade, stage and molecular genetic changes are important prognostic factors, which can contribute to choosing suitable treatment for patients with MALT lymphoma. The antibiotic treatment is effective for patients with positive HP. PMID:18088487

  8. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach: results of a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Nambo, María Jesús; Neri, Natividad; Talavera, Alejandra; Cleto, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) remains undefined. We began a controlled clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the most common therapies. Two hundred and forty-one patients with gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma in early stage (IE and IIE) were randomized to surgery (80 cases), radiotherapy (78 cases), and chemotherapy (83 cases). With a median follow-up of 7.5 yr, actuarial curves at 10 yr showed that event-free survival was 52% in patients treated with surgery, 52% in radiotherapy arm, and 87% in the chemotherapy group (p < 0.01). However, overall survival did not showed any statistical differences: 80%, 75% and 87%, respectively (p = 0.4). Acute and late toxicities were mild. No death-related treatments were observed. No clear differences were observed between the most common therapies in patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma in early stages, probably because this type of lymphoma has an high response rate to salvage treatment after failure to local treatment (surgery and radiotherapy). Thus considered, chemotherapy alone is an effective and safe therapeutic approach in this setting of patients. Surgery or radiotherapy will be reserved to patients that are not candidates for chemotherapy. PMID:15750197

  9. Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kokuho, Nariaki; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Morimoto, Taisuke; Azuma, Arata; Usuda, Jitsuo; Gemma, Akihiko; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Differentiating low-grade lymphoma from preexisting sarcoidosis is difficult because of their pathological similarity. This article describes a case of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis. The patient, a 45-year-old Japanese man, presented with a 10-year history of pulmonary sarcoidosis and 5-year history of ocular sarcoidosis with histologic findings. Because only the right S3 lung nodule had gradually enlarged, partial resection was performed. Pathological study revealed noncaseous epithelioid granulomas with lymphoplasmacytic proliferation but also marked lymphoid cell proliferation with lymphoepithelial lesion findings that differed from findings of typical sarcoid lesions. Our lymphoepithelial lesion evaluation via immunohistochemistry and analysis of Ig heavy-chain gene rearrangements with assessment of Propionibacterium acnes-specific antibody reactions allow us to report, for the first time, this case of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis in exactly the same location, which may be significant for differentiating these diseases and understanding their pathogenic association. PMID:27067783

  10. The role of miRNAs and epigenetic mechanisms in primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vasilatou, Diamantina; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Pappa, Vasiliki; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Dimitriadis, George D; Papageorgiou, Sotirios G

    2016-07-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and the subsequent chronic inflammation. Significant progress in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease has already been made. However, the exact molecular pathways of lymphomagenesis remain unclear. Furthermore, difficulties regarding accurate diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma and its discrimination from gastritis or other lymphoma subtypes arise. Recent studies evaluate the role of miRNAs and epigenetic alterations on MALT lymphoma pathogenesis and prognosis. This review critically summarizes the most important data on the role of miRNAs and epigenetics in MALT lymphomas pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment. PMID:27079806

  11. A case of conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Abd Al-Kader, Lamia; Sato, Yasuharu; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Ohshima, Koh-Ichi; Sogabe, Yuka; Fujii, Kazuhiro; Iwaki, Noriko; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Ocular adnexal lymphoma may involve the eyelids, conjunctiva, orbital tissue, or lacrimal structures. The majority are non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma type. Follicular lymphomas represent a small percentage of ocular adnexa lymphomas, particularly in Japan. We report a 68-year-old female patient who presented with a salmon pink patch-like lesion of the left conjunctiva, suspected of being (MALT) lymphoma. However, histologic and immunohistologic examinations were consistent with follicular lymphoma. This case demonstrates the importance of considering such rare lymphomas when making a diagnosis of ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(1): 49-52, 2013]. PMID:23801133

  12. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia complicated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Tangsun, Yinyan; Xiao, Yonglong; Zhang, Deping; Cao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia is rarely observed in cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cell origin. The present study describes a rare case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was initially misdiagnosed as eosinophilic pneumonia. The initial diagnosis was formed based on the results of chest radiography, peripheral eosinophilia tests and bronchoalveolar lavage, and the clinical course of the patient. Following administration of methylprednisolone (40 mg/day) for 4 days and oral administration of prednisolone (30 mg/day), the clinical course rapidly improved and the eosinophil count immediately decreased a to normal level. However, abnormal shadows observed on computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest did not diminish. At 6 months after the initiation of treatment, CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy was performed, and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was made based on immunohistochemical examination. Primary lung MALT lymphoma remains a rare entity, with an indolent course and a reasonably favorable prognosis, whose diagnosis may be challenging. PMID:27588128

  13. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma masquerading as herniated orbital fat.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cindy S; Diaz-Marchan, Pedro; Marx, Douglas P

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are the most common primary orbital malignancies in adults. The authors present a 62-year-old Hispanic woman with a 2-year history of slowly enlarging bilateral lower eyelid masses that the patient described as "bags." On palpation, firm, mobile, nontender masses with associated tear trough deformities were noted. Biopsy of the left lower eyelid mass was consistent with a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Herniated orbital fat is an extremely common finding in the aging population and is often associated with a prominent tear trough. The patient with orbital lymphoma appeared to have herniated orbital fat with associated tear trough deformities. Lymphoma resembling herniated orbital fat is uncommon but should be considered in all patients with prominence in the periorbital region. PMID:24614565

  14. [Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma accompanied with cystic change].

    PubMed

    Nagahiro, Itaru; Nouso, Hiroshi; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Keisuke; Nobuhisa, Tetsuji; Endou, Yoshikatsu; Watanabe, Takanori; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Kai, Kyohei; Ishizuka, Shinji; Satou, Shizou

    2010-04-01

    A 64-year-old male with throat discomfort visited our hospital, and a chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a cystic lesion with a central solid component in the right lung (in the lower lobe, 4.1 x 3.9 cm in diameter). Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed and the lesion was diagnosed as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the lung. No other lymphoma lesion was detected and it was diagnosed as the stage I-E, and a right lower lobectomy was performed. The cystic lesion derived from alveolus and bronchus destroyed by lymphoma infiltration and it might be caused by air retention due to check-valve mechanism. PMID:20387510

  15. Synchronous Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Michael; Wong, John Lin Hieng; Paneesha, Shankara; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Nwokolo, Chuka

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) is a subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, comprising ∼17% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract lymphomas. It is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, for example Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Sjogren's syndrome, respectively. Approximately 50% of GI MALTomas occur in the stomach, with small bowel and colonic lesions being less frequent. Synchronous upper and lower GI MALTomas occur rarely, with few cases reported. We present the case of a 73-year-old patient who presented with change in bowel habit and was found to have synchronous multifocal upper and lower GI MALTomas, which did not respond to H. pylori cure or to rituximab therapy, but did respond to a combination of surgery and chemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine.

  16. Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

  17. Stage IV intramucosal gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Shouji; Sueki, Ryouta; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Iwao, Noriaki; Kirito, Keita; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A discolored area was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric upper body. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the second sonographic layer indicating that the depth of invasion was confined to the mucosa. A urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test were negative. A computed tomography scan showed a consolidation at the right lung. Gastric biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated a monotonous proliferation of atypical small lymphocytes. A diagnosis of gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) was made. The clinical stage was stage IV. A genetic analysis showed rearrangement of the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and identical clones in both lesions. An API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected in the gastric lesion. After H. pylori eradication treatment, combination treatment with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) was performed; 6 months later an endoscopy revealed complete disappearance of the lesion. Multiple gastric biopsies showed no infiltrating atypical lymphocytes. Similarly, the lesion in the lung showed complete remission (CR) on CT and TBLB. This report shows that a gastric MALT lymphoma located in the mucosa and disseminated to the lung maintained CR by R-CHOP. PMID:26181449

  18. Clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment of marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).

    PubMed

    Raderer, Markus; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) accounts for 7% to 8% of newly diagnosed lymphomas. Because of its association with infectious causes, such as Helicobacter pylori (HP) or Chlamydophila psittaci (CP), and autoimmune diseases, it has become the paradigm of an antigen-driven malignancy. MALT lymphoma usually displays an indolent course, and watch-and-wait strategies are justified initially in a certain percentage of patients. In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma or ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, antibiotic therapy against HP or CP, respectively, is the first-line management of choice, resulting in lymphoma response rates from 75% to 80% after HP eradication and from 33% to 65% after antibiotic therapy for CP. In patients who have localized disease that is refractory to antibiotics, radiation is widely applied in various centers with excellent local control, whereas systemic therapies are increasingly being applied, at least in Europe, because of the potentially systemic nature of the disease. Therefore, the objective of this review is to briefly summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics of this distinct type of lymphoma along with current data on management strategies. PMID:26773441

  19. Primary thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with multiple thin walled lung cysts: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lung-Yun; Ho, Szu-Pei; Chou, Yi-Pin

    2013-06-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thymus is rare. We reported a case of a 37-year-old Chinese female with Sjögren's syndrome and hyperglobulinemia. She suffered from chronic cough for 3 weeks. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a multiloculated cystic mass in mediastinum prevascular space and multiple lung cysts. Laboratory exam of autoimmune markers showed positive of antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA), Sjögren's syndrome B (SSB), and rheumatoid factors (RF). Thymectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The pathology report revealed thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Under immunohistochemical stains, CD20 and Bcl-2 were positive. No evidence of recurrence of disease was found. PMID:23825913

  20. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and Helicobacter pylori infection: A Colombian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Sally; Torres, Maria Mercedes; Saavedra, Carlos; Andrade, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the significance of chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10) protein and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in Colombia. METHODS: Fifty cases of gastric MALT lymphoma and their respective post-treatment follow-up biopsies were examined to assess the presence of the translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) as identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization; to detect protein expression patterns of BCL10 using immunohistochemistry; and for evaluation of tumor histology to determine the correlation of these factors and resistance to H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: Infection with H. pylori was confirmed in all cases of gastric MALT lymphoma in association with chronic gastritis. Bacterial eradication led to tumor regression in 66% of cases. The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was not present in any of these cases, nor was there evidence of tumor transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Thirty-four percent of the patients showed resistance to tumor regression, and within this group, 7 cases, representing 14% of all those analyzed, were considered to be t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas. Protein expression of BCL10 in the nucleus was associated with the presence of translocation and treatment resistance. Cases that were considered unresponsive to therapy were histologically characterized by the presence of homogeneous tumor cells and a lack of plasmacytic differentiation. Responder cases exhibited higher cellular heterogeneity and a greater frequency of plasma cells. CONCLUSION: Both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphoma cases and those with nuclear BCL10 expression are considered resistant to H. pylori eradication. It is suggested that chronic antigenic stimulation is not a dominant event in resistant cases. PMID:22363141

  1. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A review.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-07-14

    Since Isaacson and Wright first reported on the extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the stomach in 1983, following studies have clarified many aspects of this disease. We now know that the stomach is the most affected organ by this disease, and approximately 90% of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This implies that approximately 10% of gastric MALT lymphomas occur independent of H. pylori infection. The pathogenesis of these H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. To date, there have been several speculations. One possibility is that genetic alterations result in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Among these alterations, t(11;18)(q21;q21) is more frequently observed in H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas, and such translocation results in the synthesis of fusion protein API2-MALT1, which causes canonical and noncanonical NF-κB activation. Another possibility is infection with bacteria other than H. pylori. This could explain why H. pylori eradication therapy can cure some proportions of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients, although the bacteria responsible for MALT lymphomagenesis are yet to be defined. Recent advances in endoscopy suggest magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging as a useful tool for both detecting gastric MALT lymphoma lesions and judging the response to treatment. A certain proportion of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients respond to eradication therapy; hence, H. pylori eradication therapy could be considered as a first-line treatment for gastric MALT lymphomas regardless of their H. pylori infection status. PMID:26185372

  2. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Masaharu; Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi; Tomita, Naoto; Iijima, Yasuhito; Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko; Ogino, Ichiro; Inoue, Tomio

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  3. Chemoimmunotherapy for Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue-Type Lymphoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Ferreri, Andrés J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Biological treatments, chemoimmunotherapy, and radiotherapy are associated with excellent disease control in both gastric and extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Systemic treatment approaches with both oral and i.v. agents are being increasingly studied, not only for patients with disseminated MALT lymphoma, but also for those with localized disease. To date, however, recommendations for the use of available systemic modalities have not been clearly defined. Materials and Methods. The present report reviews the current data on systemic treatment options for patients with MALT lymphoma and provides recommendations for their use in everyday practice. Results. Different chemotherapeutic agents, including anthracyclines, alkylators, and purine analogs, have been successfully tested in patients with MALT lymphoma. Reducing side effects while maintaining efficacy should be the main goal in treating these indolent lymphomas. From the data from the largest trial performed to date, the combination of chlorambucil plus rituximab (R) appears to be active as first-line treatment. Similarly, R-bendamustine also seems to be highly effective, but a longer follow-up period is needed. R-monotherapy results in lower remission rates, but seems a suitable option for less fit patients. New immunotherapeutic agents such as lenalidomide (with or without rituximab) or clarithromycin show solid activity but have not yet been validated in larger collectives. Conclusion. Patients with MALT lymphoma should be treated within prospective trials to further define optimal therapeutic strategies. Systemic treatment is a reasonable option with potentially curative intent in everyday practice. Based on the efficacy and safety data from available studies, the present review provides recommendations for the use of systemic strategies. Implications for Practice: In view of the biology of MALT lymphoma with trafficking of cells within various mucosal structures

  4. Surgical Management of Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Associated With Light-Chain Deposition Disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Largacha, Juan A; O'Hara, Carl J; Sloan, J Mark; Fernando, Hiran C; Litle, Virginia R

    2016-06-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a right middle lobe (RML) lung nodule suspicious for malignancy. Thoracoscopic middle lobectomy was performed. The pathology report revealed a pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in association with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Pulmonary MALT lymphoma and LCDD are unusual disorders presenting in the lung, and the association between these 2 conditions is even more uncommon. The optimal management for these patients is controversial, although surgical resection of localized well-circumscribed lesions may represent an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:27211983

  5. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Lacrimal Gland: Sustained Remission after Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hasosah, Mohammed; Baothman, Abdullah; Satti, Mohamed; Kutbi, Suzanne; Alghamdi, Khaled; Jacobson, Kevan

    2011-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy. PMID:22606434

  6. [A case of a collision tumor comprising mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Isosaka, Mai; Adachi, Takeya; Iida, Tomoya; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Tanaka, Michihiro; Kondou, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Tanuma, Tokuma; Kasai, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    A 60-year-old woman underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for an abnormality identified during routine examination. The lower gastric corpus showed a type 0-I elevated lesion with a faded mucosa and an area of converging mucosal folds in contact with the lesion. Biopsy indicated the former to be a high-grade adenoma and the latter to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. At the same time, Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. Eradication therapy was administered to manage the MALT lymphoma; this resulted in improvement after 3 months. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the elevated lesion, and subsequent histopathology showed contact between the MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with a collision tumor. Concurrent cancers are increasingly reported and should be considered during examination. PMID:24998730

  7. Diagnosis of preclinical CWD in farmed white-tailed deer in Canada by the immunohistochemical examination of recto-anal mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in two white-tailed deer farms from Saskatchewan, Canada. The apparent prevalence of disease in these two farms was 21% and 31%. None of these deer were demonstra...

  8. Prevalence of Achromobacter xylosoxidans in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in different regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Adam, Patrick; Czapiewski, Piotr; Colak, Seba; Kosmidis, Perikles; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Boudova, Ludmila; Okoń, Krzysztof; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Du, Ming-Qing; Fend, Falko

    2014-03-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) comprises 7-8% of B-cell lymphomas and commonly originates from a background of long-standing chronic inflammation. An association with distinct bacteria species has been confirmed for several anatomical sites of MALT lymphoma. For pulmonary MALT lymphoma, however, a clear link with an infectious agent or autoimmune disorder has not yet been reported. Using a 16S rRNA gene-based approach, we have recently identified Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans in eight of nine cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. A. xylosoxidans is a gram-negative betaproteobacterium with low virulence, but high resistance to antibiotic treatment. To further examine a potential association with A. xylosoxidans, 124 cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma and 82 control tissues from six European countries were analysed using a specific nested PCR. Although prevalence rates for A. xylosoxidans varied significantly from country to country, they were consistently higher for MALT lymphoma as compared to controls. Overall, 57/124 (46%) pulmonary MALT lymphomas and 15/82 (18%) control tissues were positive for A. xylosoxidans (P = 0·004). Whether the significant association of A. xylosoxidans with pulmonary MALT lymphoma demonstrated in our study points to a potential causal role in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma will require further studies. PMID:24372375

  9. Primary Sjögren's syndrome initially presenting as submandibular mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LIANG-YU; TSAI, MING-HSUI; TSAI, LI-TAI; LU, HSIN-MAN; JAN, CHIA-ING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 24-year-old female affected with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), who presented with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the submandibular gland. Reports of such cases, particularly in young patients, are very rare. The patient, who presented no oral or ocular symptoms prior to the development of the mass, underwent surgical ablation of the gland, and MALT lymphoma was diagnosed by histopathology. Since MALT lymphoma in the submandibular gland is rarely observed in otherwise healthy young females, a rheumatologist and an oncologist were consulted. Following a number of immunological tests, the results of the Schirmer's and Saxon tests were negative. However, the antinuclear antibody test revealed a speckled appearance, and there was also strong positivity for the serological markers of Sjögren's syndrome. Consequently, pSS was diagnosed, despite the fact that the patient did not fulfill all the diagnostic criteria for the disease. Therefore, MALT lymphoma in a single salivary gland should be used as a differential diagnosis for Sjögren's syndrome in young asymptomatic patients. Additionally, a multidisciplinary team is required for the treatment and management of these patients. PMID:26893669

  10. Coexistence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a context of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Levy-Blitchtein, Saul; Plasencia-Rebata, Stefany; Morales Luna, Domingo; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) represents 80-85% of thyroid cancer and its prevalence has been rising in the last decades. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) accounts for 3% of extranodal lymphomas and about 5% of thyroid malignancies, having a prevalence of one or two cases per million people. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphoma represents approximately 30% of PTL. Both entities have an indolent course and a very good prognosis. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) or surgery specimen pathology. They have also been associated with HT, but pathogenesis and its links remains to be known. Treatment remains controversial and surgery is generally accepted in cases of disease limited to thyroid, as the present. Patients with thyroid nodules should be observed and followed. If there is an enlargement by ultrasound or clinical symptoms, FNA should be performed promptly. Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) deserve additional surveillance, since this condition is associated with both PTC and PTL. In this case, the management with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy was effective for both entities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be properly evaluated with ultrasound and thyroid function tests. If there is an enlargement of the neck, reported by symptoms or ultrasound, it requires further investigation. HT is associated to both PTC and PTL so if the enlargement of the nodules is on this context additional tests such as FNA should be performed. In this case, the patient was managed with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and it was effective for both entities. PMID:27569894

  11. Clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging and other baseline testing for conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Qasiem J; Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Romaguera, Jorge; Fowler, Nathan; Debnam, J Matthew; Samaniego, Felipe; El-Sawy, Tarek; McLaughlin, Peter; Bakhoum, Mathieu F; Esmaeli, Bita

    2014-05-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit for conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The yield of other staging tests at baseline were also evaluated. Twenty-one consecutive patients treated for conjunctival MALT lymphoma were retrospectively studied. Lymphoma was staged according to both the Ann Arbor system and the seventh edition of the AJCC [American Joint Committee on Cancer] cancer staging manual. Findings on MRI of the orbit, whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), CT of the chest/abdomen/pelvis, bone marrow (BM) biopsy and gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were recorded. Seventeen patients had orbital MRI. Fourteen of 17 patients (82%) with obvious conjunctival MALT lymphoma on clinical examination had a negative MRI scan. Only three patients had subtle conjunctival enhancement on orbital MRI. Ann Arbor stage at presentation was as follows: stage IE (15 patients), stage IIE (two patients) and stage IV (four patients). Eighteen of 21 patients had total-body PET/CT; four patients (22%) had hypermetabolic activity evident on PET scan. All 21 patients had bilateral BM biopsies. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) had GI endoscopy. None of the patients had a positive BM biopsy or findings on GI endoscopy. Our data suggest that orbital MRI has a very low yield for identification of conjunctival MALT lymphoma. Clinical examination is critical in diagnosing and assessing treatment response in conjunctival MALT lymphoma. The yield for GI endoscopy and BM biopsy may also be low in staging of conjunctival MALT lymphoma. PMID:23879202

  12. Management of Suspicious Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Gastric Biopsy Specimens Obtained during Screening Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyo-Joon; Lim, Seon Hee; Lee, Changhyun; Choi, Ji Min; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Choi, Seung Ho; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-07-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from Helicobacter pylori-associated follicular gastritis, and thus, it becomes unclear how to manage these diseases. This study aimed to explore the management strategy for and the long-term outcomes of suspicious gastric MALT lymphoma detected by forceps biopsy during screening upper endoscopy. Between October 2003 and May 2013, consecutive subjects who were diagnosed with suspicious gastric MALT lymphomas by screening endoscopy in a health checkup program in Korea were retrospectively enrolled. Suspicious MALT lymphoma was defined as a Wotherspoon score of 3 or 4 upon pathological evaluation of the biopsy specimen. Of 105,164 subjects who underwent screening endoscopies, 49 patients with suspicious MALT lymphomas who underwent subsequent endoscopy were enrolled. Eight patients received a subsequent endoscopy without H. pylori eradication (subsequent endoscopy only group), and 41 patients received H. pylori eradication first followed by endoscopy (eradication first group). MALT lymphoma development was significantly lower in the eradication first group (2/41, 4.9%) than in the subsequent endoscopy only group (3/8, 37.5%, P = 0.026). Notably, among 35 patients with successful H. pylori eradication, there was only one MALT lymphoma patient (2.9%) in whom complete remission was achieved, and there was no recurrence during a median 45 months of endoscopic follow-up. H. pylori eradication with subsequent endoscopy would be a practical management option for suspicious MALT lymphoma detected in a forceps biopsy specimen obtained during screening upper endoscopy. PMID:27366005

  13. Bone marrow involvement is not associated with the clinical outcomes of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Jung, Kyoungwon; Cho, Charles J; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Yoon, Dok Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Objective Bone marrow (BM) examination is recommended as part of the initial staging work-up in patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, the clinical significance of BM involvement in gastric MALT lymphoma patients has not been evaluated. Materials and methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 496 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and underwent BM examination were eligible to be included in this study. BM involvement was found in 33 patients (6.7%) by retrospective review, and after exclusions, the clinical outcomes of 28 patients with BM involvement and 412 patients without BM involvement were evaluated. Results When comparing the characteristics of patients, age (median 60 vs. 53 years, p = 0.007) and Helicobacter pylori infection rate (71.0% vs. 85.5%, p = 0.040) were different between patients with and without BM involvement, while the location, macroscopic findings, and depth of invasion were similar. The overall complete remission (CR) rate was 85.2% during a median follow-up period of 42 months (interquartile range, 23-66 months) and did not differ between the two groups (78.6 and 85.7%, p = 0.280). Eradication therapy was performed as the first-line treatment in 18 of the 28 patients (64.3%) with BM involvement, and CR was achieved in 13 patients (72.2%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age and location in the upper part of the stomach were factors related to remission failure. Conclusion Gastric MALT lymphoma has a favorable outcome, and eradication therapy can be justified in selected cases even with BM involvement, when these patients are closely monitored. PMID:27149022

  14. Management of Suspicious Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Gastric Biopsy Specimens Obtained during Screening Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is often difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from Helicobacter pylori-associated follicular gastritis, and thus, it becomes unclear how to manage these diseases. This study aimed to explore the management strategy for and the long-term outcomes of suspicious gastric MALT lymphoma detected by forceps biopsy during screening upper endoscopy. Between October 2003 and May 2013, consecutive subjects who were diagnosed with suspicious gastric MALT lymphomas by screening endoscopy in a health checkup program in Korea were retrospectively enrolled. Suspicious MALT lymphoma was defined as a Wotherspoon score of 3 or 4 upon pathological evaluation of the biopsy specimen. Of 105,164 subjects who underwent screening endoscopies, 49 patients with suspicious MALT lymphomas who underwent subsequent endoscopy were enrolled. Eight patients received a subsequent endoscopy without H. pylori eradication (subsequent endoscopy only group), and 41 patients received H. pylori eradication first followed by endoscopy (eradication first group). MALT lymphoma development was significantly lower in the eradication first group (2/41, 4.9%) than in the subsequent endoscopy only group (3/8, 37.5%, P = 0.026). Notably, among 35 patients with successful H. pylori eradication, there was only one MALT lymphoma patient (2.9%) in whom complete remission was achieved, and there was no recurrence during a median 45 months of endoscopic follow-up. H. pylori eradication with subsequent endoscopy would be a practical management option for suspicious MALT lymphoma detected in a forceps biopsy specimen obtained during screening upper endoscopy. PMID:27366005

  15. Evaluation of the clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of 103 patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAOWU; WANG, XIANG; ZHAN, ZHONGLI; ZHANG, LIANYU; SUN, BAOCHUN; ZHANG, YIZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is difficult owing to its non-specific symptoms and various endoscopic findings. Treatments such as radiotherapy (RT) for localized and chemotherapy (CT) for advanced stages of the disease are employed. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication (HPE) in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. The medical records of 103 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma for the period 2001–2013, were analyzed. The 103 median age of the patients was 53 years and the male to female ratio was 1:1. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and β2-microglobulin were within normal range. Macroscopically, the most commonly involved site was the antrum, followed by the corpus and fundus. A total of 97 patients (94%) tested positive for H. pylori. Forty patients (39%) had stage I, 35 patients (35%) had local or distant nodal involvement, 20 of 103 patients had stage IIIE (19%) and 8 of 103 patients had stage IV (7%) disease. Complete remission, after HPE, was achieved in 54 of the 69 patients (78%) that were H. pylori-positive and in 2 of the 4 patients (50%) that were H. pylori-negative. HPE had a superior trend in the H. pylori-positive patients although no significant difference was identified in the two groups (p=0.194). In patients with advanced disease, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) estimates were significantly improoved for patients receiving HPE with CT or RT than those receiving CT or RT (p=0.046 and 0.035, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that, the advanced stages were independently associated with shorter PFS, and the modified-International Prognostic Index (m-IPI) (≥2) was associated with shorter OS. In conclusion, gastric MALT lymphoma had a favorable outcome with a high OS rate. HPE was an effective treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma. The patients with

  16. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anacak, Yavuz; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos; Mamusa, Angela M.; Epelbaum, Ron; Li Yexiong; Calduch, Anna Lucas; Kowalczyk, Anna; Weber, Damien C.; Kadish, Sidney P.; Poortmans, Philip; Kamer, Serra; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

  17. Primary rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with previously identified primary biliary cirrhosis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Kazumasa; Katakura, Kyoko; Takahashi, Yuta; Asama, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Tatsuo; Kumakawa, Hiromi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-06-01

    An 83-year-old female began treatment with prednisolone and ursodeoxycholic acid at 62 years of age, following a diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SjS). With persisting bloody stools, the patient underwent colonoscopy at 83 years of age. Histopathological evaluation revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The elevated rectal lesion resolved with rituximab treatment. We report this case because although patients with SjS are at increased risk of malignant lymphoma, primary rectal MALT lymphoma is very uncommon in association with PBC and secondary SjS. PMID:27037914

  18. Confirmation of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction using surgically obtained, paraffin-embedded samples to diagnose primary palate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yokomizo, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intraoral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare lymphoma that has a good prognosis if diagnosed correctly and treated in time. Presentation of case A 64-year-old woman was referred to our department with asymptomatic swelling of the left hard palate. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left hard palate. We performed a pre-surgery biopsy; however, it was difficult to differentiate MALT lymphoma from other reactive lymphoproliferative disorders via gross or microscopic examination. Although the lesion was completely excised, histological findings did not allow a definitive diagnosis due to an absence of visible monoclonality. We then performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical samples. Capillary electrophoresis showed monoclonal peaks of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, thus facilitating a definitive diagnosis of MALT lymphoma. Discussion PCR technique is rapid, accurate, and enables a definitive diagnosis without relying on traditional histological or molecular diagnostic techniques, such as Southern blotting. Conclusion We suggest that, if histological examination is ambiguous or fresh material is insufficient, PCR can be performed using paraffin-embedded materials to definitively diagnose low-grade lymphomas, such as MALT lymphoma. PMID:25841155

  19. Primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma combined with cytomegalovirus colitis.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Motoyasu, Osawa; Murao, Takahisa; Ishii, Manabu; Fujita, Minoru; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Akiyama, Takashi; Wada, Hideho; Sugihara, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2016-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The macroscopic findings of colonoscopy revealed multiple submucosal tumors and multiple ulcers, which were localized in the sigmoid colon, and diffuse granular mucosa which extended to the total colon. The pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, because the large lymphoma cells were CD20+, CD10-, and CD5-. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal biopsy samples from multiple ulcers revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive cells. The patient was diagnosed with primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of DLBCL and MALT lymphoma combined with CMV colitis. She received anti-viral medication and chemotherapy. PMID:27015999

  20. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising in a female urethra treated with rituximab for the first time.

    PubMed

    Zahrani, A Al; Abdelsalam, M; Fiaar, A Al; Ibrahim, N; Al-Elawi, A; Muhammad, B

    2012-05-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to the gynecology clinic with a small (painless) swelling at the urethral orifice. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, stage IE. The patient refused radiotherapy. Accordingly, we started CHOP-R chemotherapy. She received a total of 6 cycles of CHOP and 8 cycles of rituximab. Patient follow-up was done 3 months later through CT scan and cytoscopy confirming the complete remission. The patient has been disease-free for 4 years. We reviewed 26 cases of this rare entity reported previously. PMID:22679430

  1. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. PMID:21546297

  2. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori infection: a review of current diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglong; Zhang, Yizhuo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States, China and worldwide. Gastric mucosa-associated tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) is a rare mature B-cell neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection that is curable by antibiotics therapy alone. The pathological diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma can be reached by histological examination, immunohistochemical staining and B-cell clonality analysis. H. pylori eradication is the choice of therapy for early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma. High response rates and long-term survival have been reported in refractory and localized diseases treated with low-dose radiation therapy. Systemic chemotherapy is recommended for advanced-stage gastric MALT lymphoma and cases with large B-cell lymphoma transformation. Recent advances in the pathological diagnosis and management of gastric MALT lymphoma are reviewed in this article. PMID:27468353

  3. A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Koichi Kagami, Yoshikazu; Higuchi, Keiko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Nakazawa, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Kana; Teshima, Teruki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

  4. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with large cell transformation on the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review literature.

    PubMed

    Hengjeerajarus, Natavuth; Klaisuwan, Teerada; Norasetthada, Lalita; Kosachunhanun, Natapong

    2015-05-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of malignancy that occurs in 0.5% of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), followed by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We described the case of a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma in the background of autoimmune thyroiditis with focal area of DLBCL transformation. The patient was a 70-year-old man with rapidly growing mass of the thyroid gland with compressive symptom over two months. The laboratory data revealed primary hypothyroidism with positively anti-thyroid antibodies. The computerized tomography scan showed right thyroid mass extended to anterior mediastinum and compressed adjacent airway with multiple cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The pathology from incisional biopsy showed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT lymphoma with large cell transformation. The patient received four courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with involved field radiation therapy. The mass was dramatically decreased in size after treatment, leading to a complete resolution of compressive symptoms. Thyroid lymphoma is quite rare; however the incidence may be higher in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A rapidly growing thyroid gland should be considered as PTL. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstays of treatment. PMID:26058282

  5. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B.; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic ‘B’ symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  6. A case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in which magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging was useful in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arai, Shin; Nakao, Masamitsu; Shimizu, Michio; Sakurai, Takaki; Nagata, Koji; Nishimura, Makoto; Togawa, Osamu; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kita, Hiroto

    2012-04-16

    Recently, we reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma presenting with unique vascular features. In the report, we defined the tree-like appearance (TLA) on the images of abnormal blood vessels which resembled branches from the trunk of a tree in the shiny mucosa, in which the glandular structure was lost. The 67-year-old female was diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma. The patient received eradication therapy for H. pylori. Conventional endoscopy revealed multiple ill-delineated brownish depressions in the stomach and cobblestone-like mucosa was observed at the greater curvature to the posterior wall of the upper gastric body 7 mo after successful eradication. Unsuccessful treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma was suspected on conventional endoscopy. Conventional endoscopic observations found focal depressions and cobblestone-like appearance, and these lesions were subsequently observed using magnified endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging to identify abnormal vessels presenting with a TLA within the lesions. Ten biopsies were taken from the area where abnormal vessels were present within these lesions. Ten biopsies were also taken from the lesions without abnormal vessels as a control. A total of 20 biopsy samples were evaluated to determine whether the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma could be obtained histologically from each sample. A positive diagnosis was obtained in 8/10 TLA (+) sites and in 2/10 TLA(-) sites. Target biopsies of the site with abnormal blood vessels can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of gastric MALT lymphoma. PMID:22523617

  7. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic 'B' symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  8. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. Methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Results Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Conclusions Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage. PMID:27114423

  9. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo; Azumi, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

  10. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, Adam J. Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  11. Localized Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Long-Term Outcome in 86 Patients With 104 Treated Eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Murakami, Naoya; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Tobinai, Kensei; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history, behavior of progression, prognostic factors, and treatment-related adverse effects of primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POAML). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients with histologically proven stage I POAML treated with radiation therapy at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 56 years (range, 18-85 years). The median dose administered was 30 Gy (range, 30-46 Gy). Seventy-seven patients (90%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Results: The median follow-up duration was 9 years (range, 0.9-22 years). The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.6% and 93.5%, respectively, and no patients died of lymphoma. Patients with tumor sizes ≥4 cm showed a greater risk of contralateral relapse (P=.012). Six patients with contralateral relapse were seen and treated by radiation therapy alone, and all the lesions were controlled well, with follow-up times of 3 to 12 years. There was 1 case of local relapse after radiation therapy alone, and 3 cases of relapse occurred in a distant site. Cataracts developed in 36 of the 65 eyes treated without lens shielding and in 12 of the 39 patients with lens shielding (P=.037). Conclusions: The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

  12. Eleven-year experience of low grade lymphoma in Korea (based on REAL classification).

    PubMed

    Hahn, Jee Sook; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Yong Chan; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Sang Yeal; Suh, Chang Ok

    2003-10-30

    Low grade lymphomas are malignancies of predominantly small lymphocytes that typically have long median survival periods due to low proliferative rates. It is considered an indolent disease, but patients with low grade lymphoma can almost never be cured with conventional treatment. New low- grade lymphoma entities have been classified by the International Lymphoma Study Group (ILSG) and are also categorized into the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification. The REAL classification utilizes a multiparameter definition of clinico-pathologic and biologic entities. According to this classification, we investigated the incidence, various clinical characteristics, treatment outcome and prognostic factors of low grade lymphoma. Many clinical characteristics of low grade lymphoma in Korea differed from those of Western countries, especially in the incidence, therapeutic outcome and prognostic factors. In Korea, although the general incidence of low grade lymphoma is relatively low, the relative number of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) is very high, and the overall survival rate is better than that reported of Western countries. Thus, further investigation on treatment outcome and prognosis of low grade lymphoma entities, other than mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, are warranted. PMID:14584090

  13. [Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the urinary bladder associated with left renal pelvic carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Koji; Sato, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masato; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki; Oka, Kazuhisa; Tsujimoto, Masahiko

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of primary mucosa-associated lympoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the urinary bladder associated with left renal pelvic carcinoma. A 84-year-old woman showed microscopic hematuria during follow up for hypertention. Left renal pelvic tumor was found and she was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and managemant. She showed pyuria and Escherichia coli was detected by urine culture. Intravenous pyelography and computed tomography revealed the left renal pelvic tumor and solid bladder tumor. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor and left total nephroureterectomy were performed. Histologically, the left renal pelvic tumor was urothelial carcinoma > > adenocarcinoma, G2, pT2 and the bladder tumor was MALT lymphoma. Ga-scintigraphy showed no hot uptake suspicious of metastatic lesion. Then, external beam radiotherapy (36 Gy) was performed to the urinary bladder. She has been alive for 14 months with neither renal pelvic tumor nor MALT lymphoma showing any evidence of disease progression. PMID:17310771

  14. Coincidence of different structures of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the respiratory tract of children: no indications for enhanced mucosal immunostimulation in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Debertin, A S; Tschernig, T; Schürmann, A; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B; Pabst, R

    2006-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the principal inductive site for mucosal immune responses that are capable of T and B cell responses and antigen-specific responses. In previous independent studies different structures of MALT, e.g. bronchus-, larynx- and nose-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT, LALT, NALT) have been described separately in various frequencies in the human respiratory tract over life spans. Because upper respiratory tract infections are common in infants, dysregulations of mucosal immune responses might be seriously involved in the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In the present study the coincidental occurrence of the three different MALT structures in the respiratory tract within the same patients were studied, and cases of SIDS and children who had died from different traumatic and natural causes of death (non-SIDS) were compared. First, the frequency of BALT and LALT in 46 children (35 SIDS, 11 non-SIDS) with or without NALT were examined. A tendency was found of a coincidence of respiratory MALT structures. In 50 additional cases of infant death (30 SIDS, 20 non-SIDS) from the multi-centric German Study on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (GeSID) where death had occurred in the first year of life, the coincidence was evaluated. A coincidental occurrence of BALT, LALT and NALT or BALT and LALT (each about 30%) was found in both groups, whereby the coincidence in SIDS and the control patients did not differ. Interestingly, the children with coincidental MALT were strikingly older, supporting the hypothesis of respiratory MALT formation via environmental stimulation over time. PMID:16968398

  15. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdán, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor κB in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of each of the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. PMID:26277595

  16. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. PMID:26888899

  17. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue structure, function, and derangements.

    PubMed

    Zarzaur, B L; Kudsk, K A

    2001-06-01

    Nearly 50% of the immune cells in the body lie just beneath the moist mucosal surfaces at intestinal and extra-intestinal sites. The study of this mucosal immune system in response to shock and to route and type of nutrition provides a cogent explanation for the reduced incidence of pneumonia with enteral feeding. Changes in immune cell mass and function are associated with deterioration of previously established immunity at mucosal surfaces, especially the respiratory tract. By understanding the mechanisms involved in this breakdown, therapeutic strategies can be developed to reduce septic complications in critical illness. PMID:11386611

  18. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-10

    Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  19. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E−05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E−05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  20. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  1. Expression of the retinoblastoma protein in low-grade B-cell lymphoma: relationship to cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Zukerberg, L R; Benedict, W F; Arnold, A; Dyson, N; Harlow, E; Harris, N L

    1996-07-01

    The product of the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (pRB), a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates transcription factors such as E2F, is involved in cell cycle control and differentiation. Its activity is regulated by phosphorylation; the underphosphorylated form inhibits transcription whereas the highly phosphorylated form is inactive. Cyclin D1 and its associated kinase (CDK 4/6) phosphorylate pRB in vitro, and therefore are thought to contribute to the regulation of pRB function. To examine the effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on pRB in primary tumor tissue, we studied pRB expression in low-grade B-cell neoplasms, with particular regard to mantle cell lymphoma, which is characterized by cyclin D1 (bcl-1) overexpression. pRB expression was studied by immunostaining with a well-characterized anti-pRB antibody; the phosphorylation status of pRB was examined by immunoblots; and the functional binding capacity of pRB was examined by in vitro binding to adenovirus E1A protein. We studied 3 reactive lymph nodes, 28 low grade B-cell lymphomas, 4 cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and 3 plasmacytomas. Reactive lymph nodes showed intense pRB staining of germinal centers, with strongest (2+) staining in the large cells (centroblasts) of the proliferating (dark) zone and weak or no staining of small lymphocytes, including those of the mantle zone. In B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) (4 cases), follicular lymphoma (3 cases) and mucosa-associated (MALT) lymphoma (3 cases) strong (2+) pRB staining was limited to centroblasts in reactive and neoplastic follicles and occasional proliferation centers, with only faint staining of small lymphoid cells. In contrast, 15 of 16 cases of mantle cell lymphoma showed strong (1-2+) staining of most cells; one blastoid mantle cell lymphoma showed only faint pRB staining. All cases of (HCL) and plasmacytoma showed strong pRB staining. Although most lymphomas with strong pRB expression were cyclin D1(+), three cyclin D1(+) cases

  2. TLR9 Agonist SD-101, Ipilimumab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Recurrent B-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-23

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  3. Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Low-Grade Follicular Lymphoma, Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia, or Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-13

    Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  4. Pembrolizumab Alone or With Idelalisib or Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Other Low-Grade B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  5. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  6. Rituximab and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-08-11

    Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  7. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  8. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  9. Prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bilgilier, Ceren; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus; Dolak, Werner; Makristathis, Athanasios; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Bacterial eradication therapy comprising clarithromycin is the first-line treatment in gastric MALT lymphoma patients. However, antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin has been increasing in Europe, and thus far, it has not been examined in gastric MALT lymphoma patients. Based upon histopathological investigation, 17 adult gastric MALT lymphoma patients were identified to be related with H. pylori infection between 1997 and 2014. Detection of H. pylori infection in these patients and clarithromycin susceptibility testing were performed by 23S rRNA gene real-time PCR. Twelve of the patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection by real-time PCR. Among these patients, only two were found to be infected with clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strain. In one of them, both the clarithromycin-resistant and sensitive genotype were detected. The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 15.4 %. Clarithromycin resistance pattern in gastric MALT lymphoma patients is under the predictions since a previous study performed in Central Europe revealed a rate of 36.6 % in Austria. Considering the low antimicrobial resistance rate, clarithromycin is still an option in gastric MALT lymphoma management. PMID:27091350

  10. Review article: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of ocular adnexa. Biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Annibali, Ombretta; Sabatino, Francesco; Mantelli, Flavio; Olimpieri, Odoardo Maria; Bonini, Stefano; Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, we have witnessed an increase in the incidence of primary ocular adnexa lymphomas (POALs) probably because advances in imaging techniques have enabled precise biopsies of the tumors. The ocular tissue biopsy, before the initiation of the appropriate treatment, is mandatory and necessary for a correct diagnosis of POALs by the use of immunophenotyping and a correct molecular classification. Only in a minority of cases the ocular adnexa are secondarily affected by a systemic disease. Among the POALs, the most common is the primary extra nodal lymphoma of MALT-type (POAML). POAML is rarely symptomatic in the early phase of the disease. As a consequence, often we see a delay in ophthalmic consultations and diagnosis. The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and its management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, hematologists and radiotherapists. PMID:26857986

  11. Utilization of low grade coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

  12. Update on lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Fishback, N; Koss, M

    1996-09-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) involves a clinicopathologic pattern of pulmonary disease characterized by diffuse interstitial reactive lymphoid infiltrates. In adults, it occurs most commonly in autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren's syndrome (0.9% of these patients) and primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas in children it is usually seen in HIV infection. Dysproteinemias (hyper- and hypogammaglobulinemia) are found in more than 60% of patients. Children can show CD8-lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue, peripheral blood, and salivary gland, associated with HLA-DR5 haplotype. Radiographically, most patients with LIP have reticulonodular infiltrates, with or without patchy areas of consolidation. CT scans can show both small nodular and ground glass patterns, patterns that are diagnostically nonspecific. Reduced lung volumes and diffusing capacities are consistent and sensitive indicators of disease in LIP. In an experimental model, diffusing capacity was the single most sensitive functional index of disease progression. Microscopically, LIP is part of a spectrum of pulmonary lymphoid proliferations, ranging from follicular bronchitis-bronchiolitis and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (the latter in AIDS patients), proliferations largely limited to airways, to low-grade malignant lymphoma. These patterns may be difficult to differentiate from each other. It appears that LIP sometimes evolves to lymphoma; the frequency of this evolution is probably low but is difficult to assess because low-grade lymphomas may mimic LIP. A relatively high frequency of LIP patients have Epstein-Barr virus DNA in their lungs but not all patients with LIP show this finding, suggesting other possible etiologies. PMID:9363179

  13. Nitinol engine for low grade heat

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.T.

    1981-12-01

    A continuous band of nitinol wrapping in between a cluster of tightly engaged rollers to form a series of s-shaped bends is used as the principle working medium of a thermal engine to convert low grade heat to mechanical power output. The band, together with the rollers, divides the space into an inner and an outer zone. A stream of warmer water and a stream of cooler water are guided to flow separately through one or the other of the two zones to make uniform and intimate contact with the segments of the nitinol band alternatively at appropriate intervals. A well defined four-cycle operation of temperature and stress is thus established and can convert a portion of the energy which is available in the thermal gradient of the two water streams into a mechanical shaft power which may be tapped from one of the rollers.

  14. Diffuse low-grade gliomas and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Duffau, H

    2014-10-01

    The traditional approach in neuro-oncology is to study the tumor in great detail and ultimately give little consideration to the brain itself. Choosing the best treatment strategy for each patient with a diffuse low-grade glioma, in other words optimizing the oncologic and functional balance, implies not only a full knowledge of the natural history of this chronic disease, but also an understanding of the adaptation of the brain in response to growth and spread of the glioma. The aim of this review is to examine the mechanisms underlying this neuroplasticity, allowing functional compensation when the tumor progresses, and opening the way to new treatments with the principle of shifting towards "functional personalized neuro-oncology", improving both median survival and quality of life. PMID:25218490

  15. Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in

  16. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed

    Van Den Bent, Martin J; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Buckner, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have long attracted interest because of their sensitivity to chemotherapy, in particular in the subset of 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Recent molecular studies have shown that all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have IDH mutations and most of them also have TERT mutations. Because of the presence of similar typical genetic alterations in astrocytoma and glioblastoma, the current trend is to diagnose these tumors on the basis of their molecular profile. Further long-term follow-up analysis of both EORTC and RTOG randomized studies on (neo)adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy indeed improves outcome, and this is now standard of care. It is also equally clear that benefit to PCV chemotherapy is not limited to the 1p/19q co-deleted cases; potential other predictive factors are IDH mutations and MGMT promoter methylation. Moreover, a recent RTOG study on low-grade glioma also noted an improved outcome after adjuvant PCV chemotherapy, thus making (PCV) chemotherapy now standard of care for all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors regardless of grade. It remains unclear whether temozolomide provides the same survival benefit, as no data from well-designed clinical trials on adjuvant temozolomide in this tumor type are available. Another question that remains is whether one can safely leave out radiotherapy as part of initial treatment to avoid cognitive side-effects of radiotherapy. The current data suggest that delaying radiotherapy and treatment with chemotherapy only may be detrimental for overall survival. PMID:26948366

  17. Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated low grade gliomas: A comparison with sporadic low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Helfferich, Jelte; Nijmeijer, Ronald; Brouwer, Oebele F; Boon, Maartje; Fock, Annemarie; Hoving, Eelco W; Meijer, Lisethe; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; de Bont, Eveline S J M

    2016-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder, associated with a variable clinical phenotype including café-au-lait spots, intertriginous freckling, Lisch nodules, neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas and distinctive bony lesions. NF1 is caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene, which codes for neurofibromin, a large protein involved in the MAPK- and the mTOR-pathway through RAS-RAF signalling. NF1 is a known tumour predisposition syndrome, associated with different tumours of the nervous system including low grade gliomas (LGGs) in the paediatric population. The focus of this review is on grade I pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), the most commonly observed histologic subtype of low grade gliomas in NF1. Clinically, these PAs have a better prognosis and show different localisation patterns than their sporadic counterparts, which are most commonly associated with a KIAA1549:BRAF fusion. In this review, possible mechanisms of tumourigenesis in LGGs with and without NF1 will be discussed, including the contribution of different signalling pathways and tumour microenvironment. Furthermore we will discuss how increased understanding of tumourigenesis may lead to new potential targets for treatment. PMID:27263935

  18. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  19. Characteristics of fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Rui; Ng, Siew C; Li, Jin; Huang, Meifang; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Bo; A Kamm, Michael; Wu, Kaichun; Xia, Bing

    2014-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and geographical and genetic backgrounds impact the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the overall changes and characteristics of fecal-associated microbiota (FAM) and mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM) in Chinese patients with IBD. We recruited 26 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 46 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 21 healthy individuals; we collected matched fresh fecal and mucosal samples from the same subjects. The microbial communities were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. Community-wide changes in FAM and MAM were observed in patients with IBD. The proportion of several butyrate-producing bacteria, such as of the genera Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Ruminococcus were significantly reduced, whereas the pathogens Escherichia-Shigella and Enterococcus were prevalent in patients with IBD. FAM and MAM were similar between CD and UC. FAM differed from MAM in healthy individuals and patients with UC. In conclusion, the compositions of FAM and MAM were altered in patients with IBD. The reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria and the increase in opportunistic pathogens might be associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:25121355

  20. Characteristics of Fecal and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Chinese Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Rui; Ng, Siew C.; Li, Jin; Huang, Meifang; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Bo; A. Kamm, Michael; Wu, Kaichun; Xia, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and geographical and genetic backgrounds impact the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the overall changes and characteristics of fecal-associated microbiota (FAM) and mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM) in Chinese patients with IBD. We recruited 26 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 46 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 21 healthy individuals; we collected matched fresh fecal and mucosal samples from the same subjects. The microbial communities were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. Community-wide changes in FAM and MAM were observed in patients with IBD. The proportion of several butyrate-producing bacteria, such as of the genera Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Ruminococcus were significantly reduced, whereas the pathogens Escherichia-Shigella and Enterococcus were prevalent in patients with IBD. FAM and MAM were similar between CD and UC. FAM differed from MAM in healthy individuals and patients with UC. In conclusion, the compositions of FAM and MAM were altered in patients with IBD. The reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria and the increase in opportunistic pathogens might be associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:25121355

  1. Polyclonal Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Have Unique Innate Functions in Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Wei-Jen; Truscott, Steven M.; Eickhoff, Christopher S.; Blazevic, Azra

    2012-01-01

    Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique population of αβ T cells in mammals that reside preferentially in mucosal tissues and express an invariant Vα paired with limited Vβ T-cell receptor (TCR) chains. Furthermore, MAIT cell development is dependent upon the expression of the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule MR1. Using in vitro assays, recent studies have shown that mouse and human MAIT cells are activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) infected with diverse microbes, including numerous bacterial strains and yeasts, but not viral pathogens. However, whether MAIT cells play an important, and perhaps unique, role in controlling microbial infection has remained unclear. To probe MAIT cell function, we show here that purified polyclonal MAIT cells potently inhibit intracellular bacterial growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in macrophages (MΦ) in coculture assays, and this inhibitory activity was dependent upon MAIT cell selection by MR1, secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and an innate interleukin 12 (IL-12) signal from infected MΦ. Surprisingly, however, the cognate recognition of MR1 by MAIT cells on the infected MΦ was found to play only a minor role in MAIT cell effector function. We also report that MAIT cell-deficient mice had higher bacterial loads at early times after infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice, demonstrating that MAIT cells play a unique role among innate lymphocytes in protective immunity against bacterial infection. PMID:22778103

  2. Mucosa-associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii phylotype richness is reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Abellà, Carles; Busquets, David; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H; Aldeguer, Xavier; Flint, Harry J; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús

    2015-11-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26296733

  3. Mucosa-Associated Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Phylotype Richness Is Reduced in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Abellà, Carles; Busquets, David; Sabat-Mir, Miriam; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Aldeguer, Xavier; Flint, Harry J.

    2015-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The richness of F. prausnitzii subtypes was lower in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients than in H subjects. The most prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisted of four phylotypes (OTUs with a 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity [OTU99]), which were shared by all groups of patients. Their distribution and the presence of some disease-specific F. prausnitzii phylotypes allowed us to differentiate the populations in IBD and CRC patients from that in H subjects. At the level of a minimum similarity of 97% (OTU97), two phylogroups accounted for 98% of the sequences. Phylogroup I was found in 87% of H subjects but in under 50% of IBD patients (P = 0.003). In contrast, phylogroup II was detected in >75% of IBD patients and in only 52% of H subjects (P = 0.005). This study reveals that even though the main members of the F. prausnitzii population are present in both H subjects and individuals with gut diseases, richness is reduced in the latter and an altered phylotype distribution exists between diseases. This approach may serve as a basis for addressing the suitability of F. prausnitzii phylotypes to be quantified as a putative biomarker of disease and depicting the importance of the loss of these subtypes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26296733

  4. Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Microbiome of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs and Dynamics Linked to Dietary Calcium-Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Zebeli, Qendrim; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary composition largely influences pig’s gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. PMID:24466298

  5. Spontaneous regression and recurrence of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma on the gastric stump 15 and 20 years after gastroresection.

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Moncini, C; Pastine, F; Gerini, A; Lucchesi, Q

    2002-09-01

    The recurrence of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) on the gastric stump after gastroresection is rare. We describe the case of an 84-year-old man who had recurrences 15 and 20 years after a Billroth I gastrectomy. The concordance of the three gastric biopsies showing a low grade B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma of the mucosa-associated tissue, demonstrated the recurrence of the disease. The patient has serological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection but the eradication therapy had no effect on the evolution of the disease. The case suggests that PGL is really a particular entity in the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma group, characterized by a long spontaneous natural history, with long lasting spontaneous remissions and recurrences. PMID:12094145

  6. Pathological and Molecular Advances in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Lim, Kah Suan; Bowers, Daniel; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric low grade astrocytomas are the commonest brain tumors in children. They sometimes have similar microscopic and clinical features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. For patients whose tumors are in locations that do not permit full resection, or those with an intrinsically aggressive biology, more effective therapies are required. Until recently, little was known about the molecular changes that drive the initiation and growth of pilocytic and other low grade astrocytomas beyond the association of a minority of cases, primarily in the optic nerve, with neurofibromatosis type 1. Over the last several years, a wide range of studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene and other members of this signaling cascade in the pathobiology of pediatric low grade astrocytoma. In this review, we attempt to summarize this rapidly developing field, and discuss the potential for translating our growing molecular knowledge into improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new targeted therapies. PMID:23121055

  7. Low-grade astrocytoma in a child with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Brassesco, María Sol; Valera, Elvis Terci; Becker, Aline Paixão; Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; de Aboim Machado, André; Santos, Antônio Carlos; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Oliveira, Ricardo Santos; Machado, Hélio Rubens; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2010-02-01

    Encephalocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), or Haberland syndrome, is an uncommon congenital disorder with unique cutaneous, ocular and neurological features. In the present article, we describe a 3-year-old boy with ECCL who developed an extensive and recurring intraventricular low-grade glioma with atypical pathological features and elevated mitotic index. Cytogenetic analysis from tumor sample was also performed. This is the first report of a low-grade astrocytoma occurring in a child with ECCL. Whether or not the origin of the tumor is associated to the pathogenesis of the underlying syndrome is a matter for further investigation. PMID:19652916

  8. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Jayant Sastri; Le, Lisa W.; Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Simpson, Rand; Tsang, Richard W.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses

  9. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

  10. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma recurring over three decades.

    PubMed

    Styron, S L; Burke, T W; Linville, W K

    1989-11-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon uterine malignancy with a variety of histologic characteristics and clinical courses. We describe a patient who recently underwent her third resection of a locally recurring low-grade ESS 29 years after original diagnosis. Tissue from her recurrent tumor contained high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and had a diploid DNA content. In addition to multiple resections, she has previously been treated with vincristine chemotherapy and is now receiving megestrol acetate therapy. Mitotic activity is the most important prognostic feature distinguishing high- and low-grade ESS. The mainstay of therapy for both high- and low-grade tumors is surgical excision. A beneficial adjuvant role for cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy is yet to be clearly established for low-grade ESS; however, recent reports suggest that progestational agents may produce significant responses in recurrent or persistent disease patients whose tumors produce steroid hormone receptors. Indolent tumors may require years of close observation and multiple treatment approaches to maintain a patient in a functional capacity. PMID:2807024

  11. Low-Grade Epithelial Proliferations of the Sinonasal Tract.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Martin J

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade epithelial proliferations of the sinonasal tract include Schneiderian papillomas, respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma, seromucinous hamartoma and low-grade non-intestinal adenocarcinoma. There is considerable overlap in their clinical presentation, endoscopic appearance, and imaging features. Although well-described diagnostic criteria exist, a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to reach on a small biopsy. Schneiderian papillomas are divided into fungiform, inverted, and oncocytic types, each with characteristic clinical and morphological features. The latter two may progress to malignancy. The majority are still considered to be HPV-related. Two lesions are designated as hamartomas, but their pathogenesis remains uncertain, with inflammatory and neoplastic origins proposed. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma is increasingly being recognized for its association with chronic rhinosinusitis and olfactory cleft site of origin. Seromucinous hamartoma has gained attention in recent years and overlaps with both respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma and low-grade non-intestinal adenocarcinoma. Controversy surrounds their distinction, particularly from low-grade adenocarcinoma. The latter generally is cured by complete excision, with a 26 % risk of recurrence but rare metastases and deaths from disease. PMID:26830403

  12. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. PMID:27088915

  13. Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

  14. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L.; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications. PMID:26834416

  15. Expression of FOXP1 in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma suggests a large tumor cell transformation and predicts a poorer prognosis in the positive thyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Lei; Tang, Yuan; Zhang, Wen-yan; Liu, Wei-ping; Li, Gan-di

    2012-12-01

    The forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) expression resulted from chromosome translocation was found in MALT lymphoma, and its nuclear expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma has been believed to be a poor prognostic factor. In our study, FOXP1 expression was investigated in its relationship to the occurrence of large tumor cells, clinical features, and prognosis in a series of 115 MALT lymphomas divided into two groups with or without the large tumor cells. All cases were morphologically reviewed, and FOXP1 expression was detected both in mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR, immunochemical staining, and Western blot hybridization. All available clinical data were collected. In the MALT lymphoma with large cells, FOXP1 expression was higher at both mRNA (P = 0.008) and protein (P = 0.000) levels than that in group without large cells, and most large tumor cells showed FOXP1 positivity. It was also found that cases beyond Ann Arbor stage I have a higher FOXP1 expression rate than cases in stage I (P = 0.01), moreover, FOXP1-positive group has more plasmacytic differentiation (P = 0.025), deeper filtrating depth in digestive tract (P = 0.039), and a higher Ki67 proliferation index (P = 0.022). However, no statistical significance was identified in the involved anatomic sites and prognosis. Our data demonstrated the close relationship between FOXP1 nuclear expression and the occurrence of large tumor cells in MALT lymphoma, which suggested the possibility of large cell transformation of FOXP1-positive cases. And FOXP1 positivity was associated with enhanced invasion and proliferation ability of tumor cells. In the thyroid cases, the FOXP1 positivity showed a poorer prognosis (P = 0.043), but the significance was not found in the overall survival analysis (P = 0.1123). PMID:22736042

  16. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

  17. Notch Signaling Activation in Pediatric Low-Grade Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Bar, Eli E.; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in development, stem cell biology, and the pathogenesis of several cancers but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomical sites compared to non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res 186 and Res 259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable but significant reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  18. Notch signaling activation in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Brandt, William D; Schreck, Karisa C; Bar, Eli E; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-02-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in the development, stem cell biology, and pathogenesis of several cancers, but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomic sites compared with non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res186 and Res259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable, but significant, reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  19. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirui; Fouts, Derrick E; Stärkel, Peter; Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Llorente, Cristina; DePew, Jessica; Moncera, Kelvin; Ho, Samuel B; Brenner, David A; Hooper, Lora V; Schnabl, Bernd

    2016-02-10

    Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbial composition or their contribution to liver disease. We previously associated chronic alcohol consumption with lower intestinal levels of the antimicrobial-regenerating islet-derived (REG)-3 lectins. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal deficiency in REG3B or REG3G increases numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and enhances bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver, promoting the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver disease toward steatohepatitis. Overexpression of Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells restricts bacterial colonization of mucosal surfaces, reduces bacterial translocation, and protects mice from alcohol-induced steatohepatitis. Thus, alcohol appears to impair control of the mucosa-associated microbiota, and subsequent breach of the mucosal barrier facilitates progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26867181

  20. Decompression without Fusion for Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective series. Purpose Assess results of decompression-only surgery for low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with consideration of instability. Overview of Literature There is no consensus on whether fusion or decompression-only surgery leads to better outcomes for patients with low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. Current trends support fusion but many studies are flawed due to over-generalization without consideration of radiological instability and their variable presentations and natural history. Methods Patients with surgically treated degenerative spondylolisthesis from 1990–2013 were included. Clinical and radiological instability measures were included. Any residual or recurrence of symptoms, revision surgery performed and functional outcome scores including the numerical global rate of change scale, visual analogue scale, and modified Barthel index were measured. Follow-up periods for patients were divided into short-term (<5 years), mid-term (5–10 years) and long-term (>10 years). Results A total of 64 patients were recruited. Mechanical low back pain was noted in 48 patients and most (85.4%) had relief of back pain postoperatively. Radiological instability was noted in 4 subjects by flexion-extension radiographs and 12 subjects with prone traction radiographs by increased disc height and reduction of olisthesis and slip angle. From the results of the short-term, mid-term and long-term follow-up, reoperation only occurred within the first 5-year follow-up period. All functional scores improved from preoperative to postoperative 1-year follow-up. Conclusions Decompression-only for low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis has good long-term results despite instability. Further higher-level studies should be performed on this patient group with radiological instability to suggest the superior surgical option. PMID:26949462

  1. Histopathological spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Surya, Varun; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Verma, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA) are distinctive salivary gland neoplasms, with an almost exclusive propensity to arise from the minor salivary glands. PLGA frequently manifests as an asymptomatic, slow-growing mass within the oral cavity, which must be separated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign mixed tumor for therapeutic and prognostic considerations. We report a case of a 67-year-old male, who presented with a long-standing mass in the palate. This lesion was diagnosed as PLGA based on histopathological findings, which was further confirmed by the immunohistochemical marker. PMID:26604510

  2. Low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, D M

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, the strategy for clinical trial design in making progress against epithelial cancers of the ovary/peritoneum/fallopian tube has changed dramatically. The NRG (GOG) Rare Tumor Committee has been a leader in this transformation. No longer does 'one size fit all'. Rather, separate clinical trials for rare subtypes have been developed and, in some cases, completed. An enhanced understanding of their pathologic diagnosis, molecular biology, and clinical behavior has galvanized this change. Low-grade serous carcinoma may occur de novo or following an initial diagnosis of serous tumor of low malignant potential. It is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged survival compared with high-grade serous carcinoma. Historically, conventional chemotherapy has demonstrated very limited activity in this subtype. Hormonal therapy may provide benefit in this subtype. Preclinical studies have identified and elucidated genes and pathways-MAP kinase pathway, IGF1-R, the angiogenesis pathway, and possibly, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in low-grade serous carcinoma. To date, clinical evidence supports the activity of MEK and BRAF inhibitors and bevacizumab. Further pursuit of targeted therapy trials is clearly warranted. PMID:27141071

  3. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery of deeply seated low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Barcia-Salorio, J L; Ferrer, C; Ferrer, E; Algás, R; Hernández, G

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of a series of 16 cases of low-grade gliomas in whom radiosurgery was performed. This series started in 1977. All the tumours received a single radiosurgical session (with a mean dose of 21.7 Gy, 5-10 mm. collimator; one patient received two sessions and in another patient two different targets were irradiated in the same session). Prior to radiosurgery, six patients received conventional external fractionated radiotherapy, with two lateral fields of up to 10 x 10 cm. and a mean dose of 55.1 Gy and another six patients with tumours less than 5 cm. in diameter, received stereotactic radiotherapy using four fields of up to 5 x 5 cm. and a mean dose of 53.1 Gy. In both cases, conventional fractionation was used, giving a dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy/day. The tumour disappeared in 8 cases (50%) and shunk or ceased its growth in 5 additional cases (31%). In 3 cases of brainstem gliomas in which the clinical condition was previously very poor there was no evolutional change and the patients eventually died. We conclude that radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of deeply seated low-grade gliomas, where it may become the treatment of choice in the absence of other more definitive choices. PMID:7717138

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  6. Interaction of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov

    2007-06-15

    How conditions of alkylation of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid influence the yield of extractable matter was experimentally studied and relevant regression equations were obtained. It was shown that catalytic methylation considerably increases the yield of the extractable matter, as well as reducing the thermal stability of modified samples and alters the elemental composition of the samples and their extracts. A possible mechanism of coal methylation is discussed on the basis of regression models and experimental results. The interaction of the coal matter with the alkylating agent presumably involves the formation of the carbocation and its reaction with the coal organic matter. Both depolymerization reactions and the addition reactions of a portion of extractable compounds, the alkylating agent, and the catalyst with the high-molecular mass coal matrix take place.

  7. Low-grade gingival leiomyosarcoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Martins da Silva, Clóvis; Meneghini, Alexandre João; Silva, Geisa B L; Filho, João Alves A; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the oral cavity, a rare mesenchymal tumor exhibiting smooth-muscle differentiation, is extremely uncommon in childhood. The most frequent location of childhood LMS is the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the stomach. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of leiomyosarcoma affecting the gingival tissues and mandible of a 9-year-old girl with peculiar clinical, microscopic, and radiographic features. Clinical and radiographical examinations revealed a gingival growth affecting the primary mandibular right first molar with inflammatory features. The lesion was initially suspected to be pyogenic granuloma and was removed by excisional biopsy. Microscopic findings showed a hypercellular proliferation of mesenchymal spindle cells, suggesting malignant spindle cell neoplasm. Immunohistochemical, histochemical, and radiographic studies were undertaken, and the final diagnosis established was a low-grade leiomyosarcoma in the gingiva. PMID:19040818

  8. Reductive Leaching of Low-Grade Pyrolusite with Formic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Youzhi; Ma, Huaju; Huang, Runjun; Yuan, Aiqun; Huang, Zengwei; Zhou, Zeguang

    2015-08-01

    The extraction of manganese from low-grade pyrolusite is investigated using formic acid as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. The effects of volumes of formic acid, concentration of sulfuric acid, liquid to solid ratio (L/S), leaching time, and temperature on leaching efficiency of manganese, iron, and aluminum are valuated with single-factor experiments. The results show that the leaching efficiency of manganese reached 90.08 pct with 80.70 pct of iron and 31.55 pct of aluminum under the optical conditions: 15 pct H2SO4(v/v) 60 ml, 4 ml formic acid, and 2 hours leaching time at 363 K (90 °C).

  9. Low-grade heat recuperation by the organic Rankine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verneau, A.

    1980-11-01

    The use of an organic Rankine cycle engine in the conversion of low-grade industrial waste heat into mechanical energy is examined. The principles of a Rankine system using a vapor as the working fluid at operating temperatures from 100 to 500 C are presented, and the advantages of using organic vapors rather than water in the Rankine cycle are pointed out. Attention is then given to the Rankine cycle itself, the organic fluids employed, the multistage low-power turbines and the evaporator, which acts as a countercurrent heat exchanger. Economic aspects of the use of Rankine cycle systems for industrial waste heat recovery are then considered, and examples are presented of the calculation of power recovered and investment costs for the examples of heat recovery from diesel exhaust and from low-pressure steam.

  10. Clinical ramifications of "genomic staging" of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Mehta, Minesh P

    2016-09-01

    "Low-grade gliomas" (LGGs), classification of which is derived from histopathological observations, exhibit significant heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to genomic analyses of these tumors, to aid in treatment and prognostic decision-making. We discuss herein the recent genomic analysis of gliomas from two major recent publications, and also the results of seminal LGG trials in the context of molecular and genomic stratification, with respect to both prognosis and response to therapy. We also analyze implications of these "molecular classifications". We propose separating out the worst prognostic subsets, whose outcomes resemble those of glioblastoma patients. Lastly, a brief discussion is provided regarding translating this collective knowledge into the clinic and in treatment decisions; also addressed are some of the many questions that still need to be examined in light of these strong and emerging data. PMID:27401152

  11. Radiation therapy for localized duodenal low-grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Arisa; Oguchi, Masahiko; Terui, Yasuhito; Takeuchi, Kengo; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kozuka, Takuyo; Harada, Ken; Uno, Takashi; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial treatment results and toxicities of radiation therapy for patients with early stage low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) arising from the duodenum. We reviewed 21 consecutive patients with early stage duodenal FL treated with radiation therapy between January 2005 and December 2013 at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo. The characteristics of patients were: median age 62 years (range, 46–79 years), gender (male, 6; female, 15), clinical stage (I, 20; II1, 1), histological grade (I, 17; II, 4). All patients were treated with radiation therapy alone. The median radiation dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6–39.6) in 17 fractions. The involved-site radiation therapy was delivered to the whole duodenum. The median follow-up time was 43.2 months (range 21.4–109.3). The 3-year overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and local control (LC) rates were 94.7%, 79.3% and 100%, respectively. There were four relapses documented outside the treated volumes: two in the gastrointestinal tract (jejunum, terminal ileum), one in an abdominal lymph node (mesenteric lymph node) and one in the bone marrow. None died of the disease; one death was due to acute myeloid leukemia. No toxicities greater than Grade 1 were observed during treatment and over the follow-up time. The 30.6 Gy of involved-site radiation therapy provided excellent local control with very low toxicities. Radiation therapy could be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with localized low grade FL arising from the duodenum. PMID:27009323

  12. Radiation therapy for localized duodenal low-grade follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harada, Arisa; Oguchi, Masahiko; Terui, Yasuhito; Takeuchi, Kengo; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kozuka, Takuyo; Harada, Ken; Uno, Takashi; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial treatment results and toxicities of radiation therapy for patients with early stage low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) arising from the duodenum. We reviewed 21 consecutive patients with early stage duodenal FL treated with radiation therapy between January 2005 and December 2013 at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo. The characteristics of patients were: median age 62 years (range, 46-79 years), gender (male, 6; female, 15), clinical stage (I, 20; II1, 1), histological grade (I, 17; II, 4). All patients were treated with radiation therapy alone. The median radiation dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6) in 17 fractions. The involved-site radiation therapy was delivered to the whole duodenum. The median follow-up time was 43.2 months (range 21.4-109.3). The 3-year overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and local control (LC) rates were 94.7%, 79.3% and 100%, respectively. There were four relapses documented outside the treated volumes: two in the gastrointestinal tract (jejunum, terminal ileum), one in an abdominal lymph node (mesenteric lymph node) and one in the bone marrow. None died of the disease; one death was due to acute myeloid leukemia. No toxicities greater than Grade 1 were observed during treatment and over the follow-up time. The 30.6 Gy of involved-site radiation therapy provided excellent local control with very low toxicities. Radiation therapy could be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with localized low grade FL arising from the duodenum. PMID:27009323

  13. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  14. Rare case of sclerosing mesenteritis and low grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema; Mahy, Gillian; Roche, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of long standing sclerosing mesenteritis; initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a mesenteric mass with surrounding fat oedema and stranding with a pseudocapsule and fat ring sign were clearly visualised on the initial computed tomography scan. Laparotomy showed diffuse thickening at the root of the mesentery and histology from this specimen revealed fat necrosis and reactive lymphoid tissue consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. Initial treatment with steroids and tamoxifen relieved the symptoms and the mass. He was maintained on tamoxifen. Three years later he developed a recurrence of his symptoms and abdominal mass that responded to a course of steroids. Two years following this, he developed a follicular Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:27099861

  15. Rare case of sclerosing mesenteritis and low grade follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema; Mahy, Gillian; Roche, Enrico

    2016-04-16

    An unusual case of long standing sclerosing mesenteritis; initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a mesenteric mass with surrounding fat oedema and stranding with a pseudocapsule and fat ring sign were clearly visualised on the initial computed tomography scan. Laparotomy showed diffuse thickening at the root of the mesentery and histology from this specimen revealed fat necrosis and reactive lymphoid tissue consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. Initial treatment with steroids and tamoxifen relieved the symptoms and the mass. He was maintained on tamoxifen. Three years later he developed a recurrence of his symptoms and abdominal mass that responded to a course of steroids. Two years following this, he developed a follicular Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:27099861

  16. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Kevin S.; Hung, Jonathan; Robertson, Patricia L.; Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  17. Low-grade albuminuria in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Varlami, Vasiliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Theologi, Vasiliki; Theophanous, Eleni; Liakos, Nikolaos; Daskalopoulou, Euphemia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    Small urinary protein loss (low-grade albuminuria or microalbuminuria) may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. In the present study, it was hypothesized that children with obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of microalbuminuria compared with control subjects without sleep-disordered breathing. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in morning spot urine specimens collected from consecutive children with or without snoring who were referred for polysomnography. Three groups were studied: (i) control subjects (no snoring, apnea-hypopnea index < 1 episode h(-1) ; n = 31); (ii) mild obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index = 1-5 episodes h(-1) ; n = 71); and (iii) moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (snoring, apnea-hypopnea index > 5 episodes∙h(-1) ; n = 27). Indications for polysomnography in control subjects included nightmares, somnambulism and morning headaches. An albumin-to-creatinine ratio > median value in the control group (1.85 mg of albumin per g of creatinine) was defined as elevated. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, but not those with mild obstructive sleep apnea, had increased risk of elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio relative to controls (reference) after adjustment for age, gender and presence of obesity: odds ratio 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.6); P = 0.04 and 1.5 (0.6-3.7); P > 0.05, respectively. Oxygen desaturation of hemoglobin and respiratory arousal indices were significant predictors of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.31, P = 0.01; and r = 0.43, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea are at significantly higher risk of increased low-grade excretion of albumin in the morning urine as compared with control subjects without obstructive sleep apnea. These findings may reflect altered permeability of the glomerular

  18. [A case of palatal polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, S; Tanaka, T; Nibu, K; Ishibashi, T; Ichimura, K; Yamada, A

    1995-07-01

    We present a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral cheek swelling and an extraorally protruding tumor who has had deaf mutism since birth. He underwent surgery of the right hard palate 11 years ago. Five years later biopsy was performed for a recurrent lesion diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. He refused additional treatment and the size of the tumor subsequently increased slowly. As rapid tumor-growth had been observed since autumn of 1992, he was referred to Tokyo University Hospital. We took meticulous care of this deaf-mute patient, especially from the psychological aspect, which caused him to place great reliance upon us. We performed bilateral maxillectomy with partial resection of the right cheek skin and reconstructed his face and palate successfully using both latissmus dorsi and serratus anterior musculocutaneous free flaps with a rib. Histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma, which was registered as a definite entity in the WHO Classification in 1991. There was no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis one year postoperatively. PMID:7562229

  19. Frequent GNAS mutations in low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, G; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Matsubara, A; Mori, T; Taniguchi, H; Kushima, R; Hiraoka, N; Tsuta, K; Tsuda, H; Kanai, Y

    2013-01-01

    Background: The molecular basis for the development of appendiceal mucinous tumours, which can be a cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei, remains largely unknown. Methods: Thirty-five appendiceal mucinous neoplasms were analysed for GNAS and KRAS mutations. A functional analysis of mutant GNAS was performed using a colorectal cancer cell line. Results: A mutational analysis identified activating GNAS mutations in 16 of 32 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) but in none of three mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs). KRAS mutations were found in 30 LAMNs and in all MACs. We additionally analysed a total of 186 extra-appendiceal mucinous tumours and found that GNAS mutations were highly prevalent in intraductal papillary mucinous tumours of the pancreas (88%) but were rare or absent in mucinous tumours of the colorectum, ovary, lung and breast (0–9%). The prevalence of KRAS mutations was quite variable among the tumours. The introduction of the mutant GNAS into a colorectal cancer cell line markedly induced MUC2 and MUC5AC expression, but did not promote cell growth either in vitro or in vivo. Conclusion: Activating GNAS mutations are a frequent and characteristic genetic abnormality of LAMN. Mutant GNAS might play a direct role in the prominent mucin production that is a hallmark of LAMN. PMID:23403822

  20. Beneficiation and hydroretorting of low grade oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tippin, R.B.; Hanna, J.; Janka, J.C.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    A new approach to oil recovery from low grade oil shales has been developed jointly by the Mineral Resources Institute (MRI) of The University of Alabama and the HYCRUDE Corporation. The approach is based on the HYTORT process, which utilized hydrogen gas during the retorting process to enhance oil yields from many types of oil shales. The performance of the HYTORT process is further improved by combining it with MRI's froth flotation process. Taking advantage of differences in the surface properties of the kerogen and the inorganic mineral constituents of the oil shales, the MRI process can reject up to three quarters by weight of relatively kerogen-free inorganic fractions of the oil shale before HYTORT processing. The HYTORT and MRI processes are discussed. Results of tests by each process on oil shales of low to moderate inherent kerogen content are presented. Also discussed are the results of the combined processes on an Indiana New Albany oil shale. By combining the two processes, the raw shale which yielded 12 gallons of oil per ton by Fischer Assay was upgraded by flotation to a product yielding 27 gallons of Fischer Assay oil per ton. HYTORT processing of the beneficiated product recovered 54 gallons of oil per ton, an improvement in oil yield by a factor of 4.5 over the raw shale Fischer Assay.

  1. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  2. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ius, Tamara; Pauletto, Giada; Cesselli, Daniela; Isola, Miriam; Turella, Luca; Budai, Riccardo; DeMaglio, Giovanna; Eleopra, Roberto; Fadiga, Luciano; Lettieri, Christian; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR) are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs) that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR) (P < 0.002), ΔVT2T1 value (P < 0.001), histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P = 0.017), and mutation of IDH1 (P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P < 0.001). Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery. PMID:26539503

  3. The evolving molecular genetics of low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Venneti, Sriram; Huse, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute grade I and grade II tumors of astrocytic and grade II tumors of oligodendroglial lineage. Although these tumors are typically slow growing, they may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to recurrence and malignant progression, even in the setting of optimal resection. LGG in pediatric and adult age groups are currently classified by morphologic criteria. Recent years have heralded a molecular revolution in understanding brain tumors, including LGG. Next generation sequencing has definitively demonstrated that pediatric and adult LGG fundamentally differ in their underlying molecular characteristics, despite being histologically similar. Pediatric LGG show alterations in FGFR1 and BRAF in pilocytic astrocytomas and FGFR1 alterations in diffuse astrocytomas, each converging on the MAP kinase-signaling pathway. Adult LGG are characterized by IDH1/2 mutations and ATRX mutations in astrocytic tumors and IDH1/2 mutations and 1p/19q codeletions in oligodendroglial tumors. TERT promoter mutations are also noted in LGG and are mainly associated with oligodendrogliomas. These findings have considerably refined approaches to classifying these tumors. Moreover, many of the molecular alterations identified in LGG directly impact on prognosis, tumor biology, and the development of novel therapies. PMID:25664944

  4. Incidental diffuse low-grade gliomas: from early detection to preventive neuro-oncological surgery.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira; Zanello, Marc; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Taillandier, Luc; Pallud, Johan; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Although a large amount of data supports early surgical resection for symptomatic diffuse low-grade glioma, the therapeutic strategy is still a matter of debate regarding incidentally discovered diffuse low-grade glioma. Indeed, early and "preventive" surgery has recently been proposed in asymptomatic patients with silent diffuse low-grade glioma with better outcomes. The present review discusses the importance of an early diagnosis and of a preventive surgical treatment to improve the outcomes of incidental diffuse low-grade glioma and suggests the possible relevance of a tailored screening policy. PMID:26610909

  5. Dynamic changes of the luminal and mucosa-associated gut microbiota during and after antibiotic therapy with paromomycin.

    PubMed

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Knecht, Henrik; Neulinger, Sven C; Schmitz, Ruth A; Knecht, Carolin; Kühbacher, Tanja; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedrichs, Anette K; Ott, Stephan J

    2015-07-01

    Gut microbiota play a key role in the host's health system. Broad antibiotic therapy is known to disrupt the microbial balance affecting pathogenic as well as host-associated microbes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of antibiotic paromomycin on the luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota at the DNA (abundance) and RNA (potential activity) level as well as to identify possible differences. The influence of antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota was investigated in 5 healthy individuals (age range: 20-22 years). All participants received the antibiotic paromomycin for 3 d. Fecal samples as well as sigmoidal biopsies were collected before and immediately after cessation of antibiotic treatment as well as after a recovery phase of 42 d. Compartment- and treatment status-specific indicator operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as abundance- and activity-specific patterns were identified by 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Microbial composition of lumen and mucosa were significantly different at the DNA compared to the RNA level. Antibiotic treatment resulted in changes of the microbiota, affecting the luminal and mucosal bacteria in a similar way. Several OTUs were identified as compartment- and/or treatment status-specific. Abundance and activity patterns of some indicator OTUs differed considerably. The study shows fundamental changes in composition of gut microbiota under antibiotic therapy at both the potential activity and the abundance level at different treatment status. It may help to understand the complex processes of gut microbiota changes involved in resilience mechanisms and on development of antibiotic-associated clinical diseases. PMID:26178862

  6. Dynamic changes of the luminal and mucosa-associated gut microbiota during and after antibiotic therapy with paromomycin

    PubMed Central

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Knecht, Henrik; Neulinger, Sven C; Schmitz, Ruth A; Knecht, Carolin; Kühbacher, Tanja; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedrichs, Anette K; Ott, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota play a key role in the host's health system. Broad antibiotic therapy is known to disrupt the microbial balance affecting pathogenic as well as host-associated microbes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of antibiotic paromomycin on the luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota at the DNA (abundance) and RNA (potential activity) level as well as to identify possible differences. The influence of antibiotic treatment on intestinal microbiota was investigated in 5 healthy individuals (age range: 20–22 years). All participants received the antibiotic paromomycin for 3 d. Fecal samples as well as sigmoidal biopsies were collected before and immediately after cessation of antibiotic treatment as well as after a recovery phase of 42 d. Compartment- and treatment status-specific indicator operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as abundance- and activity-specific patterns were identified by 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Microbial composition of lumen and mucosa were significantly different at the DNA compared to the RNA level. Antibiotic treatment resulted in changes of the microbiota, affecting the luminal and mucosal bacteria in a similar way. Several OTUs were identified as compartment- and/or treatment status-specific. Abundance and activity patterns of some indicator OTUs differed considerably. The study shows fundamental changes in composition of gut microbiota under antibiotic therapy at both the potential activity and the abundance level at different treatment status. It may help to understand the complex processes of gut microbiota changes involved in resilience mechanisms and on development of antibiotic-associated clinical diseases. PMID:26178862

  7. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  8. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937

  9. Sexuality after surgery for diffuse low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Surbeck, Werner; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Although neurological and neurocognitive outcomes have previously been studied after resection of diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG), the impact of surgery on sexual life has not been investigated. Our aim was to assess whether DLGG surgery could have consequences on sexual experience. Methods Anonymous standardized questionnaires concerning sexual functioning, including the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and a subjective statement, were completed by 32 patients who underwent surgery for DLGG. All patients returned to a normal social and professional life following resection, with neither neurological deficits nor depression. No radiotherapy was administered, and patients who received chemotherapy were without treatment for at least 1 year. Results Seventeen patients (53%) reported a postoperative sexual change, with subjective deterioration in 15 (88%) and improvement in 2 (12%). Sexual dysfunction according to ASEX affected 9 of 15 women (60%) and 5 of 17 men (29%). Right-sided resections were associated with more difficulties in reaching orgasm than left-sided resections (P < .02). Men with temporal lobe resection displayed more reduction in sexual drive (P < .003) and sexual arousal (P < .004) than women, resulting in significant higher overall ASEX scores for temporal lobe resections in men (P = .01). Men remaining on antiepileptic drugs who underwent right-sided resection displayed higher overall ASEX scores than women (P = .031). Conclusions This first evaluation of sexual life after surgery for DLGG suggests that sexual dysfunction is common in this population. Therefore, we suggest that sexual health should consistently be addressed during routine pre- and postoperative examination of patients with DLGG. PMID:25699682

  10. Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcomas of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    QIU, JIN-YU; LIU, PENG; SHI, CE; HAN, BING

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) is a distinct mesenchymal myofibroblastic malignancy. The tumor may occur at a variety of sites, but is particularly associated with the head and neck. Of the two maxillary sarcomas that were analyzed in the present study, one was misdiagnosed as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor during pre-operative excision biopsy, and later presented with a different immunophenotype upon recurrence. Representative paraffin blocks from formalin-fixed tissues were selected from each patient and designated as case 1 and case 2. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 3-μm thick sections using primary antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), muscle-specific actin (MSA), desmin, vimentin, calponin, h-caldesmon, fibronectin, cytokeratin, cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), S-100 protein, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and Ki-67. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The tumor cells from the two maxillary LGMSs, including the recurrent lesion, were positive for vimentin and fibronectin, and negative for S-100 protein, CD34, EMA, h-caldesmon, ALK, MSA and calponin. The tumor cells from case 1 demonstrated positive staining for α-SMA protein and negative staining for desmin. By contrast, the tumor cells from the primary lesion in case 2 presented with negative staining for α-SMA and positive staining for desmin, while the cells of the recurrent lesion were α-SMA-positive and desmin-negative. The present study concluded that cases of LGMS with immunoprofile alterations are predictive of relatively poor prognoses. PMID:25624890

  11. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  12. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  13. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages. PMID:27168240

  14. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrev, Sergei; Bogomolov, Aleksandr; Alekssev, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  15. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer ... PCPT) continue to show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the ...

  16. Intramedullary Spinal Cord and Leptomeningeal Metastases from Intracranial Low-grade Oligodendroglioma

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Nolan, Craig; Hirano, Miki; Young, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a patient with an intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma who developed recurrence with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases. The intramedullary spinal cord metastasis showed mild enhancement similar to the original intracranial primary, while the multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases revealed no enhancement. This is the seventh reported case of symptomatic intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a low-grade oligodendroglioma. PMID:24667044

  17. Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

  18. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOEpatents

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  19. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-01

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  20. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  1. Inducible lymphoid clusters, iSALTs, in contact dermatitis: a new concept of acquired cutaneous immune responses.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Yohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Antigen presentation to peripheral memory T cells is a key step in the prompt elicitation of acquired immune responses. In the mucosa, specific sentinel lymphoid tissues called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue serve as antigen presentation sites. Correspondingly, the concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) has been proposed in the 1980s. However, the details of SALT have not been clarified so far. Recently, the live imaging analysis using two photon microscopes are developed. Here, we have identified inducible lymphoid clusters in the skin, we called it inducible SALTs (iSALTs), using a murine contact hypersensitivity model. In the elicitation phase, dendritic cells (DCs) formed clusters and interacted for several hours with effector memory T cells in the dermis. This interaction was essential for proliferation and activation of effector memory T cells in situ in an antigen dependent manner. Interestingly, DC clusters were abrogated by depletion of skin macrophages. Furthermore, IL-1 treatment induced CXCL2 production from macrophages and DC clusters were suppressed with the blockade of IL-1R or CXCR2. Taken together, this sustained conjugation between DCs and memory T cells, iSALTs, is essential for establishment of the effector phase in acquired cutaneous immunity. PMID:26941109

  2. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  3. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of work absence, disability, and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances) can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium, and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:26029209

  4. Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jai-Young; Oh, Byung-Taek; Choi, Sang-Il

    2007-08-01

    Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified bentonite, which is used as a secondary containment barrier for underground storage tanks. The sorption capacity and hydraulic conductivity of both the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin were investigated and showed distribution coefficients in the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene ranging between 45.7 and 583.7 and 57.0 and 525.1, respectively. The hydraulic conductivities were 2.53 x 10(-8) and 5.62 x 10(-8) cm/s for the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin, respectively. These results suggest that HDTMA-modified low-grade kaolin could be used as a hydraulic barrier against advection migration of petroleum contaminants. Simulation of the one-dimensional transport of benzene through a liner made of either one of the compounds was also performed. These results also showed that HDTMA-modified kaolin more effectively retards the transport of benzene. PMID:17505892

  5. Delayed osseous metastasis from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: Uncommon occurrence deserving recognition.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2015-10-01

    Despite excellent prognosis, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is notorious for late recurrence even in stage I disease. Bone metastases are distinctly rare and only six cases have so far been reported. Two patients presented with back pain due to spinal metastatic low-grade ESS after 15 and 9 years free of disease after resection of the stage 1 primary uterine tumor. Plain radiograph showed an ivory first lumbar vertebra in the first patient and an osteolytic lesion involving the second thoracic vertebra in the second. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging showed vertebral tumor with intra-spinal extension and spinal cord compression; biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic low-grade ESS. The first patient received palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy while the second underwent surgical decompression followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The neurologic symptoms in both patients returned 12 months afterwards and progressed relentlessly despite adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The first patient developed multiple bone and lung metastasis, culminating in death 44 months after recurrence. While surviving at 24 months from recurrent disease, the second became paraplegic with double incontinence and was wheelchair bound. Delayed osseous metastatic low-grade ESS, although uncommon, deserves recognition given the predilection for spine as the site of involvement. In such a location, where complete surgical removal is notoriously difficult, if not impossible, the prognosis of spinal metastatic low-grade ESS appears grave with considerable morbidity and mortality. PMID:26171849

  6. Tissue residency of innate lymphoid cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiger, Georg; Fan, Xiying; Dikiy, Stanislav; Lee, Sue Y.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) contribute to barrier immunity, tissue homeostasis, and immune regulation at various anatomical sites throughout the body. How ILCs maintain their presence in lymphoid and peripheral tissues is currently unknown. We found that in the lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs of adult mice, ILC are tissue-resident cells that were maintained and expanded locally under physiologic conditions, upon systemic perturbation of immune homeostasis, and during acute helminth infection. However, at later time points post-infection, cells from hematogenous sources helped to partially replenish the pool of resident ILCs. Thus, ILC are maintained by self-renewal in broadly different microenvironments and physiological settings. Such an extreme “sedentary” lifestyle is consistent with the proposed roles of ILCs as sentinels and local keepers of tissue function. PMID:26472762

  7. B cell clonality in gastric lymphoid tissues of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraccioli, G F; Sorrentino, D; De Vita, S; Casatta, L; Labombarda, A; Avellini, C; Dolcetti, R; Di Luca, D; Beltrami, C A; Boiocchi, M; Bartoli, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the stomach and of a possible antigen driven proliferation, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Twenty one patients with primary SS and 80 dyspeptic controls underwent upper endoscopy. Lymphoid tissue and Helicobacter pylori were assessed by histopathological analysis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) genome were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification. Two PCR VDJ procedures were used to detect immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement. RESULTS: Organised MALT was found in 33.3% of the patients, compared with 21.5% of the controls (NS). H pylori infection was seen in 71% of patients and 63% of controls. Genomic EBV or HHV-6 was found in a minor portion of SS gastric tissues. B cell expansion was detected in nine of the 21 patients. Infectious agents in the stomach might have contributed to B cell clonality only in 55.5% of the cases. No strict relationship was found between lymphoid follicles and clonality. CONCLUSION: Lymphoid accumulation in the gastric mucosa is common in Sjögren's syndrome, but full evidence for an antigen driven B cell expansion could not be demonstrated. Only a portion of those with clonal B cell expansion had evidence of an infectious agent. Other unknown infectious agents or factors related to the underlying disease (autoantigen) and its tissue environment may have a further role as possible causes of B clonal expansion in the gastric mucosa. Images PMID:8660105

  8. Plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma: A diffusion tensor imaging study☆

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Xiaolei; Xu, Bainan; Zhang, Jiashu; Lv, Xueming; Li, Jinjiang; Li, Fangye; Hu, Shen; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma is important for neurosurgeons to achieve maximum resection while preserving neurological function. The current study sought to investigate changes in the ventral language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma located in regions likely to affect the dorsal language pathways. The results revealed no significant difference in fractional anisotropy values in the arcuate fasciculus between groups or between hemispheres. However, fractional anisotropy and lateralization index values in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and lateralization index values in the left inferior fronto-occpital fasciculus were higher in patients than in healthy subjects. These results indicate plasticity of language pathways in patients with low-grade glioma. The ventral language pathways may perform more functions in patients than in healthy subjects. As such, it is important to protect the ventral language pathways intraoperatively. PMID:25206710

  9. Is watch and wait still acceptable for patients with low-grade follicular lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Armitage, James O; Longo, Dan L

    2016-06-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) represents more than 20% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas worldwide and approximately 30% of the non-Hodgkin lymphomas diagnosed in the United States. Although occasionally localized at the time of diagnosis, most patients have disseminated disease. However, patients are frequently asymptomatic, and this, in combination with a long median survival, led to the initial studies of observing asymptomatic patients without initial therapy, ie, "watch and wait." Since the initial report of watch and wait as a treatment strategy for patients with low-grade FL, our understanding of the biology of the disease has advanced; multiple active new agents have been introduced into practice, and the survival of patients with low-grade FL has improved. Given these changes, is watch and wait still an acceptable treatment recommendation for a newly diagnosed patient with low-grade FL? PMID:26994147

  10. Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

    2011-10-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C. PMID:23024410

  11. Mortality in kittens is associated with a shift in ileum mucosa-associated enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis and adherent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek; Gookin, Jody L

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a "healthy" enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  12. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  13. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

  14. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  15. Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. PMID:24868331

  16. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  17. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (−3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −6.41, −1.42]) and language (−3.19 [−6.19, −0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

  18. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  19. Exploring the role of inflammation in the malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Michelson, Nicole; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-08-15

    Studies of inflammatory mediators have established the tumor micro-environment as a driver of oncogenesis. This inflammatory milieu often precedes cancer, however recent data also point to the ability of oncogenic changes to induce inflammatory responses that are later harnessed by the tumor to survive and proliferate. In this review, we propose that the IDH1 mutation, present in the majority of low-grade gliomas (LGGs), initiates an inflammatory cascade that is ultimately hijacked by the tumor. Glioma infiltrating macrophages and microglia (GIMs) are polarized to the M2 phenotype, subverting the host's adaptive immune response, and fostering a tumor milieu ripe for angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. As data continue to expand the role of inflammation in low-grade gliomas, new molecular pathways may emerge as therapeutic targets that offer a window of opportunity to intervene before the malignant transformation (MT) of LGGs occurs. PMID:27397086

  20. Exploiting molecular biology for diagnosis and targeted management of pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Michael A; Solomon, David A; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2016-06-01

    The majority of brain tumors arising in children are low-grade gliomas. Although historically categorized together as pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs), there is significant histologic and genetic diversity within this group. In general, prognosis for PLGGs is excellent, and limitation of sequelae from tumor and treatment is paramount. Advances in high-throughput genetic sequencing and gene expression profiling are fundamentally changing the way PLGGs are classified and managed. Here, we review the histologic subtypes and highlight how recent advances in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors have refined diagnosis and prognostication. Additionally, we discuss how characterizing specific genetic alterations has paved the way for the rational use of targeted therapies that are currently in various phase clinical trials. PMID:27072750

  1. Very low-grade metamorphic rocks in some representative districts in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, X.; Mo, X.

    2011-12-01

    *Response author: Bi,Xianmei,bixm10@sina.com Very low grade metamorphic rocks are widely distributed in Tibet, providing an insight into deformation and metamorphism during the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Eighty five Samples of clay mineral-bearing rocks has been collected from various strata including D, P1, T1, T2, T3, J1, J3, K1, K2 and N strata in the Qiangtang terrane, the Gangdese, the Yarlung Zangbo suture and the Tethyan Himalaya. Analyses and refining of clay minerals in samples have been conducted in the Laboratory of X-ray Diffraction, Institute of Petroleum Exploration. Index of illite crystallinity (Ic) along with average thickness of crystal layers of illite, reflectivity of vitrinite and of clay mineral association have been employed as indicators of degree of very low-grade metamorphism. The scheme of classification[1,2] of very-low grade metamorphism based on clay mineral indexes ( mainly index of illite crystallinity) has been used in the present work, that is, low metamorphism (Ic<0.25), higher very-low grade metamorphism (Ic = 0.25-0.30), lower very-low grade metamorphism (Ic = 0.30-0.42) and diagenesis (Ic>0.42). The analytical results show interesting information. In the Qiangtang terrane, clay minerals in the Jurassic strata have indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) 0.47-0.70, indicating higher diagenesis and in favor of petroleum-generation. However, index of illite crystalinity (Ic) for the Devonian is 0.23, indicating low metamorphism. Indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) for the J-K strata in middle Gangdese are mostly 0.37-0.25 (very-low grade metamorphism) and a few 0.78-0.48 (diagenesis). Indexes of illite crystalinity (Ic) for the C-P strata in eastern Gangdese are mostly 0.25-0.42 (very-low grade metamorphism) and a few 0.20-0.25 (low metamorphism). The Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism and related mineralization are very strong in the Gangdese, which may affect in some extent on indexes of illite crystalinity. In Tethyan Himalaya

  2. Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

  3. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Kazakov, Alexander V.; Cherkashina, Galina A.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  4. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  5. Villous Tumor of the Urinary Bladder Resembling Low-grade Mucinous Neoplasm of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayako; Sakura, Yuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Kuroda, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous neoplasms of the urinary tract are very rare. We present a 63-year-old-women who had a sessile papillary villous tumor in urinary bladder. Although transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed, the villous tumor repetitively recurred and gradually spread to the entire surface of bladder lumen. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination showed that the lesion was very similar to low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in appendix vermiformis. There are no reports on appendiceal metaplasia of urinary bladder mucosa. In this case, we describe this unprecedented neoplasm as “villous tumor of the urinary bladder resembling low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix.” PMID:27169015

  6. Metastatic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the sigmoid colon three years after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Yuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Akama, Fumitaka; Nomura, Noriko; Wen, Chun-Yang; Nakao, Haruhiko; Murata, Ikuo; Toriyama, Kan; Kohno, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman, who had undergone hysterectomy for low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) 3 years ago, presented with a 2-wk history of lower abdominal pain. Barium enema and sigmoidoscopy disclosed a polypoid submucosal tumor. Histopathologic features of biopsy specimens from the lesion were similar to those of the resected uterine ESS. Under the diagnosis of metastatic ESS of the sigmoid colon, sigmoidectomy was performed. Microscopic examination demonstrated dense proliferation of spindle cells with little nuclear atypia, which were sometimes arranged in whorled pattern around abundant arterioles. Mitotic count is below 1 in 10 high-power fields. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for vimentin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor but negative for α-smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and CD34. Thus, a final diagnosis of low-grade ESS metastasis to the sigmoid colon was made. Her postoperative course was uneventful and hormonal therapy with progestational agents is entertained. PMID:15818757

  7. Low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yan, Hongjiang; Luo, Yijun; Fan, Tingyong

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare tumor, with only a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Some published studies have paid more attention to the clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma, while little effort has been made to study the optimal therapeutic strategies. We report about a woman diagnosed with low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma. She received the treatment approach that combined transnasal endoscopic surgery to remove the lesion with postoperative radiotherapy for nasal cavity. There was no evidence of recurrence after 4 months of surgery, and further follow-up is being continued. Through this example, we wanted to explore the optimal therapeutic strategies for primary nasopharyngeal adenocarcinomas. PMID:27274289

  8. Abnormal immune regulation and low-grade inflammation in IBS: does one size fit all?

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max; Chey, William D

    2012-02-01

    Evidences suggest that there is low-grade inflammation in the colonic mucosa and/or a state of immune activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Results from available studies are inconsistent mainly because of differences in measures, methodologies and study populations. In this issue, Chang et al. evaluated a comprehensive set of cytokines, immune markers and immune-related cells in patients with non post infectious IBS (non PI-IBS) and controls. The main finding was a lower expression of the mRNA of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine in the colonic mucosa of women with non PI-IBS without any differences in the cell counts. These results suggest that in non PI-IBS, there is altered immune regulation/activation without evidence of low-grade mucosal inflammation. Further, PI and non PI-IBS may be associated with different alterations in immune function/activation. PMID:22306945

  9. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  10. Active surveillance in Canadian men with low-grade prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Octav; Lavallée, Luke T.; Montroy, Joshua; Stokl, Andrew; Cnossen, Sonya; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Fergusson, Dean; Momoli, Franco; Cagiannos, Illias; Morash, Christopher; Breau, Rodney H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent guidelines recommend against routine screening for prostate cancer, partly because of the risks associated with overtreatment of clinically indolent tumours. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients whose low-grade prostate cancer was managed by active surveillance instead of immediate treatment. Methods: We reviewed data for patients who were referred to the Ottawa regional Prostate Cancer Assessment Clinic with abnormal results for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or prostate examination between Apr. 1, 2008, and Jan. 31, 2013. Patients with subsequent biopsy-proven low-grade (Gleason score 6) cancer were included. Active surveillance was defined a priori as monitoring by means of PSA, digital rectal examination and repeat biopsies, with the potential for curative-intent treatment in the event of disease progression. Results: Of 477 patients with low-grade cancer, active surveillance was used for 210 (44.0%), and the annual proportion increased from 32% (11/34) in 2008 to 67% (20/30) in 2013. Factors associated with immediate treatment were palpable tumour, PSA density above 0.2 ng/mL2 and more than 2 positive biopsy cores. Factors associated with surveillance were age over 70 years and higher Charlson comorbidity index. Of 173 men who received immediate surgical treatment, 103 (59.5%) had higher-grade or advanced-stage disease on final pathologic examination. Of the 210 men with active surveillance, 62 (29.5%) received treatment within a median of 1.3 years, most commonly (52 [84%]) because of upgrading of disease on the basis of surveillance biopsy. Interpretation: Active surveillance has become the most common management strategy for men with low-grade prostate cancer at our regional diagnostic centre. Factors associated with immediate treatment reflected those that increase the risk of higher-grade tumours. PMID:26927971

  11. Fatty acids and chronic low grade inflammation associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Aoife A; Connaughton, Ruth M; Lyons, Claire L; McMorrow, Aoibheann M; Roche, Helen M

    2016-08-15

    The metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity associated metabolic conditions that result in increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Global increases in obesity rates have led to an increase in metabolic syndrome resulting in a demand for increased understanding of the mechanisms involved. This review examines the relationship between adipose tissue biology, lipid metabolism and chronic low grade inflammation relating to obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27083551

  12. The microtubule binding drug EM011 inhibits the growth of paediatric low grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ajeawung, Norbert F; Joshi, Harish C; Kamnasaran, Deepak

    2013-07-10

    Low grade gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours representing the most common form of neoplasms in the central nervous system among children. Although gross total resection remains the principal treatment, it is often impractical especially for the resection of tumours within eloquent regions of the brain. Instead Radiotherapy is utilised in such cases, but because of its associated toxicities, it is refrained from use among younger children. These limitations coupled with hypersensitivity and toxicities associated with some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, have ignited the need to search for safer and more effective treatments for paediatric low grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated the EM011 drug on the growth of two pilocytic and one diffuse paediatric astrocytoma cell lines, using an assortment of cancer assays. We discovered that treatments of low grade gliomas with EM011 abrogated cell viability by inducing a decrease in cell proliferation and an arrest in the S and G2M cell cycle phases, followed by a converse increase in apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell migratory and invasion indices, as well as anchorage independent growth in soft agarose, were significantly attenuated. These findings were mechanistically associated with a transient release of AIF, a disruption of microtubule architecture, and a decline in the expression of key genes which drive cancer progression including EGFR, mTORC1, JUN and multiple MMPs. In fact, the activity of MMP2 was also perturbed by EM011. These findings, in conjunction with the insignificant adverse side effects established from other studies, make EM011 an appealing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of paediatric low grade gliomas. PMID:23402815

  13. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti is involved in mucosa-associated parasite-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Anandarajah, Emmanuela M; Ditgen, Dana; Hansmann, Jan; Erttmann, Klaus D; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2016-06-01

    The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), found in the excretory/secretory products of Strongyloides ratti, is most strongly expressed in parasitic females. Since SPARC proteins are involved in the modulation of cell-matrix interactions, a role of the secreted S. ratti SPARC (Sr-SPARC) in the manifestation of the parasite in the host's intestine is postulated. The full-length cDNA of Sr-SPARC was identified and the protein was recombinantly expressed. The purified protein was biologically active, able to bind calcium, and to attach to mucosa-associated human cells. Addition of Sr-SPARC to an in vitro mucosal three-dimensional-cell culture model led to a time-dependent release of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-22, IL-10 and TSLP. Of importance, exposure with Sr-SPARC fostered wound closure in an intestinal epithelial cell model. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SPARC released from the nematode is a multifunctional protein affecting the mucosal immune system. PMID:27268729

  14. Disturbance in the Mucosa-Associated Commensal Bacteria Is Associated with the Exacerbation of Chronic Colitis by Repeated Psychological Stress; Is That the New Target of Probiotics?

    PubMed

    Arase, Sohei; Watanabe, Yohei; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagaoka, Noriko; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms underlying how psychological stress affects gut inflammation remain unclear. Here, we focused on the relationship between changes in the microbial community of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria (MACB) and mucosal immune responses induced by chronic psychological stress in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, we examined the effect of probiotic treatment on exacerbated colitis and MACB composition changes induced by chronic psychological stress. Repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) in B6-Tcra-/- mice severely exacerbated colitis, which was evaluated by both colorectal tissue weight and histological score of colitis. rWAS treatment increased mRNA expression of UCN2 and IFN-γ in large intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LI-LPMC). Interestingly, exacerbated colitis was associated with changes in the microbial community of MACB, specifically loss of bacterial species diversity and an increase in the component ratio of Clostridium, revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. Finally, the oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus strain was protective against the exacerbation of colitis and was associated with a change in the bacterial community of MACB in rWAS-exposed Tcra-/- mice. Taken together, these results suggested that loss of species diversity in MACB might play a key role in exacerbated colitis induced by chronic psychological stress. In addition, probiotic treatment may be used as a tool to preserve the diversity of bacterial species in MACB and alleviate gut inflammation induced by psychological stress. PMID:27500935

  15. Resolution rate of isolated low-grade hydronephrosis diagnosed within the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J.; McNamara, Erin R.; Nseyo, Unwanaobong; Wiener, John S.; Routh, Jonathan C.; Ross, Sherry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of low-grade hydronephrosis often occurs prenatally, during evaluation after urinary tract infection (UTI), or imaging for non-urologic reasons within the first year of life. Its significance in terms of resolution, need for antibiotic prophylaxis, or progression to surgery remains uncertain. We hypothesized that isolated low-grade hydronephrosis in this population frequently resolves, UTIs are infrequent, and progression to surgical intervention is minimal. Patients and methods Children <12 months old diagnosed hydronephrosis (Society for Fetal Urology [SFU] grade 1 or 2) between January 2004 and December 2009 were identified by ICD9 code. Patients with other urological abnormalities were excluded. Stability of hydronephrosis, UTI (≥100,000 CFU/mL bacterial growth) or need for surgical intervention was noted. Results Of 1496 infants with hydronephrosis, 416 (623 renal units) met inclusion criteria. Of 398 renal units with grade 1 hydronephrosis, 385 (96.7%) resolved or remained stable. Only 13 (3.3%) worsened, of which one underwent ureteroneocystostomy. Of 225 renal units with grade 2 hydro-nephrosis, 222 (98.7%) resolved, improved or remained stable, three (1.3%) worsened, of which one required pyeloplasty. Only 0.7% of patients in the ambulatory setting had a febrile UTI. Conclusions Low-grade hydronephrosis diagnosed within the first year of life remains stable or improves in 97.4% of renal units. Given the low rate of recurrent UTI in the ambulatory setting, antibiotic prophylaxis has a limited role in management. PMID:25185821

  16. Composite hemangioendothelioma and its classification as a low-grade malignancy.

    PubMed

    McNab, Patricia Moody; Quigley, Brian Christopher; Glass, L Frank; Jukic, Drazen M

    2013-06-01

    Hemangioendotheliomas are vascular neoplasms occupying a spectrum of biological potential ranging from benign to low-grade malignancy. Composite hemangioendothelioma (CH) is one of the less commonly encountered variants exhibiting a mixture of elements of other hemangioendothelioma subtypes, such as epithelioid, retiform, and spindle cell. Some authors have identified areas histopathologically equivalent to angiosarcoma within CH, raising the question of the true nature of this neoplasm. Although CH recurs locally, there are only 3 reported cases which metastasized. To date, 26 cases (including the present case) have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe a unique case of CH arising in the background of previous radiation therapy and long-standing lymphedema (classically associated with the development of angiosarcoma-Stewart-Treves syndrome) that harbored higher grade areas but behaved as a low-grade malignant neoplasm. This, in conjunction with the many reported cases of CH-harboring angiosarcoma-like areas, and the occasional association with a history of lymphedema, raises the question of whether this variant of hemangioendothelioma may actually be an angiosarcoma that behaves prognostically better than the conventional type. After careful study of the natural disease progression of the current case and review of the literature, we discuss justification for the continued classification of CH as a low-grade malignancy. PMID:23694827

  17. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland. PMID:20849631

  18. Low-grade inflammation in chronic diseases: an integrative pathophysiology anticipated by homeopathy?

    PubMed

    Adler, Ubiratan Cardinalli

    2011-05-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines and their chronic effect - low-grade inflammation - have been associated with diverse chronic conditions. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were recently proposed as a treatment strategy. Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, had already hypothesized a systemic and progressive disorder as the cause of many chronic diseases - the Psora theory. He also advised of the consequences of palliative use for chronic diseases, as a contrary effect of the "of the life-preserving principle" could worsen the course of those diseases. The hypotheses presented here are that the main aspects of Hahnemann's Psora theory are supported by current data on the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines and that the use of NSAIDs to treat chronic low-grade inflammation can produce a contrary, rebound effect, as anticipated by Hahnemann. By diverting from the "palliative action-rebound effect" course, not only homeopathy but integrative medicine could provide different approaches to the treatment of low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies assessing inflammatory markers in chronic integrative treatments are recommended. PMID:21277692

  19. Low-grade mucinous neoplasia in a cecal diverticulum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Kazuyoshi; Tokuhara, Katsuji; Sakaguchi, Tatsuma; Ryota, Hironori; Yoshioka, Kazuhiko; Kon, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-grade mucinous neoplasia is an uncommon benign tumor that develops in the appendix. The development of mucocele disease has never been reported in a colonic diverticulum. We present a case developing low-grade mucinous neoplasia in a cecal diverticulum. Presentation of case A tumor in the ileocecal region was found during a medical examination of a 66-year-old woman. Three months later, the tumor was still present and the patient developed abdominal pain. Laparoscopic ileocecal resection with D2 lymph node dissection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm in a cecal diverticulum. Discussion Colonic mucoceles reportedly originate from the appendix. There are no previous reports of mucocele disease in a colonic diverticulum worldwide. This report reviews and discusses the management of the appendiceal mucoceles. Conclusion The incidence of colonic diverticula has recently begun to increase in Japan. The possibility of a mucocele within a colonic diverticulum should be considered in patients with submucosal colonic tumors. PMID:26318130

  20. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Transformation of low grade glioma and correlation with outcome: an NCCTG database analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaeckle, K A; Decker, P A; Ballman, K V; Flynn, P J; Giannini, C; Scheithauer, B W; Jenkins, R B; Buckner, J C

    2011-08-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) may originate de novo (primary), or following transformation from a lower grade glioma (secondary), and it has been postulated that these tumors may have different biological behaviors. We performed a correlative analysis involving 204 patients with glioma treated prospectively on NCCTG clinical trials. Central pathology review of tumor tissues taken at the time of initial diagnosis and at recurrence were performed in all patients. Tumors progressed from low (WHO grade 2) to high (grade 3-4) at recurrence in 45% low grade oligodendroglioma patients, in 70% with low grade oligoastrocytoma, and 74% with low grade astrocytoma (P = 0.031). Median overall survival (OS) from initial diagnosis varied by histology: oligodendroglioma, 8.8 years; (95% CI 5.7-10.2); oligoastrocytoma, 4.4 years (95% CI 3.5-5.6); astrocytoma grade 2 3.1 years (astrocytoma grade 2-4, 2.1 years) (95% CI 1.7-2.5, P < 0.001). Mean time to recurrence (TTR) also varied between patients with de novo GBM, those secondary GBM, and those that remained non-GBM at recurrence (1.1 ± 1.1 vs. 2.9 ± 1.8 vs. 4.0 ± 2.9 years, respectively, P < 0.001). Median OS from time of recurrence also varied between these three categories (0.7 years, 95% CI: 0.5-1.1 vs. 0.6 years, CI: 0.5-1.0 vs. 1.4 years, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, respectively) (P < 0.001). At time of relapse, transformation to higher grade is frequent in low grade pure and mixed astrocytomas, but is observed in less than half of those with low grade oligodendroglioma. From time of recurrence, OS was not significantly different for those with primary versus secondary GBM, and it may thus be reasonable include patients with secondary GBM in clinical therapeutic trials for recurrent disease. PMID:21153680

  2. Development of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of immune effector cells that have important roles in host defense, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair but can also contribute to inflammatory diseases such as asthma and colitis. These cells can be categorized into three groups on the basis of the transcription factors that direct their function and the cytokines they produce, which parallel the effector functions of T lymphocytes. The hierarchy of cell-fate-restriction events that occur as common lymphoid progenitors become committed to each of the ILC lineages further underscores the relationship between these innate immune cells and T lymphocytes. In this Review we discuss the developmental program of ILCs and transcription factors that guide ILC lineage specification and commitment. PMID:27328007

  3. KRAS/BRAF Analysis in Ovarian Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Having Synchronous All Pathological Precursor Regions

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Minamoto, Toshiko; Sato, Emi; Sanuki, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Iida, Kouji; Sultana, Razia; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma is thought to begin as a serous cystadenoma or adenofibroma that progresses in a slow stepwise fashion. Among the low-grade serous carcinomas, there is a high frequency of activating mutations in the KRAS or BRAF genes; however, it remains unclear as to how these mutations contribute to tumor progression. This is the first report to track the histopathological progression of serous adenofibroma to low-grade serous carcinoma. Each stage was individually analyzed by pathological and molecular genetic methods to determine what differences occur between the distinct stages of progression. PMID:27128903

  4. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W; Krause, Denis O; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  5. The IL-17A-producing CD8+ T-cell population in psoriatic lesional skin comprises mucosa-associated invariant T cells and conventional T cells.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Marcel B M; Yeremenko, Nataliya G; Baeten, Dominique L P; Chielie, Saskia; Spuls, Phyllis I; de Rie, Menno A; Lantz, Olivier; Res, Pieter C M

    2014-12-01

    IL-17A is pivotal in the etiology of psoriasis, and CD8(+) T cells with the ability to produce this cytokine (Tc17 cells) are over-represented in psoriatic lesions. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood of psoriasis patients correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. Analysis of cutaneous-associated lymphocyte antigen expression showed that the blood Tc17 population contains a significantly higher proportion of cells with skin-homing potential compared with the CD8(+) T-cell population lacking IL-17A/IL-22 expression. IL-17A-producing CD8(+) T cells in blood have previously been reported to belong mainly to the mucosa-associated invariant T-cell (MAIT cell) lineage characterized by TCR Vα7.2 chain, CD161, IL-18Rα, and multidrug transporter ABCB1 expression. We demonstrate the presence of CD8(+) MAIT cells in the dermis and epidermis of psoriatic plaques, as well as healthy skin; however, IL-17A-producing CD8(+) MAIT cells were predominantly found in psoriatic skin. Notably, we observed IL-17A production in a large proportion of psoriatic plaque-derived CD8(+) T cells devoid of MAIT cell characteristics, likely representing conventional CD8(+) T cells. In conclusion, we provide supporting evidence that implicates Tc17 cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and describe the presence of innate CD8(+) MAIT cells in psoriatic lesions as an alternative source of IL-17A. PMID:24945094

  6. Hibernation alters the diversity and composition of mucosa-associated bacteria while enhancing antimicrobial defence in the gut of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Neil, Katie L; Zeng, Austin; Sprenger, Ryan J; Kurtz, Courtney C; Suen, Garret; Carey, Hannah V

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal nutrition and health. This relationship is particularly dynamic in hibernating mammals where fasting drives the gut community to rely on host-derived nutrients instead of exogenous substrates. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and caecal tissue protein analysis to investigate the effects of hibernation on the mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota and host responses in 13-lined ground squirrels. The mucosal microbiota was less diverse in winter hibernators than in actively feeding spring and summer squirrels. UniFrac analysis revealed distinct summer and late winter microbiota clusters, while spring and early winter clusters overlapped slightly, consistent with their transitional structures. Communities in all seasons were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with lesser contributions from Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes and Actinobacteria. Hibernators had lower relative abundances of Firmicutes, which include genera that prefer plant polysaccharides, and higher abundances of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, some of which can survive solely on host-derived mucins. A core mucosal assemblage of nine operational taxonomic units shared among all individuals was identified with an average total sequence abundance of 60.2%. This core community, together with moderate shifts in specific taxa, indicates that the mucosal microbiota remains relatively stable over the annual cycle yet responds to substrate changes while potentially serving as a pool for 'seeding' the microbiota once exogenous substrates return in spring. Relative to summer, hibernation reduced caecal crypt length and increased MUC2 expression in early winter and spring. Hibernation also decreased caecal TLR4 and increased TLR5 expression, suggesting a protective response that minimizes inflammation. PMID:25130694

  7. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W.; Krause, Denis O.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  8. Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Johannes; Krepler, Petra; Matzner, Michael; Grohs, Josef G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients with a minimum age of 60 years were scheduled for interlaminar decompression for clinically and radiologically confirmed lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty-two of these patients (group DS) with concomitant degenerative low-grade lumbar instability up to 5 mm translational slip were treated by interlaminar decompression and additional dynamic IS implantation. The control group (D) with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments included 28 patients and underwent only interlaminar decompression. The mean follow-up was 46 months in group D and 44 months in group DS. A visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and walking distance were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The segmental instability was evaluated in flexion-extension X-rays. The implantation of an IS significantly reduced the lumbar instability on flexion-extension X-rays. At the time of follow-up walking distance, VAS and ODI showed a significant improvement in both groups, but no statistical significance between groups D and DS. Four patients each in groups D and DS had revision surgery during the period of evaluation. The stabilising effect of dynamic IS in combination with interlaminar decompression offers an opportunity for an effective treatment for degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:20419452

  9. Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy for patients with previously untreated low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Soo-Young; Tran, Huong Thi Thanh; Park, Hyung Chul; Kim, Ha-Na; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical efficacy and safety of fludarabine combination chemotherapy was investigated for the treatment of previously untreated patients with low-grade (NHL). Methods Twenty-five patients who were newly diagnosed as low-grade NHL were treated with fludarabine combination chemotherapy. Fludarabine combination regimens consisted of fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone with or without rituximab and repeated every 4 weeks. Results The median age was 60 years (range, 35-77 years), with 13 of 25 patients (52%) ≥60 years of age. Seven of 25 patients (28%) with an intermediate risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) and 9 of 25 patients (36%) with a high risk FLIPI were enrolled in this study. The delivered median number of chemotherapy was six (range, 2-9 cycles). The overall response rate with fludarabine-based treatment was 88%, including 52% complete remission and 36% partial remission. During the median follow-up of 19 months, the estimated 2-year event-free survival was 63±10% (95% CI, 43-83) and the 2-year overall survival was 78±9% (95% CI, 60-96). Fludarabine combination chemotherapy was frequently associated with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 84% patients. However, neutropenic infection was observed in only one (4%) patient. Four patients (16%) showed grade 3 or more non-hematologic toxicities, such as acute coronary syndrome, intracranial hemorrhage, anaphylaxis and gastric cancer. Conclusion Fludarabine-combination treatment was a highly active regimen with well toleration in untreated low-grade NHL. PMID:22065973

  10. The life and times of low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, David M

    2013-01-01

    For the past several years, all women with epithelial ovarian cancer have been treated identically, whether in a clinical trial or off protocol. Over the past decade, we have come to appreciate the magnitude of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer. The development of the binary grading system for serous carcinoma was a major advance, leading to separate clinical trials for patients with this subtype, originating from the Gynecologic Oncology Group's Rare Tumor Committee. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway appears to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this subtype. Approximately 20% to 40% of low-grade serous carcinomas have a KRAS mutation, while BRAF mutations are rare-approximately 5%. In genomic profiling studies, these tumors appear to cluster with serous tumors of low malignant potential. Compared with high-grade serous carcinomas, low-grade serous carcinomas are also characterized by a low frequency of p53 mutations, greater expression of ER and PR, and greater expression of PAX2 and IGF-1. Primary treatment of low-grade serous carcinoma includes surgery plus platinum-based chemotherapy (either adjuvant or neoadjuvant). Clinical behavior is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged overall survival. Current options for treatment of relapsed disease include secondary cytoreduction in selected patients, salvage chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. A recently completed trial of a MEK inhibitor for women with recurrent disease demonstrated promising activity. Future directions will include further investigations of the molecular biology and biomarker-driven clinical trials with targeted agent monotherapy and combinations. PMID:23714500

  11. Dietary Phthalates and Low-Grade Albuminuria in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Low-grade albuminuria is an indicator of endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A graded level of exposure to bisphenol A was recently identified to be associated with increased risk of low-grade albuminuria in children and adults. Because bisphenol A and phthalates coexist as dietary contaminants, this study investigated whether exposure to phthalates is also associated with low-grade albuminuria. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were examined from 667 children who participated in the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had results for urinary phthalate metabolites and albumin excretion. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were measured in a first morning specimen using a solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay and a Roche/Hitachi Modular P Chemistry Analyzer with an enzymatic method, respectively. Phthalate metabolites were analyzed in a separate spot urine sample from each participant, using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy. Results For each (roughly) 3-fold increase in metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (a high molecular weight phthalate commonly found in foods), a 0.55 mg/g increase in albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was identified (P=0.02), whereas a 1.30-fold odds of a higher ACR quartile was also identified for each (roughly) 3-fold increase (P=0.02). Higher ACR was not identified in relationship to metabolites of lower molecular phthalates commonly found in lotions or shampoos, suggesting specificity. Conclusions Although reverse causation and unmeasured confounders represent alternative explanations, these findings, in conjunction with our earlier data on bisphenol A, indicate that a wide array of environmental toxins may adversely affect albuminuria and potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the potential long-term health implications of ongoing exposure in

  12. Is seborrhoeic dermatitis associated with a diffuse, low-grade folliculitis and progressive cicatricial alopecia?

    PubMed

    Pitney, Lucy; Weedon, David; Pitney, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An association between adult scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and cicatricial hair loss has not previously been convincingly established. This study seeks to demonstrate a unique relationship between a clinically identifiable chronic scalp dermatitis-folliculitis with the characteristic histological features of low-grade inflammatory fibrosing alopecia, resulting in a distinctive progressive cicatricial alopecia which we believe is prevalent and hitherto unrecognised, and befits the description of seborrhoeic folliculitis. The clinical, epidemiological and histopathological features of seborrhoeic folliculitis are demonstrated to establish its unique status among the disorders of adult diffuse cicatricial alopecia. PMID:25753934

  13. Low-grade infection after a total knee arthroplasty caused by Actinomyces naeslundii.

    PubMed

    Hedke, J; Skripitz, R; Ellenrieder, M; Frickmann, H; Köller, T; Podbielski, A; Mittelmeier, W

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a case of an 85-year-old woman with a low-grade-infection caused by Actinomyces naeslundii after total-knee arthroplasty (TKA) followed by septic loosening. Actinomyces naeslundii was cultured from a tissue sample from the knee joint capsule/synovial tissue obtained after the initial TKA. A review of the literature revealed two cases of periprosthetic infection and another three cases of arthritis due to Actinomyces naeslundii. So far, no standard treatment for periprosthetic infections caused by Actinomyces species has been established. PMID:22556326

  14. Selective instrumentation, reduction and repair in low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Morelos, Oscar; Pozzo, Alfredo O

    2004-06-01

    We treated 32 patients with low-grade (<30%) isthmic spondylolisthesis at L5-S1 with selective instrumentation, reduction of the slip, resection of the pseudoarthrosis adding autologous bone grafting and decompressing the root canal. The ages ranged from 18 to 54 years. After a mean of 3.4 (1-7) years, we found good radiological and clinical results in 27 patients. Five patients lost correction, of whom three were asymptomatic whereas two required fusion of L5-S1. We think this technique is a useful surgical option for select patients. PMID:14727083

  15. Fluidized bed combustion of solid organic wastes and low-grade coals: Research and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.; Stanchits, L.K.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental studies were carried out to investigate devolatilization and combustion of single spherical particles of wood, hydrolytic lignin from ethanol production, leather processing sewage sludge, and low-grade Belarusian brown coals in a fluidized bed of sand. A two-phase model of fluidized bed combustion of biowaste is proposed. The model takes into account combustion of both volatiles and char in the bed as well as in the freeboard. Experimentally obtained characteristics of devolatilization and char combustion are used as parameters of the model proposed.

  16. Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Bourg, V; Ramaioli, A; Chanalet, S; Vandenbos, F; Lonjon, M; Fauchon, F; Paquis, P; Frenay, M

    2007-04-01

    Based on studies relating to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OG) chemosensitivity and benefit of time to progression or overall survival, chemotherapy for pure OG has been proposed. Several studies have reported the efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents in a small number of patients with low-grade gliomas, e.g. pure astrocytomas, OG or mixed histologies. The 5-year survival rate varies from 61% to 89% with a mean time to progression of 5 years. We report the outcome of 33 consecutive patients with pure low-grade OG diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 systematically treated for residual or non-removable tumor with PCV chemotherapy regimen as the front-line treatment after surgery. All the tumors were low grade (grade II) pure OG according to the WHO classification. All patients were symptomatic at presentation and underwent neurosurgical procedure for histological diagnosis. Response was evaluated by clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one men and 12 women with a mean age at pathological diagnosis of 46.5 years were studied. The most common first symptom was partial epileptic seizure (73.7%). Six patients (18%) had initial gadolinium enhancement, associated with methoxyisobutyl (MIBI) hypermetabolism (P < 0.001). The resection was partial in seven cases (21%), and 26 patients (79%) had biopsy only. Eleven patients (36%) had a malignant transformation during the follow-up with a median time to progression of 19 months. Favorable prognostic factors were lack of contrast enhancement (P < 0.0001), and age <40 years (P < 0.0003); 90% of patients were progression-free at 1 year. Survival rates at 2, 5 and 10 years were 85%, 75% and 50%, respectively. Up-front chemotherapy with PCV regimen is a good treatment for symptomatic pure low-grade OG, as it increases the number of progression-free patients and time to progression. These results suggest that radiotherapy could be postponed until the malignant transformation occurs to delay cognitive

  17. Effect of desliming on the magnetic separation of low-grade ferruginous manganese ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Banerjee, P. K.; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-07-01

    In the present investigation, magnetic separation studies using an induced roll magnetic separator were conducted to beneficiate low-grade ferruginous manganese ore. The feed ore was assayed to contain 22.4% Mn and 35.9% SiO2, with a manganese-to-iron mass ratio (Mn:Fe ratio) of 1.6. This ore was characterized in detail using different techniques, including quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that the ore is extremely siliceous in nature and that the associated gangue minerals are more or less evenly distributed in almost all of the size fractions in major proportion. Magnetic separation studies were conducted on both the as-received ore fines and the classified fines to enrich their manganese content and Mn:Fe ratio. The results indicated that the efficiency of separation for deslimed fines was better than that for the treated unclassified bulk sample. On the basis of these results, we proposed a process flow sheet for the beneficiation of low-grade manganese ore fines using a Floatex density separator as a pre-concentrator followed by two-stage magnetic separation. The overall recovery of manganese in the final product from the proposed flow sheet is 44.7% with an assay value of 45.8% and the Mn:Fe ratio of 3.1.

  18. Tectonic setting of the low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Orogen, central eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shutong; Wu, Weiping; Lu, Yiqun; Wang, Dehua

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic setting on both the northern and southern sides of the Dabie Mountains reveals that low-grade metamorphic rocks are important constituents produced by the subduction of the oceanic crust prior to collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Zhangbaling Group/Mulanshan schist is a pre-Ordovician oceanic crust. The Sujiahe and Xinyang/Foziling Groups are trench sediments of the Ordovician-Devonian age, and constitute an accretionary prism associated with subduction. The Yangshan coal measures/Meishan Group was a forearc basin sediment of Carboniferous age, and was overthrust by the accretionary prism during collision. The Susong Group is composed of passive continental margin sediments of the Yangtze craton. Backarc basin sediments are postulated to be concealed by Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments to the north of the Dabie Mountains. High-ultrahigh pressure terrains are exotic tectonic slices exhumed from depths, located between low-grade metamorphic rocks, and disturb the integrity of the earlier subduction orogen. Subduction occurred during the Ordovician to Devonian periods, and collision initiated at the beginning of the Permian.

  19. Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Santacreu, Eugenio M.; Ortiz-Cruz, Eduardo J.; González-López, José Manuel; Pérez Fernández, Elia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the validity of clinical and radiological features of enchondroma and low grade chondrosarcoma, and contrast the biopsy results with the clinical diagnosis based on the history and imaging. Material and Method. The study included 96 patients with cartilage type lesions suggestive of an enchondroma (E) or an low grade chondrosarcoma (LGC) according to the clinical and imaging data. The hypotheses were contrasted with the biopsy. Results. Of the 82 patients studied completely, 56 were considered E (68.29%), 8 as LGC (8.33%) and in 18 (18.75%) were doubtful cases and considered as suspected LGC. Of these, the biopsy showed 4 E (25%), 10 LGC (50%) and 4 were not definitive. On the other hand, of the 56 cases diagnosed as E, 15 were biopsied, 5 of these biopsies turned out to be LGC (33.3%). The 8 cases diagnosed as LGC, were also biopsied and only 4 biopsies (50%) confirmed the initial diagnosis. Features analyzed in the study showed no statistically significant difference. Correlation analysis between the diagnosis issued initially and the biopsy result gave a value of 0.69 (kappa coefficient), which was considered a good correlation. Conclusion. Features analyzed did not have any statistical significance. However, there was a good correlation between initial diagnosis and biopsy's result. PMID:22593766

  20. Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. δ13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

  1. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-08-01

    for promotion of or protection against asthma and allergies. Therefore, preventive initiatives to restore immune health, such as vitamin D supplementation, should be directed to the fetus and the earliest postnatal life. The eosinophil granulocyte has a major role in the allergic inflammatory cascade and eosinophilia is considered a hallmark of many allergic phenotypes. In paper III, we examined neonatal urinary biomarkers including eosinophil protein X (u-EPX), which is contained in the eosinophil granules. Elevated u-EPX in asymptomatic neonates was associated with development of allergic sensitization and nasal eosinophilia, but not with wheezing or asthma (III). These findings suggest the presence of an ongoing low-grade disease process in early life characterized by eosinophil activation prior to appearance of allergy-related conditions. In papers IV-V, we investigated perinatal and genetic predictors of neonatal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the relationship between neonatal FeNO and wheezing later in child-hood. The a priori selected determinants encompassed asthma genetic risk variants, anthropometrics, demographics, socioeconomics, parental asthma and allergy, maternal smoking, paracetamol and antibiotic usage during pregnancy, and neonatal bacterial airway colonization. Among those, only the DENND1B risk allele and paternal history of asthma and allergy were associated with increased FeNO values (V) suggesting that raised FeNO in neonatal life is primarily an inherited trait. The neonatal FeNO levels were widely dispersed (1-67 ppb) and children with values in the upper quartile were at increased risk of recurrent wheezing in early childhood, but not persistent wheezing, reduced lung function or allergy-related endpoints (IV). This suggests that elevated neonatal FeNO represents an early asymptomatic low-grade disease process other than congenitally small airway calibre contributing to a transient wheezing phenotype. Reduced lung function in

  2. Anatomical Involvement of the Subventricular Zone Predicts Poor Survival Outcome in Low-Grade Astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Ma, Jun; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) has been implicated in the origination, development, and biological behavior of gliomas. Tumor-SVZ contact is also postulated to be a poor prognostic factor in glioblastomas. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic consequence of the anatomical involvement of low-grade gliomas with the SVZ. To that end, we reviewed 143 patients with diffuse astrocytomas, and tumor lesions were manually delineated on magnetic resonance images. We initially investigated the prognostic role of SVZ contact in all patients. Additionally, we investigated the influence of the anatomical proximity of the tumor lesion centroids to the SVZ in the SVZ-involved patient cohorts, as well as location within the SVZ. We found SVZ contact with tumors to be a significant prognostic factor of overall survival in all patients with diffuse astrocytomas (p = 0.027). In the SVZ-involved cohort, a shorter distance from the tumor centroid to the SVZ (≤30 mm) correlated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.022) on univariate analysis. However, there was no significant difference in overall survival with respect to the SVZ region involved with the tumor (p = 0.930). Multivariate analysis showed that a shorter distance between the tumor centroid and the SVZ (p = 0.039) was significantly associated with poor overall survival in SVZ-involved patients. Hence, this study helps establish the prognostic role of the anatomical interaction of tumors with the SVZ in low-grade astrocytomas. PMID:27120204

  3. Does chemotherapy have a role in low-grade astrocytoma management? A report of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Castello, M A; Schiavetti, A; Padula, A; Varrasso, G; Properzi, E; Trasimeni, G; Operamolla, P; Gualdi, G F; Clerico, A

    1995-08-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice for low-grade astrocytoma while radiotherapy is carried out only when total resection is not possible. This study assessed the effectiveness of chemotherapy in nonresectable cases. Thirteen children with nonresectable astrocytoma were treated with carboplatin and etoposide and after four cycles the response to treatment was evaluated according to radiologic criteria. The results were: one with complete response (CR), three with minor response (MR), six with stable disease (SD), and three with progressive disease (PD). Moreover, in 77% there was an improvement in the neurologic picture. In particular, two cases with hypothalamic astrocytoma showed a regression of the diencephalic syndrome following chemotherapy. In six cases chemotherapy was carried out, at reduced dosage, after the first four cycles either because there was clinical improvement or because it was necessary to postpone radiotherapy in very young patients. After a follow-up period ranging between 11 and 63 months (average: 30 months), nine of the 13 patients are alive (69%) while four died of disease progression. Further studies would be useful to evaluate the role of chemotherapy in the management of low-grade astrocytoma. PMID:7603393

  4. Neurocognitive effects of proton radiation therapy in adults with low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Janet Cohen; Colvin, Mary K; Mancuso, Sarah M; Batchelor, Tracy T; Oh, Kevin S; Loeffler, Jay S; Yeap, Beow Y; Shih, Helen A

    2016-01-01

    To understand neurocognitive effects of proton radiation therapy (PRT) in patients with low-grade glioma, we evaluated 20 patients who received this therapy prospectively and over 5 years with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. 20 patients were evaluated at baseline and at yearly intervals for up to 5 years with a battery of neuropsychological measures that assessed intellectual, attention, executive, visuospatial and memory functions as well as mood and functional status. We evaluated change in cognitive functioning over time. We analyzed the relationship between cognitive performance and tumor location and also examined whether patients' performance differed from that reported in a study of normative practice effects. Overall, patients exhibited stability in cognitive functioning. Tumor location played a role in performance; those with tumors in the left hemisphere versus in the right hemisphere were more impaired at baseline on verbal measures (p < .05). However, we found greater improvement in verbal memory over time in patients with left than with right hemisphere tumors (p < .05). Results of our study, the first to investigate, in depth, neurocognitive effects of PRT in adults with low-grade gliomas, are promising. We hypothesize that the conformal advantage of PRT may contribute to preservation of cognitive functioning, although larger sample sizes and a longer period of study are required. Our study also highlights the need to consider normative practice effects when studying neurocognitive functioning in response to treatment over time, and the need to utilize comprehensive neuropsychological batteries given our findings that differentiate patients with left and right hemisphere tumors. PMID:26498439

  5. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

  6. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

  7. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63−/4− redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  8. Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wiencke, John K.; Zheng, Shichun; Jelluma, Nanette; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott; Tamgüney, Tanja; Baumber, Rachel; Parsons, Ramon; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne Adele; Stokoe, David

    2007-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas. Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics. PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors. Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs. Methylation of the PTEN promoter correlates with protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation, reflecting functional activation of the PI3K pathway. Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors. PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations. We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients. PMID:17504928

  9. Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Zheng, Shichun; Jelluma, Nanette; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott; Tamgüney, Tanja; Baumber, Rachel; Parsons, Ramon; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Berger, Mitchel S; Wrensch, Margaret R; Haas-Kogan, Daphne Adele; Stokoe, David

    2007-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas. Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics. PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors. Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs. Methylation of the PTEN promoter correlates with protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation, reflecting functional activation of the PI3K pathway. Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors. PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations. We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients. PMID:17504928

  10. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.

    PubMed

    Minihane, Anne M; Vinoy, Sophie; Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Roche, Helen M; Tuohy, Kieran M; Teeling, Jessica L; Blaak, Ellen E; Fenech, Michael; Vauzour, David; McArdle, Harry J; Kremer, Bas H A; Sterkman, Luc; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Williams, Christine M; Calder, Philip C

    2015-10-14

    The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled 'Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies'. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation-health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims. PMID:26228057

  11. Low-grade inflammation disrupts structural plasticity in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C; Kelemen, O; Kéri, S

    2014-09-01

    Increased low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by decreased neuronal plasticity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between structural changes in the human brain during cognitive training and the intensity of low-grade peripheral inflammation in healthy individuals (n=56). A two-month training (30 min/day) with a platformer video game resulted in a significantly increased volume of the right hippocampal formation. The number of stressful life events experienced during the past year was associated with less pronounced enlargement of the hippocampus. However, the main predictor of hippocampal volume expansion was the relative peripheral expression of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor playing a central role in the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein levels were not related to hippocampal plasticity when NF-κB was taken into consideration. These results suggest that more intensive peripheral inflammation is associated with weaker neuronal plasticity during cognitive training. PMID:24929068

  12. Optimization of Fluidized Roasting Reduction of Low-Grade Pyrolusite Using Biogas Residual as Reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z. L.; Feng, Y. L.; Li, H. R.; Liu, X. W.; Yang, Z. C.

    2012-11-01

    Research on the novel technology of fluidized roasting reduction of samples of low-grade pyrolusite using biogas residual as reductant has been conducted. According to the response surface design and the analysis of results, orthogonal experiments have been conducted on the major factors, and the effects on the manganese reduction efficiency have been studied. The maximum manganese reduction efficiency could be optimized to nearly 100%, when the mass ratio of biogas residual to pyrolusite was 0.16:1, the dosage of sulfuric acid was 1.6 times that of the stoichiometric amount, the roasting temperature was 680°C, and the roasting time was 70 min. The results in terms of manganese reduction efficiency of the actual experiments were close to those anticipated by modeling the experiments, indicating that the optimum conditions had a high reliability. Other low-grade pyrolusites such as Guangxi pyrolusite (China), Hunan pyrolusite (China), and Guizhou pyrolusite (China) were tested and all these materials responded well, giving nearly 100% manganese reduction efficiency.

  13. Treatment of refractory low grade lymphoma with chlorambucil alternating with interferon and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Talavera, A; Guzmán, R; Cuadra, I

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of a clinical trial of chlorambucil (CB) alternating with interferon alfa 2b (IFN) in previously treated patients with low-grade lymphoma who were refractory to previous treatment. Patients received CB 10 mg/m2, po, daily, days 1-14, alternating with IFN 5.0 MU three times a week days 15-28 (six doses) by six monthly cycles. If partial response was achieved, patients received extended field radiotherapy to sites of nodal residual postchemotherapy disease. Forty-three patients were enrolled into the study, and 30 were evaluable for response and toxicity. Nineteen out of 39 (40%) achieved complete remission and 14 out of 39 (35%) had partial remission, thus the overall response was observed in 83% of the cases. Ten patients with partial response and residual nodal disease received radiotherapy and achieved complete response criteria. The median duration of response has not been achieved, yet, 23 patients remain in complete response after a median follow-up of 98.5 months. Toxicity was mild and 95% of the patients received the planned dose of CB and IFN. These results suggest that combination of CB and IFN and addition of radiotherapy to residual postchemotherapy nodal disease may be effective in patients with low-grade lymphoma without excessive toxicity and adequate quality of life. PMID:8590892

  14. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-01

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials. PMID:26258439

  15. Simultaneous Purification and Perforation of Low-Grade Si Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Bin; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zong, Linqi; Zhu, Jia

    2015-11-11

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes because of its abundance and high theoretical capacity. Various silicon nanostructures have been heavily investigated to improve electrochemical performance by addressing issues related to structure fracture and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). However, to further enable widespread applications, scalable and cost-effective processes need to be developed to produce these nanostructures at large quantity with finely controlled structures and morphologies. In this study, we develop a scalable and low cost process to produce porous silicon directly from low grade silicon through ball-milling and modified metal-assisted chemical etching. The morphology of porous silicon can be drastically changed from porous-network to nanowire-array by adjusting the component in reaction solutions. Meanwhile, this perforation process can also effectively remove the impurities and, therefore, increase Si purity (up to 99.4%) significantly from low-grade and low-cost ferrosilicon (purity of 83.4%) sources. The electrochemical examinations indicate that these porous silicon structures with carbon treatment can deliver a stable capacity of 1287 mAh g(-1) over 100 cycles at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This type of purified porous silicon with finely controlled morphology, produced by a scalable and cost-effective fabrication process, can also serve as promising candidates for many other energy applications, such as thermoelectrics and solar energy conversion devices. PMID:26492222

  16. Mineralogical and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Iron Ore Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, R. K.; Rao, D. S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out, to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation. Mineralogical studies, with the help of microscope as well as XRD, SEM-EDS revealed that the sample consists of magnetite, hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as quartz and kaolinite form the gangue minerals in the sample. Processes involving combination of classification, dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product. The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible. The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator. Dry beneficiation studies by Permaroll separator indicated that it is possible to get a product with 60.2 % Fe at 22 % weight recovery. It is possible to get an over all concentrate with 54 % Fe at 32.4 % weight recovery by combination of size reduction followed by LIMS and WHIMS.

  17. Upgrading of Low-Grade Manganese Ore by Selective Reduction of Iron Oxide and Magnetic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yubo; Olivas-Martinez, M.; Sohn, H. Y.; Kim, Hang Goo; Kim, Chan Wook

    2012-12-01

    The utilization of low-grade manganese ores has become necessary due to the intensive mining of high-grade ores for a long time. In this study, calcined ferruginous low-grade manganese ore was selectively reduced by CO, which converted hematite to magnetite, while manganese oxide was reduced to MnO. The iron-rich component was then separated by magnetic separation. The effects of the various reduction parameters such as particle size, reduction time, temperature, and CO content on the efficiency of magnetic separation were studied by single-factor experiments and by a comprehensive full factorial experiment. Under the best experimental conditions tested, the manganese content in the ore increased from around 36 wt pct to more than 44 wt pct, and almost 50 wt pct of iron was removed at a Mn loss of around 5 pct. The results of the full factorial experiments allowed the identification of the significant effects and yielded regression equations for pct Fe removed, Mn/Fe, and pct Mn loss that characterize the efficiency of the upgrading process.

  18. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Kamali, Mahtab; Gibbs, Bernard F

    2004-07-01

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient, economic technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulfuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition, different auxiliary processes were evaluated in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron co-dissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. PMID:15177728

  19. Adult Supratentorial Low-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Experience at a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, Glenn; Fisher, Barbara; Watling, Christopher; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Macdonald, David

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. Results: With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Conclusion: Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.

  20. Mouse low-grade gliomas contain cancer stem cells with unique molecular and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hsien; McGowan, Lucy D'Agostino; Cimino, Patrick J; Dahiya, Sonika; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Da Yong; Gutmann, David H

    2015-03-24

    The availability of adult malignant glioma stem cells (GSCs) has provided unprecedented opportunities to identify the mechanisms underlying treatment resistance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of comparable reagents for the study of pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG). Leveraging a neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) genetically engineered mouse LGG model, we report the isolation of CD133(+) multi-potent low-grade glioma stem cells (LG-GSCs), which generate glioma-like lesions histologically similar to the parent tumor following injection into immunocompetent hosts. In addition, we demonstrate that these LG-GSCs harbor selective resistance to currently employed conventional and biologically targeted anti-cancer agents, which reflect the acquisition of new targetable signaling pathway abnormalities. Using transcriptomic analysis to identify additional molecular properties, we discovered that mouse and human LG-GSCs harbor high levels of Abcg1 expression critical for protecting against ER-stress-induced mouse LG-GSC apoptosis. Collectively, these findings establish that LGG cancer stem cells have unique molecular and functional properties relevant to brain cancer treatment. PMID:25772366

  1. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

    2013-06-01

    The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

  2. Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of

  3. Epithelial Control of Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Formation through p38α-Dependent Restraint of NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Franco, Celia; Guma, Monica; Choo, Min-Kyung; Sano, Yasuyo; Enzler, Thomas; Karin, Michael; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Park, Jin Mo

    2016-03-01

    The protein kinase p38α mediates cellular responses to environmental and endogenous cues that direct tissue homeostasis and immune responses. Studies of mice lacking p38α in several different cell types have demonstrated that p38α signaling is essential to maintaining the proliferation-differentiation balance in developing and steady-state tissues. The mechanisms underlying these roles involve cell-autonomous control of signaling and gene expression by p38α. In this study, we show that p38α regulates gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) formation in a noncell-autonomous manner. From an investigation of mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of the p38α gene, we find that p38α serves to limit NF-κB signaling and thereby attenuate GALT-promoting chemokine expression in the intestinal epithelium. Loss of this regulation results in GALT hyperplasia and, in some animals, mucosa-associated B cell lymphoma. These anomalies occur independently of luminal microbial stimuli and are most likely driven by direct epithelial-lymphoid interactions. Our study illustrates a novel p38α-dependent mechanism preventing excessive generation of epithelial-derived signals that drive lymphoid tissue overgrowth and malignancy. PMID:26792803

  4. Human leukocyte antigen-G overexpression predicts poor clinical outcomes in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-05-15

    Overexpression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class-I molecule associated with immunosuppression, has been reported in various human malignancies. In the present study, we examined the role of HLA-G in gliomas. Clinical characteristics, mRNA expression microarrays and follow-up data pertaining to 293 patients with histologically confirmed gliomas were analyzed. The expression levels of HLA-G were compared between different grades of gliomas and correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) to evaluate its prognostic value. We found that HLA-G was overexpressed in gliomas as compared to that in normal brain tissue samples (-1.288±0.265). The highest expression levels were in glioblastomas (GBMs), anaplastic gliomas (AGs) and low-grade gliomas (LGGs), in that order (0.328±0.778, 0.176±0.881, -0.388±0.686, respectively). Significant inter-group differences were observed between low-grade and high-grade glioma tissues (p<0.001 and p<0.001, t-test, AGs and GBMs, respectively). More astrocytoma patients exhibited increased HLA-G expression as compared to other LGG patients (p=0.004, Chi-square test). Significant differences were observed with respect to PFS and OS (p=0.009 and 0.032, log-rank test, for PFS and OS, respectively) between the high- and low-expression subgroups in patients with LGGs. On Cox regression analysis, overexpression of HLA-G appeared to be an independent predictor of clinical outcomes (p=0.007 and 0.026, for PFS and OS, respectively). Our results suggest that HLA-G expression may serve as a potential biomarker for predicting aggressive tumor grades of gliomas and for histological subtype of LGGs. Elevated HLA-G expression could serve as an independent predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients with low-grade gliomas. PMID:27138095

  5. Cognitive outcomes among survivors of focal low-grade brainstem tumors diagnosed in childhood.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kellie N; Ashford, Jason M; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S; Klimo, Paul; Merchant, Thomas E; Billups, Catherine A; Conklin, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Pediatric focal low-grade brainstem tumors are associated with excellent prognosis. Surgical resection and conformal radiation therapy are front-line treatment options; radiation therapy (RT) serves as an excellent treatment for disease progression. Given high survival rates and limited research regarding functional outcomes, the current study examined neurocognitive outcomes in a group of low-grade brainstem glioma survivors. Forty-three survivors of focal low-grade brainstem gliomas underwent neurocognitive assessment (58 % male; median = 6.9 years at diagnosis; median = 14.9 years at latest assessment). Treatment included combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and RT with 70 % ultimately receiving RT. Neurocognitive outcomes were evaluated through retrospective chart review. Intellectual and academic performance were significantly different from normative expectations (full scale IQ = 86.5 ± 16.8; reading comprehension = 91.3 ± 16.4; math reasoning = 88.2 ± 18.9; reference group = 100 ± 15). Further, the percentage performing below average exceeded the expected 16 % in the normative sample (full scale IQ = 43 %; reading comprehension = 37 %; math reasoning = 50 %). Mean parent ratings did not reflect concerns regarding internalizing and externalizing behaviors or executive functioning (internalizing = 54.9 ± 12.7; externalizing = 51.6 ± 14.6, global executive composite = 57.1 ± 16.0; reference group = 50 ± 10); however, the proportion with clinically elevated scores was higher than the expected 16 % (internalizing = 42 %; externalizing = 26 %; global executive composite = 38 %). Mean performance fell below average for visual-motor coordination (81.8 ± 13.2) and parent ratings of adaptive functioning (73.4 ± 24.2), with 65 and 62 % falling outside the average range, respectively. There were no significant differences between

  6. African American men with low-grade prostate cancer have increased disease recurrence after prostatectomy compared with Caucasian men

    PubMed Central

    Yamoah, Kosj; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Spangler, Elaine; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Malkowicz, Bruce; Lee, David I.; Kattan, Michael; Dicker, Adam P.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African-American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) and similar Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP) METHODS The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA, and 1,031 CS) who met National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN) criteria for low-intermediate risk PCa and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA, and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race impacted FFbF in men with prostatectomy-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S score. RESULTS With a median follow up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (p=0.035). There was no significant difference in ≥1 adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P =0.35) or CAPRA-S score (p=0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (p=0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.08–3.72; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:25304288

  7. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  8. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-25

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  9. Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma involving the cervix mimicking a cervical primary.

    PubMed

    Malpica, Anais; Deavers, Michael T

    2011-11-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of the first reported case of an ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma metastatic to the cervix mimicking a cervical primary. The patient, a 55-year-old woman, was found to have an abnormal cervix and an abnormal Pap smear during a preoperative workup for a rectocele repair. A subsequent cervical biopsy contained moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and the patient underwent a cold knife conization. An infiltrating adenocarcinoma was found in the anterior cervical lip, the neoplasm reached the surface of the endocervical canal and was composed of mildly to moderately atypical, eosinophilic or amphophilic columnar cells arranged in glands and papillae. Mitotic figures were rare and no apoptotic bodies were seen. Psammoma bodies and intraglandular mucinous material were also noted. There was extensive vascular/lymphatic invasion. The tumor extended to all margins and was interpreted as a moderately differentiated (grade 2) adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with a linear spread of at least 1.4 cm and a depth of at least 0.6 cm (FIGO stage 1B1). The patient was treated with radiotherapy and cisplatin. Six months later, surveillance imaging studies showed that the patient's ovaries seemed to be enlarging. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, right pelvic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, and pelvic washings. The ovaries contained bilateral cystic tumors. There was gross tumor involving multiple peritoneal sites. Microscopic examination of the ovaries showed the typical features of low-grade serous carcinoma associated with a serous neoplasm of low malignant potential with a cribriform pattern. Metastatic low-grade serous carcinoma was detected in multiple peritoneal sites and in the pelvic washings. A consultation was obtained, with the consultant concurring that the tumors represented independent primaries. The patient received

  10. Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vidhi, Rachana; Goswami, Yogi D.; Chen, Huijuan; Stefanakos, Elias; Kuravi, Sarada; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-01-01

    Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

  11. Principles of Treatment for Borderline, Micropapillary Serous, and Low-Grade Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Kari E; Uppal, Shitanshu; Johnston, Carolyn

    2016-09-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are less common than epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Low-grade EOCs (LG-EOCs) occur even less frequently than BOTs. After primary therapy, recurrence rates of BOTs and LG-EOCs are significantly lower and the stage-adjusted survival is higher than for high-grade EOCs. Thus, determining the best management in terms of traditional ovarian cancer staging and debulking procedures is more challenging and has been recently brought to question. This article reviews the particulars of BOTs and LG-EOCs, their similarities and differences, and how they are best managed and treated, and emphasizes the major role of surgery and the controversial role of chemotherapy. Because these tumors disproportionately affect younger women, this review addresses ovarian preservation in circumstances when fertility or hormonal preservation is desired. PMID:27587627

  12. A Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Koide, Kei; Arita, Michinori; Kawaguchi, Koji; Mikuriya, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Jun; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor, with a benign histologic appearance but malignant behavior. This report describes a 74-year-old man with an internal abdominal oblique muscle mass. The tumor appeared as a well-defined ovoid mass on computed tomography, with mild uptake on fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography images. Radical resection with wide safe margins was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells in a whorled growth pattern, with alternating fibrous and myxoid stroma. MUC4 expression, a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, was detected. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as LGFMS. At the 3-month follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or metastasis. We report the first case of LGFMS arising from the internal abdominal oblique muscle. PMID:27247823

  13. Low-Grade Myofibroblastic Sarcoma in the Mandibular Canal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yueyuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Lan; Yang, Guiqiang

    2016-07-01

    Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) represents an atypical myofibroblastic tumor characterized by a diffusely infiltrating pattern of spindle-shaped tumor cells. It was classified as a distinct soft tissue tumor by the World Health Organization in 2002. LGMS occurs mostly in adult patients and has a predilection for the head and neck region. So far, only a few cases of LGMS located in the mandible have been reported. Aggressive surgical resection with clear margins is the primary treatment for LGMS. Because of its rarity, reports of radiation therapy are limited, and the therapeutic effect is still controversial. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with LGMS of the mandibular canal to highlight the clinical features and rarity and to improve the understanding of the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy on LGMS. PMID:27020841

  14. Human papillomavirus infection in couples with female low-grade intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    PubMed

    Simon, Philippe; Roumeguere, Thierry; Christophe Noël, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are frequently found during cervical cancer screening. Usually they are associated with a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Does the high-transmission rate of HPV infection to the male partner represent a clinical risk for him? Are preventive measures to be taken to prevent the occurrence of male diseases? More than 80% of all LSIL are associated with HPV infections. The prevalence of HPV infection in males can range up to 40%, with 60% of the male partners of LSIL female patients presenting with penile flat lesions. The spontaneous cure rate for male infections is very high (90% at 5 years) but negative consequences in females (cervical high-grade lesion and cervical cancer) are frequent. Their male counterparts are far rarer but in some patients can require deleterious treatment. Transmission prevention by the use of condoms and circumcision is discussed. The effectiveness of HPV vaccination in this situation has not been validated. PMID:20646823

  15. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Mei; Yang, Shumin; Li, Qifu

    2014-01-01

    Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders. PMID:25143667

  16. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma involving the mandible: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kanad; Kasimsetty, Chatura Ramakantha; Lingappa, Ashok; Gujjar, Pramod Vittobarao

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma with a high metastasizing potential and is characterized by a long interval between tumor presentation and metastasis. LGFMS involving the maxillofacial region is a very rare entity with only six cases reported till date. LGFMS is characterized by its benign histological appearance, with spindle cells in whorling pattern, and collagenized and myxoid areas. The heterogeneous histological appearance makes the diagnosis challenging. Immunohistochemical staining has been reported by a number of authors, with some conflicting results, showing positivity with vimentin, but no immunoreactivity with antibodies to keratin, desmin, actin, S100 or epithelial membrane antigen. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient who developed a mass on the left mandibular body region. The tumor was excised along with mental nerve at the level of the mental foramen. The tumor on pathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation was diagnosed as LGFMS. PMID:27601843

  17. A preliminary report on the rapid fluorimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Levine, Harry

    1950-01-01

    A simple and very rapid fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of uranium in low-grade shale and phosphate ores. The best working range is from 0.001 to about 0.04 percent U. The procedure employs batch extraction of uranium nitrate by ethyl acetate, using aluminum nitrate as the salting agent, prior to the visual fluorimetric estimation. The procedure is especially designed to save reagents; only 9.5 g of aluminum nitrate and 10 ml of ethyl acetate being used for one analysis. The solution of the sample by means of a fusion with NaOH-NaNO3 flux is rapid. After fusion the sample is immediately extracted without removing silica and other hydrolytic precipitates. Aluminum nitrate very effectively ties up fluoride and phosphate, thus eliminating steps required for their removal.

  18. Polymorphous Low-grade Adenocarcinoma: A Case Series and Determination of Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Adam J.; Austin, Grace K.; Shah, Rupali N.; Welch, Chris M.; Funkhouser, William K.; Zanation, Adam M.; Shockley, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Information on polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) consists primarily of case reports and small institutional series with varying recurrence rates. In this report, we describe our institutional experience and conduct a review of the literature to assess the overall incidence of PLGA among oral salivary gland tumors and determine recurrence rates. Study Design A retrospective case series and literature based review was performed. Methods Retrospective case series at an academic tertiary referral center. Review of clinical records and pathological analysis of tissue specimens from 20 patients treated for PLGA from July 1, 1990 to July 1, 2011. A literature-based review on PLGA was also performed. Results Twenty patients (mean age 54 years, 8 males) with PLGA based on pathologic diagnosis were included. The most common initial presentation was an asymptomatic mass (45%) and the most frequent site was the palate (60%). Our literature review identified 54 case reports, 8 case series, and 17 large series. In total 456 cases of PLGA were identified with an overall recurrence rate of 19%. Half of the recurrences occurred by 36 months; however, recurrences were reported up to 24 years after initial resection. Conclusion PLGA arises from minor salivary glands and is characteristically slow growing and indolent. While these tumors may be histologically low-grade, our review highlights the high rates of recurrence of these tumors as well as the ability to metastasis to local lymph nodes and distant organs. The mainstay of treatment should be wide surgical excision with long-term oncologic follow up. PMID:25229805

  19. Prognostic Molecular Subtypes of Low-Grade Cancer of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Edward A; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Qasem, Shadi A; Philip, John; Cummins, Kathleen A; Chou, Jeff W; Ruiz, Jimmy; D’Agostino, Ralph; Shen, Perry; Miller, Lance D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Appendiceal cancer (AC) patients treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often demonstrate an unpredictable variability in their survival outcomes. Biomarkers predictive of CRS/HIPEC efficacy could better guide treatment decisions. We hypothesized that variation in the transcriptional programming of AC tumors might distinguish molecular subtypes with differential outcomes after CRS/HIPEC. STUDY DESIGN Gene expression profiles of 2 AC cohorts were analyzed using Affymetrix whole-genome expression microarrays. Hierarchical clustering methods, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox regression models were used to discover and validate prognostic molecular subtypes of AC. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to infer pathologic attributes of the molecular subtypes. RESULTS Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of tumor expression profiles revealed a 139-gene cassette that distinguished 2 molecular subtypes (based on low vs high expression of the gene cassette) with statistically significant survival differences (disease-specific survival, p = 0.0075; progression-free survival, p = 0.0072). In a second AC cohort, the 139-gene cassette reproducibly partitioned tumors into subtypes with significant survival differences. Tumors showing high relative expression of the genes comprising the cassette associated with poor survival outcomes (disease-specific survival, p = 0.047; progression-free survival, p = 0.0079), and exhibited gene expression patterns enriched for oncogenic processes and pathways. The prognostic value of the molecular subtypes was specific for low-grade appendiceal tumors (disease-specific survival, p = 0.028; progression-free survival, p = 0.0016), and remained significant in the presence of conventional prognostic markers, including grade, surgical resection score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, and age. CONCLUSIONS The 139-gene cassette can have actionable clinical utility for

  20. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  1. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  2. Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta

    2009-07-15

    There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Adhesive capsulitis: An age related symptom of metabolic syndrome and chronic low-grade inflammation?

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Max

    2016-03-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is very poorly understood, particularly it's underlying etiology. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are strongly associated with chronic low grade inflammation, are becoming increasingly understood to underlie a raft of morbid states including upper limb pain syndromes, diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and central nervous system dysfunction and degeneration. Notwithstanding age, two of the strongest established risk factors for AC are DM and CVD. The hypothesis argues that similar to DM and CVD, the inflammation and capsular fibrosis seen in AC is precipitated by metabolic syndrome and chronic low grade inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are highly likely to be perpetuated by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, sympathetic dominance of autonomic balance, and neuro-immune activation. The hypothesis predicts and describes how these processes may etiologically underpin and induce each sub-classification of AC. An improved understanding of the etiology of AC may lead to more accurate diagnosis, improved management, treatment outcomes, and reduce or prevent pain, disability and suffering associated with the disease. The paper follows on with a discussion of similarities between the pathophysiology of AC to general systemic inflammatory control mechanisms whereby connective tissue (CT) fibrosis is induced as a storage depot for leukocytes and chronic inflammatory cells. The potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA), the primary component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and CT, in the pathophysiology of AC is also discussed with potential treatment implications. Lastly, a biochemical link between physical and mental health through the ECM is described and the concept of a periventricular-limbic central driver of CT dysfunction is introduced. PMID:26880627

  4. Sagittal Pelvic Radius in Low-Grade Isthmic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis of Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Cheng, Da-Wei; Dong, Fu-Long; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variation of pelvic radius and related parameters in low-grade isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods Seventy-four patients with isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis and 47 controls were included in this study. There were 17 males and 57 females between 30 and 66 years of age, including 30 with grade I slippages and 44 grade II slippages; diseased levels included 34 cases on L4 and 40 cases on L5. Thoracic kyphosis (TK), the pelvic radius (PR), the pelvic angle (PA), pelvic morphology (PR-S1), and total lumbopelvic lordosis (PR-T12) were assessed from radiographs. Results Statistically significant differences were found for the PA, PR-T12, and PR-S1 (24.5±6.6°, 83.7±9.8°, and 25.4±11.2°, respectively) of the patients with spondylolisthesis and the healthy volunteers (13.7±7.8°, 92.9±9.2°, and 40.7±8.9°, respectively). The TK/PR-T12 ratios were between 0.15 and 0.75. However, there were no differences in all the parameters between the L4 and L5 spondylolysis subgroups (p>0.05). The TK and PR-S1 of grade II were less than grade I, but the PA was greater. The PR-T12 of female patients were less than male patients, but the PA was greater (p<0.05). Conclusion Pelvic morphology differed in patients with low-grade isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis compared to controls. Gender and the grade of slippage impacted the sagittal configuration of the pelvis, but the segment of the vertebral slip did not. Overall, the spine of those with spondylolisthesis remains able to maintain sagittal balance despite abnormal pelvic morphology. PMID:27226863

  5. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

    2014-05-27

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  6. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 - 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 - 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H2 productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  7. Targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Jennifer; Gore, Martin; Banerjee, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Until recently, there has been little change in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer with the majority of women receiving identical systemic therapy, regardless of histological subtype. The heterogeneity of epithelial ovarian cancer is now well established, with distinct subtypes characterized by specific molecular alterations and patterns of clinical behavior. Low-grade serous carcinoma is a rare subtype associated with an indolent biological behavior and inherent resistance to chemotherapy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of low-grade serous carcinoma, and provides an attractive target for novel therapeutic agents. Selumetinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, demonstrates promising efficacy in women with relapsed low-grade serous carcinoma, and further trials of MEK-inhibition are underway. Translational research will be essential to identify predictive biomarkers for this treatment approach. PMID:27469379

  8. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy in transformed low-grade glioma: A treatment planning case report.

    PubMed

    Kazda, T; Pospisil, P; Vrzal, M; Sevela, O; Prochazka, T; Jancalek, R; Slampa, P; Laack, N N

    2015-05-01

    Timing of radiotherapy for low-grade gliomas is still controversial due to concerns of possible adverse late effects. Prevention of possible late cognitive sequelae by hippocampal avoidance has shown promise in phase II trials. A patient with progressive low-grade glioma with gradual dedifferentiation into anaplastic astrocytoma is presented along with description of radiotherapy planning process attempting to spare the hippocampus. To our knowledge, this is the first described case using volumetric modulated arc technique to spare hippocampus during transformed low-grade glioma radiotherapy. Using modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy systems it is possible to selectively spare hippocampus together with other standard organs at risk. For selected patients, an attempt to spare hippocampus can be considered as long as other dose characteristics are not significantly compromised compared to standard treatment plan created without any effort to avoid hippocampus. PMID:25835374

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  10. A clinicopathologic study of diencephalic pediatric low-grade gliomas with BRAF V600 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng-Ying; Mobley, Bret C; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Mason, Gary E; Bornhorst, Miriam; Esbenshade, Adam J; Tehrani, Mahtab; Orr, Brent A; LaFrance, Delecia R; Devaney, Joseph M; Meltzer, Beatrix W; Hofherr, Sean E; Burger, Peter C; Packer, Roger J; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-10-01

    Among brain tumors, the BRAF (V600E) mutation is frequently associated with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) and gangliogliomas (GGs). This oncogenic mutation is also detected in ~5 % of other pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) including pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and diffuse astrocytomas. In the current multi-institutional study of 56 non-PXA/non-GG diencephalic pediatric LGGs, the BRAF (V600) mutation rate is 36 %. V600-mutant tumors demonstrate a predilection for infants and young children (low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs) was 22 ± 12 %, shorter than BRAF (V600)-WT PAs (52 ± 13 %) but higher than PMAs (10 ± 6 %). Of note, long-term PFS was observed in several adolescent patients with BRAF (V600)-mutant tumors. In children aged 0-12 years, 5-year PFS rate and median PFS in BRAF (V600)-mutant LGAs are 9 ± 9 % and 19 months (95 % CI 3-37 months), respectively. The PFS is comparable to that in BRAF (V600)-WT PMAs (5-year PFS rate: 10 ± 9 %; median PFS: 15 months, 95 % CI 3-32 months; p = 0.96) and significantly shorter than BRAF (V600)-WT PAs (5-year PFS rate: 46 ± 13 %; median PFS: 51 months, 95 % CI 20-∞ months; p < 0.05). In summary, diencephalic BRAF (V600)-mutant pediatric LGAs are associated with unique clinicopathologic features and have a more aggressive clinical course, especially in children

  11. Uninephrectomy-Induced Lipolysis and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Mimicked by Unilateral Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Van Vliet, Bruce N.; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight and function. In general, the uDNX phenotype was similar to the UniNX phenotype especially for lipolysis in fat pads and increased low-grade inflammation. uDNX led to decreased fat pad weight and increased hormone sensitive lipase and adipocyte triglyceride lipase mRNA levels in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, as well as increased circulating lipolysis markers β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol. Measured circulating hormones such as leptin, T3 and insulin were similar amongst the three groups. The lipolytic cytokines interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor were increased in the circulation of both uDNX and UniNX groups. These two cytokines were also elevated in the spleen of both groups, but contrastingly they were decreased in fat pads, liver, and kidneys. Both uDNX and UniNX similarly increased noradrenaline content in fat pads and spleen. Melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA levels were increased in the brains of both uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham and may contribute to increased tissue noradrenaline levels. In addition, the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) may contribute to changes in tissue metabolism and inflammation, as anti-inflammatory FXR was decreased in the spleen but increased in other tissues in uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham. In summary, both uDNX and UniNX in rats promote metabolic and immunological alterations by mechanisms that seem to implicate modification of unilateral renal nerve pathways as well as central and peripheral neural pathways

  12. Uninephrectomy-Induced Lipolysis and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Mimicked by Unilateral Renal Denervation.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Dulloo, Abdul G; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight and function. In general, the uDNX phenotype was similar to the UniNX phenotype especially for lipolysis in fat pads and increased low-grade inflammation. uDNX led to decreased fat pad weight and increased hormone sensitive lipase and adipocyte triglyceride lipase mRNA levels in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, as well as increased circulating lipolysis markers β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol. Measured circulating hormones such as leptin, T3 and insulin were similar amongst the three groups. The lipolytic cytokines interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor were increased in the circulation of both uDNX and UniNX groups. These two cytokines were also elevated in the spleen of both groups, but contrastingly they were decreased in fat pads, liver, and kidneys. Both uDNX and UniNX similarly increased noradrenaline content in fat pads and spleen. Melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA levels were increased in the brains of both uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham and may contribute to increased tissue noradrenaline levels. In addition, the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) may contribute to changes in tissue metabolism and inflammation, as anti-inflammatory FXR was decreased in the spleen but increased in other tissues in uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham. In summary, both uDNX and UniNX in rats promote metabolic and immunological alterations by mechanisms that seem to implicate modification of unilateral renal nerve pathways as well as central and peripheral neural pathways

  13. Vitamin D, Low-Grade Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Children: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasmine; Merrill, Eric Dean; Sandesara, Pratik B; Schoeneberg, Laura; Dai, Hongying; Raghuveer, Geetha

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory properties, and deficiency is prevalent in children. There is a paucity of data regarding vitamin D status and its correlation with low-grade inflammation and vasculature. We prospectively enrolled 25 children, 9-11 years old (13 male); 21 obese. Eight atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors were scored as categorical variables with the following thresholds defining abnormality: body mass index Z score ≥ 1.5; systolic blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile (for age, sex, and height); triglyceride ≥ 100 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 110 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤ 45 mg/dL; hemoglobin A1C (HBA1C) ≥ 5.5; 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] ≤ 30 ng/mL, and tobacco smoke exposure. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to assess low-grade inflammation and classified as low- (<1 mg/L), average- (1-3 mg/L), and high-risk (>3 to <10 mg/L) groups. The proportion of children within each hsCRP group who had above threshold risk factors was calculated. Carotid artery ultrasound was performed to measure carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Median (range) for 25(OH) D was 24 (17-45) ng/mL. Eighteen were either 25 (OH) D deficient (<20 ng/mL) or insufficient (20-30 ng/mL), and seven were sufficient (>30 ng/mL). hsCRP was 1.7 (0.2-9.1) mg/L, with 11 being <1.0 mg/L, 8 between 1.0-3.0 and 6 > 3.0 to < 10.0 mg/L. Risk factor score was 3.9 ± 1.7 out of eight. 25(OH) D levels did not correlate with hsCRP or CIMT. While vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, and risk factors coexist at a very young age, causative mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:25832850

  14. The behavior of magnesium isotopes in low-grade metamorphosed mudrocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shui-Jiong; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Li, Shu-Guang

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium isotopic compositions of mudrocks metamorphosed at sub-greenschist facies from three lower Paleozoic basins (northern Lake District, southern Lake District, and Southern Uplands) in the British Caledonides were measured in order to understand the behavior of Mg isotopes during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism. Carbonate-free mudrocks from the northern Lake District have heavy δ26Mg values varying from -0.17 to +0.25. By contrast, Mg isotopic compositions of carbonate-bearing mudrocks from the southern Lake District and Southern Uplands vary more widely, with δ26Mg ranging from -0.74 to -0.08. Acid leaching experiments on the latter show that the leachates have higher Ca/Al and Ca/K ratios than the residues due to the dissolution of leachable carbonates. The δ26Mg values of leachates (-1.54 to -0.21) are always lower than the corresponding residues (δ26Mg = -0.39 to +0.09), consistent with isotopically light Mg in carbonates. A rough, negative correlation between δ26Mg and Mg/Al for the residual silicate fraction of mudrocks suggests that their Mg isotopic compositions are controlled by the relative proportion of illite/muscovite and chlorite. Global clastic sediments display highly variable Mg isotopic compositions that are negatively correlated with CaO/Al2O3 and CaO/TiO2, implying that carbonates introduce light Mg isotopes to sediments, although the silicate end member itself has a wide range of δ26Mg, depending on its mineralogy. Magnesium isotopic compositions of mudrocks, as well as their silicate and carbonate fractions, do not vary systemically as metamorphism proceeds from diagenesis to low-grade metamorphism, suggesting limited Mg isotope fractionation during low-temperature metamorphic dehydration (<300 °C). The general decrease of Mg fraction (by mass) contributed by carbonate with increasing metamorphic grade suggests that dissolution or decomposition of carbonates during metamorphism expelled light Mg isotopes. Thus, the Mg

  15. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  16. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted 'breakthrough' designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®)) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  17. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  18. Microsomal membrane proteome of low grade diffuse astrocytomas: Differentially expressed proteins and candidate surveillance biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Polisetty, Ravindra Varma; Gautam, Poonam; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Gowda, Harsha; Renu, Durairaj; Shivakumar, Bhadravathi Marigowda; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Mariswamappa, Kiran; Ankathi, Praveen; Purohit, Aniruddh K.; Uppin, Megha S.; Sundaram, Challa; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse astrocytoma (DA; WHO grade II) is a low-grade, primary brain neoplasm with high potential of recurrence as higher grade malignant form. We have analyzed differentially expressed membrane proteins from these tumors, using high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 2803 proteins were identified, 340 of them differentially expressed with minimum of 2 fold change and based on ≥2 unique peptides. Bioinformatics analysis of this dataset also revealed important molecular networks and pathways relevant to tumorigenesis, mTOR signaling pathway being a major pathway identified. Comparison of 340 differentially expressed proteins with the transcript data from Grade II diffuse astrocytomas reported earlier, revealed about 190 of the proteins correlate in their trends in expression. Considering progressive and recurrent nature of these tumors, we have mapped the differentially expressed proteins for their secretory potential, integrated the resulting list with similar list of proteins from anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III) tumors and provide a panel of proteins along with their proteotypic peptides, as a resource that would be useful for investigation as circulatory plasma markers for post-treatment surveillance of DA patients. PMID:27246909

  19. Low grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis. Comparison of CT and chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Gevenois, P A; Pichot, E; Dargent, F; Dedeire, S; Vande Weyer, R; De Vuyst, P

    1994-07-01

    We compared CT with chest radiography (CR) in the assessment of low grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) in a population of 83 subjects. All subjects had a high-voltage p.a. CR, graded according to the ILO classification between 0/0 and 1/1, a conventional CT (CCT) using contiguous 1-cm-thick sections on the entire thorax and a set of 10 high-resolution CT (HRCT) images. CR and CT were separately read by consensus by 2 teams of 2 trained readers. CR was coded 0/0 in 9 subjects; 0/1 in 31; 1/0 in 28; 1/1 in 15. Among these groups of patients, micronodules were detected by CT in respectively 2 (22%), 14 (45%), 17 (61%) and 10 (67%) patients. In all groups, micronodules were more often detected by CT when the opacities detected on CR were scored as rounded (p, q) than irregular (s, t). Among the patients graded 0/0 or 0/1, CT showed micronodules in 40%. By contrast, among the patients graded 1/0 or 1/1, CT did not show micronodules in 37%, but revealed in numerous patients that opacities detected on CR were related to bronchiectasis and/or emphysema only. Comparative analysis of HRCT and CCT showed that both techniques are complementary and proved the usefulness of CCT in the detection or confirmation of low profusion of micronodules. PMID:8011384

  20. Distinction of brain tissue, low grade and high grade glioma with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yong, William H; Butte, Pramod V; Pikul, Brian K; Jo, Javier A; Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Black, Keith; Marcu, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Neuropathology frozen section diagnoses are difficult in part because of the small tissue samples and the paucity of adjunctive rapid intraoperative stains. This study aims to explore the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a rapid adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of glioma specimens and for distinction of glioma from normal tissues intraoperatively. Ten low grade gliomas, 15 high grade gliomas without necrosis, 6 high grade gliomas with necrosis and/or radiation effect, and 14 histologically uninvolved "normal" brain specimens are spectroscopicaly analyzed and contrasted. Tissue autofluorescence was induced with a pulsed Nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the transient intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 370-500 nm spectral range with a fast digitized (0.2 ns time resolution). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site were used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithm was used for tissue classification. Both low and high grade gliomas can be distinguished from histologically uninvolved cerebral cortex and white matter with high accuracy (above 90%). In addition, the presence or absence of treatment effect and/or necrosis can be identified in high grade gliomas. Taking advantage of tissue autofluorescence, this technique facilitates a direct and rapid investigation of surgically obtained tissue. PMID:16368511

  1. Fe(II) adsorption onto natural polymers derived from low-grade lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Tarlan, E.; Ahmetli, G.

    2007-09-15

    In comparison with conventional chemical treatment methods for Fe(II) ions, adsorption and ion exchange are considered more easily applicable and economical, depending on the material used. Polymeric rnaterials are the examples used in these commonly applied removal processes. In this study, the adsorption of Fe(II) ions from aqueous solutions onto two different natural polymers, insoluble humic acids (IHAs) extracted from low-grade lignites from Beysehir and Ermenek (in the central Anatolia region, Konya, Turkey), was investigated. The IHAs were synthesized through a series of acid-base reactions, and the obtained precipitates were chemically stable and had about 40% humic matter together with functional carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. The effects of the time and initial metal concentration on the effectiveness of the IHAs for Fe(II) adsorption were determined through batch experiments; the adsorption isotherms and capacities were calculated. The IHAs were effective, with capacities of 59 mg/g for the Beysehir IHA and 57 mg/g for the Ermenek IHA, for Fe removal under neutral pH conditions. The adsorption followed mainly a Freundlich isotherm for both IHAs, and the calculated adsorption rates were 0.86 for the Beysehir IHA and 0.81 for the Ermenek IHA. This indicated that the effectiveness of the Beysehir IHA was slightly higher than that of the Ermenek IHA. The results confirmed the real possibility of the practical application of IHAs for the separation of Fe(II) in aqueous systems.

  2. Low-grade, M1 metamorphism of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberg, G.R. . Dept. of Geology); Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B. )

    1993-04-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex of western Canada and southeastern Alaska that developed as a result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collision of the Alexander terrane and Gravina assemblage on the west against the Yukon Prong and Stikine terranes to the east. Sub-greenschist to lower greenschist facies metabasalts exposed along the west end of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska record the earliest metamorphic event (M1). These low-grade rocks are gradational with younger, higher-grade assemblages that define an inverted metamorphic gradient (metamorphic event M5). The most common metamorphic mineral assemblages are chlorite-epidote-actinolite with or without pumpellyite and stilpnomelane. There is no systematic distribution of metamorphic mineral assemblages in the study area, and all assemblages are in the pumpellyite-actinolite facies near the transition to the lower greenschist facies. Different low-variance assemblages can be attributed to minor differences in pressure, temperature, or X[sub CO[sub 2

  3. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  4. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  5. Comparison of immunohistochemical markers between adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2009-12-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) have several common histological and clinicopathological features that may create diagnostic difficulties. In this study, 10 AdCCs, 8 PLGAs, and 5 normal minor salivary glands as a control group were selected. Sections prepared from each tumor were stained using the streptavidin-biotin system for seven marker antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), muscle-specific actin (MSA), vimentin, S100, p53, and Ki-67. Data analysis showed high expression of CEA, MSA and Ki-67 in AdCCs compared with PLGAs, although CEA expression was limited to luminal cells. Ki-67 was expressed in both luminal and non-luminal cells and MSA only in non-luminal cells. Vimentin and S100 showed stronger expression in PLGAs, the expression of vimentin was more noticeable, being focal and widespread. The immunoreactivities of EMA and P53 were not helpful for distinguishing between the two tumors, although the EMA expression pattern in AdCCs was limited to luminal cells, whereas it was present in both luminal and non-luminal cells in PLGAs. Thus, immunohistochemistry can be helpful for differential diagnosis of AdCC and PLGA, particularly that for CEA, vimentin, and Ki-67. PMID:20032601

  6. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. PMID:25684619

  7. Low-grade MgO used to stabilize heavy metals in highly contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    García, M A; Chimenos, J M; Fernández, A I; Miralles, L; Segarra, M; Espiell, F

    2004-08-01

    Low-grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilization of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The use of MgO is described acting as a buffering agent within the pH 9-11 range, minimizing heavy metals solubility and avoiding the redissolution that occurs when lime is used. The effectiveness of LG-MgO has been studied as stabilizer agent of heavily polluted soils mainly contaminated by the flue-dust of the pyrite roasting. The use of LG-MgO as a reactive medium ensures that significant rates of metal fixation, greater than 80%, are achieved. The heavy metals leachate from the stabilized soil samples show a concentration lower than the limit set to classify the waste as non-special residue. Regardless of the quantity of stabilizer employed (greater than 10%), LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir that allows guaranteeing long-term stabilization without varying the pH conditions. PMID:15212914

  8. Clinical Management of Seizures in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Anna F.; Blakeley, Jaishri

    2015-01-01

    Seizures, transient disruptions of normal brain electrical activity, are common for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) and significantly affect quality of life. Up to 75% of patients with a LGG will have seizures in the course of their disease (compared with 1%–2% of the general population). Depending on the type of abnormal electrical activity, the functional implications of seizure can impact any domain, including mental status, sensation or strength. In most cases, either the seizure or the medications used to treat the seizure may contribute to cognitive and psychosocial difficulties of various degrees of severity. Hence, effective management of seizures is a major priority for patients with LGG. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that levetiracetam is the best first-line agent for treatment of seizures in this population due to both its efficacy and tolerability. An important consideration in the field of neuro-oncology is that levetiracetam has very few drug interactions. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of patients with LGG have refractory epilepsy where additional agents such as valproic acid, or lacosamide, lamotrigine and nonpharmacologic therapies such as diet-based interventions, epilepsy surgery, and devices are considered. PMID:26050593

  9. The Changing Landscape of Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas: Clinical Challenges and Emerging Therapies.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro Stucklin, Ana S; Tabori, Uri; Grotzer, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are the most common brain tumors in children. Though histologically benign and associated with excellent outcome, patients with unresectable lesions-mostly young children with midline tumors-experience multiple progressions and are at increased risk for long-term neurological sequelae. PLGGs in children with underlying genetic predisposition syndromes-especially neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis-have a distinct natural history and biology with important treatment implications. Given the complexity of medical issues, optimal management requires a large network of health care providers; treatment decisions must address both tumor control and potential side effects of the therapy. Current treatment strategies often fail to induce sustained tumor regression and many children require several lines of therapy, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Here, we review the current management of PLGG and discuss how new molecular targets-in particular alterations of the Ras/MAPK pathway-are rapidly changing our approach to PLGG. PMID:26764564

  10. Telomerase Deficiency Causes Alveolar Stem Cell Senescence-associated Low-grade Inflammation in Lungs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruping; Zhang, Kexiong; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoyin; Wang, Jianqiu; Li, Li; Cong, Yusheng; Ju, Zhenyu; Xu, Dakang; Williams, Bryan R G; Jia, Jihui; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2015-12-25

    Mutations of human telomerase RNA component (TERC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are associated with a subset of lung aging diseases, but the mechanisms by which TERC and TERT participate in lung diseases remain unclear. In this report, we show that knock-out (KO) of the mouse gene Terc or Tert causes pulmonary alveolar stem cell replicative senescence, epithelial impairment, formation of alveolar sacs, and characteristic inflammatory phenotype. Deficiency in TERC or TERT causes a remarkable elevation in various proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, CXCL15 (human IL-8 homolog), IL-10, TNF-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)); decrease in TGF-β1 and TGFβRI receptor in the lungs; and spillover of IL-6 and CXCL15 into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. In addition to increased gene expressions of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1α1, suggesting myofibroblast differentiation, TERC deficiency also leads to marked cellular infiltrations of a mononuclear cell population positive for the leukocyte common antigen CD45, low-affinity Fc receptor CD16/CD32, and pattern recognition receptor CD11b in the lungs. Our data demonstrate for the first time that telomerase deficiency triggers alveolar stem cell replicative senescence-associated low-grade inflammation, thereby driving pulmonary premature aging, alveolar sac formation, and fibrotic lesion. PMID:26518879

  11. Fast thermal calibration of low-grade inertial sensors and inertial measurement units.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

    2013-01-01

    The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy. PMID:24036581

  12. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Sabine; Kunz, Clemens; Domann, Eugen; Würdemann, Nora; Unger, Franziska; Römpp, Andreas; Rudloff, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs) on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO)-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min), endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6), as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation. PMID:27384582

  13. Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kelly, Owen J; Kim, Youjin; Spicer, Maria T

    2014-06-01

    Some of the universal characteristics of pre-agricultural hominin diets are strikingly different from the modern human diet. Hominin dietary choices were limited to wild plant and wild animal foods, while the modern diet includes more than 70 % of energy consumed from refined sugars, refined vegetable oils, and highly processed cereals and dairy products. The modern diet, with higher intake of fat has also resulted in a higher ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), contributing to low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) and thus promoting the development of many chronic diseases, including obesity and osteoporosis. In this review, we describe the changes in modern diet, focusing on the kind and amount of consumed fat; explain the shortcomings of the modern diet with regard to inflammatory processes; and delineate the reciprocity between adiposity and inflammatory processes, with inflammation being a common link between obesity and osteoporosis. We present the evidence that overconsumption of n-6 PUFA coupled with under-consumption of n-3 PUFA results in LGCI and, along with the increased presence of reactive oxygen species, leads to a shift in mesenchymal stem cells (precursors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes) lineage commitment toward increased adipogenesis and suppressed osteoblastogenesis. In turn, high n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratios in the modern diet, coupled with increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to adiposity, propagate obesity and osteoporosis by increasing or maintaining LGCI. PMID:24945416

  14. Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma following a metal implantation in femur: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma that most commonly involves the extremities of elderly people. However, a primary myxofibrosarcoma with bone invasion in young adults is extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old male with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass, who had a history of left femur fracture and received an open reduction and internal fixation with titanium alloy plates and screws 33 months previously. Imaging investigations revealed an irregularly shaped soft tissue mass around the left femur shaft and a partial bone defect in the middle one-third of the left femur. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a multi-nodular appearance, abundant myxoid matrix and elongated curvilinear capillaries. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells was positive for VIM and MDM2, and was negative for CK, MSA, SMA, DES, S-100 and CD34. Labeling index of Ki-67 was 25%. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The clinical and imaging examinations did not reveal the evidence of a primary cancer elsewhere, and the patient had no personal or family history of malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary myxofibrosarcoma developed following a fracture and metal implantation in young adults. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1745984882113605 PMID:24444015

  15. Molecular features assisting in diagnosis, surgery, and treatment decision making in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ricky; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cohen, Adam L; Jensen, Randy L; Salzman, Karen L; Prescot, Andrew P; Colman, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The preferred management of suspected low-grade gliomas (LGGs) has been disputed, and the implications of molecular changes for medical and surgical management of LGGs are important to consider. Current strategies that make use of molecular markers and imaging techniques and therapeutic considerations offer additional options for management of LGGs. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes suggest a role for this abnormal metabolic pathway in the pathogenesis and progression of these primary brain tumors. Use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide preoperative detection of IDH-mutated gliomas and affect surgical planning. In addition, IDH1 and IDH2 mutation status may have an effect on surgical resectability of gliomas. The IDH-mutated tumors exhibit better prognosis throughout every grade of glioma, and mutation may be an early genetic event, preceding lineage-specific secondary and tertiary alterations that transform LGGs into secondary glioblastomas. The O6-methylguanine-DNAmethyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and 1p19q codeletion status can predict sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation in low- and intermediate-grade gliomas. Thus, these recent advances, which have led to a better understanding of how molecular, genetic, and epigenetic alterations influence the pathogenicity of the different histological grades of gliomas, can lead to better prognostication and may lead to specific targeted surgical interventions and medical therapies. PMID:25727224

  16. Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Reich, O; Regauer, S; Urdl, W; Lahousen, M; Winter, R

    2000-01-01

    We analysed oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in a retrospective series of 21 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGSSs). Archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded material was analysed by immunohistochemistry. ER and PR were measured with monoclonal antibodies and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and a score was calculated as for breast carcinoma based on both the percentage of positive tumour cell nuclei and the staining intensity. ER were seen in 15 (71%) and PR in 20 (95%) of tumours respectively. ER expression was scored as high in three (14%), moderate in four (19%), and low in eight (38%) tumours. Six (29%) tumours did not stain for ER and all of these were positive for PR. PR expression was scored as high in eight (38%), moderate in ten (47%) and weak in two (10%) LGSSs. Only one (5%) LGSS did not stain for PR (this tumour was positive for ER). ER and PR expression in LGSS is heterogeneous. This may have implications for hormone therapy in the management of these tumours. These results suggest that ER and PR should be routinely quantified in LGSSs by immunohistochemical methods. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10737385

  17. Microsomal membrane proteome of low grade diffuse astrocytomas: Differentially expressed proteins and candidate surveillance biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Polisetty, Ravindra Varma; Gautam, Poonam; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Gowda, Harsha; Renu, Durairaj; Shivakumar, Bhadravathi Marigowda; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Mariswamappa, Kiran; Ankathi, Praveen; Purohit, Aniruddh K; Uppin, Megha S; Sundaram, Challa; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse astrocytoma (DA; WHO grade II) is a low-grade, primary brain neoplasm with high potential of recurrence as higher grade malignant form. We have analyzed differentially expressed membrane proteins from these tumors, using high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 2803 proteins were identified, 340 of them differentially expressed with minimum of 2 fold change and based on ≥2 unique peptides. Bioinformatics analysis of this dataset also revealed important molecular networks and pathways relevant to tumorigenesis, mTOR signaling pathway being a major pathway identified. Comparison of 340 differentially expressed proteins with the transcript data from Grade II diffuse astrocytomas reported earlier, revealed about 190 of the proteins correlate in their trends in expression. Considering progressive and recurrent nature of these tumors, we have mapped the differentially expressed proteins for their secretory potential, integrated the resulting list with similar list of proteins from anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III) tumors and provide a panel of proteins along with their proteotypic peptides, as a resource that would be useful for investigation as circulatory plasma markers for post-treatment surveillance of DA patients. PMID:27246909

  18. A dynamic model for the optimization of oscillatory low grade heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markides, Christos N.; Smith, Thomas C. B.

    2015-01-22

    The efficiency of a thermodynamic system is a key quantity on which its usefulness and wider application relies. This is especially true for a device that operates with marginal energy sources and close to ambient temperatures. Various definitions of efficiency are available, each of which reveals a certain performance characteristic of a device. Of these, some consider only the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the working fluid, whereas others contain additional information, including relevant internal components of the device that are not part of the thermodynamic cycle. Yet others attempt to factor out the conditions of the surroundings with which the device is interfacing thermally during operation. In this paper we present a simple approach for the modeling of complex oscillatory thermal-fluid systems capable of converting low grade heat into useful work. We apply the approach to the NIFTE, a novel low temperature difference heat utilization technology currently under development. We use the results from the model to calculate various efficiencies and comment on the usefulness of the different definitions in revealing performance characteristics. We show that the approach can be applied to make design optimization decisions, and suggest features for optimal efficiency of the NIFTE.

  19. Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Intravenous and Intracardiac Extension: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Inafuku, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Taira, Yusuke; Taira, Rie; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Tamaki, Tomoko; Aoyama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background. A rare case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) extending to inferior vena cava (IVC) and cardiac chambers. Case Report. A 40-year-old woman had IVC tumor, which was incidentally detected by abdominal ultrasonography during a routine medical checkup. CT scan revealed a tumor in IVC, right iliac and ovarian veins, which was derived from the uterus and extended into the right atrium and ventricle. The operation was performed, the heart and IVC were exposed, and cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated. A right atriotomy was performed, and the intracardiac mass was removed. Then the tumor in IVC and the right internal iliac vein were removed after longitudinal venotomies in the suprarenal and infrarenal vena cava, the right common iliac vein. Next the pelvis was explored. Tumors were found originating from the posterior wall of the uterus and continuing into both the right uterine and ovarian vein. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Complete tumor resection was achieved. Histopathological analysis confirmed a diagnosis of LG-ESS. She showed no evidence of disease for 2 years and 3 months. Conclusions. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in treating this rare cardiovascular pathological condition through preoperative assessment to final operation. PMID:27239357

  20. Mixed low grade and high grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of uterus: differences on immunohistochemistry and chromosome in situ hybridisation.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, A N; Ng, W F; Chung, L P; Khoo, U S

    1996-01-01

    A case of a 64 year old woman with a tumour of the uterus is reported. The patient presented with postmenopausal bleeding and subsequently underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Sections of the tumour showed a low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma coexisting with areas consistent with high grade sarcoma. The sarcoma cells, in both the low and high grade areas, were positive for vimentin and negative for desmin and cytokeratin on immunohistochemistry. While the sarcoma cells in the low grade region showed immunoreactivity for oestrogen and progestogen receptors, those in the high grade region did not. Using chromosome in situ hybridisation, the low grade portion of the sarcoma was diploid for chromosomes X, 11, 12, and 17, whereas the more anaplastic areas were aneuploid for these chromosomes. This case may represent an example of high grade endometrial stromal sarcoma arising by dedifferentiation from a low grade stromal sarcoma. Adequate sampling is important in identifying such anaplastic changes as the origin of the tumour will affect patient management. Images PMID:8813967

  1. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  2. Role of oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation in letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Singh, Anusha; Singh, Ajit; Krishna, Amitabh; Pandey, Uma; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the effects of temporal changes in oxidative stress (OS) and low-grade inflammation in letrozole-treated rats and to correlate these changes with the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like features. Rats were treated with letrozole for 7, 15 and 21 days to induce PCOS. On day 7 of the treatment, a significant increase in serum testosterone and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), the low-grade inflammatory marker, was found in the letrozole treated rats compared to control rats. Moreover, a decreased immunoexpression of insulin receptor coincided with increased body weight. The strong correlation between the levels of hsCRP and lipid peroxidation (LPO) suggests simultaneous development of low-grade inflammation and OS in response to hyperandrogenism, and the role of OS in a formation of cystic follicles in the letrozole animal PCOS model. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that OS and low-grade inflammation (hsCRP) are the major causes of PCOS induction in this model. PMID:26952756

  3. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically. PMID:26431646

  4. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant's bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:27181339

  5. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:27181339

  6. A preliminary study of an alternative controlled drainage strategy in surface drainage ditches: low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined hydrological characteristics of low-grade weirs, an alternative controlled drainage strategy in surface drainage ditches. Hydrographs of vegetated and clear scraped (control) replicates of weir vs. non-weir treatments were compared to determine differences in time to peak (Tp) a...

  7. Innate lymphoid cells as novel regulators of obesity and its-associated metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Yang, W; Tian, Z; van Velkinburgh, J C; Song, J; Wu, Y; Ni, B

    2016-06-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity worldwide has been accompanied by increases in risk and rates of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, such as insulin resistance. The chronic, low-grade inflammatory condition of obesity highlights the pathophysiological link between the immune system and the metabolic system, which has yet to be fully understood. Recent studies of obesity have started to uncover potential regulatory roles for the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which under normal conditions serve to regulate development of lymphoid tissue and function of the mucosal immune system. The ILCs are a newly identified immune cell population with complicated composition and subsequently diverse and dynamic functions. Studies to determine the distribution profile of the various ILCs in adipose tissue provide intriguing clues as to their regulatory capacity in obesity and its associated metabolic dysfunctions. Here, we review the recent findings supporting a role for ILCs as regulators of obesity or its associated insulin resistance, and discuss the potential underlying molecular mechanism as well as its promise as a therapeutic target for clinical applications. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26948388

  8. Reduction of low grade inflammation restores blunting of postprandial muscle anabolism and limits sarcopenia in old rats

    PubMed Central

    Rieu, Isabelle; Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Averous, Julien; Bos, Cécile; Peyron, M A; Combaret, Lydie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by a decline in muscle mass that could be explained by a defect in the regulation of postprandial muscle protein metabolism. Indeed, the stimulatory effect of food intake on protein synthesis and its inhibitory effect on proteolysis is blunted in old muscles from both animals and humans. Recently, low grade inflammation has been suspected to be one of the factors responsible for the decreased sensitivity of muscle protein metabolism to food intake. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of long-term prevention of low grade inflammation on muscle protein metabolism during ageing. Old rats (20 months of age) were separated into two groups: a control group and a group (IBU) in which low grade inflammation had been reduced with a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (ibuprofen). After 5 months of treatment, inflammatory markers and cytokine levels were significantly improved in treated old rats when compared with the controls: −22.3% fibrinogen, −54.2%α2-macroglobulin, +12.6% albumin, −59.6% IL6 and −45.9% IL1β levels. As expected, food intake had no effect on muscle protein synthesis or muscle proteolysis in controls whereas it significantly increased muscle protein synthesis by 24.8% and significantly decreased proteolysis in IBU rats. The restoration of muscle protein anabolism at the postprandial state by controlling the development of low grade inflammation in old rats significantly decreased muscle mass loss between 20 and 25 months of age. In conclusion, the observations made in this study have identified low grade inflammation as an important target for pharmacological, nutritional and lifestyle interventions that aim to limit sarcopenia and muscle weakness in the rapidly growing elderly population in Europe and North America. PMID:19752122

  9. Pediatric Low Grade Ganglioglioma/Gangliocytoma: epidemiology, treatments, and outcome analysis on 348 children from the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Roy W.R.; Torok, Michelle R.; Gallegos, Danielle R.; Mulcahy-Levy, Jean M.; Hoffman, Lindsey M.; Liu, Arthur K.; Handler, Michael H.; Hankinson, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-grade gangliogliomas/gangliocytomas (GG) are rare tumors of the CNS, which occur mostly in young people. Due to their rarity, large-scale, population-based studies focusing on epidemiology and outcomes are lacking. Objective To use the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) datasets of the National Cancer Institute to study demographics, tumor location, initial treatment, and outcome data on low-grade GG in children. Methods SEER-STAT v8.1.2 identified all patients aged 0-19 years in the SEER datasets with low-grade GGs. Using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined associations between these characteristics and survival. Results There were 348 children with low-grade GG diagnosed from 2004-2010, with a median follow-up of 37 months. Tumors were more prevalent in males (n=208, 59.8%) than females (n=140, 40.2%) (p<0.001). Almost 63% percent occurred in children >10 years, while only 3.5% were found in those <1 year old. Approximately 50% were located in the temporal lobes, while only 3.7% and 3.5% were located in the brainstem and spinal cord, respectively. Surgery was performed on 91.6% of cases, with gross total resection (GTR) achieved in 68.3%. Radiation was used in 3.2%. Young age (<1yrs) and brainstem location were associated with worse overall survival (OS). Conclusion This study shows that low-grade GG occur in older children with a male preference. GTR is achieved in the majority of cases, and radiation is rarely used. While the majority of patients have an excellent prognosis, infants and patients with brainstem tumors have worse survival rates. PMID:25603107

  10. The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  11. Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Habrand, Jean-Louis Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic; Petras, Slavo; Datchary, Jean; Grill, Jacques; Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie; Sainte-Rose, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

  12. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pinto, Marcos; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  13. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21 years –17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20 years–19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at pre-irradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. A total of 588 evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and pre-irradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r = .34; p = .01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (p < .05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions There was relative sparing of post-irradiation functional outcomes over time

  14. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Murchie, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced spatial and spectral resolution provided by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has led to the discovery of numerous hydrated silicate minerals on Mars, particularly in the ancient, cratered crust comprising the southern highlands. Phases recently identified using visible/near-infrared spectra include: smectite, chlorite, prehnite, high-charge phyllosilicates (illite or muscovite), the zeolite analcime, opaline silica, and serpentine. Some mineral assemblages represent the products of aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures. Geologic occurrences of these mineral assemblages are described using examples from west of the Isidis basin near the Nili Fossae and with reference to differences in implied temperature, fluid composition, and starting materials during alteration. The alteration minerals are not distributed homogeneously. Rather, certain craters host distinctive alteration assemblages: (1) prehnite-chlorite-silica, (2) analcime-silica-Fe,Mg-smectite-chlorite, (3) chlorite-illite (muscovite), and (4) serpentine, which furthermore has been found in bedrock units. These assemblages contrast with the prevalence of solely Fe,Mg-smectites in most phyllosilicate-bearing terrains on Mars, and they represent materials altered at depth then exposed by cratering. Of the minerals found to date, prehnite provides the clearest evidence for subsurface, hydrothermal/metamorphic alteration, as it forms only under highly restricted conditions (T = 200 400??C). Multiple mechanisms exist for forming the other individual minerals; however, the most likely formation mechanisms for the characteristic mineralogic assemblages observed are, for (1) and (2), low- grade metamorphism or hydrothermal (400??C has not been found.

  15. The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 → Mn3O4 → MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

  16. Outcome of instrumented lumbar fusion for low grade spondylolisthesis; Evaluation of interbody fusion with & without cages

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Mostafa; Fahmy, Mohamed; Fakhri, Mazen; Aref, Khaled; Abdin, Khaled; Zidan, Ihab

    2010-01-01

    Object: The aim is to evalute the outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with autologous bone graft versus titanium Cages, BAK system (Bagby – Kuslich, Spine Tech, Inc. Minneapolis, MN) for low grade spondyloisthesis (Grade1,11). Interbody cages have been developed to replace tricortical Interbody grafts in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures. The cages provide immediate post operative stability and facilitate bony union with cancellous bone packed in the cage itself. METHOD: We Evaluated 50 consecutive patients in whom surgery was performed between June 2000 to June 2003 in the Main Alexandria University Hospital at EGYPT. Twenty five patients were operated using autologous bone graft and 25 patients using the BAK cages. The neuro–radiologic al work up consisted of; plain X – ray lumbosacral spine including dynamic films preoperative and postoperative follow up; C.T lumbosacral spine and MRI lumbosacral spine. The surgery was performed at L4-5 level in 34 cases and at L5-S1 level in 16 cases. The median follow up was 15 months. RESULTS: Satisfactory fusion was obtained at all levels at a minimum one year follow – up. The fusion rate was 96% (24 patients) for the cage group and 80% (20 patients) for bone graft group however clinical improvement was 64% (16 patients) for those with bone graft group. CONCLUSION: A higher fusion rates and a better clinical outcome have been obtained by Instrumented PLIF with titanium cages that with bone graft. Inderbody fusion cages help to stabilize spainal segment primarily by distracting them as well as by allowing bone ingrowth and fusion. The procedure is safe and effective with 96% fusion rate and 76% overall Satisfactory rate. The use of cages help to distract the space between the vertebral bodies making the correction of the degree of spondylolisthesis easier. Long term follow up revealed better fusion rate and better realignment and less resorption with cages than with bone grafts. PMID

  17. Low-grade risk of hypercoagulable state in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2*

    PubMed Central

    Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Sokup, Alina; Wernik, Tomasz; Rhone, Piotr; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Bielawski, Kornel; Fijałkowska, Agata; Nowakowska, Aleksandra; Rhone, Elżbieta; Rość, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes, including type 1 and type 2, is associated with the hypercoagulable state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentration of selected hemostatic parameters and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in diabetic subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in 62 patients with diabetes. Group I consisted of 27 patients having uncontrolled diabetes with microalbuminuria and Group II included 35 well-controlled diabetic patients. The control group was made up of 25 healthy volunteers. In the citrate plasma, the concentrations of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes, and D-dimer were assayed. Serum concentrations of VEGF-A, lipid profile, creatinine, and plasma fasting glucose were measured and in the versene plasma the concentration of HbA1c was determined. Results: In the patients with uncontrolled diabetes, higher concentrations of TF, TFPI, and VEGF-A were observed, as compared with the well-controlled diabetics group and the control group. A significantly lower activity of antiplasmin was reported in patients from Group I as compared with the control group. In Group I, using the multivariate regression analysis, the glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with VEGF-A and dependently associated with total cholesterol. Conclusions: The study showed higher concentrations of TF and TFPI in the patients with uncontrolled diabetes with microalbuminuria, which is associated with rapid neutralization of the thrombin formation, since TFPI inhibits the complex of TF/VIIa/Ca2+. The manifestation of the above suggestions is the correct TAT complexes and D-dimer, which indicates a low grade of prothrombotic risk in this group of patients, but a higher risk of vascular complications. PMID:26365121

  18. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%. PMID:25840036

  19. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  20. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients' QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  1. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients’ QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  2. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kavita K; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M; Prados, Michael D; Berger, Mitchel S; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2010-10-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3-16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3-20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  3. IDH mutation is associated with higher risk of malignant transformation in low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Leu, Severina; von Felten, Stefanie; Frank, Stephan; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Mariani, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Acquisition of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDHmut) is among the earliest genetic events that take place in the development of most low-grade glioma (LGG). IDHmut has been associated with longer overall patient survival. However, its impact on malignant transformation (MT) remains to be defined. A collection of 210 archived adult LGG previously stratified by IDHmut, MGMT methylation (MGMTmet), 1p/19q combined loss of heterozygosity (1p19qloh) and TP53 immunopositivity (TP53pos) status was analyzed. We used multistate models to assess MT-free survival, considering one initial, one transient (MT), and one absorbing state (death). Missing explanatory variables were multiply imputed. Overall, although associated with a lower risk of death (HR(DEATH) = 0.35, P = 0.0023), IDHmut had a non-significantly higher risk of MT (HR(MT) = 1.84; P = 0.1683) compared to IDH wild type (IDHwt). The double combination of IDHmut and MGMTmet and the triple combination of IDHmut, MGMTmet and 1p/19qloh, despite significantly lower hazards for death (HR(DEATH) versus IDHwt: 0.35, P = 0.0194 and 0.15, P = 0.0008, respectively), had non-significantly different hazards for MT. Conversely, the triple combination of IDHmut/MGMTmet/TP53pos, with a non-significantly different hazard for death, had a significantly higher hazard for MT than IDHwt (HR(MT) versus IDHwt: 2.83; P = 0.0452). Although IDHmut status is associated with longer overall patient survival, all IDHmut/MGMTmet subsets consistently showed higher risks of MT than of death, compared to IDHwt LGG. This supports the findings that molecular events relevant to IDH mutations impact early glioma development prior to malignant transformation. PMID:26780338

  4. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

  5. The Immune Protective Effect of the Mediterranean Diet against Chronic Low-grade Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  6. Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast: A diagnostic and clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qing Ting; Chuwa, Esther Wee Lee; Chew, Sung Hock; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim; Lim, Swee Ho

    2015-07-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast (ASBC) is a rare variant of metaplastic breast cancer with both glandular as well as squamous differentiation. Their lack of distinct imaging characteristics, sometimes subtle histological characteristics and overlapping features with other benign lesions pose a diagnostic challenge. Unlike other forms of metaplastic breast cancer, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGAC) tends to follow an indolent course with favourable prognosis. We reviewed eight cases of LGAC in our institution from June 2005 to March 2014. In six cases, LGAC was only found after excisional biopsy. In our patients, LGAC frequently co-existed with other forms of breast pathology. Two patients had incidental findings of LGAC alongside their primary malignant tumour (adenoid cystic carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma in one, four foci between 0.5 and 4.0 mm within a radial sclerosing lesion adjacent to a malignant phyllodes tumour in the other). A further four patients had LGAC within a complex sclerosing lesion. One patient had a focus of LGAC within a fibroadenoma. One had a focus of LGAC within a benign phyllodes tumour. None of the patients had evidence of nodal involvement. A high degree of suspicion is recommended as such lesions tend to be incidental histological findings within benign tumours or within complex sclerosing lesions. Although the risk of nodal and distant metastasis is low, the potential for local recurrence necessitates aggressive local excision with margin clearance. The role of axillary dissection has yet to be defined and routine sentinel node biopsy and axillary clearance may not be necessary in view of rarity of nodal metastasis in literature. Benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy is not clearly defined. All eight patients in our study have shown no evidence of recurrence after definitive surgery but longer periods of surveillance is required. PMID:25986061

  7. The effect of pregnancy on survival in a low-grade glioma cohort.

    PubMed

    Rønning, Pål A; Helseth, Eirik; Meling, Torstein R; Johannesen, Tom B

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The impact of pregnancy on survival in female patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) is unknown and controversial. The authors designed a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected registry data to assess the influence of pregnancy and child delivery on the survival of female patients with LGG. METHODS In Norway, the reporting of all births and cancer diagnoses to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) and the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN), respectively, is compulsory by law. Furthermore, every individual has a unique 11-digit identification number. The CRN was searched to identify all female patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or pilocytic astrocytoma who were 16-40 years of age at the time of diagnosis during the period from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2008. Obstetrical information was obtained from the MBRN for each patient. The effect of pregnancy on survival was evaluated using a Cox model with parity as a time-dependent variable. RESULTS The authors identified 65 patients who gave birth to 95 children after an LGG diagnosis. They also identified 281 patients who did not give birth after an LGG diagnosis. The median survival was 14.3 years (95% CI 11.7-20.6 years) for the entire study population. The effect of pregnancy was insignificant in the multivariate model (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.35-1.42). CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy does not seem to have an impact on the survival of female patients with LGG. PMID:26722849

  8. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  9. Mediterranean diet and low-grade subclinical inflammation: the Moli-sani study.

    PubMed

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological mechanism linking risk factors and/or metabolic disorders to increased risk of chronic degenerative disease. A meat-based pattern, as the Western type diet, is positively linked to higher levels of some important biomarkers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and fibrinogen. Conversely, a Mediterranean-like eating behavior is associated with lower degree of these biomarkers thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory action of its main food components. This chapter goes through the most important investigations addressing the relationship between dietary habits and subclinical inflammation. Attention was focussed on the findings from the Moli-sani study: this is a large prospective cohort study that recruited 24,325 men and women from the general population of the Molise Region, a Southern Italian area, with the aim of investigating genetic and environmental risk/protection factors for cardiovascular and tumor disease. For the first time, the Moli-sani study carefully investigated the Mediterranean diet as an environmental determinant of both platelet and white blood cell counts, starting from the hypothesis that a diet rich in healthy compounds could favorably influence the production and/or the clearance of these two cellular biomarkers of lowgrade inflammation. Additionally, evidence from this large Italian cohort showed that a Mediterranean-like diet was closely associated with relatively lower values of glucose, lipids, CRP, blood pressure and 10-year cardiovascular risk, while the consumption of healthy foods with high rather than low content in antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals was associated with lower blood pressure and CRP plasma levels at least in men. PMID:25329200

  10. A disconnection account of subjective empathy impairments in diffuse low-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Costi, Emanuele; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Human empathic experience is a multifaceted psychological construct which arises from functional integration of multiple neural networks. Despite accumulating knowledge about the cortical circuitry of empathy, almost nothing is known about the connectivity that may be concerned in conveying empathy-related neural information. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we studied dispositional empathy in a large-sized cohort of 107 patients who had undergone surgery for a diffuse low-grade glioma. The self-report questionnaire used enabled us to obtain a global measure of subjective empathy but also, importantly, to assess the two main components of empathy (cognitive and emotional). Data were processed by combining voxelwise and tractwise lesion-symptom analyses. Several major findings emerged from our analyses. First of all, topological voxelwise analyses were inconclusive. Conversely, tractwise multiple regression analyses, including all major associative white matter pathways as potential predictors, yielded to significant models explaining substantial part of the behavioural variance. Among the main results, we found that disconnection of the left cingulum bundle was a strong predictor of a low cognitive empathy (p<0.0005 Bonferroni-corrected). Similarly, we found that disconnection of the right uncinate fasciculus and the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus predicted, respectively, a low (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) and a high (p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected) subjective empathy. Finally, although we failed to relate emotional empathy to disruption of a specific tract, correlation analyses indicated a positive association between this component of empathy and the volumes of residual lesion infiltration in the right hemisphere (p<0.01). Taken as a whole, these findings provide key fundamental insights into the anatomical connectivity of empathy. They may help to better understand the pathophysiology of empathy impairments in pathological conditions characterized by

  11. GE-01MOLECULAR AND PATHOLOGIC SUBSETS OF LOW GRADE GLIOMAS AND GLIONEURONAL TUMORS IDENTIFIED BY microRNA PROFILING

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Heather; Vizcaino, M. Adelita; Rodriguez, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade (WHO I-II) gliomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system in children. They often have a good prognosis following total resection, however they can create many neurological complications due to mass effect, and may be difficult to resect depending on anatomic location. MicroRNAs have been identified as molecular regulators of protein expression that can repress multiple mRNAs concurrently through base pairing. Specific microRNAs are often suppressed during early cell differentiation to promote the expression of mitogenic proteins that are associated with the maintenance of specific stem cell types, a mechanism for growth and survival that is frequently exploited in cancer cells. Identification of these microRNA signatures present in low grade glioma and glioneuronal tumor sub-types could therefore lead to a wealth of candidate biomarkers. We used NanoString technology to analyze the expression levels of 800 microRNAs in nine low-grade glial and glioneuronal tumor subtypes (n = 45) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. We then generated hierarchical clusters following evaluation via significant analysis of microarrays (SAMs). Hierarchical clustering separated tumors from non-neoplastic brain. When looking at individual tumors, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) clustered sharply together, consistent with a unique microRNA expression signature in this tuberous sclerosis associated tumor subtype, compared to other low grade glial and glioneuronal tumors. Candidate microRNAs were validated using qRT-PCR. In SEGAs, microRNAs miR-219-5p, miR-129-2-3p, miR-338-3p, miR-487b, miR-885-5p, and miR-323-3p were significantly down-regulated by more than 15 fold as compared to normal brain and were also significantly down-regulated as compared to other low grade gliomas. In summary, altered microRNA expression is a feature of low grade glial and glioneuronal tumors. MicroRNA profiling may therefore be useful in

  12. Differentiation of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

    PubMed

    Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, a high complexity in innate lymphoid lineages now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been revealed. ILCs can be grouped according to their effector functions and transcriptional requirements into three main groups, termed group 1, 2 and 3 ILCs. The differentiation of ILC lineages from hematopoietic precursors and the molecular switches guiding their developmental fate have started to be characterized both in mice and humans. In this review, we discuss the origin, differentiation stages and plasticity of human ILC subsets as well as the signals that drive ILC lineage commitment and acquisition of their unique effector programs. PMID:26707651

  13. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p < 0.05) solid loss and cooked weight. Utilization of PLR flakes in nutritious bar resulted in highly crispy and crunchy texture, enhanced flavor and taste as compared to control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased

  14. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Methods Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l1l2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. Results We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase

  15. Involvement of gut microbiota in the development of low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes associated with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Patrice D.; Osto, Melania; Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations related to glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. These metabolic alterations are associated with low-grade inflammation that contributes to the onset of these diseases. We and others have provided evidence that gut microbiota participates in whole-body metabolism by affecting energy balance, glucose metabolism, and low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders. Recently, we defined gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (and metabolic endotoxemia) as a factor involved in the onset and progression of inflammation and metabolic diseases. In this review, we discuss mechanisms involved in the development of metabolic endotoxemia such as the gut permeability. We also discuss our latest discoveries demonstrating a link between the gut microbiota, endocannabinoid system tone, leptin resistance, gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2), and metabolic features. Finally, we will introduce the role of the gut microbiota in specific dietary treatments (prebiotics and probiotics) and surgical interventions (gastric bypass). PMID:22572877

  16. The use of dual growing rods to correct spinal deformity secondary to a low-grade spinal cord astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Elizabeth N.; Muthigi, Akhil; Frino, John; Powers, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas are rare, and the majority are low grade, typically carrying a low risk of mortality, but a high risk of morbidity. Quality of life is, therefore, an important consideration in treating concomitant progressive kyphoscoliosis. Compared with fusion-based spinal stabilization, fusionless techniques may limit some complications related to early instrumentation of the developing spine. Another consideration is the timing of radiation therapy relative to both spinal maturity and spinal instrumentation. To date, there have been no reports of the use of a fusionless technique to treat spinal deformity secondary to an intramedullary spinal cord tumor. Herein, we report the use of fusionless spinal stabilization with dual growing rods in a boy with low-grade spinal cord astrocytoma after radiation therapy. PMID:26468485

  17. Diffuse lymphoid follicles of the colon associated with colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronen, R A; Glick, S N; Teplick, S K

    1984-01-01

    In four patients aged 59-75 years, colonic carcinoma was associated with diffuse lymphoid follicles in the colon. In one case, the prominence and distribution of the lymphoid follicles corresponded to the progression and regression of the tumor bulk. It is extremely unusual to demonstrate lymphoid follicles, particularly diffuse, on barium enema in patients in this age range. The colonic carcinomas and lymphoid follicles are directly related, possibly representing an immune response. PMID:6606941

  18. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  19. Retrospective protein expression and epigenetic inactivation studies of CDH1 in patients affected by low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Pietro Ivo; D'Urso, Oscar Fernando; Storelli, Carlo; Catapano, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Muscella, Antonella; Marsigliante, Santo

    2011-08-01

    Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of tumour cells results in loss of gene function. In addition to genetic lesions, changes in the methylation profile of the promoters may be considered a factor for tumour-specific aberrant expression of the genes.We investigated the methylation status of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter in low-grade glioma and correlated it with clinical outcome. Eighty-four cases of low-grade glioma (43 diffuse astrocytomas, 27 oligodendrogliomas and 14 oligoastrocytomas) with assessable paraffin-embedded tumour blocks and normal brain tissue, derived from non-cancerous tissue adjacent to tumour and commercially normal brain tissue, were collected, from which we determined CDH1 promoter methylation status and E-cadherin protein expression by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CDH1 promoter was found hypermethylated in 54 out of 84 low grade gliomas (64%) compared with 84 normal brain tissue. CDH1 hypermethylation was found in 65% astrocytomas, 66% oligodendrogliomas and 57% oligoastrocytomas. A significant correlation between hypermethylation status, patient survival and progression-free survival was found (P = 0.04). Survival and progression-free survival were lower in patients with hypermethylated CDH1 promoter. We found that 15 astrocytomas, 9 oligodendrogliomas and 6 oligoastrocytomas were immunoreactive for E-cadherin. The incidence of loss of immunoreactivity for E-cadherin decreased significantly with age, overall survival and progression-free survival (P = 0.001, Kaplan-Meier test). We have demonstrated that CDH1 promoter hypermethylation significantly associated with down-regulated E-cadherin expression and overall survival of patients. This may have a bearing on the prognosis of low-grade glioma. PMID:21127944

  20. A Phase II Trial of a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Panobinostat in Patients With Low-Grade Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Sam J.; Mulkerin, Daniel L.; Rajguru, Saurabh; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Chen, Herb; Holen, Kyle D.; LoConte, Noelle K.

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors versus carcinoid tumors should be examined separately in clinical trials. Progression-free survival is more clinically relevant as the primary endpoint (rather than response rate) in phase II trials for low-grade neuroendocrine tumors. Background. The most common subtypes of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are pancreatic islet cell tumors and carcinoids, which represent only 2% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have already been shown to suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis in various malignancies. In NET cells, HDAC inhibitors have resulted in increased Notch1 expression and subsequent inhibition of growth. We present here a phase II study of the novel HDAC inhibitor panobinostat in patients with low-grade NET. Methods. Adult patients with histologically confirmed, metastatic, low-grade NETs and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of ≤2 were treated with oral panobinostat 20 mg once daily three times per week. Treatment was continued until patients experienced unacceptable toxicities or disease progression. The study was stopped at planned interim analysis based on a Simon two-stage design. Results. Fifteen patients were accrued, and 13 were evaluable for response. No responses were seen, but the stable disease rate was 100%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.9 months, and the median overall survival was 47.3 months. Fatigue (27%), thrombocytopenia (20%), diarrhea (13%), and nausea (13%) were the most common related grade 3 toxicities. There was one grade 4 thrombocytopenia (7%). These results did not meet the prespecified criteria to open the study to full accrual. Conclusion. The HDAC inhibitor panobinostat has a high stable disease rate and reasonable PFS in low-grade NET, but has a low response rate. PMID:27261467

  1. Upgrading of consumer characteristics of granulated solid fuel from mixture of low-grade coal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Milovanov, O. Yu; Sinelshchikov, V. A.; Sytchev, G. A.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Effect of torrefaction on consumer characteristics of fuel pellets made of low-grade and agricultural waste is shown. Data on the volatile content, ash content, calorific value and hygroscopicity for initial pellets and pellets, heat-treated at various temperatures are presented. The experimental study of the combustion process of initial and heat-treated pellets showed that torrefaction of pellets leads to a decreasing of the ignition temperature and an increasing of the efficiency of boiler plant.

  2. Early versus delayed postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, J Manuel; Venteicher, Andrew S; Patil, Chirag G

    2015-01-01

    Background In most people with low-grade gliomas (LGG), the primary treatment regimen remains a combination of surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy. However, the optimal timing of radiotherapy is controversial. It is unclear whether to use radiotherapy in the early postoperative period, or whether radiotherapy should be delayed until tumour progression occurs. Objectives To assess the effects of early postoperative radiotherapy versus radiotherapy delayed until tumour progression for low-grade intracranial gliomas in people who had initial biopsy or surgical resection. Search methods We searched up to September 2014 the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8, 2014), MEDLINE (1948 to Aug week 3, 2014), and EMBASE (1980 to Aug week 3, 2014) to identify trials for inclusion in this Cochrane review. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared early versus delayed radiotherapy following biopsy or surgical resection for the treatment of people with newly diagnosed intracranial LGG (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, astroblastoma, xanthoastrocytoma, or ganglioglioma). Radiotherapy may include conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with linear accelerator or cobalt-60 sources, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and risk of bias, and extracted study data. We resolved any differences between review authors by discussion. Adverse effects were also extracted from the study report. We performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model with inverse variance weighting. Main results We included one large, multi-institutional, prospective RCT, involving 311 participants; the risk of bias in this study was unclear. This study found that early postoperative radiotherapy is associated with an increase in time to

  3. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Jin, S K; Park, J H; Jung, S W; Lyu, H J

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

  4. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

  5. TMPRSS2-ERG fusions are strongly linked to young patient age in low-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Steurer, Stefan; Mayer, Pascale Sophia; Adam, Meike; Krohn, Antje; Koop, Christina; Ospina-Klinck, Daniel; Tehrani, Ali Attarchi; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Graefen, Markus; Wittmer, Corinna; Brors, Benedikt; Plass, Christoph; Korbel, Jan; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Sauter, Guido; Huland, Hartwig; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Minner, Sarah; Schlomm, Thorsten

    2014-12-01

    Based on next-generation sequencing of early-onset prostate cancer (PCa), we earlier demonstrated that PCa in young patients is prone to rearrangements involving androgen-regulated genes-such as transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) fusion-and provided data suggesting that this situation might be caused by increased androgen signaling in younger men. In the same study, an accumulation of chromosomal deletions was found in cancers of elderly patients. To determine how age-dependent molecular features relate to cancer phenotype, an existing data set of 11,152 PCas was expanded by additional fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), 6q15 and 5q21. The results demonstrate that the decrease in TMPRSS2-ERG fusions with increasing patient age is limited to low-grade cancers (Gleason ≤3+4) and that the significant increase in the deletion frequency with age was strictly limited to ERG-negative cancers for 6q15 and 5q21 but to ERG-positive cancers for PTEN. These data suggest that the accumulation of non-androgen-linked genomic alterations with advanced patient age may require an appropriate microenvironment, such as a positive or negative ERG status. The strong link of ERG activation to young patient age and low-grade cancers may help to explain a slight predominance of low-grade cancers in young patients. PMID:25015038

  6. Interferon alpha 2b as maintenance therapy in low grade malignant lymphoma improves duration of remission and survival.

    PubMed

    Aviles, A; Duque, G; Talavera, A; Guzman, R

    1996-02-01

    We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of interferon alpha 2b (IFN) as maintenance therapy in patients with low grade malignant lymphoma. Between March 1986 and December 1989, 98 patients with low-grade malignant lymphoma in complete remission after conventional chemotherapy were randomly assigned to received IFN, 5.0 MU three times a week for one year, as maintenance therapy (n = 48), or to receive no treatment (control group, n = 50). In March 1994, the median duration of response had not yet been reached in the patients treated with IFN compared to 46 months in the control group. At 9-years 62% of the patients in the IFN arm remain in first complete remission compared to only 25% in the control group (p <.001). In addition, the median duration of survival has not yet been reached in either the IFN arm compared to 74 months in the control group (p <.001). Quality of life was excellent in both groups and severe side effects secondary to IFN treatment were not observed. All patients completed the planned dose of IFN. We conclude that IFN as maintenance therapy in low-grade malignant lymphoma is an excellent therapeutic option because it improves the duration of remission and survival without producing severe side effects or reducing the quality of life. PMID:8833409

  7. Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa; Trachtman, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely-used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. Since exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared to the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91 mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28 mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures. PMID:23302717

  8. Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M; Trachtman, Howard

    2013-04-01

    Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. As exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91 mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28 mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures. PMID:23302717

  9. First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Frenay, M P; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Lebrun, C

    2005-09-01

    At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas. Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications. We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT. All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection. All patients with epilepsy had a clinical improvement with reduction in seizure frequency and 60% became seizure-free. CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity. Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms. The three deceased patients died 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 years from first symptoms. These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status. This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT. PMID:16128869

  10. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts. PMID:27328009

  11. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  12. Separation and Extraction of Bismuth and Manganese from Roasted Low-Grade Bismuthinite and Pyrolusite: Thermodynamic Analysis and Sulfur Fixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jing; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Fu; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Xia, Chu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    A new environmentally friendly technology with higher recovery of bismuth is proposed to extract bismuth from low-grade bismuthinite and co-production MnSO4 from low-grade pyrolusite. The effects of simultaneous roasting process parameters on the sulfur-fixing rate and MnSO4 formation rate are investigated. Based on the Pourbaix diagram of metal-sulfur-oxygen system, the behavior of bismuth, manganese, and associated metal elements such ferrous, copper, lead, and sulfur in the bismuthinite and pyrolusite during roasting process is analyzed. The experimental results show that Bi in the ores can be converted into bismuth oxide or oxygen bismuth sulfate, and most of Mn in the ores can react with SO2 from bismuthinite to form MnSO4, which agree with thermodynamic analysis. A maximum of sulfur-fixing rate of 98.14% and MnSO4 formation rate of 70.2% are obtained under the conditions of 1.4 for the molar ratio of MnO2 to total sulfur in mixing ores of bismuthinite and pyrolusite ( n(MnO2)/ n(S)), 923 K for the roasting temperature, 2 h for roasting time, 140 L/h for air rate, and less than 74 μm for particle size. The ultimate recovery rate of bismuth reaches 96.25% by selective leaching of the roasted product, purification of leaching solution, and hydrolysis, which is higher than the current applied technology for the low-grade bismuthinite.

  13. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Kotowska, Dorota; Sand, Elin; Bjursell, Mikael; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Holm, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Berger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF)-induced metabolic alterations. Methods Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2) during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP) as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain. PMID:27125264

  14. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Thaler, B; Hohensinner, P J; Krychtiuk, K A; Matzneller, P; Koller, L; Brekalo, M; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Zeitlinger, M; Jilma, B; Wojta, J; Speidl, W S

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16-), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 and CD16, activation status of monocytes was analyzed by staining for CD11b and a novel in situ mRNA hybridization approach to detect IL-6 and IL-8 specific mRNA at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. After LPS challenge, cell numbers of monocyte subsets dropped after 2 h with cell numbers recovering after 6 h. Distribution of monocyte subsets was skewed dramatically towards the intermediate subset after 24 h. Furthermore, intermediate monocytes displayed the largest increase of CD11b expression after 2 h. Finally, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels increased in intermediate and non-classical monocytes after 6 h whereas these mRNA levels in classical monocytes changed only marginally. In conclusion, our data indicates that the main responding subset of monocytes to standardized low-grade inflammation induced by LPS in humans is the CD14++CD16+ intermediate subset followed by the CD14+CD16+ non-classical monocyte subset. Circulating classical monocytes showed comparably less reaction to LPS challenge in vivo. PMID:27444882

  15. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, B.; Hohensinner, P. J.; Krychtiuk, K. A.; Matzneller, P.; Koller, L.; Brekalo, M.; Maurer, G.; Huber, K.; Zeitlinger, M.; Jilma, B.; Wojta, J.; Speidl, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16−), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 and CD16, activation status of monocytes was analyzed by staining for CD11b and a novel in situ mRNA hybridization approach to detect IL-6 and IL-8 specific mRNA at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. After LPS challenge, cell numbers of monocyte subsets dropped after 2 h with cell numbers recovering after 6 h. Distribution of monocyte subsets was skewed dramatically towards the intermediate subset after 24 h. Furthermore, intermediate monocytes displayed the largest increase of CD11b expression after 2 h. Finally, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels increased in intermediate and non-classical monocytes after 6 h whereas these mRNA levels in classical monocytes changed only marginally. In conclusion, our data indicates that the main responding subset of monocytes to standardized low-grade inflammation induced by LPS in humans is the CD14++CD16+ intermediate subset followed by the CD14+CD16+ non-classical monocyte subset. Circulating classical monocytes showed comparably less reaction to LPS challenge in vivo. PMID:27444882

  16. Missed low-grade infection in suspected aseptic loosening has no consequences for the survival of total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Willemijn; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Visser, Els; Lehr, A Mechteld; De Windt, Tommy S; Van Hellemondt, Gijs; Geurts, Jan; Tulp, Niek J A; Schreurs, B Wim; Burger, Bart J; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Vogely, H Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — Aseptic loosening and infection are 2 of the most common causes of revision of hip implants. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces not only the rate of revision due to infection but also the rate of revision due to aseptic loosening. This suggests under-diagnosis of infections in patients with presumed aseptic loosening and indicates that current diagnostic tools are suboptimal. In a previous multicenter study on 176 patients undergoing revision of a total hip arthroplasty due to presumed aseptic loosening, optimized diagnostics revealed that 4–13% of the patients had a low-grade infection. These infections were not treated as such, and in the current follow-up study the effect on mid- to long-term implant survival was investigated. Patients and methods — Patients were sent a 2-part questionnaire. Part A requested information about possible re-revisions of their total hip arthroplasty. Part B consisted of 3 patient-related outcome measure questionnaires (EQ5D, Oxford hip score, and visual analog scale for pain). Additional information was retrieved from the medical records. The group of patients found to have a low-grade infection was compared to those with aseptic loosening. Results — 173 of 176 patients from the original study were included. In the follow-up time between the revision surgery and the current study (mean 7.5 years), 31 patients had died. No statistically significant difference in the number of re-revisions was found between the infection group (2 out of 21) and the aseptic loosening group (13 out of 152); nor was there any significant difference in the time to re-revision. Quality of life, function, and pain were similar between the groups, but only 99 (57%) of the patients returned part B. Interpretation — Under-diagnosis of low-grade infection in conjunction with presumed aseptic revision of total hip arthroplasty may not affect implant survival. PMID:26364842

  17. Column bioleaching of low-grade mining ore containing high level of smithsonite, talc, sphaerocobaltite and azurite.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Sadia; Chi, Ruan; Bhatti, H N; Bhatti, I A; Ghauri, M A

    2012-03-01

    Present work describes the bioleaching potential of metals from low-grade mining ore containing smithsonite, sphaerocobaltite, azurite and talc as main gangue minerals with adapted consortium of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain-RDB and Thermoplasma acidophilum. Bioleaching potential improved markedly by added energy source, acid preleaching and adaptation of microbial consortium with mixed metal ions. During whole leaching period including acid preleaching stage of 960 h and bioleaching stage of 212 days about 76% Co, 70% Zn, 84% Cu, 72% Ni and 63% Fe leached out. PMID:21947702

  18. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  19. Innate lymphoid cells in the airways.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer A; McKenzie, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The airways, similar to other mucosal surfaces, are continuously exposed to the outside environment and a barrage of antigens, allergens, and microorganisms. Of critical importance therefore is the ability to mount rapid and effective immune responses to control commensal and pathogenic microbes, while simultaneously limiting the extent of these responses to prevent immune pathology and chronic inflammation. The function of the adaptive immune response in controlling these processes at mucosal surfaces has been well documented but the important role of the innate immune system, particularly the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells, has only lately become apparent. In this review, we give an overview of the innate lymphoid cells that exist in the airways and examine the evidence pertaining to their emerging roles in airways immunity, inflammation, and homeostasis. PMID:22678892

  20. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  1. Subclinical-Dose Endotoxin Sustains Low-Grade Inflammation and Exacerbates Steatohepatitis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Diao, Na; Yuan, Ruoxi; Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Li, Mingsong; Li, Liwu

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical circulating bacterial endotoxin LPS has been implicated as an important cofactor in the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that 4-wk injection with superlow-dose LPS significantly promoted neutrophil infiltration and accelerated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis progression, including exacerbated macrovesicular steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice. This effect could sustain for a month after stoppage of LPS injection. LPS also significantly increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei in hepatocytes and expressions of proapoptotic regulators. Moreover, LPS sustained the low-grade activation of p38 MAPK and inhibited the expression of the upstream MAPK phosphatase 7. By applying selective inhibitors, we demonstrated that the activation of p38 MAPKs is required for neutrophil migration induced by superlow-dose LPS in vitro. Together, these data suggest that superlow-dose LPS may sustain the low-grade activation of p38 MAPKs and neutrophil infiltration, leading to the exacerbation of steatohepatitis. PMID:26810228

  2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation)

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentín

    2014-01-01

    The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). PMID:25214719

  3. Indications for Treatment: Is Observation or Chemotherapy Alone a Reasonable Approach in the Management of Low-Grade Gliomas?

    PubMed

    Schaff, Lauren R; Lassman, Andrew B

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Recently published results from the long-term follow-up of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9802 demonstrated medically meaningful and statistically significant survival prolongation by adding chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine after radiotherapy (RT) vs RT alone for "high"-risk patients (median 13.3 vs 7.8 years, hazard ratio = 0.59, P = 0.03). However, in the 17 years since that trial was launched, there have been advances in the understanding of low-grade gliomas biology and patient heterogeneity, an increased recognition of late neurocognitive injury from early RT, and the emergence of temozolomide as an alternative chemotherapy to procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine. These and other changes in the treatment landscape make the applicability of results from RTOG 9802 to all patients less clear. Moreover, in some patients, especially those at the lowest risk for early disease progression, deferred RT in favor of active surveillance or chemotherapy alone may remain a reasonable treatment approach. PMID:26050591

  4. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D. . E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

  5. Multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic type in the setting of HIV and acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Dosal, Jacquelyn; Nelson, Ann M; Shelling, Michael; Romaguera, Rita; Poulos, Evangelos; Alonso-Llamazares, Javier

    2014-10-01

    A 46-year-old white male with a history of HIV (CD4 245), acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis, anal carcinoma in situ, hepatitis B and C presented with 3 asymptomatic, nontender, firm pink/skin-colored nodules involving the arm, left lateral leg, and right third finger. One year later, he developed a similar lesion on his right medial lower leg. Excisional biopsy of one of the lesions showed an atypical spindle cell neoplasm of the dermis compatible with a low-grade sarcoma of fibroblastic origin. Testing for human herpes virus-8, 23 human papillomavirus types, Epstein-Barr virus, and FUS fusion protein were negative. The patient underwent diagnostic imaging with computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis along with positron emission tomography scan to ensure that there was no other occult primary tumor, all of which were negative. The lesions were excised and have not recurred with 3 years of follow-up. The best histopathologic term for these lesions is multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic phenotype. They have been proven to be nonaggressive, with little or no metastatic potential. This is a neoplastic process that has not been well defined in the literature. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of these lesions occurring in multiple sites or in an HIV-positive patient. PMID:23759878

  6. Harvesting low-grade heat energy using thermo-osmotic vapour transport through nanoporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Anthony P.; Yip, Ngai Yin; Lin, Shihong; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Low-grade heat from sources below 100 ∘C offers a vast quantity of energy. The ability to extract this energy, however, is limited with existing technologies as they are not well-suited to harvest energy from sources with variable heat output or with a small temperature difference between the source and the environment. Here, we present a process for extracting energy from low-grade heat sources utilizing hydrophobic, nanoporous membranes that trap air within their pores when submerged in a liquid. By driving a thermo-osmotic vapour flux across the membrane from a hot reservoir to a pressurized cold reservoir, heat energy can be converted to mechanical work. We demonstrate operation of air-trapping membranes under hydraulic pressures up to 13 bar, show that power densities as high as 3.53 ± 0.29 W m‑2 are achievable with a 60 ∘C heat source and a 20 ∘C heat sink, and estimate the efficiency of a full-scale system. The results demonstrate a promising process to harvest energy from low-temperature differences (<40 ∘C) and fluctuating heat sources.

  7. In vitro Differentiation of Murine Innate Lymphoid Cells from Common Lymphoid Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey; Kaye, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), defined based on their cytokine secretion profiles and transcription factor expression, are important for host protection from pathogens and maintaining tissue homeostasis. ILCs develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) in the bone marrow. Using the methods described here, we have previously shown that loss of the transcriptional regulator TOX (Thymocyte-selection associated HMG-box protein) leads to specific changes in ILC development and differentiation. Here, we describe how to obtain ILCs from in vivo isolated CLP grown in vitro. PMID:27239483

  8. Feasibility of total body irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Roncadin, M; Arcicasa, M; Bortolus, R; Trovó, M G; Carbone, A; Tirelli, U; De Paoli, A; Franchin, G; Grigoletto, E

    1991-01-01

    Combined total body irradiation (TBI) and Prednimustine were prospectively evaluated in 30 patients affected either with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) eleven patients were previously treated. Between January 1984 and May 1987, 20 evaluable patients with CLL, median age 66 years (range 43-82), classified according to Rai (4 in stage I, 10 in stage II, 4 in stage III, 2 in stage IV) and 10 evaluable patients with NHL low-grade malignancy according to the Working Formulation, Stages III and IV, median age 54 years (range 32-71) were treated using a 6 MeV Linear Accelerator, applying two opposite alternating fields including total body, with a fraction of 15 cGy, 2 fractions weekly (3-day interval) for a total dose of 150 cGy given over 5 weeks. Prednimustine (100 mg/m2, orally, for 5 consecutive days, every 3-4 weeks, for 6-9 courses) was administered 2 months after TBI treatment, as consolidation therapy. By May 1989, a total of 85% hematological responses (defined as normalization of the differential white cell count, of the total blood cell count and of bone marrow infiltration) were obtained after combined treatment in CLL patients; moreover 3 CR (according to the WHO criteria), 75% with splenomegaly reduction and 40% with lymphadenopathy reduction were seen. Ninety percent objective responses (5 CR and 4 PR) were observed in the NHL patients, with 50% having splenomegaly reduction and 67% lymphadenopathy reduction. The median response time in the two groups was, respectively, 14 and 23 months. The overall toxicity (WHO grades 1,2,3,4) after combined treatment was 65% and 70% in the two patient groups. WHO grade III toxicity, completely reversible, was verified in only 16.6% of the cases; all cases, except one, were previously treated. Additionally, 1 toxic death (grade IV thrombocytopenia and leukopenia) was observed in a heavily pretreated patient affected with CLL after TBI alone. Prednimustine regimen was

  9. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  10. The optimisation of stope leaching: a laboratory investigation into the extraction of uranium from a low-grade ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penman, Kristina Mary

    Nuclear power continues to make an important contribution to energy production in many countries around the world. Uranium mining is the first step in the production cycle of nuclear power. In order to enable low-grade uranium ore bodies to be developed as economically viable resources, low input mining techniques, such as stope leaching, are gaining interest. This thesis presents the results of research undertaken into the optimisation of stope leaching from a low grade uranium ore. Stope leaching was simulated in the laboratory by submitting crushed ore samples to successive saturated (flooding) and unsaturated (rest period) cycles. Experiments were carried out over a 52 week period using seven different protocols. The effects of rest period and lixiviant composition on uranium extraction rates were investigated. Rest period was varied by flooding at weekly, twice weekly, 2 weekly and 4 weekly intervals.. Four different lixiviants were investigated, tap water, Fe(III) sulfate, a nutrient solution and recycled leachate. Maximum uranium extractions over 52 weeks were: 57.7% for Fe(III) sulfate lixiviant with a 2 week rest period and 57.4% for tap water with a 4 week rest period. The introduction (via the lixiviant) or development (via oxidation of accessory pyrite) of low pH and Fe(III) and sulfate-rich interstitial water is thought to have provided conditions conducive to uranium oxidation and dissolution. The 4 week rest period is considered to have provided sufficient time for microbially assisted pyrite oxidation to develop similar conditions in the interstitial water as were provided by the addition of a Fe(III) sulfate lixiviant. All other protocols lead to less than 35% uranium extraction. Shorter rest periods did not allow time for sufficient pyrite oxidation to occur and the addition of a nutrient solution buffered pH which did not favour uranium dissolution. These findings have significant implications for low-grade uranium recovery by demonstrating that

  11. Key parameters for low-grade fine-grained iron ore valorization: lower environmental impact through reduced waste.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christiane; Orberger, Beate; Tudryn, Alina; Baptiste, Benoît; Wirth, Richard; Morgan, Rachel; Miska, Serge

    2016-04-01

    In low-grade banded iron formations (BIFs), a large part of the iron is related to micro- and nano- metric iron-bearing inclusions within quartz and/or carbonates, mainly dolomite (~ 20 to 50 μm). Low-grade fine grained iron ore present two types of environmental risks: a) they are often stocked as tailings. For example, the recent disaster (5th of November 2015) in the Minas Gerais district, Brazil, was caused by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam at an open cast mine; b) during beneficiation significant amounts of dust are generated also leading to metal loss. A laminated BIF studied from a drill core at Àguas Claras Mine, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, contains 26.71 wt. % total iron, 0.2 wt. % SiO2, 0.32 wt.% MnO, 15.46 wt. % MgO, 22.32 wt.% CaO, 0.09 wt. % P2O5, < 0.05 wt. % Al2O3, 0.15 wt. % H2O and 34.08 wt. % CO2. Environmental hazardous elements are present as traces (As: 3-20 ppm, Cd: 0-0.7 ppm; Cr: 0.05-60 ppm, Pb: up to 55 ppm; U: up to 8 ppm). Dolomite and quartz bands alternate with hematite bands. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and FIB-TEM analyses reveal that the micro- and nano- metric inclusions in dolomite are hematite and minor goethite, partly occurring as clusters in voids. Curie Balance analyses were carried out at different heating steps and temperatures on whole rock samples and a synthetic mix of decarbonated sample and pure dolomite. X-ray diffraction on the products of the heating experiments shows that that hematite is stable and new phases: magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4), lime (CaO), periclase (MgO), portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and srebrodoskite (Ca2Fe2O5) were formed between 680 °C and 920 °C. These findings promote the economic use of low grade ores rather than their stockpiling as tailings. The presence of OH-bearing goethite reduces the sintering temperature. After having separated coarse hematite from barren dolomite and quartz, a low temperature sintering of the inclusion-bearing dolomite/quartz leads to transformations

  12. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  13. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, Benjamin A.; Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Ebb, David H.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Jones, Robin M.; Butler, William E.; Huang, Mary S.; Marcus, Karen J.; Oberg, Jennifer A.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy{sub RBE} (48.6-54 Gy{sub RBE}). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy{sub RBE} to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  14. Thermal Energy Consumption in the Heat-Technology Production of Solid Composite Fuel From Low-Grade Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakaev, Roman; Astafev, Alexander; Kazakov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    An evaluation is made of the thermal energy consumed in the heat-technology production of solid composite fuel from low-grade organic raw materials. It is shown that the heat of decomposition of the organic mass and the combustion of the by-products of heat-technology may be sufficient to cover all the energy needs for processing peat, brown coal and wood chips. Producing solid composite fuel from sapropel requires external resources to compensate for part of the heat consumed. Calculations show that it is possible for the thermal processing of raw materials to proceed autothermally due to the heat of decomposition when the moisture content at the reactor inlet is limited: for peat it should be no more than 35%, 54% for brown coal, and 37% for wood chips. The low heat of decomposition of the sapropel organic mass means that its thermal processing cannot proceed autothermally.

  15. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Madakkaruppan, V; Pius, Anitha; T, Sreenivas; Giri, Nitai; Sarbajna, Chanchal

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12-0.50M), redox potential (400-500mV), particle size (600-300μm) and temperature (35°-95°C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism. PMID:27045621

  16. Pulmonary metastases from low grade sarcoma in a patient with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis or sarcoid-like reaction?

    PubMed

    Majori, Maria; Anghinolfi, Miriam; Gnetti, Letizia; Casalini, Angelo Gianni

    2016-01-01

    An asymptomatic man with previous histopatological diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis in radiological follow-up (stable for about 4 years) presented massive right pleural effusion. After drainage, CT of the chest showed an increase in number and size of pulmonary nodules compared to the last check (8 months before). Surgical pulmonary biopsies were performed with the diagnosis of metastases from low grade sarcoma. The primary tumor was localized to the right buttock. Given the absence of symptoms, the extent of disease and many comorbidities the patient underwent only treatment with gemcitabine that was not tolerated and discontinued after the first few cycles 1 year ago. At the present the patientis still asymptomatic even if the CT of the chest shows a slow but continuous progression of the disease. The question is: is this an association between sarcoidosis and malignancy? or was this a sarcoid-like reaction during malignancy? PMID:27537721

  17. Reversal of Low-Grade Cerebral Edema After Lactulose/Rifaximin Therapy in Patients with Cirrhosis and Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rahul; Ahuja, Chirag K; Agrawal, Swastik; Kalra, Naveen; Duseja, Ajay; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Chawla, Yogesh; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in the brain characterizes cerebral edema (CE) in patients with liver cirrhosis, but the role of treatment on its reversibility has not been studied in patients who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This study was carried to evaluate the reversibility of CE with lactulose and rifaximin treatment in patients with MHE and role of ammonia, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with cirrhosis (14 with MHE, 9 without MHE (NMHE)) and 6 healthy controls underwent ammonia, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α estimation, and MTR in frontal white matter (FWM), parietal white matter (PWM), internal capsule (IC), and basal ganglia (BG). RESULTS: Ammonia was significantly higher in the cirrhosis group compared with controls and in MHE compared with the NMHE group. Ammonia correlated positively with IL-1 and IL-6. MTRs in FWM, PWM, IC, and BG were significantly lower in the MHE group compared with controls and in PWM, IC, and BG compared with the NMHE group. MHE patients showed significant MTR increase in FWM, PWM, and IC with treatment. IL-6 and ammonia had significant negative and significant positive psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) correlation with MTR in various regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, demonstrated the reversibility of low-grade CE with treatment in patients with MHE. Negative correlation between ammonia, IL-6 levels, and MTR and positive correlation between PHES and MTR in MHE patients suggests the role of inflammation and ammonia in the genesis of low-grade CE. PMID:26378384

  18. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Neuburger, Daniela; Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  19. Early integration of high copy HPV16 detectable in women with normal and low grade cervical cytology and histology

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, S‐M A; Syrjänen, S M; Gyllensten, U B; Shabalova, I P; Petrovichev, N; Tosi, P; Syrjänen, K J; Johansson, B C

    2006-01-01

    Background Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA has been considered a late event in cervical carcinogenesis. However, integrated forms of HPV were recently detected in cancer precursor lesions using a new real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the deletions at the 3362–3443 region of HPV16 E2 Objective To study the frequency of HPV16 DNA integration in cervical lesions and compare the sensitivity of an additional upstream region of the E2 ORF (2962–3138) in detecting HPV integration. Methods Using the TaqMan based PCR, HPV16 positive DNA samples were analysed in 164 cervical scrapings from women participating in a multicentre screening trial. Biopsy confirmation was available in 62 cases. Results Primers targeting the 3362–3443 region detected the majority of E2 deletions. In only 23% of the samples was the E2 upstream region equal or better target than the 3362–3443 region. Mixed (episomal/integrated) pattern was the most prevalent physical state of HPV16, also present in PAP smears with normal morphology. Pure integrated form was most prevalent in HSIL and cancer lesions, but also detectable in low grade abnormalities (NSIL, ASC‐US, LSIL). Women with only integrated HPV16 were almost 10 years older than those with episomal HPV16. Viral load of integrated HPV16 was related to cytological abnormality (p = 0.003) but not to histology. Conclusions Integrated HPV16 is present in low grade cervical lesions, mostly mixed with the episomal form. Women with the pure integrated form of HPV16 are older than those with the other forms. PMID:16484445

  20. Factors Influencing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Young Patients With Benign and Low-Grade Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh; Mallick, Indranil; Dutta, Debnarayan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To present the effect of radiotherapy doses to different volumes of normal structures on neurocognitive outcomes in young patients with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients (median age, 13 years) with residual/progressive brain tumors (10 craniopharyngioma, 8 cerebellar astrocytoma, 6 optic pathway glioma and 4 cerebral low-grade glioma) were treated with SCRT to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Prospective neuropsychological assessments were done at baseline before RT and at subsequent follow-up examinations. The change in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores was correlated with various factors, including dose-volume to normal structures. Results: Although the overall mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) at baseline before RT remained unchanged at 2-year follow-up after SCRT, one third of patients did show a >10% decline in FSIQ as compared with baseline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients aged <15 years had a significantly higher chance of developing a >10% drop in FSIQ than older patients (53% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Dosimetric comparison in patients showing a >10% decline vs. patients showing a <10% decline in IQ revealed that patients receiving >43.2 Gy to >13% of volume of the left temporal lobe were the ones to show a significant drop in FSIQ (p = 0.048). Radiotherapy doses to other normal structures, including supratentorial brain, right temporal lobe, and frontal lobes, did not reveal any significant correlation. Conclusion: Our prospectively collected dosimetric data show younger age and radiotherapy doses to left temporal lobe to be predictors of neurocognitive decline, and may well be used as possible dose constraints for high-precision radiotherapy planning.

  1. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  2. Solidification/stabilization of electrolytic manganese residue using phosphate resource and low-grade MgO/CaO.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Chen, Hongliang; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, P-LGMgO (low-grade MgO and NaH2PO4·2H2O), P-CaO (CaO and NaH2PO4·2H2O), and P-MgCa (low-grade MgO, CaO and NaH2PO4·2H2O) were used for the solidification/stabilization (S/S) of electrolytic manganese residue (EMR). Relevant characteristics such as ammonia nitrogen and manganese stabilization behavior, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), probable S/S mechanisms, and EMR leaching test were investigated. The results demonstrate that using P-LGMgO had higher stabilization efficiency than P-CaO and P-MgCa for the S/S of EMR at the same stabilization agent dose. The stabilization efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and manganese in the EMR were 84.0% and 99.9%, respectively, and the UCS of EMR was 5.1MPa using P-LGMgO process after curing for 28 days when the molar ratio of Mg:P was 5:1 and dose of stabilization agent was 12wt%. In this process, ammonia nitrogen was stabilized by struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O), and manganese by bermanite (Mn3(PO4)2(OH)2·4H2O) and pyrochroite (Mn(OH)2). The leaching test results show that the values of all the measured metals on the 28th day were within the permitted level for the GB8978-1996 test suggested by China's environmental protection law and the concentration of ammonia nitrogen can be reduced from 504.0mgL(-1) to 76.6mgL(-1). PMID:27295063

  3. Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Clifford G.; Prayson, Richard A.; Hahn, Joseph F.; Kalfas, Iain H.; Whitfield, Melvin D.; Lee, S.-Y.; Suh, John H. . E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

  4. Benign and low-grade fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast have low recurrence rate after positive surgical margins.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Argani, Pedram; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms with a range of histologic features. Surgical excision is the primary management, but the need for excision to negative margins in benign and borderline phyllodes tumors is unclear. Here, we review the surgical management patterns and outcomes of 90 patients with benign and low-grade fibroepithelial lesions of the breast treated at our institution, including 19 borderline phyllodes tumors, 52 benign phyllodes tumors, and 19 representative neoplasms with overlapping features of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumors, which were classified as 'fibroadenomas with phyllodal features'. In total, 52 (58%) had positive surgical margins on first excision, and of these 17 (33%) underwent re-excision to achieve negative margins. Residual tumor was identified in three (18%) re-excisions. Patients with fibroadenoma with phyllodal features were more likely to have a positive surgical margin than with benign phyllodes tumors or borderline phyllodes tumors (89 vs 49%, P=0.0015), and were less likely to undergo re-excision for positive margins (12 vs 43%, P=0.031). In total, there were three recurrences (3%), with one per fibroadenoma with phyllodal features, benign phyllodes tumor, and borderline phyllodes tumor. There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between patients with positive or negative margins, or between patients with positive margin with or without re-excision. The extent of the positive margin did not predict recurrence. In conclusion, the recurrence rate of benign and low-grade fibroepithelial lesions is low and not associated with the original margin status. Patients with fibroadenomas with phyllodal features, benign phyllodes tumors, or selected borderline phyllodes tumors and positive margins on initial excision may be managed conservatively, with close follow-up and timely re-excision of any potential recurrence. PMID:26743469

  5. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of the metatarsal bone: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Jun; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Takagi, Satoshi; Seo, Hajime; Aoki, Mikiko; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Naito, Masatoshi

    2012-12-01

    Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) is a very rare low-grade malignant neoplasm that is often confused with a variety of benign fibro-osseous lesions. It rarely involves the small tubular bones of the feet. We present an unusual case of LGCOS arising in the third metatarsal bone of a 16-year-old boy. The radiographic appearance was suggestive of a benign lesion. An open biopsy was performed and the initial diagnosis was fibrous dysplasia. The patient underwent curettage of the lesion and packing of the bony defect with a synthetic bone substitute. Histologically, the curetted specimens consisted of spindle cells admixed with irregular bony trabeculae and osteoid. The spindle cells were fairly uniform with mild atypia, and cellularity varied from low to high. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were focally-positive for cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and p53, but negative for murine double minute-2. The MIB-1 labeling index was 36.7% in the highest focus. Cytogenetic analysis exhibited the following clonal karyotypic abnormalities: 48,XY,del(6)(p11),add(8)(q24),add(12)(p11.2),+mar1,+mar-2. Spectral karyotyping demonstrated that marker chromosomes were composed mainly of chromosome 6. Metaphase-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed a high-level amplification of 6p12-p21 and gains of 8q21-q24, 10p15, 12q13-q15, and 16q23-q24. Based on these findings, the final diagnosis was revised to LGCOS and the patient was treated with an additional wide excision, followed by reconstruction with a free-vascularized osteocutaneous scapular flap. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient is well with no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Our case highlights the diagnostic difficulty of this tumor with limited tissue samples and the importance of immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic analyses in ambiguous cases. PMID:23225447

  6. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power. PMID:25839239

  7. Retiform hemangioendothelioma. A distinctive form of low-grade angiosarcoma delineated in a series of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Calonje, E; Fletcher, C D; Wilson-Jones, E; Rosai, J

    1994-02-01

    Fifteen cases of a distinctive type of low-grade angiosarcoma of the skin are described. Most tumors presented in the second to fourth decades of life, the youngest patient being 9 years old and the oldest 78 (mean age, 36 years). There was no sex predilection. Six tumors arose on the lower limb, four on the upper limb, three on the trunk, and one each on the penis and the scalp. One case arose in the setting of chronic lymphedema and another following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Distinctive morphologic features were the presence of long arborizing blood vessels arranged in a retiform pattern (reminiscent of normal rete testis) lined by monomorphic hobnail endothelial cells, a very prominent lymphocytic infiltrate in most cases, and the focal presence of papillae with hyaline collagenous cores, similar to those seen in malignant endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (Dabska's tumor). With a median follow-up of 7.25 years in 14 cases, retiform hemangioendothelioma has proved to be a low-grade neoplasm that recurs frequently but has a very low metastatic rate. The single regional lymph node metastasis in this series was from a case with a biphasic pattern in which only the spindle cell component was represented in the metastasis. There have been no tumor-related deaths, underlining the importance of accurate distinction from conventional angiosarcoma. This distinction is facilitated principally by the absence of dissection between individual collagen bundles and the absence of endothelial atypia or mitotic activity. The precise relationship between retiform hemangioendothelioma and Dabska's tumor is uncertain, possibly because cases of the latter may not be homogeneous. PMID:8291650

  8. Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma of the Head and Neck: A Clinicopathologic Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan L; Thompson, Lester D; Leon, Marino E; Bishop, Justin A

    2016-06-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a deceptively bland malignancy with potential for late recurrence and metastasis, which usually occurs in the deep soft tissues of the extremities and trunk. Most LGFMSs harbor a characteristic gene fusion of FUS-CREB3L2, and recently MUC4 immunostaining has been found to be highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. We present a dedicated series of head and neck LGFMS, including the first reported laryngeal case, as well as a review of reported head and neck cases. The surgical pathology archives of our three institutions were searched for cases of LGFMS arising within the head and neck, and four cases were identified. The H&E slides were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry were performed for pancytokeratin, p63, p40, EMA, S100 protein, β-catenin, actin, CD34, and MUC4. The patients were 6, 43, 45, and 73 years old (mean 41.8 years) and included three males and one female. The tumors were located in the posterior cervical spine, facial skin, mandible, and larynx. The tumors were treated with surgical excision, and all four had histologic features typical for LGFMS including alternating myxoid and fibrous areas with prominent curvilinear vasculature. All tumors were MUC4 positive (100%), 2/4 (50%) were p63 positive, 1/4 (25%) showed focal EMA positivity; all 4 were negative for pancytokeratin, p40, S100 protein, β-catenin, actin, and CD34. LGFMS is a low grade sarcoma that rarely develops in the head and neck. Due to its rarity, a pathologist may not consider LGFMS in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms within the head and neck. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful, but stains should be selected carefully to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26276044

  9. Therapeutic Lymphoid Organogenesis in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Aliyah M.; Storkus, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory status of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has been heavily investigated in recent years. Chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways such as CCR7, CXCR5, lymphotoxin, and IL-36, which are involved in the generation of secondary lymphoid organs and effector immune responses, are now recognized as having value both as prognostic factors and as immunomodulatory therapeutics in the context of cancer. Furthermore, when produced in the TME, these mediators have been shown to promote the recruitment of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DC), and other specialized immune cell subsets such as follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, in association with the formation of “tertiary” lymphoid structures (TLS) within or adjacent to sites of disease. Although TLS are composed of a heterogeneous collection of immune cell types, whose composition differs based on cancer subtype, the qualitative presence of TLS has been shown to represent a biomarker of good prognosis for cancer patients. A comprehensive understanding of the role each of these pathways plays within the TME may support the rational design of future immunotherapies to selectively promote/bolster TLS formation and function, leading to improved clinical outcomes across the vast range of solid cancer types. PMID:26216634

  10. Pulmonary MALT lymphoma with amyloid production in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoto; Yamada, Gen; Itoh, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Morita-Ichimura, Shiho; Teramoto, Shin; Shijubo, Noriharu; Koba, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Abe, Shosaku

    2002-04-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of cough, low grade fever, chest pain and sicca symptoms. A chest radiograph showed an abnormal shadow and chest computed tomography revealed a tumor in left S6. She was diagnosed as Sjögren's syndrome by sialography and histological findings of labial biopsy. The surgically resected tumor specimen showed proliferation of lymphoid cells with lymphoepithelial lesions, which were positive for CD20 and kappa light chain. Kappa light chain-positive amyloid was found within the tumor. The tumor showed rearranged kappa light chain genes. The diagnosis was pulmonary mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with amyloid production. PMID:11993793

  11. Ixazomib Citrate and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Indolent B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Follicular Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  12. High-dose therapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Haas, R; Moos, M; Möhle, R; Döhner, H; Witt, B; Goldschmidt, H; Murea, S; Flentje, M; Wannenmacher, M; Hunstein, W

    1996-02-01

    It was the objective of our study to evaluate the efficacy of a sequential high-dose therapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Since July 1991, 48 patients (23 male/25 female) with a median age of 43 years (range 26-55) were included in the study. At the time of entry, 28 patients were in first and seven in second or higher remission. Twelve patients had relapse of disease and one patient had tumor progression. PBPC were collected during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-enhanced leukocyte recovery following treatment with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone (HAM). A median of two leukaphereses (range 2-7) resulted in 6.9 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (median, range 2.1 x 10(6)-38.8 x 10(6)). A comparison was made between the harvests obtained from patients in first remission and those from patients in second remission, in relapse or progressive disease. Patients mobilized in first remission tended to have a greater collection efficiency for CD34+ cells comprising a significantly greater proportion of more primitive CD34+/Thy-1+ progenitor cells. Conversely, leukapheresis (LP) products collected during first remission contained a significantly smaller proportion of CD34+/CD45RA+ cells and CD34+/c-kit+ cells, subsets which reflect a more differentiated progenitor cell stage. Following high-dose therapy and PBPC autografting, the median time to reach platelets > or = 20 x 10(9)/l and neutrophils > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/l and 12 and 13 days, respectively. Two patients died of treatment-related toxic organ failure. Thirty-nine patients are alive in remission after a median follow-up time of 15 months (range 1-31), while seven patients relapsed between 5 and 29 months post-transplantation. Except for one patient autografted in first remission, the patients with relapse had a history of previous relapse or progressive disease. Since the probability of disease-free survival appears to be related

  13. Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhi, Rachana

    Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were

  14. [Lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, P; Pellegrino, P; Tallone, M V; Biarese, V; La Rosa, G F

    1977-05-26

    By lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukaemia or tricholeukaemia is meant an unusual haemopathic condition known only for the past few years. It is characterized pathognomonically by the presence of lymphocyte type cells with villous extroflexions, hence the name "hairy cell". Clinically the disease presents as an involutive myelopathy associated with splenomegaly, generally without any particular lymph gland involvement. The attention of students today is concentrated on the nature of the hairy cells; while some are inclined to admit their monocyte or histiocyte derivation, others consider that they derive from B lymphocytes. Therapeutically, almost everybody agrees that splenectomy is the only valid step. A case of H.C.L., which was typical from the clinical and laboratory viewpoints is reported. It is probable that certain haemopathic pictures once classified among atypical leucoses and lymphomas, would today be more correctly classed as hairy cell leukaemia. PMID:327348

  15. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection. PMID:26507442

  16. Radial expansion rates and tumor growth kinetics predict malignant transformation in contrast-enhancing low-grade diffuse astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Leith; Pope, Whitney B; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Contrast-enhancing low-grade diffuse astrocytomas are an understudied, aggressive subtype at increased risk because of few radiographic indications of malignant transformation. In the current study, we tested whether tumor growth kinetics could identify tumors that undergo malignant transformation to higher grades. Methods Thirty patients with untreated diffuse astrocytomas (WHO II) that underwent tumor progression were enrolled. Contrast-enhancing and T2 hyperintense tumor regions were segmented and the radius of tumor at two time points leading to progression was estimated. Radial expansion rates were used to estimate proliferation and invasion rates using a biomathematical model. Results Radial expansion rates for both contrast-enhancing (p = 0.0040) and T2 hyperintense regions (p = 0.0016) were significantly higher in WHO II–IV tumors compared with nontransformers. Similarly, model estimates showed a significantly higher proliferation (p = 0.0324) and invasion rate (p = 0.0050) in WHO II–IV tumors compared with nontransformers. Conclusion Tumor growth kinetics can identify contrast-enhancing diffuse astrocytomas undergoing malignant transformation. PMID:26095141

  17. Detection of KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Transcripts in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yongji; Rich, Benjamin E.; Vena, Natalie; Craig, Justin M.; MacConaill, Laura E.; Rajaram, Veena; Goldman, Stewart; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Ozek, Memet; Sav, Aydin; Longtine, Janina A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ligon, Azra H.; Stiles, Charles D.; Santagata, Sandro; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kieran, Mark W.; Ligon, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of BRAF are the most common known genetic aberrations in pediatric gliomas. They frequently are found in pilocytic astrocytomas, where genomic duplications involving BRAF and the poorly characterized gene KIAA1549 create fusion proteins with constitutive B-Raf kinase activity. BRAF V600E point mutations are less common and generally occur in nonpilocytic tumors. The development of BRAF inhibitors as drugs has created an urgent need for robust clinical assays to identify activating lesions in BRAF. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts have been detected in frozen tissue, however, methods for FFPE tissue have not been reported. We developed a panel of FFPE-compatible quantitative RT-PCR assays for the most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcripts. Application of these assays to a collection of 51 low-grade pediatric gliomas showed 97% sensitivity and 91% specificity compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization or array comparative genomic hybridization. In parallel, we assayed samples for the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation by PCR pyrosequencing. The data further support previous observations that these two alterations of the BRAF, KIAA1549 fusions and V600E point mutations, are associated primarily with pilocytic astrocytomas and nonpilocytic gliomas, respectively. These results show that fusion transcripts and mutations can be detected reliably in standard FFPE specimens and may be useful for incorporation into future studies of pediatric gliomas in basic science or clinical trials. PMID:21884820

  18. Rare case of a primary non-dural central nervous system low grade B-cell lymphoma and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Wang, Huan-You; Lee, Roland R; Wong, Anna; Hansen, Lawrence A; Mahooti, Sepi; Rashidi, Hooman H

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a 70-year-old HIV negative man with a five-year history of progressive dysnomia and new onset right extremity numbness, dysarthria, and blurry vision. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an infiltrative enhancing tumor was noted. Follow up brain biopsy results revealed a small lymphocytic infiltrate with scattered plasma cells in a predominantly perivascular growth pattern. Flow-cytometric findings revealed a lambda monotypic B-cell population. The morphology and the flow cytometric findings were consistent with involvement by a low grade B-cell lymphoma. Subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) studies along with bone marrow biopsy and serum protein electrophoresis showed no evidence of systemic disease. The above findings are consistent with involvement by a non-dural extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) primary to the central nervous system (CNS). This is the first reported case of a primary CNS MZBCL with flow cytometric analysis. A review of literature on this rare entity is also included. PMID:22295152

  19. Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome patients*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Bei-ni; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Miao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yan-li; Yao, Shu-kun

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complex and not fully understood, so the aim of this study was to evaluate whether visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation of the gut wall are associated with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Sixty-two patients with D-IBS and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Using the ascending method of limits (AML) protocol, we demonstrated that D-IBS patients had significantly lower sensory thresholds compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). Using diverse methods, especially the ischemic sensitivity test, for the first time in China, we confirmed that D-IBS patients have somatic hypersensitivity. They had a significantly higher systolic blood pressure and heart rate after a cold stimulus, indicative of autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction. Compared with the control group, D-IBS patients had a significantly higher level of calprotectin (P<0.001). We also found significant correlations between visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, visceral hypersensitivity and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and somatic hypersensitivity and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction. Our findings may provide valuable suggestions for the treatment of D-IBS. PMID:25294380

  20. Delay effects in the response of low-grade gliomas to radiotherapy: a mathematical model and its therapeutical implications.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Víctor M; Bogdanska, Magdalena; Martínez-González, Alicia; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Schucht, Philippe; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis A

    2015-09-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a group of primary brain tumours usually encountered in young patient populations. These tumours represent a difficult challenge because many patients survive a decade or more and may be at a higher risk for treatment-related complications. Specifically, radiation therapy is known to have a relevant effect on survival but in many cases it can be deferred to avoid side effects while maintaining its beneficial effect. However, a subset of LGGs manifests more aggressive clinical behaviour and requires earlier intervention. Moreover, the effectiveness of radiotherapy depends on the tumour characteristics. Recently Pallud et al. (2012. Neuro-Oncology, 14: , 1-10) studied patients with LGGs treated with radiation therapy as a first-line therapy and obtained the counterintuitive result that tumours with a fast response to the therapy had a worse prognosis than those responding late. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model describing the basic facts of glioma progression and response to radiotherapy. The model provides also an explanation to the observations of Pallud et al. Using the model, we propose radiation fractionation schemes that might be therapeutically useful by helping to evaluate tumour malignancy while at the same time reducing the toxicity associated to the treatment. PMID:24860116

  1. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  2. Current Understanding of BRAF Alterations in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapeutic Targeting in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Catherine Louise; Faulkner, Claire; Lowis, Stephen P.; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of many tumors as well as normal development. This often occurs through mutation of the genes encoding RAS and RAF proteins which are involved in signal transduction in this pathway. BRAF is one of three RAF kinases which act as downstream effectors of growth factor signaling leading to cell cycle progression, proliferation, and survival. Initially reported as a point mutation (V600E) in the majority of metastatic melanomas, other alterations in the BRAF gene have now been reported in a variety of human cancers including papillary thyroid cancer, colon carcinomas, hairy cell leukemia, and more recently in gliomas. The identification of oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene have led to a revolution in the treatment of metastatic melanoma using targeted molecular therapies that affect the MAPK pathway either directly through BRAF inhibition or downstream through inhibition of MEK. This review describes the molecular biology of BRAF in the context of pediatric low-grade gliomas, the role of BRAF as a diagnostic marker, the prognostic implications of BRAF, and evidence for therapeutic targeting of BRAF. PMID:25785246

  3. Cortical and Standard Trajectory Pedicle Screw Fixation Techniques in Stabilizing Multisegment Lumbar Spine with Low Grade Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    İnceoğlu, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Background Cortical screw (CS) fixation has been recently proposed as an alternative to the standard pedicle screw (PS) fixation technique. Biomechanical studies involving individual screw pullout and single level motion segment stabilization showed comparable performance of both techniques. However, whether this new fixation technique can be applied to the stabilization of multilevel lumbar segments with significant destabilization has been unclear. Purpose To compare stability of CS fixation to the traditional PS fixation in an unstable 3 level spondylolisthesis model. Study Design This is a biomechanical study comparing cortical trajectory pedicle screw fixation to traditional trajectory pedicle screw fixation in an unstable cadaveric model using nondestructive flexibility test. Methods Eight fresh frozen cadaveric lumbar spines (T12- S1) were obtained. After intact baseline testing, a 3-level lowgrade spondylolisthesis was simulated at the L1-4. Each specimen was instrumented with the PS and CS fixation systems. Standard nondestructive flexibility test was performed. Range of motion at each level was compared between the constructs during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The destabilization model significantly increased the ROM in all planes (P<0.05). Both fixation techniques provided significant reduction in the ROM (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ROM between the PS and CS groups in any of planes (P>0.05). Conclusions Cortical trajectory pedicle screw fixation provided stabilization to multilevel lumbar segment with low-grade spondylolisthesis comparable to the standard trajectory pedicle screw construct. PMID:26484009

  4. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. PMID:25690411

  5. [Monoclonal antibody therapy with mabtera of patients with b-cell low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Karchenko, V P; Voznyĭ, E K; Belonogov, A V; Bozhenko, V K; Olfer'ev, M A; Galil-Ogly, G A

    2005-01-01

    The data on monoclonal antibody monotherapy (mabtera, rituximab) in 44 patients with B-cell low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were assessed. Thirty-four of them had received several courses of second- or third line chemotherapy: mabtera was used as first-line therapy in 10. Mabtera was administered in a dose of 375 mg/m2 body surface, once a week, by slow intravenous infusion, 4-14 times depending on effect. Each relapsing patient received, on the average, 4 infusions, while each refractory one--8 weekly infusions. Overall response in the first group was 44%. Median overall relapse-free survival was 9 months. Apparenti effect of treatment was reported in 50% of primary patients (median overall relapse-free survival--15 months). Therapy was well tolerated. Fever and shivering stage I and II were among the most frequent post-infusion effects. High level of CD-20+B-lymphocytes should be used as prognostic indicator for effectiveness of therapy. PMID:15909809

  6. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

  7. Indications for Treatment: Is Observation or Chemotherapy Alone a Reasonable Approach in the Management of Low Grade Gliomas?

    PubMed Central

    Schaff, Lauren R.; Lassman, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of newly diagnosed low grade gliomas (LGG) remains controversial. Recently published results from the long-term follow up of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9802 demonstrated medically meaningful and statistically significant survival prolongation by adding chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) after radiotherapy vs. radiotherapy alone for “high” risk patients (median 13.3 vs. 7.8 years, HR 0.59, p=0.03). However, in the 17 years since that trial was launched there have been advances in the understanding of LGG biology and patient heterogeneity, an increased recognition of late neuro-cognitive injury from early radiotherapy and the emergence of temozolomide as an alternative chemotherapy to PCV. These and other changes in the treatment landscape make the applicability of results from RTOG 9802 to all patients less clear. Moreover, in some patients, especially those at the lowest risk for early disease progression, deferred radiotherapy in favor of active surveillance or chemotherapy alone may remain reasonable treatment approaches. PMID:26050591

  8. DNA methylation analysis of paediatric low-grade astrocytomas identifies a tumour-specific hypomethylation signature in pilocytic astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Doctor, Gabriel T; Jones, Tania A; Alberman, Samuel N; Tep, Alexander; Haria, Chirag M; Schwalbe, Edward C; Morley, Isabel C F; Hill, Alfred A; LeCain, Magdalena; Ottaviani, Diego; Clifford, Steven C; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W; Sheer, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) account for about a third of all brain tumours in children. We conducted a detailed study of DNA methylation and gene expression to improve our understanding of the biology of pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have a distinctive signature at 315 CpG sites, of which 312 were hypomethylated and 3 were hypermethylated. Genomic analysis revealed that 182 of these sites are within annotated enhancers. The signature was not present in diffuse astrocytomas, or in published profiles of other brain tumours and normal brain tissue. The AP-1 transcription factor was predicted to bind within 200 bp of a subset of the 315 differentially methylated CpG sites; the AP-1 factors, FOS and FOSL1 were found to be up-regulated in pilocytic astrocytomas. We also analysed splice variants of the AP-1 target gene, CCND1, which encodes cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. CCND1a was found to be highly expressed in both pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas, but diffuse astrocytomas have far higher expression of the oncogenic variant, CCND1b. These findings highlight novel genetic and epigenetic differences between pilocytic and diffuse astrocytoma, in addition to well-described alterations involving BRAF, MYB and FGFR1. PMID:27229157

  9. Analysis of human papillomavirus type 18 load and integration status from low-grade cervical lesion to invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jo L K; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Ng, Candy W Y; Yu, Mei Y; Wong, Martin C S; Siu, Shing-Shun N; Yim, So-Fan; Chan, Paul K S

    2009-02-01

    The clinical value of viral load and integration testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) remains unclear. Data on HPV type 18 (HPV18) is limited. We examined the HPV18 viral load and integration status of 78 women with normal cervix or neoplasia. While the crude viral load appeared to increase with lesion severity, the association was not significant after normalization with sample cellularity. Unlike reports for HPV16, the amino-terminal 1 region of HPV18 E2 was most frequently (71.0%) disrupted, representing the best marker for integration. A substantial proportion (57.1%) of invasive cancers harbored only the episomal genome, thus jeopardizing the clinical value of integration testing. A large proportion (41.7%) of normal/low-grade lesions showed viral integration, suggesting that integration of HPV18 starts early and is unlikely to be a sole determinant for progression. Interpretation of viral load should take into account the form of HPV infection as single infections had significantly higher viral loads than coinfections (P = 0.046). More data generated from routinely collected samples are warranted to verify the clinical value of viral load and integration testing. Viral load quantitation for HPV18 is premature for clinical use at this stage. PMID:19036939

  10. A Case of Metastatic Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Treated with Letrozole after Ovarian Ablation by Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyung Ho; Shin, Jung A; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Jung, Hae Won; Lee, Hye Ran; Chang, Sunhee; Park, Ji Yeon; Yi, Seong Yoon

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to multiple lung nodules detected incidentally on a chest X-ray. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS). She had undergone a simple hysterectomy 1 year earlier owing to a diagnosis of adenomyosis. A review of her previous hysterectomy specimen showed not endometriosis but LG-ESS. According to the patient’s levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol, she was in the premenopausal state with retained and normally functioning ovaries. She then underwent ovarian ablation by radiotherapy, after which she was administered 2.5 mg of letrozole once per day. Three months later, the size of the metastatic nodules in both lungs had decreased. The patient was followed up for 24 months while continuing on letrozole, and maintained a partial remission. We report herein on a case of metastatic LG-ESS treated with letrozole after ovarian ablation by radiotherapy. PMID:25715770

  11. Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriel; Bautista, L Fernando; Melero, Juan A; Iglesias, Jose; Sánchez-Vázquez, Rebeca

    2011-10-01

    Different lipidic wastes and low-grade oils and fats have been characterized and evaluated as feedstocks for the acid-catalyzed production of FAME. The characterization of these materials has revealed significant contents of free fatty acids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, unsaponifiable matter and humidity. Arenesulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 silica catalyst has provided yields to FAME close to 80% in the simultaneous esterification-transesterification of the different feedstocks, regardless of their nature and properties, using methanol under the following reaction conditions: 160 °C, 2 h, methanol to oil molar ratio of 30, 8 wt.% catalyst loading, and 2000 rpm stirring rate. Nevertheless, reutilization of the catalyst is compromised by high levels of impurities, especially because of deactivation by strong interaction of unsaponifiable matter with the catalytic sites. The conditioning of these materials by aqueous washing in the presence of cationic-exchange resin Amberlyst-15, followed by a drying step, resulted in a lower deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:21862322

  12. Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Anal Canal: A Low-grade Lesion That Can Mimic a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Ekman, Deborah; Law, Carmella; Poynten, I Mary; Jin, Fengyi; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Thurloe, Julia K; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related lesions among homosexual men in Sydney, Australia, we identified 15 examples of papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) in anal biopsy samples. PIM has previously been described in the cervix, but not in the anal canal. PIM is a form of exophytic low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (eLSIL) also known as condyloma. In contrast to the maturing keratinocytes and koilocytosis seen in conventional eLSIL, the slender papillary structures of PIM have a surface population of immature squamous cells. In our anal samples PIM was characterized by close proximity to conventional eLSIL, was negative for p16 (p16) expression, and revealed the presence of a single low-risk HPV genotype (either 6 or 11) in laser capture microdissected lesions. The clinical significance of recognizing PIM lies in preventing misdiagnosis as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, (the presumed precursor to anal cancer), due to the morphologic immaturity of the cell population. In routine practice, awareness of anal canal PIM and p16 immunostaining will prevent this. Further study of the natural history of anal canal PIM is needed. PMID:26551619

  13. Longitudinal Relationship of Low Leisure Satisfaction but not Depressive Symptoms With Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to further elucidate the biobehavioral mechanisms linking dementia caregiving with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that both elevated depressive symptoms and a behavioral correlate of depression, low leisure satisfaction, are associated with systemic inflammation. Method. We studied 121 elderly Alzheimer’s disease caregivers who underwent 4 annual assessments for depressive symptoms, leisure satisfaction, and circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We used mixed-regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic and health-relevant covariates to examine longitudinal relationships between constructs of interest. Results. There were inverse relationships between total leisure satisfaction and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; p = .047), interleukin-8 (IL-8; p < .001), and interferon-γ (IFG; p = .020) but not with IL-6 (p = .21) and C-reactive protein (p = .65). Lower enjoyment from leisure activities was related to higher levels of TNF-α (p = .045), IL-8 (p < .001), and IFG (p = .002), whereas lower frequency of leisure activities was related only to higher IL-8 levels (p = .023). Depressive symptoms were not associated with any inflammatory marker (all p values > .17). Depressive symptoms did not mediate the relationship between leisure satisfaction and inflammation. Discussion. Lower satisfaction with leisure activities is related to higher low-grade systemic inflammation. This knowledge may provide a promising way of improving cardiovascular health in dementia caregivers through behavioral activation treatments targeting low leisure satisfaction. PMID:23650246

  14. Use of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria for the improvement of copper extraction from a low-grade ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darezereshki, E.; Schaffie, M.; Lotfalian, M.; Seiedbaghery, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.

    2011-04-01

    Bioleaching was examined for copper extraction from a low grade ore using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic bacteria. Five equal size columns were used for the leaching of the ore. Sulfuric acid solution with a flow rate of 3.12 L·m-2·h-1 and pH 1.5 passed through each column continuously for 90 d. In the first and the second column, bioleaching was performed without agglomeration of the ore and on the agglomerated ore, respectively. 28wt% of the copper was extracted in the first column after 40 d, while this figure was 38wt% in the second column. After 90 d, however, the overall extractions were almost the same for both of them. Bioleaching with mesophilic bacteria was performed in the third column without agglomeration of the ore and in the fourth column on the agglomerated ore. After 40 d, copper extractions in the third and the fourth columns were 62wt% and 70wt%, respectively. Copper extractions were 75wt% for both the columns after 90 d. For the last column, bioleaching was performed with moderate thermophilic bacteria and agglomerated ore. Copper extractions were 80wt% and 85wt% after 40 and 90 d, respectively. It was concluded that crushing and agglomeration of the ore using bacteria could enhance the copper extraction considerably.

  15. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan-Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified, including chlorites, hornblende, actinolite, epidote and white micas. The rock samples were grouped into mineral assemblages based on their spectrally identified minerals and stratigraphic positions. The metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies could be identified from the SWIR spectroscopic data as well as three sub zones of the greenschist facies: 1) a zone containing Fe-chlorite; 2) a zone containing intermediate chlorite and epidote; and 3) a zone containing intermediate chlorite, actinolite and hornblende. Spectral parameters were calculated from the reflectance spectra to assess the metamorphic grade and zones. Plots of the depth parameters of the Fe-OH feature near 2250 nm versus the Mg-OH feature near 2390 nm differentiate the metamorphic amphibolite and greenschist facies and a transition zone between the two. The wavelength position parameter of the Mg-OH absorption feature near 2340 nm also serves to discriminate between the various metamorphic sub zones. The identification of the metamorphic grades of the volcanic sequences in greenstone belts with SWIR spectroscopy is useful for regional geological field studies, exploration for metamorphic mineral deposits hosted in the greenstone belts and the interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing data sets covering similar types of terranes.

  16. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  17. A Comparison of Brain Wave Patterns of High and Low Grade Point Average Students During Rest, Problem Solving, and Stress Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montor, Karel

    The purpose of this study was to compare brain wave patterns produced by high and low grade point average students, while they were resting, solving problems, and subjected to stress situations. The study involved senior midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The high group was comprised of those whose cumulative grade point average was…

  18. Prognostic value of increase in transcript levels of Tp73 DeltaEx2-3 isoforms in low-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Wager, M; Guilhot, J; Blanc, J-L; Ferrand, S; Milin, S; Bataille, B; Lapierre, F; Denis, S; Chantereau, T; Larsen, C-J; Karayan-Tapon, L

    2006-10-23

    Glial tumours are a devastating, poorly understood condition carrying a gloomy prognosis for which clinicians sorely lack reliable predictive parameters facilitating a sound treatment strategy. Tp73, a p53 family member, expresses two main classes of isoforms--transactivatory activity (TA)p73 and DeltaTAp73--exhibiting tumour suppressor gene and oncogene properties, respectively. The authors examined their expression status in high- and low-grade adult gliomas. Isoform-specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for the analysis of Tp73 isoform transcript expression in a series of 51 adult patients harbouring glial tumours, in order to compare tumour grades with each other, and with non-tumoural samples obtained from epileptic patients as well. Our data demonstrate increase of TAp73 and DeltaTAp73 transcript levels at onset and early stage of the disease. We also show that DeltaEx2-3 isoform expression in low-grade tumours anticipates clinical and imaging progression to higher grades, and correlates to the patients' survival. Expression levels of P1 promoter generated Tp73 isoforms--and particularly DeltaEx2-3--indeed allow for prediction of the clinical progression of low-grade gliomas in adults. Our data are the first such molecular biology report regarding low-grade tumours and as such should be of help for sound decision-making. PMID:17047653

  19. Cerebral low-grade lymphoma and light chain deposition disease: exceedingly high IgG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic clue.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, G; Psaras, T; Krope, K; von Coelln, R; Fend, F; Bock, T; Schittenhelm, J; Melms, A; Meyermann, R; Bornemann, A

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old male with an exceedingly rare manifestation of a low-grade lymphoma in the brain associated with light chain deposition disease (LCDD). The patient presented with epileptic seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right parietal lobe that were suspicious of vasculitis, low-grade glioma, or neurosarcoidosis. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but not in the serum, highly elevated IgG was found. A stereotactic biopsy of one cerebral lesion was performed. Histopathology revealed a low grade lymphoplasmacytic B-cell lymphoma with light chain deposition disease (LCDD). Bone marrow biopsy and laboratory workup did not show any systemic involvement. LCDD exclusively affecting the brain is an exceedingly rare finding. It can be associated with low-grade B-cell lymphoma. This is the first report of LCDD exclusively affecting the brain in an elderly patient. Compared with the two younger patients previously reported, the course of the disease was of a slow-evolving nature. In constellations of highly elevated IgG in CSF and multiple white matter lesions, LCDD should be considered as underlying pathology. PMID:21073842

  20. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. PMID:27183576

  1. Molecular classification of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pTa low-grade, pT1 low-grade, and pT1 high-grade subgroups) using methylation of tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Sacristan, Raquel; Gonzalez, Carolina; Fernández-Gómez, Jesus M; Fresno, Florentino; Escaf, Safwan; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2014-09-01

    The role of epigenetics in distinguishing pathological and clinical subgroups in bladder cancer is not fully characterized. We evaluated whether methylation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) would classify non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer subgroups and predict outcome. A retrospective design included the following paraffin-embedded primary NMI tumor types (n = 251): pTa low grade (LG) (n = 79), pT1LG (n = 81), and pT1 high grade (HG) (n = 91). Methylation of 25 TSGs was measured using methylation-specific, multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification. The TSGs most frequently methylated in the overall series were STK11 (96.8%), MGMT2 (64.5%), RARB (63.0%), and GATA5 (63.0%). TSG methylation correlated to clinicopathological variables in each subgroup and in the overall NMI series. Methylation of RARB, CD44, PAX5A, GSTP1, IGSF4 (CADM1), PYCARD, CDH13, TP53, and GATA5 classified pTa versus pT1 tumors whereas RARB, CD44, GSTP1, IGSF4, CHFR, PYCARD, TP53, STK11, and GATA5 distinguished LG versus HG tumors. Multivariate analyses indicated that PAX5A, WT1, and BRCA1 methylation independently predicted recurrence in pTaLG, PAX6, ATM, CHFR, and RB1 in pT1LG disease; PYCARD, in pT1HG disease; and PAX5A and RB1, in the overall series. Methylation of TSGs provided a molecular classification of NMI disease according to clinicopathological factors. Furthermore, TSG methylation predicted recurrence in NMI subgroups. PMID:24998186

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  3. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Lymphoid Tissue Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Olga; Hammerschmidt, Swantje I; Moschovakis, G Leandros; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-05-20

    The continuous migration of immune cells between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs is a key feature of the immune system, facilitating the distribution of effector cells within nearly all compartments of the body. Furthermore, reaching their correct position within primary, secondary, or tertiary lymphoid organs is a prerequisite to ensure immune cells' unimpaired differentiation, maturation, and selection, as well as their activation or functional silencing. The superfamilies of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of major importance in guiding immune cells to and within lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this review we focus on the role of the chemokine system in the migration dynamics of immune cells within lymphoid organs at the steady state and on how these dynamics are affected by infectious and inflammatory processes. PMID:26907216

  4. Vascular Microarchitecture of Murine Colitis-Associated Lymphoid Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Aslihan; Lin, Miao; Lee, Grace S.; Miele, Lino; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    In permissive tissues, such as the gut and synovium, chronic inflammation can result in the ectopic development of anatomic structures that resemble lymph nodes. These inflammation-induced structures, termed lymphoid neogenesis or tertiary lymphoid organs, may reflect differential stromal responsiveness to the process of lymphoid neogenesis. To investigate the structural reorganization of the microcirculation involved in colonic lymphoid neogenesis, we studied a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Standard 2-dimensional histology demonstrated both submucosal and intramucosal lymphoid structures in DSS-induced colitis. A spatial frequency analysis of serial histologic sections suggested that most intramucosal lymphoid aggregates developed de novo. Intravital microscopy of intravascular tracers confirmed that the developing intramucosal aggregates were supplied by capillaries arising from the quasi-polygonal mucosal plexus. Confocal optical sections and whole mount morphometry demonstrated capillary networks (185±46um diameter) involving 6–10 capillaries with a luminal diameter of 6.8±1.1um. Microdissection and angiogenesis PCR array analysis demonstrated enhanced expression of multiple angiogenic genes including CCL2, CXCL2, CXCL5, Il-1b, MMP9 and TNF within the mucosal plexus. Intravital microscopy of tracer particle flow velocities demonstrated a marked decrease in flow velocity from 808±901um/sec within the feeding mucosal plexus to 491±155um/sec within the capillary structures. We conclude that the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue requires significant structural remodeling of the stromal microcirculation. A feature of permissive tissues may be the capacity for lymphoid angiogenesis. PMID:19382226

  5. KRAS (but not BRAF) mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumor are associated with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yvonne T.; Deavers, Michael T.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Kwan, Suet-Yan; Kuo, Eric; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2014-01-01

    BRAF and KRAS mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumors (OSBTs) and ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) have been previously described. However, whether those OSBTs would progress to LGSCs or those LGSCs were developed from OSBT precursors in previous studies is unknown. Therefore, we assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations in tumor samples from 23 recurrent LGSC patients with known initial diagnosis of OSBT. Paraffin blocks from both OSBT and LGSC samples were available for 5 patients, and either OSBT or LGSC were available for another 18 patients. Tumor cells from paraffin-embedded tissues were dissected out for mutation analysis by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Tumors that appeared to have wild-type KRAS by conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing were further analyzed by full COLD (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature)-PCR and deep sequencing. Full COLD-PCR was able to enrich the amplification of mutated alleles. Deep sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM). By conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing, BRAF mutation was detected only in one patient and KRAS mutations were detected in 10 patients. Full COLD-PCR deep sequencing detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in eight additional patients. Three of the five patients with both OSBT and LGSC samples available had the same KRAS mutations detected in both OSBT and LGSC samples. The remaining two patients had only KRAS mutations detected in their LGSC samples. For patients with either OSBT or LGSC samples available, KRAS mutations were detected in 7 OSBT samples and 6 LGSC samples. To our surprise, patients with the KRAS G12V mutation appeared to have shorter survival times. In summary, KRAS mutations are very common in recurrent LGSC, while BRAF mutations are rare. The findings indicate that recurrent LGSC can arise from proliferation of OSBT tumor cells with or without detectable KRAS mutations. PMID:24549645

  6. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing. PMID:25157573

  7. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  8. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations. PMID:26143080

  9. Resecting diffuse low-grade gliomas to the boundaries of brain functions: a new concept in surgical neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Duffau, H

    2015-12-01

    The traditional dilemma making surgery for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) challenging is underlain by the need to optimize tumor resection in order to significantly increase survival versus the risk of permanent neurological morbidity. Development of neuroimaging led neurosurgeons to achieve tumorectomy according to the oncological limits provided by preoperative or intraoperative structural and metabolic imaging. However, this principle is not coherent, neither with the infiltrative nature of DLGGs nor with the limited resolution of current neuroimaging. Indeed, despite technical advances, MRI still underestimates the actual spatial extent of gliomas, since tumoral cells are present several millimeters to centimeters beyond the area of signal abnormalities. Furthermore, cortical and subcortical structures may be still crucial for brain functions despite their invasion by this diffuse tumoral disease. Finally, the lack of reliability of functional MRI has also been demonstrated. Therefore, to talk about "maximal safe resection" based upon neuroimaging is a non-sense, because oncological MRI does not show the tumor and functional MRI does not show critical neural pathways. This review proposes an original concept in neuro-oncological surgery, i.e. to resect DLGG to the boundaries of brain functions, thanks to intraoperative electrical mapping performed in awake patients. This paradigmatic shift from image-guided resection to functional mapping-guided resection, based upon an accurate study of brain connectomics and neuroplasticity in each patient throughout tumor removal has permitted to solve the classical dilemma, by increasing both survival and quality of life in DLGG patients. With this in mind, brain surgeons should also be neuroscientists. PMID:25907410

  10. Obesity is associated with worse overall survival in women with low grade papillary serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Rebecca; Kilgore, Joshua; Craven, Renatta; Broadwater, Gloria; Bean, Sarah; Wobker, Sara; DiFurio, Megan; Bae-Jump, Victoria; Gehrig, Paola A.; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate prognostic risk factors for survival in women with low grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (LGSC). Methods A multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with LGSC was conducted. Potential epidemiologic risk factors evaluated included obesity, age, parity, race, smoking, oral contraceptive pill and/or hormonal replacement therapy use, and previous hysterectomy or surgery on fallopian tubes and/or ovaries. Additional factors included stage, extent of debulking, residual disease, and disease status. Results Eighty-one patients were identified, and pathological diagnosis was independently confirmed. Median age of diagnosis was 56 years (range: 21 to 86). Thirty-four percent were obese, and 80% had optimally debulked disease. Forty-six percent were alive, 14% with disease; while 25% were dead of disease; 2% died of intercurrent disease; and 27% had an unknown status. In a univariate analysis, optimal surgical debulking was associated with improved PFS (p=0.01), DSS (p=0.03), and OS (p<0.001 and BMI with worse OS (p=0.05). On multivariate analysis, obesity (HR=2.8; 95% CI=1.05-7.3; p=0.04) and optimal tumor debulking (HR=0.05; 95% CI=0.008-0.29; p=0.001) were a significant predictor of OS. Conclusions In a multivariate analysis, obesity and optimal tumor cytoreduction were significant predictors of OS. However, obesity was not associated with worse DSS, suggesting that mortality of obese patients with LGSC may result from other co-morbidities. Interventions addressing obesity may improve survival for women diagnosed with LGSC and further study is warranted to address the role of obesity in LGSC. PMID:24614825

  11. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L.; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-α (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = −0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  12. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  13. The role of up-front radiation therapy for incompletely resected pediatric WHO grade II low-grade gliomas1

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Puri, Dev R.; Missett, Brian T.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of early radiation therapy and extent of surgical resection on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with WHO grade II low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We conducted a historical cohort study of 90 patients, ages 21 or younger, diagnosed with WHO grade II LGGs between 1970 and 1995. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 9.4 years (range, 0.5–22.6 years). Tests for variables correlating with OS and PFS were conducted by using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Eleven patients underwent gross total resections (GTRs), 43 had subtotal resections, and 34 underwent biopsy only at diagnosis. Two patients underwent biopsy at time of recurrence. Of the 90 patients, 52 received radiation as part of their initial therapy following diagnosis (early-RT group). The overall five-year PFS and OS rates ± SE were 56% ± 5% and 90% ± 3%, respectively. Ten-year PFS and OS rates were 42% ± 6% and 81% ± 5%, respectively. For patients older than three years and without GTRs, administration of early radiation did not appear to influence PFS or OS (P = 0.98 and P = 0.40, respectively; log-rank test). This was confirmed by multivariate analyses (P = 0.95 and P = 0.33 for PFS and OS, respectively). Of the 11 patients with GTRs, disease progressed in only two, and all were alive with no evidence of disease at last follow-up. Patients who underwent GTRs had significantly longer PFS (P = 0.02), but did not have significantly improved OS. Excellent long-term survival rates were achieved for children with WHO grade II LGGs. We were unable to demonstrate a benefit for administering radiation as part of initial treatment. An outcome benefit was seen with greater extent of resection. PMID:16495375

  14. Immune checkpoint inhibition in lymphoid disease.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Collins, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    It has long been understood that the immune system has intrinsic anti-tumour activity in humans, and that a key mechanism of tumour progression is the ability of a tumour to escape this immune surveillance. A number of attempts have been made to harness this anti-tumour immunity in both solid tumour oncology and haematological malignancies with variable success. Examples include the use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion in haematological cancer and vaccine studies in solid tumours. Enhanced signalling of the Programmed cell death-1 (PDCD1, PD-1)/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) 'immune checkpoint' pathway has emerged recently as a critical mechanism by which tumours can escape the natural anti-tumour immune response. As such, novel therapies have been developed to help enhance this natural immunity by switching off the PDCD1/CTLA4 immune checkpoint pathway. The following review will discuss the pathobiology of these pathways and the exciting new data now available in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:25824455

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol in Lymphoid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar S; Bhat, Ajaz A; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Uddin, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have always been sought as a dependable source for the cure of many fatal diseases including cancer. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, has been of recent research interest and is being investigated for its beneficial biological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and growth inhibitory activities. These effects are mainly mediated by cell cycle arrest, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, loss of mitochondrial potential, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Among the beneficial properties of RSV, the anticancer property has been of the prime focus and extensively explored during the last few years. Although reports exist on the chemopreventive role of RSV in many solid tumors, limited information is available on the antiproliferative activity of RSV in human lymphoma cells and experimental models. Potential mechanisms for its antiproliferative effect include induction of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. In this review, the different kinds of lymphoid malignancies and the main mechanisms of cell death induced by resveratrol are discussed. The challenges are limiting in vivo experimental studies involving resveratrol. An attempt for the translation of this compound into a clinical drug also forms a part of this review. PMID:27028800

  16. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Hiroki; Moro, Kazuyo; Koyasu, Shigeo; Asano, Koichiro

    2015-07-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recently identified cell populations that produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Although ILC2s were initially reported to play a key role in the anti-helminth innate immunity, we now have greater interest in their role in asthma and other allergic diseases. In various asthma mouse models, ILC2s provoke eosinophilic inflammation accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness independent of acquired immunity. Moreover, recent mouse studies show that ILC2s also promote acquired immunity and Th2 polarization, and various cytokines and lipid mediators influence the functions of ILC2s. Although ILC2s have also been identified in humans, studies on the role of human ILC2s in asthma are very limited. Thus far, human studies have shown that there is a slight difference in responsiveness and production of cytokines between mouse and human ILC2s, and it has been suggested that ILC2s are involved in allergic-type asthma and the exacerbation of asthma. In this review, we focus on mouse and human ILC2s, and discuss their role in asthma. PMID:26117253

  17. Humanized hemato-lymphoid system mice

    PubMed Central

    Theocharides, Alexandre P.A.; Rongvaux, Anthony; Fritsch, Kristin; Flavell, Richard A.; Manz, Markus G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, incrementally improved xenograft mouse models, supporting the engraftment and development of a human hemato-lymphoid system, have been developed and now represent an important research tool in the field. The most significant contributions made by means of humanized mice are the identification of normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem cells, the characterization of the human hematopoietic hierarchy, and their use as preclinical therapy models for malignant hematopoietic disorders. Successful xenotransplantation depends on three major factors: tolerance by the mouse host, correct spatial location, and appropriately cross-reactive support and interaction factors such as cytokines and major histocompatibility complex molecules. Each of these can be modified. Experimental approaches include the genetic modification of mice to faithfully express human support factors as non-cross-reactive cytokines, to create free niche space, the co-transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells, the implantation of humanized ossicles or other stroma, and the implantation of human thymic tissue. Besides the source of hematopoietic cells, the conditioning regimen and the route of transplantation also significantly affect human hematopoietic development in vivo. We review here the achievements, most recent developments, and the remaining challenges in the generation of pre-clinically-predictive systems for human hematology and immunology, closely resembling the human situation in a xenogeneic mouse environment. PMID:26721800

  18. Innate lymphoid cells regulate CD4+ T-cell responses to intestinal commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Matthew R; Monticelli, Laurel A; Fung, Thomas C; Ziegler, Carly G K; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Mantegazza, Adriana R; Ma, Hak-Ling; Crawford, Alison; Angelosanto, Jill M; Wherry, E John; Koni, Pandelakis A; Bushman, Frederic D; Elson, Charles O; Eberl, Gérard; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2013-06-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently characterized family of immune cells that have critical roles in cytokine-mediated regulation of intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity. Alterations in ILC responses are associated with multiple chronic human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, implicating a role for ILCs in disease pathogenesis. Owing to an inability to target ILCs selectively, experimental studies assessing ILC function have predominantly used mice lacking adaptive immune cells. However, in lymphocyte-sufficient hosts ILCs are vastly outnumbered by CD4(+) T cells, which express similar profiles of effector cytokines. Therefore, the function of ILCs in the presence of adaptive immunity and their potential to influence adaptive immune cell responses remain unknown. To test this, we used genetic or antibody-mediated depletion strategies to target murine ILCs in the presence of an adaptive immune system. We show that loss of retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor-γt-positive (RORγt(+)) ILCs was associated with dysregulated adaptive immune cell responses against commensal bacteria and low-grade systemic inflammation. Remarkably, ILC-mediated regulation of adaptive immune cells occurred independently of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22 or IL-23. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and functional analyses revealed that RORγt(+) ILCs express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and can process and present antigen. However, rather than inducing T-cell proliferation, ILCs acted to limit commensal bacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. Consistent with this, selective deletion of MHCII in murine RORγt(+) ILCs resulted in dysregulated commensal bacteria-dependent CD4(+) T-cell responses that promoted spontaneous intestinal inflammation. These data identify that ILCs maintain intestinal homeostasis through MHCII-dependent interactions with CD4(+) T cells that limit pathological adaptive immune cell responses to commensal

  19. Activation of intraislet lymphoid cells causes destruction of islet cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, P. E.; Finke, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    In vitro culture of rat islets at 24 degrees C for 7 days in tissue culture medium CMRL 1066 almost completely eliminated lymphoid cells from the islets. Immunostaining of the islets with monoclonal antibody OX4 for demonstration of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-expressing cells revealed a decrease from 13.1 +/- 0.6 positive cells per islet on day 0 to 0.7 +/- 0.1 cells per islet on day 7. A comparable decrease was found using OX1 for demonstration of all leukocytes. In contrast, culture of rat islets at 24 degrees C for 7 days with tissue culture Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium was not as effective in eliminating lymphoid cells as in medium CMRL 1066 (3.0 +/- 0.2 class II MHC positive cells per islet at 7 days). Effective elimination of intraislet lymphoid cells apparently is due to the combined effect of low temperature culture and the tissue culture medium CMRL-1066. The second goal of the study was to determine whether the destructive effect of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on rat islets in culture was due to intraislet lymphoid cells. In vitro culture of rat islets with IFN-gamma (1000 units/ml) at 37 degrees C caused almost complete destruction of the islets at 7 days. If intraislet lymphoid cells were eliminated from the islets by in vitro culture at 24 degrees C followed by exposure to IFN-gamma (1000 units/ml) for 7 days at 37 degrees C, then IFN-gamma did not cause destruction of the islets and transplants of the treated islets produced normoglycemia in diabetic recipient mice. These findings indicate that intraislet lymphoid cells are responsible for destruction of islet cells when these cells (presumably macrophages) are activated by IFN-gamma. Intraislet lymphoid cells may play a significant role in destroying islet cells in autoimmune diabetes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1902627

  20. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomás Hernández; Girón, Antonio Vargas; López, Carlos Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this

  1. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  2. Comparing high-resolution microscopy techniques for potential intraoperative use in guiding low-grade glioma resections

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Daphne; Wang, Danni; Wang, Yu “Winston”; Borwege, Sabine; Sanai, Nader; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS), with contrast provided by 5-ALA-induced-PpIX, has been shown to enable a higher extent of resection of high-grade gliomas. However, conventional FIGS with low-power microscopy lacks the sensitivity to aid in low-grade glioma (LGG) resection because PpIX signal is weak and sparse in such tissues. Intraoperative high-resolution microscopy of PpIX fluorescence has been proposed as a method to guide LGG resection, where sub-cellular resolution allows for the visualization of sparse and punctate mitochondrial PpIX production in tumor cells. Here, we assess the performance of three potentially portable high-resolution microscopy techniques that may be used for the intraoperative imaging of human LGG tissue samples with PpIX contrast: high-resolution fiber-optic microscopy (HRFM), high-resolution wide-field microscopy (WFM), and dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy. Materials and Methods Thick unsectioned human LGG tissue samples (n = 7) with ALA-induced-PpIX contrast were imaged using three imaging techniques (HRFM, WFM, DAC). The average signal-to-background ratio (SBR) was then calculated for each imaging modality (5 images per tissue, per modality). Results HRFM provides the ease of use and portability of a flexible fiber bundle, and is simple and inexpensive to build. However, in most cases (6/7), HRFM is not capable of detecting PpIX signal from LGGs due to high autofluorescence, generated by the fiber bundle under laser illumination at 405 nm, which overwhelms the PpIX signal and impedes its visualization. WFM is a camera-based method possessing high lateral resolution but poor axial resolution, resulting in sub-optimal image contrast. Conclusions Consistent successful detection of PpIX signal throughout our human LGG tissue samples (n = 7), with an acceptable image contrast (SBR > 2), was only achieved using DAC microscopy, which offers superior image resolution and contrast that is comparable to

  3. Detection of Human Herpesvirus-6 Variants in Pediatric Brain Tumors: Association of Viral Antigen in Low Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, John R.; Santi, Maria R.; Thorarinsdottir, Halldora K.; Cornelison, Robert; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Zhang, Huizhen; Yao, Karen; Jacobson, Steven; MacDonald, Tobey J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human Herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) has been associated with a diverse spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and reported glial tropism. Objective To determine if HHV-6 is present in a series of pediatric brain tumors. Study Design Pediatric gliomas from 88 untreated patients represented in a tissue microarray (TMA) were screened for HHV-6 by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and compared to non glial tumors (N=22) and control brain (N=32). Results were correlated with tumor grade and overall survival. Results HHV-6 U57 was detected by nested PCR in 68/120 (57%) tumors and 7/32 (22%) age-matched non-tumor brain (P=0.001). HHV-6 U31 was positive in 73/120 (61%) tumors and 11/32 (34%) controls (P=0.019). Seventy-two percent (43/60) of tumors were HHV-6 Variant A. HHV-6 U57 was confirmed by ISH in 83/150 (54%) tumors and 10/32 (31%) controls (P=0.021), revealing a non-lymphocytic origin of HHV-6. HHV-6A/B gp116/64/54 late antigen was detected by IHC in 50/124 (40%) tumors and 6/32 (18%) controls (P=0.013). Interestingly, 58% of low grade gliomas (N=67) were IHC positive compared to 19% of high grade gliomas (N=21, P=0.002) and 25% of non gliomas (N=36; P=0.001). HHV-6A/B gp116/64/54 antigen co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein, confirming the astrocytic origin of antigen. Overall, there was no primary association between HHV-6A/B gp116/64/54 antigen detection and survival (P=0.861). Conclusions We provide the first reported series of HHV-6 detection in pediatric brain tumors. The predominance of HHV-6 in glial tumors warrants further investigation into potential neurooncologic disease mechanisms. PMID:19505845

  4. 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of low grade metamorphism: examples on metabasites from Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, L.; Feraud, G.; Fuentes, F.; Delbar, M.; Morata, D.

    2003-04-01

    Dating low to very low-grade burial metamorphic assemblages is often difficult because of (1) few mineral phases compositionally suitable to apply the 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar methods, and (2) small amount in which these phases are commonly found. K-feldspar adularia, sericitic mica, and celadonite are the best known K-bearing secondary minerals. We present some successful attempts to analyse two distinct secondary phases from a same volcanic formation that allow to test the validity of the measured ages. These ages have been also compared with the crystallisation age of the volcanic rocks in which the secondary phases were lately developed. Adularia and sericite were selected from basic lava flows from a 3 to 13 km thick Cretaceous sequence from the Coastal Range of central Chile, at two different locations: the Bustamante Hill (west from Santiago), and the Cordón de Chacana, c. 80 km further north. Adularia came from a low-variance assemblage with pumpellyite, chlorite and low-albite contained in amygdules whereas sericite was present in milky-white strongly sericitized plagioclase crystals. While small clusters of rare fresh plagioclase grains from lava flows from Bustamante and Chacana displayed concordant plateau ages 119.4 ± 2.4 (2 sigma) and 118.7 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively, the adularia from the same formations gave sensibly younger ages around 94 Ma (high temperature steps), and 96.8 ± 0.2 Ma (plateau age) in Bustamante and Chacana, respectively. Sericite ages were measured in situ into single crystals of strongly transformed plagioclases. The relative proportion of sericite and plagioclase corresponding to each degasing step was monitored by measuring the Ca/K ratio (deduced from 37ArCa/39Ar_K). While intermediate ages were measured on some sericite of both sites (corresponding to a variable but permanent contribution of plagioclase on each step), a plateau age of 97.0 ± 1.6 Ma (concordant with adularia) could be obtained on a strongly sericitized plagioclase

  5. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomás Hernández; Girón, Antonio Vargas; López, Carlos Vargas

    2011-09-28

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this

  6. Low-Grade Dysplasia in Ulcerative Colitis: Risk Factors for Developing High-Grade Dysplasia or Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang-ho Ryan; Ignjatovic-Wilson, Ana; Askari, Alan; Lee, Gui Han; Warusavitarne, Janindra; Moorghen, Morgan; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Saunders, Brian P; Rutter, Matthew D; Graham, Trevor A; Hart, Ailsa L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with development of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients diagnosed with low-grade dysplasia (LGD). METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed extensive UC, who were diagnosed with LGD between 1993 and 2012 at St Mark's Hospital, were identified and followed up to 1 July 2013. Demographic, endoscopic, and histological data were collected and correlated with the development of HGD or CRC. RESULTS: A total of 172 patients were followed for a median of 48 months from the date of initial LGD diagnosis (interquartile range (IQR), 15–87 months). Overall, 33 patients developed HGD or CRC (19.1% of study population; 20 CRCs) during study period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that macroscopically non-polypoid (hazard ratio (HR), 8.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0–24.8; P<0.001) or invisible (HR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.3–13.4; P=0.02) dysplasia, dysplastic lesions ≥1 cm in size (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5–13.4; P=0.01), and a previous history of “indefinite for dysplasia” (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2–6.5; P=0.01) were significant contributory factors for HGD or CRC development. Multifocal dysplasia (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9–7.8; P<0.001), metachronous dysplasia (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6–7.5; P=0.001), or a colonic stricture (HR, 7.4; 95% CI, 2.5–22.1; P<0.001) showed only univariate correlation to development of HGD or CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Lesions that are non-polypoid or endoscopically invisible, large (≥1 cm), or preceded by indefinite dysplasia are independent risk factors for developing HGD or CRC in UC patients diagnosed with LGD. PMID:26416190

  7. Interbody Fusion in Low Grade Lumbar Spondylolsithesis: Clinical Outcome Does Not Correalte with Slip Reduction and Neural Foraminal Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Atanu; McConnell, Jeffrey R.; Jha, Deepak K.; Chakraburtty, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective nonrandomized study. Purpose To find a possible correlation between clinical outcome and extent of lumbar spondylolisthesis reduction. Overview of Literature There is no consensus in the literature concerning whether a beneficial effect of reduction on outcome can be expected following reduction and surgical fusion for low grade lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods Forty six patients with a mean age of 37.5 years (age, 17–48 years) with isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent interbody fusion with cages with posterior instrumentation (TLIF). Clinical outcome was measured using visual analogue score (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Foraminal dimensions and disc heights were measured in standard digital radiographs. These were analyzed at baseline and 1 year after surgery and changes were compared. Radiographic fusion was judged with computed tomography scans at 1 year. Results Ninety percent of the patients had good or very good clinical results with fusion and instrumentation. Baseline and one-year postoperative mean VAS score was 6.33 (range, 5–8) and 0.76 (range, 0–3), respectively (p=0.004). Baseline and one-year postoperative, mean ODI score was 48 (range, 32–62) and 10 (range, 6–16), respectively (p<0.001). A mean spondylolisthesis slip of 32.1% was reduced to 6.7% at 1 year. Average anterior disc height, posterior disc height, vertical foraminal dimension), and foraminal) diameter improved from 9.8 to 11.7 mm (p=0.005), 4.5 to 5.8 mm (p=0.004), 11.3 to 12.6 mm (p=0.002), and 18.6 to 20.0 mm (p<0.001), respectively. The fusion rate was 75% with TLIF. There is no significant correlation between the improvements of ODI scores and the extent of slip reduction. Conclusions Neural decompression and interbody fusion can significantly improve pain and disability but the clinical outcome does not correlate with radiological improvement in the neural foraminal dimension. PMID:27114773

  8. Sex differences in the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and low-grade inflammation on coronary microvascular disorder.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Tomonori; Hokimoto, Seiji; Sueta, Daisuke; Tabata, Noriaki; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Kajiwara, Ayami; Morita, Kazunori; Oniki, Kentaro; Saruwatari, Junji; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2016-06-01

    Categorization as a cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) is reported to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is correlated with an increase in the circulating levels of high-sense C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in women only, although its role in coronary microcirculation is unclear. We examined sex differences in the impact of the CYP2C19 genotype and low-grade inflammation on coronary microvascular disorder (CMVD). We examined CYP2C19 genotypes in patients with CMVD (n = 81) and in healthy subjects as control (n = 81). CMVD was defined as the absence of coronary artery stenosis and epicardial spasms, the presence of inverted lactic acid levels between the intracoronary and coronary sinuses, or an adenosine triphosphate-induced coronary flow reserve ratio < 2.5. CYP2C19 PMs have two loss-of-function (LOF) alleles (*2, *3). Extensive metabolizers have no LOF alleles, and intermediate metabolizers have one LOF allele. The ratio of CYP2C19 PM and hs-CRP levels in CMVD was significantly higher than that of controls, especially in women (40.9 vs. 13.8%, P = 0.013; 0.11 ± 0.06 vs. 0.07 ± 0.04 mg/dl, P = 0.001). Moreover, in each CYP2C19 genotype, hs-CRP levels in CMVD in CYP2C19 PMs were significantly higher than those of the controls, especially in women (0.15 ± 0.06 vs. 0.07 ± 0.03, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis for CMVD indicated that the female sex, current smoking, and hypertension were predictive factors, and that high levels of hs-CRP and CYP2C19 PM were predictive factors in women only (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.26-9.93, P = 0.033; odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.15-14.1, P = 0.038). CYP2C19 PM genotype may be a new candidate risk factor for CMVD via inflammation exclusively in the female population. PMID:26993229

  9. Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas. PMID:23577290

  10. TEM/AEM characterization of fine-grained clay minerals in very-low-grade rocks: Evaluation of contamination by EMPA involving celadonite family minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gejing; Peacor, D.R.; Coombs, D.S.; Kawachi, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Recent advances in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) have led to many new insights into the structural and chemical characteristics of very fine-grained, optically homogeneous mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks. Chemical compositions obtained by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) on such materials have been shown by TEM/AEM to result from beam overlap on contaminant phases on a scale below resolution of EMPA, which in turn can lead to errors in interpretation and determination of formation conditions. Here we present an in-depth analysis of the relation between AEM and EMPA data, which leads also to the definition of new mineral phases, and demonstrate the resolution power of AEM relative to EMPA in investigations of very fine-grained mineral aggregates in sedimentary and very low-grade metamorphic rocks.

  11. Reductive leaching of manganese from low-grade pyrolusite ore in sulfuric acid using pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust as a reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ya-li; Zhang, Shi-yuan; Li, Hao-ran

    2016-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) leaching and recovery from low-grade pyrolusite ore were studied using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a leachant and pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust as a reductant. The effects of the dosage of pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust to pyrolusite ore, the concentration of sulfuric acid, the liquid/solid ratio, the leaching temperature, and the leaching time on manganese and iron leaching efficiencies were investigated. Analysis of manganese and iron leaching efficiencies revealed that a high manganese leaching efficiency was achieved with low iron extraction. The optimal leaching efficiency was determined to be 20wt% pyrolysis-pretreated sawdust and 3.0 mol/L H2SO4 using a liquid/ solid ratio of 6.0 mL/g for 90 min at 90°C. Other low-grade pyrolusite ores were tested, and the results showed that they responded well with manganese leaching efficiencies greater than 98%.

  12. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression Is Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jizhong, Song; Qiaomin, Wang; Chao, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of low-grade inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unclear; our research concentrates on the involvement of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene expression in the process of low-grade inflammation in IBS patients with depression. This study suggests more IBS patients are presenting with the states of depression and anxiety. IBS patients with depression have shown a lower grade inflammatory response and an imbalance of the inflammatory response. CRF1, CRF2, TLR2, and TLR4 in IBS patients with depression are significantly higher than those without depression and controls. Thus, activation of the CRF-TLR associated pathways produces an inflammatory reaction, which can concurrently affect the digestive tract and the CNS and induce the corresponding digestive and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27478433

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  14. Incidence of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in Low-Grade Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases: A 12-Year Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study From a Single Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal; Kauffman, Eric C; Kandel, Sirisa; George, Saby; Schwaab, Thomas; Xu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma entity after 2004 World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. CCPRCC has unique histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The distinction of CCPRCC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with clear cell morphology is crucial because the former is considered to have a favorable clinical outcome. CCPRCC may be interpreted in the past as other renal cell carcinomas, particularly low-grade clear cell RCC. In this study, the frequency of CCPRCC in previously diagnosed low-grade RCC and its clinicopathologic features were examined. A total of 126 cases of stage T1a with low nuclear grade RCC were identified from 625 consecutive RCCs removed by radical/partial nephrectomy over 12-year period (2000-2011). Archival tissue sections were retrospectively reviewed along with patient medical charts. Eight cases (1.3% of all RCC, 6.3% of pT1a low grade RCC) with characteristic histologic features of CCPRCC were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Seven cases were previously diagnosed as clear cell RCC and one as multilocular cystic RCC. Radiographically, CCPRCC favored a mid-pole location in the kidneys. At a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 20-114.5 months), there were no cases of local or distant recurrence. In conclusion, CCPRCC is not uncommon among small low-grade RCC tumors. CCPRCC can be correctly recognized by its unique histomorphological features and confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies, which is important due to the excellent clinical outcome following resection. PMID:26510859

  15. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  16. Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis.

  17. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. PMID:26283536

  18. Differential distribution of calpain in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1993-07-01

    Calpain, a calcium-activated neutral proteinase, is ubiquitously present in human tissues. To determine if lymphoid cells implicated in pathogenesis of demyelination may harbor calpain in a functionally active form, we determined both muCalpain and mCalpain activities in human lymphoid cell lines. DEAE-cellulose and phenylsepharose column chromatography were used to isolate the enzyme from the natural inhibitor, calpastatin. Lymphocytic lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-3, MOLT-4, M.R.) showed predominance of muCalpain (55-80%) whereas the monocytic line (U-937) showed predominance of mCalpain (77%). Proportion and subcellular distribution of both isoforms varied among cell lines. Calpains isolated from U-937 cells degraded myelin basic protein. These results indicate that human lymphoid cells harbor functionally active calpain that can degrade myelin components in vitro. The study suggests a degradative role for calpain in demyelinating diseases. PMID:7690115

  19. Quantitative Image Analysis of HIV-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ashley T.; Henry, Keith; Zupancic, Mary; Sedgewick, Gerald; Faust, Russell A.; Melroe, Holly; Cavert, Winston; Gebhard, Kristin; Staskus, Katherine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Dailey, Peter J.; Balfour, Henry H., Jr.; Erice, Alejo; Perelson, Alan S.

    1996-11-01

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

  20. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. PMID:22112591

  1. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  2. Ovarian Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 33 Cases With Primary Surgery Performed at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Ekene; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Malpica, Anais

    2016-05-01

    Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) is an entity with distinct pathologic and clinical features. The number of studies on this type of tumor is limited. In this article, we present our experience with 33 cases of ovarian LGSC with primary surgical treatment at our institution. For comparison, a cohort of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) was also studied. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' charts or from the treating physicians. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed of 28 available LGSCs, and the following parameters were recorded: presence/absence of a serous borderline tumor (SBT), presence/absence of micropapillary/cribriform pattern (MP/CP), architectural pattern in the invasive component, and presence/absence of desmoplasia or fibrosis. The incidence of ovarian LGSC was 4.7%. LGSC patients ranged in age from 19 to 79 years (mean, 52 y), with 21.2% younger than 40 years. HGSC patients ranged in age from 38 to 90 years (mean, 62 y), with 1.6% younger than 40 years. LGSCs were staged as follows: stage I (2), stage III (23), and stage IV (8). Twenty-eight of 33 LGSC cases had concurrent SBT, with this component accounting for >50% of the neoplasm in 15 cases. In addition, MP/CP was noted in 19 cases. Invasion patterns included micropapillae (93%), cribriform nests (74%), elongated papillae (26%), glandular (44.4%), medium-sized papillae (33.3%), solid nests (22.2%), macropapillae (19%), and single cells (19%). In addition, desmoplasia (44.4%) and fibrosis (37%) were noted. Follow-up data ranging from 13 to 195 months (median 61.2 mo) were available on 30/33 LGSC patients: 18 (60%) were dead of disease; 1 (3.3%) was dead of other cause; 5 (16.7%) were alive with disease; and 6 (20%) had no evidence of disease. Follow-up data from 1 to 169 months (median 48 mo) were available on 185 HGSC patients: 132 (71.4%) were dead of disease; 3 (1.6%) were dead of other cause; 21 (11.4%) were alive with disease; and 29 (15.7%) had no

  3. [Meningeal tertiary lymphoid organs: Major actors in intrathecal autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Bonnan, M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins synthesized by B-cell clones and by a brain infiltrate of clonal T-cells. The clonal maturation of these lymphocytes takes place in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) developed in the intrathecal compartment. TLO are acquired lymphoid organs able to develop in the vicinity of the inflammatory sites, where they mount a complete antigen-driven immune response. We here review TLO pathophysiology in animal models of MS and human MS. Several pieces of evidence suggest that intrathecal TLO may play a major role in the clinical impairment. Potential therapeutic applications are examined. PMID:25555848

  4. Molecular Pathology: Predictive, Prognostic, and Diagnostic Markers in Lymphoid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ho, Caleb; Kluk, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms show great diversity in morphology, immunophenotypic profile, and postulated cells of origin, which also reflects the variety of genetic alterations within this group of tumors. This review discusses many of the currently known genetic alterations in selected mature B-cell and T-cell lymphoid neoplasms, and their significance as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers. Given the rapidly increasing number of genetic alterations that have been described in this group of tumors, and that the clinical significance of many is still being studied, this is not an entirely exhaustive review of all of the genetic alterations that have been reported. PMID:27523974

  5. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development. PMID:26779601

  6. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  7. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1981-06-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis.

  8. Targeting bone marrow lymphoid niches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Uy, Geoffrey L; Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Schmidt, Amy P; Stock, Wendy; Fletcher, Theresa R; Trinkaus, Kathryn M; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F; Link, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) the bone marrow microenvironment provides growth and survival signals that may confer resistance to chemotherapy. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) potently inhibits lymphopoiesis by targeting stromal cells that comprise the lymphoid niche in the bone marrow. To determine whether lymphoid niche disruption by G-CSF sensitizes ALL cells to chemotherapy, we conducted a pilot study of G-CSF in combination with chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL. Thirteen patients were treated on study; three patients achieved a complete remission (CR/CRi) for an overall response rate of 23%. In the healthy volunteers, G-CSF treatment disrupted the lymphoid niche, as evidenced by reduced expression of CXCL12, interleukin-7, and osteocalcin. However, in most patients with relapsed/refractory ALL expression of these genes was markedly suppressed at baseline. Thus, although G-CSF treatment was associated with ALL cell mobilization into the blood, and increased apoptosis of bone marrow resident ALL cells, alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment were modest and highly variable. These data suggest that disruption of lymphoid niches by G-CSF to sensitize ALL cells to chemotherapy may be best accomplished in the consolidation where the bone marrow microenvironment is more likely to be normal. PMID:26467815

  9. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures §...

  10. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Plant Health Inspection Service that the agent used to inactivate the vaccine virus would also... lymphoid leukosis virus can be propagated on cell culture during the 21-day growth period. If a...

  11. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures §...

  12. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Plant Health Inspection Service that the agent used to inactivate the vaccine virus would also... lymphoid leukosis virus can be propagated on cell culture during the 21-day growth period. If a...

  13. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, A.T.; Zupancic, M.; Cavert, W.

    1996-11-08

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productivity infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis. 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures §...

  15. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types. PMID:26751596

  16. Can metronomic maintenance with weekly vinblastine prevent early relapse/progression after bevacizumab-irinotecan in children with low-grade glioma?

    PubMed

    Heng, Marie Amélie; Padovani, Laetitia; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe; Gentet, Jean Claude; Verschuur, Arnaud; Pasquier, Eddy; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Scavarda, Didier; André, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The association of bevacizumab and irinotecan has been shown to display a quick efficacy in low-grade glioma (LGG), but most patients relapse within months after cessation of therapy. From October 2012 to March 2014, four patients have been treated with irinotecan-bevacizumab followed by a metronomic maintenance with weekly vinblastine to try to prevent relapses. After a median follow-up of 23 months after the end of the bevacizumab-irinotecan induction, no patient relapsed. These observations suggest that maintenance chemotherapy with weekly vinblastine after an induction by irinotecan-bevacizumab can improve progression-free survival in children with LGG. PMID:27037940

  17. Radiation-induced low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the chest wall nine years subsequent to radiotherapy for breast carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SHIBATA, SHINO; SHIRAISHI, KENSHIRO; YAMASHITA, HIDEOMI; KOBAYASHI, REIKO; NAKAGAWA, KEIICHI

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma that occurred in a 62-year-old woman 9 years subsequent to whole breast irradiation for a carcinoma of the left breast, and 18 years following chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; diagnosed at the age of 43). The patient was 53 years of age when a cT2N0M0 stage IIA breast tumor was identified and excised. A 2.5 cm diameter nodule with dimpling in the upper-outer region of the left breast was detected. Pathological examination revealed that the tumor was an invasive ductal carcinoma, of a solid tubular type. The patient was treated with post-surgical whole breast RT. The left breast received 46 Gy in 23 fractions (2 Gy per fraction) for 4 weeks and 3 days, followed by a cone down boost of 14 Gy in 7 fractions (2 Gy per fraction); therefore a total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was administered. In total, 9 years subsequent to RT, the patient observed a small lump in the left chest wall. The patient underwent excision of the tumor and pectoralis major fascia. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of atypical spindle cells with myxoid stroma. Pathologists concluded that the tumor was a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Since the tumor developed from tissue in a previously irradiated region, it was considered to be RT-induced, and was classified using the radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) criteria as dictated by Cahan. Although the majority of RIS cases are angiosarcomas, a rare, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma was observed in the present study. The present study hypothesizes that there may have been an overlap region between the RT for supraclavicular nodes of NHL and the whole breast RT for primary breast cancer, due to the results of a retrospective dose reconstruction undertaken by the present study. The patient remained clinically stable for 4 years thereafter, until 2008 when the patient experienced a local relapse and underwent surgery. On 19 October 2011, the patient

  18. Development of a low grade lymphoma in the mastoid bone in a patient with atypical Cogan’s syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Chris; Karachalios, Dimitrios; Pentheroudakis, George; Tsikou-Papafrangou, Aikaterini; Abou-Asabeh, Lydia; Argyropoulou, Maria; Drosos, Alexandros; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Cogan’s syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by ocular and audiovestibular manifestations in its typical form and caries a wide variety of atypical manifestations. It is considered as an autoimmune disease. We present the first case in the literature of a 67 year old woman with the development of low grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the mastoid bone in a pre-existing history of atypical Cogan’s syndrome. The anatomical development of NHL was to a “target” organ of Cogan’s syndrome, which is the inner ear. PMID:26257951

  19. Severe Radiation Necrosis Successfully Treated With Bevacizumab in an Infant with Low-Grade Glioma and Tumor-Associated Intractable Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Pillay Smiley, Natasha; Alden, Tord; Hartsell, William; Fangusaro, Jason

    2016-09-01

    We present a unique case of radiation necrosis in a child with brain stem low-grade glioma (LGG) presenting with trigeminal neuralgia. Despite extensive therapies, severe pain persisted. She received proton beam radiation with significant improvement. However, she developed radiation necrosis and hydrocephalus. Despite surgical correction of hydrocephalus, the patient remained critically ill. She was treated with dexamethasone and bevacizumab with rapid clinical improvement. Subsequent MRIs revealed almost complete resolution of the necrosis. This case illustrates the successful treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with radiation and a rare case of radiation necrosis in an LGG successfully treated with bevacizumab and dexamethasone. PMID:27187113

  20. The cellular protein expression of Foxp3 in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs of Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cunxin; Zhou, Yujie; Huang, Xiaohuan; Peng, Xi; Liu, Linyan; Zhou, Linyan; Jin, Li; Shi, Hongjuan; Wei, Jing; Wang, Deshou

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, an antibody highly specific to the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Foxp3 was produced and characterized. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicates that Foxp3 was expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and certain packed lymphocytes in particular, what's more, the percentage of Foxp3(+) cells among PBMC was 5.7 ± 2.0% (n = 5) in healthy adults and could be significantly up-regulated after phytohemagglutinin (50 μg/ml) stimulation in vitro at 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively. In the lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen and head kidney, Foxp3 expression was observed mainly in lymphocyte-like cells. Surprisingly, in the non-lymphoid organ stomach, Foxp3 was detected in epithelial-like cells within the mucosa. Our study demonstrates for the first time that Foxp3 protein expression occurs not only in hematopoietic cells of lymphoid organ systems but also non-hematopoietic cells of non-lymphoid organ in lower vertebrates such as the fish tilapia. The conserved expression pattern of Foxp3 at the protein and cellular levels implies that it might have conserved functions from fish to mammals. PMID:25804488

  1. Ubiquitous Transgenic Overexpression of C-C Chemokine Ligand 2: A Model to Assess the Combined Effect of High Energy Intake and Continuous Low-Grade Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Menendez, Javier A.; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J.; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L.; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study. PMID:24453432

  2. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, K.; Solís-Lozano, L.; Leon-Cabrera, S.; González-Chávez, A.; Gómez-Hernández, G.; Quiñones-Álvarez, M. S.; Serralde-Zúñiga, A. E.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Ramírez-Velásquez, J.; Galindo-González, F. J.; Zavala-Castillo, J. C.; De León-Nava, M. A.; Robles-Díaz, G.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-(IL-) 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r = 0.5154), serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r = 0.4481), body fat percentage (r = 0.5625), serum glucose (r = 0.3158), triglyceride (r = 0.3714), and TNF-α (r = 0.4717). Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans. PMID:23533314

  3. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of C-C chemokine ligand 2: a model to assess the combined effect of high energy intake and continuous low-grade inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Menendez, Javier A; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study. PMID:24453432

  4. Optimization of staged bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite ore in the presence and absence of chloride in the irrigating lixiviant: ANFIS simulation.

    PubMed

    Vakylabad, Ali Behrad; Schaffie, Mahin; Naseri, Ali; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Manafi, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this investigation, copper was bioleached from a low-grade chalcopyrite ore using a chloride-containing lixiviant. In this regard, firstly, the composition of the bacterial culture media was designed to control the cost in commercial application. The bacterial culture used in this process was acclimated to the presence of chloride in the lixiviant. Practically speaking, the modified culture helped the bio-heap-leaching system operate in the chloridic media. Compared to the copper recovery from the low-grade chalcopyrite by bioleaching in the absence of chloride, bioleaching in the presence of chloride resulted in improved copper recovery. The composition of the lixiviant used in this study was a modification with respect to the basal salts in 9 K medium to optimize the leaching process. When leaching the ore in columns, 76.81 % Cu (based on solid residues of bioleaching operation) was recovered by staged leaching with lixiviant containing 34.22 mM NaCl. The quantitative findings were supported by SEM/EDS observations, X-ray elemental mapping, and mineralogical analysis of the ore before and after leaching. Finally, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to simulate the operational parameters affecting the bioleaching operation in chloride-sulfate system. PMID:27000968

  5. Attachment of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum cultured under varying conditions to pyrite, chalcopyrite, low-grade ore and quartz in a packed column reactor.

    PubMed

    Africa, Cindy-Jade; van Hille, Robert P; Harrison, Susan T L

    2013-02-01

    The attachment of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum spp. grown on ferrous medium or adapted to a pyrite mineral concentrate to four mineral substrata, namely, chalcopyrite and pyrite concentrates, a low-grade chalcopyrite ore (0.5 wt%) and quartzite, was investigated. The quartzite represented a typical gangue mineral and served as a control. The attachment studies were carried out in a novel particle-coated column reactor. The saturated reactor containing glass beads, which were coated with fine mineral concentrates, provided a quantifiable surface area of mineral concentrate and maintained good fluid flow. A. ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. had similar attachment characteristics. Enhanced attachment efficiency occurred with bacteria grown on sulphide minerals relative to those grown on ferrous sulphate in an ore-free environment. Selective attachment to sulphide minerals relative to gangue materials occurred, with mineral adapted cultures attaching to the minerals more efficiently than ferrous grown cultures. Mineral-adapted cultures showed highest levels of attachment to pyrite (74% and 79% attachment for A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum, respectively). This was followed by attachment of mineral-adapted cultures to chalcopyrite (63% and 58% for A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum, respectively). A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum exhibited lower levels of attachment to low-grade ore and quartz relative to the sulphide minerals. PMID:22410741

  6. Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration cytology of non-invasive, low-grade urothelial carcinoma with lung metastasis: A case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vural, ÇiĞdem; Yildiz, Kürsat; Çabuk, Devrim; Akgül, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Radiological analyses in a 61-year-old patient being followed since 2005 for low-grade, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) (Ta) revealed a 5-cm pleural-based mass in the lower lobe of the right lung for which a subsequent transthoracic fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed. Upon observing the carcinoma cells consistent with UC metastasis, systemic chemotherapy was commenced. The patient underwent a metastatectomy based on the thoracic computerized tomography scan performed on the 4th month of treatment, which revealed notable regression. The resected tumor was morphologically similar to cells seen in the transthoracic fine-needle aspiration and was immunohistochemically positive for p63, uroplakin, thrombomodulin, CK7 and CK20 at varying degrees but was negative for TTF-1. We report a case of metastatic UC of the lung in a patient who had had a low-grade superficial UC of the urinary bladder and we discuss the cytopathological features of this rare entity in light of the literature. PMID:26229254

  7. Expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins and physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies with and without low grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tagle, Diana K Jiménez; Sotelo, Daniel Hernández; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco A; Alfaro, Eugenia Flores; Coronel, Yaneth Castro; Hernández, Oscar del Moral; Romero, Luz del Carmen Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between expression of HPV16 E6, p53 and p21 proteins and the physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-SIL) and with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. 101 liquid-based cytological samples were analyzed. 50 samples were without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-IL) and 51 samples of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. HPV16 infection was determined by PCR-RFLP, and the physical state of HPV16 by in situ hybridization with tyramide-amplification. The expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The expression of HPV16 E6 protein was significantly higher in LSIL that in Non-SIL samples (p=0.006). We found a significant correlation between E6 expression and the physical state of HPV16 in Non-SIL (p=0.049). Our results suggest that high expression of E6 in LSIL is an early event of cervical carcinogenesis and perhaps can be used as an early marker. PMID:24482706

  8. Parametric and working fluid analysis of a combined organic Rankine-vapor compression refrigeration system activated by low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Saleh, B

    2016-09-01

    The potential use of many common hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons as well as new hydrofluoroolefins, i.e. R1234yf and R1234ze(E) working fluids for a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression refrigeration (ORC-VCR) system activated by low-grade thermal energy is evaluated. The basic ORC operates between 80 and 40 °C typical for low-grade thermal energy power plants while the basic VCR cycle operates between 5 and 40 °C. The system performance is characterized by the overall system coefficient of performance (COPS) and the total mass flow rate of the working fluid for each kW cooling capacity ([Formula: see text]). The effects of different working parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and boiler temperatures on the system performance are examined. The results illustrate that the maximum COPS values are attained using the highest boiling candidates with overhanging T-s diagram, i.e. R245fa and R600, while R600 has the lowest [Formula: see text] under the considered operating conditions. Among the proposed candidates, R600 is the best candidate for the ORC-VCR system from the perspectives of environmental issues and system performance. Nevertheless, its flammability should attract enough attention. The maximum COPS using R600 is found to reach up to 0.718 at a condenser temperature of 30 °C and the basic values for the remaining parameters. PMID:27489732

  9. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis and obvious ossification due to primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation: Report of a rare case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hua; Wu, Zuqun; Wang, Zhaoming; Yao, Hongtian

    2015-01-01

    Localized (primary) pulmonary amyloidosis associated with pulmonary low-grade B cell lymphoma is rarely occurred. Here we report an unusual case of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis and obvious ossification due to primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation in a 59-year-old man; moreover, two bronchial lymph nodes were involved histologically. The patient underwent a left lower lobectomy along with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. He received no adjuvant therapy and the postoperative course was uneventful within the 14 months follow-up period after his initial diagnosis. PMID:26261657

  10. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  11. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Kotzin, B.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Slavin, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Calin, A.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Subdiaphragmatic lymphoid radiation was used as an alternative to cytotoxic drug therapy to treat six patients with progressive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. All were previously unresponsive to conventional therapy. Radiation (4,000 rad) was given to subdiaphragmatic lymphoid tissues in fractionated doses of 150 to 250 rad each. Three of the six patients demonstrated long-lasting clinical improvement with a decrease in synovitis and morning stiffness and an increase in joint function. All six patients showed a profound depression in the peripheral blood lymphocyte count which persisted for at least six months. The irradiation was well tolerated; there have been no serious complications due to radiotherapy with follow-up ranging from 13 to 36 months. The substantial efficacy in some patients and the lack of severe toxicity in all suggests that radiotherapy deserves further study as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-07-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental.

  13. Lymphoid proliferations in the orbit: malignant or benign?

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, R; Koornneef, L; van Heerde, P; Vroom, T M; Pegels, J H; Feltkamp, C A; Peeters, H J; Gillissen, J P; Bleeker, G M; Feltkamp, T E

    1984-01-01

    Clinical, pathological, and immunological analysis of 20 patients with ocular adnexal lymphoid disease has demonstrated several parameters which are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. Patients in the fourth or fifth decade of life presenting with an acute history of pain, oedema, epiphora, double vision, and ptosis, with a mass localised in the lacrimal gland area, are more likely to have a pseudolymphoma or a chronic inflammatory lesion than a true non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It is not possible to obtain a definite diagnosis without surgical intervention, because only three out of nine patients with orbital NHL had evidence of a monoclonal B cell population in peripheral blood on admission to the Orbital Centre. Furthermore it was confirmed that the identification of the various orbital lymphoid infiltrates becomes more distinct when immunological techniques are added to the clinical and histopathological methods of investigation. Multidisciplinary cooperation leads to further improvement of diagnosis and treatment of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disease. Images PMID:6391535

  14. Natural cytotoxicity of haemopoietic cell populations against murine lymphoid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, R. C.; Grail, D.; Warner, N. L.

    1978-01-01

    Homozygous nude and normal mice of 3 strains, BALB/c, CBA and C57BL, were used as sources of nucleated haemopoietic "natural killer" (NK) cells. These killer cells could lyse a wide range of syngeneic and allogeneic lymphoid tumour cell lines in vitro, and it was found that cell suspensions from nude mice were always significantly more active than those from normal mice, and that the most active effector population was a polymorph-enriched peritoneal-exudate cell suspension. Eosinophils did not appear to be involved in the phenomenon, and mononuclear peritoneal-exudate cell suspensions were actually highly inhibitory. Three non-lymphoid tumours, a carcinoma, a fibrosarcoma and a mastocytoma, were totally resistant to in vitro lysis. Although all susceptible tumour cell lines were C-type virus-associated, not all of these tumours were killed by all strain sources of spleen cells, indicating a specificity of killing. PMID:656308

  15. Type-2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Asthma and Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) belong to an expanding family of innate lymphocytes that provide a potent source of immune effector cytokines at the initiation of immune responses. ILC2 arise, under the control of the transcription factors RORα and GATA3, from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, to secrete type-2 cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13. Using experimental models, ILC2 have been implicated in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, but also in metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, recent reports have indicated that ILC2 not only play roles at the initiation of type-2 immunity but can also contribute to chronic pathology, such as fibrosis, and can impact on the priming of the adaptive T-cell response. The identification of ILC2 in patients with allergic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis indicates that these cells may represent new therapeutic targets. PMID:25525730

  16. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

  17. Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. ); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. )

    1991-12-15

    Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

  18. Immunosuppression by fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in collagen arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Belli, J.A.; Trentham, D.E.

    1982-05-01

    Treatments with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide were evaluated for rats injected with type II collagen. Preadministration of TLI and repeated injections of cyclophosphamide suppressed the severity of arthritis and lowered antibody titers to collagen significantly. TLI initiated at the onset of collagen arthritis decreased humoral and cellular responses to collagen but did not affect the severity of arthritis. These data demonstrate that both TLi and cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive in an experimentally inducible autoimmune disease.

  19. Cellular mechanisms of tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; King, D.P.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    In this review article on the cellular mechanisms of tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), the effect of radiation dose and time of bone marrow infusion in mice are studied. TLI is compared to whole body irradiation with respect to the development of graft-host reaction and the number of stable chimeras obtained. The relationship between nonspecific suppressor cells and the development of tolerance after TLI is discussed. (KRM)

  20. Spontaneous slip reduction of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: technical note and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Li, Lijun; Qian, Lie; Zhou, Wei; Tan, Jun; Zou, Le; Yang, Mingjie

    2011-02-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: Retrospective clinical data analysis. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate and verify our philosophy of spontaneous slip reduction following circumferential release via bilateral minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (Mini-TLIF) for treatment of low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis usually requires surgical intervention, and the most currently controversial focus is on method and degree of reduction; and Mini-TLIF is an attractive surgical procedure for isthmic spondylolisthesis. METHODS.: Between February 2004 and June 2008, 21 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent Mini-TLIF in our institute. Total resection of the scar around the pars interarticularis liberated the nerve roots, achieving posterior release as well. The disc was thoroughly resected, and the disc space was gradually distracted and thoroughly released with sequential disc shavers until rupture of anulus conjunct with anterior longitudinal ligament, accomplishing anterior release, so as to insert Cages. Because of circumferential release, the slipped vertebrae would tend to obtain spontaneous reduction, and with pedicle screw fixation, additional reduction would be achieved without any application of posterior translation force. Radiographs, Visual Analogue Scale, and Oswestry Disability Index were documented. All the cases were followed up for 10 to 26 months. RESULTS.: Slip percentage was reduced from 24.2% ± 6.9% to 10.5% ± 4.0%, and foraminal area percentage increased from 89.1% ± 3.0% to 93.6% ± 2.1%. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index decreased from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 2.1 ± 1.1 and from 53.3 ± 16.2 to 17.0 ± 7.8, respectively. No neurologic complications were encountered. There were no signs of instrumentation failure. The fusion rate approached 100%. CONCLUSION.: Slip reduction is based on circumferential release. The procedure can be well performed

  1. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  2. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh . E-mail: rjalali@medscape.com; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients <16 years was 82 (range, 33-105). For those >16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in

  3. Selective lymphoid irradiation. I. An approach to transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M A; Fawwaz, R A; Oluwole, S; Todd, G; Nowygrod, R; Reemtsma, K

    1979-08-01

    The kinetics, distribution, and radiobiologic effects of palladium (Pd)-109-hematoporphyrin were determined in the rat. In addition, we studied the effect on rat heart allograft survival of Pd-109-hematoporphyrin, with and without antilymphocyte serum (ALS). A single sublethal dose of Pd-109-hematoporphyrin (up to 36 muCi/kg) resulted in the following: predominant concentration in lymphoid tissue and proximal bone marrow, complete central and proximal bone marrow ablation with preservation of distal bone marrow, massive depletion of lymphocytes from lymph nodes and spleen, an 80% reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes which was completed by the addition of ALS, full recovery of lymphoid tissue and blood cellularity within 60 days of administration of radionuclide, and a 100% animal survival rate. This method of selective lymphoid irradiation (SLI) prolongs indefinitely Fisher cardiac allografts in Lewis recipients and significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival across major histocompatibility barries (ACI to Lewis or to Fisher). Specific tolerance to donor strains was demonstrated by the acceptance of Fisher skin by Lewis recipients carrying 150-day-old Fisher hearts. Third party (ACI) skin allografts were rapidly rejected by the same animals. Further studies of SLI in larger animals are required to determine the optimal safe dose of SLI in man. PMID:380034

  4. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

  5. Identification of a novel lymphoid population in the murine epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Francisca F.; Tenno, Mari; Brzostek, Joanna; Li, Jackson LiangYao; Allies, Gabriele; Hoeffel, Guillaume; See, Peter; Ng, Lai Guan; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Gascoigne, Nicholas R. J.; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-01-01

    T cell progenitors are known to arise from the foetal liver in embryos and the bone marrow in adults; however different studies have shown that a pool of T cell progenitors may also exist in the periphery. Here, we identified a lymphoid population resembling peripheral T cell progenitors which transiently seed the epidermis during late embryogenesis in both wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We named these cells ELCs (Epidermal Lymphoid Cells). ELCs expressed Thy1 and CD2, but lacked CD3 and TCRαβ/γδ at their surface, reminiscent of the phenotype of extra- or intra- thymic T cell progenitors. Similarly to Dendritic Epidermal T Cells (DETCs), ELCs were radioresistant and capable of self-renewal. However, despite their progenitor-like phenotype and expression of T cell lineage markers within the population, ELCs did not differentiate into conventional T cells or DETCs in in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo differentiation assays. Finally, we show that ELC expressed NK markers and secreted IFN-γ upon stimulation. Therefore we report the discovery of a unique population of lymphoid cells within the murine epidermis that appears related to NK cells with as-yet-unidentified functions. PMID:26223192

  6. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  7. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radiotherapy as first-line therapy for early stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including bulky disease.

    PubMed

    Samaniego, Felipe; Berkova, Zuzana; Romaguera, Jorge E; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A; Pro, Barbara; Shah, Jatin J; McLaughlin, Peter; Sehgal, Lalit; Selvaraj, Vijairam; Braun, Frank K; Mathur, Rohit; Feng, Lei; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W

    2014-10-01

    (90) Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan ((90) YIT) was used as a first-line therapy for patients with early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) or marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL). Thirty-one patients were treated, with an overall 3-month response rate of 100% (68% complete response, 29% unconfirmed complete response and 3% partial response). At a median follow-up of 56 months, ten patients (32%) had disease relapse or progression. The progression-free rates at 3 and 5 years were lower in males, patients with FL, stage II disease and non-bulky disease, although they did not reach statistical significance. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia were 61%, 35%, and 3%, respectively. (90) YIT was well tolerated, including in those patients over 60 years old, and achieved high response rates in patients with early-stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Bulky disease did not adversely affect tumour response. PMID:25040450

  8. Neurological Impairment Linked with Cortico-Subcortical Infiltration of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas at Initial Diagnosis Supports Early Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Anja; Zetterling, Maria; Lundin, Margareta; Melin, Beatrice; Fahlström, Markus; Grabowska, Anna; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are slow-growing brain tumors that in spite of an indolent behavior at onset show a continuous expansion over time and inevitably transform into malignant gliomas. Extensive tumor resections may be performed with preservation of neurological function due to neuroplasticity that is induced by the slow tumor growth. However, DLGG prefer to migrate along subcortical pathways, and white matter plasticity is considerably more limited than gray matter plasticity. Whether signs of functional decompensating white matter that may be found as early as at disease presentation has not been systematically studied. Here, we examined 52 patients who presented with a DLGG at the time of radiological diagnosis. We found a significant correlation between neurological impairment and eloquent cortico-subcortical tumor localization, but not between neurological function and tumor volume. These results suggest that even small tumors invading white matter pathways may lack compensatory mechanisms for functional reorganization already at disease presentation. PMID:26113841

  9. 40Ar/39Ar Data for White Mica, Biotite, and K-Feldspar Samples from Low-Grade Metamorphic Rocks in the Westminster Terrane and Adjacent Rocks, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of white mica and K-feldspar mineral separates and matrix of a whole rock phyllite, all from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Westminster terrane and adjacent strata in central Maryland. This report presents these data in a preliminary form, but in more detail than can be accommodated in todays professional journals. Also included in this report is information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by readers unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results; many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context.

  10. Cytomorphological findings and histological correlation of low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma of salivary gland in fine-needle aspiration: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Sin; Koo, Ja Seung

    2013-12-01

    Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) of the salivary gland is a rare tumor. We report the cytologic features and histologic correlation of a patient with LGCCC. A 57-year-old man had a hardly palpable, nontender mass in the right cheek area followed over nine months. Radiologic analysis revealed a 1.2 cm multiseptated, cystic, solid nodule in an anterior superficial lobe of the right parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed many irregular overlapping sheets or clusters of ductal epithelial cells forming solid, pseudopapillary, and cribriform architectures. Nuclei of the tumor cells revealed inconspicuous atypia with minimal size variation. On the basis of these findings, we confirmed a diagnosis of ductal epithelial proliferative lesion, favoring neoplasm, with uncertain malignant potential. Tumor excision was performed, revealing a tiny multicystic nodule (0.7 cm). Histopathologically, this tumor showed the characteristic morphology of LGCCC. This is the first report of cytomorphological findings of LGCCC in Korea. PMID:24421856

  11. Dat