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1

High-grade Hepatic Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Probably Transformed from the Low-grade Gastric MALT Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was first described in 1983, is known to be caused by chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, which triggers lymphoid infiltration and formation of organized lymphoid tissue. In approximately two thirds of cases of MALT, the lymphoma has been observed to regress after treatment of H. pylori infection; this provides strong evidence of a causative role of HP in the etiology of MALT. We report a case of a 67-year-old female patient with a high-grade MALT lymphoma of the liver; this occurred six years after complete remission of a low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and after complete eradication of H. pylori. there was no recurrence of the previous low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. Based on radiological and pathologic findings, the high-grade MALT was considered to result from transformation of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma.

Chung, Yong Woo; Paik, Chang Hee; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Han, Dong Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Oh, Young Ha

2006-01-01

2

Complete regression of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the gastric stump after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastritis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary gastric lymphoma. Recently, triple therapy using proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, has been established for the eradication therapy of H. pylori infection, and is also recommended for the treatment of the superficial type of low-grade gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ) lymphoma. MALT lymphoma of the gastric stump is rare, and total resection or chemotherapy for MALT lymphoma of the gastric stump has been previously reported. Therefore, there is no evidence that eradication therapy is effective for low-grade MALT lymphoma of the gastric stump. Our case illustrates the remarkable efficacy of eradication of H. pylori for low-grade MALT lymphoma of the gastric stump without other modalities such as surgery and systemic chemotherapy. PMID:16918142

Komoto, M; Tominaga, K; Nakata, B; Takashima, T; Inoue, T; Hirakawa, K

2006-06-01

3

Regression of primary low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of duodenum after long-term treatment with clarithromycin.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old woman was referred to our department because of epigastralgia. Endoscopic findings revealed yellowish bumpy mucosa from the bulbus to the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was admitted to our hospital for further examinations and treatment for this lesion. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was performed on part of the lesion to obtain the final diagnosis, and then mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the duodenum was diagnosed using this procedure. In this case, no evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the patient's stomach was detected by any of the diagnostic examinations used, such as the urea breath test, histological study, culture, and serological antibody. For this reason, the patient's duodenal MALT lymphoma was treated solely with long-term clarithromycin, which had an inhibitory action on lymphocyte activation. The lesion showed slight improved during the first 12 days of treatment, and complete regression was reached after 6 months of treatment. It is suggested that the long-term use of clarithromycin may be effective for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with the lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:16497629

Ochi, Masahiro; Tominaga, Kazunari; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Yamamori, Kazuki; Wada, Tomoko; Shiba, Masatsugu; Sasaki, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Oshitani, Nobuhide; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo

2006-03-01

4

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising from the kidney  

PubMed Central

Primary renal lymphoma is rare, and most are intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas of B-cell lineage, such as diffuse large B-cell or Burkitt lymphoma. We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arising from the kidney. Only a few cases of primary renal MALT lymphoma have been published.

Niwa, Naoya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Horinaga, Minoru; Hongo, Hiroshi; Ito, Yujiro; Watanabe, Takuro; Masuda, Takeshi

2014-01-01

5

Helicobacter pylori and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: what's new.  

PubMed

Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach, gastric MALT lymphoma, is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The eradication of H pylori using antibiotics is successful in 60% to 80% of affected patients. In contrast to the previous paradigm, we and other investigators have shown that a certain proportion of patients with H pylori-positive early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the stomach with histological evidence of MALT lymphoma, including high-grade transformed gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric DLBCL(MALT), achieved long-term complete pathological remission (pCR) after first-line H pylori eradication therapy, indicating that the loss of H pylori dependence and high-grade transformation are separate events in the progression of gastric lymphoma. In addition, patients with H pylori-positive gastric DLBCL without histological evidence of MALT (gastric pure DLBCL) may also respond to H pylori eradication therapy. A long-term follow-up study showed that patients who achieved pCR remained lymphoma free. Gastric MALT lymphoma is indirectly influenced by H pylori infection through T-cell stimulation, and recent studies have shown that H pylori-triggering chemokines and their receptors, H pylori-associated epigenetic changes, H pylori-regulated miRNA expression, and tumor infiltration by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells contribute to lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the translocation of CagA into B lymphocytes inhibits apoptosis through p53 accumulation, BAD phosphorylation, and the up-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression. In gastric MALT lymphoma, CagA may stimulate lymphomagenesis directly, through the regulation of signal transduction, and intracellular CagA is associated with H pylori dependence. These findings represent a substantial paradigm shift compared with the classical theory of H pylori-reactive T cells contributing indirectly to the development of MALT lymphoma. In conclusion, a wide range of H pylori-related gastric lymphomas have been identified. The use of antibiotics as the sole first-line therapy for early-stage gastric pure DLBCL requires validation in a prospective study. The clinical and biological significance of the CagA oncoprotein in the lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma warrants further study. PMID:24319171

Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Cheng, Ann-Lii

2013-01-01

6

Primary prostatic lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

We present a case of primary prostatic lymphoma referring to a 57-year-old man, who was admitted with the symptom of bladder outlet obstruction, and had a history of urination difficulty for two years. The symptoms and signs were compatible with a diagnosis of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The pathology of the specimen obtained from transurethral prostatectomy showed B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. The patient has been asymptomatic and under complete remission after completion of chemotherapy consisting of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone for 6 cycles. PMID:9711894

Tomikawa, S; Okumura, H; Yoshida, T; Mochizuki, H; Miwa, A; Takayanagi, K; Yoshino, T; Ohtake, S; Fujimura, M; Nakamura, S; Matsuda, T

1998-07-01

7

Unique occurrence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma disseminated to peripheral nerves.  

PubMed

Lymphomatous spread to peripheral nerves is a rare but long recognized complication, most commonly involving aggressive B-cell lymphomas. A 67-year-old woman with a history of a low-grade, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was in remission, presented with a left-sided forearm mass and numbness over the dorsolateral aspect of the thumb. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass associated with the superficial radial sensory nerve in the distal forearm, which demonstrated fluorodeoxyglucose avidity on positron emission tomography. An ultrasound-guided needle biopsy was performed yielding a diagnosis of low-grade lymphoma, consistent with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. Subsequently, she was found to have bilateral sciatic nerve involvement. This case describes the first known reported spread of MALT lymphoma to peripheral nerves in the limbs. PMID:24393193

Mahan, Mark A; Ladak, Adil; Johnston, Patrick B; Seningen, Justin L; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

2013-01-01

8

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting within a solitary anti-mesenteric dilated segment of ileum: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype. Clinical presentation is often insidious as a low-grade lesion and disease tends to remain localised for a long period of time. Ileal involvement is rare and presentation within an area of focal anti-mesenteric ileal wall dilation simulating a large diverticulum has not been reported. CASE

Rowland Storey; Marcel Gatt; Ian Bradford

2009-01-01

9

Recent developments in nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Guidelines and algorithms for the management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been developed in the recent past, but the situation regarding nongastric MALT lymphomas is much more complicated. Owing to the heterogeneity of MALT lymphomas arising in various organs, different approaches to treatment have been applied, mostly in an uncontrolled fashion. In the recent past, for example, attempts to use antibiotic therapy in managing ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas have been reported, with response rates varying between 0% and 60% with the use of doxycycline or, more rarely, clarithromycin. Currently, antibiotic therapy remains experimental, with conflicting data and apparent geographic variations. In addition, there is no clear consensus whether radiation or systemic therapy is more effective in MALT lymphomas at different locations, including the lung and the ocular adnexa. This review highlights and briefly discusses some recent developments in the management of nongastric MALT lymphomas. PMID:21808988

Troch, Marlene; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus

2011-12-01

10

Regression of gastric high grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma after Helicobacter pylori eradication  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Most low grade gastric lymphomas arising from the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are related to Helicobacter pylori colonisation. Cases with disease limited to the stomach can be cured after H pylori eradication and remain in remission for years. In contrast, high grade lymphomas of the stomach, although also related to H pylori, do not usually respond to eradication treatment.?CASE REPORT—A 36 year old patient was referred from another hospital with a diagnosis of a low grade gastric MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori. The patient was in stage I and while waiting for the biopsies to be reviewed H pylori eradication therapy was given as the first step of treatment. Review of the biopsies showed a high grade immunoblastic lymphoma with areas of low grade gastric MALT lymphoma (high grade gastric MALT lymphoma or diffuse large B cell lymphoma with areas of MALT type lymphoma of the WHO classification). The patient received no further treatment but has been closely followed up for 32 months with sequential endoscopies to obtain biopsies for histological studies, H pylori cultures, and polymerase chain reaction analysis of the IgH gene.?RESULTS—After H pylori eradication the patient had a complete histological response that has been maintained for 32 months. Monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement persisted for 32 months.?CONCLUSION—The response of this patient indicates the possibility that some cases of high grade gastric MALT lymphoma (possibly patients in stage I with a superficial or limited disease) may still be responsive to H pylori antigenic drive and may be cured with eradication therapy. Prospective studies should be performed to identify patients with high grade gastric MALT lymphomas that may respond to eradication therapy and be spared of other more aggressive treatments.???Keywords: mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; lymphoma; gastric lymphoma; immunoblastic lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori

Montalban, C; Santon, A; Boixeda, D; Bellas, C

2001-01-01

11

A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the prostate.  

PubMed

We report a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the prostate. A 67-year-old man presented with urinary obstruction and an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. A physical examination revealed mild prostate enlargement and no lymphadenopathy. A needle biopsy and immunohistochemical studies of the prostate were performed, which revealed marginal zone B-cell MALT-type lymphoma. A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy did not show involvement by lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and the pelvis revealed no lymphadenopathy or ascites. There was no involvement of other sites by lymphoma. The patient was diagnosed and staged as extranodal marginal zone B-cell MALT-type lymphoma of the prostate, low grade and stage I. The patient received external beam radiation therapy to the prostate with a total dose of 3600cGy in 22 fractions, and became free of disease within the following 15 months. PMID:21139934

Koga, Noriko; Noguchi, Masanori; Moriya, Fukuko; Ohshima, Kouichi; Yoshitake, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Kei

2009-01-01

12

[Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the larynx].  

PubMed

A 63-year-old female suffering from hepatitis C virus infection and manic depression was admitted with a 4-month history of hoarseness. Endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a neoplasm with a smooth surface in the left supraglottic region extending to the left false vocal cord. Based on the histological findings, together with the results of systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as having a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in clinical stage IE, according to the Ann Arbor classification. After one month of follow-up, the patient presented with involvement of multiple subcutaneous regions in the left neck area, etc. Biopsies revealed the same type of lymphoma as that in the supraglottis. The disease was considered to have progressed to clinical stage IV. Six courses of R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone) treatment resulted in complete remission of all lesions. Primary MALT lymphoma in the larynx is extremely rare. Since the first description by Diebold et al in 1990, only 43 cases have been reported. Among these reported cases, only 7 (16%) with progressive stages were described. The R-CVP regimen appears to be effective for the treatment of progressive primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx. Furthermore, hepatitis C virus infection is thought to be closely associated with the aggressive malignant process and subcutaneous dissemination. PMID:24681938

Hua, Jian; Iwaki, Yasunobu; Inoue, Morihiro; Takiguchi, Yoichiro; Ota, Yasunori; Hagihara, Masao

2014-03-01

13

A Case of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Sigmoid Colon Presenting as a Semipedunculated Polyp  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are characterized by lymphoepithelial lesions pathologically. Colonic MALT lymphomas are relatively rarer than lymphomas of the stomach or small intestine. Endoscopically, colonic MALT lymphoma frequently appears as a nonpedunculated protruding polypoid mass and/or an ulceration in the cecum and/or rectum. We report a unique case of a colonic MALT lymphoma presenting as a semipedunculated polyp. A 54-year-old man was found to have a 2-cm semipedunculated polyp in the sigmoid colon during screening colonoscopy. The polyp was removed by endoscopic mucosal resection. Histologic examination of the resected polyp revealed diffuse epithelial infiltration by discrete aggregates of lymphoma cells. We diagnosed the tumor as low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma by immunohistochemical staining.

Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Seon Young; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Sung, Woo Jung

2014-01-01

14

Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission.

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

15

[Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma)].  

PubMed

Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) is a B-cell tumor thought to originate from B-lymphocytes that are normally present in the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles of the lymphoid tissue. About 50% of MALT lymphoma occurs in gastrointestinal tract. The majority of patients present with localized disease and indolent clinical progression. In localized gastric MALT lymphoma with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, HP eradication is recommended as first line therapy. In those without HP infection and localized non-gastric MALT lymphoma, involved field radiation therapy(IFRT) is recommended as first line therapy. Patients in advanced stage and salvage setting are managed according to the recommendations for advanced follicular lymphoma. The long-term survival rate of MALT lymphoma patients is 80-90%. PMID:24724410

Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzumiya, Junji

2014-03-01

16

Parotid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma regression after Helicobacter pylori eradication.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome showed recurrence of parotid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with a simultaneous increase of serum sIL-2R antigen levels 10 years after surgical treatment. Helicobacter pylori infection had been detected in the stomach since the beginning of the lymphoma. Although H. pylori was not detected in the recurrent parotid lymphoma, antibiotic therapy contributed not only to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori but also to disappearance of the recurrent lymphoma. Further studies on the mechanisms of occurrence of extragastric MALT lymphomas are needed to establish the treatment of extragastric MALT lymphomas. PMID:19504556

Iwai, Hiroshi; Nakamichi, Naoto; Nakae, Kaori; Konishi, Masaya; Inaba, Muneo; Hoshino, Shoichi; Baba, Susumu; Amakawa, Ryuichi

2009-08-01

17

Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an indolent extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, originating in acquired MALT that is induced in mucosal barriers as part of a normal adaptive immune response to a chronic immunoinflammatory stimulus, most notably chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This antigenic stimulation initially leads to lymphoid hyperplasia; the acquisition of additional genetic aberrations culminates in the activation of intracellular survival pathways, with disease progression due to proliferation and resistance to apoptosis, and the emergence of a malignant clone. There are descriptions of MALT lymphomas affecting practically every organ and system, with a marked geographic variability partially attributable to the epidemiology of the underlying risk factors; nevertheless, the digestive system (and predominantly the stomach) is the most frequently involved location, reflecting the gastrointestinal tract’s unique characteristics of contact with foreign antigens, high mucosal permeability, large extension and intrinsic lymphoid system. While early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma can frequently regress after the therapeutic reversal of the chronic immune stimulus through antibiotic eradication of H. pylori infection, the presence of immortalizing genetic abnormalities, of advanced disease or of eradication-refractoriness requires a more aggressive approach which is, presently, not consensual. The fact that MALT lymphomas are rare neoplasms, with a worldwide incidence of 1-1.5 cases per 105 population, per year, limits the ease of accrual of representative series of patients for robust clinical trials that could sustain informed evidence-based therapeutic decisions to optimize the quality of patient care.

Pereira, Marta-Isabel; Medeiros, Jose Augusto

2014-01-01

18

Novel approach to treatment of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

A 78-year-old Hispanic woman with a medical history of osteoporosis, hyperlipidaemia and dyspepsia presented to a gastrointestinal clinic complaining of a small amount of rectal bleeding following bowel movements for 6 months. Colonoscopy demonstrated a 3×3 cm submucosal rectal mass. Pathological analysis revealed ulcerated colonic mucosa with diffuse proliferation suggestive of a lymphoproliferative process. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry of the specimen supported a diagnosis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The patient was treated with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. A C-14 urea breath test confirmed eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Repeat colonoscopy showed no regression of the tumour. The patient received external beam radiation treatment. Subsequent positron emission tomography/CT scans demonstrated no evidence of viable tumour tissue and no regional or distant metastasis. Follow-up sigmoidoscopy with biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphoma. PMID:22715275

Chahil, Neetu; Bloom, Peter; Tyson, Jeremiah; Jazwari, Saad; Robilotti, James; Gaultieri, Nicholas

2011-01-01

19

Bulky Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated with Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan  

PubMed Central

An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive consolidation in the right lung. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma using CT-guided lung biopsy. Her pulmonary images and respiratory symptoms did not improve two months after receiving 4 cycles of rituximab weekly; therefore, yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan was chosen as salvage therapy. The abnormal shadow on her pulmonary images was significantly reduced two months later, and she had no symptoms without nonhematological toxicities. She has had no progression for 18 months. Furthermore, radiation pneumonitis has not also been observed. We herein reported bulky pulmonary MALT lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan.

Tamura, Shinobu; Ikeda, Tokuji; Kurihara, Toshio; Kakuno, Yoshiteru; Nasu, Hideki; Nakano, Yoshio; Oshima, Koichi; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

2013-01-01

20

[A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the rectum].  

PubMed

We report a case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the rectum in a 67-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital owing to bowel abnormalities. Colonoscopic examination revealed a submucosal tumor (SMT) in the lower rectum. However, no malignancy was found on rectal mucosa biopsy. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent transanal surgery for the SMT. Rectal MALT lymphoma was diagnosed based on results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations. According to the Lugano International Conference classification system, the present case was classified as stage I MALT lymphoma. After the operation, Helicobacter pylori infection occurred, for which eradication therapy was performed, but no further complications or recurrence occurred. PMID:24394011

Tokunou, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuhito; Toshimitsu, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Yoshinori; Ando, Seiichirou

2013-11-01

21

High-grade B-cell lymphoma arising in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the duodenum.  

PubMed

Duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a rare neoplasm. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma located in the descending duodenum that was not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. A surgical resection due to obstruction of the bowel lumen above the ligament of Treitz was performed. No invasion into the adjacent structure was confirmed at surgery. The pathological examination showed an infiltration of the duodenal mucosa and submucosa with B lymphocytes. Monoclonal proliferation of the lymphoid tissue was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. The histological appearance and the demonstration of monoclonality fulfilled the criteria for malignant high-grade B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:12172414

Leone, Nicola; Brunello, Franco; Baronio, Monica; Giordanino, Chiara; Morgando, Anna; Marchesa, Pierenrico; Delsedime, Luisa; Rizzetto, Mario

2002-08-01

22

Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphoma of gastric-mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) type has been linked to infection with Helicobacter pylori. We investigated the effect on MALT lymphoma of eradicating H pylori infection. 33 patients with primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori gastritis were treated with omeprazole (120 mg daily) and amoxycillin (2·25 g daily) for 14 days to eradicate H pylori. In

E. Bayerdörffer; B. Rudolph; A. Neubauer; C. Thiede; N. Lehn; S. Eidt; M. Stolte

1995-01-01

23

Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3×3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o'clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation. PMID:24744673

Arslan, Serife Hülya; Uyetürk, Ummügül; Tekgündüz, Emre; Irkkan, Sultan Çi?dem; Kurt, Meltem Yüksel; Demiriz, It?r ?irino?lu; Altunta?, Fevzi

2012-09-01

24

Occult pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting as catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome  

PubMed Central

Catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS) is characterized by fulminant thrombosis of the arterial and venous beds of multiple organ systems over a relatively short period of time and with a high mortality rate. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the lung has never been reported as a causative or precipitating factor for CAPS in the CAPS registry database. The present study describes a rare case of pulmonary MALT lymphoma of the lung that presented as CAPS. A 19-year-old Hispanic female presented with shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen revealed multiple portal vein thromboses and bilateral pulmonary nodules. Within one week of presentation, the patient developed a straight sinus thrombosis and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, which led to shortness of breath. A biopsy of the lung nodule revealed MALT lymphoma. The present case illustrates a rarely reported pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting as CAPS in a young female. The patient was successfully treated with 90 mg/m2 bendamustine on days one and two and rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day one of each 28-day cycle. Complete remission of the lung nodules was observed following three cycles of treatment, as visualized by positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. Fondaparinux was identified as a feasible anticoagulation drug of choice for this case. At seven months post-treatment, the patient continues to be stable with no further evidence of thrombosis and is currently undergoing rituximab maintenance therapy every six months for two years. A repeat lupus anticoagulant antibody assay turned and remained negative during the clinical follow-up period. A prompt diagnosis and early aggressive treatment is potentially curative and may dramatically decrease the mortality risk. Future studies should explore the role of rituximab in the management of CAPS-associated B-cell lymphoid malignancies.

REGUNATH, HARIHARAN; SHORTRIDGE, JAMES; RAZA, SHAHZAD; NISTALA, PUJA; HUFFMAN, BRANDON M.; WANG, MICHAEL X.; XIANG, DONG

2013-01-01

25

A Polypoid Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Stomach Treated with Endoscopic Polypectomy  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is the most common extranodal lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually accompanied by Helicobacter pylori infection, and eradication of H. pylori remains the mainstay of treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma. However, there is no consensus on the second-line treatment for patients with gastric MALT lymphoma who do not improve after successful H. pylori eradication. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a polypoid type of gastric MALT lymphoma on the greater curvature side of the upper body. Despite successful H. pylori eradication, the tumor did not regress after 6 months. Because the tumor had a semipedunculated polypoid morphology, gastric polypectomy was implemented as a second-line treatment. No recurrence occurred during the 3-year follow-up period. We suggest that gastric polypectomy be considered an alternative treatment modality for polypoid gastric MALT lymphoma that is unresponsive to H. pylori eradication.

Min, Shin Young; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

2013-01-01

26

Two cases with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma successfully treated with clarithromycin.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old woman with a history of sinobronchial syndrome was admitted to the hospital because of a cough, sputum, and abnormal chest shadow. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (p-MALToma) based on results of a pathologic examination and the gene rearrangements in the Ig heavy chain on Southern blot hybridization. Although p-MALToma did not regress with conventional therapy, it was reduced after long-term treatment with clarithromycin (CAM) (200 mg/d). A 57-year-old woman with a history of Sjögren syndrome and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia had a mass lesion in the left lower lung field. CT image-guided biopsy established a diagnosis of p-MALToma. The p-MALToma regressed with long-term treatment with CAM (200 mg/d), whereas Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy was not effective in concurrent atrophic gastritis with HP. It is suggested that CAM, a macrolide antibiotic, may be effective in some patients with p-MALToma. PMID:20822996

Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Atsuko; Hara, Shintaro; Amenomori, Misato; Fujita, Hanako; Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kohno, Shigeru

2010-09-01

27

Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Recent progress in pathogenesis and management  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in the research regarding the molecular pathogenesis and management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is reviewed. In approximately 90% of cases, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays the causative role in the pathogenesis, and H. pylori eradication is nowadays the first-line treatment for this disease, which leads to complete disease remission in 50%-90% of cases. In H. pylori-dependent cases, microbe-generated immune responses, including interaction between B and T cells involving CD40 and CD40L co-stimulatory molecules, are considered to induce the development of MALT lymphoma. In H. pylori-independent cases, activation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway by oncogenic products of specific chromosomal translocations such as t(11;18)/API2-MALT1, or inactivation of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (A20) are considered to contribute to the lymphomagenesis. Recently, a large-scale Japanese multicenter study confirmed that the long-term clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphoma after H. pylori eradication is excellent. Treatment modalities for patients not responding to H. pylori eradication include a “watch and wait” strategy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, rituximab immunotherapy, and a combination of these. Because of the indolent behavior of MALT lymphoma, second-line treatment should be tailored in consideration of the clinical stage and extent of the disease in each patient.

Nakamura, Shotaro; Matsumoto, Takayuki

2013-01-01

28

Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area. RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.

Kim, Sang-Won; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Hyeh; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2013-01-01

29

Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2011-12-01

30

Distribution of porcine CD4/CD8 double-positive T lymphocytes in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed

The present study describes the distribution of CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) T cells in lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of pigs at 6-7 months of age. Proportions of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral, bronchial and mesenteric lymph nodes expressing CD4 and/or CD8 molecules were similar and ranged from 10-13% CD4/CD8 DP cells, 25-27% CD4 single-positive (SP) cells, and 27-32% CD8 SP cells. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues had significantly smaller proportions of CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells than lymph nodes and CD4/CD8 DP cells accounted for a larger proportion of the total CD4+ lymphocytes than in lymph nodes. Compared to the lymph nodes, the predominant CD4+ and/or CD8+ T-cell subset in tonsils was the CD4/CD8 DP population (18%), because of both a higher proportion of these cells and a lower proportion of CD4 SP (12%) and CD8 SP (14%) lymphocyte subsets. Jejunal Peyer's patches were comprised of 12% CD4 SP, 28% CD8 SP and 10% CD4/CD8 DP lymphocytes. In contrast, the mid-section of the continuous Peyer's patch in the ileum contained 7% CD4 SP, 8% CD8 SP and 4% CD4/CD8 DP lymphocytes. The distribution of T lymphocytes in porcine mucosal lymphoid aggregates agrees with the reported correlation between high and low rates of lymphocyte entry into these tissues and the abundance or scarcity of T cells, respectively. Defining the role of CD4/CD8 DP lymphocytes and their unique distribution in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in the pig may reveal novel T-cell-mediated regulatory pathways. PMID:8778039

Zuckermann, F A; Gaskins, H R

1996-03-01

31

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Lacrimal Gland: Sustained Remission after Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Hasosah, Mohammed; Baothman, Abdullah; Satti, Mohamed; Kutbi, Suzanne; Alghamdi, Khaled; Jacobson, Kevan

2011-01-01

32

[A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with penicillin allergy successfully treated with levofloxacin, minomycin and rabeprazole].  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our Institute because of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori)-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT)lymphoma. Since she had a penicillin allergy, we could not eradicate H. pylori using the standard triple therapy including amoxicillin. Additionally, H. pylori was resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. So she was treated with minomycin (MINO), levofloxacin (LVFX), and rabeprazole (RPZ) based on a drug sensitivity test. MINO+LVFX+RPZ appear to be a promising, appropriate, and well-tolerated eradication regimen for H. pylori demonstrating resistance to both clarithromycin and metronidazole, and for patients who are allergic to penicillin. PMID:20948264

Konno, Tomoko; Motoori, Shigeatsu; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Tomoe; Saito, Shigeyo; Kitagawa, Naoko; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Furuse, Junji; Itabashi, Masayuki

2010-10-01

33

"Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" from a Cynomolgus Monkey Induces Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas in C57BL/6 Mice?  

PubMed Central

Both Helicobacter pylori and “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii” infections are associated with peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. However, good animal models of H. pylori clinical diseases are rare. In this study, we aimed to establish an animal model of “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii” gastric MALT lymphoma. We used a urease-positive gastric mucosal and mucus homogenate from a cynomolgus monkey maintained in C57BL/6 mouse stomachs. The bacterium in the homogenate was identified as “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii” based on a DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and urease genes. Mucosal and mucus homogenates were used to inoculate C57BL/6 mice, which were then examined for 24 months. We observed a gradual increase in the surface area of protrusive lesions in almost all infected C57BL/6 mouse fundic stomachs 6 months after infection. Light microscopic observations revealed an accumulation of B lymphocytes along with destruction of glandular elements and the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions consistent with low-grade MALT lymphomas. Electron microscopic observation revealed numerous “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii” bacilli in the fundic glandular lumen, the intracellular canaliculi, and the cytoplasm of intact cells, as well as damaged parietal cells. In conclusion, “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii” induced gastric MALT lymphomas in almost 100% of infected C57BL/6 mice after a 6-month period associated with the destruction of parietal cells.

Nakamura, Masahiko; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Serizawa, Hiroshi; Sekiya, Yukie; Eguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Shinichi; Nishikawa, Kaori; Takahashi, Tetsufumi; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Yamada, Haruki; Hibi, Toshifumi; Tsuchimoto, Kanji; Matsui, Hidenori

2007-01-01

34

Morphologic Observation of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in the Large Intestine of Bactrian Camels (Camelus bactrianus).  

PubMed

The structure and distribution of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) throughout the large intestine of 10 Bactrian camels were comparatively studied by anatomical and histological methods. The results showed that Peyer's patches (PPs) were mainly located on the mucosal surfaces of the entire ileocecal orifice, the beginning of the cecum and the first third of the colon. The shape of PPs gradually changed from "scrotiform" to "faviform" along the large intestine with the scrotiform PP as the major type in the ileocecal orifice. The distribution density also gradually decreased from the ileocecal orifice to the colon. The histological observations further revealed that the MALT in the form of PPs or isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) and lamina propria lymphocytes was mainly present in the lamina propria and submucosa from the entire ileocecal orifice, where the muscularis mucosa is usually incomplete, to the colonic forepart. In addition, lymphoid tissue was much more abundant in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ileocecal orifice as compared to the cecum and colon. Statistically, the MALT of the ileocecal orifice contained a higher number of lymphoid follicles (37.7/10 mm(2) ) than that of the cecum, colon, or rectum (P?lymphoid follicles were clearly visible. Together, our data suggest that the ileocecal orifice constitutes the main inductive site for the mucosal immunity in the large intestine of the Bactrian camel; and that scrotiform PPs are likely to the result of long-term adaptation of the Bactrian camel to the harsh living environment. Anat Rec, 297:1292-1301, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24820911

ZhaXi, Yingpai; Wang, Wenhui; Zhang, Wangdong; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Minggang; Jia, Shuai

2014-07-01

35

A case of a collision tumor comprising mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for an abnormality identified during routine examination. The lower gastric corpus showed a type 0-I elevated lesion with a faded mucosa and an area of converging mucosal folds in contact with the lesion. Biopsy indicated the former to be a high-grade adenoma and the latter to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. At the same time, Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. Eradication therapy was administered to manage the MALT lymphoma; this resulted in improvement after 3 months. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the elevated lesion, and subsequent histopathology showed contact between the MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with a collision tumor. Concurrent cancers are increasingly reported and should be considered during examination. PMID:24998730

Isosaka, Mai; Adachi, Takeya; Iida, Tomoya; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Tanaka, Michihiro; Kondou, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Tanuma, Tokuma; Kasai, Kiyoshi

2014-07-01

36

[Regression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the bladder after antibiotic therapy: a case report].  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman presented with macroscopic hematuria and severe anemia. Cystoscopy revealed flat edematous mucosa with continuous bleeding. Transurethral coagulation and a biopsy of the urinary bladder were performed. Histopathological examination of the biopsy revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Results of a computed tomography scan and gallium scintigraphy suggested that it was a primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder. A urinary tract infection was found and she was treated with antibiotics for 2 weeks. Because of the detection of a Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the gastric mucosal biopsy specimens, the patient was subsequently administered HP eradication therapy. Consequently, the lymphoma disappeared and the woman has had no tumor recurrence for the past 25 months. PMID:19175002

Fujimura, Masaaki; Chin, Kensei; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Kajimoto, Syunichi; Kamijima, Syuichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Mikami, Kazuo

2008-12-01

37

A phase II study of lenalidomide in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma)  

PubMed Central

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma shares certain features with multiple myeloma. In view of this and the activity of lenalidomide in various B-cell lymphomas, we have initiated a phase II study of lenalidomide in patients with mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Patients with histologically verified advanced stages of this lymphoma were included in the study. Treatment consisted of oral lenalidomide 25 mg Days 1–21, with a 7-day break after each cycle. A total of 18 patients were included in the trial: 5 had gastric and 13 had extragastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, but 2 discontinued therapy during the first course of therapy. In the intent to treat analysis, an overall response rate of 61% was seen (11 of 18; 6 complete and 5 partial remissions). Three patients had stable disease while 2 progressed. Side effects were manageable and included neutropenia (grade III in 3 patients) as the leading hematotoxicity. After a median follow up of 20.3 months, one patient has died from lymphoma while the remaining patients are alive and relapse-free. These data suggest activity of lenalidomide monotherapy in mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The study protocol had been approved by the Ethical Board of the Medical University Vienna (EK-No.: 146/09), and before opening the trial, it had been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov. (identifier: NCT00923663).

Kiesewetter, Barbara; Troch, Marlene; Dolak, Werner; Mullauer, Leonhard; Lukas, Julius; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Raderer, Markus

2013-01-01

38

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thyroid with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells.  

PubMed

A case of thyroidal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma mimicking IgG4-related disease is described. A 54-year-old male presented with acute swelling of the anterior neck. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), malignant lymphoma (ML), or acute deterioration of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were initially suspected, and an emergent tracheostomy was required for progressive airway obstruction; a simultaneous biopsy from the thyroid tissue was performed. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of sclerotic fibrosis and diffuse and dense infiltration by small lymphoid cells without atypia and plasma cells, many of which were IgG4-positive. Blood examination also revealed high serum IgG4 levels. Riedel's thyroiditis was suspected. However, despite medical treatments, a firm swelling of the thyroid still remained. In an in situ hybridization study, IgG4-negative plasma cells showed immunoglobulin light-chain restriction (?-monotype), and immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain gene monoclonal re-arrangement was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The lesion was finally diagnosed as MALT lymphoma. When IgG4-related disease is suspected, it is important to thoroughly exclude other possibilities. PMID:23395549

Miki, Kentaro; Orita, Yorihisa; Sato, Yasuharu; Sugitani, Iwao; Noyama, Misato; Fuji, Sayaka; Domae, Shuhei; Nose, Soichiro; Hamaya, Kazuo; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nishizaki, Kazunori

2013-12-01

39

Neonatal Thymectomy Favors Helicobacter pylori-Promoted Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Lesions in BALB/c Mice.  

PubMed

Neonatal thymectomy in BALB/c mice has been described as a model of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (GML). By using this experimental system, we screened, for the first time to our knowledge, Helicobacter pylori GML-associated strains for their capacity to promote disease. A cohort of BALB/c mice underwent thymectomy at day 3 after birth (d3Tx). Successful thymic ablation was evaluated by the degree of lymphopenia in blood samples collected at 4 weeks of age. d3Tx and non-thymectomized controls were infected with either GML strains (B38 or B47) or control strains (SS1 or TN2GF4). Gastric samples collected at 6, 12, and 18 months after infection were studied for bacteria content, and submitted to histological, immunochemical, molecular, and immunological analyses. Severe gastric inflammation was only observed in d3Tx mice. In these animals, the gastric lamina propria was infiltrated with lymphoid cells organized in follicles composed of B cells with few infiltrating T cells. PCR of D/J IgH gene segments proved the monoclonality of infiltrating B cells, which strongly correlated with the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions. B-cell infiltrates were particularly prominent in mice infected with the B47-GML strain. No pathological changes were detected in noninfected d3Tx mice. We identified new H. pylori isolates adapted to the mouse stomach with high potential of GML development, which is only revealed in hosts rendered lymphopenic by neonatal thymic ablation. PMID:24909507

Chrisment, Delphine; Dubus, Pierre; Chambonnier, Lucie; Hocès de la Guardia, Anaïs; Sifré, Elodie; Giese, Alban; Capone, Myriam; Khairallah, Camille; Costet, Pierre; Rousseau, Benoît; Hubert, Christophe; Burlen-Defranoux, Odile; Varon, Christine; Bandeira, Antonio; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

2014-08-01

40

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with presumed choroidal involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been well-described, but rarely do these lesions demonstrate intraocular involvement. We report a case of conjunctival MALT lymphoma with intraocular involvement and novel spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings. Patient and methods A 75-year-old woman with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma of the conjunctiva presented with ipsilateral yellowish diffuse choroidal infiltrates on fundoscopic examination. Choroidal involvement was documented clinically, on ultrasonography, on fluorescein angiography, and by SD-OCT. Treatment consisted of 3 weeks of oral doxycycline and six cycles of systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab. Results There was no evidence of progression or recurrence of MALT lymphoma after 9 months of follow-up. Despite complete resolution of clinical findings, ultrasound, and fluorescein angiography, the choroidal lesions remained unchanged on SD-OCT. Discussion Choroidal involvement of conjunctival MALT is rare, and can be successfully treated. Persistence of irregularities on SD-OCT did not influence management in the presence of clinical improvement and resolution on ultrasonography and fluorescein angiography.

Williams, Basil K.; Tsui, Irena

2010-01-01

41

Characterization of elongated Helicobacter pylori isolated from a patient with gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

To date, two Helicobacter species, Helicobacter pylori and 'Helicobacter heilmannii' (formerly named 'Gastrospirillum hominis'), have been identified from the human stomach. In this study, we observed non-H. pylori-shaped bacteria in gastric tissue sections and successfully isolated them by cultivation. Elongated bacteria were isolated from a patient with gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma who had been diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by culture, rapid urease test and histopathology in another hospital. The bacteria were grown only on chocolate agar in a CO2 incubator, appeared more than 10 microm long in histological sections, formed small colonies and showed poor growth in a brain heart infusion broth; these characteristics apparently differed from common clinical isolates of H. pylori. However, the bacteria were identified as H. pylori by PCR of the urease gene, 16S rDNA sequencing, protein profile and antigenicity examined by anti-H. pylori polyclonal antibody. These observations suggest that the H. pylori strain identified in this study may contribute to the development of gastroduodenal diseases in cases judged as H. pylori-negative by ordinary methods. PMID:14970245

Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Yokota, Kenji; Mizuno, Motowo; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Takenaka, Ryuta; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Shunji; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Oguma, Keiji; Shiratori, Yasushi

2004-03-01

42

Specificity of Polymerase Chain Reaction Monoclonality for Diagnosis of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma (Direct Comparison to Southern Blot Gene Rearrangement)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specificity of polymerase chain reactionmonoclonality in the diagnosis of gastric lymphoma wasprospectively evaluated. Gastric mucosal tissue fromnormal gastric mucosa (N = 13), benign gastric ulcers (N = 3), chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis(N = 3), gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (N =16), and gastric lymphoma (N = 15) was obtained.Polymerase chain reaction amplification of theheavy-chain framework 2A gene was performed. Thesensitivity

Allan P. Weston; Sushanta K. Banerjee; Rebecca T. Horvat; Rachel Cherian; Donald R. Campbell; Mikhail N. Zoubine

1998-01-01

43

Clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging and other baseline testing for conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit for conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The yield of other staging tests at baseline were also evaluated. Twenty-one consecutive patients treated for conjunctival MALT lymphoma were retrospectively studied. Lymphoma was staged according to both the Ann Arbor system and the seventh edition of the AJCC [American Joint Committee on Cancer] cancer staging manual. Findings on MRI of the orbit, whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), CT of the chest/abdomen/pelvis, bone marrow (BM) biopsy and gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were recorded. Seventeen patients had orbital MRI. Fourteen of 17 patients (82%) with obvious conjunctival MALT lymphoma on clinical examination had a negative MRI scan. Only three patients had subtle conjunctival enhancement on orbital MRI. Ann Arbor stage at presentation was as follows: stage IE (15 patients), stage IIE (two patients) and stage IV (four patients). Eighteen of 21 patients had total-body PET/CT; four patients (22%) had hypermetabolic activity evident on PET scan. All 21 patients had bilateral BM biopsies. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) had GI endoscopy. None of the patients had a positive BM biopsy or findings on GI endoscopy. Our data suggest that orbital MRI has a very low yield for identification of conjunctival MALT lymphoma. Clinical examination is critical in diagnosing and assessing treatment response in conjunctival MALT lymphoma. The yield for GI endoscopy and BM biopsy may also be low in staging of conjunctival MALT lymphoma. PMID:23879202

Nasser, Qasiem J; Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Romaguera, Jorge; Fowler, Nathan; Debnam, J Matthew; Samaniego, Felipe; El-Sawy, Tarek; McLaughlin, Peter; Bakhoum, Mathieu F; Esmaeli, Bita

2014-05-01

44

Orbital and ocular adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphomas: a single-center 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Orbital and ocular andexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma (MALT) or ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma (OAML) is the most common of all eye non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Autoimmune inflammatory disorders and chronic infections are important etiological factors and CD5 and CD43 (sialophorin) tumor markers are significant negative prognostic factors. Disease signs and symptoms can occur a long time before diagnosis. Varieties of treatment options are available. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to compare the efficiency of different treatment options and to investigate disease outcome. Twenty OAML patients, diagnosed in the Clinic of Hematology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, between 2003 and 2013, were enrolled. In most cases, OAML developed in the eighth decade with greater incidence in the male population. Median age was 67.5 years. The median period between the appearance of local signs and symptoms and diagnosis was 7 months. The dominant sign at presentation was swelling of involved tissue (40%). The most common was orbital involvement (55%). All patients had localized disease. Observed laboratory parameters on presentation showed low disease activity. Sialophorin prognostic significance was not registered. Our patients were initially treated differently but there was no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) due to initial treatment option (p = 0.2957). Median PFS was 22 months (3-89), and 5-year PFS was 60%. Median overall survival (OS) was 43 months (1-105) and 5-year OS 95%. Eight patients (40%) relapsed and one patient died due to non-hematological complications. In our experience, most modern induction treatment options appear to result in the same, favorable outcome. PMID:24026660

Smiljanic, M; Milosevic, R; Antic, D; Andjelic, B; Djurasinovic, V; Todorovic, M; Bila, J; Bogdanovic, A; Mihaljevic, B

2013-12-01

45

[A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the bladder regressed after rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy].  

PubMed

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the bladder is a rare disease, and the most effective therapeutic procedure remains unknown. We report a case of primary MALT lymphoma of the bladder regressed after rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy (R-CHOP). The patient, a 84-year-old woman, presented with general fatigue and loss of weight. Computed tomography (CT) showed a solitary mass at the bladder. Histological diagnosis of the tissue obtained by transurethral biopsy was extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of MALT. The patient was in complete remission after only one cycle of R-CHOP. This is the fourteenth case of MALT lymphoma of the bladder in Japan. PMID:17252980

Kakuta, Yoichi; Katoh, Taigo; Saitoh, Jun; Yazawa, Kohji; Hosomi, Masahiro; Itoh, Kiichiro

2006-12-01

46

Co-Occurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in a Patient with Long-Standing Hashimoto Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common affliction of the thyroid gland, accounting for 70% to 80% of all thyroid cancers, whereas mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. The simultaneous occurrence of both malignancies is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with both PTC and MALT lymphoma in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. An 81-year-old female patient was first admitted with goiter and hoarseness, which was attributed to an ultrasonographic thyroid nodule. Subsequent fine-needle aspirate, interpreted as suspicious of papillary thyroid cancer, prompted total thyroidectomy. MALT lymphoma was an incidental postsurgical finding, coexisting with PTC in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although the development of MALT lymphoma is very rare, patients with longstanding Hashimoto thyroiditis should undergo careful surveillance for both malignancies.

Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Seong Keun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Jung, Woo Jin; Kahng, Dong Hwahn; Kim, In Ju

2013-01-01

47

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.  

PubMed

Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. PMID:21546297

Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

2012-06-01

48

Inhibition of TGF-? and EGF pathway gene expression and migration of oral carcinoma cells by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Background: Expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is inactivated in oral carcinoma patients with worse prognosis. However, the role in carcinoma progression is unknown. Unveiling genes under the control of MALT1 is necessary to understand the pathology of carcinomas. Methods: Gene data set differentially transcribed in MALT1-stably expressing and -marginally expressing oral carcinoma cells was profiled by the microarray analysis and subjected to the pathway analysis. Migratory abilities of cells in response to MALT1 were determined by wound-healing assay and time-lapse analysis. Results: Totally, 2933 genes upregulated or downregulated in MALT1-expressing cells were identified. The subsequent pathway analysis implicated the inhibition of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-? signalling gene expression, and highlighted the involvement in the cellular movement. Wound closure was suppressed by wild-type MALT1 (66.4%) and accelerated by dominant-negative MALT1 (218.6%), and the velocities of cell migration were increased 0.2-fold and 3.0-fold by wild-type and dominant-negative MALT1, respectively. Conclusion: These observations demonstrate that MALT1 represses genes activating the aggressive phenotype of carcinoma cells, and suggest that MALT1 acts as a tumour suppressor and that the loss of expression stimulates oral carcinoma progression.

Ohyama, Y; Kawamoto, Y; Chiba, T; Maeda, G; Sakashita, H; Imai, K

2013-01-01

49

Oligoclonal expansions of T-cell repertoire in gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type B-cell lymphoma and adjacent gastritis.  

PubMed

Local stimulation by Helicobacter pylori (HP), autoantigen, and a concurrent T-cell-mediated stimulation of B cells are believed to play an important role in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type B cell lymphomagenesis. Many autoimmune diseases have shown to lead to a skewed T-cell repertoire with autoantigen specific expansions and deletions. Characterization of lymphoma and gastritis areas of seven gastrectomy specimens using a T-cell receptor beta variable chain (TCR betaV) family-specific reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed a local chronic and acute activation of T cells in lymphoma and an oligoclonal T-cell repertoire in gastritis and in lymphoma, partially sharing the same clones. Local activation and a partial identity suggest that an antigenic challenge caused by a common local pathogen may still continue to take place in MALT type lymphoma as in gastritis, consistent with the view that gastritis may be a precursor lesion of MALT type lymphoma. Expansions that were found only in one of the compartments suggest that also an immune hyperstimulation may contribute to the T-cell repertoire, possibly because of certain tissue antigens. Deletions of TCR betaV families found only in gastritis underline the view that autoantigen may play an important role in its pathogenesis. PMID:10565685

Haedicke, W; Greiner, A; Seeberger, H; Müller-Hermelink, H K

1999-09-01

50

Non-gastric advanced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has worse prognosis than gastric MALT lymphoma even when treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics, treatment results, and analyze the prognostic factors among patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). We retrospectively reviewed 98 patients with MALT lymphoma consecutively diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital. Eighty-one patients (82%) had localized disease and 17 patients (17%) had advanced disease. The primary site was gastric in 52, and extra-gastric in 46. With a median follow-up of 40 months, the estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) of the entire group were 100% and 89%, respectively. Three-year PFS was significantly better in patients with gastric lymphoma than in those with non-gastric lymphoma (95% vs. 82%, p = 0.043). Patients with localized disease had significantly better 3-year PFS than those with advanced disease (94% vs. 73%, p = 0.026). Upon multivariate analysis, non-gastric lymphoma retained prognostic significance for PFS. PMID:23216271

Ueda, Kyoko; Terui, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Sakajiri, Sakura; Nishimura, Noriko; Tsuyama, Naoko; Takeuchi, Kengo; Hatake, Kiyohiko

2013-09-01

51

Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

2012-07-01

52

Detection of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma cells: clinical and biological significance  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that CagA can be translocated into B cells in Helicobacter pylori (HP) coculture media, and the translocation appears biologically significant as activation of the relevant cellular pathways was noticed. In this study, we further explore if CagA can be detected in malignant B cells of HP-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Expression of CagA was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. CagA expression was further confirmed by western blot analysis. The association between CagA expression in malignant B cells and tumor response to HP eradication therapy (HPE) was evaluated in 64 stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma patients. We detected CagA expression in 31 (48.4%) of 64 patients: 26 (68.4%) of the 38 HP-dependent cases and 5 (19.2%) of the 26 HP-independent cases (P<0.001). Patients with CagA expression responded to HPE quicker than those without (median time to complete remission, 3.0 vs 6.5 months, P=0.025). Our results indicated that CagA can be translocated into malignant B cells of MALT lymphoma, and the translocation is clinically and biologically significant.

Kuo, S-H; Chen, L-T; Lin, C-W; Wu, M-S; Hsu, P-N; Tsai, H-J; Chu, C-Y; Tzeng, Y-S; Wang, H-P; Yeh, K-H; Cheng, A-L

2013-01-01

53

A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract showing extensive plasma cell differentiation with prominent Russell bodies  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized for detailed examination of nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Atypical erosion in the ileum was found on endoscopy. Biopsy of this erosion showed proliferation of cells containing numerous Russell bodies. Differential diagnoses considered were Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis, Mott cell tumor, immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The cells containing prominent Russell bodies showed diffuse positivity for CD79a and CD138, but negative results for CD20, CD3, UCHL-1, CD38 and CD68. Russell bodies were diffusely positive for lambda light chain, but negative for kappa light chain, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM. Based on these findings, Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis and IPSID were ruled out. As the tumor formed no mass lesions and was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphoma with extensive plasma cell differentiation was finally diagnosed. The patient showed an unexpectedly aggressive clinical course. The number of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood gradually increased and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) emerged. The patient died of T-PLL 7 mo after admission. Autopsy was not permitted.

Kai, Keita; Miyahara, Masaharu; Tokuda, Yasunori; Kido, Shinich; Masuda, Masanori; Takase, Yukari; Tokunaga, Osamu

2013-01-01

54

A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract showing extensive plasma cell differentiation with prominent Russell bodies.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized for detailed examination of nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Atypical erosion in the ileum was found on endoscopy. Biopsy of this erosion showed proliferation of cells containing numerous Russell bodies. Differential diagnoses considered were Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis, Mott cell tumor, immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The cells containing prominent Russell bodies showed diffuse positivity for CD79a and CD138, but negative results for CD20, CD3, UCHL-1, CD38 and CD68. Russell bodies were diffusely positive for lambda light chain, but negative for kappa light chain, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM. Based on these findings, Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis and IPSID were ruled out. As the tumor formed no mass lesions and was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphoma with extensive plasma cell differentiation was finally diagnosed. The patient showed an unexpectedly aggressive clinical course. The number of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood gradually increased and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) emerged. The patient died of T-PLL 7 mo after admission. Autopsy was not permitted. PMID:24303496

Kai, Keita; Miyahara, Masaharu; Tokuda, Yasunori; Kido, Shinich; Masuda, Masanori; Takase, Yukari; Tokunaga, Osamu

2013-08-16

55

Treatment Outcome for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to Helicobacter pylori Infection Status: A Single-Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been used as a first-line treatment for H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, the management strategy for H. pylori-negative MALT lymphoma remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the success rate of each treatment option for H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas. Methods In total, 57 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma diagnosed between December 2000 and June 2012 were enrolled in the study. The treatment responses were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas. Results Of the 57 patients, 43 (75%) had H. pylori infection. Forty-eight patients received H. pylori eradication as a first-line treatment, and complete remission was achieved in 31 of the 39 patients (80%) with H. pylori-positive MALT lymphoma and in five (56%) of the nine patients with H. pylori-negative MALT lymphoma; no significant difference was observed between the groups (p=0.135). The other treatment modalities, including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery, were effective irrespective of H. pylori infection status, with no significant difference in the treatment response between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative MALT lymphomas. Conclusions H. pylori eradication therapy may be considered as a first-line treatment regardless of H. pylori infection status.

Ryu, Kwang Duck; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Seong Oh; Lee, Kwang Jae; Moon, Jung Youn; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Baek, Dong Hoon; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am

2014-01-01

56

Rituximab plus subcutaneous cladribine in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a phase II study by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is no standard systemic treatment for extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Both rituximab and cladribine have shown some activity in this disease, but the combination has not been tested so far. In view of this, we initiated a phase II study to assess the activity and safety of rituximab and cladribine in patients with histologically verified mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Treatment consisted of rituximab 375 mg/m2 i.v. day 1 and cladribine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. days 1 – 4 every 21 days. In case of complete remission after two courses, another two cycles of therapy were administered, while patients with a partial response or stable disease were scheduled to receive six cycles of treatment. Out of 40 evaluable patients (14 female, 26 male), 39 received treatment as scheduled while one patient died before initiation of therapy and was rated as having progressive disease in the intent-to-treat analysis. Twenty-one patients had gastric lymphoma, while 19 suffered from extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Side effects consisted mainly of hematologic toxicity including leukopenia, lymphopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Twenty-three patients had a complete remission (58%) and nine had a partial remission (23%) for an overall response rate of 81%, while five had stable disease (13%) and two progressed during therapy. After a median follow-up of 16.7 months (interquartile range: 15.9 – 18.7 months), 35 patients are alive (88%) while four patients have died and one patient withdrew consent and did not allow further follow up. Our data demonstrate that rituximab plus cladribine is active and safe in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

Troch, Marlene; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Ella; Zebisch, Armin; Linkesch, Werner; Fridrik, Michael; Mullauer, Leonhard; Greil, Richard; Raderer, Markus

2013-01-01

57

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue gastric lymphoma regression in a renal transplant patient after conversion of the immunosuppression to sirolimus: a case report.  

PubMed

The treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the most common posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, is not well defined. Herein we have reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with rapid, persistent, and complete remission after conversion of the immunosuppression from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL). A 42-year-old woman underwent renal transplantation in 1992 with no major abnormalities until 2006 when a gastroscopy performed to investigate dyspeptic symptoms showed a mixed MALT gastric lymphoma (with low- and high-grade components) associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two therapeutic interventions in a 1-week interval were performed: treatment of the H. pylori infection (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for 14 days) and modification of the immunosuppression by substitution of CsA and azathioprine (AZA) with SRL. Control endoscopy performed 1 month later showed persistence of H. pylori infection and absence of the gastric tumor. New endoscopies performed at 2 and 7 months after therapy confirmed the absence of neoplasia and H. pylori eradication. Currently, the patient has no complaints, displaying a creatinine value of 1.8 mg/dL and a hemoglobin of 9.4 mg/dL using SRL and ibersatan. SRL has been studied extensively as an anticancer drug, acting as a mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. Accumulating data support the role of mTOR in lymphomagenesis. In conclusion, our case of gastric MALT lymphoma in a renal transplant patient displayed a complete remission after alteration of the immunosuppressive scheme with the introduction of SRL. PMID:19376398

Lasmar, E P; Coelho, L G V; Lasmar, M F; Lasmar, L F; Lima, P V; Nogueira, A F

2009-04-01

58

Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

2012-03-15

59

Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 in Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Resistant to Helicobacter pylori Eradication  

PubMed Central

microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can function as endogenous silencers of target genes and play critical roles in human malignancies. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, the miRNA expression profile was analyzed. miRNA microarray analysis with tissue specimens from gastric MALT lymphomas and surrounding non-tumor mucosae revealed that a hematopoietic-specific miRNA miR-142 and an oncogenic miRNA miR-155 were overexpressed in MALT lymphoma lesions. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were significantly increased in MALT lymphomas which do not respond to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were associated with the clinical courses of gastric MALT lymphoma cases. Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 was also observed in Helicobacter heilmannii-infected C57BL/6 mice, an animal model of gastric MALT lymphoma. In addition, miR-142-5p and miR-155 suppress the proapoptotic gene TP53INP1 as their target. The results of this study indicate that overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. These miRNAs might have potential application as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers for gastric MALT lymphoma.

Saito, Yoshimasa; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Hosoe, Naoki; Nakamura, Masahiko; Mukai, Makio; Saito, Hidetsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi

2012-01-01

60

Synchronous pulmonary adenocarcinoma and extranodal marginal zone\\/low-grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of synchronous adenocarcinoma of lung and extranodal marginal zone\\/low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is reported. Primary pulmonary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is relatively rare, however, the majority of these lesions are low-grade B-cell lymphomas of MALT. After the stomach, the lung is the second most common location for such latter lesions. Lung adenocarcinoma in selected countries is

Stéphane Chanel; Louise Burke; Maryse Fiche; Thierry Molina; Jean Philippe Lerochais; Philippe Icard; Jacques Diebold; Françoise Galateau-Sallé

2001-01-01

61

Positive selection of CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with low-grade lymphoid malignancies and bone marrow involment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. 16 patients with low-grade lymphoid malignancies and bone marrow involment were transplanted with selected CD34 positive Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell (PBSC) prepared from autologous aphereses. Patient and methods. All but one patients were mobilized with a combination of chemotherapy (including high-dose cyclophosphamide and VP16 or adriamycin, aracytin with cysplatyl) and recombinant human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF).

F. Viret; D. Blaise; R. Bouabdallah; A.-M. Stoppa; G. Novakovitch; C. Faucher; N. Vey; J. Camerlo; S. Oziel-Taieb; P. Ladaique; J.-A. Gastaut; D. Maraninchi; C. Chabannon

1999-01-01

62

Active and Passive Intranasal Immunizations with Streptococcal Surface Protein C5a Peptidase Prevent Infection of Murine Nasal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, a Functional Homologue of Human Tonsils  

PubMed Central

C5a peptidase, also called SCPA (surface-bound C5a peptidase), is a surface-bound protein on group A streptococci (GAS), etiologic agents for a variety of human diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, toxic shock, and necrotizing fasciitis, as well as the postinfection sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This protein is highly conserved among different serotypes and is also expressed in human isolates of group B, C, and G streptococci. Human tonsils are the primary reservoirs for GAS, maintaining endemic disease across the globe. We recently reported that GAS preferentially target nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in mice, a tissue functionally analogous to human tonsils. Experiments using a C5a peptidase loss-of-function mutant and an intranasal infection model showed that this protease is required for efficient colonization of NALT. An effective vaccine should prevent infection of this secondary lymphoid tissue; therefore, the potential of anti-SCPA antibodies to protect against streptococcal infection of NALT was investigated. Experiments showed that GAS colonization of NALT was significantly reduced following intranasal immunization of mice with recombinant SCPA protein administered alone or with cholera toxin, whereas a high degree of GAS colonization of NALT was observed in control mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline only. Moreover, administration of anti-SCPA serum by the intranasal route protected mice against streptococcal infection. These results suggest that intranasal immunization with SCPA would prevent colonization and infection of human tonsils, thereby eliminating potential reservoirs that maintain endemic disease.

Park, Hae-Sun; Cleary, P. Patrick

2005-01-01

63

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman  

PubMed Central

MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for ?-chain but negative for ?-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up.

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

64

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman.  

PubMed

MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for ?-chain but negative for ?-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. PMID:23638229

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

65

Deep infiltrative low-grade MALT (mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue) colonic lymphomas that regressed as a result of antibiotic administration: endoscopic ultrasound evaluation.  

PubMed

Since 1997 we have experienced three cases of low-grade colonic mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. The depth of tumor invasion was evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and the mass lesions were all diagnosed as having extended beyond the deep region of the submucosal layer. Although all of these patients tested negative for gastric Helicobacter pylori, their tumor lesions regressed after antibiotic treatment in accordance with H. pylori eradication therapy. In general, consensus has been reached regarding antibiotic therapy for gastric MALT lymphomas. However, as a prerequisite for antibiotic therapy, the therapy has been deemed effective against these gastric tumors if the extent of infiltration, as evaluated by EUS, is limited to the mucosal layer or the superficial region of the submucosal layer. Based on the therapeutic outcomes seen in the three patients studied here, it is suggested that antibiotic therapy might be useful in treating MALT lymphomas of the colon, even in patients with advanced invasive tumors, in contrast to the extent of the lesions in the stomach suitable for antibiotic treatment. The success of the antibiotic treatment also suggests that MALT lymphomas may be caused by unknown luminal microorganisms, other than H. pylori. PMID:16143891

Kikuchi, Yosuke; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Hisabe, Takashi; Wada, Yoko; Hoashi, Toshio; Tsuda, Sumio; Yao, Tsuneyoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Imamura, Kensaburo

2005-08-01

66

Two Cases of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas in the Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Low-Grade Gastric Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma (MALT Lymphoma)  

PubMed Central

It is well known that gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and have a good prognosis. However, although rare, these low-grade lymphomas transform to the high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) which are thought to be the important cause of death in patients with MALT lymphoma. We report two cases of DLBCLs in the cervical lymph nodes that occurred 10 years and 1.5 years after diagnosing low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas.

Jung, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hwan; Lee, Jae Kwang; Kang, Ji Hoon; Jeon, Sung Jin; Park, Young-Su; Kim, Jin-Ho

2013-01-01

67

Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma

2014-06-30

68

Intraclonal offspring expansion of gastric low-grade MALT-type lymphoma: evidence for the role of antigen-driven high-affinity mutation in lymphomagenesis.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma B cells are the malignant counterparts of hypermutated, postgerminal-center memory B cells. To further elucidate the role of antigen selection in the evolution of gastric low-grade MALT-type lymphoma, we analyzed intraclonal variations of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (Ig VH) genes expressed in three cases of lymphoma. The Ig VH genes expressed by tumor cells were amplified by PCR using primers for individual tumor-specific markers (complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3)) and primers for six VH family leaders and then sequenced. The corresponding germ-line VH gene from these patients was also sequenced. The somatic mutations were highly concentrated in the CDR or framework region, with a clustering of replacement mutations in the CDR but only a few in the framework region. Each of the Ig VH genes of tumor cell clones of Cases 1 and 3 showed different mutations, whereas Case 2 showed no intraclonal variation. Although all three mutation pattern variants of Cases 1 and 3 occurred in postgerminal memory B cells, only one offspring from each case resulted in a dominant expansion. This finding suggests that antigen-driven high-affinity somatic mutation may play an important role in the expansion of intraclonal offspring from low-grade MALT-type lymphomas. PMID:9111510

Qin, Y; Greiner, A; Hallas, C; Haedicke, W; Müller-Hermelink, H K

1997-04-01

69

Mucosa-associated lymphoma of the bladder with relapse in the stomach after successful local treatment.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for management of an ovarian tumor. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a dermatoid cyst of the ovary and a bladder tumor. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed. Histopathological examination of the tumor revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MALT type. The patient received radiotherapy for the bladder and had a complete response. Nineteen months later, gastrointestinal endosopy revealed the presence of a mass lesion in the stomach. Histopathological examination of biopsy specimens from this tumor indicated the same tumor as that in the bladder as they showed identical IgH gene rearrangement. Because of the detection of evidence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the gastric mucosal biopsy specimens, the patient was administered HP eradication therapy, but, the tumor persisted. After radiotherapy, the stomach tumor disappeared. Since then she remains without evidence of local recurrence or relapse. PMID:17874551

Ueno, Yoko; Sakai, Hiromasa; Tsuruta, Takashi; Wajiki, Masahisa

2007-08-01

70

Nongastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective survey of patients with pathologically reviewed extragastric mu- cosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphomas from 20 institutions was per- formed. A total of 180 patients with histo- logically confirmed diagnosis of extragas- tric MALT lymphomas were studied. Their median age was 59 years (range, 21-92 years). Ann Arbor stage I disease was present in 115 patients (64%) and stage

Emanuele Zucca; Annarita Conconi; Ennio Pedrinis; Sergio Cortelazzo; Teresio Motta; Mary K. Gospodarowicz; Bruce J. Patterson; Andres J. M. Ferreri; Maurilio Ponzoni; Liliana Devizzi; Roberto Giardini; Graziella Pinotti; Carlo Capella; Pier Luigi Zinzani; Stefano Pileri; Armando Lopez-Guillermo; Elias Campo; Achille Ambrosetti; Luca Baldini; Franco Cavalli

2003-01-01

71

Low grade chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum  

PubMed Central

Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is extremely rare. In some cases, it may be difficult to preoperatively differentiate low grade chondrosarcoma from benign cartilaginous tumors such as chondroma. We report a case of low grade chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum with characteristic radiologic findings. Characteristic radiologic findings such as calcifications on computed tomography scan and a ring-and-arc pattern on enhanced T1 weighted image were useful in the preoperative diagnosis of low grade chondrosarcoma of the septum. Awareness of radiologic findings of low grade chondrosarcoma can help to make an accurate diagnosis and perform appropriate excision, leading to successful local control.

Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Se Hee; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

2013-01-01

72

Alisertib, Bortezomib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma or B-Cell Low Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-06-30

73

Low-grade serous tumors of ovary.  

PubMed

The creation of the category of borderline/atypical proliferative tumors in the World Health Organization Classification of Ovarian Tumors in 1973 prompted extensive investigation of the clinicopathologic and genetic features of low-grade serous ovarian tumors (borderline tumors/atypical proliferative tumors, noninvasive micropapillary tumors, and invasive low-grade serous carcinomas). The clinicopathologic studies of these tumors resulted in clarification of the prognostic significance of several histologic features of the ovarian tumors and their associated peritoneal lesions. The genetic studies resulted in a reassessment of the relationship between low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma and their differing pathways of origin. This review focuses on several of the morphologic findings, their diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and biologic significance, and discusses the dualistic classification of serous carcinomas into high-grade and low-grade tumors. PMID:24901394

Bell, Debra A

2014-07-01

74

Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma  

PubMed Central

There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemotherapy) and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine-rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL).

Burchardt, Alexander

2011-01-01

75

Desalination using low grade heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research

Veera Gnaneswar Gude

2007-01-01

76

Low grade metamorphism of mafic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through most of this past century, metamorphic petrologists in the United States have paid their greatest attention to high grade rocks, especially those which constitute the core zones of exhumed, mountain belts. The pioneering studies of the 50's through the 80's, those which applied the principles of thermodynamics to metamorphic rocks, focused almost exclusively on high temperature systems, for which equilibrium processes could be demonstrated. By the 1980's, metamorphic petrologists had developed the methodologies for deciphering the thermal and baric histories of mountain belts through the study of high grade rocks. Of course, low grade metamorphic rocks - here defined as those which form at pressures and temperatures up to and including the greenschist facies - had been well known and described as well, initially through the efforts of Alpine and Circum-Pacific geologists who recognized that they constituted an integral and contiguous portion of mountain belts, and that they underlay large portions of accreted terranes, many of oceanic origins. But until the mid 80's, much of the effort in studying low grade rocks - for a comprehensive review of the literature to that point see Frey (1987) - had been concentrated on mudstones, volcanoclastic rocks, and associated lithologies common to continental mountain belts and arcs. In the mid 80's, results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) rather dramatically mitigated a shift in the study of low grade metamorphic rocks.

Schiffman, Peter

1995-07-01

77

Primary Paravertebral Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The authors report a 58-year-old woman with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma primarily located in the right paravertebral area with extension to L4 neural foramen. The patient complained lower back pain with radiating pain along the posterolateral aspect of the right lower leg. She underwent subtotal surgical removal and Cyber Knife therapy. Diagnosis was made by strikingly characteristic microscopic appearance of a bland spindle cell sarcoma which contained numerous giant collagen rosettes and was also supported by immunohistological findings. The diagnostic image findings and literatures are reviewed and discussed.

Lee, Woo Jin; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Chu, Young Chae

2010-01-01

78

Nitinol engine for low grade heat  

SciTech Connect

A continuous band of nitinol wrapping in between a cluster of tightly engaged rollers to form a series of s-shaped bends is used as the principle working medium of a thermal engine to convert low grade heat to mechanical power output. The band, together with the rollers, divides the space into an inner and an outer zone. A stream of warmer water and a stream of cooler water are guided to flow separately through one or the other of the two zones to make uniform and intimate contact with the segments of the nitinol band alternatively at appropriate intervals. A well defined four-cycle operation of temperature and stress is thus established and can convert a portion of the energy which is available in the thermal gradient of the two water streams into a mechanical shaft power which may be tapped from one of the rollers.

Li, Y.T.

1981-12-01

79

Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging of preliminary mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the breast: a case report  

PubMed Central

Primary lymphoma is a rare neoplasm in the breast accounting for between 0.04% and 0.5% of all malignant mammary tumors. The majority of cases lack typical features of breast malignancy or lymphoma, and likely to be misdiagnosed during daily clinical practice. In this report we describe a case of primary breast lymphoma assessed with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology.

Chen, Jiexin; Jin, Zhanqiang; Deng, Dongli; Mao, Dongzhou; Li, Jianwen; Chen, Xiaodong; Ding, Hongfei

2013-01-01

80

The Role of Surgery in Low Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several prognostic factors appear to be more important than treatment factors in determining the outcome of patients with low grade glioma. The role of surgery in establishing a histological diagnosis or in relieving neurological deficit is well established. The role of surgery in prolonging survival of patients with low grade glioma however, remains controversial, largely because studies in the literature

Joseph Bampoe; Mark Bernstein

1999-01-01

81

Low-grade sarcomas with CD34-positive fibroblasts and low-grade myofibroblastic sarcomas.  

PubMed

A subset of low-grade fibrosarcomas is composed of CD34-positive spindle cells. These include dermatofibrosarcoma, its morphologic variants, and its associated fibrosarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, hemangiopericytoma and their malignant counterparts, and some cases of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. Dermatofibrosarcoma and related lesions are characterized by a t(17;22)(q22;q13) rearrangement resulting in fusion of the genes COL1A (17q21-22) and PDGFB1 (22q13). Solitary fibrous tumor displays varying cellularity and fibrosis and a peripheral hemangiopericytomatous pattern; most tumors formerly called hemangiopericytoma are now subsumed into the category of solitary fibrous tumor, although a few strictly defined examples are recognized; however, these are probably not composed of pericytes. Myofibroblastic malignancies are best identified by electron microscopy, with which varying degrees of differentiation, including the presence of fibronexus junctions, can be identified. Low-grade sarcomas showing myofibroblastic differentiation include myofibrosarcomas and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Myofibrosarcomas are spindle cell neoplasms that occur in children or adults in the head and neck, trunk, and extremities as infiltrative neoplasms and that display a fascicular or fasciitis-like pattern with focal nuclear atypia and variable expression of myoid antigens. These sarcomas are prone to recurrence and a small number metastasize. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (synonymous with inflammatory fibrosarcoma) is a neoplasm arising predominantly in childhood, and frequently in intraabdominal locations. It has spindle cells in fascicular, fasciitis-like and sclerosing patterns, with heavy chronic inflammation including abundant plasma cells. Many IMT have clonal chromosomal abnormalities involving 2p22-24, and fusion of the ALK gene with tropomyosin 3 (TPM3-ALK) or tropomyosin 4 (TPM4-ALK) is found in a subset. PMID:15764578

Fisher, Cyril

2004-01-01

82

Desalination using low grade heat sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of freshwater along with the waste heat released from the condenser of air-conditioning system. This additional energy requirement is about 60% of the energy required by a multi stage flash distillation process. The experimental studies were conducted in three phases. In the first phase, electric power from grid as energy source was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. These tests showed that freshwater production rate of 0.25 kg/hr can be sustained at evaporation temperatures as low as 40°C with specific energy input of 3,370 kJ/kg, at efficiencies ranging from 65 to 70% during the winter. In the second phase, experiments were conducted utilizing direct solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy as well. Four different combinations of energy sources were studied. The following results were obtained from these experimental studies: (1) Utilizing direct solar energy produced 4.9 L/d of freshwater with an evaporator area of 1 m2 with an average efficiency of 61%. This yield is two times that can be obtained from a flat solar still. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 4157 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (2) Utilizing direct solar energy with aid of a reflector produced 7.5 L/d of freshwater with an average efficiency more than 80%. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 3118 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (3) Utilizing direct solar energy during sunlight hours and photovoltaic energy during non-sunlight hours produced 12 L/d of freshwater with 1 m2 evaporator area and 6 m2 photovoltaic areas respectively. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 2926 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater. Finally, the feasibility of this process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant was studied. The process was able to achieve the following reductions: total dissolved solids from 727 mg/L to 21 mg/L (97%); nitrates from 2.4 mg/L to <0.1 mg/L (> 95%); ammonia from 23.2 mg/L to < 0.5 mg/L (> 97%); and

Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

83

Adjuvant Activity of Naturally Occurring Monophosphoryl Lipopolysaccharide Preparations from Mucosa-Associated Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphorylation of the diglucosamine backbone, both differences known to decrease LPS toxicity. The effect of decreased toxicity on the adjuvant properties of many of these LPS structures has not been fully explored. Here we demonstrate that two naturally produced forms of monophosphorylated LPS, from the mucosa-associated bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Prevotella intermedia, function as immunological adjuvants for antigen-specific immune responses. Each form of mucosal LPS increased vaccination-initiated antigen-specific antibody titers in both quantity and quality when given simultaneously with vaccine antigen preparations. Interestingly, adjuvant effects on initial T cell clonal expansion were selective for CD4 T cells. No significant increase in CD8 T cell expansion was detected. MyD88/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TRIF/TLR4 signaling pathways showed equally decreased signaling with the LPS forms studied here as with endotoxic LPS or detoxified monophosphorylated lipid A (MPLA). Natural monophosphorylated LPS from mucosa-associated bacteria functions as a weak but effective adjuvant for specific immune responses, with preferential effects on antibody and CD4 T cell responses over CD8 T cell responses.

Chilton, Paula M.; Hadel, Diana M.; To, Thao T.

2013-01-01

84

Recovery of Manganese from Low-Grade Domestic Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate existing data on low-grade domestic ores, classify the various deposits, determine applicability of promising new beneficiation technologies to these ores, review extraction processes for manganese recovery of th...

S. Malhotra S. Margolin R. F. Machacek V. Vejins W. S. Kelly

1984-01-01

85

Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota  

PubMed Central

Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in stressor-exposed CD-1 mice, but not C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions These data illustrate that stressor exposure can affect microbial populations, including the lactobacilli, that are closely associated with the colonic mucosa. Because the lactobacilli can have beneficial effects on human health, stressor-induced reductions of their population could have important health implications.

2014-01-01

86

Predictive value of endoscopic ultrasonography for regression of gastric low grade and high grade MALT lymphomas after eradication of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—While a close association between gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori infection has been established, there are still cases which do not respond to H pylori eradication.?AIMS—To investigate the clinicopathological factors which may help predict the therapeutic efficacy of H pylori eradication in gastric MALT lymphoma.?PATIENTS—Forty one patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, including low and high grade lesions.?METHODS—After endosonographic staging was determined, H pylori was eradicated in all patients, and the subsequent gastric pathological course was then investigated.?RESULTS—Complete regression of MALT lymphoma was observed in 29(71%) patients, partial regression in five (12%), and no regression in seven (17%). Twenty six (93%) of 28 MALT lymphomas restricted to the mucosa but only three (23%) of 13 lymphomas which invaded the deep portion of the submucosa or beyond completely regressed. Kaplan-Meier analysis for the probability of complete regression of MALT lymphoma revealed a significant difference between tumours restricted to the mucosa and those invading the submucosa deeply or beyond (p<0.05). Neither the presence of a high grade component, perigastric lymphadenopathy, nor clinical staging prior to eradication correlated with the probability of lymphoma regression.?CONCLUSIONS—Assessment of deep submucosal invasion by endosonography is valuable for predicting the efficacy of H pylori eradication in gastric MALT lymphoma.???Keywords: gastric lymphoma; mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; Helicobacter pylori; endoscopic ultrasonography

Nakamura, S; Matsumoto, T; Suekane, H; Takeshita, M; Hizawa, K; Kawasaki, M; Yao, T; Tsuneyoshi, M; Iida, M; Fujishima, M

2001-01-01

87

Pathological and Molecular Advances in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric low grade astrocytomas are the commonest brain tumors in children. They sometimes have similar microscopic and clinical features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. For patients whose tumors are in locations that do not permit full resection, or those with an intrinsically aggressive biology, more effective therapies are required. Until recently, little was known about the molecular changes that drive the initiation and growth of pilocytic and other low grade astrocytomas beyond the association of a minority of cases, primarily in the optic nerve, with neurofibromatosis type 1. Over the last several years, a wide range of studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene and other members of this signaling cascade in the pathobiology of pediatric low grade astrocytoma. In this review, we attempt to summarize this rapidly developing field, and discuss the potential for translating our growing molecular knowledge into improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new targeted therapies.

Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Lim, Kah Suan; Bowers, Daniel; Eberhart, Charles G.

2013-01-01

88

Reactive lesions of peri-implant mucosa associated with titanium dental implants: a report of 2 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to report 2 novel clinical cases of reactive lesions of the peri-implant mucosa associated with titanium dental implants where metal-like particles were observed histologically. In both cases, the lesions were diagnosed as epulis, based on clinical evidence. Extirpation biopsies were carried out. Case 1 was diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma and case 2 as peripheral

D. G. Olmedo; M. L. Paparella; D. Brandizzi; R. L. Cabrini

2010-01-01

89

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of de novo polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) arising in a minor salivary gland with a relatively large radiographic extent compared with that of most of the PLGAs reported. This paper describes the radiographic extent of the lesion and the findings of CT imaging. PMID:22184472

Potluri, A; Prasad, J; Levine, S; Bastaki, Jm

2013-01-01

90

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

2008-01-01

91

Paneling and Flooring from Low-Grade Hardwood Logs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From small, low-grade hardwood logs, the Forest Products Laboratory has developed an experimental wall paneling that is equally suitable for flooring. Short cutoffs of the panel material can also be utilized as parquet block flooring. One of the keys is p...

B. G. Heebink K. C. Compton

1966-01-01

92

Low-grade glued laminated timber reinforced with FRP plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRPs) are an accepted material by structural engineers for the strengthening of structural elements. With increasing environmental concerns, further emphasis is being placed on the use of sustainable construction materials such as timber. This paper describes an experimental programme which examines the reinforcement in flexure of low-grade glued laminated timber (glulam) with a commercially attractive recyclable FRP. Unreinforced

Gary M. Raftery; Annette M. Harte

2011-01-01

93

Unusual patterns of recurrence in low grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Some of the more unusual patterns of recurrence in previously treated low grade gliomas are demonstrated. As treatment choices develop and life expectancy is prolonged, patterns of tumour recurrence are likely to change within such a heterogeneous group of tumours, including metastatic spread via cerebrospinal fluid pathways. PMID:24139137

Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Davies, Peter; Eldridge, Paul R; Jenkinson, Michael D

2014-02-01

94

Epileptic seizures in diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults.  

PubMed

Diffuse low-grade gliomas are highly epileptogenic brain tumours. We aimed to explore the natural course of epileptic seizures, their predictors and the prognostic significance of their occurrence in adult patients harbouring a diffuse low-grade glioma. An observational retrospective multicentre study examined 1509 patients with diffuse low-grade gliomas to identify mutual interactions between tumour characteristics, tumour course and epileptic seizures. At diagnosis, 89.9% of patients had epileptic seizures. Male gender (P = 0.003) and tumour location within functional areas (P = 0.001) were independent predictors of a history of epileptic seizures at diagnosis. Tumour volume, growth velocity, cortical location, histopathological subtype or molecular markers did not significantly affect epileptic seizure occurrence probability. Prolonged history of epileptic seizures (P < 0.001), insular location (P = 0.003) and tumour location close to functional areas (P = 0.038) were independent predictors of uncontrolled epileptic seizures at diagnosis. Occurrence of epileptic seizures (P < 0.001), parietal (P = 0.029) and insular (P = 0.002) locations were independent predictors of uncontrolled epileptic seizures after oncological treatment. Patient age (P < 0.001), subtotal (P = 0.007) and total (P < 0.001) resections were independent predictors of total epileptic seizure control after oncological treatment. History of epileptic seizures at diagnosis and total surgical resection were independently associated with increased malignant progression-free (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) and overall (P < 0.001 and P = 0.016) survivals. Epileptic seizures are independently associated with diffuse low-grade glioma prognosis. Patients diagnosed with epileptic seizures and those with complete and early surgical resections have better oncological outcomes. Early and maximal surgical resection is thus required for diffuse low-grade gliomas, both for oncological and epileptological purposes. PMID:24374407

Pallud, Johan; Audureau, Etienne; Blonski, Marie; Sanai, Nader; Bauchet, Luc; Fontaine, Denys; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Dezamis, Edouard; Psimaras, Dimitri; Guyotat, Jacques; Peruzzi, Philippe; Page, Philippe; Gal, Beatriz; Párraga, Eduardo; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Vlaicu, Michaela; Guillevin, Rémy; Devaux, Bertrand; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Capelle, Laurent; Huberfeld, Gilles

2014-02-01

95

Tertiary lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer progression. We have recently documented that tertiary lymphoid tissue in the colorectal cancer microenvironment orchestrates lymphocyte infiltration and that tertiary lymphoid tissue and lymphocytes cooperate in a coordinated antitumor immune response to improve patient outcome. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue represents a potential target in the design of tailored immune-based therapeutic approaches.

Di Caro, Giuseppe; Marchesi, Federica

2014-01-01

96

Longitudinal cognitive follow-up in low grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In patients with low-grade glioma (LGG), the tumor and its treatment with conformal radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy\\u000a can disrupt cognitive function. However, the contribution of disease and treatment to long-term cognitive outcome remains\\u000a to be elucidated. In this study, we performed longitudinal cognitive follow-up in a subgroup of patients who received RT,\\u000a chemotherapy, or no treatment. Methods Twenty-five

Denise D. Correa; Weiji Shi; Howard T. Thaler; Angeles M. Cheung; Lisa M. DeAngelis; Lauren E. Abrey

2008-01-01

97

Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas: What Does “Complete Resection” Mean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Supratentorial hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG), i.e., World Health Organization grade II gliomas, are generally\\u000a revealed by seizures in young adults with no or only mild neurological deficits. These progressive tumors are characterized\\u000a by a continuous growth, by tumor recurrences and by a progression into a higher grade of malignancy. Maximal safe resection\\u000a preserving eloquent brain areas, when possible, is

Johan Pallud

98

Thermoelectric power generation: Converting low-grade heat into electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes some of the fundamental aspects of thermoelectric power generation, which employs low-temperature heat\\u000a sources to create electricity. The focus is on a potential system design and viable thermocouple materials. Regarding generator\\u000a design, a system is proposed that uses forcedair circulation and a multistage heat-exchanger to efficiently convert the heat\\u000a content of a low-grade heat source into useful

K. Ono; R. O. Suzuki

1998-01-01

99

An Abundance of Escherichia coli Is Harbored by the Mucosa- Associated Bacterial Flora of Interleukin-2-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Mice deficient in interleukin-2 are well suited for use as an animal model for inflammatory bowel disease. Raised under specific-pathogen-free conditions, interleukin-2-deficient mice develop an inflammatory bowel disease resembling ulcerative colitis in humans. The finding that colitis was attenuated when the mice were kept under germfree conditions implies that the resident intestinal flora is involved in the pathogenesis of colitis. The present study addresses the composition of the mucosa-associated bacterial flora in colon samples from interleukin-2-deficient mice that developed colitis. This was investigated by comparative 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using rRNA-targeted fluorescent probes to quantify the bacterial populations of the mucosa-associated flora. The investigations revealed distinct differences in the bacterial composition of the mucosa-associated flora between interleukin-2-deficient mice and healthy controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization identified up to 10% of the mucosa-associated flora in interleukin-2-deficient mice as Escherichia coli, whereas no E. coli was detected in the mucosa from healthy wild-type mice. This finding was consistent with the results from comparative 16S rDNA analysis. About one-third of the clones analyzed from 16S rDNA libraries of interleukin-2-deficient mice represented Enterobacteriaceae, whereas none of the clones analyzed from the healthy controls harbored 16S rDNA from Enterobacteriaceae. The abundance of E. coli in the colonic mucosa of interleukin-2-deficient mice strongly suggests a participation in the pathogenesis of colitis in the interleukin-2-deficient mouse model for inflammatory bowel disease.

Schuppler, M.; Lotzsch, K.; Waidmann, M.; Autenrieth, I. B.

2004-01-01

100

Mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned pigs and dynamics linked to dietary calcium-phosphorus.  

PubMed

Dietary composition largely influences pig's gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P?=?0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. PMID:24466298

Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Zebeli, Qendrim; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U

2014-01-01

101

High Prevalence of Mucosa-Associated E. coli Producing Cyclomodulin and Genotoxin in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs) which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%), (p<0.01). Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%), (p?=?0.01). Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis), and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n?=?21/76) E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p?=?0.91). In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of patients with CRC.

Sauvanet, Pierre; Raisch, Jennifer; Delmas, Julien

2013-01-01

102

Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

Background CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a crucial site of CD4 T cell accumulation. Results Primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs of C57BL/6 animals were analysed at three intervals of ages: 2 to 6 months (young), 10 to 14 months (middle-aged) and 22 to 26 months (old). We confirmed that ageing preferentially impacted CD4 T cell compartment in secondary lymphoid organs. Importantly, a different picture emerged from gut associated mucosal sites: during ageing, CD4 T cell accumulation was progressively developing in colon and small intestine lamina propria and Peyer’s patches. Similar trend was also observed in middle-aged SJL/B6 F1 mice. Interestingly, an inverse correlation was detected between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria of C57BL/6 mice whereas no increase in proliferation rate of GALT CD4 T cells was detected. In contrast to GALT, no CD4 T cell accumulation was detected in lungs and liver in middle-aged animals. Finally, the concomitant accumulation of CD4 T cell in GALT and depletion in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing was detected both in male and female animals. Conclusions Our data thus demonstrate that T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs currently associated to ageing is not sustained in gut or lung mucosa associated lymphoid tissues or non-lymphoid sites such as the liver. The inverse correlation between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria and the absence of overt proliferation in GALT suggest that marked CD4 T cell decay in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing reflect redistribution of CD4 T cells rather than generalized CD4 T cell decay. Such anatomical heterogeneity may provide an important rationale for the diversity of immune defects observed during ageing.

2014-01-01

103

Why Do Patients with Low Grade Soft Tissue Sarcoma Die?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The patterns of failure and mechanisms of sarcoma-specific death are poorly characterized among the minority of patients with low grade soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who succumb to disease. Methods: Between 1982 and 2006, 2041 patients age ? 16 with low grade STS of all sites were treated with curative intent and prospectively followed at a single institution. Results: Among this cohort of 2041 patients, 181 (9%) died from disease (DOD). Overall, 105 patients (58%) died from locally recurrent disease (DOLR), and 59 (32%) died from distant disease (DODR). In 17 patients (9%), the mechanism of sarcoma-related death could not be verified. DOD occurred at a median of 62 months, while median disease-specific survival for the entire cohort was not reached. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 2 – 431). On multivariate analysis, DOD was associated with site, size, and less than R0 resection. For DOLR, site, size, positive margins, liposarcoma histology, and local recurrence (by definition) were significant factors. For DODR, site, histology, and positive margins were not significant factors, while size and local recurrence were. Of DOLR, 80% were retroperitoneal, 68% were liposarcoma, and only 2% were extremity. Conversely, of DODR, extremity (47%) and trunk (18%) were the most common sites, but histology was more variable (liposarcoma 35%, MFH 20%, fibrosarcoma 12%, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma 10%). High grade recurrence rates were comparable among DOLR (27%) and DODR (25%). Conclusion: Among patients with low grade STS, DOD occurs in approximately 9% of patients. Non-extremity site, larger size, and less than R0 resection are the most important risk factors for DOD, and distinct patterns of recurrence and death are predicted by primary tumor site.

Canter, Robert J.; Qin, Li-Xuan; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Maki, Robert G.; Singer, Samuel; Brennan, Murray F.

2008-01-01

104

Epilepsy and low grade gliomas in pediatric neurosurgery.  

PubMed

A series of 33 children affected by low grade gliomas and epilepsy is reported. Seizures are often the only symptom of these patients; intracranial hypertension and focal neurological signs may be present too. All children were operated on; tumor removal was performed in 21 cases, tumor removal associated with corticectomy and/or lobectomy was performed in 12 patients. The treatment of epilepsy has been more effective in the first group of patients with only lesionectomy than in the second one, in which neoplasm removal was coupled with nervous system tissue asportation. PMID:8301376

Ceddia, A; Di Rocco, C; Iannelli, A

1993-06-01

105

Stereotactic radiosurgery of deeply seated low grade gliomas.  

PubMed

The authors report the results of a series of 16 cases of low-grade gliomas in whom radiosurgery was performed. This series started in 1977. All the tumours received a single radiosurgical session (with a mean dose of 21.7 Gy, 5-10 mm. collimator; one patient received two sessions and in another patient two different targets were irradiated in the same session). Prior to radiosurgery, six patients received conventional external fractionated radiotherapy, with two lateral fields of up to 10 x 10 cm. and a mean dose of 55.1 Gy and another six patients with tumours less than 5 cm. in diameter, received stereotactic radiotherapy using four fields of up to 5 x 5 cm. and a mean dose of 53.1 Gy. In both cases, conventional fractionation was used, giving a dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy/day. The tumour disappeared in 8 cases (50%) and shunk or ceased its growth in 5 additional cases (31%). In 3 cases of brainstem gliomas in which the clinical condition was previously very poor there was no evolutional change and the patients eventually died. We conclude that radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of deeply seated low-grade gliomas, where it may become the treatment of choice in the absence of other more definitive choices. PMID:7717138

Barcia, J A; Barcia-Salorio, J L; Ferrer, C; Ferrer, E; Algás, R; Hernández, G

1994-01-01

106

Association of carcinoid tumor and low grade glioma  

PubMed Central

Background Lung carcinoid tumor and low grade glioma are two uncommon malignancies. Patients and methods We report the case of 24-year-old man who presented with respiratory disease. Imaging investigations showed a right lung tumor and histological analysis confirmed a typical carcinoid tumor. As part of initial staging, brain MRI revealed an asymptomatic right frontal lesion. First, a right pulmonary lobectomy was performed without adjuvant treatment. In second time, brain tumorectomy was performed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of low grade glioma (LGG). The patient remained in complete remission 2.5 years after the initial diagnosis. Results This is the first case reporting the association between LGG and lung carcinoid tumor, while no association between LGG and a systemic tumor have been published to date. Association of lung carcinoid tumor with other malignant diseases has been reported but remained uncommon. Only minimal data support a potential molecular common origin. Conclusion This exceptional association may be fortuitous. However, their concomitant diagnoses suggest a potential association between both rare diseases. A genetic susceptibility remains possible.

2012-01-01

107

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in the big toe.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor. Reported herein is a case of LGFMS arising in the big toe. The patient was a 58-year-old man who underwent excision of the tumor. The tumor was well-demarcated. Histologically, there were proliferating spindle-shaped tumor cells arranged in a whorled growth pattern, and the stroma showed hyalinized collagen bundles and a myxoid matrix. Nuclear mitotic figures were conspicuous in part. A large rosette-like structure with hyalinized stroma was found, which is characteristic of LGFMS. The differential diagnosis included tumor occurrence in adults; tending to arise in distal extremities; and having bland fibromyxoid histological features, such as fibroma of tendon sheath, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. It was not possible to detect the FUS/CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L1 fusion genes from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, although the histological features of the present case were typical of LGFMS. LGFMS may become more common with time, and unique cases may accumulate. PMID:16287497

Kusumi, Tomomi; Nishikawa, Shinji; Tanaka, Masanori; Ogawa, Taro; Jin, Hiromichi; Sato, Fuyuki; Toh, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kijima, Hiroshi

2005-12-01

108

[Therapy of low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].  

PubMed

Untreated patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) demonstrate a natural course of the disease differing from between a few months and decades. Prognostic factors to assess survival probability have recently been defined. Cure seems possible in the rare localized stages by irradiation. In advanced stages watchful waiting is still indicated. There is not enough evidence at present that aggressive induction prolongs survival. However, approaches such as autologous bone marrow transplantation or peripheral stem cell transfusion are currently being investigated in clinical trials but so far information is still lacking on the quality of life and the incidence of late complications such as the development of a second malignancy. Interferon alpha may have an influence on prolonging the duration of remission in follicular lymphoma. The poor prognosis of low-grade T-cell NHL and centrocytic lymphoma (CC) stresses the necessity for new therapeutic modalities. Purine analogues show efficacy in some subtypes of NHL and further investigations are warranted. PMID:8053200

Heinz, R; Hopfinger-Limberger, G

1994-01-01

109

Graph based spatial position mapping of low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II) are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors arising from glial cells. Spatial classification that is usually based on cerebral lobes lacks accuracy and is far from being able to provide some pattern or statistical interpretation of their appearance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to understand and infer position of low-grade gliomas using a graphical model. The problem is formulated as a graph topology optimization problem. Graph nodes correspond to extracted tumors and graph connections to the spatial and content dependencies among them. The task of spatial position mapping is then expressed as an unsupervised clustering problem, where cluster centers correspond to centers with position appearance prior, and cluster samples to nodes with strong statistical dependencies on their position with respect to the cluster center. Promising results using leave-one-out cross-validation outperform conventional dimensionality reduction methods and seem to coincide with conclusions drawn in physiological studies regarding the expected tumor spatial distributions and interactions. PMID:21995067

Parisot, Sarah; Duffau, Hugues; Chemouny, Stéphane; Paragios, Nikos

2011-01-01

110

Low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in a premenopausal woman.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma are rare malignant tumors of the uterus and has been described as the second most common malignant uterine mesenchymal tumor. The diagnosis is confirmed on hysterectomy for a presumed benign disease. In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2003), the term endometrial stromal tumor is applied to neoplasms typically composed of cells that morphologically resemble endometrial stromal cells of the nonneoplastic proliferative phase endometrium. The WHO recognizes three categories of endometrial stromal tumors: Endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESS), and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. We report here an interesting case of a 39-year-old female who presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum and urinary retention with a clinical impression of a leiomyomatous polyp, which on histological examination showed a LGESS. PMID:24678233

Jetley, Sujata; Rana, Safia; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S

2014-01-01

111

Low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in a premenopausal woman  

PubMed Central

Endometrial stromal sarcoma are rare malignant tumors of the uterus and has been described as the second most common malignant uterine mesenchymal tumor. The diagnosis is confirmed on hysterectomy for a presumed benign disease. In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2003), the term endometrial stromal tumor is applied to neoplasms typically composed of cells that morphologically resemble endometrial stromal cells of the nonneoplastic proliferative phase endometrium. The WHO recognizes three categories of endometrial stromal tumors: Endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESS), and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. We report here an interesting case of a 39-year-old female who presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum and urinary retention with a clinical impression of a leiomyomatous polyp, which on histological examination showed a LGESS.

Jetley, Sujata; Rana, Safia; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.

2014-01-01

112

Interaction of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol  

SciTech Connect

How conditions of alkylation of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid influence the yield of extractable matter was experimentally studied and relevant regression equations were obtained. It was shown that catalytic methylation considerably increases the yield of the extractable matter, as well as reducing the thermal stability of modified samples and alters the elemental composition of the samples and their extracts. A possible mechanism of coal methylation is discussed on the basis of regression models and experimental results. The interaction of the coal matter with the alkylating agent presumably involves the formation of the carbocation and its reaction with the coal organic matter. Both depolymerization reactions and the addition reactions of a portion of extractable compounds, the alkylating agent, and the catalyst with the high-molecular mass coal matrix take place.

S.I. Zherebtsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Division

2007-06-15

113

Low grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: Should we worry?  

PubMed Central

The optimal management for low-grade dysplasia (LGD) in Barrett’s esophagus is unclear. In this article the importance of LGD is discussed, including the significant risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic surveillance is a management option but is plagued by sampling error and issues of suboptimal endoscopy. Furthermore endoscopic surveillance has not been demonstrated to be cost-effective or to reduce cancer mortality. The emergence of endoluminal therapy over the past decade has resulted in a paradigm shift in the management of LGD. Ablative therapy, including radiofrequency ablation, has demonstrated promising results in the management of LGD with regards to safety, cost-effectiveness, durability and reduction in cancer risk. It is, however, vital that a shared-decision making process occurs between the physician and the patient as to the preferred management of LGD. As such the management of LGD should be “individualised.”

Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Kelty, Clive J

2014-01-01

114

Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

Oh, Kevin S., E-mail: koh2@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hung, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Robertson, Patricia L. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-11-15

115

Potential low-grade iron ore deposits in metamorphosed banded iron formations, Northern Province, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of low-grade iron ore would be quite unique in a South African context as South Africa is well endowed with\\u000a high-grade iron ore resources. Low-grade iron ore, defined as containing between 20 and 47% iron, is thought to be the primary\\u000a iron-bearing lithology from which most high-grade ore deposits formed, through different processes of enrichment. The low-grade\\u000a iron ores

G. du Plessis; G. J. Jonck; R. Kruger

1997-01-01

116

Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma: A Difficult Condition to Diagnose  

PubMed Central

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCO) is a rare variant of osteosarcoma which is difficult to diagnose. If not treated appropriately, the tumour can recur with higher-grade disease. We reviewed our experience of this condition to try and identify factors that could improve both diagnosis and outcome. 18 patients out of 1540 osteosarcoma cases (over 25 years) had LGCO (1.2%). Only 11 patients (61%) were direct primary referrals. Almost 40% (7 of 18) cases were referred after treatment elsewhere when the diagnosis had not been made initially and all presented with local recurrence. Of the 11 who presented primarily, the first biopsy was diagnostic in only 6 (55%) cases. Of the remaining cases, up to three separate biopsies were required before a definitive diagnosis was made. Overall survivorship at 5 years was 90%. 17 patients were treated with limb salvage procedures, and one patient had an amputation. The diagnosis of LGCO remains challenging due to the relatively nonspecific radiological and histological findings. Since treatment of LGCO is so different to a benign lesion, accurate diagnosis is essential. Any difficult or nondiagnostic biopsies of solitary bone lesions should be referred to specialist tumour units for a second opinion.

Malhas, A. M.; Sumathi, V. P.; James, S. L.; Menna, C.; Carter, S. R.; Tillman, R. M.; Jeys, L.; Grimer, R. J.

2012-01-01

117

Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) represent the most common childhood brain tumors and are a histologically heterogenous group of tumors. Most LGGs are surgically resectable with excellent 10-year overall survival outcomes of more than 90 % with surgery alone. Tumors not amenable to surgical resection and those with an aggressive biology are more challenging to treat. Conventional radiotherapy is a more efficacious method of long-term tumor control than chemotherapy. However, radiation is associated with significant cognitive, endocrine, and cerebrovascular late effects, making chemotherapy an often-preferred modality over radiotherapy, especially in younger children. Multiple chemotherapy regimens have been evaluated over the past few decades with comparable survival outcomes and differing toxicity profiles. Newer regimens containing antiangiogenic agents also show promise. Recent molecular studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene, a key regulator of the MAPK pathway, and the AKT/mTOR pathway in pediatric LGG tumorigenesis. This has opened up promising new avenues for targeted therapy, with many agents currently under investigation. PMID:24925153

Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Packer, Roger J

2014-08-01

118

Continuous production of nanosized magnetite through low grade burial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological processes, such as burial, can lead to remagnetization in rocks due to neoformed magnetic minerals that have passed a critical volume, called blocking volume. In this study, we designed a heating experiment for claystones obtained from the Paris Basin (France), in the 50-130°C temperature range, in order to simulate <4 km burial remagnetization. At a given temperature, remanence increased rapidly within a couple of days and stabilized afterward. There was a positive relation between the experimental temperature and the obtained remanence. Remanence was determined to be carried equally by stable chemical remanent magnetization and unstable thermo-viscous remanent magnetization. By assuming that magnetite formed during the experiment, we interpreted the increase of chemical remanent magnetization and the increase of thermo-viscous remanent magnetization as the continuous growth of the >20 nm and ˜20 nm minerals respectively. This result led us to propose a conceptual model of nucleation-and-growth process of magnetite during low grade burial from ˜2 to ˜4 km depth. Ultrafine magnetite (?20 nm) was predominant over single domain magnetite (>20 nm) for <4 km depth. Transposed to natural conditions, our heating steps experiment suggested that claystone-type rocks are remagnetized during burial. For temperatures higher than 200°C, the extrapolation of our results indicated that burial remagnetization, due to the chemical remanent magnetization, might be larger than the natural remanent magnetization.

Kars, Myriam; Aubourg, Charles; Pozzi, Jean-Pierre; Janots, Dominik

2012-08-01

119

Relative survival of patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

We sought to assess the population-based estimates of age-standardized survival among patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) and to determine the impact of age and time on relative survival (RS). Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of NCI from 1973 through 2006 were analyzed to assess survival among 5037 patients. Relationships were modeled using Dickman's piecewise constant hazards RS model. The 3- and 10-year age-standardized RS were 67% and 37%, respectively. When analyzed by age group, the 10-year overall survival (OS) and RS for children (age, <16 years), young adults (age, 16–39 years), adults (age, 40–64 years), and older patients (age, ?65 years) were 86% and 86%, 61% and 62%, 40% and 43%, and 10% and 14%, respectively. The observed difference between OS and RS was larger among older patients (4%) and smallest among children (<1%). Older patients were 30.5 times (excess hazard ratio [eHR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.3–50.0) as likely as young adults to die during the first year and 18.2 times as likely to die during the second year. Adults were 5.3 (eHR; 95% CI, 3.5–8.1) times as likely to die during their first year as young adults. In the remaining years, the observed survival differences were substantially decreased, and the presence of an age-by-follow-up interaction was observed. Survival among older patients with LGG was substantially different from the one computed for young adults and children. Despite the hazards across age groups not being proportional, RS does not provide additional information, compared with OS, in patients with LGG.

Smoll, Nicolas R.; Gautschi, Oliver P.; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Schaller, Karl; Weber, Damien C.

2012-01-01

120

Selumetinib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Low Grade Glioma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Neurofibromatosis Type 1; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

2014-06-30

121

Central low-grade osteosarcoma with pagetoid bone formation: a potential diagnostic pitfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central low-grade osteosarcoma is an uncommon form of osteosarcoma, which is often difficult to distinguish from benign bone lesions. We reviewed the radiographic studies, the histologic material and the clinical records of two patients with central low-grade osteosarcoma that closely simulated the histologic appearance of Paget's disease of bone. The patients were two women aged 46 and 53 years. Radiologically,

Alessandro Franchi; Patrizia Bacchini; Carlo Della Rocca; Franco Bertoni

2004-01-01

122

Low grade gliomas: Functional mapping resection strategies, extent of resection, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of surgery on outcome of adult patients with low-grade gliomas is controversial. Without prospective randomized treatment trials, one is primarily dependent on retrospective studies to address this issue. This paper reviews the recent clinical series of low-grade gliomas in which the association between extent of resection (EOR) and outcome could be analyzed. Functional stimulation mapping methods will be

Mitchel S. Berger; Robert C. Rostomily

1997-01-01

123

Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released

Catherine N. Mulligan; Mahtab Kamali; Bernard F. Gibbs

2004-01-01

124

Successful pregnancy following conservative management of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

It is uncommon that fertility is preserved in young nulliparous females with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). Therefore, successful pregnancy following such conservative management has been rarely reported in previous literature. A 25-year-old female (gravida, 0; para, 0) underwent hysteroscopic surgery and was pathologically diagnosed with an endometrial stromal nodule. The patient underwent fertility-preserving local resection and uterine reconstruction, with a final pathological diagnosis of low-grade ESS. Endocrine therapy was then administered. Conservative management resulted in the complete remission of low-grade ESS. The patient naturally conceived and successfully delivered a healthy baby at 42 weeks’ gestation by cesarean section, ~30 months following diagnosis with low-grade ESS. In conclusion, conservative management, including fertility-preserving local mass resection and endocrine therapy, can be effective for low-grade ESS and may yield a favorable outcome for young nulliparous females desiring fertility preservation.

DONG, RUIYING; PANG, YINGXIN; MAO, HONGLUAN; YANG, NING; LIU, PEISHU

2014-01-01

125

Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma: a low-grade tumor of the hands and feet.  

PubMed

Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma is a unique low-grade tumor of modified fibroblasts. It characteristically occurs in the distal extremities and has a propensity to recur locally. Forty-four cases that occurred in 22 males and 22 females from 20 to 91 years of age (median, 53 years) were studied. The lesions, which were 1-6 cm (median, 3 cm), occurred in the hands (64%), the feet (20%), the ankles (11%), and the wrists (5%). The patients usually had a long history of a painless mass (median duration, 1 year). Clinically they were suspected to be ganglion cysts, tenosyonovitis, or giant cell tumors of tendon sheath. Initial histologic diagnoses, in most cases, included pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis or various reactive fibroinflammatory processes. Histologically, the lesions were multinodular, poorly delineated, and characterized by a prominent myxoid matrix containing numerous inflammatory cells, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, as well as fibrosis. Amidst the prominent inflammation, and sometimes obscured by it, were scattered, large, bizarre tumor cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent inclusion-like nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, which was homogeneous to vacuolated and often contained intracytoplasmic inflammatory cells. Ultrastructurally, the bizarre tumor cells had features of modified fibroblasts, including an abundance of intermediate filaments and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells revealed strong positivity for vimentin (25 of 25), focal positivity for CD68 antigen (17 of 25) and CD34 (7 of 25); the tumor cells did not express neuroectodermal, epithelial, or lymphoid markers. The Ki67 labeling index with MIB1 was less than 1% in 20 of 25 cases; p53 immunoreactivity (20-90%) was observed in 7 of 25 primary tumors and in 2 of 3 local recurrences. Follow-up information was available in 36 of 44 cases (median, 5 years). Most excisions were either intralesional or marginal. Ten patients underwent amputation, usually after repeated local recurrences. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy were administered in five and two cases, respectively. Twenty-four cases (67%) had at least one local recurrence. A histologically proven lymph node metastasis developed in one patient, whereas another was stated to have lung metastases, although these were not documented histologically. At last follow-up, 23 patients were alive and well, 11 were alive with disease, and 2 were dead of other causes without evidence of tumor. The prominent inflammation and fibrosis seen histologically in acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma simulate a reactive process. The presence of myxoid foci and scattered bizarre cells, which are occasionally multivacuolated, may cause confusion with malignant fibrous histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Based on the protracted clinical course, a high rate of local recurrence (sometimes necessitating amputation), and a low rate of metastasis, we believe these tumors are low-grade sarcomas. The intimate relationship with the synovium, the frequent association with tenosynovitis, and the prominent inflammatory infiltrate suggest that inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. PMID:9706971

Meis-Kindblom, J M; Kindblom, L G

1998-08-01

126

Low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions and human papillomavirus infection in Colombian women  

PubMed Central

Low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions could be considered as a manifestation of human papillomavirus exposition, however the discrepancy between rates of infection with human papillomavirus and development of low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions is notable. Here we report a cross-sectional three-armed case–control study in the Colombian population, to compare the risk factors of women with low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions with that of human papillomavirus DNA-negative and positive women with normal cytology. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1417–1421. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600650 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

Molano, M; van den Brule, A J C; Posso, H; Weiderpass, E; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Meijer, C J L M; Arslan, A; Munoz, N

2002-01-01

127

The Cancer Genome Atlas expression profiles of low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of astrocytic and oligodendroglial origin remains a major challenge in neurooncology. Here the authors analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiles of LGGs with the goal of identifying distinct molecular characteristics that would afford accurate and reliable discrimination of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. They found that 1) oligodendrogliomas are more likely to exhibit the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), relative to low-grade astrocytomas; 2) relative to oligodendrogliomas, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit a higher expression of genes related to mitosis, replication, and inflammation; and 3) low-grade astrocytic tumors harbor microRNA profiles similar to those previously described for glioblastoma tumors. Orthogonal intersection of these molecular characteristics with existing molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p19q status, should facilitate accurate and reliable pathological diagnosis of LGGs. PMID:24812719

Gonda, David D; Cheung, Vincent J; Muller, Karra A; Goyal, Amit; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

2014-04-01

128

Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy  

PubMed Central

In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms.

Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

2014-01-01

129

Recovery of Tungsten from South African Low-Grade Scheelite Concentrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Council for Mineral Technology (Mintek) was asked to investigate the feasibility of leaching the tungsten from a low-grade scheelite concentrate. Three samples of concentrates containing about 20 per cent tunsten trioxide were supplied by the sponsor....

M. M. Fieberg C. F. B. Coetzee

1986-01-01

130

Association of Fear of Terror With Low-Grade Inflammation Among Apparently Healthy Employed Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Based on evidence that psychological stress may induce a chronic inflammatory process, we hypothesized that the stress caused by chronic fear of terror may be associated with low-grade inflammation. This hypothesis was examined in employed men and women with the presence of low-grade inflammation measured by high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods: Apparently healthy employed adults (N 1153) undergoing

SAMUEL MELAMED; ARIE SHIROM; SHARON TOKER; SHLOMO BERLINER; ITZHAK SHAPIRA

2004-01-01

131

Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated

Han S. Uhm; Yong C. Hong; Dong H. Shin; Bong J. Lee

2011-01-01

132

Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

133

Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade gliomas account for 10-15% of all adult primary intracranial tumours. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment strategy for low-grade gliomas. This study was designed to evaluate the treatment outcomes, prognostic factors and radiation-related late complications, as well as to assess whether or not post-operative radiotherapy has benefit on local control and overall survival in this population. We

S-A Yeh; J-T HO; Y-J HUANG; C-Y HSIUNG; E-Y HUANG

2005-01-01

134

Intramedullary spinal cord and leptomeningeal metastases from intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma.  

PubMed

We present an unusual case of a patient with an intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma who developed recurrence with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases. The intramedullary spinal cord metastasis showed mild enhancement similar to the original intracranial primary, while the multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases revealed no enhancement. This is the seventh reported case of symptomatic intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a low-grade oligodendroglioma. PMID:24667044

Verma, Nipun; Nolan, Craig; Hirano, Miki; Young, Robert J

2014-01-01

135

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing within a rectal tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colorectal lymphomas represent only 5% to 10% of gastrointestinal lymphomas, after the stomach and small intestine. Primary lymphoma of the colon and rectum is an unusual observation, constituting only 0.2% to 0.5% of all malignant tumors arising from the colorectal region. Very little is known about the correlation between adenoma and lymphoma in the colorectal tract. We report here a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing within a solitary tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia of the rectum. Case presentation An 83-year-old Caucasian man was referred to our hospital intermittent anal bleeding and irregular bowel. Colonoscopy revealed a 1cm solitary rectal polyp, which was completely removed by endoscopic resection. Histologic studies revealed low-grade intraepithelial dysplasia; the stroma of adenoma showed focal localization by highly proliferative lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that lymphoid cells were positive for CD20 and bcl2, whereas they were negative for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD23, CD30, CD138 and cyclin D1. Approximately 90% of the neoplastic cells reacted positively when stained with an antibody to Ki-67. Molecular studies showed the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. To determine primary or secondary lymphoma localization, Dawson’s criteria were applied to the case. A diagnosis of primary diffuse large B- lymphoma Ann Arbor stage 1A was established. Subsequently, the patient was referred to oncology to establish the stage and to select appropriate treatment. Conclusions The case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing within a tubular adenoma, as reported here, is considered a rare event. Little about the prognosis of primary colorectal lymphomas is available and therapeutic treatment protocol is unclear. This case report provides more information on the history and macroscopic appearance of lymphomas presenting in an unusual location. To report additional cases in the future would be helpful in redefining the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approach.

2014-01-01

136

Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The intestinal bacterial microflora plays an important role in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As most of the colonic bacteria cannot be identified by culture techniques, genomic technology can be used for analysis of the composition of the microflora. Patients and methods: The mucosa associated colonic microflora of 57 patients with active inflammatory bowel disease and 46 controls was investigated using 16S rDNA based single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprint, cloning experiments, and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Full length sequencing of 1019 clones from 16S rDNA libraries (n?=?3) revealed an overall bacterial diversity of 83 non-redundant sequences—among them, only 49 known bacterial species. Molecular epidemiology of the composition of the colonic microflora was investigated by SSCP. Diversity of the microflora in Crohn’s disease was reduced to 50% compared with controls (21.7 v 50.4; p<0.0001) and to 30% in ulcerative colitis (17.2 v 50.4; p<0.0001). The reduction in diversity in inflammatory bowel disease was due to loss of normal anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides species, Eubacterium species, and Lactobacillus species, as revealed by direct sequencing of variable bands and confirmed by real time PCR. Bacterial diversity in the Crohn’s group showed no association with CARD15/NOD2 status. Conclusions: Mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease is associated with loss of normal anaerobic bacteria. This effect is independent of NOD2/CARD15 status of patients.

Ott, S J; Musfeldt, M; Wenderoth, D F; Hampe, J; Brant, O; Folsch, U R; Timmis, K N; Schreiber, S

2004-01-01

137

Transcriptional response of immune genes in gills and the interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic salmon challenged with infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Previously, it has been assumed that fish lack organized mucosa-associated lymphoid structures. Recently, an interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) was described in salmonid gills at a site with substantial exposure to antigen. In this study, immune responses were examined in gills, mid-kidney and the laser-dissected ILT of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). A strong innate response was observed in gills and mid-kidney and even in the laser-dissected ILT, despite the fact that no virus could be traced in this tissue. A small delayed increase in IgT transcripts, exclusively in the ILT, could indicate that this tissue has a role as a secondary lymphoid organ with clonal expansion of IgT expressing B-cells. Compared to the other examined tissues, gills displayed the earliest replication of the virus, further supporting this tissue as the main entry route for infection with ISAV. PMID:24561102

Austbø, Lars; Aas, Ida Bergva; König, Melanie; Weli, Simon Chioma; Syed, Mohasina; Falk, Knut; Koppang, Erling Olaf

2014-07-01

138

AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

2013-11-19

139

Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks.  

PubMed

Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified bentonite, which is used as a secondary containment barrier for underground storage tanks. The sorption capacity and hydraulic conductivity of both the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin were investigated and showed distribution coefficients in the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene ranging between 45.7 and 583.7 and 57.0 and 525.1, respectively. The hydraulic conductivities were 2.53 x 10(-8) and 5.62 x 10(-8) cm/s for the HDTMA-modified bentonite and low-grade kaolin, respectively. These results suggest that HDTMA-modified low-grade kaolin could be used as a hydraulic barrier against advection migration of petroleum contaminants. Simulation of the one-dimensional transport of benzene through a liner made of either one of the compounds was also performed. These results also showed that HDTMA-modified kaolin more effectively retards the transport of benzene. PMID:17505892

Moon, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jai-Young; Oh, Byung-Taek; Choi, Sang-Il

2007-08-01

140

Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

PubMed

Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C. PMID:23024410

Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

2011-10-01

141

Structure and development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in conventionally reared broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The development of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in conventionally reared broiler chickens of 1 day and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age was studied using light and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission). BALT in these chickens resembled other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) in that it was composed of an altered epithelium overlying a population of lymphocytes and contained potential antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells; high endothelial venules were also present. In contrast to other MALT, epithelial cells in chicken BALT were not of the M-cell type; i.e., they lacked large numbers of apical tubules and vesicles for specialized uptake of luminal antigens. There were age-related differences in size, number, and cellular composition of BALT nodules. Lymphoid nodules were progressively larger and more numerous with increasing age. Germinal centers were present in birds 2 weeks of age and older. BALT epithelium was primarily squamous and non-ciliated in 1-day and 1-week-old chicks, becoming progressively more columnar and ciliated in older chickens. Lymphocyte infiltration of the epithelium was extensive at 1 to 4 weeks of age; in older chickens, distinct epithelial and lymphocytic compartments were separated by connective tissue. PMID:8452486

Fagerland, J A; Arp, L H

1993-01-01

142

A morphologic study of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in turkeys.  

PubMed

Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in normal turkeys of ages 1 day and 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 18 weeks was examined by light microscopy and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Turkey BALT resembled other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues; it was made up of a population of lymphocytes covered by a specialized epithelium different from typical pseudostratified ciliated columnar bronchial epithelium. There were distinct age-related differences in BALT structure. Bronchus-associated lymphoid nodules were larger and more numerous in older turkeys. In 1-day- to 2-week-old turkeys, the primary cell type of BALT epithelium was nonciliated cuboidal; in 2-week old turkeys it was squamous; and in turkeys older than 4-weeks of age, the epithelium was primarily ciliated columnar. In 1- to 4-week old turkeys, large numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes disrupted the normal organization of the epithelium. In older turkeys, epithelial and lymphoid cells were in discrete compartments separated by connective tissue. Lymphocytes in 1-day-old turkeys were found in loose aggregates around venules and within the epithelium. In 1-week old turkeys, lymphocytes were organized into compartments of morphologically similar cells. By 3-weeks of age, lymphocytes were present in distinct germinal centers. Epithelial cells of BALT did not have large numbers of apical vesicles and thus were not structurally specialized for antigen uptake by endocytosis. However, the epithelial barrier appeared to be disrupted over lymphoid nodules, suggesting that antigen would be readily available to lymphocytes and phagocytes in BALT. Age-related differences in turkey BALT structure may have functional consequences with respect to the respiratory immune response. PMID:2239743

Fagerland, J A; Arp, L H

1990-09-01

143

Using Neurofibromatosis-1 to Better Understand and Treat Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma  

PubMed Central

Relatively little is known about the seminal genetic events that trigger the development of low-grade gliomas in children. Genetically engineered mouse models of the neurofibromatosis-1–inherited tumor predisposition syndrome have identified key intracellular growth control pathways, defined the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to glioma growth, and helped researchers understand the genetic basis for glioma susceptibility. In addition, genetically engineered mouse low-grade glioma models have recently been used in preclinical therapeutic studies to evaluate the efficacy of particular biologically based therapies and to define outcome measures.

Gutmann, David H.

2008-01-01

144

Multiple Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma on the Upper Arms with Atypical Histological Presentation  

PubMed Central

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare variant of spindle cell tumor that is composed of collagen-rich and myxoid parts. We describe the case of a 61-year-old Japanese patient with multiple, recurrent LGFMS on the upper arms with atypical histological presentation. In the present case, we resected the tumor several times with a minimal surgical margin, as in Moh's microsurgery. However, this can frequently lead to local recurrence of the tumor. Our case suggested that, regarding mesenchymal tumors with potential of malignancy in the skin, an initial wide excision is indispensable for complete remission of the tumor, even for low-grade malignancy such as LGFMS.

Furudate, Sadanori; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tsukada, Akira; Numata, Yukikazu; Aiba, Setsuya

2013-01-01

145

Population-based study on incidence, survival rates, and genetic alterations of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a population-based study on low-grade diffuse gliomas in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (population 1.16 million). From 1980 to 1994, 987 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors were diagnosed, of which 122 (12.4%) were low-grade (WHO grade II). The incidence rates adjusted to the World Standard Population, per million population per year, were 2.28 for low-grade diffuse astrocytomas, 0.89

Yoshikazu Okamoto; Pier-Luigi Di Patre; Christoph Burkhard; Sonja Horstmann; Benjamin Jourde; Michael Fahey; Danielle Schüler; Nicole M. Probst-Hensch; M. Gazi Yasargil; Yasuhiro Yonekawa; Urs M. Lütolf; Paul Kleihues; Hiroko Ohgaki

2004-01-01

146

Long-term follow-up after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) can result in a prolonged remission, although most patients eventually relapse and die of their disease. We report long-term outcomes of AHSCT for patients with relapsed low-grade NHL. Between May 1983 and 2001, 67 patients with relapsed or refractory stage III and IV low-grade NHL received an AHSCT at

Noel Laudi; Mukta Arora; Linda J. Burns; Jeffrey S. Miller; Philip B. McGlave; Juliet N. Barker; Norma K. C. Ramsay; Paul J. Orchard; Margaret L. MacMillan; Daniel J. Weisdorf

2005-01-01

147

Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the

Rachana Vidhi; Yogi D. Goswami; Huijuan Chen; Elias Stefanakos; Sarada Kuravi; Adrian S Sabau

2011-01-01

148

BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas  

PubMed Central

The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytomas is still poorly understood. To further understand the genetic abnormalities associated with these tumors, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number aberrations in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Duplication of the BRAF protooncogene was the most frequent genomic aberration, and tumors with BRAF duplication showed significantly increased mRNA levels of BRAF and a downstream target, CCND1, as compared with tumors without duplication. Furthermore, denaturing HPLC showed that activating BRAF mutations were detected in some of the tumors without BRAF duplication. Similarly, a marked proportion of low-grade astrocytomas from adult patients also had BRAF duplication. Both the stable silencing of BRAF through shRNA lentiviral transduction and pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2, the immediate downstream phosphorylation target of BRAF, blocked the proliferation and arrested the growth of cultured tumor cells derived from low-grade gliomas. Our findings implicate aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway due to gene duplication or mutation of BRAF as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas and suggest inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a potential treatment.

Pfister, Stefan; Janzarik, Wibke G.; Remke, Marc; Ernst, Aurelie; Werft, Wiebke; Becker, Natalia; Toedt, Grischa; Wittmann, Andrea; Kratz, Christian; Olbrich, Heike; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Thieme, Barbara; Joos, Stefan; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Kulozik, Andreas; Pietsch, Torsten; Herold-Mende, Christel; Gnekow, Astrid; Reifenberger, Guido; Korshunov, Andrey; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Omran, Heymut; Lichter, Peter

2008-01-01

149

Compression enhanced ejector refrigeration cycle for low-grade heat utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptation of conventional and improved ejector (vapor compressor) refrigeration cycles for low-grade or waste heat utilization is discussed. The improved ejector cycle is achieved by compression enhancement of the inlet to the ejector. Thus, a proper combination of mechanical and thermal energies provides a wide range of design alternatives which should yield a competitive refrigeration system when a heat

M. Sokolov; D. Hershgal

1989-01-01

150

The SHOLO Mill: Make Pallet Parts and Pulp Chips from Low-Grade Hardwoods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SHOLO (from SHOrt LOg) process is used to produce pulp chips and pallet parts from low-grade hardwood. Long logs are bucked to short logs of predetermined lengths and quality and the round residue remaining is converted into pulp chips. A detailed des...

H. W. Reynolds C. J. Gatchell

1970-01-01

151

Investigations on the extraction of molybdenum and rhenium values from low grade molybdenite concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of molybdenum and rhenium values from low grade Indian molybdenite concentrate was investigated by roasting the concentrate in the presence of slaked lime and soda ash, followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the roasted products. In the lime roasting process, molybdenum recoveries of around 99% were achieved when a charge containing a slaked lime to concentrate ratio of 0.875 was

J. M. Juneja; Sohan Singh; D. K. Bose

1996-01-01

152

Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy.  

PubMed

In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. PMID:24868331

Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

2014-05-27

153

Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2014-01-01

154

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for low-grade lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six patients with low-grade lymphoma (LGL) (n = 18) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n = 8) received allogeneic BMTs between 1985 and 1998. Median age was 42 years, median interval from diagnosis to transplant 22 months and median number of prior treatments three. Twenty (77%) had stage IV disease; 22 (85%) had never achieved CR. Donor source was HLA

CL Toze; JD Shepherd; JM Connors; NJ Voss; DE Hogge; H-G Klingemann; SH Nantel; TJ Nevill; GL Phillips; DE Reece; HJ Sutherland; MJ Barnett

2000-01-01

155

Phosphorus Solubilization from Low-Grade Rock Phosphates in the Presence of Decomposing Soybean Leaf Litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural phenomenon of defoliation of mature soybean leaves onto the soil surface provides a large quantity of easily decomposable organic matter in the form of leaf litter. The potential of decomposing soybean leaf litter (SLL) to solubilize phosphorus (P) from two low?grade rock phosphates, Jhabua rock phosphate (JRP) and Hirapur rock phosphate (HRP), alone or amended with pyrite, was

D. Damodar Reddy

2007-01-01

156

Recovery of iron as a form of ferrous acetate precipitates from low-grade magnetite ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the recovery process of iron as a form of ferrous acetate from low-grade magnetite ore (Shinyemi Mine, Gangwon province, Korea). The magnetically separated magnetite powder was dissolved in aqueous oxalic acid solution. The dissolution fraction of magnetite concentrates was measured as a function of initial pH, reaction temperature and oxalic acid concentration. Optimum conditions for dissolution of

Jae-Kyeong Kim; Han-Sang Oh; Chang-Wha Jo; Yong-Jae Suh; Hee-Dong Jang; Kee-Kahb Koo

2010-01-01

157

Investigation of the direct hydrometallurgical processing of mechanically activated low-grade wolframite concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental laboratory work on leaching of low-grade wolframite concentrate has shown that the dissolution of tungsten with a high extraction (90%) can only be reached after mechanical treatment of the studied wolframite concentrate, following oxidative leaching at 170°C in an autoclave in the presence of oxygen partial pressure of 10 bar. The effects of grinding time, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration

A. M Amer

2000-01-01

158

EGFR immunolabeling pattern may discriminate low-grade gliomas from gliosis.  

PubMed

Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in gliomas. Gliomas are infiltrating tumors in which neoplastic glial cells can be intermingled with reactive glial cells, particularly in diffuse low-grade gliomas. As overexpression of EGFR has also been described in gliosis, it can be difficult to evaluate EGFR immunolabeling in diffuse low-grade gliomas because of this cell mix. We compared EGFR immunolabeling between gliosis and low-grade gliomas in order to identify distinctive criteria. We studied EGFR expression in 28 cases of gliosis and 39 diffuse low-grade gliomas (23 astrocytomas and 16 oligodendrogliomas). EGFR immunohistochemistry staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections with a mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 2-18C9; Dako). Co-expression of EGFR with Olig2, Mib-1, and p53 was assessed in seven cases of low-grade gliomas using double immunolabeling. Then, EGFR immunostaining was blindly tested on 22 small specimens of indeterminate glial lesions provided by a reference neuropathological center. Two pathologists of our local center were asked to classify the lesions into diffuse low-grade glioma or gliosis according to the pattern of EGFR expression. Weak expression of EGFR was commonly detected in gliosis (23/28 cases). Strongly-stained cells were absent. Positive cells had reactive glial cell morphology. EGFR expression in gliomas was characterized by constant strongly-stained cells (39/39 cases). All strongly-stained cells had a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, with minimal to moderate nuclear atypia. Most of the strongly EGFR-positive cells were Olig2-positive. All the cases displayed cells co-expressing EGFR and Mib-1. In three p53-positive tumors, many p53-positive cells were strongly EGFR-positive. On the basis of EGFR expression, 14 out of the 22 indeterminate cases were classified as gliomas and eight as gliosis by both pathologists. Concordance with the initial diagnosis established by the reference center and concordance between the pathologists were 100%. Our results confirm that weak EGFR expression can be detected by immunohistochemistry in gliosis. They show that strong EGFR expression may be specific for neoplastic glial cells. As all low-grade gliomas contained strongly-stained cells in our study, we believe that EGFR immunohistochemistry could be a useful tool for detection of neoplastic glial cells in case of indeterminate glial lesions. PMID:20652725

Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Benchetrit, Maxime; Miquel, Catherine; Fontaine, Denys; Auvergne, Romane; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Michiels, Jean-François; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique; Virolle, Thierry

2011-04-01

159

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (?3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: ?6.41, ?1.42]) and language (?3.19 [?6.19, ?0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage.

Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

2014-01-01

160

CD30L/CD30 is critical for maintenance of IL-17A-producing ?? T cells bearing V?6 in mucosa-associated tissues in mice.  

PubMed

CD30 ligand (CD30L, CD153), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and its receptor CD30 are important for differentiation and activation of CD4(+) T helper type 17 (Th17) cells. In this report, we demonstrate that the interleukin 17A (IL-17A)-producing ?? T cells normally developed in the fetal thymus, whereas V?1(-)V?4(-) ?? T cells expressed V?6/V?1 gene transcript selectively decreased in mucosa-associated tissues in naive CD30KO or CD30LKO mice. Moreover, CD30 and CD30L were expressed preferentially by V?1(-)V?4(-) ?? T cells in naive mice. The bacteria clearance was attenuated by the impaired response of the IL-17A-producing ?? T cells and decreased infiltration of neutrophils in CD30KO or CD30LKO mice. In vivo administration of agonistic anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody restored the ability of protection against Listeria monocytogenes by enhancing V?1(-)V?4(-) ?? T cells producing IL-17A not only in wild-type but also CD30LKO mice. Taken together, it appears that CD30L/CD30 signaling plays an important role in the maintenance and activation of IL-17A-producing ?? T cells presumably bearing V?6 in the mucosa-associated tissues of mice. PMID:23549449

Sun, X; Shibata, K; Yamada, H; Guo, Y; Muta, H; Podack, E R; Yoshikai, Y

2013-11-01

161

Fluidized roasting reduction kinetics of low-grade pyrolusite coupling with pretreatment of stone coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the fluidized roasting reduction technology of low-grade pyrolusite coupling with pretreatment of stone coal, the manganese reduction efficiency was investigated and technical conditions were optimized. It is found that the optimum manganese reduction efficiency can be up to 98.97% under the conditions that the mass ratio of stone coal to pyrolusite is 3:1, the roasting temperature of stone coal is 1000°C, the roasting temperature of pyrolusite is 800°C, and the roasting time is 2 h. Other low-grade pyrolusite ores in China from Guangxi, Hunan, and Guizhou Provinces were tested and all these minerals responded well, giving ˜99% manganese reduction efficiency. Meanwhile, the reduction kinetic model has been established. It is confirmed that the reduction process is controlled by the interface chemical reaction. The apparent activation energy is 36.397 kJ/mol.

Feng, Ya-li; Cai, Zhen-lei; Li, Hao-ran; Du, Zhu-wei; Liu, Xin-wei

2013-03-01

162

Treatment of Low-Grade Bulbar Transitional Cell Carcinoma with Urethral Instillation of Mitomycin C  

PubMed Central

A 63-year old man was referred to us after three rapid recurrences of low-grade urethral papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bulbar urethra, after repeated primary excision. Cystoscopy confirmed 3-4 low-grade urethral transitional cell carcinomas, which were subsequently fulgurated. After urethral healing, a solution of Mitomycin C (40 mg/80 cc) was instilled into the urethra for fifteen minutes and held in place with a penile clamp. Urethral instillations were repeated weekly for six weeks. The patient is currently disease-free more than one year and three months posttreatment. This case highlights the successful treatment of urethral carcinoma with topical chemotherapy, which is usually reserved for the bladder, using a slight modification of standard technique.

Melonakos, Emmanuel J.; Santucci, Richard A.

2008-01-01

163

Low-grade sarcoma in classical seminoma - the first case reported  

PubMed Central

A 30-year-old male with no previous history of neoplastic disease presented with a 5 cm large testicular tumor. Routine histopathological examination and immunohistochemical investigation showed a classical seminoma with a contiguous 8 mm large nodule. The nodule was separated from the tunica albuginea by tubuli seminiferi showing intratesticular germ cell neoplasi not otherwise specified (NOS). The nodule was composed of spindle cells with low-grade nuclear atypia, nuclear and cytoplasmic S100 protein immunoreactivity in 15% of the cells and a proliferative activity of up to 20%. No other germ cell tumor components were found. To the best of our knowledge, we herein present the first tumor of a pure classical seminoma with an associated low-grade sarcomatous component.

Petersson, Fredrik; Michal, Michal; Grossmann, Petr; Franco, Marcello; Zamecnik, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

2010-01-01

164

Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?  

PubMed Central

An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.

da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, Joao Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

2013-01-01

165

Primary low-grade diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old Indian woman presented in neurosurgery outpatient with seizures, headache and vomiting for the past 1 month. MRI of the brain was suggestive of a malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumour. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations of stereotactic biopsy of the tumour were diagnostic of a low-grade diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of the CNS. No evidence of any occult systemic lymphoma was observed, confirming its 'primary' origin in the CNS. The diagnosis of a low-grade primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is difficult as clinical and neuroradiological features are wide and variable. The clinical course is more indolent than a high-grade PCNSL and thus, a less aggressive and localised targeted treatment could be sufficient rather than the high dose, neurotoxic methotrexate-based chemotherapeutic treatment, recommended for high-grade PCNSL. Histological and immunohistological confirmation is therefore mandatory for early, appropriate treatment and prognostic implications. PMID:24729110

Aziz, Mehar; Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Khan, Roobina; Afroz, Nishat

2014-01-01

166

Intraosseous polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of mandible: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare type of minor salivary gland malignancy. The characteristic features of these tumors are the varied histomorphology and the malignant, albeit indolent behavior. It occurs commonly in the minor salivary glands, with the palate (58.5%) being the most common intra oral site. Maxillary area (2%), mandibular mucosal area (1.5%) and posterior trigone region (0.5%) are the least affected areas. An occasional case has been reported arising from an intraosseous location i.e the maxilla, and only two cases have been reported in the English literature originating from the mandible. One such very rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the mandible, which radiographically has a soap bubble appearance, is reported here.

Ramesh, Gayathri; Manohar, Ram; Raghunath, Vandana; Nagarajappa, Ramesh

2012-01-01

167

Health-related quality of life aspects in patients with low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Standard therapeutic options for brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Unfortunately, these same therapies\\u000a pose risks of neurotoxicity, the most common long-term complications being radiation necrosis, chemotherapy-associated leukoencephalopathy,\\u000a and cognitive deficits. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment strategy for these tumors. Because of the relatively\\u000a slow growth rate of low-grade gliomas, patients have a relatively long expected

M. Klein

168

The global diabetes epidemic as a consequence of lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent major increase in the global incidence of type 2 diabetes suggests that most cases of this disease are caused by\\u000a changes in environment and lifestyle. All major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (overnutrition, low dietary fibre, sedentary\\u000a lifestyle, sleep deprivation and depression) have been found to induce local or systemic low-grade inflammation that is usually\\u000a transient or

H. Kolb; T. Mandrup-Poulsen

2010-01-01

169

Low-grade thermal energy-conversion Joule effect heat engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade thermal energy conversion is discussed with attention to energy sources, heat engines, and potential Joule engine applications. Nitinol heat engine concepts are discussed, and the Nitinol equation-of-state surfaces and transition characteristics are indicated. Bottoming cycles are considered, the untapped low-temperature water energy sources are estimated, the heat-transfer limitation of gas phase heat engines is examined, and solid-state heat engines

W. S. Ginell; J. L. McNichols; J. S. Cory

1978-01-01

170

Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bacteria mutation and bioleaching of low-grade copper tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the mutation of bacteria (i.e., Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LD-1) and on the bioleaching system for low-grade copper tailings. It is shown that ultraviolet irradiation can lead to an obvious LD-1 mutation, can improve bio-activity and bioleaching capability. The mutant LD-1 bacteria, after ultraviolet irradiation for 30min, had the best oxidation activity, the

Yingbo Dong; Hai Lin; Han Wang; Xiaolan Mo; Kaibin Fu; Hongwei Wen

2011-01-01

171

Adult brain low-grade astrocytomas: survival after surgery and radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In order to identify prognostic factors of survival, twelve elements of disease and treatment have been evaluated for a population\\u000a of 49 patients with diffuse low-grade astrocytoma treated with surgical resection and radiotherapy. The survival values were\\u000a inversely correlated with age and major residual portion. On the other hand, KPS, lobar site, grade II Daumas-Duport lesions,\\u000a protoplasmatic variant, early

V. M. Arienti; A. Botturi; A. Boiardi; G. Broggi; M. Collice; L. Fariselli; D. Zanni; M. Botturi

2001-01-01

172

Mutation and loss of expression of ARID1A in uterine low-grade endometrioid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

ARID1A is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in approximately 50% of ovarian clear cell and 30% of ovarian endometrioid carcinomas. The mutation is associated with loss of protein expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we evaluated ARID1A immunoreactivity in a wide variety of carcinomas in order to determine the prevalence of ARID1A inactivation in carcinomas; mutational analysis of ARID1A was performed in selected cases. Immunoreactivity was not detected (corresponding to inactivation or mutation of ARID1A) in 36 (3.6%) of 995 tumors. Uterine low-grade endometrioid carcinomas demonstrated a relatively high frequency of loss of ARID1A expression, as 15 (26%) of 58 cases were negative. The other tumor that had a relatively high frequency loss of ARID1A expression was gastric carcinoma (11%). Mutational analysis showed 10 (40%) of 25 uterine endometrioid carcinoma, none of 12 uterine serous carcinomas and none of 56 ovarian serous and mucinous carcinomas harbored somatic ARID1A mutations. All mutations in endometrioid carcinomas were nonsense or insertion/deletion mutations and tumors with ARID1A mutations demonstrated complete loss or clonal loss of ARID1A expression. In conclusion, this study is the first large-scale analysis of a wide variety of carcinomas showing that uterine low-grade endometrioid carcinoma is the predominant tumor type harboring ARID1A mutations and frequent loss of ARID1A expression. These findings suggest that the molecular pathogenesis of low-grade uterine endometrioid carcinoma is similar to that of ovarian low-grade endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, tumors that have previously been shown to have a high frequency of loss of expression and mutation of ARID1A.

Guan, Bin; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Panuganti, Pradeep K.; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Kurman, Robert J.; Maeda, Daichi; Chen, Elizabeth; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li; Shih, Ie-Ming

2011-01-01

173

Somatic hypermutation signature in B-cell low-grade lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation is a biologically relevant and clinically useful prognostic factor in different types of low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including chronic lympho- cytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Design and Methods With the aim of identifying surrogate markers of somatic hypermutation, a combined investiga- tion of IgVH mutational status and expression profiles of 93

Lorraine Tracey; Mohit Aggarwal; Mónica García-Cosio; Raquel Villuendas; Patrocinio Algara; Margarita Sánchez-Beato; Abel Sánchez-Aguilera; Juan F. García; Antonia Rodríguez; Francisca I. Camacho; Nerea Martínez; Elena Ruiz-Ballesteros; Manuela Mollejo; Miguel Á

2008-01-01

174

AMMONIA-WATER ABSORPTION CYCLE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW GRADE THERMAL ENERGY OVER LONG DISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of the application of the ammonia-water absorption system for transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance. A model is built and analyzed, and it shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam heat source at the temperature of 1200C is available, the user site can get hot water output at about

Qiang MA; Lingai LUO; Ruzhu WANG

175

Transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance by ammonia-water absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the importance and the cycle choice for long-distance transportation of low-grade thermal energy, and\\u000a the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of single-effect ammonia-water absorption system for heat or cold transportation\\u000a over long distance are also involved. A model of a long-distance thermal energy transportation system is built and analyzed,\\u000a which shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam

Qiang Ma; RuZhu Wang; LinGai Luo; ZaiZhong Xia; Peng Lin

2009-01-01

176

Microvascular leakage and contrast enhancement as prognostic factors for recurrence in unfavorable low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfusion estimates and microvascular leakage (MVL) were recently correlated with glioma angiogenesis and aggressiveness,\\u000a but their role in predicting outcome of patients (pts) with unfavorable low-grade gliomas (ULGG) is unclear. Their prognostic\\u000a value was then investigated, versus conventional factors such as age, neurological status, tumor size, and contrast enhancement\\u000a (CE). Clinical and anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of a

F. Dhermain; G. Saliou; F. Parker; P. Page; K. Hoang-Xuan; C. Lacroix; E. Tournay; J. Bourhis; D. Ducreux

2010-01-01

177

Quantitative Approach of the Natural Course of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Supratentorial hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG), i.e., World Health Organization grade II gliomas, are a heterogeneous\\u000a group of tumors with distinct clinical, histological and molecular characteristics. The prognosis of LGG varies between series\\u000a and reflects their heterogeneity with different subgroups harboring specific intrinsic properties. The natural course of LGG,\\u000a as observed in clinical practice can be summarized as a three-step

Johan Pallud; Emmanuel Mandonnet

178

Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of low-grade zinc silicate ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a leaching kinetics study of low-grade zinc silicate ore with sulfuric acid are presented. Effect of ore particle size, reaction temperature, and acid concentration on zinc dissolution rate were determined. The results obtained show that leaching of about 94% of zinc is achieved using ?200+270 mesh ore particle size at a reaction temperature of 70°C for 180

E. A Abdel-Aal

2000-01-01

179

Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation among Young Finnish Men with Early-Onset Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous investigations have revealed an association of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), especially in younger subjects with severe early-onset AGA, with ischemic heart disease. Objective: To examine the possible association between early-onset alopecia and low-grade inflammation measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) that has been recommended for the assessment of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods: The study population consisted of

Päivi Hirsso; Ulla Rajala; Liisa Hiltunen; Jari Jokelainen; Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi; Simo Näyhä

2007-01-01

180

Leaching and kinetic modelling of low-grade calcareous sphalerite in acidic ferric chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaching kinetics of a low grade-calcareous sphalerite concentrate containing 38% ankerite and assaying 32% Zn, 7% Pb and 2.2% Fe was studied in HCl–FeCl3 solution. An L16 (five factors in four levels) standard orthogonal array was employed to evaluate the effect of Fe(III) and HCl concentration, reaction temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio and particle size on the reaction rate of sphalerite.

R. Dehghan; M. Noaparast; M. Kolahdoozan

2009-01-01

181

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300°C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SOâ⁻², and the heat to bring the

Othmer

1981-01-01

182

Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older  

Cancer.gov

Long-term follow-up results from a phase III trial show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the risk of low-grade prostate cancer in men age 55 and older compared with that in men who received a placebo. Although high-grade cancers were more common in the finasteride group, the finasteride and placebo groups had similar 15-year overall survival rates.

183

Molecular characterization of microbial populations in a low-grade copper ore bioleaching test heap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture-independent approach based on PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments from both Bacteria and Archaea were used to analyze the microbial community inhabiting a low-grade copper sulfide run-of-mine (ROM) test heap of a project in Chile. In this paper, we summarize results of a 1-year monitoring study. Phylogenetic analyses of

Cecilia S. Demergasso; Danny Castillo; Emilio O. Casamayor

2005-01-01

184

Kinetics of soda ash leaching of low-grade scheelite concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction kinetics for the leaching of low-grade scheelite concentrates with sodium carbonate have been studied to establish the effect of the most important process variables, such as stirring, solid\\/liquid ratio, sodium carbonate concentration, temperature and particle size. The leaching residues were chemically and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The experimental results conform with the shrinking core model and they

J. P. Martins

1996-01-01

185

Low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow.  

PubMed

Cases of low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow are rare, and its clinicopathology remains unclear. We retrospectively examined patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow. Fourteen patients met the inclusion criteria, including 5 with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL), 3 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 2 with follicular lymphoma (FL), and 4 with low-grade B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (LGBCL-NOS). The median age was 69.5 years (range, 42-89 years), and a slight male predominance was noted (9 men and 5 women, 1.8: 1). Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for CD20. One case was positive for CD138. Both cases of FL were positive for CD10 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and immunoglobulin heavy locus (IgH)/B-cell lymphoma 2 rearrangement was observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) leucine to proline mutation was observed in 3 of 5 LPL, 1 of 2 FL, and 2 of 4 LGBCL-NOS patients. Paraproteinemia was observed in 10 patients; IgM and IgG paraproteinemia were observed in 6 and 3 patients, respectively. In this patient series, 3 patients had died at a median follow-up of 36.5 months; the cause of death of 1 LPL patient was malignant lymphoma itself. Thus, low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow has various subtypes, and approximately one-third of the patients had LGBCL-NOS. The immunophenotypic features and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) leucine to proline mutation data of LGBCL-NOS suggested that some cases present with characteristics similar to those of LPL or marginal zone lymphoma. PMID:24767771

Iwatani, Kayoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Yasuharu; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Iwaki, Noriko; Cui, Wei; Sawada-Kitamura, Seiko; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Tamura, Maiko; Saito, Katsuhiko; Miyatani, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Rie; Yamadori, Ichiro; Fujii, Nobuharu; Terasaki, Yasushi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Nakamura, Naoya; Yoshino, Tadashi

2014-07-01

186

The role of low-grade inflammation in the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

PCOS is not only the most frequent cause of oligomenorrhea in young women, but also a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and obesity, especially the visceral phenotype. PCOS represents a broad spectrum of endocrine and metabolic alterations which change with age and with increasing adiposity. In fact, during adolescence and youth the predominant clinical manifestations of PCOS are menstrual abnormalities, hirsutism and acne, whereas in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal periods metabolic disorders and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases prevail. The pathogenetic links between PCOS and metabolic or cardiovascular complications are still debated. However, recent evidence has been focused on a condition of low-grade chronic inflammation as a potential cause of the long-term consequence of the syndrome. In this review we describe the state of low-grade inflammation observed in PCOS. In addition, we hypothesize the potential mechanisms responsible for the generation of this inflammatory state and the role played by low-grade inflammation in linking hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance with the metabolic and cardiovascular long-term complications of the syndrome. PMID:20708064

Repaci, Andrea; Gambineri, Alessandra; Pasquali, Renato

2011-03-15

187

Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with intravenous extension to the heart.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare neoplasm of uterine origin. Intracardiac metastasis from this tumor is extremely infrequent. This report describes a 24-year-old woman from Yemen who had irregular vaginal bleeding shortly after spontaneous abortion. She developed left-lower-limb swelling, diagnosed by duplex scanning and magnetic resonance imaging as deep venous thrombosis in the inferior vena cava (IVC) that extended into the iliac veins on both sides, as well as the left femoral vein and right atrium. She developed acute respiratory distress, from which she recovered after transfer to the intensive care unit. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a large mass occupying the right atrium and ventricle and another mass in the right ventricular outflow tract with areas of cavitations. The tumor appeared to come from the IVC and extended through the right atrium and right ventricle into the pulmonary artery, ending in several digit-like projections. After surgical resection of the intracardiac mass, pathologic examination revealed a low-grade ESS that was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient underwent panhysterectomy and IVC debridement. Pathologic examination revealed infiltrating low-grade endometrial sarcoma invading the myometrium and left adnexa, with intravenous extension into the pelvic veins and the IVC to the right side of the heart. This case shows that despite its well-known good prognostic nature, low-grade ESS may behave as an aggressive malignancy. PMID:19295944

Gabal, Samia; Ashour, Zeinab; Hamada, Ghada; Aziz, Saied Abdel; Khairy, Hussein; Badawy, Hesham; Hamada, Emad Mahmoud; Saied, Karim

2009-01-01

188

Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity  

PubMed Central

Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology.

Carragher, Damian M.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D.

2008-01-01

189

Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens.

Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

2013-01-01

190

Relationship between columnar cell changes and low-grade carcinoma in situ of the breast--a cytogenetic study.  

PubMed

Columnar cell lesions of the breast include columnar cell changes without atypia and columnar cell changes with atypia. The latter frequently coexist and share molecular changes with low-grade carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma, suggesting that columnar cell changes may be precursors to progression of low-grade advanced lesions. In this study, we assessed chromosomal aberrations at 16q, hallmark for low-grade lesions, in columnar cell changes with or without atypia and their adjacent carcinoma in situ by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 3 region-specific probes spanning the entire chromosomal arm. The results were correlated with the histomorphological features of the corresponding lesions. Forty-four percent of low-grade carcinoma in situ and 31% of high-grade carcinoma in situ were associated with columnar cell changes with atypia, suggesting a link between columnar cell changes with atypia and low-grade carcinoma in situ. For the genetic aberrations, heterozygous deletion of 16q was present in 56% of low-grade carcinoma in situ but only in 19% of high-grade carcinoma in situ. Conversely, aneuploidy was found mostly in high-grade carcinoma in situ (88%). Twenty percent of columnar cell changes with atypia but none of the columnar cell changes without atypia showed heterozygous deletion of 16q. Interestingly, the same changes in 16q were observed in the columnar cell changes and their associated low-grade carcinoma in situ lesions. These findings demonstrated a genetic commonality between columnar cell changes with atypia and low-grade carcinoma in situ and substantiated the precursor role of columnar cell changes with atypia for low-grade carcinoma in situ but not high-grade carcinoma in situ of the breast. PMID:22542249

Go, Edna May L; Tsang, Julia Y S; Ni, Yun-Bi; Yu, Alex M; Mendoza, Paulo; Chan, Siu-Ki; Lam, Christopher C; Lui, Philip C; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M

2012-11-01

191

Curative resection and reconstruction of the inferior vena cava after extensive infiltration with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) rarely infiltrates the great vessels. We report a successful surgical resection of the inferior vena cava (IVC) after extensive infiltration with metastatic low-grade ESS. A case of presumed recurrence of low-grade ESS demonstrated complete IVC occlusion from tumour thrombus with extensive local disease. Radical resection of the tumour and caval reconstruction was performed. The IVC graft was thrombosed at short-term follow-up. Curative resection of extensive caval infiltration with metastatic low-grade ESS can be achieved. Caval reconstructive procedures may be redundant in the presence of an adequate collateral circulation. PMID:22368192

Delaney, C L; Saleem, H; Karapetis, C; Spark, J I

2013-02-01

192

Specific Visualization of Glioma Cells in Living Low-Grade Tumor Tissue  

PubMed Central

Background The current therapy of malignant gliomas is based on surgical resection, radio-chemotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent retrospective case-series have highlighted the significance of the extent of resection as a prognostic factor predicting the course of the disease. Complete resection in low-grade gliomas that show no MRI-enhanced images are especially difficult. The aim in this study was to develop a robust, specific, new fluorescent probe for glioma cells that is easy to apply to live tumor biopsies and could identify tumor cells from normal brain cells at all levels of magnification. Methodology/Principal Findings In this investigation we employed brightly fluorescent, photostable quantum dots (QDs) to specifically target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is upregulated in many gliomas. Living glioma and normal cells or tissue biopsies were incubated with QDs coupled to EGF and/or monoclonal antibodies against EGFR for 30 minutes, washed and imaged. The data include results from cell-culture, animal model and ex vivo human tumor biopsies of both low-grade and high-grade gliomas and show high probe specificity. Tumor cells could be visualized from the macroscopic to single cell level with contrast ratios as high as 1000: 1 compared to normal brain tissue. Conclusions/Significance The ability of the targeted probes to clearly distinguish tumor cells in low-grade tumor biopsies, where no enhanced MRI image was obtained, demonstrates the great potential of the method. We propose that future application of specifically targeted fluorescent particles during surgery could allow intraoperative guidance for the removal of residual tumor cells from the resection cavity and thus increase patient survival.

Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Caarls, Wouter; de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Hagen, Guy M.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rohde, Veit; Giese, Alf; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

2010-01-01

193

Circulating anti-filamin C autoantibody as a potential serum biomarker for low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers. Methods We searched for novel glioma-associated antigens by serological identification of antigens utilizing recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), and found FLNC as a candidate protein. Tissue expressions of FLNC (both in normal and tumor tissues) were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was measured by ELISA in normal volunteers and in the patients with various grade gliomas. Results FLNC was expressed in glioma tissues and its level got higher as tumor grade advanced. Anti-FLNC autoantibody was also detected in the serum of glioma patients, but its levels were inversely correlated with the tissue expression. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was significantly higher in low-grade glioma patients than in high-grade glioma patients or in normal volunteers, which was confirmed in an independent validation set of patients’ sera. The autoantibody levels in the patients with meningioma or cerebral infarction were at the same level of normal volunteers, and they were significantly lower than that of low-grade gliomas. Total IgG and anti-glutatione S-transferase (GST) antibody level were not altered among the patient groups, which suggest that the autoantibody response was specific for FLNC. Conclusions The present results suggest that serum anti-FLNC autoantibody can be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of low-grade gliomas while it needs a large-scale clinical study.

2014-01-01

194

Velocity of tumor spontaneous expansion predicts long-term outcomes for diffuse low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas present a slow macroscopic tumor growth that can be quantified through the measurement of their velocity of diametric expansion. We assessed whether spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion can predict long-term outcomes as a categorical variable and as a continuous predictor. Methods A total of 407 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults were studied. Results The mean spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion before first-line treatment was 5.8 ± 6.3 mm/year. During the follow-up (mean, 86.5 ± 59.4 months), 209 patients presented a malignant transformation, and 87 died. The malignant progression-free survival and the overall survival were significantly longer in cases of slow velocity of diametric expansion (median, 103 and 249 months, respectively) than in cases of fast velocity of diametric expansion (median, 35 and 91 months, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analyses, spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion as a categorical variable (<4, ?4 and <8, ?8 and <12, ?12 mm/year) was an independent prognostic factor for malignant progression-free survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–5.52) and for overall survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.58–7.97). Velocity of diametric expansion was also an independent prognostic factor for overall survival as a continuous predictor, showing a linear relationship between overall survival and spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion (hazard ratio, 1.09 per one unit increase; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001). Conclusions Independent of the molecular status, the spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion allows the identification of rapidly growing diffuse low-grade gliomas (at higher risk of worsened evolution) during the pretherapeutic period and without delaying treatment.

Pallud, Johan; Blonski, Marie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Audureau, Etienne; Fontaine, Denys; Sanai, Nader; Bauchet, Luc; Peruzzi, Philippe; Frenay, Marc; Colin, Philippe; Guillevin, Remy; Bernier, Valerie; Baron, Marie-Helene; Guyotat, Jacques; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Capelle, Laurent

2013-01-01

195

Cytogenetic analysis of a low-grade secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma arising in synovial chondromatosis.  

PubMed

Secondary chondrosarcoma is a malignant chondroid tumor arising in a benign precursor. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign chondroid lesion that rarely transforms to chondrosarcoma. We present the case of a 54-year-old male with the diagnosis of low-grade secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma developed in the context of synovial chondromatosis. Cytogenetics revealed a novel aberration t(1;14)(q23.1~24;q24.1~3). Multicolor banding (mBAND) analysis described the chromosomal regions involved in this translocation with a higher detail. Diagnosis of such borderline lesions is very difficult and cytogenetics is helpful in characterizing these tumors. PMID:23239852

Kyriazoglou, Anastasios I; Rizou, Helen; Dimitriadis, Efthimios; Arnogiannaki, Niki; Agnantis, Niki; Pandis, Nikos

2013-01-01

196

Harvesting low grade heat to generate electricity with thermosyphon effect of room temperature liquid metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on thermosyphon effect of room temperature liquid metal, a technical strategy of harvesting low grade heat to generate electricity was proposed. A conceptual system was constructed and an open circuit voltage of 2.62 V with an electrical output power of 110 mW was yielded when the heating power was 45.6 W. This method resolves the difficulty of installing an electric generator in confined space and significantly enlarges the area for converting heat to electricity. Due to its simplicity, avoidance of moving parts, wide working temperature range, and self powering feature, this electric generation system is extremely reliable, completely silent, and flexible.

Li, Peipei; Liu, Jing

2011-08-01

197

Cognitive functions in low-grade gliomas: disease and treatment effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of low-grade gliomas (LGG) is controversial regarding their effect\\u000a on survival and the development of neurotoxicity. The few published studies examining adverse treatment effects on cognition\\u000a revealed conflicting results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To assess cognitive functioning in LGG patients who received conformal radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy, or no treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  40 LGG patients participated in

Denise D. Correa; Lisa M. DeAngelis; Weiji Shi; Howard T. Thaler; Michael Lin; Lauren E. Abrey

2007-01-01

198

125I Brachytherapy Seeds Implantation for Inoperable Low-Grade Leiomyosarcoma of Inferior Vena Cava  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and tenderness of five-day duration. Contrast enhanced CT showed a mass of 9 × 6 × 5.5 cm in size with almost complete obliteration of the inferior vena cava and massive extension to the extravascular space. CT-guided biopsy demonstrated a low-grade leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent 125Iodine seeds implantation in two sessions, and another balloon cavoplasty. Abdominal pain and tenderness gradually improved and the patient continues to remain as disease free state for three years after the procedures.

Wang, Yongzheng; Liu, Bin; Li, Zheng; Wang, Wujie

2013-01-01

199

Low-grade appendiceal neoplasm presenting as a volvulus of the cecum.  

PubMed

Mucocele of the appendix is an uncommon disorder that is often asymptomatic, but can present similarly to acute appendicitis. Timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative due to the many complications that can result from the mucocele, such as perforation. Appendiceal mucoceles (AM) were previously thought to be either benign or malignant; however, a different pathological classification of AM is currently favored. Also, only a few cases of volvulus of a benign AM have been reported. Here, we present the first reported case of a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm resulting in a volvulus of the cecum. PMID:24759968

Costa, Vincent; Demuro, Jonas P

2013-11-01

200

[Low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and helicobacter heilmannii (Gastrospirillum hominis].  

PubMed

We report the fourth case of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma associated to Helicobacter heilmannii. This spiral organism may be present in the gastric mucosa of animals where it is non pathogenic while, in humans, its presence is always associated with chronic gastritis. In this case, Helicobacter heilmannii was observed in the absence of Helicobacter pylori. Regression of endoscopic and histological lesions after Helicobacter heilmannii eradication suggests its role in gastric lymphoma. This observation underlines the need for searching for Helicobacter heilmannii by careful histological examination, in the absence of Helicobacter pylori, and the importance of its eradication in the treatment of gastric lymphoma. PMID:9823561

Regimbeau, C; Karsenti, D; Durand, V; D'Alteroche, L; Copie-Bergman, C; Metman, E H; Machet, M C

1998-01-01

201

Optimization of Fluidized Roasting Reduction of Low-Grade Pyrolusite Using Biogas Residual as Reductant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the novel technology of fluidized roasting reduction of samples of low-grade pyrolusite using biogas residual as reductant has been conducted. According to the response surface design and the analysis of results, orthogonal experiments have been conducted on the major factors, and the effects on the manganese reduction efficiency have been studied. The maximum manganese reduction efficiency could be optimized to nearly 100%, when the mass ratio of biogas residual to pyrolusite was 0.16:1, the dosage of sulfuric acid was 1.6 times that of the stoichiometric amount, the roasting temperature was 680°C, and the roasting time was 70 min. The results in terms of manganese reduction efficiency of the actual experiments were close to those anticipated by modeling the experiments, indicating that the optimum conditions had a high reliability. Other low-grade pyrolusites such as Guangxi pyrolusite (China), Hunan pyrolusite (China), and Guizhou pyrolusite (China) were tested and all these materials responded well, giving nearly 100% manganese reduction efficiency.

Cai, Z. L.; Feng, Y. L.; Li, H. R.; Liu, X. W.; Yang, Z. C.

2012-11-01

202

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

203

The global diabetes epidemic as a consequence of lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation.  

PubMed

The recent major increase in the global incidence of type 2 diabetes suggests that most cases of this disease are caused by changes in environment and lifestyle. All major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (overnutrition, low dietary fibre, sedentary lifestyle, sleep deprivation and depression) have been found to induce local or systemic low-grade inflammation that is usually transient or milder in individuals not at risk for type 2 diabetes. By contrast, inflammatory responses to lifestyle factors are more pronounced and prolonged in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and appear to occur also in the pancreatic islets. Chronic low-grade inflammation will eventually lead to overt diabetes if counter-regulatory circuits to inflammation and metabolic stress are compromised because of a genetic and/or epigenetic predisposition. Hence, it is not the lifestyle change per se but a deficient counter-regulatory response in predisposed individuals which is crucial to disease pathogenesis. Novel approaches of intervention may target these deficient defence mechanisms. PMID:19890624

Kolb, H; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

2010-01-01

204

In vitro radiation-induced neoplastic progression of low-grade uroepithelial tumors.  

PubMed

Recent interest has focused on the identification of molecular genetic mechanisms in multistep neoplastic transformation. In vitro exposure of simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC) that are environmentally relevant to bladder carcinogens has been shown to produce tumorigenic transformation, as assessed by the ability of cells exposed to a carcinogen to form xenograph tumors with heterogeneous cancer phenotypes ranging from very aggressive, invasive high-grade carcinomas to superficial low-grade indolent tumors. In addition, exposure of a low-grade indolent tumor generated in the SV-HUC system, MC-T11, to the same carcinogens results in neoplastic progression as assessed by the production of high-grade aggressive cancers. In the present study, we show neoplastic progression of MC-T11 after in vitro exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy X rays. In addition, we show that the chromosome deletions, including losses of 4q, 11p, 13q and 18, observed in these radiation-induced tumors are similar to those observed in carcinogen-induced tumors, thus supporting the hypothesis that the experimental cell system, not the transforming agent, dictates the genetic losses required for tumorigenic transformation and progression. PMID:8146304

Pazzaglia, S; Chen, X R; Aamodt, C B; Wu, S Q; Kao, C; Gilchrist, K W; Oyasu, R; Reznikoff, C A; Ritter, M A

1994-04-01

205

In vitro radiation-induced neoplastic progression of low-grade uroepithelial tumors  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest has focused on the identification of molecular genetic mechanisms in multistep neoplastic transformation. In vitro exposure of simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC) that are environmentally relevant to bladder carcinogens has been shown to produce tumorigenic transformation, as assessed by the ability of cells exposed to a carcinogen to form xenograph tumors with heterogeneous cancer phenotypes ranging from very aggressive, invasive high-grade carcinomas to superficial low-grade indolent tumors. In addition, exposure of a low-grade indolent tumor generated in the SV-HUC system, MC-T11, to the same carcinogens results in neoplastic progression as assessed by the production of high-grade aggressive cancers. In the present study, we show neoplastic progression of MC-T11 after in vitro exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy X-rays. In addition, we show that the chromosome deletions, including losses of 4q, 11p, 13q and 18, observed in these radiation-induced tumors are similar to those observed in carcinogen-induced tumors, thus supporting the hypothesis that the experimental cell system, not the transforming agent, dictates the genetic losses required for tumorigenic transformation and progression. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Pazzaglia, S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) ENEA CRE-Casaccia, Rome (Italy)); Chen, Xiao-Rong; Aamodt, C.B.; Wu, Shi-Qi; Kao, Chinghai; Gilchrist, K.W.; Reznikoff, C.A.; Ritter, M.A. (Univ. of Wisconisn, Madison, WI (United States)); Oyasu, R. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-04-01

206

Regression of EI2-stage low-grade gastric MALT-lymphoma after H. pylori eradication.  

PubMed

To our knowledge there are only a few reports showing a role of eradication therapy for H. pylori in the treatment of low-grade MALT-lymphoma, of stage EI2. We report a rare case of MALT-lymphoma, invading all of the gastric wall, which regressed after eradication of H. pylori. The regression was well documented by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). A 70-year-old man was referred to us for upper endoscopy that showed a single ulcer of 3cm in diameter at the gastric angulus. Histology, immunohistochemistry and PCR analyses diagnosed a low-grade MALT-lymphoma in the presence of H. pylori infection. EUS showed a tumor invasion of all the gastric wall. The serosa layer, also, appeared irregular and interrupted in some points. The lymph nodes around the duodenum and the stomach were not involved. An anti-H. pylori therapy was started. After 1 year from the diagnosis, EUS showed the reappearance of the normal layers of the stomach. The patient is actually disease free. This result suggests that in EI2-stage gastric lymphoma of MALT type, in the absence of both high-grade malignancy foci and t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation, an eradication treatment may be considered as a first therapeutic option. PMID:15966244

Cammarota, Giovanni; Fedeli, Paolo; Bianchi, Antonio; Cianci, Rossella; Martino, Antonio; Fedeli, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

2005-01-01

207

Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

The commonest pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We utilized whole genome sequencing to discover multiple novel genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24/39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes containing TKD-duplicated FGFR1 into brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. TKD-duplicated FGFR1 induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs/LGGNTs.

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Dalton, James D.; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A.; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Dooling, David J.; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L.; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G.; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Downing, James R.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Ellison, David W.

2013-01-01

208

Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

2013-06-01

209

Stand-Alone Lateral Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6 ± 10?y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4 ± 3.4?BMI) with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.). The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P < 0.001) and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P < 0.001). Segmental lordosis (P < 0.001) and disc height (P < 0.001) were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17%) and 7/52 cases (13%) spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Marchi, Luis; Abdala, Nitamar; Oliveira, Leonardo; Amaral, Rodrigo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

2012-01-01

210

Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. ?13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

2014-05-01

211

Update on molecular findings, management and outcome in low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade infiltrating gliomas in adults include diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. The current gold standard diagnosis of these tumors relies on histological classification; however, emerging molecular abnormalities discovered in these tumors are playing an increasingly prominent part in the process of tumor diagnosis and, consequently, patient management. The frequency and clinical importance of tumor protein p53 (TP53) abnormalities, deletions involving chromosomes 1p and 19q, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, abnormalities in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene and the BRAF oncogene, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations have become better defined. Molecular markers have not, historically, had an important role in determining the course of treatment for patients with low-grade gliomas, but ongoing phase III clinical trials incorporate 1p deletion or 1p19q codeletion status-and future trials plan to incorporate MGMT promoter methylation status-as stratification factors. Future trials will need to incorporate IDH mutational status in addition to these factors. Ultimately, molecular marker assessment will, hopefully, improve the accuracy of tumor diagnosis and enhance the effectiveness of treatment to achieve improved patient outcomes. PMID:21045797

Bourne, T David; Schiff, David

2010-12-01

212

Low-grade glial neoplasms and intractable partial epilepsy: efficacy of surgical treatment.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective study of 51 consecutive patients who underwent operation for intractable partial epilepsy related to low-grade intracerebral neoplasms between 1984 and 1990. All patients had medically refractory partial seizures and a mass lesion identified on neuroimaging studies. Lesionectomy was performed on 17 patients, and 34 had lesion resection and corticectomy. Mean postoperative follow-up was 4.4 years (range 2-8 years). Sixty-six percent of patients were seizure-free, and 88% experienced a significant reduction in seizure frequency. In 16 patients (31%), antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were successfully discontinued. Twenty-five of 31 (81%) eligible patients obtained a driver's license after successful operation. Patients with complete tumor resection and no interictal epileptiform activity on postoperative EEG studies had the best operative outcome. Epilepsy surgery can result in long-term improvement in seizure control and quality of life (QOL) in selected patients with intractable tumor-related epilepsy. Our results should be useful to clinicians considering treatment options for patients with intractable seizures related to low-grade intracerebral neoplasms. PMID:7988500

Britton, J W; Cascino, G D; Sharbrough, F W; Kelly, P J

1994-01-01

213

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. An immunohistochemical and clinicopathologic study.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a minor salivary gland carcinoma usually arising intraorally, primarily in the palate. It is characterized by cytologic uniformity, histologic blandness, and a variable, infiltrating growth pattern. To date, 117 tumors have been reported but the immunohistochemical features of this neoplasm have not been adequately described. This report describes the immunohistochemical distribution of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), high-molecular-weight keratin, muscle-specific actin (MSA), and S-100 protein in four palatal polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas arising in two men and two women. Three patients were treated with a combination of radiation and surgery, and one was treated with just surgery; none of the tumors recurred or metastasized. More than 90% of tumor cells in all four tumors stained with S-100 and EMA, while 75 to 95% stained with keratin. MSA staining intensity was variable; it ranged from less than 10% to 67% of tumor cells staining positively. CEA staining also was markedly variable; it ranged from very focal luminal positivity to 75% of tumor cells staining positive. The diffuse staining pattern of EMA and S-100 and the difference in staining patterns of EMA and CEA in PLGA is distinct from that found in adenoid cystic carcinoma. In the latter neoplasm, EMA and CEA staining patterns are similar and they are localized to ductal lumina; S-100 stains much less diffusely. These differences are useful in the differential diagnosis between these two tumors. PMID:2837102

Gnepp, D R; Chen, J C; Warren, C

1988-06-01

214

Comparison between mitochondrial DNA sequences in low grade astrocytomas and corresponding blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: To identify somatic mutations in the mitochondrial DNA of glioblastomas, in a previous study the displacement loops of 17 glioblastomas and corresponding blood samples were sequenced and instabilities in repeats or transitions were detected in seven tumours. This study was extended by sequencing 10 DNA samples of diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organisation grade II) and corresponding blood samples. Methods: The 10 DNA samples of diffuse astrocytomas and corresponding blood samples were amplified and sequenced using fluorescent nucleotides. Results: No sequence differences were detected, with the exception of a quantitative shift between two genotypes heteroplasmic within the hypervariable region 2, which can be interpreted as mitotic drift. In the glioblastoma series, any particular somatic mutation was usually found in only one tumour. The only frequent alteration was coupled to a mitochondrial germline polymorphism under-represented in the low grade astrocytoma group. Moreover, a single mutation in two patients with secondary glioblastomas had already been detected in diffuse astrocytomas of these individuals. Conclusions: A lower percentage of mitochondrial DNA mutations in low grade tumours cannot be deduced from these data.

Kirches, E; Krause, G; Weis, S; Mawrin, C; Dietzmann, K

2002-01-01

215

Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To determine the validity of clinical and radiological features of enchondroma and low grade chondrosarcoma, and contrast the biopsy results with the clinical diagnosis based on the history and imaging. Material and Method. The study included 96 patients with cartilage type lesions suggestive of an enchondroma (E) or an low grade chondrosarcoma (LGC) according to the clinical and imaging data. The hypotheses were contrasted with the biopsy. Results. Of the 82 patients studied completely, 56 were considered E (68.29%), 8 as LGC (8.33%) and in 18 (18.75%) were doubtful cases and considered as suspected LGC. Of these, the biopsy showed 4?E (25%), 10?LGC (50%) and 4 were not definitive. On the other hand, of the 56 cases diagnosed as E, 15 were biopsied, 5 of these biopsies turned out to be LGC (33.3%). The 8 cases diagnosed as LGC, were also biopsied and only 4 biopsies (50%) confirmed the initial diagnosis. Features analyzed in the study showed no statistically significant difference. Correlation analysis between the diagnosis issued initially and the biopsy result gave a value of 0.69 (kappa coefficient), which was considered a good correlation. Conclusion. Features analyzed did not have any statistical significance. However, there was a good correlation between initial diagnosis and biopsy's result.

Ferrer-Santacreu, Eugenio M.; Ortiz-Cruz, Eduardo J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jose Manuel; Perez Fernandez, Elia

2012-01-01

216

Plasma protein synthesis in patients with low-grade nephrotic proteinuria.  

PubMed

Overt nephrotic syndrome is characterized by albumin and fibrinogen hyperproduction and reduced very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 (VLDL apoB-100) clearance. Whether similar changes also occur in low-grade proteinuria is not known. Thus we measured albumin, fibrinogen, and VLDL apoB-100 kinetics in six patients with modest proteinuria and normal creatinine clearance (P) and in ten control subjects (C) by leucine tracer infusion and precursor-product relationships. In P, plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P < 0.003), whereas concentrations of fibrinogen and VLDL apoB-100 were increased (P < 0.001). In P, albumin fractional secretion rate (FSR) was increased (P < 0.01), fibrinogen FSR was normal, and VLDL apoB-100 FSR was decreased (P < 0.03). As a result, in P, absolute secretion rates (ASR) of albumin and fibrinogen were increased (P < 0.03), whereas VLDL apoB-100 ASR was normal. Albumin FSR was inversely correlated to oncotic pressure in P but not in C. These findings suggest that low-grade nephrotic proteinuria is characterized by simultaneous multiple alterations in turnover rates of albumin, fibrinogen, and VLDL apoB-100. Their pathogenesis, however, appears to be multifactorial. PMID:11254466

Zanetti, M; Barazzoni, R; Garibotto, G; Davanzo, G; Gabelli, C; Kiwanuka, E; Piccoli, A; Tosolini, M; Tessari, P

2001-04-01

217

Upgrading of Low-Grade Manganese Ore by Selective Reduction of Iron Oxide and Magnetic Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of low-grade manganese ores has become necessary due to the intensive mining of high-grade ores for a long time. In this study, calcined ferruginous low-grade manganese ore was selectively reduced by CO, which converted hematite to magnetite, while manganese oxide was reduced to MnO. The iron-rich component was then separated by magnetic separation. The effects of the various reduction parameters such as particle size, reduction time, temperature, and CO content on the efficiency of magnetic separation were studied by single-factor experiments and by a comprehensive full factorial experiment. Under the best experimental conditions tested, the manganese content in the ore increased from around 36 wt pct to more than 44 wt pct, and almost 50 wt pct of iron was removed at a Mn loss of around 5 pct. The results of the full factorial experiments allowed the identification of the significant effects and yielded regression equations for pct Fe removed, Mn/Fe, and pct Mn loss that characterize the efficiency of the upgrading process.

Gao, Yubo; Olivas-Martinez, M.; Sohn, H. Y.; Kim, Hang Goo; Kim, Chan Wook

2012-12-01

218

Tectonic setting of the low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Orogen, central eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic setting on both the northern and southern sides of the Dabie Mountains reveals that low-grade metamorphic rocks are important constituents produced by the subduction of the oceanic crust prior to collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Zhangbaling Group/Mulanshan schist is a pre-Ordovician oceanic crust. The Sujiahe and Xinyang/Foziling Groups are trench sediments of the Ordovician-Devonian age, and constitute an accretionary prism associated with subduction. The Yangshan coal measures/Meishan Group was a forearc basin sediment of Carboniferous age, and was overthrust by the accretionary prism during collision. The Susong Group is composed of passive continental margin sediments of the Yangtze craton. Backarc basin sediments are postulated to be concealed by Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments to the north of the Dabie Mountains. High-ultrahigh pressure terrains are exotic tectonic slices exhumed from depths, located between low-grade metamorphic rocks, and disturb the integrity of the earlier subduction orogen. Subduction occurred during the Ordovician to Devonian periods, and collision initiated at the beginning of the Permian.

Xu, Shutong; Wu, Weiping; Lu, Yiqun; Wang, Dehua

2012-04-01

219

Low-grade, metastasizing splenic littoral cell angiosarcoma presenting with hepatic cirrhosis and splenic artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

The behavior of littoral cell neoplasms ranges from benign (littoral cell angioma, LCA) to highly malignant (angiosarcoma). Two unusual cases of low-grade metastatic littoral cell angiosarcoma (LCAS) have been reported with late recurrence and bulky metastases. We present the third case of this rare neoplasm in a 38-year-old man with cirrhosis and a large splenic artery aneurysm, without extrasplenic masses. The spleen showed nodules resembling LCA, immunoreactive for CD31, factor VIII, CD68, and CD163 but not CD8 or CD34. Also present were solid areas of immunophenotypically identical bland spindle cells, although lighter CD31 immunostaining distinguished them from LCA-like angiomatous channels. Similar cells diffusely infiltrated the cirrhotic liver. After splenectomy, pancytopenia resolved, and he is asymptomatic 19 months later. Low-grade LCAS is a previously unreported cause of cirrhosis and may metastasize without forming masses. In cases of LCA, CD31 immunohistochemistry may facilitate detection of LCAS and indicate metastatic potential. PMID:23426963

Larsen, Brandon T; Bishop, Maria C; Hunter, Glenn C; Renner, Stephen W

2013-12-01

220

Nephrin in human lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed

When nephrin, the protein product of NPHS1, was cloned, it was proposed to be specific for the kidney glomerular podocytes. Recently, however, new reports have emerged verifying additional nephrin expression sites, particularly the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, as well as the central nervous system. In this study, we demonstrate nephrin expression in lymphoid tissues, specifically the tonsil, adenoid and lymph node. Nephrin mRNA expression levels were 4-fold higher in tonsils and adenoids than in thymus or B lymphocytes, and 20-fold higher than in T lymphocytes or monocytes, as shown by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Anti-nephrin antibodies recognised a specific 165-kDa band in lysates of tonsil and adenoid. In immunofluorescence and immunohistochemichal stainings of adenoid and lymph node sections, nephrin-positive cells were detected in the germinal centres of the lymphoid follicles in a staining pattern typical for interdigitating cells. These results indicate a definite and additional presence of nephrin in lymphoid tissue. PMID:16456616

Aström, E; Rinta-Valkama, J; Gylling, M; Ahola, H; Miettinen, A; Timonen, T; Holthöfer, H

2006-02-01

221

Immunoexpression of Survivin in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissues and malignant lymphomas using a new monoclonal antibody reactive on paraffin sections  

PubMed Central

Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family, which is also implicated in mitosis regulation. Most reports in the literature impute poor prognosis to neoplasms with overexpression of this protein. The purpose of the present study is to validate and compare the immunohistochemical reactivity of malignant lymphomas and reactive lymphoid tissue using a new mouse monoclonal antibody to Survivin produced in our laboratory, 6-78. Survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. It was shown that the antibody anti-Survivin 6-78 reliably stains formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissues, mostly in a nuclear pattern. We confirmed using this novel antibody that Survivin immunostaining has a tendency to be lower in reactive lymphoid tissues and low-grade B cell lymphomas than in aggressive lymphomas. This antibody may represent a useful tool for standardizing the study of the immunoexpression of Survivin in neoplasms.

Al Saati, Talal; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Welsh, Kathyrn; Reed, John C.; Brousset, Pierre; Delsol, Georges

2010-01-01

222

Ciliated muconodular papillary tumour of the lung: a newly defined low-grade malignant tumour.  

PubMed

We present two cases of ciliated muconodular papillary tumour (CMPT) in this report. CMPT is a newly defined low-grade malignant tumour with ciliated columnar epithelial cells, occurring in the peripheral lung. Both patients underwent pulmonary resection due to an enlarged solitary pulmonary nodule. Pathological findings in both cases confirmed a papillary tumour with a mixture of ciliated columnar and goblet cells. The tumours were rich in mucous and had spread along the alveolar walls, as observed in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Nuclear atypia was mild, and no mitotic activity was observed. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells stained positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor-1 and cytokeratin 7 but not for cytokeratin 20. The immunohistochemical staining patterns were almost identical to those of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. We definitively diagnosed as CMPT. Both patients remained relapse-free. PMID:20724424

Sato, Shuichi; Koike, Teruaki; Homma, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Akira

2010-11-01

223

Cryosurgery in aggressive, benign, and low-grade malignant bone tumours.  

PubMed

Cryosurgery is a method of treatment for various tumours that induces tissue necrosis with ablative intent. It is used in benign, aggressive, and low-grade malignant bone tumours such as chondrosarcoma grade 1. We describe the history of the technique and the issues associated with cryobiology, as well as the indications, technique, complications, and results of cryosurgery. At the University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Netherlands, 302 tumours have been treated by use of cryosurgery with at least 2 years' follow-up. 96-100% of patients were cured-the response depended on tumour type. Comparison of functional results with data from studies shows that these results concur with other studies on cryosurgery, and are at least equal to results of marginal excision and mostly better than those of wide excisions of grade 1 chondrosarcomas. Thus from an oncological point of view, cryosurgery combined with intralesional excision is equal to marginal excision. PMID:15629273

Veth, René; Schreuder, Bart; van Beem, Herman; Pruszczynski, Maciej; de Rooy, Jacky

2005-01-01

224

Giant Sporadic Low Grade Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath (MPNST) of Left Thigh  

PubMed Central

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (MPNST) are rare spindle- cell sarcomas which are derived from the schwann cells or the pleuripotent cells of the neural crest. MPNSTs are usually located in the peripheral nerve trunk roots, extremities and in the head and neck region. These tumours may arise as sporadic variants or in patients with neurofibromatosis1 (NF1). The estimated incidence of MPNSTs in the patients with NF1is 2-5% as compared to a 0.001% incidence in the general population. Herein, we are reporting a case of a giant sporadic (NF1 independent) low grade MPNST of the left thigh in 65 year female patient, which had a good prognosis.

Nikumbh, Dhiraj B.; Suryawanshi, K.H.; Dravid, N.V.; Patil, T.B.; Rokade, C.M.

2013-01-01

225

Giant Sporadic Low Grade Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath (MPNST) of Left Thigh.  

PubMed

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (MPNST) are rare spindle- cell sarcomas which are derived from the schwann cells or the pleuripotent cells of the neural crest. MPNSTs are usually located in the peripheral nerve trunk roots, extremities and in the head and neck region. These tumours may arise as sporadic variants or in patients with neurofibromatosis1 (NF1). The estimated incidence of MPNSTs in the patients with NF1is 2-5% as compared to a 0.001% incidence in the general population. Herein, we are reporting a case of a giant sporadic (NF1 independent) low grade MPNST of the left thigh in 65 year female patient, which had a good prognosis. PMID:23905127

Nikumbh, Dhiraj B; Suryawanshi, K H; Dravid, N V; Patil, T B; Rokade, C M

2013-06-01

226

Multiplex ligation-depending probe amplification is not suitable for detection of low-grade mosaicism.  

PubMed

'Apparent non-penetrance' occurs in several genetic disorders, including tuberous sclerosis complex and neurofibromatosis type 1: clinically unaffected parents may have multiple affected offspring. Germ line or somatic mosaicism in one of the parents of the index patient is the probable cause and results in an enhanced recurrence risk. Therefore, it is of great importance to use the most sensitive technology for testing DNA of the parents of the index patient for the presence/absence of the familial mutation. To detect large rearrangements multiplex ligation-depending probe amplification (MLPA) is often used. Here we show that MLPA is less sensitive in detecting low-grade somatic mosaicism than fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or a mutation-specific PCR test. Therefore, we recommend FISH (if possible) or PCR analysis for the analysis of parental DNA. PMID:21487440

van Veghel-Plandsoen, Monique M; Wouters, Cokkie H; Kromosoeto, Joan N R; den Ridder-Klünnen, Mariska C; Halley, Dicky J J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W

2011-09-01

227

Seizures in low-grade gliomas: natural history, pathogenesis, and outcome after treatments  

PubMed Central

Seizures represent a common symptom in low-grade gliomas; when uncontrolled, they significantly contribute to patient morbidity and negatively impact quality of life. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. The pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy is multifactorial and may differ among tumor histologies (glioneuronal tumors vs diffuse grade II gliomas). Gross total resection is the strongest predictor of seizure freedom in addition to clinical factors, such as preoperative seizure duration, type, and control with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsy surgery may improve seizure control. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (procarbazine + CCNU+ vincristine, temozolomide) are effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Newer AEDs (levetiracetam, topiramate, lacosamide) seem to be better tolerated than the old AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), but there is lack of evidence regarding their superiority in terms of efficacy.

Ruda, Roberta; Bello, Lorenzo; Duffau, Hugues; Soffietti, Riccardo

2012-01-01

228

Cystic appearance of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in the right atrium: case report  

PubMed Central

A 71-year-old woman presented with a right adnexal solid mass invading the right gonadal vein and inferior vena cava up to the hepatic veins revealed by CT and confirmed by MRI. A thin-walled cyst and a solid mass were unexpectedly found in the right atrium by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the operating room. Using color Doppler and air bubbles as contrast material a circumscribed cyst was confirmed and localized close to the IVC. The cyst was connected to the mass in the inferior vena cava. The tumor, including the cyst, was removed without using cardiopulmonary bypass and described as a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, a rare slowly growing tumor. This is the first TEE description of endometrial stromal sarcoma manifesting as a right atrial cyst.

2011-01-01

229

Cystic appearance of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in the right atrium: case report.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old woman presented with a right adnexal solid mass invading the right gonadal vein and inferior vena cava up to the hepatic veins revealed by CT and confirmed by MRI. A thin-walled cyst and a solid mass were unexpectedly found in the right atrium by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the operating room. Using color Doppler and air bubbles as contrast material a circumscribed cyst was confirmed and localized close to the IVC. The cyst was connected to the mass in the inferior vena cava. The tumor, including the cyst, was removed without using cardiopulmonary bypass and described as a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, a rare slowly growing tumor. This is the first TEE description of endometrial stromal sarcoma manifesting as a right atrial cyst. PMID:21864385

Wood, Cristina L; Sederberg, James; Russ, Paul; Seres, Tamas

2011-01-01

230

Recurrent low-grade astroblastoma with signet ring-like cells and high proliferative index.  

PubMed

Astroblastoma is a rare primary glial tumor of children and young adults. Radiologically astroblastoma presents as a large well-circumscribed supratentorial, solid-cystic heterogeneous mass. Histology shows perivascular pseudorosettes with hyalinization. Only a single case has been reported with signet-ring-like cell morphology. Signet-ring morphology in primary central nervous system tumors is exceedingly rare. Complete surgical resection is the recommended treatment. Prognosis of astroblastoma depends on the extent of resection and histology. The proliferative index may be a useful tool to define prognosis. We present a case of 10-year-old girl having recurrent low-grade astroblastoma with signet ring-like cells and high proliferative index. PMID:23301912

Nasit, Jitendra Gordhanbhai; Trivedi, Priti

2013-07-01

231

A preliminary report on the rapid fluorimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple and very rapid fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of uranium in low-grade shale and phosphate ores. The best working range is from 0.001 to about 0.04 percent U. The procedure employs batch extraction of uranium nitrate by ethyl acetate, using aluminum nitrate as the salting agent, prior to the visual fluorimetric estimation. The procedure is especially designed to save reagents; only 9.5 g of aluminum nitrate and 10 ml of ethyl acetate being used for one analysis. The solution of the sample by means of a fusion with NaOH-NaNO3 flux is rapid. After fusion the sample is immediately extracted without removing silica and other hydrolytic precipitates. Aluminum nitrate very effectively ties up fluoride and phosphate, thus eliminating steps required for their removal.

Grimaldi, F. S.; Levine, Harry

1950-01-01

232

Low-Grade Esthesioneuroblastoma Presenting as SIADH: A Review of Atypical Manifestations  

PubMed Central

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a neuroendocrine tumor that typically manifests as advanced stage malignancy in the superior nasal cavity. The hallmark symptoms include nasal obstruction and epistaxis, which result from local tissue invasion. Atypical clinical features can also arise and must be considered when diagnosing and treating ENB. These can include origin in an ectopic location, unusual presenting symptoms, and associated paraneoplastic syndromes. The case described here reports a nasal cavity ENB with atypical clinical features that occurred in a young female. Her tumor was low grade, appeared to arise primarily from the middle nasal cavity, and presented as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). She also became pregnant shortly after diagnosis, which had implications on her surgical management. We review the atypical features that uncommonly occur with ENB and the clinical considerations that arise from these unusual characteristics.

Senchak, Andrew; Freeman, Judy; Ruhl, Douglas; Senchak, Jordan; Klem, Christopher

2012-01-01

233

Seizures in low-grade gliomas: natural history, pathogenesis, and outcome after treatments.  

PubMed

Seizures represent a common symptom in low-grade gliomas; when uncontrolled, they significantly contribute to patient morbidity and negatively impact quality of life. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. The pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy is multifactorial and may differ among tumor histologies (glioneuronal tumors vs diffuse grade II gliomas). Gross total resection is the strongest predictor of seizure freedom in addition to clinical factors, such as preoperative seizure duration, type, and control with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsy surgery may improve seizure control. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (procarbazine + CCNU+ vincristine, temozolomide) are effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Newer AEDs (levetiracetam, topiramate, lacosamide) seem to be better tolerated than the old AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), but there is lack of evidence regarding their superiority in terms of efficacy. PMID:23095831

Rudà, Roberta; Bello, Lorenzo; Duffau, Hugues; Soffietti, Riccardo

2012-09-01

234

Risk factors for recurrence and prognosis of low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma; vaginal versus other sites.  

PubMed

Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in the United States. The prognosis is generally favorable, however, a significant number of patients do develop local or distant recurrence. The most common site of recurrence is vaginal. Our aim was to better characterize patients with vaginal recurrence of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma with respect to associated tumor parameters and clinical outcome. We compiled 255 cases of low-grade (FIGO Grade I or II) endometrioid adenocarcinoma on hysterectomy specimens with lymph node dissection. A total of 113 cases with positive lymph nodes or recurrent disease were included in our study group. Seventy-three cases (13 Grade 1, 60 Grade 2) developed extravaginal recurrence and 40 cases (7 Grade 1, 33 Grade 2) developed vaginal recurrence. We evaluated numerous tumor parameters including: percentage myoinvasion, presence of microcystic, elongated, and fragmented pattern of myoinvasion, lymphovascular space invasion, and cervical involvement. Clinical follow-up showed that 30% (34/113) of all patients with recurrent disease died as a result of their disease during our follow-up period, including 31 (42.5%) with extravaginal recurrence and 3 (7.5%) with primary vaginal recurrence (P=0.001). The 3 patients with vaginal recurrence developed subsequent extravaginal recurrence before death. Vaginal recurrence patients show increased cervical involvement by tumor, but lack other risk factors associated with recurrent disease at other sites. There were no deaths among patients with isolated vaginal recurrence, suggesting that vaginal recurrence is not a marker of aggressive tumor biology. PMID:24681738

Moschiano, Elizabeth J; Barbuto, Denise A; Walsh, Christine; Singh, Kanwaljit; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Roma, Andres A; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Montiel, Delia P; Kim, Insun; Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais; Hong, Sung Ran; Silva, Elvio G

2014-05-01

235

The prognostic impact of MGMT expression on low-grade gangliogliomas: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Ganglioglioma (GG) is an uncommon brain parenchymal neoplasm. Although most cases have indolent clinical behaviour, a subgroup of GGs does recur, especially in patients with unresectable disease. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from O6-guanine in DNA. Lack of MGMT protein expression immunohistochemically is related to drug responses in patients with malignant glioma treated with alkylating agents. Furthermore, MGMT promoter methylation has also been investigated as an independent favourable prognostic factor for glioblastoma. The primary management is surgical resection for GGs and gross total resection is recommended. Despite infrequent use of chemotherapy for low-grade GGs, it was still introduced to a subset of patients, especially those who had unresectable disease. We assessed clinicopathological features of nine cases of low-grade GG to further elucidate the relationship between the status of the MGMT protein expression and the prognosis. This series included four men and five women with a mean age of 21.6 years at the first surgery. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 6 years. Only two patients had recurrent disease after 1.7 and 3.2 years of the first surgery. Immunohistochemically, 11.1% exhibited 3+ nuclear staining for MGMT protein, 11.1% exhibited 2+ staining, 33.3% exhibited 1+ staining, and 44.4% exhibited 0 staining. Tumours with more intensive MGMT protein expression (2+~3+ immunostaining) tended to recur more frequently (p < 0.05), corresponding to the worse prognostic predictive value of intensive MGMT staining. PMID:24374955

Chang, I-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Lin, Jui-Wei; Hung, Chih-Hsin

2013-01-01

236

Problem Behavior of Dementia Patients Predicts Low-Grade Hypercoagulability in Spousal Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Background. Low-grade hypercoagulability might be one pathway to explain how the chronic stress of dementia caregiving increases cardiovascular disease risk, but the specific aspects of caregiver stress that elicit hypercoagulability are elusive. We hypothesized that dementia patients’ problem behaviors and negative reactions of caregivers to these behaviors would relate to hypercoagulability in caregivers. Methods. One hundred and eight participants (mean age 74 ± 8 years, 70% women) providing in-home care for their spouse with Alzheimer’s disease were examined. Caregivers were interviewed about the number of 24 predefined patient problem behaviors in the previous week (range 0–24) and how upset or bothered they felt in response to these behaviors (total score 0–96). Von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and D-dimer were determined in plasma and standardized z-scores of their concentrations summed into a procoagulant index. Results. Greater number of problem behaviors (?R2 = 0.046, p = .014) and negative reactions of caregivers to these behaviors (?R2 = 0.044, p = .017) were associated with greater procoagulant index after controlling for sociodemographic factors, major cardiovascular risk factors, health habits, and health problems. However, the number of and reaction to problem behaviors did not significantly predict procoagulant activity independent from each other. Post hoc analysis revealed a positive association between the number of problem behaviors and D-dimer (p = .010, ?R2 = 0.053), even when controlling for negative reactions (p = .033, ?R2 = 0.036). Caregiver reaction to problem behaviors was not significantly associated with any procoagulant factor individually. Conclusion. Alzheimer patients’ problem behavior and their negative appraisal by the caregiver may contribute to the chronic low-grade hypercoagulable state in dementia caregivers.

Mausbach, Brent T.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Mills, Paul J.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G.; Roepke, Susan K.; Allison, Matthew; Grant, Igor

2010-01-01

237

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.  

PubMed

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

2014-05-27

238

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood  

PubMed Central

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

2014-01-01

239

[High and low grade gastric epithelial dysplasia: clinical management, endoscopic assessment of p53].  

PubMed

Epithelial dysplasia is considered the only one true histological marker of gastric cancer. In the present study we have evaluated the real clinical importance of epithelial dysplasia divided into low-grade (70 patients, mean age 59.2 years) and high-grade (50 patients, mean age 58 years) dysplasia. Furthermore, it has been made a comparison with the corresponding endoscopic picture and an evaluation of the real meaning of p53 positivity. The clinical outcome subdivision of epithelial dysplasia was effected according to the criteria of Rugge: association with or progression to gastric cancer, persistence or regression. The endoscopic patterns have been divided into ulcerous lesions and non-ulcerous lesions. The immunohistochemical study has been carried out with the utilization of a p53 antibody (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark). From the analysis of the data it comes out that low-grade dysplasia is associated with or progressed to gastric cancer in a low percentage of cases (about 8.5%), while high-grade dysplasia is associated with or progressed to gastric cancer in a high percentage of cases (about 74%), by this proving itself to be a real histological marker of gastric cancer. The cases of epithelial dysplasia associated with or progressed to gastric cancer are significantly associated with an endoscopic picture of gastric ulcer (ulcer-cancer). Nonetheless, the cases of epithelial dysplasia in correspondence of non-ulcerous lesions have been noticed to be associated with or progressed to advanced gastric cancer. The evaluation of p53 did not positively correlate with the clinical progression of the epithelial dysplasia and with TNM classification in case of gastric cancer. Therefore, the evaluation of p53 does not represent a useful marker in the clinical practice. PMID:14971711

Testino, Gianni; Cornaggia, Matteo; De Iaco, Fabio; Gada, Daniela

2003-01-01

240

Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-07-15

241

Tumor thrombectomy without bypass for low-grade malignant tumors extending into the inferior vena cava: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) rarely extends into the inferior vena cava (IVC). Two cases of ESS extending into the IVC were encountered. In the first case a low-grade sarcoma and cavography revealed the tumor thrombus to extend to just below the left renal vein from the right internal iliac vein, and the IVC was patent. A tumor thrombectomy was accomplished to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) and to achieve a good prognosis. The second case was also a low-grade sarcoma. Abdominal computed tomography scanning revealed a large thrombus extending into the IVC just below the hepatic vein. A tumor thrombectomy with an IVC resection was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful for both cases. Aggressive surgical treatment is thus recommended to excise a tumor thrombus with or without an IVC resection in patients with ESS of low-grade malignancy extending into the IVC to prevent sudden death due to PE. PMID:16633754

Jibiki, Masatoshi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Sugano, Norihide; Iwai, Takehisa; Katou, Tomoyasu

2006-01-01

242

Identifying malignant transformations in recurrent low grade gliomas using high resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether metabolic parameters derived from ex vivo analysis of tissue samples are predictive of biologic characteristics of recurrent low grade gliomas (LGGs). This was achieved by exploring the use of multivariate pattern recognition methods to generate statistical models of the metabolic characteristics of recurrent LGGs that correlate with aggressive biology and poor clinical outcome. Methods Statistical models were constructed to distinguish between patients with recurrent gliomas that had undergone malignant transformation to a higher grade and those that remained grade 2. The pattern recognition methods explored in this paper include three filter-based feature selection methods (chi-square, gain ratio, and two-way conditional probability), a genetic search wrapper-based feature subset selection algorithm, and five classification algorithms (linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, functional trees, support vector machines, and decision stump logit boost). The accuracy of each pattern recognition framework was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation and bootstrapping. Materials The population studied included fifty-three patients with recurrent grade 2 gliomas. Among these patients, seven had tumors that transformed to grade 4, twenty-four had tumors that transformed to grade 3, and twenty-two had tumors that remained grade 2. Image-guided tissue samples were obtained from these patients using surgical navigation software. Part of each tissue sample was examined by a pathologist for histological features and for consistency with the tumor grade diagnosis. The other part of the tissue sample was analyzed with ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results Distinguishing between recurrent low grade gliomas that transformed to a higher grade and those that remained grade 2 was achieved with 96% accuracy, using areas of the ex vivo NMR spectrum corresponding to myoinositol, 2-hydroxyglutarate, hypo-taurine, choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glutathione, and lipid. Logistic regression and decision stump boosting models were able to distinguish between recurrent gliomas that transformed to a higher grade and those that did not with 100% training accuracy (95% confidence interval [93%–100%]), 96% leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy (95% confidence interval [87%–100%]), and 96% bootstrapping accuracy (95% confidence interval [95%–97%]). Linear discriminant analysis, functional trees, and support vector machines were able to achieve leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy above 90% and bootstrapping accuracy above 85%. The three feature ranking methods were comparable in performance. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of using quantitative pattern recognition methods for the analysis of metabolic data from brain tissue obtained during the surgical resection of gliomas. All pattern recognition techniques provided good diagnostic accuracies, though logistic regression and decision stump boosting slightly outperform the other classifiers. These methods identified biomarkers that can be used to detect malignant transformations in individual low grade gliomas, and can lead to a timely change in treatment for each patient.

Constantin, Alexandra; Elkhaled, Adam; Jalbert, Llewellyn; Srinivasan, Radhika; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M.; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Nelson, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

243

Genome sequencing of lymphoid malignancies.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies has been transformed by next-generation sequencing. The studies in this review have used whole-genome, exome, and transcriptome sequencing to identify recurring structural genetic alterations and sequence mutations that target key cellular pathways in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the lymphomas. Although each tumor type is characterized by a unique genomic landscape, several cellular pathways are mutated in multiple tumor types-transcriptional regulation of differentiation, antigen receptor signaling, tyrosine kinase and Ras signaling, and epigenetic modifications-and individual genes are mutated in multiple tumors, notably TCF3, NOTCH1, MYD88, and BRAF. In addition to providing fundamental insights into tumorigenesis, these studies have also identified potential new markers for diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic intervention. Several genetic alterations are intuitively "druggable" with existing agents, for example, kinase-activating lesions in high-risk B-cell ALL, NOTCH1 in both leukemia and lymphoma, and BRAF in hairy cell leukemia. Future sequencing efforts are required to comprehensively define the genetic basis of all lymphoid malignancies, examine the relative roles of germline and somatic variation, dissect the genetic basis of clonal heterogeneity, and chart a course for clinical sequencing and translation to improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:24041576

Mullighan, Charles G

2013-12-01

244

Distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in the Republic of Korea: analysis of 5318 cases according to the World Health Organization classification.  

PubMed

Compared with the West, the overall incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is lower, and the subtype distribution is distinct in Asia. To comprehensively investigate the subtype distribution with the age and sex factors, and temporal changes of subtype proportions, we re-assessed all patients with lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed at a large oncology service in the Republic of Korea from 1989 to 2008 using the World Health Organization classifications. Of the total 5,318 patients, 66.9% had mature B-cell neoplasms, 12.5% had mature T/natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms, 16.4% had precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL), and 4.1% had Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30.5%), plasma cell myeloma (14.0%), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma; 12.4%), B-cell ALL/LBL (11.3%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (4.1%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (4.0%), T-cell ALL/LBL (3.9%), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (3.9%). Most subtypes showed male predominance, with an average M/F ratio of 1.3. Most mature lymphoid neoplasms were diseases of adults (mean age, 53.5 yr), whereas ALL/LBLs were of young individuals (mean age, 20.3 yr). When the relative proportion of subtypes were compared between two decades (1989-1998 vs. 1999-2008), especially MALT lymphoma has increased in proportion, whereas T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL have slightly decreased. In summary, the lymphoid neoplasms of Koreans shared some epidemiologic features similar to those of other countries, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. Although the increase in incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is relatively modest in Korea, recent increase of MALT lymphoma and decrease of T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL are interesting findings. PMID:20806229

Yoon, Sun Och; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Dae Ho; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Park, Chan Jeoung; Jang, Seong-Soo; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Bong-Hee; Huh, Jooryung

2010-10-01

245

Real-time PCR versus conventional PCR for malaria parasite detection in low-grade parasitemia.  

PubMed

We have optimized a faster and cheaper real-time PCR and developed a conventional genus specific PCR based on 18S rRNA gene to detect malaria parasites in low-grade parasitemias. Additionally, we compared these PCRs to the OptiMAL-IT test. Since there is no consensus on choice of standard quantitative curve in real-time assays, we decided to investigate the performance of parasite DNA from three different sources: "genome", amplicon and plasmid. The amplicon curve showed the best efficiency in quantifying parasites. Both PCR assays detected 100% of the clinical samples tested; the sensitivity threshold was 0.5 parasite/mul and no PCR positive reaction occurred when malaria parasites were not present. Conversely, if OptiMAL-IT were employed for malaria diagnosis, 30% of false-negative results could be expected. We conclude that PCR assays have potential for detecting malaria parasites in asymptomatic infections, in evaluation of malaria vaccine molecule candidates, for screening blood donors, especially in endemic areas, or even in monitoring malaria therapy. PMID:17433301

Gama, Bianca E; Silva-Pires, Felipe do E S; Lopes, Mauro N'Kruman R; Cardoso, Maria Angélica B; Britto, Constança; Torres, Kátia L; de Mendonça Lima, Leila; de Souza, José Maria; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio T; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima

2007-08-01

246

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the upper lip with metachronous myoepithelioma of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Examples of multiple minor salivary gland tumors, synchronous or metachronous, are uncommon. We report a patient who initially presented with polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and subsequently with myoepithelioma. A 91-year-old white woman presented in 2009 with a 1-cm, firm, nontender, well-circumscribed nodule of the left side of the upper lip extending to the anterior buccal mucosa. Excisional biopsy revealed PLGA. While the margins were positive, further treatment was not recommended due to the patient's age. In 2011, the patient returned with a 1.5-cm, asymptomatic mass of the left buccal vestibule. Excision of the lesion revealed a circumscribed proliferation of epithelioid and plasmacytoid cells arranged in spherical or whorl-like islands and immersed in a mucinous stroma, consistent with myoepithelioma. The PLGA recurred 3 years after initial diagnosis. Excision was again associated with positive margins, and again no further treatment was recommended. A few months later, at a scheduled follow-up appointment, she presented with a painless nodule of the left upper lip, consistent with recurrent PLGA. One month later, the patient died of unrelated causes. We also present a literature review of multiple minor salivary gland tumors. PMID:24268388

Argyris, Prokopios P; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

2014-06-01

247

Effect of radiotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in patients operated on for low grade astrocytoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of postoperative radiotherapy on brain glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) of operated patients with low grade astrocytomas.?METHODS—PET and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was used to measure absolute CMRGlu in patients with fibrillary astrocytoma (WHO II) of the frontal lobe, who did (n=7) or did not (n=12) receive radiotherapy subsequent to first debulking tumour resection. In addition, statistical parametric mapping (SPM95) was applied to assess the pattern of relative CMRGlu associated with the frontal tumour. Data were compared with 12 healthy controls.?RESULTS—A global reduction of absolute CMRGlu was found when either patients with or without radiotherapy were compared with controls (ROI analysis). Brain areas of relative CMRGlu reduction were found in the brain ipsilateral and contralateral to the tumour, comparing both patient groups with controls by SPM ("tumour diaschisis effect"). Superimposed, absolute CMRGlu in the contralateral frontal, parietal, occipital cortex as well as in the white matter was on average 17% lower in patients receiving radiotherapy than in patients who did not.?CONCLUSIONS—The data discriminate a tumour effect from a radiotherapy effect, and support the view of adverse effects of radiotherapy on brain not directly involved by tumour.??

Bruehlmeier, M; Roelcke, U; Amsler, B; Schubert, K; Hausmann, O; von Ammon, K; Radu, E; Gratzl, O; Landmann, C; Leenders, K

1999-01-01

248

Congenital cystic eye associated with a low-grade cerebellar lesion that spontaneously regressed  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital cystic eye is an exceedingly rare ocular malformative disease, originated from the failure in the invagination of the optic vesicle during the fetal period and it can be associated with other ocular and non-ocular abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological features. Case presentation We report a case of a congenital cystic eye associated with a cerebellar lesion accidentally detected at magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy of the mass has not been performed due to parental rejection. Based on radiologic features and absence of clinical signs, a low-grade glioma diagnosis was hypothesized, but histological characterization was not obtained. Follow-up neuro-imaging 6 months after diagnosis showed that intracranial lesion spontaneously regressed without any treatment. Conclusion Our report stresses the importance of early MRI in children with ocular malformations, in order to detect associated intracranial defects, also of non-malformative origin. Additionally, we debate the clinic-radiological features of the intracranial lesions that could allow a wait-and-see policy. We also recommend a strict clinical and neuro-imaging follow-up for these lesions. Finally, biological mechanisms at the base of spontaneous regression of the brain lesions are discussed.

2014-01-01

249

Mutation in the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in archival low grade and high grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

The PTEN gene, located on 10q23.3, has recently been described as a candidate tumour suppressor gene that may be important in the development of advanced cancers, including gliomas. We have investigated mutation in the PTEN gene by direct sequence analysis of PCR products amplified from samples microdissected from 19 low grade (WHO Grade I and II) and 27 high grade (WHO grade III and IV) archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gliomas. Eleven genetic variants in ten tumours have been identified. Eight of these are DNA sequence changes that could affect the encoded protein and were present in 0/2 pilocytic astrocytomas, 0/2 oligoastrocytomas, 0/1 oligodendroglioma, 0/14 astrocytomas, 3/13 (23%) anaplastic astrocytomas and 5/14 (36%) glioblastomas. PTEN mutations were found exclusively in high grade gliomas; this finding was statistically significant. Only two of the PTEN genetic variants have been reported in other studies; two of the genetic changes are in codons in which mutations have not been found previously. The results of this study indicate that mutation in the PTEN gene is present only in histologically more aggressive gliomas, may be associated with the transition from low histological grade to anaplasia, but is absent from the majority of high grade gliomas. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Davies, M P A; Gibbs, F E M; Halliwell, N; Joyce, K A; Roebuck, M M; Rossi, M L; Salisbury, J; Sibson, D R; Tacconi, L; Walker, C

1999-01-01

250

Low-grade metamorphism in granitoids and volcanic rocks, Cordillera Neuquina, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granitoid and volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Neuquina between 38°45' and 39°30' south latitude have been metamorphosed under zeolite, prehnite-pumpellyite, and transitional greenschist facies conditions. This low-grade metamorphism is related to the circulation of hydrothermal solutions associated with Tertiary(?) subvolcanic bodies and/or shallow intrusives through a pre-existing fracture system. Three progressive metamorphic zones have been established, with temperatures ranging from 100° to 300°C and pressures less than 4 kb. The pressures are similar to those estimated for metamorphic rocks at Taringatura, New Zealand, and in the Tanzawa Mountains of Japan. The mineral assemblages are influenced by host-rock composition. In the granitoids, the sequence is: Zone I — heulandite, stilbite, K-feldspar, albite, quartz, calcite; Zone II — chlorite, prehnite, pumpellyite, albite, K-feldspar, titanite, quartz; and Zone III — chlorite, pistacite, piedmontite, titanite, actinolite, K-feldspar, albite, quartz, calcite. In the basalts, the sequence is: Zone I — heulandite, stilbite, calcite; Zone II — analcime, thomsonite, laumontite, natrolite, celadonite, albite; and Zone III — chlorite, pistacite, actinolite, pumpellyite, laumontite, albite, quartz. In the andesites, the sequence is: Zone I — stilbite, calcite, quartz; Zone II — pumpellyite, chlorite, titanite, celadonite, albite, quartz, calcite; and in Zone III — pistacite, quartz, chlorite, albite. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and copper are always found in association with quartz and epidote in Zone III.

Vattuone de Ponti, M. E.; Latorre, C. O.

251

Fast thermal calibration of low-grade inertial sensors and inertial measurement units.  

PubMed

The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy. PMID:24036581

Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

2013-01-01

252

Fast Thermal Calibration of Low-Grade Inertial Sensors and Inertial Measurement Units  

PubMed Central

The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy.

Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

2013-01-01

253

Frequent loss of heterozygosity encompassing the hMLH1 locus in low grade astrocytic tumors.  

PubMed

The mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 (3p22) and hMSH2 (2p21), are commonly associated with accumulation of mutations and microsatellite instability. However, the status of their gene loci itself is often not addressed. In astrocytic tumors, the heterozygosity status of these genes with reference to tumor grade has not yet been determined. We have analyzed the heterozygosity status and locus specific instability in 43 glial tumors comprising 22 low grades diffuses astrocytoma (WHO Grade II, DA) and 21 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV GBM) using 10 microsatellite markers at 2p and 3p to elucidate the involvement of these loci in astrocytic tumorigenesis. We observed a significantly higher loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 3p markers encompassing the hMLH1 gene locus in DA when compared to GBM (P = 0.008). In DA, while the frequency of LOH was observed to be higher in markers close to the hMLH1 gene ( approximately 40%), locus specific microsatellite instability (LSI) was higher ( approximately 30%) in markers localizing further to the gene. The frequency of LOH at markers on 2p, near the hMSH2 gene was, however, similar in DA and GBM (P = 0.451). Our results suggest that in the astrocytic tumorigenesis, LOH at the hMLH1 gene locus is an early event in tumorigenesis. However, the mismatch repair protein expression may be regulated by other cellular factors. PMID:17019533

Srivastava, Tapasya; Chosdol, Kunzang; Chattopadhayay, Parthaprasad; Sarkar, Chitra; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Sinha, Subrata

2007-02-01

254

Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Some of the universal characteristics of pre-agricultural hominin diets are strikingly different from the modern human diet. Hominin dietary choices were limited to wild plant and wild animal foods, while the modern diet includes more than 70 % of energy consumed from refined sugars, refined vegetable oils, and highly processed cereals and dairy products. The modern diet, with higher intake of fat has also resulted in a higher ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), contributing to low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) and thus promoting the development of many chronic diseases, including obesity and osteoporosis. In this review, we describe the changes in modern diet, focusing on the kind and amount of consumed fat; explain the shortcomings of the modern diet with regard to inflammatory processes; and delineate the reciprocity between adiposity and inflammatory processes, with inflammation being a common link between obesity and osteoporosis. We present the evidence that overconsumption of n-6 PUFA coupled with under-consumption of n-3 PUFA results in LGCI and, along with the increased presence of reactive oxygen species, leads to a shift in mesenchymal stem cells (precursors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes) lineage commitment toward increased adipogenesis and suppressed osteoblastogenesis. In turn, high n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratios in the modern diet, coupled with increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to adiposity, propagate obesity and osteoporosis by increasing or maintaining LGCI. PMID:24945416

Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kelly, Owen J; Kim, Youjin; Spicer, Maria T

2014-06-01

255

Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas: are they all low-grade neoplasms?  

PubMed

Acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (AMIFS) is a low-grade sarcoma that presents mostly in distal extremities of middle-aged patients. The clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemical profile and follow-up data of five cases (three men and two women; age 39-65 years) are presented. The tumors presented as a slow-growing, poorly circumscribed, subcutaneous masses in the hands (three), foot (one) and calf (one), with dermal involvement in two cases. They had myxoid and hyaline stroma with dense acute and chronic inflammation. Spindle cells, large bizarre ganglion-like cells and multivacuolated cells were seen. Variable reactivity in lesional cells were noted for vimentin, Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), factor XIIIa, CD68, CD95, CD117, Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (A1ACT), CD34, AE1/3, S-100 protein, EBER, CD63 and CD15. MIB-1 showed 5-30% nuclear labeling. They were negative for cytokeratin AE1/3, smooth muscle actin, CD30, ALK-1, EMA, desmin, CMV, HMB-45 and Melan-A. Follow up ranged from 2 weeks to 95 months (mean 54). One patient was lost to follow up; three underwent excision and one patient had below the knee amputation. Two patients developed metastases (one died of disease), and two patients are alive without evidence of disease. AMIFS are rare tumors that may involve joints and tendons leading to clinical diagnosis of ganglion cyst or tenosynovitis. PMID:18190443

Hassanein, Ashraf M; Atkinson, Steven P; Al-Quran, Samer Z; Jain, Sima M; Reith, John D

2008-02-01

256

Immunohistochemical profiling of benign, low malignant potential and low grade serous epithelial ovarian tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Serous epithelial ovarian tumors can be subdivided into benign (BOV), low malignant potential (LMP) or borderline and invasive (TOV) tumors. Although the molecular characteristics of serous BOV, LMP and low grade (LG) TOV tumors has been initiated, definitive immunohistochemical markers to distinguish between these tumor types have not been defined. Methods In the present study, we used a tissue array composed of 27 BOVs, 78 LMPs and 23 LG TOVs to evaluate the protein expression of a subset of selected candidates identified in our previous studies (Ape1, Set, Ran, Ccne1 and Trail) or known to be implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer disease (p21, Ccnb1, Ckd1). Results Statistically significant difference in protein expression was observed for Ccnb1 when BOV tumors were compared to LMP tumors (p = 0.003). When BOV were compared to LG TOV tumors, Trail was significantly expressed at a higher level in malignant tumors (p = 0.01). Expression of p21 was significantly lower in LG tumors when compared with either BOVs (p = 0.03) or LMPs (p = 0.001). We also observed that expression of p21 was higher in LMP tumors with no (p = 0.02) or non-invasive (p = 0.01) implants compared to the LMP associated with invasive implants. Conclusion This study represents an extensive analyse of the benign and highly differentiated ovarian disease from an immunohistochemical perspective.

Ouellet, Veronique; Ling, Tak Hay; Normandin, Karine; Madore, Jason; Lussier, Christian; Barres, Veronique; Bachvarov, Dimcho; Rancourt, Claudine; Tonin, Patricia N; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie

2008-01-01

257

Erythrophagocytic low-grade extranodal T-cell lymphoma in a cat.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented to the referring veterinarian with a 2-month history of weight loss and lethargy. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and hyperbilirubinemia were noted. Results of testing for feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycoplasma sp. were negative. On cytologic examination of aspirates from the enlarged spleen and liver, a population of erythrophagocytic round cells was observed. Splenectomy and a liver biopsy were done which revealed a population of CD3+/CD79a- erythrophagocytic mononuclear round cells localized in the hepatic and splenic sinusoids. T-cell PARR (PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangements) analysis of bone marrow and spleen demonstrated a single band indicative of a clonal proliferation of T cells. Based on the marked splenomegaly, sinusoidal infiltration, lack of lymphadenopathy, and results of cytology, PARR, and immunophenotyping, a diagnosis of low-grade extranodal T-cell lymphoma was made. The cat was treated with chlorambucil and prednisolone; clinical and laboratory abnormalities resolved and the cat has remained clinically normal for 2.5 years. To our knowledge, this report documents the first case of an erythrophagocytic T-cell lymphoma in a cat. The clinicopathologic findings were suggestive of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, a neoplasm described previously only in humans and dogs. PMID:19055577

Carter, J E; Tarigo, J L; Vernau, W; Cecere, T E; Hovis, R L; Suter, S E

2008-12-01

258

Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.  

PubMed

This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching. PMID:24374030

Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

2014-02-01

259

Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W. R.; Zartman, R. E.

1991-01-01

260

Magnetic Resonance of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH1-Mutated Low-Grade Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that a significant survival advantage is conferred to patients with gliomas whose lesions harbor mutations in the genes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2). IDH1/2 mutations result in aberrant enzymatic production of the potential oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Here, we report on the ex vivo detection of 2HG in IDH1-mutated tissue samples from patients with recurrent low-grade gliomas using the nuclear magnetic resonance technique of proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy. Relative 2HG levels from pathologically confirmed mutant IDH1 tissues correlated with levels of other ex vivo metabolites and histopathology parameters associated with increases in mitotic activity, relative tumor content, and cellularity. Ex vivo spectroscopic measurements of choline-containing species and in vivo magnetic resonance measurements of diffusion parameters were also correlated with 2HG levels. These data provide extensive characterization of mutant IDH1 lesions while confirming the potential diagnostic value of 2HG as a surrogate marker of patient survival. Such information may augment the ability of clinicians to monitor therapeutic response and provide criteria for stratifying patients to specific treatment regimens.

Phillips, Joanna J.; Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Parvataneni, Rupa; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bourne, Gabriela; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

261

Comparison of immunohistochemical markers between adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) have several common histological and clinicopathological features that may create diagnostic difficulties. In this study, 10 AdCCs, 8 PLGAs, and 5 normal minor salivary glands as a control group were selected. Sections prepared from each tumor were stained using the streptavidin-biotin system for seven marker antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), muscle-specific actin (MSA), vimentin, S100, p53, and Ki-67. Data analysis showed high expression of CEA, MSA and Ki-67 in AdCCs compared with PLGAs, although CEA expression was limited to luminal cells. Ki-67 was expressed in both luminal and non-luminal cells and MSA only in non-luminal cells. Vimentin and S100 showed stronger expression in PLGAs, the expression of vimentin was more noticeable, being focal and widespread. The immunoreactivities of EMA and P53 were not helpful for distinguishing between the two tumors, although the EMA expression pattern in AdCCs was limited to luminal cells, whereas it was present in both luminal and non-luminal cells in PLGAs. Thus, immunohistochemistry can be helpful for differential diagnosis of AdCC and PLGA, particularly that for CEA, vimentin, and Ki-67. PMID:20032601

Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2009-12-01

262

Clinical prognostic factors of adjuvant radiation therapy for low-grade gliomas: results of 10 years survival  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low-grade gliomas compose 5-20% of all glial tumors. The prognosis of the disease can be anticipated by specific clinical factors determined during diagnosis. For this purpose, our study investigated the clinical prognostic factors for low-grade gliomas. Methods: Patients diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, followed by Akdeniz University and Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology between 1999 and 2013 were included in the study. The examination of survival by single variable analyses were performed by log rank test. For the multivariate analysis, independent factors for the prediction of survival by using possible factors determined by previous analyses were examined by using Cox regression analysis. Results: Fifty-five patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was determined as 60 ± 57 (4.5-168.1) months. Five-year overall survival was determined as 69% and 10-year overall survival was determined as 40%. When the potential prognostic factors were studied in Cox regression model, pre-radiotherapy age below 40 and gross-total excision were determined as good prognostic factors. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the aggressive surgical resection provided a better survival advantage both in single variable analyses and multivariate analyses. Consequently, although the low number of patients was the most important limitation in our study, we consider that patient age and extent of resection are the most important clinical prognostic factors in low-grade gliomas.

Kaya, Vildan; Aksu, Melek Gamze; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Ozdemir, Beyza; Cecen, Yigit; Sindir, Bora; Genc, Mine

2014-01-01

263

Cognitive and radiological eff ects of radiotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma: long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Our previous study on cognitive functioning among 195 patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) a mean of 6 years after diagnosis suggested that the tumour itself, rather than the radiotherapy used to treat it, has the most deleterious eff ect on cognitive functioning; only high fraction dose radiotherapy (>2 G y) resulted in signifi cant added cognitive deterioration. The present

Linda Douw; Martin Klein; Selene S A A Fagel; Josje van den Heuvel; Martin J B Taphoorn; Neil K Aaronson; Tjeerd J Postma; W Peter Vandertop; Jacob J Mooij; Rudolf H Boerman; Guus N Beute; Jasper D Sluimer; Ben J Slotman; Jaap C Reijneveld; Jan J Heimans

2009-01-01

264

Cognitive and radiological effects of radiotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma: long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Our previous study on cognitive functioning among 195 patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) a mean of 6 years after diagnosis suggested that the tumour itself, rather than the radiotherapy used to treat it, has the most deleterious effect on cognitive functioning; only high fraction dose radiotherapy (>2 Gy) resulted in significant added cognitive deterioration. The present study assesses the

Linda Douw; Martin Klein; Selene SAA Fagel; Josje van den Heuvel; Martin JB Taphoorn; Neil K Aaronson; Tjeerd J Postma; W Peter Vandertop; Jacob J Mooij; Rudolf H Boerman; Guus N Beute; Jasper D Sluimer; Ben J Slotman; Jaap C Reijneveld; Jan J Heimans

2009-01-01

265

Endoluminal stent reconstruction of low-grade, symptomatic carotid plaques: a treatment alternative--report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Medical treatment of low-grade (<50% luminal narrowing) symptomatic carotid stenosis has been the treatment of choice because trial data showed no evident benefit to carotid endarterectomy for these patients. Such patients may have recurrent neurological symptoms despite adequate medical therapy owing to recurrent plaque rupture. In such cases, carotid stenting may represent an option for treatment but has not been tested in trials because of previous failure of carotid endarterectomy to demonstrate any benefit for patients with low-grade carotid stenosis. The cases presented here illustrate the perioperative safety and potential benefit of carotid stenting for such patients with persistent neurological symptoms despite adequate medical therapy. Case material Two patients with low-grade stenosis and recurrent transient ischemic attack or stroke despite antiplatelet therapy were treated with carotid stenting. Both patients were treated after recent ipsilateral neurological events in the absence of an evident cardioembolic source. Carotid plaque ulceration thought to be related to the ischemic events was present in both cases. No perioperative complications were noted. On followup, the patients showed resolution of symptoms and had no new neurological events. Conclusion Carotid stenting of low-grade but symptomatic carotid plaque refractory to medical management represents a surgical option for treatment. Further studies may be warranted to evaluate stenting as a suitable treatment option.

Shallwani, Hussain; Dumont, Travis M.; Wach, Michael M.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

2014-01-01

266

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2013-11-25

267

Ovarian low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma: pathogenesis, clinicopathologic and molecular biologic features, and diagnostic problems.  

PubMed

Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low grade and high grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion seem to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). Most are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low-grade from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these 2 types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J

2009-09-01

268

Colonic mucosa-associated diffusely adherent afaC+ Escherichia coli expressing lpfA and pks are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Colonic mucosa-associated Escherichia coli are increased in Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). They variously haemagglutinate, invade epithelial cell lines, replicate within macrophages, translocate across M (microfold) cells and damage DNA. We investigated genes responsible for these effects and their co-association in colonic mucosal isolates. Design A fosmid library yielding 968 clones was prepared in E coli EPI300-T1 using DNA from a haemagglutinating CRC isolate, and resulting haemagglutinating clones were 454-pyrosequenced. PCR screening was performed on 281 colonic E coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (35 patients), CRC (21) and controls (24; sporadic polyps or irritable bowel syndrome). Results 454-Pyrosequencing of fosmids from the haemagglutinating clones (n=8) identified the afimbrial adhesin afa-1 operon. Transfection of afa-1 into E coli K-12 predictably conferred diffuse adherence plus invasion of HEp-2 and I-407 epithelial cells, and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. E coli expressing afaC were common in CRC (14/21, p=0.0009) and CD (9/14, p=0.005) but not ulcerative colitis (UC; 8/21) compared with controls (4/24). E coli expressing both afaC and lpfA (relevant to M-cell translocation) were common in CD (8/14, p=0.0019) and CRC (14/21, p=0.0001), but not UC (6/21) compared with controls (2/24). E coli expressing both afaC and pks (genotoxic) were common in CRC (11/21, p=0.0015) and UC (8/21, p=0.022), but not CD (4/14) compared with controls (2/24). All isolates expressed dsbA and htrA relevant to intra-macrophage replication, and 242/281 expressed fimH encoding type-1 fimbrial adhesin. Conclusions IBD and CRC commonly have colonic mucosal E coli that express genes that confer properties relevant to pathogenesis including M-cell translocation, angiogenesis and genotoxicity.

Prorok-Hamon, Maelle; Friswell, Melissa K; Alswied, Abdullah; Roberts, Carol L; Song, Fei; Flanagan, Paul K; Knight, Paul; Codling, Caroline; Marchesi, Julian R; Winstanley, Craig; Hall, Neil; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

2014-01-01

269

Awake surgery in low-grade gliomas harboring eloquent areas: 3-year mean follow-up.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas are slow-growing tumors invading eloquent areas and white matter pathways. For many decades these tumors were considered inoperable because of their high tropism for eloquent areas. However, the young age of the patients and the inescapable anaplastic transformation have recently suggested more aggressive treatments. We analyzed the neurological and neuro-oncological outcome of 12 patients who underwent surgery fully awake for the resection of LGG, harboring eloquent areas. 10 right- and 2 left-handed patients underwent pre-operative assessment: Karnofsky Performance Status, Edinburgh Handedness Inventory Score; neuropsychological and neurophysiological evaluations, according to the tumor location. During surgery we performed: sensory-motor-evoked potentials, continuous electro-corticography and bipolar/monopolar cortico-subcortical mapping during neuropsychological tests. The resection rate was calculated with neuro-imaging elaboration software. No permanent post-operative deficits were reported; 2 patients improved after surgery. No impairment of cognitive functions was reported. The KPS improved in 8 patients and was steady in the others. The mean resection rate was 78.3%. The resection allowed the control of pre-operative seizures without increasing the drug intake. Awake surgery allowed a good resection rate despite the eloquent location of the tumors, without post-operative deficit. The neuropsychological outcome was unchanged after surgery. The resection seems to improve seizure control. All the patients came back to normal life and work. In conclusion, awake surgery is reliable and feasible in removal of LGG, even if invading the main eloquent areas and networks. All the patients experienced a normal life after surgery, without permanent deficits. PMID:21487761

Sarubbo, S; Latini, F; Panajia, A; Candela, C; Quatrale, R; Milani, P; Fainardi, E; Granieri, E; Trapella, G; Tugnoli, V; Cavallo, M A

2011-10-01

270

Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.  

PubMed

Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is a common cytologic finding in cervical screening, yet only about 10-20% have significant histologic abnormalities and these are almost always positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV). This analysis aims to clarify the role of hrHPV DNA testing in the triage of women with LSIL cytology. In the ATHENA screening trial, we examined 1,084 cases of LSIL, of which 925 had an evaluable biopsy, to determine the extent to which hrHPV testing can identify those patients who have precursor lesions in need of immediate clinical referral and those who have changes more likely to regress spontaneously. Overall, 71.2% of LSIL cases were hrHPV positive, but the prevalence was age dependent, with only 56.1% in women ? 40 years. Among women with LSIL, 11.6% (107/925) had a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) histologic diagnosis and, of these, only nine were hrHPV negative. For CIN3+, 91.7% (44/48) of women with LSIL were hrHPV positive. The negative predictive value of hrHPV testing for CIN3+ in LSIL was 100% for women aged ? 40 years. Women who were HPV16 positive had a higher positive predictive value for CIN2+ (25.4%) than those who were positive for 12 other pooled hrHPV types (11.5%). Testing for hrHPV in women with LSIL is effective in identifying high-grade cervical lesions, thereby avoiding unnecessary referrals to colposcopy and potential over-treatment of non-progressive lesions, especially for women aged ? 40 years. PMID:22806936

Cuzick, Jack; Thomas Cox, J; Zhang, Guili; Einstein, Mark H; Stoler, Mark; Trupin, Suzanne; Behrens, Catherine M

2013-02-15

271

Surgical strategies in low-grade gliomas and implications for long-term quality of life.  

PubMed

Reports on long-term health related quality of life (HRQL) after surgery for World Health Organization grade II diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) are rare. We aimed to compare long-term HRQL in two hospital cohorts with different surgical strategies. Biopsy and watchful waiting was favored in one hospital, while early resections guided with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound was favored in the other. With a population-based approach 153 patients with histologically verified LGG treated from 1998-2009 were included. Patients still alive were contacted for HRQL assessment (n=91) using generic (EQ-5D; EuroQol Group, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and disease specific (EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20; EORTC Quality of Life Department, Brussels, Belgium) questionnaires. Results on HRQL were available in 79 patients (87%), 25 from the hospital that favored biopsy and 54 from the hospital that favored early resection. Among living patients there was no difference in EQ-5D index scores (p=0.426). When imputing scores defined as death (zero) in patients dead at follow-up, a clinically relevant difference in EQ-5D score was observed in favor of early resections (p=0.022, mean difference 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.29). In EORTC questionnaires pain, depression and concern about disruption in family life were more common with a strategy of initial biopsy only (p=0.043, p=0.032 and p=0.045 respectively). In long-term survivors an aggressive surgical approach using intraoperative 3D ultrasound image guidance in LGG does not lower HRQL compared to a more conservative surgical approach. This finding further weakens a possible role for watchful waiting in LGG. PMID:24798909

Jakola, Asgeir S; Unsgård, Geirmund; Myrmel, Kristin S; Kloster, Roar; Torp, Sverre H; Sagberg, Lisa M; Lindal, Sigurd; Solheim, Ole

2014-08-01

272

Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

Di Pinto, Marcos [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-11-01

273

Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

Habrand, Jean-Louis [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France)], E-mail: jean-louis.habrand@curie.net; Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Petras, Slavo [University Hospital, Caen Cyceron Laboratory, Caen (France); Datchary, Jean [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Grill, Jacques [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Sainte-Rose, Christian [Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

2008-07-01

274

Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-04-01

275

Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test–Children’s Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in over-all aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

Pinto, Marcos Di; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Merchant, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

276

Stereotactic brachytherapy of low-grade cerebral glioma after tumor resection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) on survival time and outcome when applied after resection of low-grade glioma (LGG) of World Health Organization grade II. From January 1982 through December 2006 we treated 1024 patients who had glioma with stereotactic implantation of iodine-125 seeds and SBT in accordance with a prospective protocol. For the present analysis, we selected 95 of 277 patients with LGG, in whom SBT was applied to treat progressive (43 patients) or recurrent (52 patients) tumor after resection. At 24 months after seed implantation, the tumor response rate was 35.9%, and the tumor control rate was 97.3%. The median progression-free-survival (PFS) duration after SBT was 52.7 ± 7.1 months. Five-year and 10-year PFS probabilities were 43.4% and 10.7%, respectively. Malignant tumor transformation, the diagnosis “astrocytoma,” and tumor volume >20 mL were significantly associated with reduced PFS. Tumor progression or relapse after SBT (53 of 95 patients) was treated with tumor resection, a second SBT, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The median overall survival duration (from the first diagnosis of LGG until the patient's last contact) was 245.0 ± 4.9 months. Patients still under observation after seed implantation had a median follow-up time of 156.4 ± 55.7 months. Perioperative transient morbidity was 1.1%, and the frequency of permanent morbidity caused by SBT was 3.3%. In conclusion, SBT of recurrent or progressive LGG after resection located in functionally critical brain areas has high local efficacy and comparably low morbidity. Referred to individually adopted glioma treatment concepts SBT provides a reasonably long PFS, thus improving overall survival. In selected patients, SBT can lead to delays in the application of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

Suchorska, Bogdana; Ruge, Maximilian; Treuer, Harald; Sturm, Volker; Voges, Jurgen

2011-01-01

277

Outcome of instrumented lumbar fusion for low grade spondylolisthesis; Evaluation of interbody fusion with & without cages  

PubMed Central

Object: The aim is to evalute the outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with autologous bone graft versus titanium Cages, BAK system (Bagby – Kuslich, Spine Tech, Inc. Minneapolis, MN) for low grade spondyloisthesis (Grade1,11). Interbody cages have been developed to replace tricortical Interbody grafts in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures. The cages provide immediate post operative stability and facilitate bony union with cancellous bone packed in the cage itself. METHOD: We Evaluated 50 consecutive patients in whom surgery was performed between June 2000 to June 2003 in the Main Alexandria University Hospital at EGYPT. Twenty five patients were operated using autologous bone graft and 25 patients using the BAK cages. The neuro–radiologic al work up consisted of; plain X – ray lumbosacral spine including dynamic films preoperative and postoperative follow up; C.T lumbosacral spine and MRI lumbosacral spine. The surgery was performed at L4-5 level in 34 cases and at L5-S1 level in 16 cases. The median follow up was 15 months. RESULTS: Satisfactory fusion was obtained at all levels at a minimum one year follow – up. The fusion rate was 96% (24 patients) for the cage group and 80% (20 patients) for bone graft group however clinical improvement was 64% (16 patients) for those with bone graft group. CONCLUSION: A higher fusion rates and a better clinical outcome have been obtained by Instrumented PLIF with titanium cages that with bone graft. Inderbody fusion cages help to stabilize spainal segment primarily by distracting them as well as by allowing bone ingrowth and fusion. The procedure is safe and effective with 96% fusion rate and 76% overall Satisfactory rate. The use of cages help to distract the space between the vertebral bodies making the correction of the degree of spondylolisthesis easier. Long term follow up revealed better fusion rate and better realignment and less resorption with cages than with bone grafts.

Fathy, Mostafa; Fahmy, Mohamed; Fakhri, Mazen; Aref, Khaled; Abdin, Khaled; Zidan, Ihab

2010-01-01

278

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists  

PubMed Central

Background This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. Methods These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. Results The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1059098656858324

2013-01-01

279

Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21 years –17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20 years–19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at pre-irradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. A total of 588 evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and pre-irradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r = .34; p = .01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (p < .05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (p < .05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions There was relative sparing of post-irradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities prior to the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

280

The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 ? Mn3O4 ? MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

2013-08-01

281

[Molecular targeted therapy in lymphoid leukemias].  

PubMed

Recent advances in the treatment of lymphoid leukemias have incorporated molecular targeted drugs (CD20-targeting rituximab and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors) into the traditional chemotherapeutic agents. This article reviews novel molecular targeted therapies for patients with lymphoid leukemias including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairly cell leukemia and HTLV-I-related adult T-cell leukemia. Investigational agents that will be discussed in this review include inotuzumab, blinatumomab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, ibrutinib, idelalisib, bafetinib, lenalidomide, ABT-199 and mogamulizumab. Novel approaches warrant continued research to improve outcomes for patients with lymphoid leukemias. PMID:25016810

Kojima, Kensuke; Ando, Toshihiko; Kimura, Shinya

2014-06-01

282

Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

Strober, S.

1987-12-01

283

[Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in neutropenia secondary to lymphoid bone marrow infiltration].  

PubMed

In patients with low-grade lymphoid malignancy, severe neutropenia due to massive bone marrow infiltration of lymphocytes increases the risk of infection, especially after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Three patients (two with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and one with follicular lymphoma) with massive bone marrow infiltration and neutropenia not caused by short-term effects of chemotherapy, were treated with G-CSF for five two-week periods, to find out if the neutropenia was reversible. All three patients initially responded to G-CSF with an increase of neutrophil counts into the normal range or above. In one patient, G-CSF administered after a subsequent course of myelosuppressive chemotherapy apparently prevented severe chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Retreatment of a previous responder in a later, preterminal stage of the disease produced very little response in terms of neutrophil counts. G-CSF can increase peripheral blood neutrophil counts to normal levels in patients with severe neutropenia induced by lymphoid bone marrow infiltration. PMID:8644050

Hammerstrøm, J

1996-02-10

284

Unilateral lateral mass fixation of cervical spinal low-grade chondrosarcoma with intralesional resection: A case report  

PubMed Central

In total, ~10% of chondrosarcomas arise from the mobile spine, and these are prone to local recurrence despite being low-grade malignant tumors. Almost all patients will present with pain and a palpable mass in the area of the lesion. For adequate management of the disease, an early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are important. The present study reports a case of cervical spinal low-grade chondrosarcoma in a young female presenting with a slow-growing mass that had not metastasized during a 3-year period. A unilateral lateral mass fixation system of screws and rods was installed following an intralesional resection of the tumor. At present, two years following the surgery, the patient exhibits no neurological deficiency symptoms. Therefore, unilateral fixation presents an effective alternative technique for the treatment of patients with a lesion on the cervical spine.

CHEN, BO; YANG, YAN; CHEN, LIANG; ZHOU, FENG; YANG, HUILIN

2014-01-01

285

Awake mapping for low-grade gliomas involving the left sagittal stratum: anatomofunctional and surgical considerations.  

PubMed

Object Preserving function while optimizing the extent of resection is the main goal in surgery for diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG). This is particularly relevant for DLGG involving the sagittal stratum (SS), where damage can have severe consequences. Indeed, this structure is a major crossroad in which several important fascicles run. Thus, its complex functional anatomy is still poorly understood. Subcortical electrical stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to investigate white matter pathways. This study reports the findings on anatomofunctional correlations evoked by stimulation during resection for gliomas involving the left SS. Surgical outcomes are also detailed. Methods The authors performed a review of patients who underwent awake surgery for histopathologically confirmed WHO Grade II glioma involving the left SS in the neurosurgery department between August 2008 and August 2012. Information regarding clinicoradiological features, surgical procedures, and outcomes was collected and analyzed. Intraoperative electrostimulation was used to map the eloquent structures within the SS. Results Eight consecutive patients were included in this study. There were 6 men and 2 women, whose mean age was 41.7 years (range 32-61 years). Diagnosis was made because of seizures in 7 cases and slight language disorders in 1 case. After cortical mapping, subcortical stimulation detected functional fibers running in the SS in all patients: semantic paraphasia was generated by stimulating the inferior frontooccipital fascicle in 8 cases; alexia was elicited by stimulating the inferior longitudinal fascicle in 3 cases; visual disorders were induced by stimulating the optic radiations in 5 cases. Moreover, in front of the SS, phonemic paraphasia was evoked by stimulating the temporal part of the arcuate fascicle in 5 patients. The resection was stopped according to these functional limits in the 8 patients. After a transient postsurgical worsening, all patients recovered to normal results on examination, except for the persistence of a right superior quadrantanopia in 5 cases, with no consequences for quality of life. The 8 patients returned to a normal social and professional life. Total or subtotal resection was achieved in all cases but one. Conclusions The authors suggest that the use of intrasurgical electrical mapping of the white matter pathways in awake patients opens the door to extensive resection of DLGG within the left SS while preserving the quality of life. Further anatomical, clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological studies are needed for a better understanding of the functional anatomy of this complex region. PMID:24484222

Chan-Seng, Emilie; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

2014-05-01

286

Dehydration Behavior of Metapelites and Metabasites at Very low to low Grade Metamorphic Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic calculations have been undertaken in the system Na-Ca-K-Fe-Mg-Al-Si-Ti-H-O with the PERPLE_X software package (Connolly, 1990 and updates) for a better understanding of the dehydration behavior of metapelites and metabasites during prograde metamorphism. To obtain reasonable results for the temperature range 150-450° C at pressures up to 25 kbar, the subsequent solid solution models were introduced being compatible with the applied thermodynamic data set of Holland & Powell (1998 and updates): a three component model for Mg-Fe2+-Fe3+-pumpellyite, a two component model for Fe2+-Mg- stilpnomelane, a four component amphibole model (tremolite - Fe2+-tremolite - glaucophane - Mg- riebeckite), and a four component Na-pyroxene model (acmite - jadeite - diopside - hedenbergite). The water contents released by prograde metamorphism up to 450° C from MORB and psammopelitic compositions on top of oceanic crust, were obtained by calculating P-T pseudosections. Metabasite contains 6-7 wt% H2O bound to minerals at 150° C depending on the oxidation state. Along geotherms lower than 7° C/km typical for young subduction zones, no water is released up to 400° C. However, reduction of the rock causes release of small amounts of water. Metapsammopelitic rocks also store about 6 wt% H2O in minerals at 150° C. Considerable amounts of water are liberated by mineral reactions already in the temperature range 150-250° C also at the above mentioned low geotherms. This behavior determines the rheological characteristics of the upper oceanic crust during early subduction. If water is exclusively released in the sedimentary portion of the downgoing crust only this material gets weakened to be scraped off to form accretionary wedges. At geotherms of 15-20° C/km both lithologies show significant dehydration at very low metamorphic grade. For instance, in cold frontal paleoaccretionary prisms of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera metapelites by far dominate whereas in hotter basal accretionary prisms both low grade basic oceanic crust and continental sediments occur. We also hypothesize that accretionary wedge complexes with a clear dominance of sediments should not have formed in hot subduction zones typical for Precambrian Earth.

Massonne, H.; Willner, A. P.

2007-12-01

287

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01

288

OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems  

PubMed Central

Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice.

Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

2009-01-01

289

Comparison of Loss of Heterozygosity Patterns in Invasive Low-Grade and High-Grade Epithelial Ovarian Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were performed to investigate the genetic differences which separate low-grade 0LG), high-grade (HG), and borderline epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Fresh tumor samples and blood were obtained from 58 patients (20 LG, 34 HG, and 4 borderline tumor specimens) undergoing surgery for ovar- ian carcinoma at Mayo Clinic. Tumors were graded using a modified Broder's classification with

Mark K. Dodson; Lynn C. Hartmann; William A. Cliby; Karen A. DeLacey; Gary L. Keeney; Steve R. Ritland; John Q. Su; Karl C. Podratz; Robert B. Jenkins

1993-01-01

290

Leaching of low-grade manganese ores by using nitric acid and glucose: optimization of the operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese extraction from low-grade ores was investigated by using glucose as a reducing agent in dilute nitric acid medium. Ore characterisation by X-ray and SEM denoted that manganese is present as a mixed oxide Mn7O13 (6MnO2·MnO) surrounding and joining together aluminosilicate fragments. The effects of temperature, particle size, glucose and nitric acid concentrations were investigated and compared with previous results

F. Pagnanelli; G. Furlani; P. Valentini; F. Vegliò; L. Toro

2004-01-01

291

Towards pyrrhotite\\/magnetite geothermometry in low-grade metamorphic carbonates of the Tethyan Himalayas (Shiar Khola, Central Nepal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mesozoic metacarbonates of the Tethyan Himalayas (Shiar Khola area, Central Nepal) two characteristic remanent magnetisations (ChRM1 and ChRM2) were identified by their unblocking temperature spectra. The ChRM1 is carried by pyrrhotite (unblocking temperature: 270–360°C) and the ChRM2 by magnetite (unblocking temperature spectra: 430–580°C). The temperature-related formation of pyrrhotite at the expense of primary magnetite during low-grade metamorphism in marly

E. Schill; E. Appel; P. Gautam

2002-01-01

292

Sephadex and sephadex ion-exchange filtration improves the quality and freezability of low-grade buffalo semen ejaculates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sephadex and sephadex ion-exchange filtration on the improvement in quality and freezability of low-grade buffalo semen ejaculates was assessed. Two types of filtration columns were used: one containing only sephadex G-10 (FS) and the other sephadex G-10 along with ion-exchangers (diethyl amino ethane-52 (DEAE-52) cellulose and carboxy methyl-52 (CM-52) cellulose; FS+IE). Unfiltered samples served as controls. Semen

Z Ahmad; M Anzar; M Shahab; N Ahmad; S. M. H Andrabi

2003-01-01

293

Surgical design and outcome of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection for benign or low-grade malignant tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To apply duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) as radical procedure for benign or low-grade malignant tumors,\\u000a it needs the reconciliation of complete pancreatic head resection and preservation of the bile duct and peripancreatic vessels.\\u000a Several modifications have been introduced and applied to remove these lesions, however, the techniques have not been made\\u000a clear in the management of the peripancreatic vessels

Akihiko Horiguchi; Shuichi Miyakawa; Shin Ishihara; Masahiro Ito; Yukio Asano; Koichi Furusawa; Tomohiro Shimizu; Toshiyuki Yamamoto

2010-01-01

294

Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central

Thomas B. Daniels; Paul D. Brown; Sara J. Felten; Wenting Wu; Jan C. Buckner; Robert M. Arusell; Walter J. Curran; Ross A. Abrams; David Schiff; Edward G. Shaw

2011-01-01

295

Prognostic factors in low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas: A uni-multivariate statistical analysis in 76 surgically treated adult patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective uni-multivariate statistical analysis was performed on 32 prognostic factors to investigate their importance in predicting survival in a series of 76 adult patients with low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas treated over a 13-year period. The end point used for this study was the length of survival. The median survival time was 40 months. Overall actuarial survival at 2, 5, and

Antonio Nicolato; Massimo A. Gerosa; Paolo Fina; Paolo Iuzzolino; Fabrizia Giorgiutti; Albino Bricolo

1995-01-01

296

Prospective Study of the Progression of Low-Grade Dysplasia in Ulcerative Colitis Using Current Cancer Surveillance Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to assess the natural history of low-grade dysplasia and its risk of progression in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients by prospective endoscopic surveillance. Methods 42 UC patients with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) were followed prospectively using a uniform approach to surveillance colonoscopy with an average of 43 biopsies per exam. The interval between colonoscopies ranged from 3–12 months. Progression was defined as development of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer (CA) at subsequent colonoscopy or at colectomy. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors associated with progression. Results Patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years (range 1–13). Over that period 19% (8/42) of patients progressed to advanced neoplasia (2 cancers, 6 HGD) while 17% (7/42) had persistent LGD and 64% (27/42) had indefinite dysplasia or no dysplasia at the end of follow-up. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the number of biopsies with low grade dysplasia at baseline was associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced neoplasia (RR-5.8, 95%CI (1.29–26.04). Among the 15 patients who underwent colectomy, four were found to have higher grade neoplasia on their colectomy specimen that their pre-operative colonoscopy, and these patients were more likely to be nonadherent with recommendations for colectomy. Conclusions The majority (81%) of UC patients with LGD did not progress to higher grades of dysplasia during a 4 year follow-up. Patients with 3 or more biopsies demonstrating low grade dysplasia at a single colonoscopy were at increased risk for progression to advanced neoplasia.

Zisman, Timothy L.; Bronner, Mary P.; Rulyak, Stephen; Kowdley, Kris V.; Saunders, Michael; Lee, Scott D.; Ko, Cynthia; Kimmey, Michael B.; Stevens, Allyn; Maurer, Josephine; Brentnall, Teresa A.

2012-01-01

297

Associations of low-grade inflammation with physical activity, fitness and fatness in prepubertal children; the European Youth Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the associations of low-grade inflammation with objectively measured physical activity, cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness in prepubertal children.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:One hundred and forty-two children (74 boys and 68 girls) aged 9–10 years (pubertal stage I and II) from the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study.Measurements:Total physical activity and its intensity levels (moderate, vigorous, moderate + vigorous) were

J R Ruiz; F B Ortega; J Warnberg; M Sjöström

2007-01-01

298

Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1  

PubMed Central

Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas.

Ramkissoon, Lori A.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Craig, Justin M.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Rich, Benjamin E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S.; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D.; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E.; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C.; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J.; Hill, D. Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Dunn, Ian F.; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A.; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C.; Stiles, Charles D.; Ligon, Azra H.; Kieran, Mark W.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L.

2013-01-01

299

Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1.  

PubMed

Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas. PMID:23633565

Ramkissoon, Lori A; Horowitz, Peleg M; Craig, Justin M; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Rich, Benjamin E; Schumacher, Steven E; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J; Hill, D Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L; Eberhart, Charles G; Dunn, Ian F; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C; Stiles, Charles D; Ligon, Azra H; Kieran, Mark W; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L

2013-05-14

300

Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage  

PubMed Central

Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

2013-01-01

301

Deep sequencing detects very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the unaffected mother of siblings with nemaline myopathy.  

PubMed

When an expected mutation in a particular disease-causing gene is not identified in a suspected carrier, it is usually assumed to be due to germline mosaicism. We report here very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in ACTA1 in an unaffected mother of two siblings affected with a neonatal form of nemaline myopathy. The mosaicism was detected by deep resequencing using a next-generation sequencer. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation in ACTA1, c.448A>G (p.Thr150Ala), in the affected siblings. Three-dimensional structural modeling suggested that this mutation may affect polymerization and/or actin's interactions with other proteins. In this family, we expected autosomal dominant inheritance with either parent demonstrating germline or somatic mosaicism. Sanger sequencing identified no mutation. However, further deep resequencing of this mutation on a next-generation sequencer identified very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the mother: 0.4%, 1.1%, and 8.3% in the saliva, blood leukocytes, and nails, respectively. Our study demonstrates the possibility of very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in suspected carriers, rather than germline mosaicism. PMID:24852243

Miyatake, Satoko; Koshimizu, Eriko; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Miya, Kazushi; Shiina, Masaaki; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

2014-07-01

302

Slip Reduction Rate between Minimal Invasive and Conventional Unilateral Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in Patients with Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the slip reduction rate and clinical outcomes between unilateral conventional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (conventional TLIF) and unilateral minimal invasive TLIF (minimal TLIF) with pedicle screw fixation for treatment of one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. Methods Between February 2008 and April 2012, 25 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent conventional TLIF (12 patients) and minimal TLIF (13 patients) in single university hospital by a single surgeon. Lateral radiographs of lumbar spine were taken 12 months after surgery to analyze the degree of slip reduction and the clinical outcome. All measurements were performed by a single observer. Results The demographic data between conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF were not different. Slip percentage was reduced from 15.00% to 8.33% in conventional TLIF, and from 14.15% to 9.62% in minimal TLIF. In both groups, slip percentage was significantly improved postoperatively (p=0.002), but no significant intergroup differences of slip percentage in preoperative and postoperative were found. The reduction rate also not different between conventional TLIF (45.41±28.80%) and minimal TLIF (32.91±32.12%, p=0.318). Conclusion Conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF with pedicle screw fixation showed good slip reduction in patients with one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. The slip percentage and reduction rate were similar in the conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF.

Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Lee, Junho; Hyun, Dong Keun

2013-01-01

303

Population-based study on incidence, survival rates, and genetic alterations of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.  

PubMed

We carried out a population-based study on low-grade diffuse gliomas in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (population 1.16 million). From 1980 to 1994, 987 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors were diagnosed, of which 122 (12.4%) were low-grade (WHO grade II). The incidence rates adjusted to the World Standard Population, per million population per year, were 2.28 for low-grade diffuse astrocytomas, 0.89 for oligoastrocytomas, and 2.45 for oligodendrogliomas. The survival rate (mean follow-up 7.5+/-4.8 years) was highest for patients with oligodendroglioma (78% at 5 years, 51% at 10 years), followed by those with oligoastrocytoma (70% at 5 years, 49% at 10 years) and fibrillary astrocytoma (65% at 5 years, 31% at 10 years). Survival of patients with gemistocytic astrocytoma was poor, with survival rates of 16% at 5 years and 0% at 10 years. Younger patients (<50 years) survived significantly longer than older patients (>50 years; P=0.013). DNA sequencing, performed in 84% of cases, revealed that TP53 mutations were most frequent in gemistocytic astrocytomas (88%), followed by fibrillary astrocytomas (53%) and oligoastrocytomas (44%), but were infrequent (13%) in oligodendrogliomas. The presence of TP53 mutations was associated with shorter survival of patients with low-grade diffuse gliomas (log-rank test; P=0.047), but when each histological type was analyzed separately, an association was observed only for oligoastrocytoma ( P=0.05). Loss on 1p and 19q were assessed by quantitative microsatellite analysis in 67% of cases. These alterations were frequent in oligodendrogliomas (1p, 57%; 19q, 69%), less common in oligoastrocytomas (1p, 27%; 19q, 45%), rare in fibrillary astrocytomas (1p, 7%; 19q, 7%), and absent in gemistocytic astrocytomas. None of these alterations were predictive of survival. These results establish the frequency of key genetic alterations in low-grade diffuse gliomas at a population-based level. Multivariate Cox's regression analysis indicates that only age and histological type, but not genetic alterations, are significant predictive factors. PMID:15118874

Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Di Patre, Pier-Luigi; Burkhard, Christoph; Horstmann, Sonja; Jourde, Benjamin; Fahey, Michael; Schüler, Danielle; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Yasargil, M Gazi; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Lütolf, Urs M; Kleihues, Paul; Ohgaki, Hiroko

2004-07-01

304

Atypical lymphoid proliferations: the pathologist's viewpoint.  

PubMed

Lymphoid proliferations are traditionally thought to be either benign conditions (reactive hyperplasia and lymphadenitis) or malignant lymphomas. However, not all lymphoid lesions at present can be precisely placed into one of these categories. Therefore, in addition to these two extremes, there also exist a third group of lymphoid proliferations - the atypical lymphoid proliferations (AtLP). AtLP is a descriptive term used when it is not possible for the pathologist to differentiate between the benign and the malignant nature of a given lymphoid infiltrate. AtLP represent biologically indeterminate lesions that have some worrisome clinicopathologic features but cannot be interpreted as malignant lymphomas using all criteria currently available. They have some likelihood for subsequent transformation into lymphomas, and therefore AtLP occupy a middle ground between benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations. Nevertheless, sometimes AtLP are not necessarily premalignant and may very well represent a fully benign situation mimicking malignancy. In the author's opinion, when confronted with a challenging lymphoproliferative lesion, the pathologist should marshall all resources available to interpret it as precisely as possible and therefore place it into one of the two categories: unequivocally benign condition or malignant lymphomas. The resources should include immunohistochemical and molecular studies, obtaining expert opinion and rebiopsy. However, if clinical, morphologic and molecular findings are not sufficient for diagnosis of a benign condition versus lymphoma, the descriptive term AtLP can be used. In the author's opinion, the use of this descriptive term AtLP may obviate the need to force some lymphoid proliferations (equivocal lesions or mimickers of lymphomas) into either the benign or malignant categories. PMID:23547864

Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

2013-04-01

305

No correlation between slip reduction in low-grade spondylolisthesis or change in neuroforaminal morphology and clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background In instrumented posterolateral fusion reduction of a spondylolisthesis is appealing on theoretical grounds since this may lead to indirect decompression of the entrapped nerve roots. However, there is no consensus in the literature whether a beneficial effect of reduction on outcome can be expected. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether a correlation between the extent of listhesis reduction and clinical improvement could be established. Methods From two ongoing prospective studies 72 patients with a single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion for low-grade spondylolisthesis (isthmic/degenerative 51/21) were evaluated. Radiographs and clinical outcome scores were available at baseline, 6 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Changes in neuroforaminal morphology were measured on calibrated radiographs. These changes in radiographic parameters were correlated to clinical outcome (Visual Analogue Score (VAS) leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)). Fusion status was assessed on Computed Tomography-scan at one year. Results A mean spondylolisthesis of 25 percent was reduced to 15 percent at 6 weeks with some loss of reduction to 17 percent at one year. The VAS and ODI significantly improved at both time intervals after surgery (p?low grade spondylolisthesis. Loss of reduction or non-union on CT-scans had no effect on the clinical outcome. Reduction of a low-grade spondylolisthesis in spinal fusion is appealing, however, there is no evidence that it positively affects clinical outcome on the short term. Trial registration ISRCTN43648350

2013-01-01

306

Thrust-related very low grade metamorphism in the marginal part of an orogenic wedge, Scandinavian Caledonides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern and characteristics of thrust-related very low grade metamorphism in the marginal part of an orogenic wedge have been investigated by combining a clay mineral crystallinity survey with detailed structural mapping of the thin-skinned foreland thrust belt along the external part of the Scandinavian Caledonides. This external part is composed of late Neoproterozoic to Ordovician sedimentary sequences of the autochthonous cover and Lower Allochthon, which are overlain by the higher Caledonian nappes (Middle and Upper Allochthonous units). Stages of the Scandian phase of thrust wedge development are described which are related to the very low grade metamorphic history. The initial stage involved the emplacement of cooled nappes belonging to the Middle and Upper Allochthons, with very low grade peak metamorphic conditions attained within the underlying Lower Allochthon (cover) sediments as they were progressively buried and deformed beneath the thrust wedge. During this initial emplacement the isotherms are considered to have been undisturbed and dipping parallel to the wedge surface. The following stages of wedge development consisted of extensive post-metamorphic imbrication of the underthrusted cover sediments, with a transition from basal accretion and uplift at the rear, to accretion and forward propagation at the wedge's toe. During accretion into the wedge, the externally dipping isograd surfaces were extensively displaced from deeper levels toward higher tectonic horizons. The last stage of wedge development considered here was characterized by late out-of-sequence thrusting with enhanced (epizonal) metamorphic grades developed in the vicinity of the fault zones, which either resulted from further displacement of the isograds toward higher levels, or from localized heating via intense fluid activity. Overall, the pattern of metamorphic grade, fabric relationships, and physical calculations of heat transfer based on the geometry of the thrust wedge, suggest that neither inverted temperature gradients nor shear heating were likely causes of the metamorphism in this flat-lying part of the orogenic wedge. The description of inverted very low grade metamorphic isograds in other marginal parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides, which have been previously attributed to either the rapid emplacement of hot thrust nappes, or the effects of dissipative shear heating, are discussed in terms of variations in both the critical wedge geometry and its controlling boundary conditions.

Warr, Laurence N.; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Zachrisson, Ebbe

1996-12-01

307

[Molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cells of low grade gliomas and its contribution for tumour classification].  

PubMed

Background: Low-grade gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of primary brain malignancies. The current dia-gnostics of these tumors rely strongly on histological classification. With the development of molecular cytogenetic methods several genetic markers were described, conributing to a better distinction of glial subtypes. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of acquired chromosomal aberrations in low?grade gliomas and to search for new genomic changes associated with higher risk of tumor progression. Patients and Methods: We analysed bio-psy specimens from 41 patients with histological dia-gnosis of low-grade glioma using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I?FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array techniques (19 females and 22 males, medium age 42 years). Results: Besides notorious and most frequent finding of combined deletion of 1p/?19q (81.25% patients) several other recurrent aberrations were described in patients with oligodendrogliomas: deletions of p and q arms of chromosome 4 (25% patients), deletions of the short arms of chromosome 9 (18.75% patients), deletions of the long arms of chromosome 13 and monosomy of chromosome 18 (18.75% patients). In bio-psy specimens from patients with astrocytomas, we often observed deletion of 1p (24% patients), amplification of the long arms of chromosome 7 (16% patients), deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 (20% patients), segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) of the short arms of chromosome 17 (60% patients) and deletion of the long arms of chromosome 19 (28% patients). In one patient we detected a shuttered chromosome 10 resulting from chromothripsis. Conclusion: Using a combination of I?FISH and SNP array, we detected not only known chromosomal changes but also new or less frequent recur-rent aberrations. Their role in cancer?cell progression and their impact on low?grade gliomas classification remains to be elucidated in a larger cohort of patients. Key words: oligodendroglioma -? astrocytoma -? SNP array -? interphase FISH - glioma This work was supported by grants of Internal Grant Agency of the Czech Ministry of Health No. NT/13212-4, PRVOUK-P27/LF1/1 a RVO-VFN64165. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or?services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE "uniform requirements" for biomedical papers.Submitted: 5. 11. 2013Accepted: 29. 1. 2014. PMID:24918277

Lhotská, H; Zemanová, Z; Kramá?, F; Lizcová, L; Svobodová, K; Ransdorfová, S; Byst?ická, D; Krej?ík, Z; Hrabal, P; Dohnalová, A; Kaiser, M; Michalová, K

2014-01-01

308

Low-Grade Albuminuria Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Micro-albuminuria has been well established as one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the association of MetS and its components with low-grade albuminuria among those with normal urinary albumin excretion has not been clearly elucidated in Chinese population. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9,579 participants with normal urinary albumin excretion, who were recruited from Jia Ding District, Shanghai, China. The single-void first morning urine sample was collected for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated as urinary albumin divided by creatinine. Low-grade albuminuria was classified as sex-specific upper UACR quartile in this population. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of MetS and its components increased across the UACR quartiles (all P trend <0.01). A multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of MetS was gradually elevated according to the UACR quartiles (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] were 1.14, 1.24 and 1.59 for UACR quartiles 2, 3 and 4, compared with the lowest quartile; P trend<0.0001). In the further stratified logistic regression analyses, the associations between low-grade albuminuria and MetS were significant in both sex strata (male and female), both age strata (<60 and ?60 years), both body mass index strata (<24 and ?24 kg/m2), and both diabetes strata (yes and no). Compared to the lowest UACR quartile, the participants in the highest quartile of UACR had the highest prevalence of central obesity (OR?=?1.43; 95%CI?=?1.25–1.63), high blood pressure (OR?=?1.64; 95%CI?=?1.43–1.87), hyperglycemia (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI?=?1.30–1.78) and high triglycerides (OR?=?1.19; 95%CI?=?1.04–1.37). Conclusions and Significance Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with the increasing prevalence of MetS and its components in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population with normal urinary albumin excretion.

Xu, Yu; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Xu, Baihui; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang

2013-01-01

309

A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin–etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

After successfully using cisplatin (30 mg\\/m2\\/day) and etoposide (150 mg\\/m2\\/day) in ten three-day courses for progressive low-grade gliomas, a subsequent protocol reduced the daily doses of cisplatin\\u000a (to 25 mg) and etoposide (to 100 mg), with the objective of achieving the same response and three-year PFS rates with lower\\u000a neurotoxicity and myelotoxicity. We treated 37 patients (median age 6 years); 23 had optochiasmatic tumours

Maura MassiminoFilippo; Filippo Spreafico; Daria Riva; Veronica Biassoni; Geraldina Poggi; Carlo Solero; Lorenza Gandola; Lorenzo Genitori; Piergiorgio Modena; Fabio Simonetti; Paolo Potepan; Michela Casanova; Cristina Meazza; Carlo A. Clerici; Serena Catania; Iacopo Sardi; Felice Giangaspero

2010-01-01

310

ACTG 293: A Randomized Phase III Trial of Oral Isotretinoin vs. Observation for Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV Infected Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isotretinoin for Low-Grade Cervical Dysplasia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women. Background: HIV-infected women treated with standard therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) have higher rates of persistence and recurrence than no...

2005-01-01

311

Ang II Upregulation of the T-Lymphocyte Renin–Angiotensin System Is Amplified by Low-Grade Inflammation in Human Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLow-grade inflammation facilitates the development of essential hypertension and target organ damage (TOD). Recently, human T-lymphocytes were shown to be endowed with a functional active renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated whether in hypertensive patients a selective angiotensin (Ang) II–driven upregulation of T-cell RAS occurs and whether it is differently modulated in presence of low-grade inflammation.MethodsT-lymphocytes were obtained from 21 hypertensives

Mirella Coppo; Manuela Bandinelli; Andrea Berni; Sara Galastri; Rosanna Abbate; Loredana Poggesi; Fabio Marra; Gian Franco Gensini; Maria Boddi

2011-01-01

312

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A new method for arthroscopic evaluation of low grade degenerated cartilage lesions. Results of a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Arthroscopy is a highly sensitive method of evaluating high-grade cartilage lesions but the detection of low-grade lesions is often is unreliable. Objective measurements are required. A novel NIRS (near-infrared-spectroscopy) device for detection of low-grade cartilage defects was evaluated in a preliminary clinical study. METHODS: In 12 patients who had undergone arthroscopy, the cartilage lesions within the medial knee compartment

Gunter Spahn; Holger Plettenberg; Enrico Kahl; Hans M Klinger; Thomas Mückley; Gunther O Hofmann

2007-01-01

313

Malignant lymphoma of the bladder and female urethra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas account for 0.4% of malignant neoplasms arising in the bladder and female urethra, but do not comprise a uniform group, and three subgroups can be identified which account for a majority of cases. The most common is a low-grade B-cell lymphoma similar to neoplasms arising in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue at other sites — so-called ‘MALTomas’.

R. H. W. Simpson; R. S. Amin; R. D. Pocock

1994-01-01

314

MALT lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses and the hard palate: report of two cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra-nodal low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract recapitulate the structure and features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, called “MALT lymphomas.” In the head and neck region except for the salivary glands the occurrence of this neoplasm is very rare. The authors report on two such cases of MALT lymphoma, one of the hard palate in a 71-year-old woman and

Stefan Tauber; Andreas Nerlich; Stephan Lang

2006-01-01

315

Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody and Combination Chemotherapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-07-03

316

Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling.  

PubMed

In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), proinflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines at much lower levels than seen within the islet during insulitis. These low-dose effects have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca(2+)](i) in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca(2+)](i) was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D. PMID:20800281

Dula, Stacey B; Jecmenica, Mladen; Wu, Runpei; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Verrilli, Gretchen M; Carter, Jeffrey D; Brayman, Kenneth L; Nunemaker, Craig S

2010-01-01

317

Phase II study of Gleevec(R) plus hydroxyurea in adults with progressive or recurrent low-grade glioma1  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the efficacy of imatinib plus hydroxyurea in patients with progressive/recurrent low-grade glioma. Methods A total of 64 patients with recurrent/progressive low-grade glioma were enrolled in this single-center study that stratified patients into astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma cohorts. All patients received 500 mg of hydroxyurea twice a day. Imatinib was administered at 400 mg per day for patients not on EIAEDs and at 500 mg twice a day if on EIAEDs. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 12 months (PFS-12) and secondary endpoints were safety, median progression-free survival and radiographic response rate. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled into each cohort. Eleven patients (17%) had prior radiotherapy and 24 (38%) had received prior chemotherapy. The median PFS and PFS-12 were 11 months and 39%, respectively. Outcome did not differ between the histologic cohorts. No patient achieved a radiographic response. The most common grade 3 or greater adverse events were neutropenia (11%), thrombocytopenia (3%) and diarrhea (3%). Conclusions Imatinib plus hydroxyurea was well tolerated among recurrent/progressive LGG patients but this regimen demonstrated negligible anti-tumor activity.

Reardon, David A.; Desjardins, Annick; Vredenburgh, James J.; Herndon, James E.; Coan, April; Gururangan, Sridharan; Peters, Katherine B.; McLendon, Roger; Sathornsumetee, Sith; Rich, Jeremy N.; Lipp, Eric S.; Janney, Dorothea; Friedman, Henry S.

2013-01-01

318

Low-grade chondrosarcomas: a difficult target for radionuclide imaging. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Bone scan with Tc-99m (technetium) diphosphonate is sensitive, but non-specific for musculoskeletal tumors. Tl-201 (thallium), Tc-99m-sestamibi, Tc-99m-tetrofosmin, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) can visualize tumors more specifically and are therefore useful in orthopedic oncology. However, cartilaginous tumors are characterized by histological and biological features, which potentially impair specific radionuclide imaging. A case of a patient with a low-grade primary chondrosarcoma of the femur and a false negative Tl-201 scan is presented. Tc-99m-based tumor-localizing compounds (sestamibi, tetrofosmin), as well as metabolic and receptor-imaging radiopharmaceuticals have also been reported to fail in low-grade chondrosarcomas imaging. Low cellularity, mitochondrial specialization and the presence of an efflux membrane pump may contribute to poor imaging. A negative Tl-201 or Tc-99m-sestamibi scan should be interpreted with caution, when the possibility of a chondrosarcoma is not negligible. PMID:12065124

Arsos, Georgios; Venizelos, Ioannis; Karatzas, Nikolaos; Koukoulidis, Apostolos; Karakatsanis, Constantinos

2002-07-01

319

The T-cell chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed highly in low-grade mycosis fungoides.  

PubMed

Three chemokines, Mig, IP-10, and I-TAC, are expressed highly in the epidermis. We examined the expression of the receptor for these chemokines, CXCR3, in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We compared CXCR3 expression with that of cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) and the activation marker CD30. CXCR3 was expressed by at least a subset of tumor lymphocytes in all 25 cases of low-grade mycosis fungoides (MF), with most cells positive in 20 cases. In progressed or transformed MF, CXCR3 expression was noted in 5 of 22 cases. In 4 of 5 MF cases with sequential biopsy specimens, large cell transformation was accompanied by loss of CXCR3 expression. In contrast, CLA was expressed in 35 of 42 MF cases with no significant differences in expression level between low-grade and transformed cases. In other lymphomas, CXCR3 was expressed in 4 of 4 cases of lymphomatoid papulosis, 3 of 4 cases of CD8+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and 3 of 6 cases of systemic T-cell lymphoma in skin, but not in 10 cases of cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CXCR3 expression was associated with epidermotropic T-cell tumors but was largely absent in dermal-based tumors. This phenotypic change likely influences the loss of epidermal localization. PMID:11242798

Lu, D; Duvic, M; Medeiros, L J; Luthra, R; Dorfman, D M; Jones, D

2001-03-01

320

Basic Sciences - Lymphoid Signal Transduction Biology  

Cancer.gov

The Lymphoid Signal Transduction Biology Lab studies the mechanisms of the regulatory targeting of p300 co-activator complexes in activated T-cells. Much of the work has recently focussed on defining the functional partitioning of p300 within the molecular anatomy of the activated T-cells nucleus. This work has pursued two major lines of investigation.

321

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2013-02-01

322

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-07-15

323

Analysis of factors related to prognosis and curative effect for posterolateral fusion of lumbar low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to select factors related to the prognosis and curative effect for posterolateral fusion (PLF) of lumbar low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (LGIS). Of 125 patients who accepted PLF treatment, 119 obtained solid union in this prospective study. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate factors related to the prognosis and curative effect. Spondylolisthetic position (L4, L5), gender and postoperative percent disc height were not significant factors for the prognosis and curative effect. Length of disease history (LDH), preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and postoperative percentage of slipping (% slip) were significantly related to postoperative JOA score and postoperative improved JOA score. LDH and postoperative % slip were significantly related to postoperative recovery rate. LDH, preoperative JOA score and postoperative % slip were independent related factors for the prognosis and improvement of LGIS. LDH and postoperative % slip were independent related factors for the curative effect. However, age, gender, spondylolisthetic position and postoperative percent disc height were not significant factors.

Ming-li, Feng; Yi-min, Yong; Huai-jian, Hu; Qing-ming, Zhang; Cao-Li

2008-01-01

324

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Low-Grade Cribriform Cystadenocarcinoma with Many Psammoma Bodies of the Salivary Gland  

PubMed Central

Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a rare salivary gland tumor that was recently defined as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma by the 2005 World Health Orgazniation (WHO) classification system. We report cytologic findings of an unusual case of LGCCC with many psammoma bodies. A 90-year-old man presented a palpable mass on his left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology showed tumor cells that were arranged in clusters and dispersed individually. The tumor cells showed mild atypia and had clear or dense cytoplasm with some vacuoles. Numerous psammoma bodies were noted. After surgical resection, the histologic examination revealed a mixed solid and cystic mass showing intraductal growth with focal stromal invasion. The S-100 protein expressed in the tumor cells, but smooth muscle actin and p63 were positive only in myoepithelial cells. Although LGCCCs resemble other salivary gland tumors, differentiating LGCCC during preoperative FNA is important to avoid unnecessary overtreatment.

Jeong, Ji Yun; Ahn, Dongbin

2013-01-01

325

Titrimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores by the ferrous ion-phosphoric acid reduction method.  

PubMed

The modification and extension of the U.S.A.E.C. ferrous ion-phosphoric acid reduction method for the determination of uranium in high-grade or relatively pure material to a method for the determination of uranium with a high accuracy and precision, in ores containing 0.004-7% U is described. It is simple, rapid and requires no prior separations from elements that, in other methods, frequently interfere. For sample materials having very high concentrations of interfering elements, a prior concentration step using extraction with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide is described, but it is shown that, for most low-grade ores, this step is unnecessary. PMID:18962690

Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

1980-05-01

326

A very late recurrence of a formerly misdiagnosed low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma metastasized to the colon?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Endometrial stromal sarcomas are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the uterus with an indolent clinical course but a high risk of recurrence. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a 78 year old woman who presented with rectal bleeding and recurrent urinary tract infections, caused by a very late recurrence of a formerly misdiagnosed low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, metastasized to the colon. DISCUSSION Endometrial stromal sarcomas are difficult to diagnose, both due to the rarity of the tumor and because of the close resemblance of the tumor to normal stromal tissue. These tumors are known for a high tendency of recurrence, therefore long term follow up is required in patients with endometrial stromal sarcoma. CONCLUSION In patients with a history known for endometrial stromal sarcoma recurrence should always be considered.

Bakker, Ilsalien S.; Hoven-Gondrie, Miriam L.; Moll, Freek C.P.; de Haan, Harm H.

2013-01-01

327

Paresis of the L5 nerve root after reduction of low-grade lumbosacral dysplastic spondylolisthesis: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a 16-year-old patient who underwent lumbar decompression surgery (L4-S1), low-grade spondylolisthesis reduction surgery at L5-S1, and posterior instrumented fusion from L4 to the pelvis. Neurologic monitoring did not show any sustained changes throughout the operation. The patient was awoken from endotracheal anesthesia with grade 0 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles resulting in left-sided foot drop. At the last follow-up 12 months after surgery, the patient had partial recovery, with grade 4 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles. We suggest that early identification with direct nerve root stimulation and wake-up test immediately after reduction of spondylolisthesis will allow prompt release of the reduction and further foramen exploration, and increase the possibility of good postoperative nerve root recovery. PMID:24887052

Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander; Widmann, Roger; Sama, Andrew A

2014-09-01

328

Cervical squamocolumnar junction-specific markers define distinct, clinically relevant subsets of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions  

PubMed Central

Low grade cervical squamous abnormalities [low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, CIN1)] can be confused with or followed by high grade (HSIL, CIN2/3) lesions, expending considerable resources. Recently, a cell of origin for cervical neoplasia was proposed in the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ); HSILs are almost always SCJ marker-positive (+) but LSILs include SCJ+ and negative (?) subsets. Abnormal cervical biopsies from 214 patients were classified by two experienced pathologists ("panel") as LSIL or HSIL using published criteria. SILs were scored SCJ+ and SCJ- using SCJ-specific antibodies (Keratin7, AGR2, MMP7 and GDA). Assessments of interobserver agreement, p16ink4 staining pattern, proliferative index and outcome were compared. The original diagnostician agreed with the panel diagnosis of HSIL and SCJ- LSIL in all cases (100%). However for SCJ+ LSIL, panelists disagreed with each other on 15% and with the original diagnostician on 46.2%. Comparing SCJ- and SCJ+ LSILs, 60.2% and 94.9% scored p16ink4 positive, 23% and 74.4% showed strong (full-thickness) p16ink4 staining, and 0/54 (0%) and 8/33 (24.2%) with follow-up had an HSIL outcome respectively. Some SCJ+ LSILs are more likely to both generate diagnostic disagreement and be associated with HSIL. Conversely, SCJ- LSILs generate little observer disagreement and when followed, have a very low risk of HSIL outcome. Thus, SCJ biomarkers in conjunction with histology may segregate LSILs with very low risk of HSIL outcome and conceivably could be used as a management tool to reduce excess allocation of resources to the followup of these lesions.

Herfs, Michael; Herran, Carlos Parra; Howitt, Brooke; Laury, Anna; Nucci, Marisa R; Feldman, Sarah; Jimenez, Cynthia A; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Crum, Christopher P

2014-01-01

329

Phase I study of fludarabine and paclitaxel for the treatment of low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

We conducted a phase I clinical trial of a new combination of fludarabine and paclitaxel in which 19 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were treated at five dose levels. Fludarabine was administered intravenously by bolus for 5 days and paclitaxel was given by intravenous (I.V.) continuous infusion for 96 or 72 hours starting day 1. Courses were repeated every 4 weeks. Patients whose disease responded received a maximum of six courses. All 19 patients received at least one course and could be evaluated for toxic effects, and 18 patients could be evaluated for response. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was 20 mg/m2/day I.V. bolus for 5 days of fludarabine plus 60 mg/m2/day I.V. of paclitaxel given as a continuous infusion over 72 hours. The limiting toxic effect was neutropenic fever, which was observed in five of the seven patients treated at the highest dose level. Grade 3 non-hematologic toxic effects of stomatitis (14%), neuropathy (14%), and hypotension (14%) were also observed at the highest dose level. No grade 4 non-hematologic toxic effects or treatment-related deaths occurred. One patient had herpes zoster infection of the skin 1 year after the completion of therapy. The overall response rate was 50%, with the two patients whose disease completely responded remaining disease free at 22 and 17 months. Patients with no prior exposure to either paclitaxel or fludarabine had 62% response rate. We conclude that the combination of fludarabine and paclitaxel appears to have promising activity for the treatment of recurrent low-grade NHL. PMID:9250790

Younes, A; Rodriguez, M A; McLaughlin, P; North, L; Sarris, A H; Pate, O; Hagemeister, F B; Romaguera, J; Preti, A; Bachier, C; Cabanillas, F

1997-06-01

330

Cervical squamocolumnar junction-specific markers define distinct, clinically relevant subsets of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.  

PubMed

Low-grade cervical squamous abnormalities (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL, CIN1]) can be confused with or followed by high-grade (HSIL, CIN2/3) lesions, expending considerable resources. Recently, a cell of origin for cervical neoplasia was proposed in the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ); HSILs are almost always SCJ, but LSILs include SCJ and SCJ subsets. Abnormal cervical biopsies from 214 patients were classified by 2 experienced pathologists (panel) as LSIL or HSIL using published criteria. SILs were scored SCJ and SCJ using SCJ-specific antibodies (keratin7, AGR2, MMP7, and GDA). Assessments of interobserver agreement, p16 staining pattern, proliferative index, and outcome were compared. The original diagnostician agreed with the panel diagnosis of HSIL and SCJ LSIL in all cases (100%). However, for SCJ LSIL, panelists disagreed with each other by 15% and with the original diagnostician by 46.2%. Comparing SCJ and SCJ LSILs, 60.2% and 94.9% were p16 positive, 23% and 74.4% showed strong (full-thickness) p16 staining, and 0/54 (0%) and 8/33 (24.2%) with follow-up had an HSIL outcome, respectively. Some SCJ LSILs are more likely to both generate diagnostic disagreement and be associated with HSIL. Conversely, SCJ LSILs generate little observer disagreement and, when followed, have a very low risk of HSIL outcome. Thus, SCJ biomarkers in conjunction with histology may segregate LSILs with very low risk of HSIL outcome and conceivably could be used as a management tool to reduce excess allocation of resources to the follow-up of these lesions. PMID:24076771

Herfs, Michael; Parra-Herran, Carlos; Howitt, Brooke E; Laury, Anna R; Nucci, Marisa R; Feldman, Sarah; Jimenez, Cynthia A; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Crum, Christopher P

2013-09-01

331

Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

Korinthenberg, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.korinthenberg@uniklinik-freiburg.d [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Neuburger, Daniela [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido [Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Neurocentre, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2011-03-15

332

Prescribing optimal nutrition and physical activity as "first-line" interventions for best practice management of chronic low-grade inflammation associated with osteoarthritis: evidence synthesis.  

PubMed

Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into "first-line" osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients' overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient's risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis. PMID:23346399

Dean, Elizabeth; Gormsen Hansen, Rasmus

2012-01-01

333

Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as "First-Line" Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients' overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient's risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

Dean, Elizabeth; Gormsen Hansen, Rasmus

2012-01-01

334

Role of lymphoid chemokines in the development of functional ectopic lymphoid structures in rheumatic autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

A sizeable subset of patients with the two most common organ-specific rheumatic autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) develop ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) in the synovial tissue and salivary glands, respectively. These structures are characterized by perivascular (RA) and periductal (SS) clusters of T and B lymphocytes, differentiation of high endothelial venules and networks of stromal follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Accumulated evidence from other and our group demonstrated that the formation and maintenance of ELS in these chronic inflammatory conditions is critically dependent on the ectopic expression of lymphotoxins (LT) and lymphoid chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, CCL21 and CXCL12. In this review we discuss recent advances highlighting the cellular and molecular mechanisms, which regulate the formation of ELS in RA and SS, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines. In particular, we shall focus on the evidence that in the inflammatory microenvironment of the RA synovium and SS salivary glands, several cell types, including resident epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells as well as different subsets of infiltrating immune cells, have been shown to be capable of producing lymphoid chemokines. Finally, we summarize accumulating data supporting the conclusion that ELS in RA and SS represent functional niches for B cells to undergo affinity maturation, clonal selection and differentiation into plasma cells autoreactive against disease-specific antigens, thus contributing to humoral autoimmunity over and above that of secondary lymphoid organs. PMID:22698185

Corsiero, Elisa; Bombardieri, Michele; Manzo, Antonio; Bugatti, Serena; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Pitzalis, Costantino

2012-07-30

335

Collision tumor of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma with tuberculosis in the colon: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

This report presents a case of collision tumors of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon of an 81-year-old man. All surgically resected regional mesenteric lymph nodes were found to be occupied by low-grade B-cell lymphoma, and one lymph node showed the presence of adenocarcinoma. Low-grade B-cell lymphoma was also observed in the resected spleen. Moreover, concurrent tuberculosis infection in the resected colon was proven by the presence of positive results obtained with polymerase chain reaction analysis of the mycobacterial DNA. Systemic chemotherapy was administered for advanced colon cancer with lung metastasis, and anti-tuberculosis treatment was also prescribed. The occurrence of synchronous lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the colorectal region is rare. Furthermore, collisions of these different entities are also extremely unusual. The accurate clinical determination of the dominant tumor and a timely follow-up are required for the proper treatment of these cases.

2014-01-01

336

Innate lymphoid cells promote anatomical containment of lymphoid-resident commensal bacteria  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here we identify that interleukin (IL)-22-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration of IL-22. Disseminating bacteria were identified as Alcaligenes species originating from host lymphoid tissues. Alcaligenes was sufficient to promote systemic inflammation following ILC-depletion in mice, and Alcaligenes-specific systemic immune responses were associated with Crohn's disease and progressive HCV infection in patients. Collectively, these data indicate that ILCs regulate selective containment of lymphoid-resident bacteria to prevent systemic inflammation associated with chronic diseases.

Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Fung, Thomas C.; Hutnick, Natalie A.; Kunisawa, Jun; Shibata, Naoko; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Zahm, Adam M.; Tardif, Melanie R.; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Kubota, Masaru; Farber, Donna L.; Collman, Ronald G.; Shaked, Abraham; Fouser, Lynette A.; Weiner, David B.; Tessier, Philippe A.; Friedman, Joshua R.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Bushman, Frederic D.; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Artis, David

2013-01-01

337

Combined true thymic hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia in Graves' disease.  

PubMed

True thymic hyperplasia (enlarged gland composed of histologically unremarkable cortical and medullary parenchyma) and lymphoid hyperplasia (medullary lymphoid follicles in the clinical setting of autoimmunity) usually develop as independent pathologic processes. We reviewed the clinical features and gross and microscopic pathology of 2 hyperthyroid patients with features of both thymic hyperplasia and lymphoid hyperplasia. The diagnosis of thymic hyperplasia was supported by thymic weights greater than two standard deviations above the mean weight for age and histologic evidence of expanded cortical and medullary parenchyma. The diagnosis of lymphoid hyperplasia was supported by the increased number and size of medullary lymphoid follicles and the association with Graves' disease. This unusual combination results from two separate pathogenic mechanisms operating simultaneously in hyperthyroid patients. Elevated thyroid hormones directly stimulate the proliferation of thymic epithelium, producing thymic hyperplasia. The immune abnormalities underlying Graves' disease can also result in lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. PMID:2235767

Judd, R; Bueso-Ramos, C

1990-01-01

338

Pre-amplification methods for tracking low-grade Plasmodium falciparum populations during scaled-up interventions in Southern Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is receding in many endemic countries with intervention scale -up against the disease. However, this resilient scourge may persist in low-grade submicroscopic infections among semi-immune members of the population, and be poised for possible resurgence, creating challenges for detection and assessment of intervention impact. Parasite genotyping methods, such as the molecular barcode, can identify specific malaria parasite types being transmitted and allow tracking and evaluation of parasite population structure changes as interventions are applied. This current study demonstrates application of pre-amplification methods for successful detection and genotyping of residual Plasmodium falciparum infections during a dramatic malarial decline. Methods The study was a prospective cross-sectional design and based on a 2,000 sq km vicinity of Macha Mission Hospital in southern Zambia. Willing and predominantly asymptomatic residents of all ages were screened for malaria by microscopy during the 2005 and 2008 transmission seasons, with simultaneous collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper, and extraction of Plasmodium falciparum DNA was performed. Plasmodium falciparum infections were genotyped using a 24 SNP-based molecular barcode assay using real-time PCR. Submicroscopic parasitaemia samples were subjected to pre-amplification using TaqMan PreAmp Master Mix following the manufacturer’s instructions before SNP barcode analysis. Results There was a dramatic decline of malaria between 2005 and 2008, and the geometric mean parasite density (95% CI) fell from 704/?L (390–1,271) in 2005 to 39/?L (23–68) in 2008, culminating in a large proportion of submicroscopic infections of which 90% failed to yield ample DNA for standard molecular characterization among 2008 samples. Pre-amplification enabled successful detection and genotyping of 74% of these low-grade reservoir infections, overall, compared to 54% that were detectable before pre-amplification (p <0.0005, n = 84). Furthermore, nine samples negative for parasites by microscopy and standard quantitative PCR amplification were positive after pre-amplification. Conclusions Pre-amplification allows analysis of an otherwise undetectable parasite population and may be instrumental for parasites identification, tracking and assessing the impact of interventions on parasite populations during malaria control and elimination programmes when parasitaemia is expected to decline to submicroscopic levels.

2014-01-01

339

Tertiary lymphoid neogenesis is a component of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia in patients with common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Despite reducing pneumonia and other infections, antibody replacement does not appear to treat pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH) in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The pathogenesis and optimal treatments remain to be clarified. Objective We aimed to better understand the pathology of CVID-associated lung disease. Tertiary lymphoneogenesis, although a component of interstitial lung disease associated with autoimmune diseases, has not previously been explored in patients with CVID. Methods We examined the clinical characteristics and pathologic findings of 6 patients with CVID with nodular/infiltrative lung disease who had biopsy specimens demonstrating PLH. Results In these subjects regions of PLH contained distinct Band T-cell zones, with B-cell predominance in 1 patient and T-cell predominance in the others. Colocalization of Ki67, Bcl6, and CD23 within this ectopic lymphoid architecture demonstrated tertiary lymphoneogenesis with active centers of cellular proliferation. One patient received rituximab with improved pulmonary radiologic findings. Conclusion Ectopic lymphoid tissue forming germinal centers suggest tertiary lymphoneogenesis in CVID-associated lung disease. B cell–targeted therapy might disrupt CVID-associated lymphoid hyperplasia.

Maglione, Paul J.; Ko, Huaibin M.; Beasley, Mary B.; Strauchen, James A.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2014-01-01

340

Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts.  

PubMed

Different lipidic wastes and low-grade oils and fats have been characterized and evaluated as feedstocks for the acid-catalyzed production of FAME. The characterization of these materials has revealed significant contents of free fatty acids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, unsaponifiable matter and humidity. Arenesulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 silica catalyst has provided yields to FAME close to 80% in the simultaneous esterification-transesterification of the different feedstocks, regardless of their nature and properties, using methanol under the following reaction conditions: 160 °C, 2 h, methanol to oil molar ratio of 30, 8 wt.% catalyst loading, and 2000 rpm stirring rate. Nevertheless, reutilization of the catalyst is compromised by high levels of impurities, especially because of deactivation by strong interaction of unsaponifiable matter with the catalytic sites. The conditioning of these materials by aqueous washing in the presence of cationic-exchange resin Amberlyst-15, followed by a drying step, resulted in a lower deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:21862322

Morales, Gabriel; Bautista, L Fernando; Melero, Juan A; Iglesias, Jose; Sánchez-Vázquez, Rebeca

2011-10-01

341

EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion: a novel alternative molecular aberration of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon sarcoma with a deceptively bland-looking morphology that disguises its malignant clinical behavior. It shows distinctive chromosomal translocations resulting in fusion of FUS with the CREB3L2 gene in most cases and CREB3L1 in rare cases. Thus molecular studies are particularly helpful in the diagnosis of this bland-looking sarcoma. We report 2 cases of LGFMS serendipitously found to harbor a novel alternative EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion, as confirmed by DNA sequencing of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction products and fluorescence in situ hybridization. One patient was a child who presented with a subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg, and the other was a middle-aged woman who had a mass lesion over the proximal thigh. Morphologically, one case showed a spindle cell tumor with hyalinization and giant rosettes, whereas the other showed classical histology of LGFMS with focal metaplastic bone formation. Immunostaining for MUC4 showed extensive positive staining. Our findings therefore expand the spectrum of gene fusions that characterize LGFMS and suggest that the EWSR1 gene may substitute for the function of FUS in gene fusions of sarcoma. PMID:23588368

Lau, Patrick P L; Lui, Philip C W; Lau, Gene T C; Yau, Derek T W; Cheung, Elaine T Y; Chan, John K C

2013-05-01

342

Immunohistochemical clue for the histological overlap of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

It remains difficult to distinguish adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Although these neoplasms exhibit nearly similar histologic patterns, their biologic behavior is significantly different. This study was carried out in an attempt to overcome the histological overlap between these tumors using immunohistochemical method for c-kit and galectin-3 proteins on twenty cases of salivary gland tumors including twelve ACC and eight PLGA. Results revealed positive cytoplasmic reactivity for c-kit in 100% of ACC cases and only in 25% of PLGA. On the other hand, galectin-3 expression was observed in 100% of both ACC and PLGA cases. Moreover, solid variant of ACC showed overexpression of both proteins than cribriform and tubular subtypes. Significant positive correlation between the two studied proteins in ACC and PLGA was also observed (p < 0.05). Upon these results, over expression of c-kit and galectin-3 in ACC cases supports the concept of solid variant as a high-grade tumor. Moreover, c-kit may be used as a helpful marker to distinguish ACC from PLGA in cases where the diagnosis can be challenging. PMID:24265903

El-Nagdy, Sherif; Salama, Naglaa M; Mourad, Mohamed I

2013-09-01

343

Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, epithelial cell abnormality-adjusted workload, and the ThinPrep imaging system.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between screening sensitivity using the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) and epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) adjusted workload (ECA rate × actual slides screened/day) at the thresholds of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We sought to determine if a similar correlation could be shown at the threshold of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Using data in seven manuscripts from the literature that contain sufficient information, the change in screening sensitivity using the TIS compared with manual screening was negatively correlated with ECA adjusted workload (y = -3.75x + 54, R(2) = 0.104). Using the sensitivity of manual screening of 79% for manual screening at a threshold of LSIL from the original TIS trial, 100% sensitivity could be achieved at an ECA adjusted workload of approximately seven slides/day, the same workload that achieves 100% sensitivity at a threshold of ASCUS and slightly higher than the threshold for HSIL. We conclude that the ECA adjusted workload is a valuable method to assess workload for the TIS at the threshold of LSIL. Laboratories using the TIS should restrict workload to seven ECA adjusted slides/day (maximum actual slides/day = 700/ECA percentage). PMID:22807385

Renshaw, Andrew A; Elsheikh, Tarik M

2012-08-01

344

Low grade inflammation, as evidenced by basal high sensitivity CRP, is not correlated to outcome measures in IVF  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the relationship between low-grade inflammation, measured as basal high sensitivity (hs)-CRP, and IVF outcome. Methods We recruited a total of 220 women undergoing infertility work up prior to IVF. Patients were selected for a BMI?

Robinson, Sarah; Pemberton, Phil; Laing, Ian

2008-01-01

345

[Cu and Fe bioleaching in low-grade chalcopyrite and bioleaching mechanisms using Penicillium janthinellum strain GXCR].  

PubMed

Bioleaching of Cu and Fe in low-grade chalcopyrite using Penicillium janthinellum strian GXCR was studied. As a result, shaking bioleaching was more efficient than submerged bioleaching; Cu bioleaching was much better than Fe bioleaching; under conditions of optimum carbon source (10% sucrose, W/V), optimum nitrogen source (1.5% NaNO3, W/V), shaking bioleaching and the optimum combination of conditions (initial pH 6.0 in leaching media, 5% (W/V) 200-mesh ore and initial inocula of 3.0x10(5) conidia/mL), Cu bioleaching efficiency reached 87.31% (W/W). One of the most important factors affecting Cu bioleaching in shaking bioleaching was the initial pH in leaching media (F > F0.05). The major organic acids for Cu and Fe bioleaching were citric and oxalic acids, respectively. Low bioleaching efficiency by submerged bioleaching was due to low production of citric and oxalic acids. The mechanisms employed by the GXCR in Cu bioleaching included biochemical functions of citric and oxalic acids as well as ore crack caused by mechanical power generated from mycelial growth. PMID:19256351

Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Huang, Guihai; Bai, Xiaobo; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Youzhi

2008-11-01

346

Use of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria for the improvement of copper extraction from a low-grade ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioleaching was examined for copper extraction from a low grade ore using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic bacteria. Five equal size columns were used for the leaching of the ore. Sulfuric acid solution with a flow rate of 3.12 L·m-2·h-1 and pH 1.5 passed through each column continuously for 90 d. In the first and the second column, bioleaching was performed without agglomeration of the ore and on the agglomerated ore, respectively. 28wt% of the copper was extracted in the first column after 40 d, while this figure was 38wt% in the second column. After 90 d, however, the overall extractions were almost the same for both of them. Bioleaching with mesophilic bacteria was performed in the third column without agglomeration of the ore and in the fourth column on the agglomerated ore. After 40 d, copper extractions in the third and the fourth columns were 62wt% and 70wt%, respectively. Copper extractions were 75wt% for both the columns after 90 d. For the last column, bioleaching was performed with moderate thermophilic bacteria and agglomerated ore. Copper extractions were 80wt% and 85wt% after 40 and 90 d, respectively. It was concluded that crushing and agglomeration of the ore using bacteria could enhance the copper extraction considerably.

Darezereshki, E.; Schaffie, M.; Lotfalian, M.; Seiedbaghery, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.

2011-04-01

347

Endoscopic ultrasound assessment of lesions of the ampulla of Vater is of particular value in low-grade dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Background The accurate diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma within ampullary lesions can be difficult, but, when possible, identifies patients who require endoscopic or surgical resection, respectively. The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in diagnosing these lesions and the degree of dysplasia is unclear. Methods Patients with lesions of the ampulla were identified over 5 years. Patients who did not undergo EUS were compared with those who did. Results A total of 27 of 58 (47%) patients were investigated with EUS. Pretreatment diagnoses were correct in 93% of the EUS group vs. 78% of the no-EUS group. Rates of diagnostic accuracy in low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) were 72%, 20% and 96%, respectively, in the no-EUS group, and 93%, 50% and 100%, respectively, in the EUS group. Every diagnosis of LGD in the EUS group was correct, whereas these diagnoses accounted for the majority of errors (eight of 13) in the no-EUS group. High-grade dysplasia was frequently misdiagnosed. More patients were treated by endoscopic resection in the EUS group (12 of 27 vs. five of 31; P= 0.025). Conclusions Endoscopic ultrasound increases the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of ampullary lesions and is particularly useful in patients with LGD because it permits safe endoscopic management. Patients with HGD must be reviewed carefully and considered for pancreatoduodenectomy.

Roberts, Keith J; McCulloch, Neil; Sutcliffe, Rob; Isaac, John; Muiesan, Paolo; Bramhall, Simon; Mirza, Darius; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Mahon, Brinder S

2013-01-01

348

Tertiary lymphoid organs in infection and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

The lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen have an optimal structure that allows the interaction between T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) on a matrix made up by stromal cells. Such a highly organized structure can also be formed in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) at sites of infection or chronic immune stimulation. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of TLO formation and maintenance, the controversies surrounding the nature of the inducing events, and the functions of these structures in infection, transplantation and autoimmunity. PMID:22622061

Neyt, Katrijn; Perros, Frédéric; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

2012-06-01

349

Covalent inhibition of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase.  

PubMed

Covalent inhibitors of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) were identified from a screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecules Repository (MLSMR). Both of the two lead compounds identified have phosphotyrosine-mimetic benzoic acid moieties as well as electrophilic acrylonitrile groups. Inhibition kinetics of both compounds are consistent with covalent modification of the enzyme, with nanomolar KI and reciprocal millisecond kinact values, representing the best efficiency ratios (kinact /KI ) among currently reported covalent LYP inhibitors. Covalent inhibitors can provide longer efficacy and better selectivity than more conventional noncovalent inhibitors, and these lead compounds are an important step toward the development of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-targeted covalent therapeutic compounds. PMID:24403103

Ahmed, Vanessa F; Bottini, Nunzio; Barrios, Amy M

2014-02-01

350

Separation of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements with High Purity from Low-Grade Gibbsite-Bearing Shale Ore by Different Chelating Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very difficult to recover uranium and rare earth elements (REEs) from low-grade ore especially gibbsite-bearing shale. The difficulty lies not only in the separation of uranium from REEs, but also the very low concentration of uranyl ions and REEs comparison with other metal ions in liquor. In this study, we perform the recovery in three steps. In the

Mohammed F. Hamza; Ibrahim E. El Aassy; Fadia Y. Ahmed; Adel A.-H. Abdel-Rahman; Ayman M. Atta

2012-01-01

351

In situ U Pb dating and element mapping of three generations of monazite: Unravelling cryptic tectonothermal events in low-grade terranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ U Pb dating of monazite and xenotime in sedimentary rocks from the mid-Archean Soanesville Group in the Pilbara Craton, yields ages for provenance, diagenesis and multiple low-grade metamorphic events. Detrital monazite and xenotime grains give dates >3250 Ma, whereas diagenetic xenotime provides a new minimum age of 3190 ± 10 Ma for deposition of the basal Soanesville Group,

Birger Rasmussen; Ian R. Fletcher; Janet R. Muhling

2007-01-01

352

Cerebral low-grade lymphoma and light chain deposition disease: exceedingly high IgG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic clue.  

PubMed

Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old male with an exceedingly rare manifestation of a low-grade lymphoma in the brain associated with light chain deposition disease (LCDD). The patient presented with epileptic seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right parietal lobe that were suspicious of vasculitis, low-grade glioma, or neurosarcoidosis. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but not in the serum, highly elevated IgG was found. A stereotactic biopsy of one cerebral lesion was performed. Histopathology revealed a low grade lymphoplasmacytic B-cell lymphoma with light chain deposition disease (LCDD). Bone marrow biopsy and laboratory workup did not show any systemic involvement. LCDD exclusively affecting the brain is an exceedingly rare finding. It can be associated with low-grade B-cell lymphoma. This is the first report of LCDD exclusively affecting the brain in an elderly patient. Compared with the two younger patients previously reported, the course of the disease was of a slow-evolving nature. In constellations of highly elevated IgG in CSF and multiple white matter lesions, LCDD should be considered as underlying pathology. PMID:21073842

Pantazis, G; Psaras, T; Krope, K; von Coelln, R; Fend, F; Bock, T; Schittenhelm, J; Melms, A; Meyermann, R; Bornemann, A

2010-01-01

353

A low-grade increase of serum pancreatic exocrine enzyme levels by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

A potential adverse effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) on the pancreas remains controversial. We evaluated the DPP-4i effects on pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. These enzymes were slightly but significantly increased, suggesting DPP-4i cause a low-grade inflammatory change in the exocrine pancreas. PMID:23618553

Tokuyama, Hirotake; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Fujimoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nieda, Mie; Okazawa, Tetsuya; Takemoto, Minoru; Shimada, Fumio

2013-06-01

354

A Comparison of Brain Wave Patterns of High and Low Grade Point Average Students During Rest, Problem Solving, and Stress Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare brain wave patterns produced by high and low grade point average students, while they were resting, solving problems, and subjected to stress situations. The study involved senior midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The high group was comprised of those whose cumulative grade point average was…

Montor, Karel

355

Can Cutaneous Low-Grade B-cell Lymphoma Transform Into Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma? An Immunohistochemical Study of 82 cases.  

PubMed

: Low-grade B-cell lymphomas of the skin, especially, primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma has several distinctive features when compared with nodal/systemic follicular lymphomas, as they are frequently negative for bcl-2 and CD10, and only fewer than 25% of the cases show a bcl-2 rearrangement. The risk of transformation of a cutaneous low-grade B-cell lymphoma, such as primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma, to primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PCDLBCL) has not been clearly delineated in the literature. Transformation of systemic/nodal follicular lymphoma into aggressive DLBCL is associated with rapid disease progression, refractoriness to treatment, and poor prognosis. The authors studied 82 cases of primary cutaneous DLBCL using antibodies for follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), CD21, and CD35 to detect networks of FDCs that could possibly indicate transformation of preexisting low-grade B-cell lymphoma to PCDLBCL. All cases were classified as PCDLBCL using strict histologic and immunophenotypic criteria. Fifty-three cases were classified as primary cutaneous DLBCL of "leg type," and 29 cases were classified as primary cutaneous DLBCL, "NOS" category. Immunohistochemical studies were performed in all 82 cases; in 15 cases, a CD21/CD35+ network of FDCs was noted within the tumor, indicating the presence of remnants of residual germinal centers, suggesting the possibility of a transformed low-grade B-cell lymphoma. In summary, the authors' findings seem to indicate that some cases of primary cutaneous DLBCL may result from transformation of a low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of their findings by using ancillary techniques including genetic analysis. PMID:24698933

Plaza, Jose A; Kacerovska, Denisa; Sangueza, Martin; Schieke, Stefan; Buonaccorsi, Noelle; Suster, Saul; Kazakov, Dmitry V

2014-06-01

356

Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053). MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04). Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

2011-01-01

357

Ectopic lymphoid-like structures in infection, cancer and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Ectopic lymphoid-like structures often develop at sites of inflammation where they influence the course of infection, autoimmune disease, cancer and transplant rejection. These lymphoid aggregates range from tight clusters of B cells and T cells to highly organized structures that comprise functional germinal centres. Although the mechanisms governing ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in human pathology remain poorly defined, the presence of ectopic lymphoid-like structures within inflamed tissues has been linked to both protective and deleterious outcomes in patients. In this Review, we discuss investigations in both experimental model systems and patient cohorts to provide a perspective on the formation and functions of ectopic lymphoid-like structures in human pathology, with particular reference to the clinical implications and the potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:24948366

Pitzalis, Costantino; Jones, Gareth W; Bombardieri, Michele; Jones, Simon A

2014-07-01

358

Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings  

PubMed Central

Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = ?0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings.

Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solis-Lozano, Lourdes; Suarez-Alvarez, Karina; Gonzalez-Chavez, Antonio; Bejar, Yadira L.; Robles-Diaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

2013-01-01

359

Endothelial dysfunction in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: relationship with insulin resistance and low-grade chronic inflammation.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) carry a number of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular morbidity is elevated even in young women with PCOS. Low-grade chronic inflammation, reflected in elevated levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and endothelial dysfunction have recently been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We compared high-sensitivity (hs)CRP concentrations and endothelium dysfunction in 37 women with PCOS and 25 control subjects matched as a group for age and body mass index (BMI). Arterial endothelium and smooth muscle function was measured by examining brachial artery responses to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent stimuli. Serum LH, testosterone, androstenedione, and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group than the control group. The PCOS group was more insulin resistant than age- and BMI-matched control women. CRP concentrations were higher in PCOS women than the healthy control group (0.25 vs. 0.09 mg/dl). hsCRP concentrations were correlated with BMI, insulin sensitivity indices (homeostasis model assessment and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The groups were well matched for baseline brachial artery diameter. There was a significant difference in endothelium-dependent (flow- mediated dilation) and endothelium-independent (sublingual nitroglycerin) vascular responses between the women with PCOS and the normal healthy control group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was correlated with hsCRP concentrations and insulin resistance. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate increased levels of hsCRP, endothelial dysfunction, and the relation with insulin resistance in young and normal-weight women with PCOS. Clinical strategies aimed at reducing insulin resistance may prevent early atherosclerosis in women with PCOS. PMID:15531516

Tarkun, Ilhan; Arslan, Berrin C; Cantürk, Zeynep; Türemen, Erdem; Sahin, Tayfun; Duman, Can

2004-11-01

360

Geological constraints on the thermodynamic properties of the stilbite - stellerite solid solution in low-grade metabasalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard state thermodynamic data for stilbite (Ca 2NaAl 5Si 13O 36?16H 2O) and stellerite (Ca 2Al 4Si 14O 36?14H 2O), together with mixing properties of the stilbite -stellerite solid solution (stilbite SS) are derived through assessment of geological observations of stilbite SS compositions in metabasalts, experimental phase equilibria, and calorimetric observations. Measured compositions of stilbite SS in Tertiary metabasalts in Iceland and Icelandic geothermal systems change systematically towards the stellerite endmember with increasing stratigraphic depth and temperature. Standard molal volumes, heat capacities, and entropies for the endmembers of the solid solution are derived through critical review of published crystallographic and calorimetric data for natural stilbite SS. Standard molal Gibbs energies of formation at 298.15 K and 1 bar for stilbite (-4,946,475cal mol -1) and stellerite (-4,762,036 cal mol -1) and the mixing properties of the solid solution are retrieved from observed phase- and compositional-relations in metabasalts at Berufjördur, Iceland, measured temperatures of zeolite mineral distribution in active geothermal systems, and published observations of reversed phase equilibria. Mixing in stilbite SS can be described with an athermal solid solution model. Thermodynamic data resulting from our analysis provide close correlation between compositions of stilbite SS in Icelandic geothermal systems predicted from compositions of geothermal solutions and observed compositions of these minerals in low-grade metabasalts of Iceland, as well as the observed temperature of the stilbite SS to laumontite (leonhardite) transition in Icelandic geothermal systems. Stilbite SS composition in metabasalts is a sensitive function of temperature, fluid composition, coexisting minerals (especially silica polymorphs) and geothermal gradient.

Fridriksson, Thráinn; Neuhoff, Philip S.; Arnórsson, Stefán; Bird, Dennis K.

2001-11-01

361

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2013-12-01

362

Phosphorylated p70S6K in noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: correlation with tumor recurrence  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether inhibiting phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K) suppresses the proliferation and growth of noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinoma (LG-URCa) in vitro and whether p-p70S6K can serve as a predictive biomarker for the recurrence of noninvasive LG-URCa of the bladder in patients. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) for 95 LG-URCa and 35 benign urothelium samples and performed immunohistochemical staining for p-p70S6K and p-4E-BP1. A Cox regression model was used to investigate the predictive factors for recurrence of LG-URCa. We investigated the dose-dependent antiproliferative effect of rapamycin, its antiproliferative effect and the growth-inhibition effect of p70S6K siRNA transfection in RT4 and 253J cell lines. The pT1 staged group (P < 0.05; hazard ratio (HR), 2.415) and the high p-p70S6K staining group (P < 0.05; HR, 2.249) were independent factors for predicting recurrence. Rapamycin inhibited RT4 and 253J cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (r = ?0.850, P < 0.001 in RT4 cells; r = ?0.835, P < 0.001 in 253J cells). RT4 and 253J cell proliferation and growth were inhibited by the transfection of p70S6K siRNA and rapamycin, respectively (P < 0.05). Transfection of p70S6K siRNA resulted in inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and growth that were similar to those of rapamycin. Our results suggest that inhibiting p70S6K phosphorylation is important to prevent recurrence and that p70S6K phosphorylation can be used as a molecular biomarker to predict recurrence of certain LG-URCa of the bladder.

Kim, Soon-Ja; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hui Seok; Lee, Tae-Jin; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, In Ho

2014-01-01

363

Tight junctions and IBS--the link between epithelial permeability, low-grade inflammation, and symptom generation?  

PubMed

In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Dr Ewa Wilcz-Villega and colleagues report low expression of E-cadherin, a tight junction protein involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability, in the colonic mucosa of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with predominance of diarrhea (IBS-D) or alternating symptoms (IBS-A). These findings constitute an improvement in our knowledge of epithelial barrier disruption associated with IBS. There is mounting evidence to indicate that a compromised epithelial barrier is associated with low-grade immune activation and intestinal dysfunction in at least a proportion of IBS patients. During the last 10 years of research, much interest has focused on the increase in the number of different types of immune cells in the gut mucosa of IBS patients including: mast cells, T lymphocytes, and other local cells such as enteroendocrine cells. The inflammatory mediators released by these cells or other luminal factors could be at the origin of altered epithelial barrier functions and enteric nervous system signaling, which lead to gut hypersensitivity. A current conceptual framework states that clinical symptoms of IBS could be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the mucosal barrier, highlighting the crucial importance of elucidating the contributory role of epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of IBS. More importantly, disruption of the epithelial barrier could also participate in the generation of persistent abdominal pain and discomfort mimicking IBS in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases considered in remission. This mini review gives a brief summary of clinical and experimental evidence concerning the mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier defects in IBS. PMID:24548256

Piche, T

2014-03-01

364

The age-related increase in low-grade systemic inflammation (Inflammaging) is not driven by cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed

Aging is accompanied by the development of low-grade systemic inflammation, termed 'inflammaging', characterized by raised serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammaging is implicated in the pathogenesis of several of the major age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and dementia and is associated with increased mortality. The incidence of infection with the persistent herpes virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) also increases with age. Cross-sectional studies have proposed CMV infection as a significant driver of inflammaging, but a definitive case for CMV as a causative agent in inflammaging has not yet been made. We studied longitudinally 249 subjects (153 men, 96 women) who participated in the Hertfordshire Ageing Study at baseline (1993/5, mean age 67·5 years) and at 10 year follow-up. At both times, anthropometric measurements were made and subjects provided blood samples for analysis of inflammatory status and CMV seropositivity. In the cohort as a whole, serum CRP (P < 0·02) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF? (P < 0·001) and IL-6 (P < 0·001) were increased between baseline and follow-up sampling whereas levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were decreased (P < 0·001). These changes to cytokine status over time occurred equally in the 60% of subjects who were seropositive for CMV at baseline and follow-up, the 8% who were CMV negative at baseline but who became CMV positive by the 10 year follow-up, and also in the 32% who were CMV seronegative throughout. We conclude that CMV infection is not a primary causative factor in the age-related increase in systemic inflammation. PMID:22708923

Bartlett, David B; Firth, Charlotte M; Phillips, Anna C; Moss, Paul; Baylis, Daniel; Syddall, Holly; Sayer, Avan A; Cooper, Cyrus; Lord, Janet M

2012-10-01

365

Intraoperative mapping and monitoring of brain functions for the resection of low-grade gliomas: technical considerations.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas ([LGGs] WHO Grade II) are slow-growing intrinsic cerebral lesions that diffusely infiltrate the brain parenchyma along white matter tracts and almost invariably show a progression toward malignancy. The treatment of these tumors forces the neurosurgeon to face uncommon difficulties and is still a subject of debate. At the authors' institution, resection is the first option in the treatment of LGGs. It requires the combined efforts of a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, neuropsychologists, and neurophysiologists, who together contribute to the definition of the location, extension, and extent of functional involvement that a specific lesion has caused in a particular patient. In fact, each tumor induces specific modifications of the brain functional network, with high interindividual variability. This requires that each treatment plan is tailored to the characteristics of the tumor and of the patient. Consequently, surgery is performed according to functional and anatomical boundaries to achieve the maximal resection with maximal functional preservation. The identification of eloquent cerebral areas, which are involved in motor, language, memory, and visuospatial functions and have to be preserved during surgery, is performed through the intraoperative use of brain mapping techniques. The use of these techniques extends surgical indications and improves the extent of resection, while minimizing the postoperative morbidity and safeguarding the patient's quality of life. In this paper the authors present their paradigm for the surgical treatment of LGGs, focusing on the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring protocol as well as on the brain mapping technique. They briefly discuss the results that have been obtained at their institution since 2005 as well as the main critical points they have encountered when using this approach. PMID:19795953

Bertani, Giulio; Fava, Enrica; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Carrabba, Giorgio; Casarotti, Alessandra; Papagno, Costanza; Castellano, Antonella; Falini, Andrea; Gaini, Sergio M; Bello, Lorenzo

2009-10-01

366

Accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate is not a biomarker for malignant progression in IDH-mutated low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate in IDH-mutated low-grade gliomas (LGG; WHO grade II) correlates with their malignant transformation and to evaluate changes in metabolite levels during malignant progression. Methods Samples from 54 patients were screened for IDH mutations: 17 patients with LGG without malignant transformation, 18 patients with both LGG and their consecutive secondary glioblastomas (sGBM; n = 36), 2 additional patients with sGBM, 10 patients with primary glioblastomas (pGBM), and 7 patients without gliomas. The cellular tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites, citrate, isocitrate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, ?-ketoglutarate, fumarate, and succinate were profiled by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Ratios of 2-hydroxyglutarate/isocitrate were used to evaluate differences in 2-hydroxyglutarate accumulation in tumors from LGG and sGBM groups, compared with pGBM and nonglioma groups. Results IDH1 mutations were detected in 27 (77.1%) of 37 patients with LGG. In addition, in patients with LGG with malignant progression (n = 18), 17 patients were IDH1 mutated with a stable mutation status during their malignant progression. None of the patients with pGBM or nonglioma tumors had an IDH mutation. Increased 2-hydroxyglutarate/isocitrate ratios were seen in patients with IDH1-mutated LGG and sGBM, in comparison with those with IDH1-nonmutated LGG, pGBM, and nonglioma groups. However, no differences in intratumoral 2-hydroxyglutarate/isocitrate ratios were found between patients with LGG with and without malignant transformation. Furthermore, in patients with paired samples of LGG and their consecutive sGBM, the 2-hydroxyglutarate/isocitrate ratios did not differ between both tumor stages. Conclusion Although intratumoral 2-hydroxyglutarate accumulation provides a marker for the presence of IDH mutations, the metabolite is not a useful biomarker for identifying malignant transformation or evaluating malignant progression.

Juratli, Tareq A.; Peitzsch, Mirko; Geiger, Kathrin; Schackert, Gabriele; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Krex, Dietmar

2013-01-01

367

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2014-06-01

368

KRAS (but not BRAF) mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumour are associated with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma.  

PubMed

BRAF and KRAS mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumours (OSBTs) and ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) have been previously described. However, whether those OSBTs would progress to LGSCs or whether those LGSCs were developed from OSBT precursors in previous studies is unknown. Therefore, we assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations in tumour samples from 23 recurrent LGSC patients with a known initial diagnosis of OSBT. Paraffin blocks from both OSBT and LGSC samples were available for five patients, and either OSBTs or LGSCs were available for another 18 patients. Tumour cells from paraffin-embedded tissues were dissected out for mutation analysis by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Tumours that appeared to have wild-type KRAS by conventional PCR-Sanger sequencing were further analysed by full COLD (co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature)-PCR and deep sequencing. Full COLD-PCR was able to enrich the amplification of mutated alleles. Deep sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM). By conventional PCR-Sanger sequencing, BRAF mutation was detected only in one patient and KRAS mutations were detected in ten patients. Full COLD-PCR deep sequencing detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in eight additional patients. Three of the five patients with both OSBT and LGSC samples available had the same KRAS mutations detected in both OSBT and LGSC samples. The remaining two patients had only KRAS mutations detected in their LGSC samples. For patients with either OSBT or LGSC samples available, KRAS mutations were detected in seven OSBT samples and six LGSC samples. Surprisingly, patients with the KRAS G12V mutation have shorter survival times. In summary, KRAS mutations are very common in recurrent LGSC, while BRAF mutations are rare. The findings indicate that recurrent LGSC can arise from proliferation of OSBT tumour cells with or without detectable KRAS mutations. PMID:24549645

Tsang, Yvonne T; Deavers, Michael T; Sun, Charlotte C; Kwan, Suet-Yan; Kuo, Eric; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C; Gershenson, David M; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

2013-12-01

369

Low Grade Gliomas in Eloquent Locations - Implications for Surgical Strategy, Survival and Long Term Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical management of suspected LGG remains controversial. A key factor when deciding a surgical strategy is often the tumors’ perceived relationship to eloquent brain regions Objective To study the association between tumor location, survival and long-term health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas (LGG). Methods Adults (?18 years) operated due to newly diagnosed LGG from 1998 through 2009 included from two Norwegian university hospitals. After review of initial histopathology, 153 adults with supratentorial WHO grade II LGG were included in the study. Tumors’ anatomical location and the relationship to eloquent regions were graded. Survival analysis was adjusted for known prognostic factors and the initial surgical procedure (biopsy or resection). In long-term survivors, HRQL was assessed with disease specific questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20) as well as a generic questionnaire (EuroQol 5D). Results There was a significant association between eloquence and survival (log-rank, p<0.001). The estimated 5-year survival was 77% in non-eloquent tumors, 71% in intermediate located tumors and 54% in eloquent tumors. In the adjusted analysis the hazard ratio of increasing eloquence was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–2.0, p?=?0.022). There were no differences in HRQL between patients with eloquent and non-eloquent tumors. The most frequent self-reported symptoms were related to fatigue, cognition, and future uncertainty. Conclusion Eloquently located LGGs are associated with impaired survival compared to non-eloquently located LGG, but in long-term survivors HRQL is similar. Although causal inference from observational data should be done with caution, the findings illuminate the delicate balance in surgical decision making in LGGs, and add support to the probable survival benefits of aggressive surgical strategies, perhaps also in eloquent locations.

Jakola, Asgeir S.; Unsgard, Geirmund; Myrmel, Kristin S.; Kloster, Roar; Torp, Sverre H.; Lindal, Sigurd; Solheim, Ole

2012-01-01

370

Provenance of Paleozoic very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks of South Tisia (Slavonian Mountains, Radlovac Complex, Croatia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monazite age dating, detrital heavy mineral content and whole-rock geochemistry provided insight into the provenance, depositional history and paleogeological setting of the Radlovac Complex very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks (South Tisia, Slavonian Mountains, Croatia). Electron microprobe based Th-U-Pb dating of detrital monazite indicates a Variscan age of the protolith (330 ± 10 Ma). The detrital heavy mineral assemblages of representative metasedimentary rocks are dominated by apatite, zircon, tourmaline and rutile accompanied by minor quantity of epidote/zoisite, monazite and titanite. Judging from the heavy mineral assemblage, felsic igneous rocks served as the source material. This is consistent with the major and trace element spectrum of studied metasedimentary rocks characterized by high concentration of Th, high L + MREEs and high ratios of La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co and Th/Cr. The occurrence of magmatic monazite, zircon and xenotime and the absence of metamorphic heavy minerals suggest that granitoids, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses served as one major source for the metapsammites. Such rock types are commonly exposed in the Papuk Complex of the older surrounding complexes, while the Psunj Complex also contains metamorphic rocks. This is in good correlation with the monazite ages presented here which fits better with ages of Papuk Complex representative rocks than with those of the Psunj Complex known from the literature. Overall, data show that the Radlovac Complex represents the detritus of the local Variscan crust characterized by granitoid bodies, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses typical for the Papuk Complex.

Biševac, Vanja; Krenn, Erwin; Finger, Fritz; Lužar-Oberiter, Borna; Balen, Dražen

2013-02-01

371

Lymphoid tissue inducer cells maintain memory CD4 T cells within secondary lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

Phylogeny shows that CD4 T cell memory and lymph nodes (LNs) co-evolved in placental mammals. In ontogeny, retinoic acid orphan receptor (ROR) ?-dependent lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells program the development of mammalian LNs. Here, we show that while primary CD4 T cell expansion is normal in ROR?-deficient mice, the persistence of memory CD4 T cells is ROR?-dependent. Furthermore, using bone marrow chimeric mice we demonstrate that LTi cells are the key ROR?-expressing cell type sufficient for memory CD4 T cell survival in the absence of persistent antigen. This effect was specific for CD4 T cells, since memory CD8 T cells survived equally well in the presence or absence of LTi cells. These data demonstrate a novel role for LTi cells, archetypal members of the innate lymphoid cell family, in supporting memory CD4 T cell survival in vivo.

Withers, David R.; Gaspal, Fabrina M.; Mackley, Emma C.; Marriott, Clare L.; Ross, Ewan A.; Desanti, Guillaume E.; Roberts, Natalie A.; White, Andrea J.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; McConnell, Fiona M.; Anderson, Graham; Lane, Peter J.L.

2012-01-01

372

Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Invasive Mammary Carcinoma With Columnar Cell Morphology Arising in a Complex Fibroadenoma in Continuity With Columnar Cell Change and Flat Epithelial Atypia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the clinicopathologic features of a small low-grade invasive mammary carcinoma with cytomorphological columnar cell features arising in a complex fibroadenoma that in addition to sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, and usual ductal hyperplasia also displayed columnar cell change with flat epithelial atypia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ merging with the invasive carcinoma. There were strong cytomorphological similarities between

Fredrik Petersson; Puay Hoon Tan; Thomas Choudary Putti

2010-01-01

373

Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas  

PubMed Central

5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques

2013-01-01

374

Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

PubMed Central

Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this infection, as well as monitoring for at least 1 year according to the natural evolution of the disease.

Valencia, Marcelino Hernandez; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomas Hernandez; Giron, Antonio Vargas; Lopez, Carlos Vargas

2011-01-01

375

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids.  

PubMed

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0.77-3.11) respectively, P<0.001) and the levels correlated to plasma testosterone (r=-0.31, P<0.01), BMI (r=0.42, P<0.001), and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (r=0.46, P<0.001). Treatment with testosterone did not significantly lower sCD163. Females with TS not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163. PMID:24148221

Thomsen, Henrik H; Møller, Holger J; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian A; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Høst, Christian; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-01-01

376

Psychosocial Impact of Alternative Management Policies for Low-Grade Cervical Abnormalities: Results from the TOMBOLA Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care) and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. Methods Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20–59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n?=?1703) or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n?=?1696). At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A subgroup (n?=?2354) completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (?8) and significant anxiety (?11; “30-month percentages”). Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (?9). Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. Results There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR?=?0.99, 95% CI 0.80–1.21) or anxiety (OR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.81–1.16) between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR?=?0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR?=?0.67 95% CI 0.54–0.84). Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time-points. Conclusions There was no difference in the longer-term psychosocial impact of management policies based on cytological surveillance or initial colposcopy. Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 34841617

Little, Julian; Gray, Nicola M.; Cruickshank, Margaret; Smart, Louise; Thornton, Alison; Waugh, Norman; Walker, Leslie

2013-01-01

377

Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults with Low-Grade Glioma: a Report Utilizing Intergroup 86-72-511  

PubMed Central

Purpose A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two EORTC radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected dataset (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials 203 patients were treated on an NCCTG-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurological deficit, age, and tumor crossing midline. A high risk group was defined as the presence of >2 risk factors. In addition, Mini Mental Status Exam score (MMSE), extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results In univariate analysis the following were statistically significant (p<0.05) detrimental factors for both progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. MMSE>26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE were significant predictors of OS, while tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, the low risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 vs. 3.9 yrs: p<.0001) and PFS (6.2 vs. 1.9 yrs: p<.0001) than the high risk group. 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS versus one or no deletion (median OS 12.6 versus 7.2 yrs, p=0.03). Conclusions Although the low risk groups by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high risk group, this is primarily due to the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

2010-01-01

378

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids  

PubMed Central

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47–6.90) and 1.36 (0.77–3.11) respectively, P<0.001) and the levels correlated to plasma testosterone (r=?0.31, P<0.01), BMI (r=0.42, P<0.001), and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (r=0.46, P<0.001). Treatment with testosterone did not significantly lower sCD163. Females with TS not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163.

Thomsen, Henrik H; M?ller, Holger J; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian A; Skakkebaek, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; H?st, Christian; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-01-01

379

Detection of High-Grade Lesions on Cell Blocks from Residual Fluids of Pap Smears Diagnosed as Low-Grade Abnormalities: A Preliminary Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of the technique of cell blocks (CBs) from residual fluids of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears diagnosed as low-grade abnormalities in the detection of high-grade lesions on biopsies. Study Design: In the present pilot study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of 70 CBs from liquid-based cervicovaginal smears of women with atypical squamous cells (ASCs) of undetermined

Xavier Catteau; Philippe Simon; Jean-Christophe Noël

2012-01-01

380

40Ar\\/ 39Ar dating of volcanism and subsequent very low-grade metamorphism in a subsiding basin: example of the Cretaceous lava series from central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

40Ar\\/39Ar geochronological method is applied to date both emplacement and subsequent very low-grade metamorphism of a thick lava series, the Veta Negra Formation from the Cordón de Chacana area, in the Coastal Range of central Chile. On the same lava series, and even on the same rock sample, it was possible to measure apparently valid ages of both the emplacement

Francisco Fuentes; Gilbert Féraud; Luis Aguirre; Diego Morata

2005-01-01

381

Correlation between tumor-related seizures and molecular genetic profile in 103 Chinese patients with low-grade gliomas: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-related seizures are a well-known presenting symptom of primary brain tumors, particularly low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation between tumor-related seizures and molecular genetic profile in Chinese patients with LGGs. A series of 103 LGGs, including 27 oligodendrogliomas, 41 oligoastrocytomas and 35 astrocytomas, was analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)

Lei Huang; Gan You; Tao Jiang; Guilin Li; Shouwei Li; Zhongcheng Wang

2011-01-01

382

Preliminary results from a Phase II trail of conforml radiation therapy for pediatric patients with localised low-grade astrocytoma and ependymoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To estimate the local control and patterns of failure for pediatric patients with low-grade astroglial tumors (LGA) and ependymoma (EP) treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT) using an anatomically defined clinical target volume (CTV).Methods and Materials: From an ongoing, prospective Phase II trial initiated in July 1997, 102 pediatric patients with LGA (n = 38) and EP (n

Thomas E Merchant; Yunping Zhu; Stephen J Thompson; Marc R Sontag; Richard L Heideman; Larry E Kun

2002-01-01

383

In situ U–Pb dating and element mapping of three generations of monazite: Unravelling cryptic tectonothermal events in low-grade terranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ U–Pb dating of monazite and xenotime in sedimentary rocks from the mid-Archean Soanesville Group in the Pilbara Craton, yields ages for provenance, diagenesis and multiple low-grade metamorphic events. Detrital monazite and xenotime grains give dates >3250Ma, whereas diagenetic xenotime provides a new minimum age of 3190±10Ma for deposition of the basal Soanesville Group, previously constrained between ?3235Ma and

Birger Rasmussen; Ian R. Fletcher; Janet R. Muhling

2007-01-01

384

Impact of Physical Inactivity on Adipose Tissue Low-Grade Inflammation in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 13 healthy FDR subjects and 20 control (CON) subjects matched for age, sex, and BMI before and after 10 days of bed rest (BR). Insulin sensitivity was measured by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Key low-grade inflammation mediators were measured in arterial blood and microdialysate from subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and femoral adipose tissue. Adipokine mRNA expression was determined in SCAAT. RESULTS Before BR, FDR subjects displayed insulin resistance, elevated plasma C-reactive protein, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, high interleukin (IL)-6, and MCP-1 expressions, as well as low adiponectin and leptin expressions. FDR subjects responded to BR by decreasing plasma adiponectin and IL-10 expression and increasing plasma expression of IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-?. In contrast, CON subjects responded to BR by increasing plasma adiponectin and adiponectin expression and by decreasing SCAAT microdialysate leptin. CONCLUSIONS Young and nonobese FDR of patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit low-grade inflammation, which is further and disproportionately aggravated when exposed to physical inactivity. The study provides support for the notion that people at increased risk of type 2 diabetes should avoid even short periods of physical inactivity.

H?jbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Stallknecht, Bente

2011-01-01

385

Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 is positively associated with low-grade prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study 1993-2004.  

PubMed

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a role in growth and progression of prostate cancer. High circulating IGF-1 levels have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Results for IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) are inconclusive. Some studies have indicated that the positive association with IGF-1 is observed only for low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason sum < 7). We previously reported in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) a direct positive association between ELISA-measured plasma IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate cancer (462 cases diagnosed after providing a blood specimen (between 1993 and 1995), but before February 1998). With additional follow-up through January 31st 2004, and 1,331 case-control pairs in total, we were now able to investigate low-grade (Gleason sum < 7, n = 635) and high-grade (Gleason sum ? 7, n = 515) prostate cancer separately. Matched odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. ORs of total prostate cancer comparing top to bottom quartiles were 1.41 (95% CI 1.12-1.78, p-trend = 0.001) for IGF-1 and 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.01, p-trend = 0.003) for IGFBP-3. IGF-1 was more strongly associated with low-grade (OR = 1.61 top versus bottom quartile, 95% CI 1.16-2.25, p-trend = 0.01), than with high-grade (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.89-1.88, p-trend = 0.12) prostate cancer (p-heterogeneity = 0.08). We hypothesize that these findings reflect that high-grade prostate cancers are more autonomous, and, thus, less sensitive to the action of IGF-1 than low-grade cancers. PMID:20473871

Nimptsch, Katharina; Platz, Elizabeth A; Pollak, Michael N; Kenfield, Stacey A; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward

2011-02-01

386

Monoclonal antibody therapy with CAMPATH-1H in patients with relapsed high- and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a multicenter phase I\\/II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAMPATH-1H (CP-1H) is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD52 antigen with promising therapeutic effects in patients with small cell lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of B- and T-cell type. We report about the response and toxicity of CP-1H in 18 patients with B-cell NHL who were treated in four clinical centers in Germany. Sixteen patients suffered from a low-grade

M. Uppenkamp; A. Engert; V. Diehl; D. Bunjes; D. Huhn; G. Brittinger

2002-01-01

387

Mucocutaneous autoimmune syndrome following fludarabine therapy for low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type (B-NHL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 40-year-old patient with low-grade B-NHL developed a generalized macular-papular rash following the first cycle of fludarabine\\u000a treatment which progressed to a complete epidermal necrolysis following the second cycle. Clinical symptoms and the results\\u000a of the direct and indirect immunofluorescence were consistent with a mucocutaneous autoimmune syndrome (pemphigus). Immunohistochemical\\u000a analysis demonstrated a dense epidermal infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes associated with

J. Braess; K. Reich; S. Willert; F. Strutz; C. Neumann; W. Hiddemann; B. Wörmann

1997-01-01

388

Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor: report of 18 cases of a distinctive low-grade mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate (borderline) malignancy.  

PubMed

Fibroblastic mesenchymal tumors show a spectrum of biological behavior, from benign to fully malignant. We report our experience of two decades with a distinctive, previously undescribed low-grade fibroblastic tumor of the superficial soft tissues. Eighteen cases were identified within our consultation files, previously coded as 'low-grade sarcoma, not further classified' and 'malignant fibrous histiocytoma, low grade'. The tumors occurred in adults (median age 38 years, range 20-76 years) of either sex (10 males and 8 females), ranged in size from 1.5 to 10?cm (mean 4.1?cm), and were confined to the superficial soft tissues of the thigh (N=5), knee (N=2), and other sites. Histological features included a fascicular growth pattern of the neoplastic spindled cells with striking, often bizarre cellular pleomorphism and variably prominent nucleoli. Necrosis was seen in one case. All cases showed strong, diffuse CD34 positivity and 68% of tested cases demonstrated focal cytokeratin expression. Desmin, ERG, FLI-1, smooth muscle actin, and S100 protein were negative. TP53 overexpression was absent. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization studies for TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements were negative in all tested cases. Clinical follow-up was available in 13 patients (median duration of 24 months; range 1-104 months). Twelve of 13 patients had no disease recurrence. One patient had regional lymph node metastases, 7 years after incomplete excision of the primary tumor. All patients are currently alive and disease free. The unique clinicopathological features of superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor define them as a novel subset of low-grade fibroblastic neoplasms, best considered to be of borderline malignancy. PMID:23887307

Carter, Jodi M; Weiss, Sharon W; Linos, Konstantinos; DiCaudo, David J; Folpe, Andrew L

2014-02-01

389

Robust classification of low-grade cervical cytology following analysis with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and subsequent application of self-learning classifier eClass.  

PubMed

Although the UK cervical screening programme has reduced mortality associated with invasive disease, advancement from a high-throughput predictive methodology that is cost-effective and robust could greatly support the current system. We combined analysis by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of cervical cytology with self-learning classifier eClass. This predictive algorithm can cope with vast amounts of multidimensional data with variable characteristics. Using a characterised dataset [set A: consisting of UK cervical specimens designated as normal (n = 60), low-grade (n = 60) or high-grade (n = 60)] and one further dataset (set B) consisting of n = 30 low-grade samples, we set out to determine whether this approach could be robustly predictive. Variously extending the training set consisting of set A with set B data produced good classification rates with three two-class cascade classifiers. However, a single three-class classifier was equally efficient, producing a user-friendly, applicable methodology with improved interpretability (i.e., better classification with only one set of fuzzy rules). As data from set B were added incrementally to the training set, the model learned and evolved. Additionally, monitoring of results of the set B low-grade specimens (known to be low-grade cervical cytology specimens) provided the opportunity to explore the possibility of distinguishing patients likely to progress towards invasive disease. eClass exhibited a remarkably robust predictive power in a user-friendly fashion (i.e., high throughput, ease of use) compared to other classifiers (k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, artificial neural networks). Development of eClass to classify such datasets for applications such as screening exhibits robustness in identifying a dichotomous marker of invasive disease progression. PMID:20857283

Kelly, Jemma G; Angelov, Plamen P; Trevisan, Júlio; Vlachopoulou, Anastasia; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

2010-11-01

390

Long-term follow-up of advanced-stage low-grade lymphoma patients treated upfront with high-dose sequential chemotherapy and autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term outcome, after first line intensified high-dose sequential (i-HDS) chemotherapy, was evaluated in 46 patients, aged ?65 years, with advanced low-grade lymphoma. Seventeen patients had small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), 29 had follicular lymphoma (FL), 10 of them with histologic transformation. I-HDS included: (1) tumor debulkying, by 2 APO+2 DHAP courses; (2) sequential administration of high-dose (hd) etoposide, methotrexate, and cyclophosphamide,

C Tarella; D Caracciolo; P Corradini; F Zallio; M Ladetto; A Cuttica; G Rossi; D Novero; P Gavarotti; A Pileri

2000-01-01

391

Collision tumor of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma with tuberculosis in the colon: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

This report presents a case of collision tumors of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon of an 81-year-old man. All surgically resected regional mesenteric lymph nodes were found to be occupied by low-grade B-cell lymphoma, and one lymph node showed the presence of adenocarcinoma. Low-grade B-cell lymphoma was also observed in the resected spleen. Moreover, concurrent tuberculosis infection in the resected colon was proven by the presence of positive results obtained with polymerase chain reaction analysis of the mycobacterial DNA. Systemic chemotherapy was administered for advanced colon cancer with lung metastasis, and anti-tuberculosis treatment was also prescribed. The occurrence of synchronous lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the colorectal region is rare. Furthermore, collisions of these different entiti