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1

High-grade hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma probably transformed from the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma.  

PubMed

The Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was first described in 1983, is known to be caused by chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, which triggers lymphoid infiltration and formation of organized lymphoid tissue. In approximately two thirds of cases of MALT, the lymphoma has been observed to regress after treatment of H. pylori infection; this provides strong evidence of a causative role of HP in the etiology of MALT. We report a case of a 67-year-old female patient with a high-grade MALT lymphoma of the liver; this occurred six years after complete remission of a low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and after complete eradication of H. pylori. there was no recurrence of the previous low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. Based on radiological and pathologic findings, the high-grade MALT was considered to result from transformation of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. PMID:17017671

Chung, Yong Woo; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Paik, Chang Hee; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Han, Dong Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Oh, Young Ha

2006-09-01

2

Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A

1996-07-01

3

Helicobacter pylori and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: what's new.  

PubMed

Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach, gastric MALT lymphoma, is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The eradication of H pylori using antibiotics is successful in 60% to 80% of affected patients. In contrast to the previous paradigm, we and other investigators have shown that a certain proportion of patients with H pylori-positive early-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the stomach with histological evidence of MALT lymphoma, including high-grade transformed gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric DLBCL(MALT), achieved long-term complete pathological remission (pCR) after first-line H pylori eradication therapy, indicating that the loss of H pylori dependence and high-grade transformation are separate events in the progression of gastric lymphoma. In addition, patients with H pylori-positive gastric DLBCL without histological evidence of MALT (gastric pure DLBCL) may also respond to H pylori eradication therapy. A long-term follow-up study showed that patients who achieved pCR remained lymphoma free. Gastric MALT lymphoma is indirectly influenced by H pylori infection through T-cell stimulation, and recent studies have shown that H pylori-triggering chemokines and their receptors, H pylori-associated epigenetic changes, H pylori-regulated miRNA expression, and tumor infiltration by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells contribute to lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the translocation of CagA into B lymphocytes inhibits apoptosis through p53 accumulation, BAD phosphorylation, and the up-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression. In gastric MALT lymphoma, CagA may stimulate lymphomagenesis directly, through the regulation of signal transduction, and intracellular CagA is associated with H pylori dependence. These findings represent a substantial paradigm shift compared with the classical theory of H pylori-reactive T cells contributing indirectly to the development of MALT lymphoma. In conclusion, a wide range of H pylori-related gastric lymphomas have been identified. The use of antibiotics as the sole first-line therapy for early-stage gastric pure DLBCL requires validation in a prospective study. The clinical and biological significance of the CagA oncoprotein in the lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma warrants further study. PMID:24319171

Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Cheng, Ann-Lii

2013-01-01

4

Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in an adolescent girl.  

PubMed

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is very rare in children. We report the first case of pediatric thymic MALT lymphoma in an adolescent Asian girl. She presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and low-grade fever. A large anterior mediastinal mass was biopsied that confirmed the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma with trisomy 18. The patient had secondary immunodeficiency with low NK cell count and high IgA and IgG levels. Because of the advanced stage and the presence of trisomy 18, she was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab, followed by involved-field radiotherapy. She is currently undergoing maintenance therapy with rituximab and remains in complete remission at 13 months from diagnosis. Thymic MALT lymphoma should be suspected in any Asian child with a cystic thymic mass and autoimmune disease or hyperglobinemia. Because of the slow proliferation rate of this type of lymphoma, a long-term follow-up is needed. PMID:22469942

Naithani, Rahul; Ngan, Bo Y; Roifman, Chaim; Crump, Michael; Baruchel, Sylvain; Abla, Oussama

2012-10-01

5

Clonal relationship in multifocal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).  

PubMed

To elucidate the progression of gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, we analyzed a case presenting simultaneously with MALT lymphoma of the stomach and lung, and a gastric high-grade diffuse large lymphoma. The rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) variable regions were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Clonal relationship was shown between the gastric high-grade and the pulmonary low-grade lymphoma. The gastric MALT lymphoma was not related to the other manifestations. Translocation t(11;18) was not detected in the gastric high-grade lymphoma. MALT lymphomas at various locations and with different histologies may derive from a common precursor cell. Lymphomas at identical sites may have different stem cells. PMID:14517694

Alpen, B; Wündisch, T; Dierlamm, J; Börsch, G; Stolte, M; Neubauer, A

2004-02-01

6

The Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess radiotherapy for patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with respect to survival, treatment response, and complications. Materials and Methods Enrolled into this study were 48 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma from January 2000 to September 2012. Forty-one patients had low grade and seven had mixed component with high grade. Helicobacter pylori eradication was performed in 33 patients. Thirty-four patients received radiotherapy alone. Ten patients received chemotherapy before radiotherapy, and three patients underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One patient received surgery followed by radiotherapy. All patients received radiotherapy of median dose of 30.6 Gy. Results The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 158 months (median, 48 months). Five-year overall survival and cause-specific survival rates were 90.3% and 100%. All patients treated with radiotherapy alone achieved pathologic complete remission (pCR) in 31 of the low-grade and in three of the mixed-grade patients. All patients treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery prior to radiotherapy achieved pCR except one patient who received chemotherapy before radiotherapy. During the follow-up period, three patients developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the stomach, and one developed gastric adenocarcinoma after radiotherapy. No grade 3 or higher acute or late complications developed. One patient, who initially exhibited gastroptosis, developed mild atrophy of left kidney. Conclusion These findings indicate that a modest dose of radiotherapy alone can achieve a high cure rate for low-grade and even mixed-grade gastric MALT lymphoma without serious toxicity. Patients should be carefully observed after radiotherapy to screen for secondary malignancies. PMID:24520221

Nam, Taek-Keun; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Kim, Yong-Hyeob; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ja

2014-01-01

7

Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common type of extranodal lymphoma, and most commonly affects the stomach. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are the most common histologic types of gastric lymphoma. Despite its increasing incidence, diagnosis of gastric lymphoma is difficult at an earlier stage due to its nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic findings, and, thus, a high index of suspicion, and multiple, deep, repeated biopsies at abnormally and normally appearing sites in the stomach are needed. In addition, testing for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and endoscopic ultrasonography to determine the depth of tumor invasion and involvement of regional lymph nodes is essential for predicting response to H. pylori eradication and for assessment of disease progression. In addition, H. pylori infection and MALT lymphoma development are associated, and complete regression of low-grade MALT lymphomas after H. pylori eradication has been demonstrated. Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy can be used in cases that show poor response to H. pylori eradication, negativity for H. pylori infection, or high-grade lymphoma. PMID:24659867

Park, Jeong Bae; Koo, Ja Seol

2014-01-01

8

Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common type of extranodal lymphoma, and most commonly affects the stomach. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are the most common histologic types of gastric lymphoma. Despite its increasing incidence, diagnosis of gastric lymphoma is difficult at an earlier stage due to its nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic findings, and, thus, a high index of suspicion, and multiple, deep, repeated biopsies at abnormally and normally appearing sites in the stomach are needed. In addition, testing for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and endoscopic ultrasonography to determine the depth of tumor invasion and involvement of regional lymph nodes is essential for predicting response to H. pylori eradication and for assessment of disease progression. In addition, H. pylori infection and MALT lymphoma development are associated, and complete regression of low-grade MALT lymphomas after H. pylori eradication has been demonstrated. Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy can be used in cases that show poor response to H. pylori eradication, negativity for H. pylori infection, or high-grade lymphoma. PMID:24659867

Park, Jeong Bae; Koo, Ja Seol

2014-03-21

9

A Case of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Sigmoid Colon Presenting as a Semipedunculated Polyp  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are characterized by lymphoepithelial lesions pathologically. Colonic MALT lymphomas are relatively rarer than lymphomas of the stomach or small intestine. Endoscopically, colonic MALT lymphoma frequently appears as a nonpedunculated protruding polypoid mass and/or an ulceration in the cecum and/or rectum. We report a unique case of a colonic MALT lymphoma presenting as a semipedunculated polyp. A 54-year-old man was found to have a 2-cm semipedunculated polyp in the sigmoid colon during screening colonoscopy. The polyp was removed by endoscopic mucosal resection. Histologic examination of the resected polyp revealed diffuse epithelial infiltration by discrete aggregates of lymphoma cells. We diagnosed the tumor as low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:24765604

Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Seon Young; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Sung, Woo Jung

2014-01-01

10

Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. PMID:24143321

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

11

Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an indolent extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, originating in acquired MALT that is induced in mucosal barriers as part of a normal adaptive immune response to a chronic immunoinflammatory stimulus, most notably chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This antigenic stimulation initially leads to lymphoid hyperplasia; the acquisition of additional genetic aberrations culminates in the activation of intracellular survival pathways, with disease progression due to proliferation and resistance to apoptosis, and the emergence of a malignant clone. There are descriptions of MALT lymphomas affecting practically every organ and system, with a marked geographic variability partially attributable to the epidemiology of the underlying risk factors; nevertheless, the digestive system (and predominantly the stomach) is the most frequently involved location, reflecting the gastrointestinal tract’s unique characteristics of contact with foreign antigens, high mucosal permeability, large extension and intrinsic lymphoid system. While early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma can frequently regress after the therapeutic reversal of the chronic immune stimulus through antibiotic eradication of H. pylori infection, the presence of immortalizing genetic abnormalities, of advanced disease or of eradication-refractoriness requires a more aggressive approach which is, presently, not consensual. The fact that MALT lymphomas are rare neoplasms, with a worldwide incidence of 1-1.5 cases per 105 population, per year, limits the ease of accrual of representative series of patients for robust clinical trials that could sustain informed evidence-based therapeutic decisions to optimize the quality of patient care. PMID:24574742

Pereira, Marta-Isabel; Medeiros, Jose Augusto

2014-01-01

12

Bulky Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated with Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan  

PubMed Central

An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed extensive consolidation in the right lung. She was diagnosed with pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma using CT-guided lung biopsy. Her pulmonary images and respiratory symptoms did not improve two months after receiving 4 cycles of rituximab weekly; therefore, yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan was chosen as salvage therapy. The abnormal shadow on her pulmonary images was significantly reduced two months later, and she had no symptoms without nonhematological toxicities. She has had no progression for 18 months. Furthermore, radiation pneumonitis has not also been observed. We herein reported bulky pulmonary MALT lymphoma treated with yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:24371530

Tamura, Shinobu; Ikeda, Tokuji; Kurihara, Toshio; Kakuno, Yoshiteru; Nasu, Hideki; Nakano, Yoshio; Oshima, Koichi; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

2013-01-01

13

Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3×3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o'clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation. PMID:24744673

Arslan, Serife Hülya; Uyetürk, Ummügül; Tekgündüz, Emre; Irkkan, Sultan Çi?dem; Kurt, Meltem Yüksel; Demiriz, It?r ?irino?lu; Altunta?, Fevzi

2012-09-01

14

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the transverse colon: A case report  

PubMed Central

We herein present a case of a 75-year-old female with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the transverse colon with the stage IE (Ann Arbor classification). Colonoscopy revealed the tumor’s appearance as a IIa plus IIc-like early colon cancer as defined according to the macroscopic classification of the Japanese Research Society for Cancer of Colon, Rectum and Anus, measuring less than 2 cm in diameter. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma because of the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions consisting of diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphocytes and glandular destruction. The majority of these lymphocytes immunohistochemically stained for the B-lymphocyte marker. The patient first underwent H pylori eradication therapy with Lansap®. However, the tumor size gradually increased over the next 4 mo and the patient eventually underwent surgical resection. The operative procedure included a partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes. The tumor measured 45 mm x 30 mm in diameter and histological examination showed that the lymphoma cells had infiltrated the muscle layer of the colon without nodal involvement. The patient has had no recurrence postoperatively without any chemotherapy. PMID:17007004

Matsuo, Shigetoshi; Mizuta, Yohei; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Susumu, Seiya; Tsutsumi, Ryuji; Azuma, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

2006-01-01

15

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma as a pleural mass  

PubMed Central

Primary pleural lymphoma is a rare entity that has been described in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or pyothorax. It occurs in only 7% of primary lymphoma cases. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with no history of HIV infection or pyothorax who was diagnosed of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and underwent a routine chest X-ray to screen for any organic cause of the symptoms. The radiograph revealed two voluminous masses with extraparenchymatous features but without pleural effusion. A contrast-enhanced CT was performed and confirmed the existence of the pleural masses that showed homogeneous attenuation. Neither mediastinal lymphadenopathy nor pleural effusion were present. A percutaneous CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with a 25-G needle was performed (two samples were obtained) and the first diagnosis was of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The final diagnosis of primary pleural mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was confirmed by a CT-guided core biopsy with a 20-G needle. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of MALT lymphoma presenting as pleural masses without pleural effusion have been reported in immunocompetent patients. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a primary pleural MALT lymphoma and include a short review of the literature. PMID:22101588

Barahona, M L; Duenas, V P; Sanchez, M T; Plaza, B V

2011-01-01

16

Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Recent progress in pathogenesis and management  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in the research regarding the molecular pathogenesis and management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is reviewed. In approximately 90% of cases, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays the causative role in the pathogenesis, and H. pylori eradication is nowadays the first-line treatment for this disease, which leads to complete disease remission in 50%-90% of cases. In H. pylori-dependent cases, microbe-generated immune responses, including interaction between B and T cells involving CD40 and CD40L co-stimulatory molecules, are considered to induce the development of MALT lymphoma. In H. pylori-independent cases, activation of the nuclear factor-?B pathway by oncogenic products of specific chromosomal translocations such as t(11;18)/API2-MALT1, or inactivation of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (A20) are considered to contribute to the lymphomagenesis. Recently, a large-scale Japanese multicenter study confirmed that the long-term clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphoma after H. pylori eradication is excellent. Treatment modalities for patients not responding to H. pylori eradication include a “watch and wait” strategy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, rituximab immunotherapy, and a combination of these. Because of the indolent behavior of MALT lymphoma, second-line treatment should be tailored in consideration of the clinical stage and extent of the disease in each patient. PMID:24363507

Nakamura, Shotaro; Matsumoto, Takayuki

2013-01-01

17

Treatment of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Helicobacter pylori eradication and beyond.  

PubMed

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the paradigm of lymphomas developing in extranodal areas after antigen stimulation. In the stomach, Helicobacter pylori colonization induces the appearance of MALT and, eventually, MALT-derived lymphoma. This type of lymphoma is initially a localized form of disease, but may disseminate and transform into high-grade lymphoma, making full staging (as for nodal lymphomas) and endoscopic ultrasonography to evaluate the penetration of the lymphoma through the gastric wall mandatory. In localized gastric MALT lymphoma, the first step in treatment is eradication of H. pylori, which results in 60-90% regression. This response is maintained for years in most patients, with only 10-15% relapse, frequently precipitated by H. pylori reinfection. A component of high-grade lymphoma, penetration to gastric serosa or beyond and translocation t(11;18) are the main factors that make lymphoma resistant to eradication. Surgery or radiotherapy can cure localized lymphomas in 75-90% of patients. Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, combination chemotherapy and purine analogs, and anti-CD20 antibodies can also induce remission of localized lymphomas refractory to eradication, as well as locally advanced and disseminated lymphomas. The optimum chemotherapy treatment for advanced disease has not yet been established; however, combination therapy, including purine analogs with or without anti-CD20, may be a promising option. Despite histological responses and prolonged remissions, residual molecular disease can be demonstrated in most cases treated with H. pylori eradication, radiotherapy or alkylating agents, and even after more intense chemotherapy, although this does not seem to lead to late relapses. High-grade gastric MALT lymphoma should be treated with chemotherapy, with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oncovin and prednisone being the best first-line option. All gastric MALT lymphomas associated with H. pylori should receive eradication treatment in addition to other required treatment. PMID:16503853

Montalban, Carlos; Norman, Francesca

2006-03-01

18

Expression of nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity on follicular dendritic cells from human mucosa associated lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally considered as a trophic factor for peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurones; however, recent reports indicate that NGF may induce proliferation of immune and haematopoietic cells. Histochemical studies conducted in human spleen and lymph nodes have suggested the presence of NGF receptor (NGF-R) immunoreactive elements in secondary follicles; however the nature of the cells bearing the NGF-R in lymphoid tissue has not been determined. In this paper we report the results of an immunohistochemical study conducted on mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Using a specific monoclonal antibody to human NGF-R (mAb 20.4) we observed an NGF-R-immunoreactive population in all secondary lymphoid follicles examined. Double immunostaining revealed that this population was composed of follicular dendritic cells (FDC); lymphoid cells within the germinal centres did not appear to be 20.4 immunoreactive. Cell suspensions from tonsillar follicles also contained NGF-R immunopositive dendritic cells which were enriched by a 20.4 labelled magnetic bead procedure, revealing cells with the morphological characteristics of FDC. Mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood did not contain any NGF-R-immunoreactive elements using our techniques. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1326478

Pezzati, P; Stanisz, A M; Marshall, J S; Bienenstock, J; Stead, R H

1992-01-01

19

Spontaneous regression of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) colliding with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: a case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant lymphomas of the breast, whether they are primary or secondary, are rare diseases, constituting only around 0.1 to 0.15% of the primary neoplasm of the breast. Although the most prevalent histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) also occurs in the breast as in other extranodal sites, comprising about 15% of malignant lymphomas of the breast. In many cases, primary MALT lymphoma of the breast is low grade lymphoma, localized in the breast with indolent behavior and good prognosis. Here we report a case of spontaneous regression of primary MALT lymphoma of the breast. The lymphoma collided with invasive ductal carcinoma in the breast. Both tumors were identified in the Vacora biopsy specimen before the operation. However, the lymphoma disappeared, while the carcinoma remained, in the resected mass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of spontaneous regression of MALT lymphoma of the breast colliding with breast cancer. PMID:25400790

Matsuda, Ikuo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Enomoto, Yukie; Takatsuka, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Yasuo; Hirota, Seiichi

2014-01-01

20

[A case of a collision tumor comprising mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for an abnormality identified during routine examination. The lower gastric corpus showed a type 0-I elevated lesion with a faded mucosa and an area of converging mucosal folds in contact with the lesion. Biopsy indicated the former to be a high-grade adenoma and the latter to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. At the same time, Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. Eradication therapy was administered to manage the MALT lymphoma; this resulted in improvement after 3 months. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the elevated lesion, and subsequent histopathology showed contact between the MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with a collision tumor. Concurrent cancers are increasingly reported and should be considered during examination. PMID:24998730

Isosaka, Mai; Adachi, Takeya; Iida, Tomoya; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Tanaka, Michihiro; Kondou, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Tanuma, Tokuma; Kasai, Kiyoshi

2014-07-01

21

Colonic adenocarcinoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and tuberculosis in a segment of colon: A case report.  

PubMed

Synchronous occurrence of adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of colon is rare, and its presence with coexisting tuberculosis is still rarer. To our knowledge, this may be the first case report. In the present report, we describe a 43-year-old female who presented with a history of abdominal pain, fever, loss of weight and loss of appetite. Colonoscopy showed a large ulceroproliferative mass arising from the caecum, biopsy of which showed it to be adenocarcinoma of the colon. A right hemicolectomy was performed and microscopic study of the colon revealed tuberculosis and synchronous adenocarcinoma with lymphoma. Eight of sixteen lymph nodes showed tuberculosis and three of sixteenpericoloniclymphnodes showed metastatic deposits. Immunostains further confirmed the tumour to be adenocarcinoma with MALT lymphoma. We would like to highlight the diagnostic challenges arising from the multi-faceted presentations of these three conditions. PMID:25232463

Velu, Ambedkar Raj Kulandai; Srinivasamurthy, Banushree C; Nagarajan, Krishnan; Sinduja, Ilavarasi

2014-09-15

22

IS ELEVATED GASTRIC TISSUE NOX2 ASSOCIATED WITH LYMPHOMA OF MUCOSA-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE?  

E-print Network

) NOX5 is generally found in lymphoid tissue (1) and 2) tumor cells of hairy cell leukemia express NOX5 oxygen species (ROS) are known to induce cell damage possibly leading to carcinogenesis. We analyze to as the gp91phox subunit of the "phagocyte NADPH oxidase" as white blood cells of myeloid lineage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Primary intracranial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A report of two cases and literature review.  

PubMed

Low-grade B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas typically arise from the marginal zone of the secondary lymphatic follicles. Their intracranial expression is very rare, most frequently affecting the dura mater and the choroid plexus glomi in the lateral ventricles. Their initial evaluation requires the exclusion of more common extra-axial lesions, such as meningiomas, dural metastasis, granulomatous lesions or secondary lymphoproliferative dural extension from body lymphomas. Whenever a ventricular lesion is present, the patient's age and lesion location help narrow the differential diagnosis. Dural-based lymphomas and ventricular/choroid plexus lymphomas are slow-growing lesions with imaging features similar to meningiomas, which is typically their main differential consideration. Diffusion-weighted images frequently show restricted diffusion behaviour on lymphomas, helping to differentiate them from the typical meningiomas. PMID:25196615

Sebastián, Cristina; Vela, Ana Carmen; Figueroa, Ramón; Marín, Miguel Ángel; Alfaro, Jorge

2014-09-01

24

Risk Potentiality of Frontline Radiotherapy Associated Cataract in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To elucidate risk potentiality of frontline radiotherapy associated cataracts in primary ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (OAML). Methods Data from eight consecutive patients of 41 total OAML patients who had undergone cataract surgery after frontline radiotherapy were analyzed. Results The median patient age was 46 years (range, 36 to 69 years). The median total radiation dose was 3,780 cGy (range, 3,060 to 4,500 cGy), and the mean duration from radiation irradiation to cataract surgery was 36.60 ± 8.93 months. Preoperative lens opacification was primarily at the posterior lens subcapsule, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.43 ± 0.21. Patients underwent the phacoemulsification surgical procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens insertion. The average BCVA improved to 0.90 ± 0.14 after cataract surgery. Two patients underwent posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, and one had posterior capsule rupture. For posterior capsule opacification (PCO), three patients received Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy after the initial surgery, and one patient is currently under consideration for laser posterior capsulotomy. Conclusions Radiotherapy increased posterior subcapsule opacification at a relatively young age in primary OAML. Phacoemulsification was a manageable procedure without severe complications, and final visual outcomes were good. However, because after-cataracts progressed earlier than did senile cataracts, close follow-up should be considered for PCO management. PMID:23908569

Cho, Won-Kyung; Lee, Sung-Eun; Paik, Ji-Sun; Cho, Seok-Goo

2013-01-01

25

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT lymphoma) in Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) occurring in inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, has been reported, although it is extremely rare. An 18-year-old man with a two-years history of UC underwent colon endoscopy, and was found to have active total UC ranging from anus to cecum. Six biopsies were obtained. The microscopic examinations showed severe infiltrations of atypical small lymphocytes. They showed hyperchromatic nuclei and increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio and scattered immunoblastic cells. Centrocyte-like atypical lymphocytes, monocytoid cells, and plasma cells were seen in some places. Vague germinal centers were present, and apparent lymphoepithelial lesions were seen. No crypt abscesses were seen, and there were few neutrophils. No apparent other findings of UC were seen. Immunohistochemically, the atypical lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, CD45, CD20, CD79?, CD138, ?-chain, ?-chain, and p53 and Ki-67 antigen (labeling index = 63%). They were also positive for CD45RO, CD3, and CD15, but these positive cells were very scant compared with CD20 and CD79?. They were negative for CD10, CD30, CD56, cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, chromogranin, synaptophysin, NSE, S100 protein, CEA, CA19-9, p63, and HMB45. Without clinical information, the appearances are those of MALT lymphoma. However, with clinical information, making the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma was hesitated. It is only mentioned herein that atypical lymphocytic infiltrations indistinguishable from MALT lymphoma occurred in an 18-year-old male patient with a two-year history of UC. PMID:25253369

Terada, Tadashi

2014-01-01

26

C-MYC overexpression predicts aggressive transformation and a poor outcome in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively common, indolent B-cell lymphoma. MALT lymphoma with large tumor cells (LTCs) is believed to have the potential to transform to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which may have a poor prognosis. C-MYC is a transcription factor. Its translocation and overexpression predicts an inferior prognosis and poor response to therapy in cases of DLBCL. In the current study, C-MYC expression was detected in MALT lymphomas, and its relationship to the occurrence of LTCs, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis was assessed. A total of 69 cases were enrolled in the study, including 42 cases of MALT lymphoma without LTCs, 20 cases of MALT lymphoma with LTCs and 7 cases of DLBCL with a MALT lymphoma component (DLBCL+MALT). Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed. In total, 15/42 (35.7%) cases were nuclear positive for C-MYC expression in the group without LTCs, whereas 15/20 (75.0%) and 4/7 (57.1%) cases were positive in the group with LTCs and in the group with DLBCL+MALT, respectively (P=0.004). Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the correlations of C-MYC expression and clinicopathological parameters with overall survival (OS). C-MYC expression, Ann Arbor stage, LDH level and IPI were considerably associated with OS according to the univariate analysis. However, only C-MYC expression ?20% showed a statistical significance in the multivariate analysis (HR=20.604, 95% CI: 1.909-222.412, P=0.013). Therefore, C-MYC overexpression may play an important role in aggressive transformation and is an independent prognostic factor in MALT lymphoma. PMID:25337204

Huang, Wenting; Guo, Lei; Liu, Hongyan; Zheng, Bo; Ying, Jianming; Lv, Ning

2014-01-01

27

Presence of a high-grade component in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is not associated with an adverse prognosis.  

PubMed

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) show a spectrum of disease characterized by varying proportions of low-grade and high-grade components. While the natural history and optimum treatment for low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and DLBCL is well established, the prognosis and optimal treatment of patients with both low- and high-grade components is not well established. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric DLBCL. A retrospective review of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, gastric DLBCL, or MALT lymphoma with a high-grade component treated at our centers from 1994 to 2006 was performed. Patients were divided into three categories: "pure MALT lymphoma," "MALT lymphoma with high-grade component" (mixed), and "pure DLBCL." Seventy-six patients were included in our study-26 with pure MALT, 22 with MALT with high-grade component ("mixed"), and 28 with pure DLBCL. Pure MALT lymphoma and mixed lymphoma patients had similar clinical characteristics, whereas pure DLBCL patients had less favorable disease characteristics with significantly poorer performance status, higher number of extranodal sites of disease, higher stage, and larger proportion of bone marrow involvement and international prognostic index (IPI) scores compared with mixed lymphoma. The majority of mixed lymphoma (72.7%) and DLBCL patients (71.4%) were treated with chemotherapy. Of patients receiving chemotherapy, a higher proportion of mixed lymphoma and DLBCL patients received anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy regimens compared with MALT lymphoma (73% vs 71% vs 8%) whereas the proportion of mixed lymphoma and DLBCL patients was similar (p = 0.919). At a median follow-up of 37 months, the 5-year overall survival was 66.9%. The 5-year overall survival was 78% for MALT lymphoma, 84% for mixed lymphoma, and 45% for DLBCL. On univariate analysis, DLBCL histology, age, performance status, serum albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, bone marrow, number of extranodal sites, stage, and IPI score were prognostic for inferior survival. On multivariate analysis, DLBCL histology remained significantly prognostic for inferior survival, independent of chemotherapy regimen (hazard ratio (HR) 6.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-21.41, p = 0.001). Mixed histology was not prognostic for inferior survival (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.28-4.54, p = 0.868). Other factors prognostic for inferior survival were serum albumin <37 g/L (HR 3.22, 95% CI 1.11-13.22, p = 0.034) and treatment with non-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone chemotherapy (HR 4.89, 95% CI 1.67-14.36, p = 0.004). In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of mixed histology MALT lymphoma are similar to low-grade MALT lymphoma and significantly different from pure DLBCL. The prognosis of mixed histology MALT lymphoma is significantly better than pure DLBCL, independent of IPI and chemotherapy regimen, and pure DLBCL histology is independently prognostic of inferior survival outcome. PMID:18777110

Ang, Mei-Kim; Hee, Siew Wan; Quek, Richard; Yap, Swee Peng; Loong, Susan; Tan, Leonard; Tao, Miriam; Lim, Soon Thye

2009-05-01

28

Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

Anacak, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.anacak@ege.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Miller, Robert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Constantinou, Nikos [Department of Hematology, Theagenion Cancer Center, Thessaloniki (Greece); Mamusa, Angela M. [Division of Hematology, Armando Businco Cancer Center, Cagliari (Italy); Epelbaum, Ron [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Li Yexiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Calduch, Anna Lucas [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Barcelona (Spain); Kowalczyk, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Weber, Damien C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland); Kadish, Sidney P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School/Center, North Worcester, MA (United States); Bese, Nuran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kamer, Serra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-01-01

29

Gastric low-grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma: Helicobacter pylori and beyond.  

PubMed

The stomach is the most frequently involved site for extranodal lymphomas, accounting for nearly two-thirds of all gastrointestinal cases. It is widely accepted that gastric B-cell, low-grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma is caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. MALT-lymphomas may engender different clinical and endoscopic patterns. Often, diagnosis is confirmed in patients with only vague dyspeptic symptoms and without macroscopic lesions on gastric mucosa. H. pylori eradication leads to lymphoma remission in a large number of patients when treatment occurs at an early stage (I-II(1)). Neoplasia confined to the submucosa, localized in the antral region of the stomach, and without API2-MALT1 translocation, shows a high probability of remission following H. pylori eradication. When both bacterial infection and lymphoma recur, further eradication therapy is generally effective. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery are the available therapeutic options with a high success rate for those patients who fail to achieve remission, while data on immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (rituximab) are still scarce. The 5-year survival rate is higher than 90%, but careful, long-term follow-up is required in these patients since lymphoma recurrence has been reported in some cases. PMID:21160595

Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Cristofari, Francesca; Perri, Francesco; Morini, Sergio

2010-04-15

30

Plasmablastic lymphoma following combination treatment with fludarabine and rituximab for nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon malignancy which predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Sporadic cases have been published describing PBL in immunocompetent patients as well as in immunodeficient patients following immunosuppressive therapy or transplantation. We hereby reported a case of PBL in a 69-year-old, HIV-negative male subjected to combination treatment with fludarabine and rituximab for nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The diagnosis of PBL was made with tumor cells of immunoblasts or plasmablasts morphology strongly positive for MUM-1, EMA and CD138, and partly positive for CD38, and negative for CD20, BCL-6, and CD56, and approximately 80% of which were positive for Ki-67. The case presented PBL after MALT, and a history of chemotherapy including fludarabine and rituximab led to the potential immunocompromised state. The patient died 5 months after the diagnosis of PBL. PMID:25120825

Wu, Jia-Zhu; Min, Ke; Fan, Lei; Wang, Li; Xu, Ji; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

2014-01-01

31

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.  

PubMed

Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. PMID:21546297

Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi

2012-06-01

32

Co-Occurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in a Patient with Long-Standing Hashimoto Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common affliction of the thyroid gland, accounting for 70% to 80% of all thyroid cancers, whereas mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. The simultaneous occurrence of both malignancies is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with both PTC and MALT lymphoma in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. An 81-year-old female patient was first admitted with goiter and hoarseness, which was attributed to an ultrasonographic thyroid nodule. Subsequent fine-needle aspirate, interpreted as suspicious of papillary thyroid cancer, prompted total thyroidectomy. MALT lymphoma was an incidental postsurgical finding, coexisting with PTC in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although the development of MALT lymphoma is very rare, patients with longstanding Hashimoto thyroiditis should undergo careful surveillance for both malignancies. PMID:24396701

Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Seong Keun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Jung, Woo Jin; Kahng, Dong Hwahn; Kim, In Ju

2013-01-01

33

Primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type with malakoplakia in the urinary bladder: a case report  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease constituting less than 1% of neoplasms of the urinary bladder. The most prevalent histological subtype is extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). It is frequently associated with chronic cystitis and predominantly occurs in females. On the other hand, malakoplakia is thought to be a reactive granulomatous lesion occurring most prevalently in the genitourinary tracts. It is frequently found in females and often associated with bacterial infection in immunosuppressive status. Here we report a rare case of concurrent primary MALT lymphoma and malakoplakia in the urinary bladder in a 78-year-old Japanese female. Presumably, both lymphoma and malakoplakia are considered to be involved in the antecedent cystitis and might contribute to the development of the urinary bladder tumor of the patient, leading to the occlusion of the right ureter with subsequent hydronephrosis. PMID:25197410

Matsuda, Ikuo; Zozumi, Masataka; Tsuchida, Yasu-aki; Kimura, Naomi; Liu, Ning-Ning; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Okada, Masaya; Hashimoto, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Shingo; Hirota, Seiichi

2014-01-01

34

Pulmonary Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Associated with Granulomatous Inflammation in a Child with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Patients with immunodeficiency disorders have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders; however, only 4 such patients with DiGeorge/chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have been reported. We report a case of a pulmonary Epstein-Barr virus–negative extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in a child with this syndrome. PMID:22920507

Pongpruttipan, Tawatchai; Cook, James R.; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Spahr, Jonathan E.; Swerdlow, Steven H.

2013-01-01

35

Genetic polymorphisms and tissue expression of interleukin-22 associated with risk and therapeutic response of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Chronic Helicobacter pylori-stimulated immune reactions determine the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We aimed to explore the genetic predisposition to this lymphoma and its clinical implication. A total of 68 patients and 140 unrelated controls were genotyped for 84 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and related receptors that play important roles in T cell-mediated gastrointestinal immunity. Five genotypes in IL-22, namely CC at rs1179246, CC at rs2227485, AA at rs4913428, AA at rs1026788 and TT at rs7314777, were associated with disease susceptibility. The former four genotypes resided in the same linkage disequilibrium block (r2=0.99) that conferred an approximately threefold higher risk. In vitro experiments demonstrated that co-culturing peripheral mononuclear cells or CD4+ T cells with H. pylori stimulated the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), and that IL-22 induced the expression of antimicrobial proteins, RegIII? and lipocalin-2, in gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, patients with gastric tissue expressing IL-22 were more likely to respond to H. pylori eradication (14/22 vs 4/19, P<0.006). We conclude that susceptibility of gastric MALT lymphoma is influenced by genetic polymorphisms in IL-22, the product of which is involved in mucosal immunity against H. pylori and associated with tumor response to H. pylori eradication. PMID:25303370

Liao, F; Hsu, Y-C; Kuo, S-H; Yang, Y-C; Chen, J-P; Hsu, P-N; Lin, C-W; Chen, L-T; Cheng, A-L; Fann, C S J; Lin, J-T; Wu, M-S

2014-01-01

36

A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

Isobe, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: isobeko@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Higuchi, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Gunma Prefecture Cancer Center, Gunma (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakazawa, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Fukuda, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nihei, Keiji [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Kana [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsuno, Yoshihiro [Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiologic Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2007-11-15

37

Limited Role of Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy in the Initial Staging Work-up of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Korea  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of disseminated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the role of bone marrow study in the initial staging work-up. Methods A total of 194 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma was enrolled. The incidence of disseminated disease was evaluated in the initial staging work-up. The demographic data and tumor characteristics were compared according to Helicobacter pylori infection status. Results Localized disease of Lugano stage I accounted for 97.4% of the enrolled cases. Abdominal computed tomography revealed abdominal lymph node metastasis in five patients (2.6%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was found in only one patient without H. pylori infection (0.5%). No patient showed positive findings on chest computed tomography or positron emission tomography. H. pylori-negative cases showed a significantly higher frequency of advanced-stage disease than H. pylori-positive cases (10.0% vs 0.6%). In patients achieving complete remission, no extragastric recurrence occurred during follow-up. Conclusions The incidence of disseminated disease, including BM involvement, was very low in Korean gastric MALT lymphoma patients. It might be beneficial to perform BM aspiration and biopsy as a part of staging work-up only in patients with risk factors for advanced disease such as H. pylori negativity. PMID:25368752

Min, Byung-Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Ran; Min, Yang Won; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Jae J.

2014-01-01

38

Treatment Outcome for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to Helicobacter pylori Infection Status: A Single-Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been used as a first-line treatment for H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, the management strategy for H. pylori-negative MALT lymphoma remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the success rate of each treatment option for H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas. Methods In total, 57 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma diagnosed between December 2000 and June 2012 were enrolled in the study. The treatment responses were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas. Results Of the 57 patients, 43 (75%) had H. pylori infection. Forty-eight patients received H. pylori eradication as a first-line treatment, and complete remission was achieved in 31 of the 39 patients (80%) with H. pylori-positive MALT lymphoma and in five (56%) of the nine patients with H. pylori-negative MALT lymphoma; no significant difference was observed between the groups (p=0.135). The other treatment modalities, including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery, were effective irrespective of H. pylori infection status, with no significant difference in the treatment response between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative MALT lymphomas. Conclusions H. pylori eradication therapy may be considered as a first-line treatment regardless of H. pylori infection status. PMID:25071906

Ryu, Kwang Duck; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Seong Oh; Lee, Kwang Jae; Moon, Jung Youn; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Baek, Dong Hoon; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am

2014-01-01

39

Genetic polymorphisms and tissue expression of interleukin-22 associated with risk and therapeutic response of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Chronic Helicobacter pylori-stimulated immune reactions determine the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We aimed to explore the genetic predisposition to this lymphoma and its clinical implication. A total of 68 patients and 140 unrelated controls were genotyped for 84 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and related receptors that play important roles in T cell-mediated gastrointestinal immunity. Five genotypes in IL-22, namely CC at rs1179246, CC at rs2227485, AA at rs4913428, AA at rs1026788 and TT at rs7314777, were associated with disease susceptibility. The former four genotypes resided in the same linkage disequilibrium block (r(2)=0.99) that conferred an approximately threefold higher risk. In vitro experiments demonstrated that co-culturing peripheral mononuclear cells or CD4(+) T cells with H. pylori stimulated the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), and that IL-22 induced the expression of antimicrobial proteins, RegIII? and lipocalin-2, in gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, patients with gastric tissue expressing IL-22 were more likely to respond to H. pylori eradication (14/22 vs 4/19, P<0.006). We conclude that susceptibility of gastric MALT lymphoma is influenced by genetic polymorphisms in IL-22, the product of which is involved in mucosal immunity against H. pylori and associated with tumor response to H. pylori eradication. PMID:25303370

Liao, F; Hsu, Y-C; Kuo, S-H; Yang, Y-C; Chen, J-P; Hsu, P-N; Lin, C-W; Chen, L-T; Cheng, A-L; Fann, C S J; Lin, J-T; Wu, M-S

2014-01-01

40

Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

2012-07-01

41

Detection of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma cells: clinical and biological significance  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that CagA can be translocated into B cells in Helicobacter pylori (HP) coculture media, and the translocation appears biologically significant as activation of the relevant cellular pathways was noticed. In this study, we further explore if CagA can be detected in malignant B cells of HP-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Expression of CagA was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. CagA expression was further confirmed by western blot analysis. The association between CagA expression in malignant B cells and tumor response to HP eradication therapy (HPE) was evaluated in 64 stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma patients. We detected CagA expression in 31 (48.4%) of 64 patients: 26 (68.4%) of the 38 HP-dependent cases and 5 (19.2%) of the 26 HP-independent cases (P<0.001). Patients with CagA expression responded to HPE quicker than those without (median time to complete remission, 3.0 vs 6.5 months, P=0.025). Our results indicated that CagA can be translocated into malignant B cells of MALT lymphoma, and the translocation is clinically and biologically significant. PMID:23852160

Kuo, S-H; Chen, L-T; Lin, C-W; Wu, M-S; Hsu, P-N; Tsai, H-J; Chu, C-Y; Tzeng, Y-S; Wang, H-P; Yeh, K-H; Cheng, A-L

2013-01-01

42

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the rectum with chromosomal translocation of the t(11;18)(q21;q21) and an additional aberration of trisomy 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT) of the rectum is reported. A 56-yr-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment of rectal neoplasm. A physical examination and laboratory data showed no special abnormalities. However, endoscopic colorectal observation revealed multiple red and slightly elevated nodular lesions with erosive changes of the rectum. The

Shigetoshi Hosaka; Taiji Akamatsu; Shigeo Nakamura; Taimei Kaneko; Kiyoshi Kitano; Kendo Kiyosawa; Hiroyoshi Ota; Noriko Hosaka; Hideharu Miyabayashi; Tsutomu Katsuyama

1999-01-01

43

Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

2012-03-15

44

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue gastric lymphoma regression in a renal transplant patient after conversion of the immunosuppression to sirolimus: a case report.  

PubMed

The treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the most common posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, is not well defined. Herein we have reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with rapid, persistent, and complete remission after conversion of the immunosuppression from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL). A 42-year-old woman underwent renal transplantation in 1992 with no major abnormalities until 2006 when a gastroscopy performed to investigate dyspeptic symptoms showed a mixed MALT gastric lymphoma (with low- and high-grade components) associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two therapeutic interventions in a 1-week interval were performed: treatment of the H. pylori infection (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for 14 days) and modification of the immunosuppression by substitution of CsA and azathioprine (AZA) with SRL. Control endoscopy performed 1 month later showed persistence of H. pylori infection and absence of the gastric tumor. New endoscopies performed at 2 and 7 months after therapy confirmed the absence of neoplasia and H. pylori eradication. Currently, the patient has no complaints, displaying a creatinine value of 1.8 mg/dL and a hemoglobin of 9.4 mg/dL using SRL and ibersatan. SRL has been studied extensively as an anticancer drug, acting as a mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. Accumulating data support the role of mTOR in lymphomagenesis. In conclusion, our case of gastric MALT lymphoma in a renal transplant patient displayed a complete remission after alteration of the immunosuppressive scheme with the introduction of SRL. PMID:19376398

Lasmar, E P; Coelho, L G V; Lasmar, M F; Lasmar, L F; Lima, P V; Nogueira, A F

2009-04-01

45

Primary Thymic Extranodal Marginal-Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Type Exhibits Distinctive Clinicopathological and Molecular Features  

PubMed Central

Extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arising in the thymus is rare, with the largest series in the literature including only three cases. In the present study, we investigated 15 cases of thymic MALT lymphoma to systematically characterize its clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. There was a marked female predilection (male:female = 1:4), with a mean age of 55 years at diagnosis. There was a strong association with autoimmune disease, especially Sjögren’s syndrome. Histologically, the thymic lymphoma showed the characteristic morphological features of extranodal MZBL of MALT type. Cysts were common. Prominent lymphoepithelial lesions were formed by centrocyte-like cells infiltrating and expanding the Hassall’s corpuscles and epithelium lining the cysts. Plasmacytic differentiation was apparent in all cases. Notably, 13 of 15 cases expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) A phenotype; IgA expression in thymic MALT lymphoma was in striking contrast with the IgM phenotype observed in most of the Sjögren’s syndrome-associated MZBLs and MALT lymphomas at other sites. Epstein-Barr virus was absent, and API2-MALT1 gene fusion, a recently reported MALT lymphoma-specific gene abnormality, was not detected in any case. Although one patient died of disease 85 months after the diagnosis, other patients were alive with overall 3-year and 5-year survival rates being 89% and 83%, respectively. Among the 22 patients reported previously and in the present series, at least 17 patients (77%) were Asians. These data indicate that thymic MALT lymphoma may represent a distinct subgroup of MALT lymphoma characterized by apparent predilection for Asians, a strong association with autoimmune disease, frequent presence of cysts, consistent plasma cell differentiation, tumor cells expressing IgA phenotype, and consistent lack of API2-MALT1 gene fusion. PMID:11943727

Inagaki, Hiroshi; Chan, John K. C.; Ng, Josephine W. M.; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okamoto, Masataka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Naoya; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Ueda, Ryuzo; Eimoto, Tadaaki; Nakamura, Shigeo

2002-01-01

46

Primary Radiation Therapy in Patients With Localized Orbital Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 patients who were treated with RT for pathologically confirmed localized stage IE marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The radiation dose ranged from 21.6 to 45 Gy (median, 30.6 Gy) at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction. Median follow-up duration was 32.3 months (range, 3.1-113.6 months). Results: Forty-three patients (93%) achieved complete remission (CR), and three patients (7%) achieved partial remission (PR). Five-year relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 93%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among the patients with CR, two had recurrence at three sites. One patient relapsed locally and was successfully salvaged with reirradiation. The other patient relapsed in a distant site and was successfully treated with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Late complications were noted in four patients. Two patients developed cataracts at 26 and 37 months after completion of RT. The other two patients developed nasolacrimal duct obstructions at 4 and 11 months after completion of RT. Conclusion: Our study showed that a modest dose of RT is an excellent treatment modality with low complication and recurrence rates. We suggest that a dose of 30.6 Gy is tolerable and sufficient for treating orbital MALT lymphoma. Even following recurrence, successful salvage is possible with RT or chemotherapy.

Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Gi Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Suk Woo [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Young Seon [Department of Hemato-Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ihl Bohng [Cyberknife Center of Gimpo Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Sil, E-mail: yeonkim7@catholic.ac.k [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-01

47

Chromosomal instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: a fluorescent in situ hybridization study using a tissue microarray approach.  

PubMed

Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphomas) of the gastrointestinal tract have been known to have characteristic chromosomal aberrations including trisomies of chromosomes 3, 12, and 18. However, knowledge of the clinical significance of cytogenetic changes in MALT lymphomas is still limited. In the present study, the frequency of the numeric and structural aberrations of the chromosomes 1, 3, 12, 18 and X and of the MALT1 gene as well as their potential clinical significance were analyzed by using fluorescent in situ hybridization on a tissue microarray containing 257 tissue samples from 203 cases of surgically resected primary gastric lymphomas including 115 cases of MALT lymphomas, 88 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs, 75 with an associated MALT lymphoma, so-called ex-MALT DLBCL, and 13 de novo), and 54 controls cases of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis. Clinical follow-up information was available in 137 cases. Trisomies 1, 3, 12, and 18 were detected in 3.3%, 44.4%, 12.3%, and 19.2% of MALT lymphomas and in 11.1%, 42.2%, 26.5%, and 22.0% of ex-MALT DLBCLs, respectively. In addition, we found gains of the X chromosome in 36.4% of MALT lymphomas, in 34.5% of ex-MALT DLBCLs, and in 36.4% of de novo DLBCLs. Structural and/or numeric abnormalities of the MALT1 gene were observed in 37.0% of MALT lymphomas and in 22.2% of ex-MALT DLBCLs. In de novo DLBCL, trisomies for chromosomes 3, 12, 18, and X were found in 42.9%, 10.0%, 11.1%, and 36.4%, respectively, whereas alterations of MALT1 (namely, translocations) were found in 20.0% of the cases. An unexpected high and previously unreported gain of chromosome X in gastric MALT lymphomas was found. This tumor appears, therefore, to be a genetically unstable neoplasia. Our results point out that t(11;18) and aneuploidy may be both involved in lymphomagenesis and that at least a subset of MALT lymphomas may progress toward high-grade neoplasia. PMID:18234275

Bernasconi, Barbara; Karamitopoulou-Diamantis, Eva; Karamitopolou-Diamantiis, Eva; Tornillo, Luigi; Lugli, Alessandro; Di Vizio, Dolores; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Wengmann, Stephan; Glatz-Krieger, Katharyna; Fend, Falko; Capella, Carlo; Insabato, Luigi; Terracciano, Luigi M

2008-04-01

48

Salivary gland mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma immunoglobulin V(H) genes show frequent use of V1-69 with distinctive CDR3 features.  

PubMed

Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphomas are B-cell neoplasms that develop out of a reactive infiltrate, often associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Previous reports from our laboratory involving 10 patients suggested these lymphomas expressed a restricted immunoglobulin (Ig) V(H) gene repertoire with over use of V1-69 gene segments. To better determine the frequency of V1-69 use and whether there may also be selection for CDR3 structures, we sequenced the V(H) genes from 15 additional cases. Over half of the potentially functional V(H) genes (8 of 14) used a V(H)1 family V1-69 gene segment, whereas the other cases used different gene segments from the V(H)1 (V1-46), V(H)3 (V3-7, V3-11, V3-30.3, V3-30.5), and V(H)4 (V4-39) families. The 8 V1-69 V(H) genes used 5 different D segments in various reading frames, but all used a J4 joining segment. The V1-69 CDR3s showed remarkable similarities in lengths (12-14 amino acids) and stretches of 2 to 3 amino acids between the V-D and D-J junctions. They did not resemble CDR3s typical of V1-69 chronic lymphocytic leukemias. This study extends our earlier work in establishing that salivary gland MALT lymphomas represent a highly selected B-cell population. Frequent use of V1-69 appears to differ from MALT lymphomas that develop at other sites. The high degree of CDR3 similarity among the V1-69 cases suggests that different salivary gland lymphomas may bind similar, if not identical epitopes. Although the antigen specificities are presently unknown, similar characteristic CDR3 sequences are often seen with V1-69 encoded antibodies that have anti-IgG or rheumatoid factor activity. (Blood. 2000;95:3878-3884) PMID:10845923

Miklos, J A; Swerdlow, S H; Bahler, D W

2000-06-15

49

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman  

PubMed Central

MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for ?-chain but negative for ?-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. PMID:23638229

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

50

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman.  

PubMed

MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for ?-chain but negative for ?-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. PMID:23638229

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

51

A case of Helicobactor pylori negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma in an elderly female, successfully treated with rituximab  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 91 Final Diagnosis: Low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma Symptoms: Recurrent epigastric and right upper quadrant dyscomfort Medication: Rituximab Clinical Procedure: esophagogastroduodenoscopy • gastric biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma can occur in any extranodal organ or tissue, stomach being the common site. Most of the gastric MALT lymphomas are related to chronic H. pylori infection. H. pylori negative gastric MALT lymphoma is relatively uncommon and usually treated with a short course of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of an elderly female with H. pylori negative, low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma that was successfully treated with a short course of rituximab. Conclusions: This case report emphasizes that rituximab monotherapy can be an effective treatment for H. pylori negative low grade gastric MALT lymphoma especially in an elderly patient where surgery or radiotherapy may not be appropriate. PMID:24250832

Mainali, Naba Raj; Aryal, Madan Raj; Khal, Ravi Shahu; Alweis, Richard

2013-01-01

52

Two Cases of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas in the Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Low-Grade Gastric Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma (MALT Lymphoma).  

PubMed

It is well known that gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and have a good prognosis. However, although rare, these low-grade lymphomas transform to the high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) which are thought to be the important cause of death in patients with MALT lymphoma. We report two cases of DLBCLs in the cervical lymph nodes that occurred 10 years and 1.5 years after diagnosing low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas. PMID:23767042

Jung, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yoon, Hwan; Lee, Jae Kwang; Kang, Ji Hoon; Jeon, Sung Jin; Park, Young-Su; Kim, Jin-Ho

2013-05-01

53

Cyclin D1 (Bcl-1, PRAD1) protein expression in low-grade B-cell lymphomas and reactive hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

Mantle cell (centrocytic) lymphoma (MCL) and occasional cases of B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-SLL/CLL) show a characteristic translocation, t(11:14)(q13;q32) involving rearrangement of the Bcl-1 region. Recently it was shown that the key Bcl-1 region oncogene is cyclin D1/PRAD1; cyclin D1 mRNA was shown to be overexpressed in cases of MCL. We examined cyclin D1 protein expression in low-grade B-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoid hyperplasias using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to cyclin D1 protein. Definite nuclear staining was seen in 15 of 15 MCLs, 1 of 7 B-SLL/CLLs, 0 of 7 reactive hyperplasias, 0 of 10 follicular lymphomas, and 0 of 4 lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue using immunoperoxidase stains on paraffin-embedded sections. Best results were obtained with the affinity-purified polyclonal antibody on microwave-treated, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. MCLs showed diffuse nuclear staining, whereas the one positive B-SLL/CLL showed dot-like or globular nuclear staining. Nuclear cyclin D1 protein can be detected in all cases of MCL and in rare cases of B-SLL/CLL using an immunohistochemical technique on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and it does not appear to be detectable in reactive hyperplasias and other low-grade B-cell lymphomas. This protein may be useful in subclassification of low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7518196

Yang, W. I.; Zukerberg, L. R.; Motokura, T.; Arnold, A.; Harris, N. L.

1994-01-01

54

Low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated. PMID:24664484

Forst, Deborah A; Nahed, Brian V; Loeffler, Jay S; Batchelor, Tracy T

2014-04-01

55

TLR9 Agonist SD-101, Ipilimumab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Recurrent B-cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

2014-10-01

56

Surgical management of low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas represent a wide spectrum of intra-axial brain tumors with diverse presentations, radiographic and surgical appearances, and prognoses. While there remains a role for biopsy, a growing body of evidence shows that aggressive surgical resection of low-grade gliomas may improve symptoms, extend progression-free survival (PFS), and even cure a select few patients. With the application of preoperative functional imaging, intraoperative navigation, and cortical stimulation, neurosurgeons are able to perform more complete resections while limiting the risk to patients. In this article, we describe the surgical management and current operative techniques used in the treatment of low-grade gliomas. PMID:25173139

Gerard, Carter S; Straus, David; Byrne, Richard W

2014-08-01

57

Laser capture microdissection and metagenomic analysis of intact mucosa-associated microbial communities of human colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metagenomic analysis of colonic mucosa-associated microbes has been complicated by technical challenges that disrupt or alter\\u000a community structure and function. In the present study, we determined the feasibility of laser capture microdissection (LCM)\\u000a of intact regional human colonic mucosa-associated microbes followed by phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and\\u000a massively parallel sequencing for metagenomic analysis. Samples were obtained from the healthy

Yunwei Wang; Dionysios A. Antonopoulos; Xiaorong Zhu; Laura Harrell; Ira Hanan; John C. Alverdy; Folker Meyer; Mark W. Musch; Vincent B. Young; Eugene B. Chang

2010-01-01

58

Update on lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis.  

PubMed

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) involves a clinicopathologic pattern of pulmonary disease characterized by diffuse interstitial reactive lymphoid infiltrates. In adults, it occurs most commonly in autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren's syndrome (0.9% of these patients) and primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas in children it is usually seen in HIV infection. Dysproteinemias (hyper- and hypogammaglobulinemia) are found in more than 60% of patients. Children can show CD8-lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue, peripheral blood, and salivary gland, associated with HLA-DR5 haplotype. Radiographically, most patients with LIP have reticulonodular infiltrates, with or without patchy areas of consolidation. CT scans can show both small nodular and ground glass patterns, patterns that are diagnostically nonspecific. Reduced lung volumes and diffusing capacities are consistent and sensitive indicators of disease in LIP. In an experimental model, diffusing capacity was the single most sensitive functional index of disease progression. Microscopically, LIP is part of a spectrum of pulmonary lymphoid proliferations, ranging from follicular bronchitis-bronchiolitis and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (the latter in AIDS patients), proliferations largely limited to airways, to low-grade malignant lymphoma. These patterns may be difficult to differentiate from each other. It appears that LIP sometimes evolves to lymphoma; the frequency of this evolution is probably low but is difficult to assess because low-grade lymphomas may mimic LIP. A relatively high frequency of LIP patients have Epstein-Barr virus DNA in their lungs but not all patients with LIP show this finding, suggesting other possible etiologies. PMID:9363179

Fishback, N; Koss, M

1996-09-01

59

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach in a patient with multiple submucosal tumors  

PubMed Central

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Here, we report a 38-year-old man who presented with multiple submucosal tumors of the stomach. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by multiple discrete submucosal nodules of lymphoid cells. The infiltrates between the lymphoid follicles were composed mainly of medium-sized lymphoid cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, as well as a few large cells with vesicular nuclei. The gastric mucosa exhibited multifocal lymphoid aggregates and some of the epithelial cells were infiltrated by small lymphocytes mimicking lymphoepithelial lesions. Histopathology was consistent with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the infiltrating lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7. In addition, polymerase chain reaction analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements demonstrated polyclonality. This case was diagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach. PMID:24466554

Jeon, Ja Young; Lim, Sun Gyo; Kim, Jang Hee; Lee, Kee Myung; Cho, Sung Ran

2013-01-01

60

Desalination using low grade heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research

Veera Gnaneswar Gude

2007-01-01

61

Rituximab and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2011-08-11

62

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as sites for uptake, carriage and excretion of tubercle bacilli and other pathogenic mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic mycobacteria, including those that cause tuberculosis and paratuberculosis, cross mucosal barriers by endocytosis within mucosal lymphoepithelial sites. These entry sites commonly include oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tonsils and Peyer’s patches. Bacilli discharged at the basolateral surfaces of engulfing epithelial M cells are taken up by professional antigen-presenting cells associated with T lymphocytes of the parafollicular area. Dendritic cells and macrophages

IW Lugton

1999-01-01

63

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as sites for uptake, carriage and excretion of tubercle bacilli and other pathogenic mycobacteria.  

PubMed

Pathogenic mycobacteria, including those that cause tuberculosis and paratuberculosis, cross mucosal barriers by endocytosis within mucosal lymphoepithelial sites. These entry sites commonly include oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tonsils and Peyer's patches. Bacilli discharged at the basolateral surfaces of engulfing epithelial M cells are taken up by professional antigen-presenting cells associated with T lymphocytes of the parafollicular area. Dendritic cells and macrophages in these sites allow mycobacterial replication, due to the permissive immunological environment in lymphoepithelial tissues. Abrogation of local delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions generally ensures continuing integrity and function of these tissues. Phagocytes containing intracellular mycobacteria disseminate infection to other parts of the body and also probably migrate back onto the mucosal surface to shed bacilli. PMID:10457205

Lugton, I

1999-08-01

64

Utilization of low grade coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

Wells, C.E.

1981-12-01

65

Nitinol engine for low grade heat  

SciTech Connect

A continuous band of nitinol wrapping in between a cluster of tightly engaged rollers to form a series of s-shaped bends is used as the principle working medium of a thermal engine to convert low grade heat to mechanical power output. The band, together with the rollers, divides the space into an inner and an outer zone. A stream of warmer water and a stream of cooler water are guided to flow separately through one or the other of the two zones to make uniform and intimate contact with the segments of the nitinol band alternatively at appropriate intervals. A well defined four-cycle operation of temperature and stress is thus established and can convert a portion of the energy which is available in the thermal gradient of the two water streams into a mechanical shaft power which may be tapped from one of the rollers.

Li, Y.T.

1981-12-01

66

Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.  

PubMed

Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23821212

Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

2013-07-01

67

Conformal Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Low-Grade Astrocytomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at

Eugen B. Hug; Marc W. Muenter; John O. Archambeau; Alexander DeVries; Boleslaw Liwnicz; Lilia N. Loredo; Roger I. Grove; Jerry D. Slater

2002-01-01

68

Site-wide process integration for low grade heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of unrecovered low-grade heat are wasted across the process industry. Wide range of technologies and design options for recovering low grade heat are available, including heat pumps, organic Rankine cycle (ORC), energy recovery from gas turbine exhaust, absorption refrigeration, and boiler feed water heating. However, it is not straightforward to identify the most appropriate technology to be implemented,

Ankur Kapil; Igor Bulatov; Robin Smith; Jin-Kuk Kim

2011-01-01

69

Targeting of Nasal Mucosa-Associated Antigen-Presenting Cells In Vivo with an Outer Membrane Protein A Derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Administration of vaccines by the nasal route has recently proven to be one of the most efficient ways for inducing both mucosal and systemic antibody responses in experimental animals. Our results demonstrate that P40, a well-defined outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae, is indeed a carrier molecule suitable for nasal immunization. Using fragments from the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (RSV-A) G protein as antigen models, it has been shown that P40 is able to induce both systemic and mucosal immunity when fused or coupled to a protein or a peptide and administered intranasally (i.n.) to naive or K. pneumoniae-primed mice. Confocal analyses of nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue after i.n. instillation of P40 showed that this molecule is able to cross the nasal epithelium and target CD11c-positive cells likely to be murine dendritic cells or macrophages. More importantly, this targeting of antigen-presenting cells following i.n. immunization with a subunit of the RSV-A molecule in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant results in both upper and lower respiratory tract protection against RSV-A infection. PMID:11553588

Goetsch, Liliane; Gonzalez, Alexandra; Plotnicky-Gilquin, Helene; Haeuw, Jean Francois; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Beck, Alain; Bonnefoy, Jean Yves; Corvaia, Nathalie

2001-01-01

70

Innovative Desalination Systems Using Low-grade Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and energy crises have forced researchers to seek alternative water and energy sources. Seawater desalination can contribute towards meeting the increasing demand for fresh water using alternative energy sources like low-grade heat. Industrial waste heat, geothermal, solar thermal, could help to ease the energy crisis.\\u000aUnfortunately, the efficiency of the conventional power cycle becomes\\u000auneconomically low with low-grade heat

Chennan Li

2012-01-01

71

Low Grade Heat Recovery- A Unique Approach at Polysar Limited  

E-print Network

LOW GRADE HEAT RECOVERY A UNIQUE APPROACH AT POLYSAR LIMITED Steve S. F. Shyr Process Engineer, Energy Control Group Polysar Limited Samia, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACf An innovative energy conservation project involving one of the largest... known plate heat exchangers in Canada saves energy for Polysar Limited. This unique retrofit proj~t has not only increased the recovery of low grade heat but also Integrated and optimized the operation of two dif~erent .w~ter treatment facilities...

Shyr, S.

72

Tertiary lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer progression. We have recently documented that tertiary lymphoid tissue in the colorectal cancer microenvironment orchestrates lymphocyte infiltration and that tertiary lymphoid tissue and lymphocytes cooperate in a coordinated antitumor immune response to improve patient outcome. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue represents a potential target in the design of tailored immune-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25083321

Di Caro, Giuseppe; Marchesi, Federica

2014-01-01

73

Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies  

E-print Network

of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We alsoCharacterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal 2009 Keywords: Intestine Mucosa-associated bacteria Single-stranded artifacts T-RFLP Statistical

Selinger, Brent

74

[Activation of the major omentum-associated lymphoid tissue in Crohn disease].  

PubMed

The mucosa associated lymphoid tissues of the intestinal lamina propria or the bronchial mucosa, respectively, represent a separated and well defined immunologic compartment. Due to highly specialized functions, subpopulations of lymphoid cells are distributed unevenly between the compartments and unique regulatory mechanisms developed to sustain integrity of mucosal surfaces. With this study we investigate whether an omentum associated lymphoid tissue exists and whether it partakes in immunologic processes involved in the perpetuative intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease. Mononuclear cells from surgically resected omentum tissue (10 patients with Crohn's disease, 10 patients with malignomas or inflammatory control diseases (diverticulitis)) were isolated by collagenase digestion and subsequent serial density centrifugation. Phenotypic analysis was carried out by immunofluorescent labeling with a panel of monoclonal antibodies as well as peanut agglutinin. Most interestingly, the percentage of CD4-T(Helper) cells among omentum mononuclear cells was decreased in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the percentage of monocytes/macrophages and of natural killer cells appeared to be increased. In comparison with normal peripheral blood a higher percentage of normal omentum mononuclear cells were activated. It thus appears that a defined immunologic compartment exists which is different in its cellular composition from peripheral blood as well as from intestinal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue and which may be called omentum associated lymphoid tissue. In Crohn's disease subpopulations of omentum mononuclear cells did not change in number, however immunologic activation increased further and appears to be highly increased in comparison to both omentum cells from disease specificity controls (diverticulitis) and Crohn's disease peripheral blood cells. We conclude that omentum associated lymphoid tissue may be described as an unique immunologic compartment which may play a role in activating events in chronic intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease. Further studies will address functional characteristics of the omentum associated lymphoid tissue and will investigate regulatory mechanisms which may contribute to the inflammatory process in Crohn's disease. PMID:7709665

Schreiber, S; Gehrckens, A; Raedler, A

1995-01-01

75

Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

Background CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a crucial site of CD4 T cell accumulation. Results Primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs of C57BL/6 animals were analysed at three intervals of ages: 2 to 6 months (young), 10 to 14 months (middle-aged) and 22 to 26 months (old). We confirmed that ageing preferentially impacted CD4 T cell compartment in secondary lymphoid organs. Importantly, a different picture emerged from gut associated mucosal sites: during ageing, CD4 T cell accumulation was progressively developing in colon and small intestine lamina propria and Peyer’s patches. Similar trend was also observed in middle-aged SJL/B6 F1 mice. Interestingly, an inverse correlation was detected between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria of C57BL/6 mice whereas no increase in proliferation rate of GALT CD4 T cells was detected. In contrast to GALT, no CD4 T cell accumulation was detected in lungs and liver in middle-aged animals. Finally, the concomitant accumulation of CD4 T cell in GALT and depletion in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing was detected both in male and female animals. Conclusions Our data thus demonstrate that T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs currently associated to ageing is not sustained in gut or lung mucosa associated lymphoid tissues or non-lymphoid sites such as the liver. The inverse correlation between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria and the absence of overt proliferation in GALT suggest that marked CD4 T cell decay in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing reflect redistribution of CD4 T cells rather than generalized CD4 T cell decay. Such anatomical heterogeneity may provide an important rationale for the diversity of immune defects observed during ageing. PMID:24829607

2014-01-01

76

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

2008-01-01

77

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of de novo polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) arising in a minor salivary gland with a relatively large radiographic extent compared with that of most of the PLGAs reported. This paper describes the radiographic extent of the lesion and the findings of CT imaging. PMID:22184472

Potluri, A; Prasad, J; Levine, S; Bastaki, Jm

2013-01-01

78

Uranium mobilization from low-grade ore by cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cyanobacterial isolates (two LPP-B forms and one Anabaena or Nostoc species) from different environments could mobilize uranium from low-grade ores. After 80 days, up to 18% uranium had been extracted from coal and 51% from carbonate rock by the filamentous cyanobacterium OL3, a LPP-B form. Low growth requirements with regard to light and temperature optima make this strain a

Michael G. Lorenz; Wolfgang E. Krumbein

1985-01-01

79

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare tumor, mostly affecting the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. We report a case of PLGA which occurred within the maxillary sinus in a 59-year-old woman. The tumor was resected through a transnasal endoscopic approach with wide margins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with primary PLGA of the maxillary sinus. PMID:23714964

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

2013-05-01

80

Extended Intralesional Treatment versus Resection of Low-grade Chondrosarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for segmental resection versus intralesional treatment of low-grade chondrosarcomas of the appendicular skeleton\\u000a remains controversial. We hypothesized extended intralesional treatment would equally control malignant disease but with improved\\u000a functional outcomes and decreased postoperative complications. We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients with 32 Grade I intracompartmental\\u000a chondrosarcomas of the long bones of the appendicular skeleton treated with either resection (15

Chad Aarons; Benjamin K. Potter; Sheila C. Adams; J. David Pitcher Jr; H. Thomas Temple

2009-01-01

81

Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa: Single Center Experience of 60 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (OAML) constitutes for the most frequent diagnosis in orbital lymphoma. Relatively little data, however, have been reported in larger cohorts of patients staged in a uniform way and no therapy standard exists to date. Material and Methods We have retrospectively analyzed 60 patients diagnosed and treated at our institution 1999–2012. Median age at diagnosis was 64 years (IQR 51–75) and follow-up time 43 months (IQR 16–92). All patients had undergone uniform extensive staging and histological diagnosis was made by a reference pathologist according to the WHO classification. Results The majority of patients presented with stage IE (n?=?40/60, 67%), three had IIE/IIIE and the remaining 17 stage IVE. Seven patients with IVE had bilateral orbital disease whereas the others showed involvement of further organs. Treatment data were available in 58 patients. Local treatment with radiotherapy (14/58, 24%) or surgery (3/58, 5%) resulted in response in 82% of patients. A total of 26 patients (45%) received systemic treatment with a response rate of 85%. Nine patients received antibiotics as initial therapy; response rate was 38%. Watchful-waiting was the initial approach in 6/58 patients. In total 28/58 patients (48%) progressed and were given further therapy. Median time-to-progression in this cohort was 20 months (IQR 9–39). There was no difference in time-to-progression after first-line therapy between the different therapy arms (p?=?0.14). Elevated beta-2-microglobulin, plasmacytic differentiation, autoimmune disorder and site of lymphoma were not associated with a higher risk for progress. Conclusion Our data underscore the excellent prognosis of OAML irrespective of initial therapy, as there was no significant difference in time-to-progression and response between local or systemic therapy. In the absence of randomized trials, the least toxic individual approach should be chosen for OAML. PMID:25077481

Kiesewetter, Barbara; Lukas, Julius; Kuchar, Andreas; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Streubel, Berthold; Lagler, Heimo; Mullauer, Leonhard; Wohrer, Stefan; Fischbach, Julia; Raderer, Markus

2014-01-01

82

Why Do Patients with Low Grade Soft Tissue Sarcoma Die?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The patterns of failure and mechanisms of sarcoma-specific death are poorly characterized among the minority of patients with low grade soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who succumb to disease. Methods: Between 1982 and 2006, 2041 patients age ? 16 with low grade STS of all sites were treated with curative intent and prospectively followed at a single institution. Results: Among this cohort of 2041 patients, 181 (9%) died from disease (DOD). Overall, 105 patients (58%) died from locally recurrent disease (DOLR), and 59 (32%) died from distant disease (DODR). In 17 patients (9%), the mechanism of sarcoma-related death could not be verified. DOD occurred at a median of 62 months, while median disease-specific survival for the entire cohort was not reached. Median follow-up was 66 months (range 2 – 431). On multivariate analysis, DOD was associated with site, size, and less than R0 resection. For DOLR, site, size, positive margins, liposarcoma histology, and local recurrence (by definition) were significant factors. For DODR, site, histology, and positive margins were not significant factors, while size and local recurrence were. Of DOLR, 80% were retroperitoneal, 68% were liposarcoma, and only 2% were extremity. Conversely, of DODR, extremity (47%) and trunk (18%) were the most common sites, but histology was more variable (liposarcoma 35%, MFH 20%, fibrosarcoma 12%, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma 10%). High grade recurrence rates were comparable among DOLR (27%) and DODR (25%). Conclusion: Among patients with low grade STS, DOD occurs in approximately 9% of patients. Non-extremity site, larger size, and less than R0 resection are the most important risk factors for DOD, and distinct patterns of recurrence and death are predicted by primary tumor site. PMID:18830667

Canter, Robert J.; Qin, Li-Xuan; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Maki, Robert G.; Singer, Samuel; Brennan, Murray F.

2008-01-01

83

Stereotactic radiosurgery of deeply seated low grade gliomas.  

PubMed

The authors report the results of a series of 16 cases of low-grade gliomas in whom radiosurgery was performed. This series started in 1977. All the tumours received a single radiosurgical session (with a mean dose of 21.7 Gy, 5-10 mm. collimator; one patient received two sessions and in another patient two different targets were irradiated in the same session). Prior to radiosurgery, six patients received conventional external fractionated radiotherapy, with two lateral fields of up to 10 x 10 cm. and a mean dose of 55.1 Gy and another six patients with tumours less than 5 cm. in diameter, received stereotactic radiotherapy using four fields of up to 5 x 5 cm. and a mean dose of 53.1 Gy. In both cases, conventional fractionation was used, giving a dose of 1.8 to 2 Gy/day. The tumour disappeared in 8 cases (50%) and shunk or ceased its growth in 5 additional cases (31%). In 3 cases of brainstem gliomas in which the clinical condition was previously very poor there was no evolutional change and the patients eventually died. We conclude that radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of deeply seated low-grade gliomas, where it may become the treatment of choice in the absence of other more definitive choices. PMID:7717138

Barcia, J A; Barcia-Salorio, J L; Ferrer, C; Ferrer, E; Algás, R; Hernández, G

1994-01-01

84

Spectrum of low-grade fibrosarcomas: a comparative ultrastructural analysis of low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibrosarcomas have recently gained increasing attention in the literature, especially with the fall in popularity polls of the ubiquitous malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Firstly, most tumors previously known as myxoid MFH are labeled presently as myxofibrosarcomas. Secondly, the recognition and better understanding of a family of fibrosing-type fibrosarcoma, encompassing 3 members: fibromyxoid sarcoma (FMS), hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSTGR), and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF). To expand further their understanding of the overlapping and distinct features of members included in the spectrum of low-grade fibrosarcoma, the authors carried out a comparative ultrastructural study among 15 low-grade myxofibrosarcomas (MFS) and 12 fibromyxoid sarcomas (FMS), after review of pathology and confirmation of diagnosis. The ultrastructural findings of the LG MFS identified spindle to plump cells, with abundant cytoplasm, rich in well-developed RER cisternae, often distended and sometimes cystically dilated, containing an electronlucent granular material. These results were in keeping with a well-differentiated fibroblastic-type cell phenotype. In addition, a less prominent cellular component included cells with RER, well-developed Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and filopodia. These latter features define a fibroblastic variant with histiocytic-like properties, also known as histiofibroblasts. Myofibroblastic differentiation was quite limited and mostly absent in most of the cases. In summary, these findings recapitulate a similar spectrum with the cell constituents of so-called MFH. In contrast, the fine microscopic findings of the 12 FMS cases showed an inactive or more primitive form of fibroblastic type cells. The RER cisternae were generally underdeveloped, as expected for a generic fibroblastic-type proliferation. The cytoplasm was scant and showed a paucity of organelles, with the exception of abundant arrays of vimentin-type intermediate filaments. The very long, thin cell processes, sometimes associated with pinocytotic vesicles, were reminiscent of perineurioma ultrastructure. PMID:15764580

Antonescu, Cristina R; Baren, Ann

2004-01-01

85

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: a 17 patient case series.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare malignancy most commonly seen in the minor salivary glands. First described in 1983, this entity has been recognized to have an indolent course with rare metastases or deaths. We describe our experience with 17 patients treated at our institution for PLGA from 1984 to 2012. All tumors were located in the oral cavity or soft palate. All patients were treated surgically, with the exception of one patient who declined therapy. No deaths or metastases have been identified in subsequent follow-up. Three patients in this series had undergone prior surgery up to 20 years previously and were treated for recurrences at our institution; no other recurrences have been noted. In summary, PLGA is best treated with wide excision to negative margins with excellent prognosis, but long-term follow-up is recommended given the propensity for late recurrences. PMID:23618791

Fife, Tim A; Smith, Brooks; Sullivan, Christopher A; Browne, J Dale; Waltonen, Joshua D

2013-01-01

86

Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with filgrastim support in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoid malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the response rate and poten- tial toxicities, a phase II trial was con- ducted of fludarabine and cyclophospha- mide with filgrastim support in patients with previously untreated low-grade and select intermediate-grade lymphoid malig- nancies. Symptomatic patients with pre- served end organ function received cyclo- phosphamide 600 mg\\/m2 intravenous (iv) day 1 and fludarabine 20 mg\\/m 2 iv days1

Ian W. Flinn; John C. Byrd; Candis Morrison; Janet Jamison; Louis F. Diehl; Timothy Murphy; Steve Piantadosi; Eric Seifter; Richard F. Ambinder; Georgia Vogelsang; Michael R. Grever

87

Mucosa-associated bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract are uniformly distributed along the colon and differ from the community recovered from feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex community of bacterial cells in the mucosa, lumen, and feces. Since most attention has been focused on bacteria present in feces, knowledge about the mucosa-associated bacterial communities in different parts of the colon is limited. In this study, the bacterial communities in feces and biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending

Erwin G. Zoetendal; Atte von Wright; Terttu Vilpponen-Salmela; B. Amor; Antoon D. L. Akkermans; Vos de W. M

2002-01-01

88

Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

Oh, Kevin S., E-mail: koh2@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hung, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Robertson, Patricia L. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-11-15

89

Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

2014-10-01

90

Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

2014-08-01

91

Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma: A Difficult Condition to Diagnose  

PubMed Central

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCO) is a rare variant of osteosarcoma which is difficult to diagnose. If not treated appropriately, the tumour can recur with higher-grade disease. We reviewed our experience of this condition to try and identify factors that could improve both diagnosis and outcome. 18 patients out of 1540 osteosarcoma cases (over 25 years) had LGCO (1.2%). Only 11 patients (61%) were direct primary referrals. Almost 40% (7 of 18) cases were referred after treatment elsewhere when the diagnosis had not been made initially and all presented with local recurrence. Of the 11 who presented primarily, the first biopsy was diagnostic in only 6 (55%) cases. Of the remaining cases, up to three separate biopsies were required before a definitive diagnosis was made. Overall survivorship at 5 years was 90%. 17 patients were treated with limb salvage procedures, and one patient had an amputation. The diagnosis of LGCO remains challenging due to the relatively nonspecific radiological and histological findings. Since treatment of LGCO is so different to a benign lesion, accurate diagnosis is essential. Any difficult or nondiagnostic biopsies of solitary bone lesions should be referred to specialist tumour units for a second opinion. PMID:22851905

Malhas, A. M.; Sumathi, V. P.; James, S. L.; Menna, C.; Carter, S. R.; Tillman, R. M.; Jeys, L.; Grimer, R. J.

2012-01-01

92

Frequent GNAS mutations in low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background: The molecular basis for the development of appendiceal mucinous tumours, which can be a cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei, remains largely unknown. Methods: Thirty-five appendiceal mucinous neoplasms were analysed for GNAS and KRAS mutations. A functional analysis of mutant GNAS was performed using a colorectal cancer cell line. Results: A mutational analysis identified activating GNAS mutations in 16 of 32 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) but in none of three mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs). KRAS mutations were found in 30 LAMNs and in all MACs. We additionally analysed a total of 186 extra-appendiceal mucinous tumours and found that GNAS mutations were highly prevalent in intraductal papillary mucinous tumours of the pancreas (88%) but were rare or absent in mucinous tumours of the colorectum, ovary, lung and breast (0–9%). The prevalence of KRAS mutations was quite variable among the tumours. The introduction of the mutant GNAS into a colorectal cancer cell line markedly induced MUC2 and MUC5AC expression, but did not promote cell growth either in vitro or in vivo. Conclusion: Activating GNAS mutations are a frequent and characteristic genetic abnormality of LAMN. Mutant GNAS might play a direct role in the prominent mucin production that is a hallmark of LAMN. PMID:23403822

Nishikawa, G; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Matsubara, A; Mori, T; Taniguchi, H; Kushima, R; Hiraoka, N; Tsuta, K; Tsuda, H; Kanai, Y

2013-01-01

93

Regional differences in colonic mucosa-associated microbiota determine the physiological expression of host heat shock proteins.  

PubMed

Cytoprotective heat shock proteins (Hsps) are critical for intestinal homeostasis and are known to be decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases. Signals responsible for maintenance of Hsp expression are incompletely understood. In this study, we find that Hsp25/27 and Hsp70 protein expressions are differentially regulated along the longitudinal length of the large intestine, being highest in the proximal colon and decreasing to the distal colon. This longitudinal gradient was similar in both conventionally colonized mouse colon as well as biopsies of human proximal and distal colon but was abolished in the colon of germ-free mice, suggesting a role of intestinal microbiota in the Hsp regional expression. Correspondingly, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria from each colonic segment indicated increased bacterial richness and diversity in the proximal colon. The mechanism of regulation is transcriptional, as Hsp70 mRNA followed a similar pattern to Hsp70 protein expression. Lysates of mucosa-associated bacteria from the proximal colon stimulated greater Hsp25 and Hsp70 mRNA transcription and subsequent protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells than did lysates from distal colon. In addition, transrectal administration of cecal contents stimulated Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in the distal colon. Thus host-microbial interactions resulting in differential Hsp expression may have significant implications for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and possibly for development of inflammatory diseases of the bowel. PMID:20864653

Hu, Shien; Wang, Yunwei; Lichtenstein, Lev; Tao, Yun; Musch, Mark W; Jabri, Bana; Antonopoulos, Dionysios; Claud, Erika C; Chang, Eugene B

2010-12-01

94

Human innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express rearranged receptors and have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. ILCs are categorized into 3 groups based on their distinct patterns of cytokine production and the requirement of particular transcription factors for their development and function. Group 1 ILCs (ILC1s) produce interferon ? and depend on Tbet, group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) produce type 2 cytokines like interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 and require GATA3, and group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) include lymphoid tissue inducer cells, produce IL-17 and/or IL-22, and are dependent on ROR?t. Whereas ILCs play essential roles in the innate immune system, uncontrolled activation and proliferation of ILCs can contribute to inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the characteristics of ILCs in the context of health and disease. We will focus on human ILCs but refer to mouse studies if needed to clarify aspects of ILC biology. PMID:24778151

Hazenberg, Mette D; Spits, Hergen

2014-07-31

95

Feline low-grade alimentary lymphoma: how common is it?  

PubMed

Low-grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL) requires histological assessment of biopsies for diagnosis whereas intermediate- (IGAL) and high-grade (HGAL) alimentary lymphoma (AL) can be diagnosed by cytology of intestinal or mesenteric lymph node aspirates. Assessment of the relative frequency of subtypes of AL using histology alone may be skewed towards an increased frequency of LGAL as cases of IGAL or HGAL diagnosed cytologically may not progress to biopsy. We investigated the relative prevalence of AL subtypes diagnosed by both histopathology and cytology among primary accession cases across Australia during a 5-year period. Clinicopathological features of LGAL were compared with those of IGAL/HGAL. Fifty-three cases of AL were identified, including 30 diagnosed by histology (15 LGAL, 13 HGAL, two IGAL) and 23 IGAL/HGAL diagnosed by cytology. LGAL cases comprised 50% of histological diagnoses, but only 28% of all AL. A palpable abdominal mass was more common in IGAL/HGAL (43%) than in LGAL (7%) [odds ratio (OR) 7.6, P = 0.01]. Anaemia was more common in IGAL/HGAL (41%) compared with LGAL (7%) (OR 9.6, P = 0.02). On abdominal ultrasound, a gastrointestinal mural mass was visualised in 41% of IGAL/HGAL and 0% of LGAL (P = 0.01). Where a detailed abdominal ultrasound report was provided, gastric/intestinal wall thickening was the most commonly reported abnormality (82%). In cats with intestinal thickening, a loss of normal layering was more common (P = 0.02) in cats with IGAL/HGAL (71%) compared with those with LGAL (20%). The relative prevalence of LGAL was lower when cases diagnosed by cytology were included in addition to those diagnosed by histology in the study population. The relative frequency with which LGAL is diagnosed has increased since initial reports from this region. A number of significant clinicopathological findings are useful to distinguish LGAL from IGAL/HGAL. PMID:22811481

Russell, Kieran J; Beatty, Julia A; Dhand, Navneet; Gunew, Marcus; Lingard, Amy E; Baral, Randolph M; Barrs, Vanessa R

2012-12-01

96

Treatment of Low-grade Diffuse Astrocytomas by Surgery and Human Fibroblast Interferon without Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade diffuse astrocytomas are slowly growing tumors with a relatively long overall survival. However, a substantial proportion undergoes dedifferentiation to a more malignant phenotype. Considerable controversy exists as to the best therapeutic management for patients with such tumors. Over the past decade, we have applied human fibroblast interferon (HFIF) therapy without radiation therapy to low-grade astrocytomas. We investigated 28 patients

Takao Watanabe; Yoichi Katayama; Atsuo Yoshino; Chiaki Komine; Takakazu Yokoyama; Takao Fukushima

2003-01-01

97

Active low-grade energy recovery potential for building energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With environmental protection and energy source posing as the biggest issue of the global problems, human beings have no choice but to reduce energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to increase the efficiency of energy consumption and sufficiently exploit the low-grade energy in our lives. Low-grade energy recovery devices are of significance to meet the needs for energy

Di Liu; Fu-Yun Zhao; Guang-Fa Tang

2010-01-01

98

AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

2014-07-31

99

Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

1989-01-01

100

BRAF Mutation Is Rare in Advanced-Stage Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are believed to arise via an adenoma-serous borderline tumor-serous carcinoma sequence. In this study, we found that advanced-stage, low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas both with and without adjacent serous borderline tumor shared similar regions of loss of heterozygosity. We then analyzed 91 ovarian tumor samples for mutations in TP53, BRAF, and KRAS. TP53 mutations were not detected in any serous borderline tumors (n = 30) or low-grade serous carcinomas (n = 43) but were found in 73% of high-grade serous carcinomas (n = 18). BRAF (n = 9) or KRAS (n = 5) mutation was detected in 47% of serous borderline tumors, but among the low-grade serous carcinomas (39 stage III, 2 stage II, and 2 stage I), only one (2%) had a BRAF mutation and eight (19%) had a KRAS mutation. The low frequency of BRAF mutations in advanced-stage, low-grade serous carcinomas, which contrasts with previous findings, suggests that aggressive, low-grade serous carcinomas are more likely derived from serous borderline tumors without BRAF mutation. In addition, advanced-stage, low-grade carcinoma patients with BRAF or KRAS mutation have a better apparent clinical outcome. However, further investigation is needed. PMID:20802181

Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Mok, Samuel C.; Zu, Zhifei; Sun, Charlotte; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.

2010-01-01

101

Mutant BRAF in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors and focal cortical dysplasia  

PubMed Central

BRAF alterations, namely BRAF fusion and BRAF V600E mutation, have been recently reported in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors. Twenty low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors were retrieved to evaluate the BRAF mutational status. BRAF mutations were present in 10 tumors and concomitantly in associated dysplastic tissue of three patients. We here show for the first time that BRAF mutations are present not only in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors but, in some cases, also in the associated focal cortical dysplasia. PMID:25356392

Marucci, Gianluca; de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Giulioni, Marco; Martinoni, Matteo; Volpi, Llilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Rubboli, Guido; Michelucci, Roberto; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

102

Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

2009-01-01

103

Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum\\u000a contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial\\u000a products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified\\u000a bentonite, which is used as a secondary

Chul-Hwan Moon; Jai-Young Lee; Byung-Taek Oh; Sang-Il Choi

2007-01-01

104

Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade gliomas account for 10-15% of all adult primary intracranial tumours. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment strategy for low-grade gliomas. This study was designed to evaluate the treatment outcomes, prognostic factors and radiation-related late complications, as well as to assess whether or not post-operative radiotherapy has benefit on local control and overall survival in this population. We

S-A Yeh; J-T HO; Y-J HUANG; C-Y HSIUNG; E-Y HUANG

2005-01-01

105

Molecular neuropathology of low-grade gliomas and its clinical impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “low-grade glioma” refers to a heterogeneous group of slowly growing glial tumors corresponding histologically to\\u000a World Health Organization (WHO) grade I or II. This group includes astrocytic, oligodendroglial, oligoastrocytic and ependymal\\u000a tumor entities, most of which preferentially manifest in children and young adults. Depending on histological type and WHO\\u000a grade, growth patterns of low-grade gliomas are quite variable,

M. J. Riemenschneider; G. Reifenberger

106

Low-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary contain very few point mutations  

PubMed Central

It has been well established that ovarian low-grade and high-grade serous carcinomas are fundamentally different types of tumours. While the molecular genetic features of ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas are now well known, the pathogenesis of low-grade serous carcinomas, apart from the recognition of frequent somatic mutations involving KRAS and BRAF, is largely unknown. In order to comprehensively analyse somatic mutations in low-grade serous carcinomas, we applied exome sequencing to the DNA of eight samples of affinity-purified, low-grade, serous carcinomas. A remarkably small number of mutations were identified in seven of these tumours: a total of 70 somatic mutations in 64 genes. The eighth case displayed mixed serous and endometrioid features and a mutator phenotype with 783 somatic mutations, including a nonsense mutation in the mismatch repair gene, MSH2. We validated representative mutations in an additional nine low-grade serous carcinomas and 10 serous borderline tumours, the precursors of ovarian low-grade, serous carcinomas. Overall, the genes showing the most frequent mutations were BRAF and KRAS, occurring in 10 (38%) and 5 (19%) of 27 low-grade tumours, respectively. Except for a single case with a PIK3CA mutation, other mutations identified in the discovery set were not detected in the validation set of specimens. Our mutational analysis demonstrates that point mutations are much less common in low-grade serous tumours of the ovary than in other adult tumours, a finding with interesting scientific and clinical implications. PMID:22102435

Jones, Sian; Wang, Tian-Li; Kurman, Robert J; Nakayama, Kentaro; Velculescu, Victor E; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Shih, Ie-Ming

2012-01-01

107

Pulmonary Pathology: LC22-1 NON-NEOPLASTIC PULMONARY LYMPHOID PROLIFERATIONS.  

PubMed

Non-neoplastic pulmonary lymphoid proliferations encompass a spectrum of disease from small airway bronchiolar disease to diffuse interstitial disease. They include follicular bronchiolitis (FB), nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH), and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). FB is characterized by the presence of hyperplastic lymphoid follicles with germinal centers, exquisitely bronchiolocentric. Patients with FB not uncommonly suffer from connective tissue disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or immunodeficiency. The differential diagnosis of FB includes other small airway diseases such as chronic bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis. In contrast, LIP is an interstitial lung disease with diffuse marked septal thickening by small lymphocytes, with admixed plasma cells and histiocytes. Patients with LIP often present with autoimmune disorders such as Sjögrens syndrome. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonia enter the differential diagnosis of LIP. Patients with NLH are typically asymptomatic and present with solitary or multiple nodular infiltrates. The lung parenchyma is focally obliterated by a mass comprised of fibrosis admixed with a dense polymorphous lymphoid infiltrate, often with numerous germinal centers. By immunohistochemistry, the lymphoid infiltrate is predominantly CD3?+?T-cells with CD20?+?B-cells forming the germinal centers. The plasma cells and lymphocytes are polyclonal. NLH needs to be distinguished from low-grade lymphoma, mainly MALT lymphoma. PMID:25188152

Aubry, Marie-Christine

2014-10-01

108

PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal ovarian epithelia but expression in fallopian tube fimbria and ciliated epithelial inclusions would suggest the potential development of tumors of low-malignant potential and of low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas from secondary Müllerian structures. PMID:19525924

Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

2009-01-01

109

Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity  

PubMed Central

Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology. PMID:18243731

Carragher, Damian M.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D.

2008-01-01

110

Malignant glioblastomatous transformation of a low-grade glioma in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The term of low-grade glioma addresses a favorable clinical outcome with indolent histological features in general consideration;\\u000a however, recent studies underline the inconsistency, which originates from the accumulation of different histologic subtypes\\u000a in this terminology. The malignant transformation of a low-grade glioma is unusual but presents a poor prognosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case history  We report a case of a 12-year-old boy, who was

Ekrem Unal; Yavuz Koksal; Omer Cimen; Yahya Paksoy; Lema Tavli

2008-01-01

111

Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. PMID:24679467

Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

2014-04-01

112

Gata3 drives development of ROR?t+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) include IL-22-producing NKp46(+) cells and IL-17A/IL-22-producing CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducerlike cells that express ROR?t and are implicated in protective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Whereas the transcription factor Gata3 is essential for T cell and ILC2 development from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and for IL-5 and IL-13 production by T cells and ILC2, the role for Gata3 in the generation or function of other ILC subsets is not known. We found that abundant GATA-3 protein is expressed in mucosa-associated ILC3 subsets with levels intermediate between mature B cells and ILC2. Chimeric mice generated with Gata3-deficient fetal liver hematopoietic precursors lack all intestinal ROR?t(+) ILC3 subsets, and these mice show defective production of IL-22 early after infection with the intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, leading to impaired survival. Further analyses demonstrated that ILC3 development requires cell-intrinsic Gata3 expression in fetal liver hematopoietic precursors. Our results demonstrate that Gata3 plays a generalized role in ILC lineage determination and is critical for the development of gut ROR?t(+) ILC3 subsets that maintain mucosal barrier homeostasis. These results further extend the paradigm of Gata3-dependent regulation of diversified innate ILC and adaptive T cell subsets. PMID:24419270

Serafini, Nicolas; Klein Wolterink, Roel G J; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Xu, Wei; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Hendriks, Rudi W; Di Santo, James P

2014-02-10

113

Gata3 drives development of ROR?t+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) include IL-22–producing NKp46+ cells and IL-17A/IL-22–producing CD4+ lymphoid tissue inducerlike cells that express ROR?t and are implicated in protective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Whereas the transcription factor Gata3 is essential for T cell and ILC2 development from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and for IL-5 and IL-13 production by T cells and ILC2, the role for Gata3 in the generation or function of other ILC subsets is not known. We found that abundant GATA-3 protein is expressed in mucosa-associated ILC3 subsets with levels intermediate between mature B cells and ILC2. Chimeric mice generated with Gata3-deficient fetal liver hematopoietic precursors lack all intestinal ROR?t+ ILC3 subsets, and these mice show defective production of IL-22 early after infection with the intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, leading to impaired survival. Further analyses demonstrated that ILC3 development requires cell-intrinsic Gata3 expression in fetal liver hematopoietic precursors. Our results demonstrate that Gata3 plays a generalized role in ILC lineage determination and is critical for the development of gut ROR?t+ ILC3 subsets that maintain mucosal barrier homeostasis. These results further extend the paradigm of Gata3-dependent regulation of diversified innate ILC and adaptive T cell subsets. PMID:24419270

Serafini, Nicolas; Klein Wolterink, Roel G.J.; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Xu, Wei; Vosshenrich, Christian A.J.; Hendriks, Rudi W.

2014-01-01

114

The Selection and Setting of Traffic Safety Facilities of Low-Grade Highway in Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the actual situations of economic and technical of low-grade highway in the western region, this paper followed the principle of ldquothe low cost, easy setting, easy maintenance, maximum benefitrdquo, and respectively analyzed and compared all kinds of common traffic safety facilities in form, function and cost. Sequentially, the paper put forward selection and setting methods of traffic safety

Yu-jia Tian; Hong Chen; Dian-liang Xiao

2009-01-01

115

Investigations on the extraction of molybdenum and rhenium values from low grade molybdenite concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of molybdenum and rhenium values from low grade Indian molybdenite concentrate was investigated by roasting the concentrate in the presence of slaked lime and soda ash, followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the roasted products. In the lime roasting process, molybdenum recoveries of around 99% were achieved when a charge containing a slaked lime to concentrate ratio of 0.875 was

J. M. Juneja; Sohan Singh; D. K. Bose

1996-01-01

116

Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2014-01-01

117

Mineralogy and uranium leaching response of low grade South African ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of uranium leaching determines the economic viability of treating low grade uranium deposits, and is quite sensitive to ore characteristics. The interrelationship between mineralogy, mineral liberation and the leaching behaviour of uranium is not well defined. Uraninite’s leaching kinetics are well studied, but relatively little leaching research has been conducted for other uranium minerals.Dissolutions higher than 90% are

M. J. Lottering; L. Lorenzen; N. S. Phala; J. T. Smit; G. A. C. Schalkwyk

2008-01-01

118

Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the

Rachana Vidhi; Yogi D. Goswami; Huijuan Chen; Elias Stefanakos; Sarada Kuravi; Adrian S Sabau

2011-01-01

119

Reorganization of left primary (face) motor cortex due to a low-grade glioma.  

PubMed

We present a patient with a low-grade glioma restricted to the 'face area' of the left primary motor cortex. Little is known about functional consequences of surgery within this specific part of the brain. After surgery there were only mild and transient deficits. We suggest that original functions had already reorganized to direct perilesional areas. PMID:24066684

Rutten, Geert-Jan; Verheul, Jeroen

2014-08-01

120

Hotspot activating PRKD1 somatic mutations in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most frequent type of malignant tumor of the minor salivary glands. We identified PRKD1 hotspot mutations encoding p.Glu710Asp in 72.9% of PLGAs but not in other salivary gland tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that this kinase-activating alteration likely constitutes a driver of PLGA. PMID:25240283

Weinreb, Ilan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Martelotto, Luciano G; Waggott, Daryl; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Harding, Nicholas J; Alfaro, Javier; Chu, Kenneth C; Viale, Agnes; Fusco, Nicola; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Marchio, Caterina; Sakr, Rita A; Lim, Raymond; Thompson, Lester D R; Chiosea, Simion I; Seethala, Raja R; Skalova, Alena; Stelow, Edward B; Fonseca, Isabel; Assaad, Adel; How, Christine; Wang, Jianxin; de Borja, Richard; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Howlett, Christopher J; Nichols, Anthony C; Wen, Y Hannah; Katabi, Nora; Buchner, Nicholas; Mullen, Laura; Kislinger, Thomas; Wouters, Bradly G; Liu, Fei-Fei; Norton, Larry; McPherson, John D; Rubin, Brian P; Clarke, Blaise A; Weigelt, Britta; Boutros, Paul C; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

2014-11-01

121

Theoretical Analysis of a Water Desalination System Using Low Grade Solar Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis of a solar desalination system utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses low-grade solar heat, is presented. The system utilizes natural means of gravity and atmospheric pressure to create a vacuum, under which liquid can be evapo- rated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The uniqueness of the system is in the way

S. Al-Kharabsheh; D. Yogi Goswami

2004-01-01

122

Induction of cardiovascular pathology in a novel model of low-grade chronic inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEpidemiological and clinical evidence indicate that inflammatory processes play a pivotal role in a number of conditions associated with aging, including osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular pathology and select inflammatory mediators of interest in a model of low-grade inflammation-induced osteopenia.

Brenda J. Smith; Stan A. Lightfoot; Megan R. Lerner; Kent D. Denson; Daniel L. Morgan; Jay S. Hanas; Michael S. Bronze; Russell G. Postier; Daniel J. Brackett

2009-01-01

123

Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

2013-01-01

124

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Lymphoid organogenesis  

E-print Network

cells into B- and T-cell areas in the spleen. Lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes and Peyer's patches again requires LTi cells, although B cells have been suggested as stromal cell instructors in the spleen to form, while the organization into distinct B-cell follicles and T-cell areas within the spleen

Cai, Long

125

Anti-CXCL13 antibody can inhibit the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by Helicobacter infection.  

PubMed

Helicobacter suis infects the stomachs of both animals and humans, and can induce gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is known that CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) is highly expressed in the Helicobacter-infected mice and gastric MALT lymphoma patients, but the pathway that links the activation of CXCL13 and the formation of gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether CXCL13 neutralization would interfere with the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles including B cells, CD4+T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and follicular DCs (FDCs) in germinal centers to determine the role of CXCL13 in the formation of B-cell aggregates after H. suis infection. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with the lymphoid follicle formation was also effectively suppressed by anti-CXCL13 antibody treatment. These results suggest that the upregulation of CXCL13 has an important role in the development of gastric MALT lymphomas and highlight the potential of anti-CXCL13 antibody for protection against Helicobacter-induced gastric diseases. PMID:24646940

Yamamoto, K; Nishiumi, S; Yang, L; Klimatcheva, E; Pandina, T; Takahashi, S; Matsui, H; Nakamura, M; Zauderer, M; Yoshida, M; Azuma, T

2014-09-01

126

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (?3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: ?6.41, ?1.42]) and language (?3.19 [?6.19, ?0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

2014-01-01

127

Multiple Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma on the Upper Arms with Atypical Histological Presentation  

PubMed Central

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare variant of spindle cell tumor that is composed of collagen-rich and myxoid parts. We describe the case of a 61-year-old Japanese patient with multiple, recurrent LGFMS on the upper arms with atypical histological presentation. In the present case, we resected the tumor several times with a minimal surgical margin, as in Moh's microsurgery. However, this can frequently lead to local recurrence of the tumor. Our case suggested that, regarding mesenchymal tumors with potential of malignancy in the skin, an initial wide excision is indispensable for complete remission of the tumor, even for low-grade malignancy such as LGFMS. PMID:23741216

Furudate, Sadanori; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tsukada, Akira; Numata, Yukikazu; Aiba, Setsuya

2013-01-01

128

Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?  

PubMed Central

An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

2013-01-01

129

Low-grade sarcoma in classical seminoma - the first case reported.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old male with no previous history of neoplastic disease presented with a 5 cm large testicular tumor. Routine histopathological examination and immunohistochemical investigation showed a classical seminoma with a contiguous 8 mm large nodule. The nodule was separated from the tunica albuginea by tubuli seminiferi showing intratesticular germ cell neoplasi not otherwise specified (NOS). The nodule was composed of spindle cells with low-grade nuclear atypia, nuclear and cytoplasmic S100 protein immunoreactivity in 15% of the cells and a proliferative activity of up to 20%. No other germ cell tumor components were found. To the best of our knowledge, we herein present the first tumor of a pure classical seminoma with an associated low-grade sarcomatous component. PMID:20126588

Petersson, Fredrik; Michal, Michal; Grossmann, Petr; Franco, Marcello; Zámecník, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

2009-01-01

130

Low-grade sarcoma in classical seminoma - the first case reported  

PubMed Central

A 30-year-old male with no previous history of neoplastic disease presented with a 5 cm large testicular tumor. Routine histopathological examination and immunohistochemical investigation showed a classical seminoma with a contiguous 8 mm large nodule. The nodule was separated from the tunica albuginea by tubuli seminiferi showing intratesticular germ cell neoplasi not otherwise specified (NOS). The nodule was composed of spindle cells with low-grade nuclear atypia, nuclear and cytoplasmic S100 protein immunoreactivity in 15% of the cells and a proliferative activity of up to 20%. No other germ cell tumor components were found. To the best of our knowledge, we herein present the first tumor of a pure classical seminoma with an associated low-grade sarcomatous component. PMID:20126588

Petersson, Fredrik; Michal, Michal; Grossmann, Petr; Franco, Marcello; Zamecnik, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

2010-01-01

131

The insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To validate the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC), and to investigate whether the IGF-1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade SOC. Methods Gene expression profiling was performed on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) and low-grade SOC, and overexpression of IGF-1 in low-grade SOC was validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous IGF-1 on cell proliferation was determined in cell lines by cell proliferation assays, cell migration assays, and Western blot. Signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1 and the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were investigated by Western blot analysis and by generating IGF-1R short hairpin RNA stable knockdown cell lines. Low- and high-grade cell lines were treated with the dual IGF-1R- and insulin receptor-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906, and cellular proliferation was measured. Results mRNA analysis and immunostaining revealed significantly higher IGF-1 expression in low-grade SOCs than in SBOTs or high-grade SOCs. In response to exogenous treatment with IGF-1, low-grade cell lines exhibited more intense upregulation of phosphorylated AKT than did high-grade cell lines, an effect that was diminished with IGF-1R knockdown and MK-2206 treatment. Low-grade SOC cell lines were more sensitive to growth inhibition with OSI-906 than were high-grade cell lines. Conclusions IGF-1 is overexpressed in low-grade SOCs compared with SBOTs and high-grade SOCs. Additionally, low-grade SOC cell lines were more responsive to IGF-1 stimulation and IGF-1R inhibition than were high-grade lines. The IGF-1 pathway is therefore a potential therapeutic target in low-grade SOC. PMID:21726895

King, Erin R.; Zu, Zhifei; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

2011-01-01

132

The microtubule binding drug EM011 inhibits the growth of paediatric low grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low grade gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours representing the most common form of neoplasms in the central nervous system among children. Although gross total resection remains the principal treatment, it is often impractical especially for the resection of tumours within eloquent regions of the brain. Instead Radiotherapy is utilised in such cases, but because of its associated toxicities, it is refrained from use among younger children. These limitations coupled with hypersensitivity and toxicities associated with some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, have ignited the need to search for safer and more effective treatments for paediatric low grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated the EM011 drug on the growth of two pilocytic and one diffuse paediatric astrocytoma cell lines, using an assortment of cancer assays. We discovered that treatments of low grade gliomas with EM011 abrogated cell viability by inducing a decrease in cell proliferation and an arrest in the S and G2M cell cycle phases, followed by a converse increase in apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell migratory and invasion indices, as well as anchorage independent growth in soft agarose, were significantly attenuated. These findings were mechanistically associated with a transient release of AIF, a disruption of microtubule architecture, and a decline in the expression of key genes which drive cancer progression including EGFR, mTORC1, JUN and multiple MMPs. In fact, the activity of MMP2 was also perturbed by EM011. These findings, in conjunction with the insignificant adverse side effects established from other studies, make EM011 an appealing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of paediatric low grade gliomas. PMID:23402815

Ajeawung, Norbert F; Joshi, Harish C; Kamnasaran, Deepak

2013-07-10

133

Low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow.  

PubMed

Cases of low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow are rare, and its clinicopathology remains unclear. We retrospectively examined patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow. Fourteen patients met the inclusion criteria, including 5 with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL), 3 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 2 with follicular lymphoma (FL), and 4 with low-grade B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (LGBCL-NOS). The median age was 69.5 years (range, 42-89 years), and a slight male predominance was noted (9 men and 5 women, 1.8: 1). Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for CD20. One case was positive for CD138. Both cases of FL were positive for CD10 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and immunoglobulin heavy locus (IgH)/B-cell lymphoma 2 rearrangement was observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) leucine to proline mutation was observed in 3 of 5 LPL, 1 of 2 FL, and 2 of 4 LGBCL-NOS patients. Paraproteinemia was observed in 10 patients; IgM and IgG paraproteinemia were observed in 6 and 3 patients, respectively. In this patient series, 3 patients had died at a median follow-up of 36.5 months; the cause of death of 1 LPL patient was malignant lymphoma itself. Thus, low-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting primarily in the bone marrow has various subtypes, and approximately one-third of the patients had LGBCL-NOS. The immunophenotypic features and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) leucine to proline mutation data of LGBCL-NOS suggested that some cases present with characteristics similar to those of LPL or marginal zone lymphoma. PMID:24767771

Iwatani, Kayoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Yasuharu; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Iwaki, Noriko; Cui, Wei; Sawada-Kitamura, Seiko; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Tamura, Maiko; Saito, Katsuhiko; Miyatani, Katsuya; Yamasaki, Rie; Yamadori, Ichiro; Fujii, Nobuharu; Terasaki, Yasushi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Nakamura, Naoya; Yoshino, Tadashi

2014-07-01

134

Low-grade thermal energy-conversion Joule effect heat engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade thermal energy conversion is discussed with attention to energy sources, heat engines, and potential Joule engine applications. Nitinol heat engine concepts are discussed, and the Nitinol equation-of-state surfaces and transition characteristics are indicated. Bottoming cycles are considered, the untapped low-temperature water energy sources are estimated, the heat-transfer limitation of gas phase heat engines is examined, and solid-state heat engines

W. S. Ginell; J. L. McNichols; J. S. Cory

1978-01-01

135

Effect of heating rate on pyrolysis of low-grade pyrolytic oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-grade pyrolytic oil produced from pyrolysis of municipal plastic waste in a commercial rotary kiln reaction system\\u000a cannot be an acceptable fuel oil due to its low quality. Thus, the degradation of pyrolytic oil was conducted in a bench scale\\u000a batch reactor, which was done by two experiment conditions of high heating rate (about 7 °C\\/min) and low heating

Kyong-Hwan Lee; Geug-Tae Kim; Jeong-Gil Choi

2011-01-01

136

Rituximab and chlorambucil as first-line treatment for low-grade ocular adnexal lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular adnexal lymphomas (OALs) are typically low-grade lymphomas and are largely represented by marginal-zone lymphomas (EMZL).\\u000a Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice but is frequently associated to local complications. We investigated the association\\u000a of chlorambucil and rituximab as first-line treatment for primary OALs. Nine consecutive, newly diagnosed OALs patients (eight\\u000a with a EMZL, one with a follicular lymphoma) with a

Luigi Rigacci; Luca Nassi; Marco Puccioni; Silvia Mappa; Ennio Polito; Serena Dal Pozzo; Renato Alterini; Valentina Carrai; Benedetta Puccini; Alberto Bosi

2007-01-01

137

Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar\\u000a decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect\\u000a to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients\\u000a with a minimum age of 60 years were

Johannes Holinka; Petra Krepler; Michael Matzner; Josef G. Grohs

2011-01-01

138

Low-grade B-Cell lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation lack PAX5 gene rearrangements.  

PubMed

The chromosomal translocation t(9;14)(p13;q32) has been reported in association with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). Although this translocation involving the paired homeobox-5 (PAX5) gene at chromosome band 9p13 and the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene at 14q32 has been described in approximately 50% of LPL cases, the actual number of cases studied is quite small. Many of the initial cases associated with t(9;14)(p13;q32) were actually low-grade B-cell lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation other than LPL. Thus, we analyzed a series of low-grade B-cell lymphomas for PAX5 gene rearrangements. We searched records from the Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center for low-grade B-cell lymphomas, with an emphasis on plasmacytic differentiation, that had available paraffin blocks or frozen tissue. We identified 37 cases, including 13 LPL, 18 marginal zone lymphomas (nodal, extranodal, splenic, and alpha-heavy chain disease), and 6 small lymphocytic lymphomas. A novel dual-color break-apart bacterial artificial chromosome probe was designed to flank the PAX5 gene, spanning previously described PAX5 breakpoints, and samples were analyzed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cases failed to demonstrate a PAX5 translocation, indicating that t(9;14)(p13;q32) and other PAX5 translocations are uncommon events in low-grade B-cell lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation. This study also confirms recent reports that found an absence of PAX5 rearrangements in LPL, suggesting the reassessment of PAX5 rearrangements in LPL. PMID:16049306

George, Tracy I; Wrede, Joanna E; Bangs, Charles D; Cherry, Athena M; Warnke, Roger A; Arber, Daniel A

2005-08-01

139

Balancing durability and environmental impact in concrete combining low-grade recycled aggregates and mineral admixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the effect of various amounts of low-grade recycled aggregates in concrete containing mineral admixtures at three different water–binder ratios on mechanical and environmental performance. The balance between durability and environmental impact for a given strength level similar to normal-use concrete was also examined using analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that increasing the water–binder ratio and volume of

Michael Henry; German Pardo; Tsugio Nishimura; Yoshitaka Kato

2011-01-01

140

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300°C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SOâ⁻², and the heat to bring the

Othmer

1981-01-01

141

Characterization of poly(ethylene- co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) filled with low grade magnesium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade magnesium hydroxide (LG-MH) is a solid by-product that undergoes an endothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 300–750°C. Due to its thermal behaviour and its lower cost relative to pure Mg(OH)2, it was studied as a non-halogenated flame retardant filler in a 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) matrix. The solid was characterized by XRF and the crystalline

A. I. Fernández; L. Haurie; J. Formosa; J. M. Chimenos; M. Antunes; J. I. Velasco

2009-01-01

142

Stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy for progressive low-grade gliomas of childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe the rationale, technique, and early results of stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) in the treatment of progressive or inoperable low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of childhood.Methods and Materials: Between September 1994 and May 1999, 14 children (median age 6 years, range 5–16) with LGG were treated with SCRT at the Royal Marsden NHS Trust. Tumors were located at the

Frank H Saran; Brigitta G Baumert; Vincent S Khoo; Elizabeth J Adams; Maria L Garré; Alan P Warrington; Michael Brada

2002-01-01

143

Low grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with smooth muscle differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are usually Schwann cell derived. Differentiation along mesenchymal lines is uncommon.\\u000a Herein we present an example with smooth muscle differentiation occurring in the left distal forearm of a 62-year-old male\\u000a with neurofibromatosis type I. Incisional biopsy of the slowly growing mass demonstrated a low-grade malignant peripheral\\u000a nerve sheath tumor with strong S-100 protein immunoexpression as

Fausto J. Rodriguez; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Patrice C. Abell-Aleff; Elshami Elamin; Robert A. Erlandson

2007-01-01

144

Composite hemangioendothelioma and its classification as a low-grade malignancy.  

PubMed

Hemangioendotheliomas are vascular neoplasms occupying a spectrum of biological potential ranging from benign to low-grade malignancy. Composite hemangioendothelioma (CH) is one of the less commonly encountered variants exhibiting a mixture of elements of other hemangioendothelioma subtypes, such as epithelioid, retiform, and spindle cell. Some authors have identified areas histopathologically equivalent to angiosarcoma within CH, raising the question of the true nature of this neoplasm. Although CH recurs locally, there are only 3 reported cases which metastasized. To date, 26 cases (including the present case) have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe a unique case of CH arising in the background of previous radiation therapy and long-standing lymphedema (classically associated with the development of angiosarcoma-Stewart-Treves syndrome) that harbored higher grade areas but behaved as a low-grade malignant neoplasm. This, in conjunction with the many reported cases of CH-harboring angiosarcoma-like areas, and the occasional association with a history of lymphedema, raises the question of whether this variant of hemangioendothelioma may actually be an angiosarcoma that behaves prognostically better than the conventional type. After careful study of the natural disease progression of the current case and review of the literature, we discuss justification for the continued classification of CH as a low-grade malignancy. PMID:23694827

McNab, Patricia Moody; Quigley, Brian Christopher; Glass, L Frank; Jukic, Drazen M

2013-06-01

145

Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the chest wall: case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS) are extremely rare. Case presentation We present the first case of low-grade ESOS of the chest wall, which occurred in a 30-year-old man. Because of initial misdiagnosis and patient's refusal of surgery, the diagnosis was done after a 4-year history of a slowly growing mass in soft tissues, leading to a huge (30-cm diameter) calcified mass locally extended over the left chest wall. Final diagnosis was helped by molecular analysis of MDM2 and CDK4 oncogenes. Unfortunately, at this time, no surgical treatment was possible due to loco-regional extension, and despite chemotherapy, the patient died one year after diagnosis, five years after the first symptoms. Conclusion We describe the clinical, radiological and bio-pathological features of this unique case, and review the literature concerning low-grade ESOS. Our case highlights the diagnostic difficulties for such very rare tumours and the interest of molecular analysis in ambiguous cases. PMID:21106072

2010-01-01

146

Low-grade prostate cancer diverges early from high grade and metastatic disease.  

PubMed

Understanding the developmental relationship between indolent and aggressive tumors is central to understanding disease progression and making treatment decisions. For example, most men diagnosed with prostate cancer have clinically indolent disease and die from other causes. Overtreatment of prostate cancer remains a concern. Here we use laser microdissection followed by exome sequencing of low- and high-grade prostate cancer foci from four subjects, and metastatic disease from two of those subjects, to evaluate the molecular relationship of coincident cancer foci. Seventy of 79 (87%) high-confidence somatic mutations in low-grade disease were private to low-grade foci. In contrast, high-grade foci and metastases harbored many of the same mutations. In cases in which there was a metastatic focus, 15 of 80 (19%) high-confidence somatic mutations in high-grade foci were private. Seven of the 80 (9%) were shared with low-grade foci and 65 (82%) were shared with metastatic foci. Notably, mutations in cancer-associated genes and the p53 signaling pathway were found exclusively in high-grade foci and metastases. The pattern of mutations is consistent with early divergence between low- and high-grade foci and late divergence between high-grade foci and metastases. These data provide insights into the development of high-grade and metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:24890684

VanderWeele, David J; Brown, Christopher D; Taxy, Jerome B; Gillard, Marc; Hatcher, David M; Tom, Westin R; Stadler, Walter M; White, Kevin P

2014-08-01

147

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland. PMID:20849631

2010-01-01

148

Influence of cryosurgery on treatment outcome of low-grade chondrosarcoma.  

PubMed

Successfully managing low-grade chondrosarcomas with margins considered less than wide would minimize the need for extensive reconstruction. We report our experience using cryotherapy as an adjuvant to treat patients with low-grade intracompartmental chondrosarcomas. Ten consecutive patients had intralesional resections including curettage, cryo-surgery, and polymethylmethacrylate application. Eight of these patients required prophylactic skeletal stabilization. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes for tumor recurrence, disease progression, and complications. The Musculo-skeletal Tumor Society rating scale was used to evaluate functional outcome, and the mean score was 27 points (range, 25-30 points). The mean age of the patients was 54.4 years (range, 29-83 years), and the average followup was 38.5 months (range, 24-60 months). Patients were treated for lesions of the femur (n = 3), humerus (n = 3), scapula (n = 2), tibia (n = 1), and acetabulum (n = 1). There was no evidence of recurrence or metastases. At the latest followup, all patients were well, however, one patient had hardware loosening. In this small group of patients, intralesional resection with adjuvant cryoablation provided an alternative to more radical procedures for low-grade intracompartmental chondrosarcoma. PMID:16788412

Ahlmann, Elke R; Menendez, Lawrence R; Fedenko, Alexander N; Learch, Thomas

2006-10-01

149

Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma presenting at the site of prior high-grade disease.  

PubMed

Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas occurring in older adults. It can arise de novo or can be radiation induced, and the term myxofibrosarcoma was originally devised to encompass a spectrum of myxoid tumors with characteristics similar to malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Confusion exists, however, regarding the distinction between microscopic grade and characteristics of myxofibrosarcoma and MFH. Correct classification is vital to prognosis, as the degree of myxoid change is inversely related to the incidence of metastasis. We present a case of a 76-year-old man with a history of high-grade MFH of the left lower extremity, status post excision and radiation therapy, who presented 2 years later with a regional metastatic recurrence of high-grade MFH to the left groin as well as new nodules adjacent to and within his prior excision and radiation site. These new nodules were determined to represent low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. These new low-grade lesions either represent a low-grade recurrence of high-grade sarcoma or a new, radiation-induced soft tissue sarcoma occurring at the same site. Radiotherapy, however, is an unlikely cause; specific postradiation sarcoma criteria have not been fulfilled. This article discusses both the nosology and histopathological spectrum of these important soft tissue sarcomas, their aggressive and recurrent nature and their association with radiation therapy. PMID:21752050

Bandino, Justin P; Norton, Scott A; Aldrich, Shelley L; Wisco, Oliver J; Hodson, Darryl S; Murchland, Michael R; Grande, Donald J

2011-10-01

150

Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Afsin Gungor [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture

2009-05-15

151

MUC4 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive fibroblastic neoplasm that is characterized by alternating collagenous and myxoid areas, deceptively bland spindle cell morphology, a whorling architecture, and a t(7;16) translocation involving FUS and CREB3L2. Owing to variable morphology and a lack of discriminatory markers, LGFMS can be difficult to distinguish from benign mesenchymal tumors and other low-grade sarcomas. Gene expression profiling has identified differential upregulation of the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene in LGFMS compared with histologically similar tumors. MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions in cell growth signaling pathways; aberrant MUC4 expression has been reported in various carcinomas. We investigated MUC4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in LGFMS and in other soft tissue tumors to determine the potential diagnostic use of this novel marker. Whole-tissue sections of 309 tumors were evaluated: 49 LGFMSs (all with FUS gene rearrangement confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization), 40 soft tissue perineuriomas, 40 myxofibrosarcomas, 20 cellular myxomas, 20 solitary fibrous tumors, 20 low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 20 cases of desmoid fibromatosis, 20 neurofibromas, 20 schwannomas, 20 monophasic synovial sarcomas, 20 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 10 myxoid liposarcomas, and 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. The LGFMS cases included 7 with marked hypercellularity, 4 with prominent hemangiopericytoma-like vessels, 3 with giant collagen rosettes, 3 with epithelioid morphology, 2 with focal nuclear pleomorphism, and 2 with areas of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. All 49 LGFMS cases (100%) showed cytoplasmic staining for MUC4, which was usually diffuse and intense. All the other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from 6 (30%) monophasic synovial sarcomas. In conclusion, MUC4 is a highly sensitive and quite specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, and can be helpful to distinguish this tumor type from histologic mimics. PMID:21415703

Doyle, Leona A; Möller, Emely; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik; Hornick, Jason L

2011-05-01

152

Specific Visualization of Glioma Cells in Living Low-Grade Tumor Tissue  

PubMed Central

Background The current therapy of malignant gliomas is based on surgical resection, radio-chemotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent retrospective case-series have highlighted the significance of the extent of resection as a prognostic factor predicting the course of the disease. Complete resection in low-grade gliomas that show no MRI-enhanced images are especially difficult. The aim in this study was to develop a robust, specific, new fluorescent probe for glioma cells that is easy to apply to live tumor biopsies and could identify tumor cells from normal brain cells at all levels of magnification. Methodology/Principal Findings In this investigation we employed brightly fluorescent, photostable quantum dots (QDs) to specifically target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is upregulated in many gliomas. Living glioma and normal cells or tissue biopsies were incubated with QDs coupled to EGF and/or monoclonal antibodies against EGFR for 30 minutes, washed and imaged. The data include results from cell-culture, animal model and ex vivo human tumor biopsies of both low-grade and high-grade gliomas and show high probe specificity. Tumor cells could be visualized from the macroscopic to single cell level with contrast ratios as high as 1000: 1 compared to normal brain tissue. Conclusions/Significance The ability of the targeted probes to clearly distinguish tumor cells in low-grade tumor biopsies, where no enhanced MRI image was obtained, demonstrates the great potential of the method. We propose that future application of specifically targeted fluorescent particles during surgery could allow intraoperative guidance for the removal of residual tumor cells from the resection cavity and thus increase patient survival. PMID:20614029

Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Caarls, Wouter; de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Hagen, Guy M.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rohde, Veit; Giese, Alf; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

2010-01-01

153

Circulating anti-filamin C autoantibody as a potential serum biomarker for low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers. Methods We searched for novel glioma-associated antigens by serological identification of antigens utilizing recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), and found FLNC as a candidate protein. Tissue expressions of FLNC (both in normal and tumor tissues) were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was measured by ELISA in normal volunteers and in the patients with various grade gliomas. Results FLNC was expressed in glioma tissues and its level got higher as tumor grade advanced. Anti-FLNC autoantibody was also detected in the serum of glioma patients, but its levels were inversely correlated with the tissue expression. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was significantly higher in low-grade glioma patients than in high-grade glioma patients or in normal volunteers, which was confirmed in an independent validation set of patients’ sera. The autoantibody levels in the patients with meningioma or cerebral infarction were at the same level of normal volunteers, and they were significantly lower than that of low-grade gliomas. Total IgG and anti-glutatione S-transferase (GST) antibody level were not altered among the patient groups, which suggest that the autoantibody response was specific for FLNC. Conclusions The present results suggest that serum anti-FLNC autoantibody can be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of low-grade gliomas while it needs a large-scale clinical study. PMID:24946857

2014-01-01

154

Cytogenetic analysis of a low-grade secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma arising in synovial chondromatosis.  

PubMed

Secondary chondrosarcoma is a malignant chondroid tumor arising in a benign precursor. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign chondroid lesion that rarely transforms to chondrosarcoma. We present the case of a 54-year-old male with the diagnosis of low-grade secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma developed in the context of synovial chondromatosis. Cytogenetics revealed a novel aberration t(1;14)(q23.1~24;q24.1~3). Multicolor banding (mBAND) analysis described the chromosomal regions involved in this translocation with a higher detail. Diagnosis of such borderline lesions is very difficult and cytogenetics is helpful in characterizing these tumors. PMID:23239852

Kyriazoglou, Anastasios I; Rizou, Helen; Dimitriadis, Efthimios; Arnogiannaki, Niki; Agnantis, Niki; Pandis, Nikos

2013-01-01

155

Assessment of verbal working memory before and after surgery for low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  While scarcely reported in low-grade glioma (LGG), accurate assessment of higher functions is essential to evaluate then preserve\\u000a the quality of life. We assessed verbal working memory (vWM) in patients with LGG in language areas, before and after surgery,\\u000a to evaluate the effect of glioma and resection on cognition, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  About 23 patients harboring a LGG in language areas underwent

Pilar Teixidor; Peggy Gatignol; Marianne Leroy; Cristina Masuet-Aumatell; Laurent Capelle; Hugues Duffau

2007-01-01

156

Intraoperative sonographic delineation of low-grade brain neoplasms defined poorly by computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-four consecutive primary of metastatic brain tumors were reviewed to assess the efficacy of intraoperative sonography for localization, biopsy, and/or drainage. In 12 cases, preoperative CT data were incomplete or confusing, usually due to low-density, non-enhanced areas in which low-grade tumor could not be reliably differentiated from necrosis, edema, or cyst. In each case, intraoperative sonography clarified the nature of the solid tumor component by its distinct hyperechogenicity, facilitating biopsy. As a guide to surgical biopsy of brain tumors, sonography has some advantages even over stereotactic systems, which depend upon accurate CT definition of the lesion.

Knake, J.E.; Chandler, W.F.; Gabrielsen, T.O.; Latack, J.T.; Gebarski, S.S.

1984-06-01

157

Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Presenting as a Surgical Emergency: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a female patient admitted to our University Hospital with acute abdominal pain mimicking an intraperitoneal septic condition caused possibly by acute appendicitis. CT and ultrasound scan showed a mass situated in the right iliac fossa. The patient was submitted to laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. The operative findings were suggestive of an appendiceal mucocele. The histology report revealed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. The patient had no clinical, biochemical or visual signs of disease recurrence 6 months postoperatively. PMID:20740138

Athanassiou, Evangelos; Spyridakis, Michail; Karasavvidou, Fotini; Vamvakopoulou, Dimitra; Karaiskou, Evangelia; Vamvakopoulos, Nikolaos; Theodosiou, Paraskevi; Hatzitheofilou, Constantinos

2009-01-01

158

Genome sequencing of lymphoid malignancies.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies has been transformed by next-generation sequencing. The studies in this review have used whole-genome, exome, and transcriptome sequencing to identify recurring structural genetic alterations and sequence mutations that target key cellular pathways in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the lymphomas. Although each tumor type is characterized by a unique genomic landscape, several cellular pathways are mutated in multiple tumor types-transcriptional regulation of differentiation, antigen receptor signaling, tyrosine kinase and Ras signaling, and epigenetic modifications-and individual genes are mutated in multiple tumors, notably TCF3, NOTCH1, MYD88, and BRAF. In addition to providing fundamental insights into tumorigenesis, these studies have also identified potential new markers for diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic intervention. Several genetic alterations are intuitively "druggable" with existing agents, for example, kinase-activating lesions in high-risk B-cell ALL, NOTCH1 in both leukemia and lymphoma, and BRAF in hairy cell leukemia. Future sequencing efforts are required to comprehensively define the genetic basis of all lymphoid malignancies, examine the relative roles of germline and somatic variation, dissect the genetic basis of clonal heterogeneity, and chart a course for clinical sequencing and translation to improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:24041576

Mullighan, Charles G

2013-12-01

159

Early lesions in lymphoid neoplasia  

PubMed Central

The increasing use of immunophenotypic and molecular techniques on lymphoid tissue samples without obvious involvement by malignant lymphoma has resulted in the increased detection of “early” lymphoid proliferations, which show some, but not all the criteria necessary for a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. In most instances, these are incidental findings in asymptomatic individuals, and their biological behaviour is uncertain. In order to better characterize these premalignant conditions and to establish diagnostic criteria, a joint workshop of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society of Hematopathology was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in September 2010. The panel reviewed and discussed more than 130 submitted cases and reached consensus diagnoses. Cases representing the nodal equivalent of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) were discussed, as well as the “in situ” counterparts of follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), topics that also stimulated discussions concerning the best terminology for these lesions. The workshop also addressed the borderland between reactive hyperplasia, and clonal proliferations such as pediatric marginal zone lymphoma and pediatric FL, which may have very limited capacity for progression. Virus-driven lymphoproliferations in the grey zone between reactive lesions and manifest malignant lymphoma were covered. Finally, early manifestations of T-cell lymphoma, both nodal and extranodal, and their mimics were addressed. This workshop report summarizes the most important conclusions concerning diagnostic features, as well as proposals for terminology and classification of early lymphoproliferations and tries to give some practical guidelines for diagnosis and reporting. PMID:24307917

Fend, Falko; Cabecadas, Jose; Gaulard, Philippe; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kluin, Philip; Kuzu, Isinsu; Peterson, LoAnn; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Sundstrom, Christer

2013-01-01

160

Distinctive Molecular Profiles of High-Grade and Low-Grade Gliomas Based on Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytomas are heterogeneous intracranial glial neoplasms ranging from the highly aggressive malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to the indolent, low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma. We have investigated whether DNA microarrays can identify gene expression differences between high- grade and low-grade glial tumors. We compared the transcriptional profile of 45 astrocytic tumors including 21 GBMs and 19 pilocytic astrocytomas using oligonucleotide-based microarrays. Of the

David S. Rickman; Miroslav P. Bobek; David E. Misek; Rork Kuick; Mila Blaivas; David M. Kurnit; Jeremy Taylor; Samir M. Hanash

2001-01-01

161

Oncology is changing: the challenge of effectively assessing response within clinical trials in low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current WHO classification of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors recognizes four separate tumor grades (I?IV), which can be grouped into low-grade (I and II) or high-grade (III and IV), depending on the absence or presence of high-grade histopathological features, such as microvascular proliferation and necrosis. Low-grade gliomas are tumors that have glial differentiation and lack—by definition—the above high-grade

Ilaria Imarisio; Chiara Fumagalli

2011-01-01

162

Invasive cribriform carcinoma in a Chinese population: comparison with low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified  

PubMed Central

Invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC) and low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) were recently considered to belong to a low-grade breast neoplasia family. However, none of publications has compared ICC and low-grade IDC at present. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate prognostic significance of clinicopathological characteristics of different cribriform contents in ICC and invasive breast cancer with less cribriform structures, a retrospective review of fifty-one cases of ICC and forty cases of invasive breast cancer with less cribriform pattern (less than fifty percent) was conducted in a Chinese population. Forty-nine cases of low-grade IDC without cribriform elements were selected as a control. ICC presented more favorable prognostic factors than those of invasive breast carcinoma with less cribriform pattern and low-grade IDC, such as smaller tumor size, less frequent axillary lymph node involvement, higher positive rate of estrogen receptor and/or progestogen receptor expression, and lower proliferation index. The expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor two in ICC and invasive breast cancer with less cribriform pattern was mostly negative. Pure ICC showed less frequency of axillary lymph node involvement, but not its number. The proliferation index in the pure type was lower, although the tumor size in these two types was not obviously different. Tumors contained cribriform structures had a more favorable prognosis than those with low-grade IDC. Considering the tumor biology, and the benign course of pure ICC studied, chemotherapy may not be indicated in the typical case. PMID:23412348

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tongxian; Lin, Zhichun; Zhang, Xuebao; Liu, Fen; Wang, Yahong; Liu, Han; Yang, Yiling; Niu, Yun

2013-01-01

163

Low-grade malignant perineurioma of the paravertebral column, transforming into a high-grade malignancy.  

PubMed

A demarcated 6 x 5 cm right paravertebral tumor at the level of T6 in a 39-year-old male was removed surgically. Histologically, the tumor consisted of monomorphous benign-looking, low-cellular spindle cells embedded in desmoplastic stroma. Ten years later, the tumor recurred locally with metastasis to systemic organs, including the occipital skin. Malignancy was histologically evident by the increased cellularity, cellular atypia and mitotic activity. The patient died of respiratory failure at the age of 49. Retrospectively reviewed, the primary lesion was low-grade fibrosarcoma-like spindle cell tumor, with secondary transformation into a highly malignant form. The differential diagnoses included sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells in the primary and recurrent tumors consistently expressed epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, type 4 collagen and laminin. The tumor cells in the present case showed a differentiation toward perineurial cells, which are normally positive for these immunohistochemical markers. Hence, the appropriate diagnostic term should be 'malignant perineurioma', a subtype of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. PMID:10504555

Karaki, S; Mochida, J; Lee, Y H; Nishimura, K; Tsutsumi, Y

1999-09-01

164

Deceptively benign low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: array-comparative genomic hybridization decodes the diagnosis.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (previously known as Evans tumor) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm characterized by a deceptively bland appearance despite the potential for late metastasis or recurrence. We describe a 13-year-old patient with a popliteal fossa mass initially thought to be benign that, because of array-comparative genomic hybridization findings and subsequent immunohistochemistry, was diagnosed as low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. The array-comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated a loss of 11p11.2p15.5 and a gain of 16p11.2p13.3 with breakpoints involving the CREB3L1 (cAMP responsive element-binding protein 3-like 1) and FUS (fused in sarcoma) genes, respectively. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a dual-labeled break-apart FUS probe on interphase cells was positive. Our case highlights the importance of using genetic information obtained via array-comparative genomic hybridization to classify accurately pediatric soft tissue tumors. PMID:23089491

Odem, Jamie L; Oroszi, Gabor; Bernreuter, Kristen; Grammatopoulou, Vasiliki; Lauer, Scott R; Greenberg, David D; Vogler, Carole A; Batanian, Jacqueline R

2013-01-01

165

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60?°C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-05-01

166

Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

2013-06-01

167

Is Endoscopic Mucosal Resection a Sufficient Treatment for Low-Grade Gastric Epithelial Dysplasia?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The rate of diagnosis of gastric adenoma has increased because esophagogastroduodenoscopy is being performed at an increasingly greater frequency. However, there are no treatment guidelines for low-grade dysplasia (LGD). To determine the appropriate treatment for LGD, we evaluated the risk factors associated with the categorical upgrade from LGD to high grade dysplasia (HGD)/early gastric cancer (EGC) and the risk factors for recurrence after endoscopic treatment. Methods We compared the complication rates, recurrence rates, and remnant lesions in 196 and 56 patients treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), respectively, by histologically confi rming low-grade gastric epithelial dysplasia. Results The en bloc resection rate was significantly lower in the EMR group (31.1%) compared with the ESD group (75.0%) (p<0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence of remnant lesions or recurrence rate (p=0.911) of gastric adenoma. The progression of LGD to HGD or EGC caused an increase in the incidence of tumor lesions >1 cm with surface redness and depressions. Conclusions For the treatment of LGD, EMR resulted in a higher incidence of uncertain resection margins and a lower en bloc resection rate than ESD. However, there was no signifi cant difference in recurrence rate. PMID:23170148

Kim, Seul Young; Sung, Jae Kue; Moon, Hee Seok; Kim, Kyu Seop; Jung, Il Soon; Yoon, Beom Yong; Kim, Beom Hee; Ko, Kwang Hun

2012-01-01

168

Mineralogical and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Iron Ore Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations were carried out, to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation. Mineralogical studies, with the help of microscope as well as XRD, SEM-EDS revealed that the sample consists of magnetite, hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as quartz and kaolinite form the gangue minerals in the sample. Processes involving combination of classification, dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product. The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible. The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator. Dry beneficiation studies by Permaroll separator indicated that it is possible to get a product with 60.2 % Fe at 22 % weight recovery. It is possible to get an over all concentrate with 54 % Fe at 32.4 % weight recovery by combination of size reduction followed by LIMS and WHIMS.

Dwari, R. K.; Rao, D. S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

2014-10-01

169

Is it necessary to resect bone for low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the palate?  

PubMed

Minor intraoral tumours of the salivary glands are relatively uncommon. Most are histologically low grade and display no aggressive clinical features such as bony invasion or regional metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate retrospectively a bone-sparing approach to resection of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the hard palate in 18 patients. Only one had radiographic evidence of bony invasion and was treated by composite resection of the hard palate. Sixteen patients were treated by wide local excision with 1cm margins of soft tissue using the periosteum of the hard palate as the deep margin. The mean (SD) follow-up time was 44 months, (range 2-140). Among patients who had only soft tissue resection the histological margins were clear in 11 patients, and 5 had close or invaded margins that were all localised to the deep margin. There were no local recurrences during the follow-up period. We suggest that a bone-sparing approach to such tumours gives adequate local control, and composite resections should be reserved for tumours that have obviously invaded the hard palate. PMID:22444946

Ord, Robert A; Salama, Andrew R

2012-12-01

170

Optimization of Fluidized Roasting Reduction of Low-Grade Pyrolusite Using Biogas Residual as Reductant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the novel technology of fluidized roasting reduction of samples of low-grade pyrolusite using biogas residual as reductant has been conducted. According to the response surface design and the analysis of results, orthogonal experiments have been conducted on the major factors, and the effects on the manganese reduction efficiency have been studied. The maximum manganese reduction efficiency could be optimized to nearly 100%, when the mass ratio of biogas residual to pyrolusite was 0.16:1, the dosage of sulfuric acid was 1.6 times that of the stoichiometric amount, the roasting temperature was 680°C, and the roasting time was 70 min. The results in terms of manganese reduction efficiency of the actual experiments were close to those anticipated by modeling the experiments, indicating that the optimum conditions had a high reliability. Other low-grade pyrolusites such as Guangxi pyrolusite (China), Hunan pyrolusite (China), and Guizhou pyrolusite (China) were tested and all these materials responded well, giving nearly 100% manganese reduction efficiency.

Cai, Z. L.; Feng, Y. L.; Li, H. R.; Liu, X. W.; Yang, Z. C.

2012-11-01

171

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

172

Adult Supratentorial Low-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Experience at a Single Institution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. Results: With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Conclusion: Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.

Bauman, Glenn, E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.c [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Fisher, Barbara [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Watling, Christopher [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Department of Neurosciences, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Cairncross, J. Gregory [Department of Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, David [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Department of Neurosciences, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

2009-12-01

173

Outcomes of pediatric low-grade gliomas treated with radiation therapy: a single-institution study.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is often considered the treatment of choice for low-grade gliomas. However, given the long-term effects of radiation on the developing brain, the appropriate use of radiation therapy in pediatric patients remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) of pediatric low-grade glioma patients treated with radiation therapy. Data were obtained through a retrospective chart review of patients treated between 1991 and 2008 from a single tertiary care center in the midwest. The study population consisted of 17 patients, of whom 8 (47%) had tumor recurrence after radiation therapy. The median follow-up time was 8.2 years, with a range of 2.3 to 17.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 5.4 years, and the median age at radiation therapy was 9.4 years. The 3- and the 10-year PFS were 69%± 11.7% and 46%± 13.3%, respectively. A significant difference in PFS was seen when comparing brainstem tumors with hypothalamic/optic pathway tumors (P=0.019). Differences in PFS based on the age at diagnosis, the extent of initial surgery, and indication for radiation therapy were not significant. A larger multicenter study is needed to better assess PFS in these patients. PMID:24714505

Raikar, Sunil S; Halloran, Donna R; Elliot, Michael; McHugh, Michele; Patel, Shaun; Gauvain, Karen M

2014-08-01

174

Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: causes and consequences.  

PubMed

The epidemic of overweight and obesity is a major problem because of the plethora of health and economic issues that it induces. Key among these is the sharply increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The development of T2D is characterised by two processes: 1) insulin resistance, resulting from impaired insulin signalling and leading to an increased demand for insulin, which must be met by increased insulin production by pancreatic ?-cells (compensatory ?-cell function); and 2) ?-cell dysfunction, with T2D developing when the amount of insulin that is produced is insufficient to meet the demand. Overweight and obesity, especially in case of abdominal fat accumulation, are associated with systemic low-grade inf lammation. This low-grade inf lammation is characterised by, among other things, higher levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and fatty acids. These can interfere with normal insulin function and thereby induce insulin resistance, and have also been implicated in ?-cell dysfunction. This review focuses on the known and emerging relations between inflammation and T2D. We first discuss current views on the effects of fat distribution on adipose tissue inflammation and adipose tissue dysfunction. Next we focus on the detrimental roles of proinflammatory cytokines and fatty acids on insulin signalling and ?-cell function. In the last part of this review we provide some insight into novel players in (the initiation of) inflammation in overweight and obesity, and their effects on T2D and vascular dysfunction. PMID:23723111

van Greevenbroek, M M J; Schalkwijk, C G; Stehouwer, C D A

2013-05-01

175

Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-? induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-?, or interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-?, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-? increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-? is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3. PMID:25104880

Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders; Andreasen, Anne S.; M?ller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente K.

2014-01-01

176

Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid tissues of mink but not in hamsters. Thus, mink are a relevant animal model for further study of this unique strain, which ultimately may have been introduced through consumption of a TSE of ruminant origin. PMID:22595634

Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

2012-11-01

177

Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of mink but not in hamsters. Thus mink are a relevant animal model for further study of this unique strain, which ultimately may have been introduced through consumption of a TSE of ruminant origin. PMID:22595634

Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

2012-01-01

178

Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-08-26

179

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2013-11-25

180

The challenge to remove diffuse low-grade gliomas while preserving brain functions.  

PubMed

WHO grade II glioma, i.e. diffuse low-grade glioma, is a pre-malignant tumour, usually revealed by seizures in young patients with a normal life. This tumour has a constant growth, and will inescapably become anaplastic. Surgical resection significantly increases the overall survival by delaying the malignant transformation. Thus, the dilemma is to perform early surgery in order to optimise the extent of resection (and thus the median survival) by removing smaller tumours while preserving the quality of life. To this end, the new concept proposed in this review is to achieve surgical resection according to functional and not to oncological boundaries. In other words, the principle is to first understand the cerebral anatomo-functional organisation at the individual level (because of a major inter-individual variability), with the aim of resecting a part of the brain invaded by a diffuse chronic disease, on the condition nonetheless that this part of the brain can be functionally compensated-i.e. with no consequences on the quality of life. To this end, in addition to the preoperative functional neuroimaging and the intraoperative electrical cortical mapping in awake patients, it is also crucial to map both horizontal cortico-cortical connectivity (long-distance association fibres) as well as vertical cortico-subcortical connectivity (projection fibres), with the aim to preserve the networks underlying the minimal common core of the brain. Interestingly, this "hodotopical" workframe, based on the study of both cortical epicentres and subcortical pathways, opens the door to mechanisms of functional reshaping. These recent technical and conceptual advances in the hodotopical and plastic view of brain processing have allowed a dramatic improvement of the benefit-to-risk ratio of surgery, concerning both oncological and functional outcomes. In summary, it is time to move towards "functional neurooncology" and "preventive neurosurgery" in low-grade gliomas. Stronger interactions with fundamental neurosciences should be developed, in order (1) to build updated models of cognition and brain plasticity; (2) to elaborate biomathematical models of low-grade glioma growth and migration; (3) to study in silico the dynamic interactions between the natural course of this disease and the adaptative behaviour of its host (the brain), with the goal to adapt the best individualised therapeutic strategy. PMID:22278663

Duffau, Hugues

2012-04-01

181

Low-grade pelvic masses with spindle cell and fibroblastic proliferation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal-pelvic masses containing spindle cell and fibroblastic proliferation are very rare. Since scant studies have reported on the pathologic characteristics inherent in this disease, appropriate clinical management is undetermined. Case presentation We report on an 87 year-old woman who presented with large abdominal pelvic masses, ascites, ureteral obstruction, and an elevated CA-125 serum level. The patient underwent surgical resection of the lesions and has since done very well. Final pathology revealed a low-grade ovarian tumor with spindle cell and fibroblastic proliferation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this appears to be the only reported clinical case of a patient with this rare histology. PMID:17475011

Micha, John; Rettenmaier, Mark; Ellison, Douglas; Brown, John; Goldstein, Bram

2007-01-01

182

Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition  

PubMed Central

Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders. PMID:25143667

Mei, Mei; Yang, Shumin; Li, Qifu

2014-01-01

183

Enhancement of low grade heat via the HYCSOS chemical heat pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Argonne HYCSOS demonstration system is a thermally driven chemical heat pump based on two metal hydrides with different free energies of formation that functions in heating, cooling and energy conversion modes. Thermodynamics of hydrides are discussed, and it is shown that a continuous supply of high pressure hydrogen can be generated by the system for doing useful work in an expansion engine-dynamo unit supplying electricity and then be absorbed on the alloy at a lower temperature. The ability of the system to enhance low grade solar energy, obtained from inexpensive flat plate collectors to provide domestic hot water, is also discussed. Using the LaNi5 and CaNi5 currently in the HYCSOS system, 34 kcal of thermal energy raised the temperature of water from 39 to 66 C.

Gruen, D. M.; Sheft, I.; Lamich, G. J.

184

Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma involving the cervix mimicking a cervical primary.  

PubMed

We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of the first reported case of an ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma metastatic to the cervix mimicking a cervical primary. The patient, a 55-year-old woman, was found to have an abnormal cervix and an abnormal Pap smear during a preoperative workup for a rectocele repair. A subsequent cervical biopsy contained moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and the patient underwent a cold knife conization. An infiltrating adenocarcinoma was found in the anterior cervical lip, the neoplasm reached the surface of the endocervical canal and was composed of mildly to moderately atypical, eosinophilic or amphophilic columnar cells arranged in glands and papillae. Mitotic figures were rare and no apoptotic bodies were seen. Psammoma bodies and intraglandular mucinous material were also noted. There was extensive vascular/lymphatic invasion. The tumor extended to all margins and was interpreted as a moderately differentiated (grade 2) adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with a linear spread of at least 1.4 cm and a depth of at least 0.6 cm (FIGO stage 1B1). The patient was treated with radiotherapy and cisplatin. Six months later, surveillance imaging studies showed that the patient's ovaries seemed to be enlarging. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, right pelvic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, and pelvic washings. The ovaries contained bilateral cystic tumors. There was gross tumor involving multiple peritoneal sites. Microscopic examination of the ovaries showed the typical features of low-grade serous carcinoma associated with a serous neoplasm of low malignant potential with a cribriform pattern. Metastatic low-grade serous carcinoma was detected in multiple peritoneal sites and in the pelvic washings. A consultation was obtained, with the consultant concurring that the tumors represented independent primaries. The patient received carboplatin and taxol. Two and 4 years after the initial diagnosis, she experienced recurrences and was treated with carboplatin and taxol each time. After the second recurrence, the patient decided to seek additional advice about treatment options. The latter prompted a re-review of her histologic material. Upon this re-review, it was noted that the tumor in the cervix had some rather unusual features for a primary cervical adenocarcinoma, such as the lack of conspicuous mitotic activity, extensive vascular/lymphatic invasion in the context of a tumor with no solid areas, and only mild-to-moderate cytologic atypia. In addition, the tumor in the cervix had areas that were similar to the metastatic tumor present in the omentum. Immunoperoxidase staining for WT-1, estrogen receptor, and p16 was performed on the tumor in the cervix and on the ovarian tumor. The neoplastic cells in both tumors stained in a similar manner; the tumor cells were diffusely positive for WT-1 and estrogen receptor (90%) and focally positive for p16. No detectable signal for high-risk human papillomavirus was seen in the in-situ hybridization performed on the section of the tumor in the cervix. In summary, the histologic and immunohistochemical features and the in-situ hybridization results were in keeping with a diagnosis of metastatic ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma involving the cervix. This case underscores the importance of attentive histopathologic examination and the use of ancillary tests to ensure the recognition of the site of origin of a neoplasm involving the cervix. PMID:21979600

Malpica, Anais; Deavers, Michael T

2011-11-01

185

Hepatic steatosis, low-grade chronic inflammation and hormone/growth factor/adipokine imbalance  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a further expression of metabolic syndrome, strictly linked to obesity and diabetes mellitus, is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), elevated serum levels of free fatty acids and fatty infiltration of the liver, which is known as hepatic steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a key feature of this disease and correlates with its severity. Free-fatty-acid-induced toxicity represents one of mechanisms for the pathogenesis of NAFLD and hormones, growth factors and adipokines influence also play a key role. This review highlights the various pathways that contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. Circulating concentrations of inflammatory cytokines are reckoned to be the most important factor in causing and maintaining IR. Low-grade chronic inflammation is fundamental in the progression of NAFLD toward higher risk cirrhotic states. PMID:20939105

Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, Silvia; Colao, Annamaria

2010-01-01

186

Seizures in low-grade gliomas: natural history, pathogenesis, and outcome after treatments  

PubMed Central

Seizures represent a common symptom in low-grade gliomas; when uncontrolled, they significantly contribute to patient morbidity and negatively impact quality of life. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. The pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy is multifactorial and may differ among tumor histologies (glioneuronal tumors vs diffuse grade II gliomas). Gross total resection is the strongest predictor of seizure freedom in addition to clinical factors, such as preoperative seizure duration, type, and control with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsy surgery may improve seizure control. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (procarbazine + CCNU+ vincristine, temozolomide) are effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Newer AEDs (levetiracetam, topiramate, lacosamide) seem to be better tolerated than the old AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), but there is lack of evidence regarding their superiority in terms of efficacy. PMID:23095831

Rudà, Roberta; Bello, Lorenzo; Duffau, Hugues; Soffietti, Riccardo

2012-01-01

187

Rapid multiorgan dissemination of low-grade myxofibrosarcoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the most common sarcomas in the extremities of elderly people. It is characterized by a high frequency of local recurrence due to an infiltrative growth property. In contrast, the overall risk of distant metastases is generally low. This makes the prognosis for the patients with myxofibrosarcoma definitely good. In this paper, we will report the case of a 79-year-old female with very aggressive metastatic low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The disease progression was really unexpected and misled every possible medical interpretation, leading to rapid worsening of the patient's clinical conditions and no chance for therapy. The tumor developed diffuse infiltration in lung, spine, skeletal bone, abdomen, paravertebral muscles, and liver. The patient died 8 months after the diagnosis of remote metastases due to rapid tumor progression. PMID:22973315

Murahashi, Yasutaka; Kaya, Mitsunori; Soma, Tamotsu; Sasaki, Mikito; Nagoya, Satoshi; Wada, Takuro; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2012-01-01

188

Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

Vidhi, Rachana [University of South Florida, Tampa; Goswami, Yogi D. [University of South Florida, Tampa; Chen, Huijuan [University of South Florida, Tampa; Stefanakos, Elias [University of South Florida, Tampa; Kuravi, Sarada [University of South Florida, Tampa; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2011-01-01

189

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.  

PubMed

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

2014-05-27

190

Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-07-15

191

Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

Strober, S.

1987-12-01

192

Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-01-01

193

Low-grade neuroendocrine tumors arising in intestinal adenomas: evidence for alterations in the adenomatous polyposis coli/?-catenin pathway.  

PubMed

Low-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arising in intestinal adenomas are rare. They are occasionally observed in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), suggesting a role for the adenomatous polyposis coli/?-catenin pathway. We identified 25 composite adenoma/low-grade NETs from colorectum (21) and duodenum (4) and evaluated their clinicopathological features, survival, and nuclear ?-catenin expression by immunohistochemistry. ?-catenin staining was scored as % positivity × intensity (weak, 1; moderate, 2; and strong, 3), for a total possible score of 300. Control groups included 1781 adenomas without NET, 63 composite adenoma/high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), and 32 sporadic NETs. Among 25 adenoma/low-grade NETs, 4 (16%) occurred in patients with FAP. Size of the NET component ranged from 0.01 to 0.9 cm (mean, 0.32 cm). Most (84%) arose in "advanced" adenomas (size >1 cm, villous architecture [72%], or high-grade dysplasia [56%]). In contrast, villous architecture and high-grade dysplasia were present in only 14% (P < .001) and 7% (P < .001), respectively, of adenomas without NET. Overall survival with adenoma/low-grade NET was significantly higher than adenoma/high-grade NEC but significantly lower than sporadic NET (P < .001). Higher ?-catenin expression was seen in adenoma/low-grade NETs (mean score, 231) compared with sporadic NETs (mean score, 48; P < .0001) and adenoma/high-grade NEC (mean score, 173; P = .04). In summary, composite adenoma/low-grade NETs most commonly occur with advanced polyps, but the NET component itself is generally small and indolent. In contrast to sporadic NETs, the occurrence of these lesions in FAP and their high levels of nuclear ?-catenin expression support a pathogenic role for the adenomatous polyposis coli/?-catenin pathway. PMID:25149552

Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Taggart, Melissa W; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C

2014-10-01

194

A survival analysis comparing women with ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma to those with high-grade histology  

PubMed Central

Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma have distinct molecular profiles, clinical behaviors, and treatment responses. The survival advantage for patients with low-grade carcinoma compared with patients with high-grade histology remains controversial. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 381 patients with ovarian serous carcinoma at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2007 to 2010. Patients were classified into two groups according to MD Anderson two-tier system: 35 (9.2%) cases with LGSC and 346 with high-grade serous carcinoma. Patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer had a significantly younger age at diagnosis (46 versus 56 years, P=0.046), and their median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival values were 35.0 and 54.0 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that, for serous ovarian cancer, the histological grade was a significant prognostic factor for PFS but not for overall survival (P=0.022 and P=0.0566, respectively). When stratified by the existence of a residual disease, patients with low-grade disease who underwent cytoreductive surgery without macroscopic residual disease (>1 cm) had a significantly improved median PFS time (36.0 months) compared with that of patients with high-grade carcinoma who received optimal cytoreductive surgery (16.0 months, P=0.017). Conversely, patients with low-grade and high-grade carcinoma who were left with macroscopic residue (>1 cm) experienced a similarly shorter median PFS (10.0 and 13.0 months, respectively, P=0.871). The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and residual disease were significant prognostic factors of low-grade carcinoma, while positive ascites was associated with a worse PFS value. Our data showed that LGSC is a different entity from high-grade carcinoma and that LGSC was associated with improved PFS after optimal cytoreductive surgery but not suboptimal operation. PMID:25342912

Chen, Ming; Jin, Ying; Bi, Yalan; Yin, Jie; Wang, Yongxue; Pan, Lingya

2014-01-01

195

Latitude gradients for lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in Australia support an association with ultraviolet radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Given the uncertainty surrounding solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and risk of lymphoid neoplasms, we performed an ecological analysis of national Australian data for incident cases diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Subtype-specific incidence was examined by latitude band (<29°S, 29-36°S, ?37°S), a proxy for ambient UVR exposure, using multiple Poisson regression, adjusted for sex, age-group and calendar year. Incidence increased with distance from the equator for several mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell [incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.61 for latitude ?37°S relative to <29°S], lymphoplasmacytic (IRR?=?1.34; 95% CI: 1.12-1.61), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (IRR?=?1.32; 95% CI: 0.97-1.80) and mantle cell lymphoma (IRR?=?1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.58), as well as plasmacytoma (IRR?=?1.52; 95% CI: 1.09-2.11) and plasma cell myeloma (IRR?=?1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.27). A similar pattern was observed for several mature cutaneous T-cell neoplasms, including primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (IRR?=?4.26; 95% CI: 1.85-9.84), mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome (IRR?=?1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (NOS) (IRR?=?1.53; 95% CI: 1.17-2.00). Incidence of mixed cellularity/lymphocyte-depleted (IRR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.20) and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (IRR?=?1.57; 95% CI: 1.33-1.85) also increased with distance from the equator. Many of these subtypes have a known association with infection or immune dysregulation. Our findings support a possible protective effect of UVR exposure on the risk of several lymphoid neoplasms, possibly through vitamin D-related immune modulation critical in lymphomagenesis. PMID:23382012

van Leeuwen, Marina T; Turner, Jennifer J; Falster, Michael O; Meagher, Nicola S; Joske, David J; Grulich, Andrew E; Giles, Graham G; Vajdic, Claire M

2013-08-15

196

Identifying malignant transformations in recurrent low grade gliomas using high resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether metabolic parameters derived from ex vivo analysis of tissue samples are predictive of biologic characteristics of recurrent low grade gliomas (LGGs). This was achieved by exploring the use of multivariate pattern recognition methods to generate statistical models of the metabolic characteristics of recurrent LGGs that correlate with aggressive biology and poor clinical outcome. Methods Statistical models were constructed to distinguish between patients with recurrent gliomas that had undergone malignant transformation to a higher grade and those that remained grade 2. The pattern recognition methods explored in this paper include three filter-based feature selection methods (chi-square, gain ratio, and two-way conditional probability), a genetic search wrapper-based feature subset selection algorithm, and five classification algorithms (linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, functional trees, support vector machines, and decision stump logit boost). The accuracy of each pattern recognition framework was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation and bootstrapping. Materials The population studied included fifty-three patients with recurrent grade 2 gliomas. Among these patients, seven had tumors that transformed to grade 4, twenty-four had tumors that transformed to grade 3, and twenty-two had tumors that remained grade 2. Image-guided tissue samples were obtained from these patients using surgical navigation software. Part of each tissue sample was examined by a pathologist for histological features and for consistency with the tumor grade diagnosis. The other part of the tissue sample was analyzed with ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results Distinguishing between recurrent low grade gliomas that transformed to a higher grade and those that remained grade 2 was achieved with 96% accuracy, using areas of the ex vivo NMR spectrum corresponding to myoinositol, 2-hydroxyglutarate, hypo-taurine, choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glutathione, and lipid. Logistic regression and decision stump boosting models were able to distinguish between recurrent gliomas that transformed to a higher grade and those that did not with 100% training accuracy (95% confidence interval [93%–100%]), 96% leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy (95% confidence interval [87%–100%]), and 96% bootstrapping accuracy (95% confidence interval [95%–97%]). Linear discriminant analysis, functional trees, and support vector machines were able to achieve leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy above 90% and bootstrapping accuracy above 85%. The three feature ranking methods were comparable in performance. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of using quantitative pattern recognition methods for the analysis of metabolic data from brain tissue obtained during the surgical resection of gliomas. All pattern recognition techniques provided good diagnostic accuracies, though logistic regression and decision stump boosting slightly outperform the other classifiers. These methods identified biomarkers that can be used to detect malignant transformations in individual low grade gliomas, and can lead to a timely change in treatment for each patient. PMID:22387185

Constantin, Alexandra; Elkhaled, Adam; Jalbert, Llewellyn; Srinivasan, Radhika; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M.; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Nelson, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

197

[Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in neutropenia secondary to lymphoid bone marrow infiltration].  

PubMed

In patients with low-grade lymphoid malignancy, severe neutropenia due to massive bone marrow infiltration of lymphocytes increases the risk of infection, especially after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Three patients (two with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and one with follicular lymphoma) with massive bone marrow infiltration and neutropenia not caused by short-term effects of chemotherapy, were treated with G-CSF for five two-week periods, to find out if the neutropenia was reversible. All three patients initially responded to G-CSF with an increase of neutrophil counts into the normal range or above. In one patient, G-CSF administered after a subsequent course of myelosuppressive chemotherapy apparently prevented severe chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Retreatment of a previous responder in a later, preterminal stage of the disease produced very little response in terms of neutrophil counts. G-CSF can increase peripheral blood neutrophil counts to normal levels in patients with severe neutropenia induced by lymphoid bone marrow infiltration. PMID:8644050

Hammerstrøm, J

1996-02-10

198

First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy  

PubMed Central

Background To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Patients and methods Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Results Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Conclusion Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation. PMID:23140402

2012-01-01

199

Membrane-free battery for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost systems are desired to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). An attractive approach is the thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC), which uses the dependence of electrode potential on temperature to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying the temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharged; thus, thermal energy is converted to electricity. Recently, a Prussian blue analog-based system with high efficiency has been demonstrated. However, the use of an ion-selective membrane in this system raises concerns about the overall cost, which is crucial for waste heat harvesting. Here, we report on a new membrane-free battery with a nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and a silver/silver chloride anode. The system has a temperature coefficient of -0.74 mV K(-1). When the battery is discharged at 15 °C and recharged at 55 °C, thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of 2.6% and 3.5% are achieved with assumed heat recuperation of 50% and 70%, respctively. This work opens new opportunities for using membrane-free electrochemical systems to harvest waste heat. PMID:25307065

Yang, Yuan; Loomis, James; Ghasemi, Hadi; Lee, Seok Woo; Wang, Yi Jenny; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

2014-11-12

200

The association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment is mediated by chronic low-grade inflammation.  

PubMed

Published evidence suggests that obesity impairs cognition. Development of chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) represents the earliest consequence of obesity. The present study investigated the association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment and assessed the potential mediating role of CLGI and psychological (depression/anxiety symptoms), lifestyle (exercise) and physiological (metabolic dysfunction indices) factors in this association. Clinically healthy participants (n 188), grouped as per BMI, underwent cognitive (General Ability Measure for Adults), psychological (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and activity (Godin leisure-time physical activity) measurements. Biochemical parameters included the following: (a) indices of CLGI (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen); (b) insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index); (c) adiposity (plasma adiponectin). An inverse association between elevated BMI and fluid intelligence was observed, with obese participants displaying significantly poorer performance compared with age-matched normal-weight peers. Structural equation modelling results were consistent with a negative impact of obesity on cognition that was mediated by CLGI. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that reduced general cognitive ability is associated with obesity, an adverse effect mainly mediated by obesity-associated activation of innate immunity. PMID:25315424

Spyridaki, Eirini C; Simos, Panagiotis; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina D; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Venihaki, Maria; Bardos, Achilles N; Margioris, Andrew N

2014-11-01

201

The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activity compared to healthy controls and that particularly global slowing correlates with neurocognitive dysfunction. Patient and methods Resting state MEG recordings were obtained from 17 LGG patients and 17 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the delta, theta, upper and lower alpha, beta, and gamma frequency band. A battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring 6 neurocognitive domains was administered. Results LGG patients showed a slowing of the resting state brain activity when compared to healthy controls. Decrease in relative power was mainly found in the gamma frequency band in the bilateral frontocentral MEG regions, whereas an increase in relative power was found in the theta frequency band in the left parietal region. An increase of the relative power in the theta and lower alpha band correlated with impaired executive functioning, information processing, and working memory. Conclusion LGG patients are characterized by global slowing of their resting state brain activity and this slowing phenomenon correlates with the observed neurocognitive deficits. PMID:18259691

Stam, C. J.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J. J.; van Dijk, B. W.; Postma, T. J.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J. C.

2008-01-01

202

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the upper lip with metachronous myoepithelioma of the buccal mucosa.  

PubMed

Examples of multiple minor salivary gland tumors, synchronous or metachronous, are uncommon. We report a patient who initially presented with polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) and subsequently with myoepithelioma. A 91-year-old white woman presented in 2009 with a 1-cm, firm, nontender, well-circumscribed nodule of the left side of the upper lip extending to the anterior buccal mucosa. Excisional biopsy revealed PLGA. While the margins were positive, further treatment was not recommended due to the patient's age. In 2011, the patient returned with a 1.5-cm, asymptomatic mass of the left buccal vestibule. Excision of the lesion revealed a circumscribed proliferation of epithelioid and plasmacytoid cells arranged in spherical or whorl-like islands and immersed in a mucinous stroma, consistent with myoepithelioma. The PLGA recurred 3 years after initial diagnosis. Excision was again associated with positive margins, and again no further treatment was recommended. A few months later, at a scheduled follow-up appointment, she presented with a painless nodule of the left upper lip, consistent with recurrent PLGA. One month later, the patient died of unrelated causes. We also present a literature review of multiple minor salivary gland tumors. PMID:24268388

Argyris, Prokopios P; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

2014-06-01

203

Low-grade toxicity after conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer-impact of bladder volume  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain with urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.

Pinkawa, Michael [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: mpinkawa@ukaachen.de; Fischedick, Karin [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Asadpour, Branka [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Gagel, Bernd [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Piroth, Marc D. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Eble, Michael J. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

2006-03-01

204

Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To describe the clinical features of rheumatic fever and to assess the Jones criteria in a population and setting similar to that in many developing countries.?METHODS—The charts of 555 cases of confirmed acute rheumatic fever in 367 patients (97% Aboriginal) and more than 200 possible rheumatic fever cases from the tropical "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory were reviewed retrospectively.?RESULTS—Most clinical features were similar to classic descriptions. However, monoarthritis occurred in 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases and 35% of unconfirmed cases, including up to 27 in whom the diagnosis was missed because monoarthritis is not a major manifestation. Only 71% and 25% of confirmed non-chorea cases would have had fever using cut off values of 38°C and 39°C, respectively. In 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases, anti-DNase B titres were raised but antistreptolysin O titres were normal. Although features of recurrences tended to correlate with initial episodes, there were numerous exceptions.?CONCLUSIONS—Monoarthritis and low grade fever are important manifestations of rheumatic fever in this population. Streptococcal serology results may support a possible role for pyoderma in rheumatic fever pathogenesis. When recurrences of rheumatic fever are common, the absence of carditis at the first episode does not reliably predict the absence of carditis with recurrences.?? PMID:11517105

Carapetis, J; Currie, B

2001-01-01

205

MYB upregulation and genetic aberrations in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of genetic abnormalities in pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have focused on activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway by KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusions in the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and by rare mutations in elements of the pathway across histopathologically diverse LGGs. This study reports that MYB, an oncogene not previously implicated in gliomagenesis, is activated in a diverse subset of pediatric LGGs. The study cohort comprised 57 pediatric LGGs and a comparative cohort of 59 pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The LGG cohort included 34 PAs and 23 diffuse gliomas; fibrillary astrocytomas (n=14), oligodendroglial tumors (n=7), and angiocentric gliomas (n=2). MYB copy number abnormalities were disclosed using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP arrays and confirmed using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Novel MYB amplifications that upregulate MYB RNA and protein expression were demonstrated in 2/14 diffuse astrocytomas. In addition, focal deletion of the terminal region of MYB was seen in 1 of 2 angiocentric gliomas (AGs). Increased expression of MYB was demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MYB upregulation at the protein level was demonstrated in a proportion of diffuse LGGs (60%), pilocytic astrocytomas (41%), and HGGs (19%), but abnormalities at the genomic level were only a feature of diffuse gliomas. Our data suggest that MYB may have a role in a subset of pediatric gliomas, through a variety of mechanisms in addition to MYB amplification and deletion. PMID:21046410

Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Tang, Bo; Dalton, James; Forshew, Tim; Lawson, Andrew R.; Ma, Jing; Neale, Geoff; Shurtleff, Sheila A.; Bailey, Simon; Gajjar, Amar; Baker, Suzanne J.; Sheer, Denise; Ellison, David W.

2011-01-01

206

Congenital cystic eye associated with a low-grade cerebellar lesion that spontaneously regressed  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital cystic eye is an exceedingly rare ocular malformative disease, originated from the failure in the invagination of the optic vesicle during the fetal period and it can be associated with other ocular and non-ocular abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological features. Case presentation We report a case of a congenital cystic eye associated with a cerebellar lesion accidentally detected at magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy of the mass has not been performed due to parental rejection. Based on radiologic features and absence of clinical signs, a low-grade glioma diagnosis was hypothesized, but histological characterization was not obtained. Follow-up neuro-imaging 6 months after diagnosis showed that intracranial lesion spontaneously regressed without any treatment. Conclusion Our report stresses the importance of early MRI in children with ocular malformations, in order to detect associated intracranial defects, also of non-malformative origin. Additionally, we debate the clinic-radiological features of the intracranial lesions that could allow a wait-and-see policy. We also recommend a strict clinical and neuro-imaging follow-up for these lesions. Finally, biological mechanisms at the base of spontaneous regression of the brain lesions are discussed. PMID:24939368

2014-01-01

207

Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma following a metal implantation in femur: a case report  

PubMed Central

Myxofibrosarcoma is a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma that most commonly involves the extremities of elderly people. However, a primary myxofibrosarcoma with bone invasion in young adults is extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old male with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass, who had a history of left femur fracture and received an open reduction and internal fixation with titanium alloy plates and screws 33 months previously. Imaging investigations revealed an irregularly shaped soft tissue mass around the left femur shaft and a partial bone defect in the middle one-third of the left femur. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a multi-nodular appearance, abundant myxoid matrix and elongated curvilinear capillaries. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells was positive for VIM and MDM2, and was negative for CK, MSA, SMA, DES, S-100 and CD34. Labeling index of Ki-67 was 25%. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The clinical and imaging examinations did not reveal the evidence of a primary cancer elsewhere, and the patient had no personal or family history of malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary myxofibrosarcoma developed following a fracture and metal implantation in young adults. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1745984882113605 PMID:24444015

2014-01-01

208

Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (LGNPPA) is extremely rare; only four cases have been reported. Herein are presented the case reports of two Japanese male patients with thyroid-like LGNPPA. Macroscopically, these tumors were pedunculated polypoid masses on the roof of the nasopharynx. Microscopically, they were characterized by papillary and glandular epithelial proliferation. The papillae were complex and tightly packed with hyalinized fibrovascular cores and lined by columnar and pseudostratified cells with intervening spindle-shaped cells. Both cell types had round to oval vesicular nuclei with tiny nucleoli and mildly eosinophilic cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were not evident and necrosis was not observed. Psammoma bodies were seen focally in one of the patients. Transition from normal surface epithelium to tumor cells was identified in both cases. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and vimentin. They were negative for CK5/6, CK20, thyroglobulin, S-100 protein and CD15. In situ hybridization for EBV was negative. Nasopharyngeal tumors with similar morphological appearance should be examined for TTF-1 immunoreactivity, and patients should be clinically followed to determine the course of this unusual disease and the significance of TTF-1 expression. PMID:20398195

Ohe, Chisato; Sakaida, Noriko; Tadokoro, Chika; Fukui, Hideto; Asako, Mikiya; Tomoda, Koichi; Uemura, Yoshiko

2010-02-01

209

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the perineum with heterotopic ossification: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma was first described more than 20 years ago. Subsequently, it was discovered to carry the recurrent chromosomal translocation t(7;16)(q33;p11) encoding a FUS-CREB3L2 fusion oncoprotein. Molecular tests for this pathognomonic gene fusion can confirm the identity of histologic variants (such as hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes) and suggest that some cases of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma may represent a high-grade version of this entity. We present a case of an ossifying tumor of the perineum that required an open biopsy and fluorescent in situ hybridization testing for FUS and CREB3L2 for diagnosis as a variant of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Subsequent excision revealed characteristic areas with collagen rosettes as well as foci of heterotopic ossification. Significant ossification, which is well documented in entities such as synovial sarcoma, ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, and extraskeletal osteosarcoma, has not been reported previously in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. This case demonstrates the value of having a distinctive confirmatory molecular pathology test for diagnosis and expands our knowledge of the histologic variants possible in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. PMID:21658743

Lee, Anna F; Yip, Stephen; Smith, Adam C; Hayes, Malcolm M; Nielsen, Torsten O; O'Connell, John X

2011-11-01

210

Central low-grade osteosarcoma with an unusual localization in the diaphysis of a 12-year old patient  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade central osteosarcoma is a very rare subtype of osteosarcoma with a predilection for the metaphysis of long bones and a peak incidence in the 3rd decade of life. Absence of specific clinical symptoms and a good prognosis after wide resection are the characteristics of this entity. Chemotherapy is not indicated in this highly differentiated tumour. Case report A 12-year old girl presented with limping, swelling and pain in the mid of the left femur. Radiography showed a 12 cm long intraosseous expansion with lamellated periosteal reaction and contrast medium enhancement in MRI. Although radiology led to the differential diagnoses of Ewing’s sarcoma, osteomyelitis and fibrous dysplasia, the histological specimen showed a hyopocellular spindle-cell proliferation arranged in fascicles with mild cytologic atypia and only single mitotic figures. In synopsis with radiology the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was made and confirmed by reference pathology. The tumour was resected with wide margins and reconstruction was performed with a vascularized fibula, a homologous allograft and a plate. Staging was negative for recurrence and metastasis at a follow-up of 16 months. Conclusions Low-grade osteosarcoma accounts for only 1% of all osteosarcomas with a peak incidence in the 3rd decade. The diaphyseal localization and the young age make this case special. To achieve the correct diagnosis of this rare low-grade entity and thereby the adequate treatment, despite a wide range of differential diagnoses, a multidisciplinary approach is essential. PMID:23801917

Gilg, Magdalena Maria; Liegl, Bernadette; Wibmer, Christine; Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Leithner, Andreas

2013-01-01

211

Low grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma of uterine corpus, a clinico-pathological and survey study in 14 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare disease with probably less than 700 new cases in the USA or Europe per year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS) in relation to their clinical and pathological features and to identify possible prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with histologically

Tahereh Ashraf-Ganjoei; Nadereh Behtash; Mamak Shariat; Asamosadat Mosavi

2006-01-01

212

Recovery of silver and zinc by acid pressure oxidative leaching of silver-bearing low-grade complex sulfide ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rich silver-bearing low-grade complex sulfide ores can be found in great supply in China's Yunnan Province. The beneficiation experiment showed that it would be very difficult to separate Ag (Zn or Pb) minerals with traditional ore beneficiation methods. In the present work, acid pressure oxidative leaching of such complex sulfide ores in sulfate medium added sodium iodine and at the

Liang Duoqiang; Wang Jikun; Wang Yunhua; Jiang Jibo; Wang Fan

2008-01-01

213

Endoluminal stent reconstruction of low-grade, symptomatic carotid plaques: a treatment alternative--report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Medical treatment of low-grade (<50% luminal narrowing) symptomatic carotid stenosis has been the treatment of choice because trial data showed no evident benefit to carotid endarterectomy for these patients. Such patients may have recurrent neurological symptoms despite adequate medical therapy owing to recurrent plaque rupture. In such cases, carotid stenting may represent an option for treatment but has not been tested in trials because of previous failure of carotid endarterectomy to demonstrate any benefit for patients with low-grade carotid stenosis. The cases presented here illustrate the perioperative safety and potential benefit of carotid stenting for such patients with persistent neurological symptoms despite adequate medical therapy. Case material Two patients with low-grade stenosis and recurrent transient ischemic attack or stroke despite antiplatelet therapy were treated with carotid stenting. Both patients were treated after recent ipsilateral neurological events in the absence of an evident cardioembolic source. Carotid plaque ulceration thought to be related to the ischemic events was present in both cases. No perioperative complications were noted. On followup, the patients showed resolution of symptoms and had no new neurological events. Conclusion Carotid stenting of low-grade but symptomatic carotid plaque refractory to medical management represents a surgical option for treatment. Further studies may be warranted to evaluate stenting as a suitable treatment option. PMID:24920988

Shallwani, Hussain; Dumont, Travis M.; Wach, Michael M.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

2014-01-01

214

The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 ? Mn3O4 ? MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

2013-08-01

215

Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-04-01

216

Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

Di Pinto, Marcos [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-11-01

217

Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

Habrand, Jean-Louis [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France)], E-mail: jean-louis.habrand@curie.net; Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Petras, Slavo [University Hospital, Caen Cyceron Laboratory, Caen (France); Datchary, Jean [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Grill, Jacques [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Sainte-Rose, Christian [Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

2008-07-01

218

Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.  

PubMed

Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

1995-01-01

219

Proteomic Helicobacter pylori biomarkers discriminative of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and duodenal ulcer.  

PubMed

To date no reliable diagnostic method exists to predict, among the very large and clinically heterogeneous group of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients, the extremely small group at risk for developing low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma (LG-MALT). Search of proteomic biomarkers holds promise for the classification of the H. pylori strains with regard to this severe clinical outcome. In the present study 69 H. pylori strains isolated from patients with two different H. pylori-associated diseases, duodenal ulcer (DU, n=29) and LG-MALT (n=40) were used. Protein expression patterns of the strains were analyzed by using the high-throughput methodology SELDI. Selected proteins were purified by means of chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in view of further sequencing by LC-MS/MS. Univariate analysis (Mann-Whitney test) of the protein expression patterns generated nine significant biomarkers that can discriminate between H. pylori strains from patients with DU and LG-MALT. These biomarkers are of low molecular weight, ranging from 6 to 26.6?kDa. Among them, two are overexpressed in LG-MALT strains and seven - in DU strains. Two biomarker proteins, one overexpressed in LG-MALT strains (13.2?kDa) and another one - overexpressed in DU strains (26.6?kDa), were purified to homogeneity and identified by using LC-MS/MS as a 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12 and a urease subunit, respectively. These biomarkers can be included in novel protein arrays for the differential diagnosis of H. pylori-associated clinical outcomes. PMID:21136979

Bernarde, Cédric; Khoder, Ghalia; Lehours, Philippe; Burucoa, Christophe; Fauchère, Jean-Louis; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Mégraud, Francis; Atanassov, Christo

2009-06-01

220

Phase II Trial of Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of radiotherapy in pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG) is controversial, especially for young patients. We conducted a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) to estimate disease control by using a 10-mm clinical target volume (CTV) margin. Materials and Methods Between August 1997 and August 2006, 78 pediatric patients with LGG and a median age of 8.9 years (range, 2.2 to 19.8 years) received 54 Gy CRT by using a 10-mm CTV and by targeting with systematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registration. Tumor locations were diencephalon (n = 58), cerebral hemisphere (n = 3), and cerebellum (n = 17). Sixty-seven patients had documented or presumed WHO grade 1 tumors, 25 patients had prior chemotherapy, and 13 patients had neurofibromatosis type 1. Results During a median follow-up of 89 months, 13 patients experienced disease progression. One patient experienced marginal treatment failure, eight experienced local failures, and four experienced metastatic failure. The mean and standard error 5- and 10-year event-free (87.4% ± 4.4% and 74.3% ± 15.4%, respectively) and overall (98.5% ± 1.6% and 95.9% ± 5.8%, respectively) survival rates were determined. The mean and standard error cumulative incidences of local failure at 5 and 10 years were 8.7% ± 3.5% and 16.4% ± 5.4%, respectively. The mean and standard error cumulative incidence of vasculopathy was 4.79% ± 2.73% at 6 years, and it was higher for those younger than 5 years of age (P = .0105) at the time of CRT. Conclusion This large, prospective series of irradiated children with LGG demonstrates that CRT with a 10-mm CTV does not compromise disease control. The results suggest that CRT should be delayed in young patients to reduce the risk of vasculopathy. PMID:19581536

Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A.

2009-01-01

221

Stereotactic brachytherapy of low-grade cerebral glioma after tumor resection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) on survival time and outcome when applied after resection of low-grade glioma (LGG) of World Health Organization grade II. From January 1982 through December 2006 we treated 1024 patients who had glioma with stereotactic implantation of iodine-125 seeds and SBT in accordance with a prospective protocol. For the present analysis, we selected 95 of 277 patients with LGG, in whom SBT was applied to treat progressive (43 patients) or recurrent (52 patients) tumor after resection. At 24 months after seed implantation, the tumor response rate was 35.9%, and the tumor control rate was 97.3%. The median progression-free-survival (PFS) duration after SBT was 52.7 ± 7.1 months. Five-year and 10-year PFS probabilities were 43.4% and 10.7%, respectively. Malignant tumor transformation, the diagnosis “astrocytoma,” and tumor volume >20 mL were significantly associated with reduced PFS. Tumor progression or relapse after SBT (53 of 95 patients) was treated with tumor resection, a second SBT, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The median overall survival duration (from the first diagnosis of LGG until the patient's last contact) was 245.0 ± 4.9 months. Patients still under observation after seed implantation had a median follow-up time of 156.4 ± 55.7 months. Perioperative transient morbidity was 1.1%, and the frequency of permanent morbidity caused by SBT was 3.3%. In conclusion, SBT of recurrent or progressive LGG after resection located in functionally critical brain areas has high local efficacy and comparably low morbidity. Referred to individually adopted glioma treatment concepts SBT provides a reasonably long PFS, thus improving overall survival. In selected patients, SBT can lead to delays in the application of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PMID:21868412

Suchorska, Bogdana; Ruge, Maximilian; Treuer, Harald; Sturm, Volker; Voges, Jürgen

2011-01-01

222

Effect of neoadjuvant temozolomide upon volume reduction and resection of diffuse low-grade glioma.  

PubMed

Maximal safe resection is associated with prolonged survival in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG). It has been suggested that neoadjuvant temozolomide may provide sufficient tumor shrinkage to facilitate aggressive surgical debulking. We examined the impact of temozolomide upon volume reduction and resectability of LGG. We retrospectively identified 20 adult patients with biopsy-proven, deemed not totally resectable LGGs, treated initially with temozolomide. Volumetric 3D (calculated from serial FLAIR images) and 2D tumor measurements were obtained prior to treatment and at 3 months post-treatment. The anticipated extent of resection (EOR) at the 2 time points was measured based on anatomical limitations, calculated as: [(total tumor volume - unresectable tumor volume)/total tumor volume] ×100. Eloquent cortex, deep structures and corpus callosum were considered unresectable. Mean tumor volume was 68.4 cm(3) pre-treatment and 49.5 cm(3) at 3 months post-treatment. The mean change from baseline to 3 months after treatment was -32.5 % (p < 0.001). Mean 2D pre-treatment area was 28.6 and 23.3 cm(2) at 3 months post-treatment. The 2D change was also significant, with mean change of -17 % (p < 0.001). 5 % had partial response; 40 % minor response; 45 % stable disease; and 10 % progressive disease by RANO criteria. Mean pre-treatment anticipated EOR was 67.2 and 71.5 % at 3 months post-treatment. The mean change from baseline was 4.3 % (p = 0.10). Our findings demonstrate significant volumetric and 2D reduction of LGG with temozolomide. Although this tumor shrinkage might facilitate radical surgical resection in some cases, our data failed to show statistically significant improvement in anticipated EOR. PMID:25038848

Jo, Jasmin; Williams, Brian; Smolkin, Mark; Wintermark, Max; Shaffrey, Mark E; Lopes, M Beatriz; Schiff, David

2014-10-01

223

Pseudolymphomatous Folliculitis: A Distinctive Cutaneous Lymphoid Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (PLF) was first described in 1986 as a distinct variant of pseudolymphoma, characterized by a dense lymphoid infiltrate and accompanied by hyperplastic hair follicles. Here in we report a case of PLF presenting as an erythematous plaque with pustules and satellite lesions on forehead in an otherwise healthy adult male patient. PMID:23918997

Gutte, Rameshwar M

2013-01-01

224

Innate lymphoid cells: of precursors and products….  

PubMed

Recent reports have identified committed innate lymphoid cell (ILC) precursors and tissue-resident ILC subsets that have unique functional attributes. Taken together, these studies provide a framework for understanding how distinct ILCs are generated during hematopoiesis and further suggest additional parallels between models of ILC and T helper cell differentiation. PMID:24937286

Serafini, Nicolas; Xu, Wei; Di Santo, James P

2014-06-16

225

Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: results of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Four cases of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) were treated with radiation therapy. Sixteen separate areas of the skin were irradiated. Only two received more than 18 Gy (1800 rad). Follow-up ranged from eight months to seven years. No infield recurrences were observed, and cosmetic results were excellent. The authors suggest that radiation therapy can be highly effective in the treatment of CLH.

Olson, L.E.; Wilson, J.F.; Cox, J.D.

1985-05-01

226

Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody and Combination Chemotherapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-07-03

227

Retrospective protein expression and epigenetic inactivation studies of CDH1 in patients affected by low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of tumour cells results in loss of gene function. In addition\\u000a to genetic lesions, changes in the methylation profile of the promoters may be considered a factor for tumour-specific aberrant\\u000a expression of the genes.We investigated the methylation status of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter in low-grade glioma and correlated it with clinical

Pietro Ivo D’Urso; Oscar Fernando D’Urso; Carlo Storelli; Giuseppe Catapano; Cosimo Damiano Gianfreda; Antonio Montinaro; Antonella Muscella; Santo Marsigliante

228

Preserved memory in temporal lobe epilepsy patients after surgery for low-grade tumour. A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to carry out a pilot study exploring memory outcome in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and low-grade\\u000a tumour. A prospective study using a competence-related memory assessment was carried out in the Laboratory of Neuropsychology,\\u000a Epilepsy Center and Neurosurgical Department of the “C. Besta” National Neurological Institute in 24 TLE patients undergoing\\u000a surgical resection for left (n=12)

A. R. Giovagnoli; M. Casazza; E. Ciceri; G. Avanzini; G. Broggi

2007-01-01

229

Analysis of factors related to prognosis and curative effect for posterolateral fusion of lumbar low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to select factors related to the prognosis and curative effect for posterolateral fusion (PLF)\\u000a of lumbar low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (LGIS). Of 125 patients who accepted PLF treatment, 119 obtained solid union\\u000a in this prospective study. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate factors related to the prognosis and curative effect.\\u000a Spondylolisthetic position (L4, L5), gender

Feng Ming-li; Shen Hui-liang; Yong Yi-min; Hu Huai-jian; Zhang Qing-ming; Cao-Li

2009-01-01

230

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01

231

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma in the upper lip: a well-described but infrequently recognized tumor.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising almost exclusively in the minor salivary glands. PLGA occurs primarily in the oral cavity, especially in the palate, followed by the oral mucosa and upper lip [1,2]. Conditions involving these locations are often presented at dermatological clinics. Therefore, dermatologists should consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of the oral cavity tumors. We present a case of PLGA in the upper lip. PMID:24021444

Andreu-Barasoain, Marta; Vicente-Martín, F Javier; Gómez de la Fuente, Enrique; Salamanca-Santamaría, Javier; Pampín-Franco, Ana; López-Estebaranz, Jose Luiz

2013-08-01

232

Deficiencies of physiologic calcification inhibitors and low-grade inflammation in arterial calcification: lessons for cartilage calcification.  

PubMed

Apart from clinical parallels, similarities in the pathogenesis of arterial and articular cartilage calcification have come to light in recent years. These include the roles of aging, of chronic low-grade inflammation and of genetic and acquired dysregulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) metabolism. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the pathogenesis of artery calcification pertinent to interpretation of the mechanistic basis for articular cartilage calcification in aging and osteoarthritis. PMID:15797489

Rutsch, Frank; Terkeltaub, Robert

2005-03-01

233

Composite Low Grade B-Cell Lymphomas with Two Immunophenotypically Distinct Cell Populations Are True Biclonal Lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Low grade B-cell lymphomas comprise several well defined, clinically and immunophenotypically distinct disease entities. Composite lymphomas showing phenotypic characteristics of more than one of these tumor subtypes in the same site are rare, and both common and separate clonal origins of the two tumor parts have been reported for cases studied by molecular methods. We describe the detailed immunohistochemical and molecular findings in three cases with features of composite low grade B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL). All three neoplasms contained morphologically distinct but interwoven compartments of different cell types, which exhibited discordant expression of several markers, including CD5, CD10, CD43, and cyclin D1. According to their morphology and phenotypes, they were classified as mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma (Case 1), follicular lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma (Case 2), and mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (Case 3). PCR analysis of DNA obtained from whole tissue sections failed to reveal evidence for biclonality in any of the cases. We therefore isolated cell populations with different antigen expression patterns by laser capture microdissection and analyzed them by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and oncogene rearrangements. Sequence analysis revealed unrelated clonal rearrangements in each of the two tumor parts in all three cases, suggesting distinct clonal origins. In addition, Case 1 showed a bcl-2 rearrangement present only in the follicular lymphoma part. Our findings suggest that low grade B-NHL with two distinct morphological and immunophenotypic patterns in the same anatomical site are frequently biclonal. This is in keeping with current classification schemes, which recognize subtypes of low grade B-NHL as separate disease entities. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates the power of laser capture microdissection in revealing molecular microheterogeneity in complex neoplasms. PMID:10362812

Fend, Falko; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kumar, Shimareet; Beaty, Michael W.; Blum, Loryn; Sorbara, Lynn; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Raffeld, Mark

1999-01-01

234

OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems  

PubMed Central

Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

2009-01-01

235

Determination of rare earths in low grade uranium ores and SRM-rock by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumental neutron activation analysis technique has been developed for simultaneous determination of 10 REE in low grade\\u000a U\\/Zr ores and other geological materials. The samples were irradiated with reactor neutrons for 2 min to 8 hrs followed by\\u000a a cooling of 30 min to 3 weeks. The ?-ray activity was measured with a semi-planar Ge(Li) detector. A precision of

S. Ahmad; M. S. Chaudhary; I. H. Qureshi

1980-01-01

236

Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States  

PubMed Central

Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely-used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. Since exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared to the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91 mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28 mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures. PMID:23302717

Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa; Trachtman, Howard

2012-01-01

237

Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage  

PubMed Central

Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

2013-01-01

238

Ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential with nodal low-grade serous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Serous tumor of low malignant potential (SLMP) and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) are part of one biological continuum, whereby SLMP can transform into LGSC. It has been suggested that some nodal SLMPs arise from nodal endosalpingiosis and evolve independently in lymph nodes (rather than being related to the ovarian primary). In this article, we present the clinicopathologic features of 5 cases of nodal LGSC presenting in association with ovarian SLMP. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' charts. Pathologic features of the nodal LGSC, including lymph node location, size of and extent of involvement of tumor, architectural pattern, degree of cytologic atypia, mitotic index, and presence of psammoma bodies, were recorded. Ovarian SLMPs were noted for laterality, size, presence of surface excrescences, microinvasion, and micropapillary/cribriform pattern and for presence of autoimplants, invasive, and noninvasive implants. The distribution of any lymph nodes with nodal endosalpingiosis or SLMPs was also recorded. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 68 years (median, 32 y). In 4 cases, the diagnosis of nodal LGSC occurred at a different time from that of the ovarian SLMPs, ranging from 7 months before to 5 months after the ovarian tumor diagnosis. Nodal LGSC was detected in supraclavicular (2 cases), cervical, intramammary, and periaortic lymph nodes (1 case each). The gross lymph node size ranged from 0.9 to 2.5 cm (median, 1.3 cm). The tumors either replaced the entire lymph node or were found diffusely involving subcapsular and medullary sinuses or lymph node cortices. Tumor cells showed typical cytologic features of LGSC and no mitotic activity. In 2 cases, however, focal pleomorphic cells and 1 mitosis per 10 HPF were noted. Psammoma bodies were identified in all cases. When immunohistochemical analysis was performed, all tumors exhibited a profile in keeping with Müllerian origin. All ovarian tumors were well sampled and ranged in size from 0.1 to 13 cm (median, 2.5 cm). No ovarian SLMP tumors showed the micropapillary/cribriform pattern, whereas only focal microinvasion was detected in 3 cases. Four tumors had surface excrescences. All cases had noninvasive implants, and a single case also had invasive implants. Lymph node dissection was performed in 2 cases, revealing extensive endosalpingiosis in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes and SLMP in pelvic lymph nodes. In 1 additional case, a single lymph node was sampled, revealing a nodal SLMP. Clinical follow-up ranged from 2 to 14 years (median, 9 y). All patients received postoperative chemotherapy. None of the patients experienced recurrence in pelvic or abdominal soft tissue. Two patients are free of disease. However, 2 patients, one with cervical and another with supraclavicular nodal LGSC, had recurrences at these sites and subsequently succumbed to metastatic disease. Both of these patients had pelvic and periaortic nodal SLMP and extensive nodal endosalpingiosis. Another patient, originally with supraclavicular LGSC, developed pelvic and abdominal lymphadenopathy, and is currently alive with disease. For the first time, we present a case series of patients with ovarian SLMP who, despite any evidence of LGSC in the pelvis or any pelvic recurrences, developed extrapelvic/extra-abdominal nodal LGSC. These patients also had endosalpingiosis and SLMP in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes, suggesting that SLMP/LGSC tumors in lymph nodes may arise independently of the ovarian primary, progress along their own timeline, and undergo metastatic spread. Therefore, in patients with ovarian SLMP and extensive pelvic/periaortic nodal endosalpingiosis and/or SLMP, examination and follow-up of extrapelvic lymph nodes are warranted, even if the ovarian tumor lacks high-risk features of recurrence. PMID:22613998

Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais

2012-07-01

239

Fluid composition and mineral equilibria in low grade metamorphic rocks, Bündnerschiefer, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of fluid inclusions (FI) hosted in quartz veins from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bündnerschiefer (two locations near Thusis and Schiers that represent subgreenschist and lower greenschist facies conditions, respectively), Swiss Alps, was determined by combination of microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis. Elongate-blocky quartz and euhedral quartz crystals were sampled form two sets of veins, which are foliation-parallel and open fissure veins that crosscut the main foliation. The host rocks are organic-rich metapelites, that in places contain relatively high amounts of carbonate. Several metamorphic temperature indicators were used to determine the temperature and pressure during metamorphism of the host rocks. These included the Kübler index (Kübler & Jaboyedoff 2000), Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (Beyssac et al., 2002), Na-Mg and Li-Mg fluid solute geothermometry (Giggenbach, 1988; Kharaka & Mariner, 1989) and mineral assemblages. The geothermometers point to equilibrium temperatures around 320±20 °C (Thusis) and 250±20 °C (Schiers). The results of pseudosection modeling show very close agreement with the pressure-temperature conditions that were derived from conventional geothermobarometry. The FI bulk salinity and homogenization temperatures are 4±0.2 wt% eqv. NaCl and 122-140 °C for Thusis, and 2±0.2 wt% and 82-86 °C at Schiers. Most of the important rock-forming elements have been successfully determined in individual FI, with consistent concentrations obtained for well-constrained fluid inclusion assemblages. The FI contain measurable concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Sr, Ba, B, As, B, Zn, Pb, Cu and S. Typical concentrations are 30-40 ppm Al, 5-7 ppm Mg, 300-400 ppm Ca, 3-5 ppm Mn, and 300-350 ppm S for FI from Thusis. Concentrations for most elements are roughly half an order of magnitude lower for FI from Schiers. The total element concentrations are lower compared with data from similar metamorphic vein settings (Yardley et al., 1993; Yardley, 2005). This likely reflects the lower salinity of fluids in the Bündnerschiefer veins, which exerts a major control on those elements that are complexed by chloride. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbars for Thusis, and around 3.4 kbars for Schiers. The geothermal gradient decreases from the southern location (27-22 °C/km: Thusis) to the northern location (19 °C/km: Schiers), in agreement with their position during metamorphism. The fluid composition data, in conjunction with metamorphic indicators and petrological modeling, demonstrate that fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during metamorphism and vein formation. Fluid composition and pressure-temperature conditions remained essentially unchanged during the evolution of the vein systems. The veins evolved as rock-buffered closed systems, due to the low permeability of the organic-rich metapelites.

Miron, G. D.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

2012-04-01

240

Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat  

SciTech Connect

The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

Dexin Wang

2011-12-19

241

A committed precursor to innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) specialize in the rapid secretion of polarized sets of cytokines and chemokines to combat infection and promote tissue repair at mucosal barriers. Their diversity and similarities with previously characterized natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue inducers (LTi) have prompted a provisional classification of all innate lymphocytes into groups 1, 2 and 3 solely on the basis of cytokine properties, but their developmental pathways and lineage relationships remain elusive. Here we identify and characterize a novel subset of lymphoid precursors in mouse fetal liver and adult bone marrow that transiently express high amounts of PLZF, a transcription factor previously associated with NK T cell development, by using lineage tracing and transfer studies. PLZF(high) cells were committed ILC progenitors with multiple ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 potential at the clonal level. They excluded classical LTi and NK cells, but included a peculiar subset of NK1.1(+)DX5(-) 'NK-like' cells residing in the liver. Deletion of PLZF markedly altered the development of several ILC subsets, but not LTi or NK cells. PLZF(high) precursors also expressed high amounts of ID2 and GATA3, as well as TOX, a known regulator of PLZF-independent NK and LTi lineages. These findings establish novel lineage relationships between ILC, NK and LTi cells, and identify the common precursor to ILCs, termed ILCP. They also reveal the broad, defining role of PLZF in the differentiation of innate lymphocytes. PMID:24509713

Constantinides, Michael G; McDonald, Benjamin D; Verhoef, Philip A; Bendelac, Albert

2014-04-17

242

The lymphoid follicle variant of dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the clinical and morphologic spectrum of early adult–onset dermatomyositis (DM), an inflammatory disease that affects small vessels of the muscle and the skin. Methods: Histologic evaluation of frozen muscle samples was employed to visualize the cellular organization of ectopic lymphoid structures in muscle biopsies obtained from 2 patients diagnosed with DM. Clinical presentation and morphologic features, as well as treatment and follow-up, were assessed and documented. Electron microscopy was used to confirm the light microscopic diagnosis of DM. Clonality analysis of B-cell populations using PCR was performed. Results: Muscle biopsy of both patients fulfilled the morphologic European Neuromuscular Centre criteria of DM. Analyses of muscle biopsy samples revealed ectopic lymphoid follicle-like structures that showed a remarkable similarity to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) with distinct T- and B-cell compartmentalization. Our 2 patients exhibited an atypical and mild clinical presentation and responded favorably to therapy. Conclusions: The clinical and histopathologic features of DM can be atypical, and the presence of SLOs is not inevitably linked to an unfavorable prognosis.

Pehl, Debora; Aronica, Eleonora; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Schneider, Udo; Heppner, Frank L.; de Visser, Marianne; Goebel, Hans H.; Stenzel, Werner

2014-01-01

243

Low-Grade Albuminuria Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Micro-albuminuria has been well established as one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the association of MetS and its components with low-grade albuminuria among those with normal urinary albumin excretion has not been clearly elucidated in Chinese population. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9,579 participants with normal urinary albumin excretion, who were recruited from Jia Ding District, Shanghai, China. The single-void first morning urine sample was collected for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated as urinary albumin divided by creatinine. Low-grade albuminuria was classified as sex-specific upper UACR quartile in this population. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of MetS and its components increased across the UACR quartiles (all P trend <0.01). A multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of MetS was gradually elevated according to the UACR quartiles (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] were 1.14, 1.24 and 1.59 for UACR quartiles 2, 3 and 4, compared with the lowest quartile; P trend<0.0001). In the further stratified logistic regression analyses, the associations between low-grade albuminuria and MetS were significant in both sex strata (male and female), both age strata (<60 and ?60 years), both body mass index strata (<24 and ?24 kg/m2), and both diabetes strata (yes and no). Compared to the lowest UACR quartile, the participants in the highest quartile of UACR had the highest prevalence of central obesity (OR?=?1.43; 95%CI?=?1.25–1.63), high blood pressure (OR?=?1.64; 95%CI?=?1.43–1.87), hyperglycemia (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI?=?1.30–1.78) and high triglycerides (OR?=?1.19; 95%CI?=?1.04–1.37). Conclusions and Significance Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with the increasing prevalence of MetS and its components in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population with normal urinary albumin excretion. PMID:23805186

Xu, Yu; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Xu, Baihui; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang

2013-01-01

244

The clinical significance of the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with a deceptively benign histological appearance. Local\\u000a recurrences and metastases can manifest many years following excision. The FUS-CREB3L2 gene translocation, which occurs commonly in LGFMS, may be detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)\\u000a and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We assessed the relationship between clinical outcome and translocation test\\u000a result

Barry Rose; George S Tamvakopoulos; Kamaljit Dulay; Robin Pollock; John Skinner; Timothy Briggs; Steven Cannon

2011-01-01

245

Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Consensus Review for Ovarian and Primary Peritoneal Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is a recently described histological subtype of ovarian cancer that is clinically and molecularly distinct from the 4 other main histological subtypes (high-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous). In particular, it differs from high-grade serous ovarian cancer in that it presents at a much younger age, is more indolent, and is relatively chemoresistant. Very few clinical trials have been performed exclusively in this tumor type; and as such, specific data guiding optimal management are limited. PMID:25341587

Gourley, Charlie; Farley, John; Provencher, Diane M; Pignata, Sandro; Mileshkin, Linda; Harter, Philipp; Maenpaa, Johanna; Kim, Jae-Weon; Pujaide-Lauraine, Eric; Glasspool, Rosalind M; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Gershenson, David

2014-11-01

246

Outcome of children with low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma: long-term complications and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objects  To study the long-term outcome of surgically treated low-grade cerebellar astrocytomas in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We followed 31 consecutive patients under 16 years of age who were diagnosed between 1980 and 2005 in a single institution.\\u000a In 21 of 31 survivors (median follow-up time 7.9 years; range 5.6–27.4 years) who agreed to participate, tumor control, neurological\\u000a and cognitive complications, and their impact on

Tycho J. Zuzak; Andrea Poretti; Barbara Drexel; Daniel Zehnder; Eugen Boltshauser; Michael A. Grotzer

2008-01-01

247

ACTG 293: A Randomized Phase III Trial of Oral Isotretinoin vs. Observation for Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV Infected Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isotretinoin for Low-Grade Cervical Dysplasia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women. Background: HIV-infected women treated with standard therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) have higher rates of persistence and recurrence than no...

2005-01-01

248

Arterial stiffness, ambulatory blood pressure and low-grade albuminuria in non-diabetic African and Caucasian men: the SABPA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that low-grade urinary albumin excretion is a marker of early general attenuation of vascular function, but studies are limited to Caucasian population groups. We compared low-grade urinary albumin excretion (<3.5 mg mmol?1 or 30 ?g mg?1) between non-diabetic African (aged, 41.7 years; n=70) and Caucasian (aged, 44.6 years; n=91) men and ethnic-specific associations thereof with arterial stiffness

Rudolph Schutte; Aletta E Schutte; Hugo W Huisman; Johannes M van Rooyen; Nicolaas T Malan; Carla MT Fourie; Leoné Malan

2011-01-01

249

Radiotherapy treatment planning and long-term follow-up with [ 11C]methionine PET in patients with low-grade astrocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of [11C]-methionine positron emission tomography (MET PET) in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning and long-term follow-up in patients with low-grade glioma.Patients: Thirteen patients with low-grade astrocytoma and 1 with anaplastic astrocytoma underwent sequential MET PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 3, 6, 12, and 21–39 months after RT, respectively. Ten patients were studied after

Joanne Nuutinen; Pirkko Sonninen; Pertti Lehikoinen; Eija Sutinen; Ritva Valavaara; Esa Eronen; Stefan Norrgård; Jarmo Kulmala; Mika Teräs; Heikki Minn

2000-01-01

250

Multiple Low-Grade Sarcomas of Fibroblastic Type in the Setting of HIV and Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis.  

PubMed

: A 46-year-old white male with a history of HIV (CD4 245), acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis, anal carcinoma in situ, hepatitis B and C presented with 3 asymptomatic, nontender, firm pink/skin-colored nodules involving the arm, left lateral leg, and right third finger. One year later, he developed a similar lesion on his right medial lower leg. Excisional biopsy of one of the lesions showed an atypical spindle cell neoplasm of the dermis compatible with a low-grade sarcoma of fibroblastic origin. Testing for human herpes virus-8, 23 human papillomavirus types, Epstein-Barr virus, and FUS fusion protein were negative. The patient underwent diagnostic imaging with computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis along with positron emission tomography scan to ensure that there was no other occult primary tumor, all of which were negative. The lesions were excised and have not recurred with 3 years of follow-up. The best histopathologic term for these lesions is multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic phenotype. They have been proven to be nonaggressive, with little or no metastatic potential. This is a neoplastic process that has not been well defined in the literature. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of these lesions occurring in multiple sites or in an HIV-positive patient. PMID:23759878

Dosal, Jacquelyn; Nelson, Ann M; Shelling, Michael; Romaguera, Rita; Poulos, Evangelos; Alonso-Llamazares, Javier

2014-10-01

251

Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation)  

PubMed Central

The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages).

Nita, Malgorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentin

2014-01-01

252

Origin of chromosomal translocations in lymphoid cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Aberrant fusions between heterologous chromosomes are among the most prevalent cytogenetic abnormalities found in cancer cells. Oncogenic chromosomal translocations provide cells with a proliferative or survival advantage. They may either initiate transformation or be acquired secondarily as a result of genomic instability. Here we highlight recent advances toward understanding the origin of chromosomal translocations in incipient lymphoid cancers and how tumor-suppressive pathways normally limit the frequency of these aberrant recombination events. Deciphering the mechanisms that mediate chromosomal fusions will open new avenues for developing therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating lesions that lead to the initiation, maintenance, and progression of cancer. PMID:20371343

Nussenzweig, André; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

2010-01-01

253

Adult hypocellular acute leukaemia with lymphoid differentiation.  

PubMed

The rare hypocellular variants of acute leukemia (AL) previously also termed smouldering leukemia, almost always exhibit myeloid differentiation. Very rare cases of hypocellular AL with lymphoid differentiation have been reported, usually in children. This paper describes two cases (an 87-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man) in whom the blood findings were suggestive of AL. Paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens revealed similar findings in both patients: there was severe hypocellularity, the cells of normal hemopoiesis were greatly reduced in number, and there was a diffuse increase in blast cells, which represented more than 50% of nucleated marrow cells. The blasts coexpressed TdT and CD34 and were negative for myeloperoxidase, CD117, CD68 and naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase. For the first time immunohistochemical Pax-5/CD34 doublestainings are provided, which revealed the blasts in one case to coexpress Pax-5 and CD34. All the blasts were CD79a-positive and 20% were also CD10-positive. In the other case, 20% of the blasts were CD79a-positive, 30% coexpressed Pax-5 and CD34 by doublestaining, and showed a clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Thus a diagnosis of AL of lymphoid lineage, hypocellular variant, was made on the basis of immunohistochemical findings. The clinical course appears to be similar to that of hypocellular AML, as neither patient has developed overt leukemia during the one-year follow-up period. PMID:14692536

Kröber, Stefan Martin; Horny, Hans-Peter; Steinke, Berthold; Kaiserling, Edwin

2003-10-01

254

Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response. PMID:24213222

Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

2011-01-01

255

Low-Grade Malignant Triton Tumor of the Neck: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is termed malignant triton tumor (MTT), a rare neoplasm that poses a diagnostic dilemma in the differential diagnosis of neck masses and portends poor prognosis. We report a sporadic case of MTT of the neck in a 23-year-old female. We present the pathological findings. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the neurogenic origin with S-100 expression and the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with desmin and vimentin positivity. Radical surgical excision was done. After 4 years there were no signs of recurrence or distant metastasis. The clinical, microscopic, and long-term follow-up of this case are consistent with those of a low-grade malignancy. PMID:25328740

Omar, Taissir; Raslan, Hanaa; El Sheikh, Sahar

2014-01-01

256

Paresis of the L5 nerve root after reduction of low-grade lumbosacral dysplastic spondylolisthesis: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a 16-year-old patient who underwent lumbar decompression surgery (L4-S1), low-grade spondylolisthesis reduction surgery at L5-S1, and posterior instrumented fusion from L4 to the pelvis. Neurologic monitoring did not show any sustained changes throughout the operation. The patient was awoken from endotracheal anesthesia with grade 0 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles resulting in left-sided foot drop. At the last follow-up 12 months after surgery, the patient had partial recovery, with grade 4 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles. We suggest that early identification with direct nerve root stimulation and wake-up test immediately after reduction of spondylolisthesis will allow prompt release of the reduction and further foramen exploration, and increase the possibility of good postoperative nerve root recovery. PMID:24887052

Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander; Widmann, Roger; Sama, Andrew A

2014-09-01

257

Fractionated proton radiation therapy of chordoma and low-grade chondrosarcoma of the base of the skull.  

PubMed

Sixty-eight patients with chordoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma at the base of the skull received fractionated high-dose postoperative radiation delivered with a 160-MeV proton beam. Protons have favorable physical characteristics which allow the delivery of high doses of radiation to these critically located tumors. The methods employed for these treatments are described. These patients have been followed for at least 17 months and for a median of 34 months. The median tumor dose was 69 CGE (cobalt Gy equivalent): CGE is the dose in proton Gy multiplied by 1.1, which is the relative biological effectiveness for protons compared to cobalt-60. The daily dose was 1.8 to 2.1 CGE. For this group the 5-year actuarial local control rate is 82% and disease-free survival rate is 76%. The incidence of treatment-related morbidity has been acceptable. PMID:2535872

Austin-Seymour, M; Munzenrider, J; Goitein, M; Verhey, L; Urie, M; Gentry, R; Birnbaum, S; Ruotolo, D; McManus, P; Skates, S

1989-01-01

258

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of maxillary alveolus metastasising to the abdomen: the role of immunomarkers in diagnosis.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) originating mostly in the minor salivary glands of the posterior hard and soft palate is characterised by its indolent growth and a slower rate of metastasis. Seldom does the PLGA present an aggressive behaviour and demonstrate distant metastasis, as in the present case where a 73-year-old female patient with a swelling in the maxillary alveolus was diagnosed as PLGA exhibiting high-grade transformation, subsequently metastasizing to the abdomen and lungs. The importance of immunomarkers, c-kit and ki-67 in deciphering the clinical behaviour of this PLGA is highlighted. Distant metastasis to the abdomen has not yet been reported; hence, this case of PLGA emphasises the importance of immunohistochemistry in assessing its aggressiveness and understanding a novel aspect of its pathogenesis. PMID:23661663

Thennavan, Aatish; Rao, Lakshmi; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

2013-01-01

259

Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

Korinthenberg, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.korinthenberg@uniklinik-freiburg.d [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Neuburger, Daniela [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido [Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Neurocentre, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2011-03-15

260

Metabolic syndrome, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease--the emerging role of systemic low-grade inflammation and adiposity.  

PubMed

The past decade has shed new light on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the consequence of interactions between numerous lesions. There is a growing body of evidence that the most beneficial effects of treatment might only be achieved in the preclinical stage of dementia, prior to the immense hallmarks of neurodegeneration. In view of this, several studies have focused on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a state, which represents a less severe form of the neuropathological process. However, early treatment interventions initiated in MCI have failed to slow down progression of the disease. Thus, great effort has been made to indicate modifiable risk factors for MCI. Consistent with the role of vascular malfunction in AD, this approach has shown the predictive value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a multidimensional entity and includes visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Despite the positive results of several epidemiological studies, the exact mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and AD remain uncertain and various theories are being assessed. MetS, similarly to AD, has been attributed to a low-grade chronic inflammation. There is a general consensus that the aberrant inflammatory response underlying MetS may arise from a deregulation of the endocrine homeostasis of adipose tissue. Hence, it might be assumed that the subclinical inflammation of adipose tissue may interact with the impaired central inflammatory response, leading to neurodegeneration. This article reviews the role of low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment and translates several considerable and unexplored findings from studies focused on subjects with MetS and animal models mimicking the phenotype of MetS into the etiology of AD. PMID:22921944

Misiak, Blazej; Leszek, Jerzy; Kiejna, Andrzej

2012-11-01

261

Low grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma of uterine corpus, a clinico-pathological and survey study in 14 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare disease with probably less than 700 new cases in the USA or Europe per year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS) in relation to their clinical and pathological features and to identify possible prognostic factors. Patients and methods Fourteen patients with histologically proven ESS were included in the analysis. Endometrial stromal sarcoma is characterized by proliferations composed of cells with Endometrial stromal cell differentiation. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma has an infiltrating margin and typically show extensive worm-like vessel invasion. Results The median age was 44.35 ± 6 years. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal bleeding, occurring in twelve patients (86%). Diagnosis was made through Fractional dilatation and curettage in four patients (28.5%). Eight patients had a total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-ophorectomy (57%). Radiotherapy as adjuvant therapy was administered to four patients (28.5%). The median follow-up time was 45.6 months (range 24–84). The median overall survival of the 14 patients was 45.35 ± 21 months (range 20–83). Three of 14 patients demonstrated a recurrence of disease at 9, 72, and 96 months respectively. The recurrent diseases were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. No patient died of the disease. Clinico-pathological parameters did not significantly differ between patients with and without recurrence, but patients with no myometrial invasion and low mitotic count <= 5/HPF showed longer disease-free survival. Conclusion Five-year survival rate was 93%. Survival probabilities were calculated by the product limit method of Kaplan and Meier that showed, patients with no myometrial invasion and low mitotic count <= 5/HPF have longer disease-free survival, but P value was not significant. PMID:16895611

Ashraf-Ganjoei, Tahereh; Behtash, Nadereh; Shariat, Mamak; Mosavi, Asamosadat

2006-01-01

262

NR4A1 is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common disorder characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. In the present study, the expression levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) and the correlation with inflammatory cytokine production and free fatty acids (FFAs) in patients with T2D and healthy participants were investigated. NR4A1 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with T2D (n=30) and healthy controls (n=34) were analyzed. In addition, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FIN), FFAs, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to estimate the insulin resistance (IR). Additionally, PBMCs from healthy subjects were cultured with or without 250 ?M palmitic acid (PA). Levels of NR4A1, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the PBMCs were also analyzed. The basal expression levels of NR4A1, TNF-? and IL-6 were higher in the T2D patients when compared with the controls. In addition, the levels of FFAs, TG and LDL-C, as well as the HOMA-IR, were higher in T2D patients. Furthermore, NR4A1 expression was demonstrated to positively correlate with the HOMA-IR and the levels of FFAs, TNF-?, IL-6, FIN and FBG. Furthermore, 250 ?M PA stimulation was shown to increase NR4A1 expression and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in the cultured PBMCs. Therefore, increased NR4A1 expression levels are correlated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and the disorder of lipid metabolism in patients with T2D. PMID:25289075

HUANG, QI; XUE, JUNLI; ZOU, RUNMEI; CAI, LI; CHEN, JING; SUN, LI; DAI, ZHE; YANG, FAN; XU, YANCHENG

2014-01-01

263

Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Prayson, Richard A. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kalfas, Iain H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Whitfield, Melvin D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)]. E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

2005-09-01

264

T-, B and NK-lymphoid, but not myeloid cells arise from human CD34+CD38?CD7+ common lymphoid progenitors expressing lymphoid-specific genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) give rise to all blood cells. According to the classic model of hematopoiesis, the differentiation paths leading to the myeloid and lymphoid lineages segregate early. A candidate ‘common lymphoid progenitor’ (CLP) has been isolated from CD34+CD38? human cord blood cells based on CD7 expression. Here, we confirm the B- and NK-differentiation potential

I Hoebeke; M De Smedt; F Stolz; K Pike-Overzet; F J T Staal; J Plum; G Leclercq

2007-01-01

265

A rare case of low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the femur in a 38-year-old woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary myofibroblastic sarcoma of the bone is a rare spindle cell tumour with, to the best of our knowledge, only eight cases reported in the available English language literature. The disease's rarity and its low-grade features make an accurate diagnosis difficult in most cases. The differential diagnoses of this unusual tumour include various benign entities as well as other sarcomas. Due to the difference in prognosis, a precise pathologic diagnosis is essential, which requires a combination of thorough morphologic examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy wherever available. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Indian woman with a lytic lesion in her left femur. The tumour was associated with cortical destruction and soft tissue extension. A biopsy from the soft tissue component showed features suggestive of a low-grade malignant mesenchymal tumour. Excision of the tumour was performed and histopathological examination showed a low-grade spindle cell sarcoma with collagenous stroma. Expressions of vimentin and smooth muscle actin were also noted. Ultrastructural examination confirmed its myofibroblastic nature. A final diagnosis of low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the left femur was thus rendered. Conclusion Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma is one of the rarer osseous spindle cell sarcomas depicting a favourable prognosis in the cases reported so far. Its diagnosis requires ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, we report the ninth case in the literature and the first case from our subcontinent. PMID:20426857

2010-01-01

266

Relationship of immunodeficiency to lymphoid malignancy.  

PubMed

Individuals with either primary or secondary immunodeficiencies are at high risk to develop not only infections but also malignancy (especially of the lymphoid system). The major focus of this paper is on malignancies that develop in immunodeficiency syndromes, particularly malignancies in naturally occurring immunodeficiencies and following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). As of August, 1986, 514 cases of naturally occurring immunodeficiencies have been registered at the Immunodeficiency Cancer Registry. Overall non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominate in these patients, accounting for 48.6% of all cases. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the predominant malignancy in ataxia-telangiectasia, common variable immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The histopathology of the lymphomas differs somewhat in each of the disorders. In WAS, large cell "histiocytic" lymphoma predominates, with most cases having the features of B lymphocytes, including pleomorphic immunocytoma and immunoblastic lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in SCID also generally has B cell features and in some cases multiple copies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomic DNA have been found in tumor tissue. In contrast to ataxia-telangiectasia, in which non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is also the predominant neoplasm, the morphology and cell marker characteristics are more similar to those seen in nonimmunodeficient children. The lymphomas in ataxia-telangiectasia are very heterogeneous with representation from all the major histologic subtypes. We have found no relationship between the degree of immunodeficiency and the development of malignancy. Immunodeficiency following BMT, as in naturally occurring immunodeficiencies, appears to predispose patients to the development of lymphoid malignancy, especially for recipients of partially mismatched bone marrow. In Minnesota 8 patients have developed B cell lympho-proliferative disorders (BLPD) following BMT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2840629

Kersey, J H; Shapiro, R S; Filipovich, A H

1988-05-01

267

Middle segmental pancreatectomy: A safe and organ-preserving option for benign and low-grade malignant lesions  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the feasibility and safety of middle segmental pancreatectomy (MSP) compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and extended distal pancreatectomy (EDP). METHODS: We studied retrospectively 36 cases that underwent MSP, 44 patients who underwent PD, and 26 who underwent EDP with benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the mid-portion of the pancreas, between April 2003 and December 2009 in Ruijin Hospital. The perioperative outcomes and long-term outcomes of MSP were compared with those of EDP and PD. Perioperative outcomes included operative time, intraoperative hemorrhage, transfusion, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess/infection, postoperative bleeding, reoperation, mortality, and postoperative hospital time. Long-term outcomes, including tumor recurrence, new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, were evaluated. RESULTS: Intraoperative hemorrhage was 316.1 ± 309.6, 852.2 ± 877.8 and 526.9 ± 414.5 mL for the MSP, PD and EDP groups, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean postoperative daily fasting blood glucose level was significantly lower in the MSP group than in the EDP group (6.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L vs 7.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The rate of pancreatic fistula was higher in the MSP group than in the PD group (42% vs 20.5%, P = 0.039), all of the fistulas after MSP corresponded to grade A (9/15) or B (6/15) and were sealed following conservative treatment. There was no significant difference in the mean postoperative hospital stay between the MSP group and the other two groups. After a mean follow-up of 44 mo, no tumor recurrences were found, only one patient (2.8%) in the MSP group vs five (21.7%) in the EDP group developed new-onset insulin-dependent DM postoperatively (P = 0.029). Moreover, significantly fewer patients in the MSP group than in the PD (0% vs 33.3%, P < 0.001) and EDP (0% vs 21.7%, P = 0.007) required enzyme substitution. CONCLUSION: MSP is a safe and organ-preserving option for benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the neck and proximal body of the pancreas. PMID:23539545

Du, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Shi; Han, Bao-San; Shen, Bai-Yong; Liu, Ying-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Hong

2013-01-01

268

Pre-amplification methods for tracking low-grade Plasmodium falciparum populations during scaled-up interventions in Southern Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is receding in many endemic countries with intervention scale -up against the disease. However, this resilient scourge may persist in low-grade submicroscopic infections among semi-immune members of the population, and be poised for possible resurgence, creating challenges for detection and assessment of intervention impact. Parasite genotyping methods, such as the molecular barcode, can identify specific malaria parasite types being transmitted and allow tracking and evaluation of parasite population structure changes as interventions are applied. This current study demonstrates application of pre-amplification methods for successful detection and genotyping of residual Plasmodium falciparum infections during a dramatic malarial decline. Methods The study was a prospective cross-sectional design and based on a 2,000 sq km vicinity of Macha Mission Hospital in southern Zambia. Willing and predominantly asymptomatic residents of all ages were screened for malaria by microscopy during the 2005 and 2008 transmission seasons, with simultaneous collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper, and extraction of Plasmodium falciparum DNA was performed. Plasmodium falciparum infections were genotyped using a 24 SNP-based molecular barcode assay using real-time PCR. Submicroscopic parasitaemia samples were subjected to pre-amplification using TaqMan PreAmp Master Mix following the manufacturer’s instructions before SNP barcode analysis. Results There was a dramatic decline of malaria between 2005 and 2008, and the geometric mean parasite density (95% CI) fell from 704/?L (390–1,271) in 2005 to 39/?L (23–68) in 2008, culminating in a large proportion of submicroscopic infections of which 90% failed to yield ample DNA for standard molecular characterization among 2008 samples. Pre-amplification enabled successful detection and genotyping of 74% of these low-grade reservoir infections, overall, compared to 54% that were detectable before pre-amplification (p <0.0005, n = 84). Furthermore, nine samples negative for parasites by microscopy and standard quantitative PCR amplification were positive after pre-amplification. Conclusions Pre-amplification allows analysis of an otherwise undetectable parasite population and may be instrumental for parasites identification, tracking and assessing the impact of interventions on parasite populations during malaria control and elimination programmes when parasitaemia is expected to decline to submicroscopic levels. PMID:24618119

2014-01-01

269

Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were then combined into a novel condenser design that uses passive cooling technology to cool the working fluid that was selected in the first part of the study. It was observed that the efficiency of the cycle improved by 2-2.5% when passive cooling system was used.

Vidhi, Rachana

270

Secondary lymphoid organs: responding to genetic and environmental cues in ontogeny and the immune response.  

PubMed

Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) include lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer's patches, and mucosal tissues such as the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, adenoids, and tonsils. Less discretely anatomically defined cellular accumulations include the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, cryptopatches, and isolated lymphoid follicles. All SLOs serve to generate immune responses and tolerance. SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTalpha, LTbeta, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. The relative importance of these factors varies between the individual lymphoid organs. Participating in the process are lymphoid tissue initiator, lymphoid tissue inducer, and lymphoid tissue organizer cells. These cells and others that produce crucial cytokines maintain SLOs in the adult. Similar signals regulate the transition from inflammation to ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues. PMID:19661265

Ruddle, Nancy H; Akirav, Eitan M

2009-08-15

271

Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection  

SciTech Connect

The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. (Stanford Univ.Medical Center, CA (USA))

1991-03-01

272

Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural comparative investigation.  

PubMed

Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCTGR) and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are 2 variants of fibrosarcoma, which share several clinicopathologic features. This study compares the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of 2 examples of HSCTGR and 3 of LG FMS to determine the degree of overlap of these 2 tumors. HSCTGR were composed of bland spindle cells within hyalinized to myxoid stroma. Scattered throughout the lesions were characteristic rosette-like structures, formed by a central collagenous core surrounded by spindled neoplastic cells. LGFMS consisted of a mixture of fibrous and myxoid areas, composed of fibroblast-like cells arranged in a swirling, whorled growth pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis showed diffuse positivity for vimentin in all cases, while few scattered tumor cells stained for CD57, CD34, factor XIIIA, and actin. The extracellular matrix showed intense positivity for type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, with the exception of myxoid areas of LGFMS and the central core of the giant rosettes in HSCTGR. Ultrastructurally, both tumor types were composed of cells with the features of fibroblasts, embedded in a collagenous stroma with irregular deposits of amorphous basal lamina-like substance. In conclusion, HSCTGR and LGFMS share similar immunophenotypic and ultrastructural features, and together with other fibrosing fibrosarcomas, like sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, may constitute a subset of fibrosarcomas formed by fibroblasts capable of producing large amounts of basal lamina-like material. PMID:14708726

Franchi, Alessandro; Massi, Daniela; Santucci, Marco

2003-01-01

273

Investigation of Targetin, a Microtubule Binding Agent which Regresses the Growth of Pediatric High and Low Grade Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Pediatric gliomas, the most common solid childhood neoplasm, manifest unique molecular signatures that distinguish them from adult gliomas. Unfortunately, most studies have focused on adult gliomas and extrapolate the findings to treat pediatric gliomas. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of Targetin, a folate conjugated analogue of Noscapine, on the treatment of pediatric low and high grade gliomas. Method An assortment of standard cancer assays were used with different drug doses and experimental durations. Results We found that pediatric glioma cells are more susceptible to lower doses of Targetin than parental Noscapine. Targetin functions by disrupting the microtubule network, and can likewise perturb DNA synthesis, delay the cellular transition within the S and G2M cell cycle phases, diminish anchorage independent growth and the migratory/invasiveness of pediatric glioma cells. Moreover, Targetin impairs the expression of several regulators of cancer progression belonging to prominent signalling pathways in pediatric gliomas; including Platelet Derived Growth Factor alpha and some members of the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase cascade. Conclusion Targetin has an excellent anti-neoplastic profile and functions to modulate the expression of several genes belonging to key cancer progression pathways in pediatric gliomas. Collectively, findings from this study highlight the usefulness of Targetin for the treatment of pediatric high and low grade gliomas. PMID:24749125

Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Joshi, Harish C.; Kamnasaran, Deepak

2013-01-01

274

Immunohistochemical clue for the histological overlap of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

It remains difficult to distinguish adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Although these neoplasms exhibit nearly similar histologic patterns, their biologic behavior is significantly different. This study was carried out in an attempt to overcome the histological overlap between these tumors using immunohistochemical method for c-kit and galectin-3 proteins on twenty cases of salivary gland tumors including twelve ACC and eight PLGA. Results revealed positive cytoplasmic reactivity for c-kit in 100% of ACC cases and only in 25% of PLGA. On the other hand, galectin-3 expression was observed in 100% of both ACC and PLGA cases. Moreover, solid variant of ACC showed overexpression of both proteins than cribriform and tubular subtypes. Significant positive correlation between the two studied proteins in ACC and PLGA was also observed (p < 0.05). Upon these results, over expression of c-kit and galectin-3 in ACC cases supports the concept of solid variant as a high-grade tumor. Moreover, c-kit may be used as a helpful marker to distinguish ACC from PLGA in cases where the diagnosis can be challenging. PMID:24265903

El-Nagdy, Sherif; Mourad, Mohamed I.

2013-01-01

275

Vascular Microarchitecture of Murine Colitis-Associated Lymphoid Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

In permissive tissues, such as the gut and synovium, chronic inflammation can result in the ectopic development of anatomic structures that resemble lymph nodes. These inflammation-induced structures, termed lymphoid neogenesis or tertiary lymphoid organs, may reflect differential stromal responsiveness to the process of lymphoid neogenesis. To investigate the structural reorganization of the microcirculation involved in colonic lymphoid neogenesis, we studied a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Standard 2-dimensional histology demonstrated both submucosal and intramucosal lymphoid structures in DSS-induced colitis. A spatial frequency analysis of serial histologic sections suggested that most intramucosal lymphoid aggregates developed de novo. Intravital microscopy of intravascular tracers confirmed that the developing intramucosal aggregates were supplied by capillaries arising from the quasi-polygonal mucosal plexus. Confocal optical sections and whole mount morphometry demonstrated capillary networks (185±46um diameter) involving 6–10 capillaries with a luminal diameter of 6.8±1.1um. Microdissection and angiogenesis PCR array analysis demonstrated enhanced expression of multiple angiogenic genes including CCL2, CXCL2, CXCL5, Il-1b, MMP9 and TNF within the mucosal plexus. Intravital microscopy of tracer particle flow velocities demonstrated a marked decrease in flow velocity from 808±901um/sec within the feeding mucosal plexus to 491±155um/sec within the capillary structures. We conclude that the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue requires significant structural remodeling of the stromal microcirculation. A feature of permissive tissues may be the capacity for lymphoid angiogenesis. PMID:19382226

Turhan, Aslihan; Lin, Miao; Lee, Grace S.; Miele, Lino; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

2010-01-01

276

Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

1997-01-01

277

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases, including histopathologic relationship with sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma in a subset of cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon tumor with diverse histopathologic features. It has been found to be histopathologically and genetically related to hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes. Lately, sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) has been identified as another rare variant of fibrosarcoma. Very few studies have addressed the aspect of its histopathologic relationship with LGFMS. The present study

Bharat Rekhi; Mahesh Deshmukh; Nirmala A. Jambhekar

2011-01-01

278

A Comparison of Brain Wave Patterns of High and Low Grade Point Average Students During Rest, Problem Solving, and Stress Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare brain wave patterns produced by high and low grade point average students, while they were resting, solving problems, and subjected to stress situations. The study involved senior midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. The high group was comprised of those whose cumulative grade point average was…

Montor, Karel

279

Low-grade inflammation can partly explain the association between the metabolic syndrome and either coronary artery disease or severity of peripheral arterial disease: the CODAM study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Low-grade inflammation has been hypothesized to underlie the coronary artery disease (CAD) risk associated with the metabolic syndrome, but the evidence is not conclusive. For peripheral arterial disease (PAD; as measured by the ankle-arm index), this association has not been studied before. The aim was to study whether the association between the metabolic syndrome and CAD or the severity

M. Jacobs; M. M. J. van Greevenbroek; C. J. H. van der Kallen; I. Ferreira; E. E. Blaak; E. J. M. Feskens; E. H. J. M. Jansen; C. G. Schalkwijk; C. D. A. Stehouwer

2009-01-01

280

IMPACT OF POSTOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY AND CHEMOTHERAPY ON LONG-TERM OUTCOME FOR CHILDREN AFTER NON-TOTAL LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS RESECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low grade gliomas are histologically heterogeneous group of primary brain tumors in children. Primary tumor resection is the therapy of choice, yet especially tumors of the midline cannot be resected radically without severe neurologic sequellae. Clinical progression and severe neurological symptoms at diagnosis may be an indication to start non-surgical therapy. We investigated whether the radiotherapy or chemotherapy define different

A. E. Kiseleva

281

Inherently safe pool-type reactor as a generator of low-grade heat for district heating, air conditioning and salt water desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The society has a heavy demand for low-grade heat to satisfy its various needs. Different factors govern the expediency of applying nuclear reactors for these purposes. The required capacity of heat sources varies in a very wide range. In a majority of cases heat sources have to be located in the immediate vicinity of the users, therefore, nuclear reactors to

E. O. Adamov; Yu. M. Cherkashov; A. A. Romenkov; V. I. Mikhan; V. I. Semenikhin

1997-01-01

282

Genomics of lymphoid malignancies reveal major activation pathways in lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Breakdown of tolerance leads to autoimmunity due to emergence of autoreactive T or B cell clones. Autoimmune diseases predispose to lymphoid malignancies and lymphoid malignancies, conversely, can manifest as autoimmune diseases. While it has been clear for a long time that a competitive advantage and uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of both lymphoid malignancies as well as autoimmune diseases, the overlap of the underlying mechanisms have been less well described. Next generation sequencing has led to massive expansion of the available genomic data in many diseases over the last five years. These data allow for comparison of the molecular pathogenesis between autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies. Here, we review the similarities between autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies: 1) Both, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies are characterized by activation of the same T and B cell signaling pathways, and dysregulation of these pathways can occur through genetic or epigenetic events. 2) In both scenarios, clonal and subclonal evolution of lymphocytes contribute to disease. 3) Development of both diseases not only depends on T or B cell intrinsic factors, such as germline or somatic mutations, but also on environmental factors. These include infections, the presence of other immune cells in the microenvironment, and the cytokine milieu. A better mechanistic understanding of the parallels between lymphomagenesis and autoimmunity may help the development of precision treatment strategies with rationally designed therapeutic agents. PMID:23880067

Knoechel, Birgit; Lohr, Jens G.

2013-01-01

283

Changes in primary lymphoid organs with aging.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with decreased immune function that leads to increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Immune senescence is accompanied by age-related changes in two primary lymphoid organs, bone marrow and thymus, that result in decreased production and function of B and T lymphocytes. In bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells exhibit reduced self-renewal potential, increased skewing toward myelopoiesis, and decreased production of lymphocytes with aging. These functional sequelae of aging are caused in part by increased oxidative stress, inflammation, adipocyte differentiation, and disruption of hypoxic osteoblastic niches. In thymus, aging is associated with tissue involution, exhibited by a disorganization of the thymic epithelial cell architecture and increased adiposity. This dysregulation correlates with a loss of stroma-thymocyte 'cross-talk', resulting in decreased export of naïve T cells. Mounting evidence argues that with aging, thymic inflammation, systemic stress, local Foxn1 and keratinocyte growth factor expression, and sex steroid levels play critical roles in actively driving thymic involution and overall adaptive immune senescence across the lifespan. With a better understanding of the complex mechanisms and pathways that mediate bone marrow and thymus involution with aging, potential increases for the development of safe and effective interventions to prevent or restore loss of immune function with aging. PMID:22559987

Chinn, Ivan K; Blackburn, Clare C; Manley, Nancy R; Sempowski, Gregory D

2012-10-01

284

Can cutaneous low-grade B-cell lymphoma transform into primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma? An immunohistochemical study of 82 cases.  

PubMed

Low-grade B-cell lymphomas of the skin, especially, primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma has several distinctive features when compared with nodal/systemic follicular lymphomas, as they are frequently negative for bcl-2 and CD10, and only fewer than 25% of the cases show a bcl-2 rearrangement. The risk of transformation of a cutaneous low-grade B-cell lymphoma, such as primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma, to primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PCDLBCL) has not been clearly delineated in the literature. Transformation of systemic/nodal follicular lymphoma into aggressive DLBCL is associated with rapid disease progression, refractoriness to treatment, and poor prognosis. The authors studied 82 cases of primary cutaneous DLBCL using antibodies for follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), CD21, and CD35 to detect networks of FDCs that could possibly indicate transformation of preexisting low-grade B-cell lymphoma to PCDLBCL. All cases were classified as PCDLBCL using strict histologic and immunophenotypic criteria. Fifty-three cases were classified as primary cutaneous DLBCL of "leg type," and 29 cases were classified as primary cutaneous DLBCL, "NOS" category. Immunohistochemical studies were performed in all 82 cases; in 15 cases, a CD21/CD35+ network of FDCs was noted within the tumor, indicating the presence of remnants of residual germinal centers, suggesting the possibility of a transformed low-grade B-cell lymphoma. In summary, the authors' findings seem to indicate that some cases of primary cutaneous DLBCL may result from transformation of a low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of their findings by using ancillary techniques including genetic analysis. PMID:24698933

Plaza, Jose A; Kacerovska, Denisa; Sangueza, Martin; Schieke, Stefan; Buonaccorsi, Noelle; Suster, Saul; Kazakov, Dmitry V

2014-06-01

285

Lymphoid aggregates that resemble tertiary lymphoid organs define a specific pathological subset in metal-on-metal hip replacements.  

PubMed

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants. PMID:23723985

Mittal, Saloni; Revell, Matthew; Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L; Matharu, Gulraj S; Davenport, Alison J; Martin, Richard A; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A; Buckley, Christopher D

2013-01-01

286

Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements  

PubMed Central

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants. PMID:23723985

Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L.; Matharu, Gulraj S.; Davenport, Alison J.; Martin, Richard A.; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P.; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

287

Low-grade endotoxemia contributes to chronic inflammation in hemodialysis patients: examination with a novel lipopolysaccharide detection method.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation has recently been proposed to play a major role in the development of cardiovascular disease and mortality among advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; however, why advanced CKD promotes chronic inflammation is still unclear. We hypothesized that a very low level of plasma endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) contributes to chronic inflammation in advanced CKD patients. We measured the plasma LPS levels using a novel LPS detection method (ESP method, a method for endotoxin detection using laser scattering photometry) concurrently with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and various blood tests in 17 stable hemodialysis (HD) patients. As a result, the median LPS levels measured by the ESP method was 0.23 pg/mL (range, 0.01-3.89) (inflow, start of HD), 0.22 pg/mL (<0.01-9.97) (outflow, start of HD), 0.37 pg/mL (<0.01-7.42) (inflow, end of HD), and 1.07 pg/mL (<0.01-10.66) (dialysate), respectively; statistically significant differences were not detected between them. The predialysis median CRP level was 0.19 mg/dL (0.04-3.02). The logarithm of plasma LPS independently correlated with serum CRP (R = 0.595, P = 0.0103). In multiple (forward stepwise) regression analysis, in which CRP was determined to be the criterion variable, LPS (log), albumin, and the white blood cell count were adopted as independent explanatory variables (R = 0.401, -0.397 and 0.387, respectively). In conclusion, the present study revealed a significant relationship between LPS and CRP using the novel ESP method, and suggested that very low-grade endotoxemia is contributing to systemic inflammation in HD patients. PMID:21175546

Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yamada, Yukiko; Maruyama, Yukio; Iida, Rinako; Hanaoka, Kazushige; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Obata, Toru; Hosoya, Tatsuo

2010-10-01

288

The clinical significance of the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with a deceptively benign histological appearance. Local recurrences and metastases can manifest many years following excision. The FUS-CREB3L2 gene translocation, which occurs commonly in LGFMS, may be detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We assessed the relationship between clinical outcome and translocation test result by both methods. Methods We report genetic analysis of 23 LGFMS cases and clinical outcomes of 18 patients with mean age of 40.6 years. During follow-up (mean 24.8 months), there were no cases of local recurrence or metastasis. One case was referred with a third recurrence of a para-spinal tumour previously incorrectly diagnosed as a neurofibroma. Results Results showed 50% of cases tested positive for the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation by RT-PCR and 81.8% by FISH, suggesting FISH is more sensitive than RT-PCR for confirming LGFMS diagnosis. Patients testing positive by both methods tended to be younger and had larger tumours. Despite this, there was no difference in clinical outcome seen during short and medium-term follow-up. Conclusions RT-PCR and FISH for the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcript are useful tools for confirming LGFMS diagnosis, but have no role in predicting medium-term clinical outcome. Due to the propensity for late recurrence or metastasis, wide excision is essential, and longer-term follow-up is required. This may identify a difference in long-term clinical outcome between translocation-positive and negative patients. PMID:21406083

2011-01-01

289

Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Is Associated with Memory Improvement in Patients with Left Frontal Low-Grade Glioma Resection  

PubMed Central

Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing. PMID:25157573

Miotto, Eliane C.; Balardin, Joana B.; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R.; Martin, Maria da Graca M.; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Junior, Edson Amaro

2014-01-01

290

Immunohistochemical Pattern of Pleomorphic Adenoma, Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma and Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the immunohistochemical pattern of CD 117, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD 43 in pleomorphic adenoma (PA), adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) of minor salivary glands. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of PA, 20 cases of AdCC and 10 cases of PLGA were retrieved from record files along with their paraffin blocks at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan. New histological diagnosis was made on freshly prepared H&E sections followed by application and analysis of immunostains. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44 ± 15 (mean SD) (range; 17–86) years. There were 26 male and 24 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.08:1. Fourteen cases of PA, 14 cases of AdCC and 6 cases of PLGA were positive for CD117. In case of GFAP, only 9 cases of AdCC and 3 cases of PLGA were positive; however, 16 cases of PA were also positive. Twelve cases of AdCC and 7 cases of PA were positive for SMA and half of the PLGA cases were also reactive. Nonetheless, the least expression was seen in case of CD 43, where only five cases of AdCC were positive. Six cases of PA and three cases of PLGA were also positive. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of GFAP, SMA, CD 117 and CD 43 as an adjunct to histological examination is not helpful in differentiating PA, AdCC and PLGA from one another. PMID:24910675

Zaib, Nadia; Mushtaq, Sajid; Mamoon, Nadira; Akhter, Noreen; Ayaz, Bushra

2014-01-01

291

Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of 53 cases of feline lymphoplasmacytic enteritis and low-grade alimentary lymphoma.  

PubMed

Low-grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL) is a recently described entity displaying many microscopical features similar to lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE). The aim of this study was to review the histopathological and immunohistochemical features of LPE and LGAL to determine if specific features are useful in distinguishing between these disorders. Fifty-three cases of LPE (n=24) or LGAL (n=29) were recruited retrospectively and prospectively. Of the 24 cases of LPE, 12 were mild, seven were moderate and five were marked in severity. The ileum and jejunum were the most common sites affected for both LGAL and LPE (70-90% of cases). Involvement of the stomach was more common with LPE (29%) than LGAL (7%) (P<0.0001). Twelve cases of LGAL (41%) had evidence of concurrent LPE. Microscopical features significantly associated with LGAL were epitheliotropism, involvement of the muscularis propria and/or serosa, more severe infiltration and more severe changes to the villus and crypt architecture. Plasma cell infiltration within the mucosa, conversely, was a feature of LPE. Twenty-eight of the 29 cases of LGAL were of T-cell phenotype. While many LGAL and most LPE cases had a mixed infiltrate of T and B lymphocytes, LGAL cases had a clear predominance of the T-cell phenotype. Expression of class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex by enterocytes did not differentiate between LGAL and LPE. In eight of 12 cases of moderate-marked LPE there was disparity in diagnosis by two pathologists regarding differentiation from LGAL, requiring assessment by a third pathologist to reach a consensus diagnosis. This demonstrates the inherent difficulty in differentiating LPE from LGAL on the basis of microscopical and immunohistochemical features alone. Other diagnostic tools such as clonality testing may assist in the definitive diagnosis of such cases. PMID:21333999

Briscoe, K A; Krockenberger, M; Beatty, J A; Crowley, A; Dennis, M M; Canfield, P J; Dhand, N; Lingard, A E; Barrs, V R

2011-01-01

292

Olig2 labeling index is correlated with histological and molecular classifications in low-grade diffuse gliomas.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of low-grade diffuse gliomas based on morphology is highly subjective and, therefore, is often difficult, with significant intra- and interobserver variability. Here, we investigated WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas for immunohistochemical expression of Olig2, measuring its labeling index (LI), and evaluated the significance of Olig2 LI in the histological and molecular classifications. The means of Olig2 LI in glioma cells were 43.7 % in diffuse astrocytomas, 59.3 % in oligoastrocytomas and 76.1 % in oligodendrogliomas. There was a statistically significant difference between all pairs of histological types. The mean of Olig2 LI of gliomas with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation, the majority of them being oligodendrogliomas, was significantly higher than the means of those with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation and IDH1/2 mutation only, the majority of which were diffuse astrocytomas (70.1 vs. 47.2 and 46.5 %, respectively). When categorized according to the classification of Jiao et al., Olig2 LI of I-CF gliomas (cases with IDH and one or more of CIC, FUBP1 or combined 1p/19q loss; mean 71.0 %) was significantly higher than that of I-A gliomas (cases with IDH and ATRX alterations; mean 45.3 %). These molecular classifications were reported to correlate well with clinical outcome. However, borderlines of Olig2 LI were broad and could not clearly distinguish genotypes in the molecular classifications. In conclusion, Olig2 LI cannot be taken as a complete surrogate marker for molecular genotype, but could possibly provide some ancillary information when molecular assay is not availabe. PMID:25085214

Suzuki, Aya; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Natsume, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kim, Young-Ho; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nagaishi, Masaya; Ikota, Hayato; Nakazawa, Takuro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Nakazato, Yoichi

2014-11-01

293

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2014-06-01

294

BRAF Mutation is Associated with Early Stage Disease and Improved Outcome in Patients with Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade serous (LGS) ovarian cancer (OC) is a chemoresistant disease that accounts for 10% of serous ovarian cancers. Prior studies have reported that 28–35% of serous borderline (SB)/LGS ovarian tumors harbor a BRAF mutation, suggesting that BRAF inhibitors may be a rational therapeutic approach for this disease. We sought to determine if BRAF or KRAS mutation status is associated with disease stage and/or histology in patients with SB and LGS ovarian cancer. Methods We genetically profiled 75 SB and LGS ovarian tumors for mutations in BRAF and KRAS. The incidence and identity of BRAF and KRAS mutations were defined and the results were correlated with stage, response to treatment, and overall survival. Results Of 75 samples examined, 56(75%) were SB and 19(25%) LGS histology. Fifty-seven percent of tumors harbored either a KRAS mutation (n=17) or a BRAF V600E mutation (n=26). BRAF V600E mutation was significantly associated with early stage disease (Stage I/II, P<0.001) and serous borderline histology (P=0.002). KRAS mutation was not significantly associated with stage or histology. Of the 22 (29%) patients who required treatment with chemotherapy, 20 were KRAS/BRAF wild-type (WT), 2 were KRAS mutant, and none had tumors harboring a BRAF mutation. All BRAF mutant patients were alive at a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range 1.9–129.3 months). Conclusions V600E BRAF mutations are present in 35% of SB/LGS ovarian cancers. The presence of BRAF V600E mutation in SB/LGSOC is associated with early stage disease and improved prognosis. Patients with SB/LGSOC who require systemic therapy are unlikely to have BRAF mutant tumors. PMID:22930283

Garg, Karuna; Delair, Deborah; Hyman, David M.; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; Berger, Michael F.; Dao, Fanny; Spriggs, David R.; Levine, Douglas A.; Aghajanian, Carol; Solit, David B.

2014-01-01

295

Changes in the histological organization and spheroid formation in lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon infected with yellow head virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid organ and characteristics of lymphoid cells after chronic infection with yellow head virus (YHV) in Penaeus monodon were investigated. The vascular cast of infected lymphoid organ showed less branching and dramatically shortened terminal capillaries that formed the lymphoid tubules, and only large stumps of these lymphoid tubules remained. This

Pornsawan Duangsuwan; Yotsawan Tinikul; Charoonroj Chotwiwatthanakun; Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit; Prasert Sobhon

2008-01-01

296

Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.  

PubMed

The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. PMID:24585532

Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

2014-05-01

297

Structure across a possible intra-oceanic suture zone in the low-grade Pan-African rocks of northern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional mapping in the northern Ethiopian basement rocks shows the occurrence of low-grade volcanic, volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks of typical Arabian-Nubian Shield assemblage. Within these low grade rocks, previously unrecognized belts of mafic and ultramafic rocks which have ophiolitic character were identified. Lithological variations and structural details across one of the mafic and ultramafic belts, which is exposed in the Zager area of the region, has been examined and is presented. The structural style of this zone is characterized by thrust and fold belt type tectonics with a predominant northwest directed sense of displacement. Linear and planar structures developed in this belt have produced complex structural interferences. Field relationships of these structures reveal progressive simple shear structures, possibly associated with oblique plate convergence. Lithological and structural data are interpreted as manifesting possible intra-oceanic suture zone processes.

Tadesse, T.

1996-10-01

298

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 33 cases with long-term follow-up.  

PubMed

Cases listed in the U.T.M.D Anderson Cancer Center files as low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and originally diagnosed before 2004 were reviewed. They were included in the study if the diagnosis was confirmed and if there was adequate histologic material and clinical information with at least 5 years of follow-up. Thirty-three cases met the study criteria. The patients were 6 to 52 years old at the time of diagnosis (median, 29 y); 19 were male and 14 were female. The most common tumor locations were the shoulder area (5), thigh (5), and inguinal area (4). Tumor size varied from 1.5 to 16 cm (median, 9.4 cm) in those cases in which it was known. The typical histologic findings were contrasting fibrous and myxoid areas, moderate to low cellularity, bland-appearing spindle cells with no or slight nuclear pleomorphism and rare mitotic figures, and a swirling, whorled growth pattern. Prominent vascularity in myxoid areas and perivascular hypercellularity were fairly common, whereas larger hypercellular zones were sometimes seen in primary tumors but were more frequent in recurrences (local) and metastases. Hypercellular regions sometimes had round rather than spindle cells, a diffuse sheet-like cell arrangement, and/or a somewhat increased mitotic rate. Very hypocellular fibrotic areas were also observed and sometimes had thick collagen bundles. Pericollagenous rosettes were present in 6 cases but not in all specimens from these. Other growth pattern variations included storiform, fascicular-herringbone, and patternless areas; uncommonly noted were cell clusters, strands, palisades, and a retiform network. Additional unusual features were moderate nuclear pleomorphism (seen mostly in recurrent and metastatic tumors), cysts, osseous metaplasia, and a tigroid pattern with alternating fibrous and myxoid strips. One patient had a recurrence with features of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, whereas 2 had dedifferentiated recurrences with anaplastic predominantly round cells and numerous mitotic figures. Fourteen patients died of tumor after 3 (this patient's tumor became dedifferentiated) to 42 years (median, 15 y). Nineteen patients were alive at last follow-up of 5½ to 70 years (median, 13 y), 6 with tumor and 13 without. Twenty-one patients had recurrence after intervals of up to 15 years (median, 3½ y), and 15 had metastases (mostly in the lungs and pleura) after periods of up to 45 years (median, 5 y). Except for dedifferentiation, which led to short survival after it occurred, histologic differences were not related to tumor behavior or patient survival. The 4 patients whose neoplasms measured <3.5 cm were all tumor free at last follow-up. PMID:21921785

Evans, Harry L

2011-10-01

299

Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

Daniels, Thomas B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D., E-mail: Brown.paul@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Meritcare Hospital CCOP, Fargo, ND (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Schiff, David [Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2011-09-01

300

Psychosocial Impact of Alternative Management Policies for Low-Grade Cervical Abnormalities: Results from the TOMBOLA Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care) and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. Methods Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20–59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n?=?1703) or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n?=?1696). At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A subgroup (n?=?2354) completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (?8) and significant anxiety (?11; “30-month percentages”). Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (?9). Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. Results There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR?=?0.99, 95% CI 0.80–1.21) or anxiety (OR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.81–1.16) between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR?=?0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR?=?0.67 95% CI 0.54–0.84). Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time-points. Conclusions There was no difference in the longer-term psychosocial impact of management policies based on cytological surveillance or initial colposcopy. Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 34841617 PMID:24386076

Little, Julian; Gray, Nicola M.; Cruickshank, Margaret; Smart, Louise; Thornton, Alison; Waugh, Norman; Walker, Leslie

2013-01-01

301

The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids  

PubMed Central

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47–6.90) and 1.36 (0.77–3.11) respectively, P<0.001) and the levels correlated to plasma testosterone (r=?0.31, P<0.01), BMI (r=0.42, P<0.001), and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (r=0.46, P<0.001). Treatment with testosterone did not significantly lower sCD163. Females with TS not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163. PMID:24148221

Thomsen, Henrik H; M?ller, Holger J; Trolle, Christian; Groth, Kristian A; Skakkebaek, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; H?st, Christian; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-01-01

302

A population-based study of low-grade gliomas and mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1).  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a slow growth rate, but transformations into malignant gliomas with a rapid deterioration occur in many patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical prognostic factors in a population-based cohort of patients with LGG. In addition we investigated the expression and prognostic value of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) R132H mutation. Seventy-four patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 in the Region of Southern Denmark were identified using the Danish Cancer Register and The Danish Pathology Databank. Survival analysis using Cox regression was performed in 52 patients with tumor samples useable for immunohistochemical evaluation of IDH1 status. Patients with a contrast enhancing tumor, neurological deficits, headache, an astrocytic tumor and PS 2-4 had an increased risk of recurrence. In univariate analysis age > 50 years (HR 2.14, 95 % CI 1.08-4.24), having neurological deficit (HR 2.28, 95 % CI 1.15-4.52), receiving post-surgical treatment (HR 2.52, 95 % CI 1.19-5.32), being in performance status 2-4 (HR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.15-1.81), and having an astrocytic tumor (HR 3.79, 95 % CI 1.64-8.73) were associated with poor survival. Mutated IDH1 (mIDH1) was identified in 46 % of the patients and was significantly correlated to a good survival in both univariate (HR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.11-0.53) and in multivariate analysis (HR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.17-0.91). The other clinical variables were not significant when adjusted for the effect of mIDH1 status. We find that young age, the absence of neurologic deficit, PS 0-1 and oligodendroglial histology were associated with better survival. IDH1 status showed independent prognostic information when adjusting for classical prognostic factors, and should be validated in a larger patient population. PMID:23817809

Dahlrot, Rikke H; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Herrstedt, Jørn; Hansen, Steinbjørn

2013-09-01

303

Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults with Low-Grade Glioma: a Report Utilizing Intergroup 86-72-511  

PubMed Central

Purpose A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two EORTC radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected dataset (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials 203 patients were treated on an NCCTG-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurological deficit, age, and tumor crossing midline. A high risk group was defined as the presence of >2 risk factors. In addition, Mini Mental Status Exam score (MMSE), extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results In univariate analysis the following were statistically significant (p<0.05) detrimental factors for both progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. MMSE>26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE were significant predictors of OS, while tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, the low risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 vs. 3.9 yrs: p<.0001) and PFS (6.2 vs. 1.9 yrs: p<.0001) than the high risk group. 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS versus one or no deletion (median OS 12.6 versus 7.2 yrs, p=0.03). Conclusions Although the low risk groups by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high risk group, this is primarily due to the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data. PMID:21549518

Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

2010-01-01

304

The Pattern of Myometrial Invasion As a Predictor of Lymph Node Metastasis or Extrauterine Disease in Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of lymph node metastases (LN+) or extrauterine disease (ED) in low grade (FIGO grades 1 or 2) endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) in a multi institutional setting. For LGEC with and without LNM or ED, each of the 9 participating institutions evaluated patients age, tumor size, myometrial invasion (MI), FIGO grade, % solid component, the presence or absence of papillary architecture, microcystic elongated and fragmented glands (MELF) and single cell/cell cluster invasion (SCI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lower uterine segment (LUS) and cervical stromal (CX) involvement and numbers of pelvic (PLN) and para-aortic (PALN) LNs sampled.302 cases were reviewed: LN+ or ED +, 96; LN-/ED-, 208. Patients' ages ranged from 23-91 yrs (median 61). Table 1 summarizes the histopathologic variables that were noted for the LN+ or ED+ group: tumor size ?2cm, 93/96 (97%), MI >50%, 54/96 (56%), MELF, 67/96 (70%), SCI, 33/96 (34%), LVI, 79/96 (82%), >20% solid, 65/96 (68%), papillary architecture present, 68/96 (72%), LUS involved, 64/96 (67%) and CX involved, 31/96 (32%). For the LN-/ED- group, the results were as follows: tumor size ?2cm, 152/208 (73%), MI >50%, 56/208 (27%), MELF, 79/208 (38%), single cell invasion, 19/208 (9%) , LVI, 56/208 (27%), >20% solid, 160/208 (77%), papillary architecture present, 122/208 (59%), LUS involved, 77/208 (37%), CX involved, 31/208 (15%). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of pelvic or para-aortic LNs sampled between groups (p=0.9 and 0.1, respectively). Following multivariate analysis, depth of myometrial invasion, cervical stromal involvement, lymphovascular space invasion, and the single cell pattern of invasion emerged as significant predictors of advanced stage disease. Although univariate analysis pointed to LUS involvement, MELF pattern of invasion, and papillary architecture as possible predictors of advanced stage disease, these were not shown to be significant by multivariate analysis. This study validates MI, CX involvement and LV as significant predictors of LN+ or ED. The association of SCI pattern with advanced stage LGEC is a novel finding. PMID:24061515

Euscher, Elizabeth; Fox, Patricia; Bassett, Roland; Al-Ghawi, Hayma; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Barbuto, Denise; Djordjevic, Bojana; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Kim, Insun; Hong, Sun Rang; Montiel, Delia; Moschiano, Elizabeth; Roma, Andres; Silva, Elvio; Malpica, Anais

2013-01-01

305

EGF-Induced EMT and Invasiveness in Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumor Cells: A Possible Step in the Transition to Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Cells?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-grade ovarian cancer cultures, it has been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell invasion by activating an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the effect of EGF on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOT) and low-grade serous carcinomas (LGC) cell invasion remains unknown. Here, we show that EGF receptor (EGFR) was expressed, that EGF treatment increased cell migration and invasion

Jung-Chien Cheng; Nelly Auersperg; Peter C. K. Leung

2012-01-01

306

TGF-Beta Induces Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumor Cell Invasion by Activating EMT but Triggers Apoptosis in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells is induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?). However, high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGC) are refractory to the inhibitory functions of TGF-?; their invasiveness is up-regulated by TGF-? through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) activation. Serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOT) have been recognized as distinct entities that give rise to invasive low-grade serous carcinomas (LGC), which

Jung-Chien Cheng; Nelly Auersperg; Peter C. K. Leung

2012-01-01

307

Long-term follow-up of advanced-stage low-grade lymphoma patients treated upfront with high-dose sequential chemotherapy and autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term outcome, after first line intensified high-dose sequential (i-HDS) chemotherapy, was evaluated in 46 patients, aged ?65 years, with advanced low-grade lymphoma. Seventeen patients had small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), 29 had follicular lymphoma (FL), 10 of them with histologic transformation. I-HDS included: (1) tumor debulkying, by 2 APO+2 DHAP courses; (2) sequential administration of high-dose (hd) etoposide, methotrexate, and cyclophosphamide,

C Tarella; D Caracciolo; P Corradini; F Zallio; M Ladetto; A Cuttica; G Rossi; D Novero; P Gavarotti; A Pileri

2000-01-01

308

Viability screen on pediatric low grade glioma cell lines unveils a novel anti-cancer drug of the steroid biosynthesis inhibitor family.  

PubMed

Pediatric low grade gliomas are the most common central nervous system tumors and are still incurable among a subset of patients despite current treatment modalities. Steroid biosynthesis occurs in a wide variety of organs including the brain, to mediate an assortment of functions, including a proposed role in the growth of gliomas. Hence, targeting steroid biosynthesis and/or their signaling pathways, is anticipated as an effective approach for treating gliomas. In this study, we investigated whether our chemical library of steroid inhibitors can modulate the growth of pediatric low grade glioma cell lines (Res186, Res259, R286), and subsequently identified a potent inhibitor of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3, referred to as DK16, which functions by attenuating cell viability, proliferation, migration/invasion and anchorage independent growth and conversely induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose and duration dependent manner. Further investigations into the mechanisms of how DK16 functions showed that this drug increased the BAX/BCL2 expression ratio, induced phosphatidylserine externalization, and mitochondrial membrane depolarizations culminating to the release and nuclear translocation of AIF. In addition, treatments of low grade glioma cell lines with DK16 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic mediators including CDK2 and CTSL1, and with the converse diminished expression of pro-survival and migratory/invasion genes like PRKCA, TERT, MAPK8, MMP1 and MMP2. Our findings collectively demonstrate the potent anti-neoplastic properties of DK16, a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor, on the growth of pediatric low grade gliomas. PMID:23201138

Ajeawung, Norbert Fonya; Maltais, René; Jones, Chris; Poirier, Donald; Kamnasaran, Deepak

2013-03-01

309

Monoclonal antibody therapy with CAMPATH-1H in patients with relapsed high- and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a multicenter phase I\\/II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAMPATH-1H (CP-1H) is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD52 antigen with promising therapeutic effects in patients with small cell lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of B- and T-cell type. We report about the response and toxicity of CP-1H in 18 patients with B-cell NHL who were treated in four clinical centers in Germany. Sixteen patients suffered from a low-grade

M. Uppenkamp; A. Engert; V. Diehl; D. Bunjes; D. Huhn; G. Brittinger

2002-01-01

310

Mucocutaneous autoimmune syndrome following fludarabine therapy for low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type (B-NHL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 40-year-old patient with low-grade B-NHL developed a generalized macular-papular rash following the first cycle of fludarabine\\u000a treatment which progressed to a complete epidermal necrolysis following the second cycle. Clinical symptoms and the results\\u000a of the direct and indirect immunofluorescence were consistent with a mucocutaneous autoimmune syndrome (pemphigus). Immunohistochemical\\u000a analysis demonstrated a dense epidermal infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes associated with

J. Braess; K. Reich; S. Willert; F. Strutz; C. Neumann; W. Hiddemann; B. Wörmann

1997-01-01

311

Prednimustine and mitoxantrone (PmM) in patients with low-grade malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thirty-five patients with a mean age of 60.6 years (44–78 years, 22 male, 13 female) with advanced low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), or prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) were treated every 4 weeks with prednimustine 100 mg\\/m2 p.o. d 1-d 5 and mitoxantrone 8 mg\\/m2 i.v. d 1 and d 2. Seven patients had CLL, one lymphocytic NHL,

M. Freund; S. Wunsch-Zeddies; M. Schiifers; J. Wysk; I. Seidel; W. Hiddemann; A. R. Hanauske; H. Link; H.-J. Schmoll; H. Poliwoda

1992-01-01

312

Tumor angiogenesis of low-grade astrocytomas measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI (DSC-MRI) is predictive of local tumor control after radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) as a surrogate marker of angiogenesis in patients with low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma before radiation therapy and to correlate measured values with clinical outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT).Methods: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven fibrillary astrocytomas were examined using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI before radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered to mean and median total

Martin Fuss; Frederik Wenz; Marco Essig; Marc Muenter; Jürgen Debus; Terence S Herman; Michael Wannenmacher

2001-01-01

313

Phase relationships of sursassite and other Mn-silicates in highly oxidized low-grade, high-pressure metamorphic rocks from Evvia and Andros islands, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic Mn-rich quartzites from Andros and Evvia (Euboea) islands, Greece, situated in the Eocene blueschist belt of the Hellenides, reveal different Mn-Al-Ca-Mg-silicate assemblages in response to variable metamorphic grade. On Evvia, piemontite- and\\/or braunite-rich quartzites which are associated with low-grade blueschists (TP> 8 kbar) show the principle mineral assemblage quartz + montite + sursassite + braunite + Mg-chlorite

Thomas Reinecke

1986-01-01

314

[Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].  

PubMed

The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. PMID:22112591

Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

2014-01-01

315

CCL21 Expression Pattern of Human Secondary Lymphoid Organ Stroma Is Conserved in Inflammatory Lesions with Lymphoid Neogenesis  

PubMed Central

CCL21 is a homeostatic lymphoid chemokine instrumental in the recruitment and organization of T cells and dendritic cells into lymphoid T areas. In human secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), CCL21 is produced by cells distributed throughout the T zone, whereas high endothelial venules (HEVs) lack CCL21 mRNA. A critical question remains whether the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) in chronic inflammation recapitulates the features of SLOs. Thus, we systematically investigated in situ the cellular sources of CCL21 in SLOs and ELTs in several human diseases characterized by lymphoid neogenesis. By in situ hybridization and the use of combinatorial cell markers, we show that CCL21-producing vessels in inflamed tissues systematically display typical markers of lymphatic vessels, whereas, as in SLOs, ectopic HEVs do not synthesize detectable levels of CCL21. We also provide first-time evidence that a common pattern of CCL21 expression by CD45-negative myofibroblast-like cells localized in extra-HEV position and organized in a fibroblastic reticular network similarly characterizes human SLOs and organized ELTs. Altogether, our results demonstrate that in humans the pattern of CCL21 production in SLOs is maintained during inflammation and that the phenotypic and functional properties of stromal cells, found in SLO T-cell areas, are reproduced at ectopic sites. PMID:17982129

Manzo, Antonio; Bugatti, Serena; Caporali, Roberto; Prevo, Remko; Jackson, David G.; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Buckley, Christopher D.; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Pitzalis, Costantino

2007-01-01

316

Malignant epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor with prominent reticular/microcystic pattern in a child: a low-grade neoplasm with 18-years follow-up.  

PubMed

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) constitute <2% of soft tissue neoplasms in children and display a wide histologic spectrum including low-grade and epithelioid variants, although most are high-grade spindle cell sarcomas. Here, we describe an unusual case of a large retroperitoneal epithelioid MPNST diagnosed in a 7-year-old girl without family history or clinical features of neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient was treated by repeated surgical interventions, polychemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplantation, and irradiation therapy. Over the years, she developed multiple disseminated abdominal recurrences but is currently alive with very slowly progressing disseminated intra-abdominal disease 18 years from initial diagnosis. Histologically, the tumor was composed of medium-sized polygonal and ovoid-to-spindled cells set within a copious myxoid matrix with a prominent reticular and microcystic pattern reminiscent of the recently described reticular/microcystic schwannoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong and diffuse expression of S100, CD56, CD57, collagen IV, and neuron-specific enolase, with negativity for perineurial cell markers (claudin-1, epithelial membrane antigen, and glucose transporter-1) and other lineage-specific mesenchymal and epithelial antigens. This unusual variant of low-grade MPNST must be differentiated from a variety of other entities, in particular benign perineurioma, myxoid neurofibroma, and benign reticular/microcystic schwannoma. Confinement of the recurrent disease to the abdominal cavity emphasizes the necessity of primary curative wide excision of this highly recurring but nonmetastasizing low-grade neoplasm. PMID:21768875

Agaimy, Abbas; Stachel, Klaus-Daniel; Jüngert, Jörg; Radkow, Tanja; Carbon, Roman; Metzler, Markus; Holter, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

317

Collision tumor of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma with tuberculosis in the colon: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

This report presents a case of collision tumors of low-grade B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon of an 81-year-old man. All surgically resected regional mesenteric lymph nodes were found to be occupied by low-grade B-cell lymphoma, and one lymph node showed the presence of adenocarcinoma. Low-grade B-cell lymphoma was also observed in the resected spleen. Moreover, concurrent tuberculosis infection in the resected colon was proven by the presence of positive results obtained with polymerase chain reaction analysis of the mycobacterial DNA. Systemic chemotherapy was administered for advanced colon cancer with lung metastasis, and anti-tuberculosis treatment was also prescribed. The occurrence of synchronous lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the colorectal region is rare. Furthermore, collisions of these different entities are also extremely unusual. The accurate clinical determination of the dominant tumor and a timely follow-up are required for the proper treatment of these cases. PMID:24885098

2014-01-01

318

Prednimustine, mitoxantrone (PmM) vs cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (COP) for the treatment of advanced low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group.  

PubMed

The current study was initiated to compare the anti-lymphoma activity and side-effects of prednimustine/mitoxantrone (PmM) vs cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (COP) in patients with advanced low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in way of a prospective randomized multicenter trial. Two hundred and forty-six patients with stage III or IV centroblastic-centrocytic (CB-CC (Kiel-classification)) or follicle center lymphoma (FCL (REAL classification)) and centrocytic (CC) or mantle-cell-lymphoma (MCL) were randomized for therapy with either PmM or COP and are fully evaluable for response and toxicity. PmM consisted of prednimustine 100 mg/m2/day on days 1-5 and mitoxantrone 8 mg/m2 /day days 1 and 2, while COP comprised cyclophosphamide 400 mg/m2/day on days 1-5, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2/day on day 1 and prednisone 100 mg/m2/day on days 1-5. Both regimens were repeated for a total of six cycles followed by an additional two courses for consolidation in responding cases and a subsequent second randomization for interferon alpha maintenance vs observation only. Overall response rates were comparable with 83% complete and partial remissions after COP and 84% remissions after PmM. PmM revealed a significantly higher rate of complete remissions (36 vs 18%, P < 0.006), the majority being achieved after four courses. The more rapid and possibly also more effective reduction of the lymphoma cell mass by PmM resulted in a tendency to a longer event-free interval for patients achieving remissions after PmM as compared to COP with estimated median event-free intervals of 31 vs 14 months, respectively (P=0.04). Separate analysis of lymphoma subtypes showed a tendency to a lower rate of complete remission in CC or MCL as compared to CB-CC or FCL (16 vs 30%, P=0.12, NS) while overall response rates were in a similar range (81 vs 85%). In both subtypes, PmM induced a higher rate of complete remission while overall response rates were comparable after PmM or COP. Treatment associated side-effects comprised predominantly myelosuppression and granulocytopenia in particular which was more frequently observed after PmM than COP (43 vs 31 %, P < 0.0001). This difference was clinically irrelevant, however, since serious infectious complications were encountered in less than 3% of cycles after both regimens. COP therapy was associated with a significantly higher incidence and degree of hair loss and complete alopecia (31 vs 2%) as well as of peripheral neurotoxicity (23 vs 2%). These data show that both PmM and COP reveal a high anti-lymphoma activity in patients with advanced stage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PmM appears advantageous with a higher rate of complete remissions and a better tolerability with regard to secondary side-effects. A longer follow-up is needed to assess the long-term effects of initial treatment on disease-free and overall survival and the impact on additional maintenance therapy with interferon alpha. PMID:8656680

Unterhalt, M; Herrmann, R; Tiemann, M; Parwaresch, R; Stein, H; Trümper, L; Nahler, M; Reuss-Borst, M; Tirier, C; Neubauer, A; Freund, M; Kreuser, E D; Dietzfelbinger, H; Bodenstein, H; Engert, A; Stauder, R; Eimermacher, H; Landys, K; Hiddemann, W

1996-05-01

319

Magnetic Anisotropy of Chloritoid and its Significance in Magnetic Fabric Studies of Low-Grade Metamorphic Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of monoclinic chloritoid, a relatively common mineral in aluminium-rich, metapelitic rocks, has been determined for the first time by measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), using two independent high-field approaches, i.e. (a) directional magnetic hysteresis measurements and (b) torque magnetometry, on a collection of single crystals collected from different tectonometamorphic settings worldwide [Haerinck et al., 2013a]. Magnetic remanence experiments show that all specimens contain ferromagnetic (s.l.) impurities, being mainly magnetite. The determined (paramagnetic) high-field-AMS (HF-AMS) ellipsoids have a highly oblate shape with the minimum susceptibility direction subparallel to the crystallographic c-axis of chloritoid. In the basal plane of chloritoid, though, the HF-AMS can be considered isotropic. The corrected degree of anisotropy (PJHF) is found to be 1.47, which is significantly higher than the anisotropy of most paramagnetic silicates and even well above the frequently used upper limit (i.e. 1.35) for the paramagnetic contribution to AMS of siliciclastic rocks. As there is no apparent relationship between PJHF and the high-field bulk susceptibility, it seems that the remarkably high magnetic anisotropy of chloritoid is not simply the result of more Fe (& Mn) cations and hence, a stronger ferrimagnetic interaction within the basal plane of the chloritoid lattice. Instead, an analysis of the paramagnetic Curie temperature, parallel (?par.) and perpendicular (?perp.) to the basal plane of the chloritoid crystals, indicates that this pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy is related to strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis (?perp. < 0) and rather weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions within the basal plane (?par. > 0). As a consequence, chloritoid-bearing metapelites with a pronounced mineral alignment can have a high degree of AMS without the need of invoking a significant contribution of strongly anisotropic, ferromagnetic (s.l.) minerals. This is tested by a magnetic fabric study of a particular stratigraphic horizon of Armorican metasiltstones, that covers both an area with chloritoid and white mica-bearing metasiltstones, associated with an epizonal metamorphic grade, and an area with chlorite and white mica-bearing metasiltstones, associated with an anchizonal metamorphic grade [Haerinck et al., 2013b]. It was found that the epizonal chloritoid-bearing metasiltstones show (dominantly paramagnetic) PJ values up to 1.45, whereas the anchizonal, chlorite and white mica-bearing metasiltstones show PJ values only up to 1.27. These observations clearly show that the presence of chloritoid in low-grade metamorphic rocks has a profound impact on the rock's magnetic fabric (AMS) which can be attributed to the very high intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of chloritoid. Therefore, our work calls for a revised approach of magnetic fabric interpretations in chloritoid-bearing rocks. Haerinck et al. 2013a, JGR-B, 118, 13-13, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50276. Haerinck et al. 2013b, JGS of London, 170 (2), 263-280, doi: 10.1144/jgs2012-062.

Haerinck, T.; Debacker, T. N.; Sintubin, M.

2013-12-01

320

'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis.

Strober, S.

1981-06-01

321

Lymphoid organs function as major reservoirs for human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed Central

The total number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes is considered to be a reflection of the HIV burden at any given time during the course of HIV infection. However, the low frequency of HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes and the low level or absence of plasma viremia in the early stages of infection do not correlate with the progressive immune dysfunction characteristic of HIV infection. In this study, we have determined whether HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes are a correct reflection of the total pool of HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (i.e., HIV burden). To this end, HIV burden has been comparatively analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, adenoids, and tonsils) from the same patients. The presence of HIV-1 DNA in mononuclear cells isolated simultaneously from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of the same patients was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. We found that the frequency of HIV-1-infected cells in unfractionated or sorted CD4+ cell populations isolated from lymphoid tissues was significantly higher (0.5-1 log10 unit) than the frequency in peripheral blood. Comparable results were obtained in five HIV seropositive patients in the early stages of disease and in one patient with AIDS. These results demonstrate that a heavy viral load does reside in the lymphoid organs, indicating that they may function as major reservoirs for HIV. In addition, the finding of a heavy viral load in the lymphoid organs of patients in the early stages of disease may explain the progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the immune dysfunction associated with the early stages of HIV infection. Images PMID:1682922

Pantaleo, G; Graziosi, C; Butini, L; Pizzo, P A; Schnittman, S M; Kotler, D P; Fauci, A S

1991-01-01

322

Use of a Human-Like Low-Grade Bacteremia Model of Experimental Endocarditis To Study the Role of Staphylococcus aureus Adhesins and Platelet Aggregation in Early Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Animal models of infective endocarditis (IE) induced by high-grade bacteremia revealed the pathogenic roles of Staphylococcus aureus surface adhesins and platelet aggregation in the infection process. In humans, however, S. aureus IE possibly occurs through repeated bouts of low-grade bacteremia from a colonized site or intravenous device. Here we used a rat model of IE induced by continuous low-grade bacteremia to explore further the contributions of S. aureus virulence factors to the initiation of IE. Rats with aortic vegetations were inoculated by continuous intravenous infusion (0.0017 ml/min over 10 h) with 106 CFU of Lactococcus lactis pIL253 or a recombinant L. lactis strain expressing an individual S. aureus surface protein (ClfA, FnbpA, BCD, or SdrE) conferring a particular adhesive or platelet aggregation property. Vegetation infection was assessed 24 h later. Plasma was collected at 0, 2, and 6 h postinoculation to quantify the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10. The percentage of vegetation infection relative to that with strain pIL253 (11%) increased when binding to fibrinogen was conferred on L. lactis (ClfA strain) (52%; P = 0.007) and increased further with adhesion to fibronectin (FnbpA strain) (75%; P < 0.001). Expression of fibronectin binding alone was not sufficient to induce IE (BCD strain) (10% of infection). Platelet aggregation increased the risk of vegetation infection (SdrE strain) (30%). Conferring adhesion to fibrinogen and fibronectin favored IL-1? and IL-6 production. Our results, with a model of IE induced by low-grade bacteremia, resembling human disease, extend the essential role of fibrinogen binding in the initiation of S. aureus IE. Triggering of platelet aggregation or an inflammatory response may contribute to or promote the development of IE. PMID:23250949

Veloso, Tiago Rafael; Chaouch, Aziz; Roger, Thierry; Giddey, Marlyse; Vouillamoz, Jacques; Majcherczyk, Paul; Que, Yok-Ai; Rousson, Valentin; Moreillon, Philippe

2013-01-01

323

Distant metastasis in retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma is rare and rapidly fatal: a clinicopathological study with emphasis on the low-grade myxofibrosarcoma-like pattern as an early sign of dedifferentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metastatic incidence of retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma is comparatively lower than other pleomorphic sarcomas, varying widely from 1 to 18%. Low-grade dedifferentiation resembling low-grade fibrosarcoma has been recently accepted as part of the morphologic spectrum of dedifferentiated liposarcoma and was reported to have similar metastatic and survival rates to its high-grade counterpart. We sought to determine the metastatic incidence of

Hsuan-Ying Huang; Murray F Brennan; Samuel Singer; Cristina R Antonescu

2005-01-01

324

Eoalpine (Cretaceous) very low- to low-grade metamorphism recorded on the illite-muscovite-rich fraction of metasediments from South Tisia (eastern Mt Papuk, Croatia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eoalpine very low- to low-grade metamorphism related to Cretaceous orogenesis has been investigated in the Slavonian Mts, Croatia. Samples belonging to the Psunj metamorphic complex (PMC), the Radlovac metamorphic complex (RMC) and Permian-Triassic and Triassic sedimentary sequences (PTSS) were studied. The Kübler and Árkai indices of all the analysed samples indicate high-anchizonal to epizonal metamorphism. The degree of Eoalpine metamorphism tends to be constant in all samples implying that the different complexes passed through and recorded the same event. Measurements of illite-white K-mica b0-parameter of the RMC samples imply transitional low- to medium-pressure character of the metamorphism. These data together with K-Ar ages (~100-80 Ma) measured on illite-white K-mica rich < 2 ?m grain-size fractions point to Late Cretaceous very low- to low-grade regional metamorphism presumably related to the main nappe-forming compressional events in the Pannonian Basin and the Carpathians. The P-T-t (pressure-temperature-time) evolution of the studied area is in good agreement with similar scenarios in the surrounding areas of Tisia, but also in Eastern Alps, Carpathians and Pannonian Basin (ALCAPA).

Biševac, Vanja; Balogh, Kadosa; Balen, Dražen; Tibljaš, Darko

2010-12-01

325

Inflammatory profiles in the non-pregnant state predict offspring birth weight at Cebu: evidence for intergenerational effects of low grade inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Although maternal infection and inflammation during pregnancy can adversely affect offspring birth weight (BW), whether low grade inflammation in the non-pregnant state predicts BW is unknown. Aim Evaluate relationships between offspring BW and pro- and anti-inflammatory factors measured in parous but non-pregnant women. Subjects and methods Data come from 234 parous Filipino females (21.5 ± 0.3 yr) in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based birth cohort in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Pro-inflammatory [Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and anti-inflammatory [Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] factors were measured in fasting plasma when the women were not pregnant, and related to recalled offspring BW. Results BW in female offspring was lower only among women with high IL-1?. Although pro-inflammatory cytokines did not predict BW in male offspring, women with higher anti-inflammatory IL-10 gave birth to larger males. Women with a combination of low inflammatory (IL-6) and high anti-inflammatory (IL-10) factors (interaction p<0.104) gave birth to the largest males. Conclusion Immune factors measured outside of pregnancy predict offspring BW in these young women. Stable variation in inflammatory phenotype could impact the gestational environment of offspring, thus pointing to potential intergenerational effects of chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:22690728

Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Tallman, Paula S.; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette; McDade, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

326

High angiogenic potential in an in vivo rat corneal model is associated with shorter disease-free survival in low-grade oligodendrogliomas.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the association between time to tumor recurrence, angiogenic potential and tumor contrast-enhancement. Tumor samples were taken from 20 patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma and examined for their angiogenic potential using an in vivo rat corneal model of angiogenesis. Patients were evaluated for tumor contrast enhancement prior to surgical excision using MRI and they were followed for tumor recurrence. Patients who had tumors without contrast enhancement had longer disease-free survival (median time to tumor recurrence, 72 months) compared to those who had tumors with contrast enhancement (median, 42 months; p=0.0068). Based on corneal angiogenesis assay results, a high angiogenic potential was associated with a significantly shorter disease-free survival. Our findings suggest that radiological contrast enhancement and a high angiogenic potential based on an in vivo corneal angiogenesis assay were related to a shorter disease-free survival. This might have important prognostic implications in patients with low-grade oligodendrogliomas. PMID:20943394

Ozkan, Abdulkadir; Guduk, Mustafa; Atabay, Kutay Deniz; Uyar, Süheyla Bozkurt; Seker, Askin; Konya, Deniz; Pamir, M Necmettin; Kilic, Turker

2011-01-01

327

Expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins and physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies with and without low grade lesions  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between expression of HPV16 E6, p53 and p21 proteins and the physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-SIL) and with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. 101 liquid-based cytological samples were analyzed. 50 samples were without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-IL) and 51 samples of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. HPV16 infection was determined by PCR-RFLP, and the physical state of HPV16 by in situ hybridization with tyramide-amplification. The expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The expression of HPV16 E6 protein was significantly higher in LSIL that in Non-SIL samples (p=0.006). We found a significant correlation between E6 expression and the physical state of HPV16 in Non-SIL (p=0.049). Our results suggest that high expression of E6 in LSIL is an early event of cervical carcinogenesis and perhaps can be used as an early marker. PMID:24482706

Tagle, Diana K Jimenez; Sotelo, Daniel Hernandez; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco A; Alfaro, Eugenia Flores; Coronel, Yaneth Castro; Hernandez, Oscar del Moral; Romero, Luz del Carmen Alarcon

2014-01-01

328

Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of C-C chemokine ligand 2: a model to assess the combined effect of high energy intake and continuous low-grade inflammation.  

PubMed

Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study. PMID:24453432

Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Menendez, Javier A; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

2013-01-01

329

Attachment of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum cultured under varying conditions to pyrite, chalcopyrite, low-grade ore and quartz in a packed column reactor.  

PubMed

The attachment of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum spp. grown on ferrous medium or adapted to a pyrite mineral concentrate to four mineral substrata, namely, chalcopyrite and pyrite concentrates, a low-grade chalcopyrite ore (0.5 wt%) and quartzite, was investigated. The quartzite represented a typical gangue mineral and served as a control. The attachment studies were carried out in a novel particle-coated column reactor. The saturated reactor containing glass beads, which were coated with fine mineral concentrates, provided a quantifiable surface area of mineral concentrate and maintained good fluid flow. A. ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. had similar attachment characteristics. Enhanced attachment efficiency occurred with bacteria grown on sulphide minerals relative to those grown on ferrous sulphate in an ore-free environment. Selective attachment to sulphide minerals relative to gangue materials occurred, with mineral adapted cultures attaching to the minerals more efficiently than ferrous grown cultures. Mineral-adapted cultures showed highest levels of attachment to pyrite (74% and 79% attachment for A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum, respectively). This was followed by attachment of mineral-adapted cultures to chalcopyrite (63% and 58% for A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum, respectively). A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum exhibited lower levels of attachment to low-grade ore and quartz relative to the sulphide minerals. PMID:22410741

Africa, Cindy-Jade; van Hille, Robert P; Harrison, Susan T L

2013-02-01

330

Müllerian Adenosarcoma of the Uterus With Low-grade Sarcomatous Overgrowth Characterized by Prominent Hydropic Change Resulting in Mimicry of a Smooth Muscle Tumor.  

PubMed

A 28-y-old woman was found to have a large subserosal uterine mass that was excised and interpreted as a "clear cell leiomyoma." Five years later, the tumor recurred as serosal-based ileal and uterine masses; they were treated by partial ileal resection and hysterectomy. All 3 masses were predominantly characterized by conspicuous edema separating bland cells growing in cords and clusters, with scant to moderately conspicuous clear cytoplasm. The edema was indistinguishable from the hydropic change commonly seen in benign smooth muscle tumors and the cords similar to those often present in them. However, the mass from the hysterectomy specimen had a small, grossly recognizable cystic region, which on microscopic examination was a typical low-grade müllerian adenosarcoma. The stroma of the latter ranged from cellular endometrial-type to edematous and hypocellular similar to that dominating the other specimens. The cellular and edematous regions focally had cords and tubules of sex cord-like type confirmed by inhibin and calretinin positivity. Smooth muscle differentiation was also seen as a "starburst" pattern. This case of adenosarcoma is unusual due to its (1) serosal location, (2) overgrowth of stroma, which differed from typical adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth by its low-grade nature, (3) hydropic change associated with cords and nests of cells with clear cytoplasm, which prompted the initial specimen to be considered an epithelioid leiomyoma, and (4) prominent smooth muscle metaplasia mostly with a "starburst" morphology. All these features have only rarely been documented in prior müllerian adenosarcomas. PMID:25272296

Wu, Roseann I; Schorge, John O; Cin, Paola D; Young, Robert H; Oliva, Esther

2014-11-01

331

Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

1980-01-01

332

Beyond NK Cells: The Expanding Universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells  

PubMed Central

For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development. PMID:24982658

Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

2014-01-01

333

Regulation of intestinal health and disease by innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently appreciated immune cell population that is constitutively found in the healthy mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated lymphoid tissues. Translational studies have revealed that alterations in ILC populations are associated with GI disease in patients, such as inflammatory bowel disease, HIV infection and colon cancer, suggesting a potential role for ILCs in either maintaining intestinal health or promoting intestinal disease. Mouse models identified that ILCs have context-dependent protective and pathologic functions either during the steady state, or following infection, inflammation or tissue damage. This review will discuss the associations of altered intestinal ILCs with human GI diseases, and the functional consequences of targeting ILCs in mouse models. Collectively, our current understanding of ILCs suggests that the development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate ILC responses will be of significant clinical value to prevent or treat human GI diseases. PMID:24821261

Sonnenberg, Gregory F

2014-09-01

334

Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

Pottern, L.M.

1987-01-01

335

Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus  

SciTech Connect

In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental.

Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

1986-07-01

336

Imaging of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma.  

PubMed

Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma most often arises from stomach, small bowel, or colon. The 2 most common subtypes of primary GI lymphoma include low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, and high-grade diffuse, large B-cell lymphoma. Primary GI lymphoma demonstrates a myriad of imaging manifestations that can commonly mimic other pathologies. Timely and accurate diagnosis remains important because treatment and prognosis of primary GI lymphoma differ significantly from other GI malignancies and even lymphoma of other primary sites. PMID:24332207

Chang, Stephanie T; Menias, Christine O

2013-12-01

337

Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs  

SciTech Connect

Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-12-15

338

Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed

For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34(+)CD45RA(+) hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A

2014-04-01

339

Innate lymphoid cells drive IL-23 dependent innate intestinal pathology  

PubMed Central

The key role of IL-23 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders is supported by the identification of IL-23R susceptibility alleles associated with IBD, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. IL-23 driven inflammation has primarily been linked to the actions of Th17 cells1. Somewhat overlooked, IL-23 also has inflammatory effects on innate immune cells2 and can drive T cell- independent colitis. However the downstream cellular and molecular pathways involved in this innate intestinal inflammatory response are poorly characterized. Here we show that bacteria-driven innate colitis is associated with increased IL-17 and IFN-? production in the colon. Stimulation of colonic leukocytes with IL-23 induced IL-17 and IFN-? production exclusively by innate lymphoid cells expressing Thy1, SCA-1, ROR?t and IL-23R and these cells markedly accumulated in the inflamed colon. Importantly, IL-23 responsive innate intestinal cells are also a feature of T-cell dependent models of colitis. The transcription factor ROR?t, which controls IL-23R expression, plays a functional role as Ror?/?Rag?/? mice failed to develop innate colitis. Lastly, depletion of Thy1+ innate lymphoid cells completely abrogated acute and chronic innate colitis. These results identify a novel IL-23 responsive innate lymphoid population that mediates intestinal immune pathology and may therefore represent a target in IBD. PMID:20393462

Buonocore, Sofia; Ahern, Philip P.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Littman, Dan R.; Maloy, Kevin J.; Powrie, Fiona

2013-01-01

340

A committed hemopoietic precursor to innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) specialize in the rapid secretion of polarized sets of cytokines and chemokines to combat infection and promote tissue repair at mucosal barriers.1–9 Their diversity and similarities with previously characterized NK cells and lymphoid tissue inducers (LTi) have prompted a provisional classification of all innate lymphocytes into groups 1, 2 and 3 based solely on cytokine properties,10 but their developmental pathways and lineage relationships remain elusive. Using lineage tracing and transfer studies, we identified and characterized a novel subset of lymphoid precursors in fetal liver and adult bone marrow that transiently expressed high amounts of PLZF, a transcription factor previously associated with NKT cell development.11,12 PLZFhigh cells were committed ILC progenitors with multiple ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 potential at the clonal level. They excluded classical LTi and NK cells, but included a peculiar subset of NK1.1+DX5? ‘NK-like’ cells residing in the liver. Deletion of PLZF markedly altered the development of several ILC subsets, but not LTi or NK cells. PLZFhigh precursors also expressed high amounts of Id2 and GATA3, as well as TOX, a known regulator of PLZF-independent NK and LTi lineages.13 These findings establish novel lineage relationships between ILC, NK and LTi cells, and identify the common precursor to ILC, termed ILCP. They also reveal the broad, defining role of PLZF in the differentiation of innate lymphocytes. PMID:24509713

Constantinides, Michael G.; McDonald, Benjamin D.; Verhoef, Philip A.; Bendelac, Albert

2014-01-01

341

Purified mouse mammary tumor and lymphoid cells in immune assays.  

PubMed

Tumor and lymphoid cell components from primary mammary adenocarcinomas of C3H/He mice were isolated simultaneously by velocity gradients. Viable tumor cells were obtained in sufficient numbers to test their in vivo and in vitro growth. Isolated tumor cells grew in 97% of inoculated syngeneic animals. In six assays with different tumors the effects of tumor-associated lymphoid cells (TAL) on in vivo tumor growth varied, enhancing in three and delaying in two experiments. Isolated tumor cells from animals with enhancing TAL grew faster in nonirradiated mice, whereas tumor cells from animals with inhibitory TAL grew better in irradiated animals. Isolated tumor cells also proliferated in cell culture, where they averaged 35% primary plating efficiency. Separated tumor cells were used in short-term 51Cr-release assays with TAL, tumor-bearer lymph node and spleen effectors. Cytotoxicity was detected in only five of 25 assays. In no case was there killing by lymphocyte populations from normal animals. In the present report we describe a technique for the isolation of viable tumor and lymphoid cells from murine adenocarcinomas that allows study of interactions between these populations from the original tumor-bearing host. PMID:6568874

Blazar, B A; Vanky, F; Klein, E

1984-01-01

342

Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

1985-04-01

343

Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients <16 years was 82 (range, 33-105). For those >16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in patients >16 years old was 23 at baseline and had improved to 17 and 14 at the 6-month and 24-month follow-up assessments, respectively. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated neuropsychological impairment in a cohort of young patients with benign and low-grade tumors even before starting radiotherapy. SCRT, however, did not result in any additional worsening. These encouraging results need to be validated in a study with a larger number of patients and longer follow-up.

Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: rjalali@medscape.com; Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); More, Niteen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Siddha, Manish [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Kamble, Rashmi [Brain Tumor Foundation of India, Mumbai (India)

2006-11-15

344

Topographic and quantitative relationship between prostate inflammation, proliferative inflammatory atrophy and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: A biopsy study in chronic prostatitis patients  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory processes are important components in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. According to the ‘injury and regeneration’ model for prostate carcinogenesis, injury caused by pathogens or pro-inflammatory cytotoxic agents would trigger proliferation of prostatic glandular cells, leading to the appearance of epithelial lesions named ‘Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy’ (PIA). Inflammatory cells infiltrating the prostate would release genotoxic reactive oxygen species, leading atrophic cells to neoplastic progression. The hypothesis pointing to PIA as risk-lesion for prostate cancer has been extensively investigated at the cellular and molecular levels, but few morphological data are available linking PIA or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to inflammation or clinical prostatitis. We investigated at the morphological level 1367 prostate biopsies from 98 patients with a recent history of chronic prostatitis, and 32 patients with biopsies positive for carcinoma. Our results show that i) PIA is found more frequently in biopsy cores containing a severe or moderate inflammatory focus, compared to NON-PIA lesions (partial or cystic atrophy); ii) the PIA lesion post-atrophic hyperplasia is more frequently found in tissues showing mild or no inflammation; iii) the extent of PIA per patient correlates with the burden of moderate or severe inflammation, whereas NON-PIA lesions do not; iv) low-grade PIN is in over 90% of cases emerging from normal, non-atrophic glands and is more frequently found in biopsy cores with absent or mild inflammatory burden; v) the inverse relationship between the prevalence of low-grade PIN and the extent of PIA lesions per patient is described by a power law function, suggesting the low likelihood of the concomitant presence of these lesions in the same tissue; vi) NON-PIA lesions correlate inversely with neoplasia in patients with prostate cancer; vii) the total scores of the NIH-CPSI questionnaire correlate with both PIA and inflammation burdens at diagnosis of prostatitis but not after pharmacological intervention. These results point to a positive association between tissue inflammation, clinical prostatitis and the putative cancer risk-lesion PIA, but do not support a model whereby low-grade PIN would arise from PIA. PMID:23026863

VRAL, A.; MAGRI, V.; MONTANARI, E.; GAZZANO, G.; GOURVAS, V.; MARRAS, E.; PERLETTI, G.

2012-01-01

345

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma around the knee involving the proximal end of the tibia and patella: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma. LGFMS is a rare soft tissue tumor that tends to develop in the deep soft tissue of young adults and has the potential for local recurrence or distant metastasis. The current case report presents a 22-year-old male complaining of a slow growing painless mass in the right knee over a period of 10 years. Following complete evaluation by radiological and histopathological examination, a diagnosis of LGFMS was confirmed and a wide excision was performed. Currently, the patient has been under follow-up for the last five years without any evidence of metastasis. The present case report provides further information concerning the diagnosis, imaging and management of LGFMS. PMID:24944715

BAJPAI, JEETENDRA; SHUKLA, SAURAV; JAH, MOAZZAM; SINGH, ALOK KUMAR; GOEL, MOHIT; MOURYA, AMIT; SACHDEVA, NIKHIL

2014-01-01

346

Primary low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the kidney in a child with the alternative EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 6-year-old boy with a deceptively bland spindle cell renal neoplasm found to harbor the EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion. This fusion has recently been described as a variant translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), a tumor more typically characterized by a recurrent t(7;16) chromosomal translocation, resulting in the fusion of FUS and CREB3L2 genes. LGFMS is an indolent tumor with late metastatic potential and a propensity for long-term disease recurrence. The tumor is rare in children, with only 33 published cases. In the pediatric population, it has not previously been reported arising in the kidney. PMID:24896634

Rubinstein, Jill C; Visa, Arjun; Zhang, Lei; Antonescu, Cristina R; Christison-Lagay, Emily R; Morotti, Raffaella

2014-01-01

347

(90) Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radiotherapy as first-line therapy for early stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including bulky disease.  

PubMed

(90) Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan ((90) YIT) was used as a first-line therapy for patients with early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) or marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL). Thirty-one patients were treated, with an overall 3-month response rate of 100% (68% complete response, 29% unconfirmed complete response and 3% partial response). At a median follow-up of 56 months, ten patients (32%) had disease relapse or progression. The progression-free rates at 3 and 5 years were lower in males, patients with FL, stage II diseaseand non-bulky disease, although they did not reach statistical significance. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia were 61%, 35%, and 3%, respectively. (90) YIT was well tolerated, including in those patients over 60 years old, and achieved high response rates in patients with early-stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Bulky disease did not adversely affect tumour response. PMID:25040450

Samaniego, Felipe; Berkova, Zuzana; Romaguera, Jorge E; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A; Pro, Barbara; Shah, Jatin J; McLaughlin, Peter; Sehgal, Lalit; Selvaraj, Vijairam; Braun, Frank K; Mathur, Rohit; Feng, Lei; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W

2014-10-01

348

Low grade marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the breast associated with localised amyloidosis and corpora amylacea in a woman with long standing primary Sj?gren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Primary low grade marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZL) of the breast and localised mammary amyloidosis are exceedingly rare entities. This report describes the case of a woman with long standing Sjögren’s syndrome presenting with asymptomatic MZL of the breast showing plasmacytic differentiation, associated with local ductular amyloidosis. The lesion was discovered incidentally in breast tissue resected for microcalcifications. Immunohistochemistry revealed ? light chain restriction, supporting the neoplastic nature of the infiltrate. A retrospective molecular study of the salivary gland biopsy showed a B cell clone. This is the first report of the association of human mammary ductular amyloidosis with cartwheel shaped material identical to corpora amylacea, usually seen in brain, lung, and prostate, but unknown in the human breast. The excellent outcome without treatment seen in this patient further emphasises the need to distinguish between MZL with plasmacytic differentiation and extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:12499440

Kambouchner, M; Godmer, P; Guillevin, L; Raphael, M; Droz, D; Martin, A

2003-01-01

349

Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast with diverse expression patterns of myoepithelial cell markers on immunohistochemistry: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper reports a case of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGASC) arising in a 69-year-old woman, who presented with a 1-cm palpable mass on her right breast. Core needle biopsy diagnosed the mass as a fibroadenoma. After six months, the mass increased in size, and the patient received subsequent mammotome excision. On microscopic examination, bland-looking small glands were infiltrating into the fibrotic stroma with lymphocytic infiltrates at the periphery. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed relatively easily detectable myoepithelial cells along the outside in each of the glandular structures with variable degrees of squamous metaplasia. Based on histologic features, the patient was diagnosed with LGASC. LGASC is a rare variant of metaplastic carcinoma, which is characterized by a favorable prognosis. Due to the bland cytology and presence of myoepithelial cells, LGASC can be misdiagnosed as benign lesion. Additionally, inconsistent expression of myoepithelial markers could aid the diagnosis of LGASC. PMID:25013422

Cha, Yoon Jin; Kim, Gi Jeong; Park, Byeong-Woo; Koo, Ja Seung

2014-06-01

350

Menopause and ovariectomy cause a low grade of systemic inflammation that may be prevented by chronic treatment with low doses of estrogen or losartan.  

PubMed

The incidence of cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women is lower than in men or postmenopausal women. This study reports the discovery of a low grade of systemic inflammation, including monocyte adhesion to arterial endothelium, elicited by menopause or estrogen depletion. Chronic treatment with low dose of 17-beta-estradiol or inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system reduced this inflammation. Using an in vitro flow chamber system with human arterial and venous endothelial cells, we found that leukocytes from healthy postmenopausal women were more adhesive to the arterial endothelium than those from premenopausal women regardless of the stimulus used on endothelial cells. Increased circulating levels of IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha and monocyte CD11b expression were also encountered in postmenopausal vs premenopausal subjects. This translational data led us to investigate the mechanisms in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using intravital microscopy, we imaged mesenteric arterioles and found significant increases in arteriolar leukocyte adhesion, cell adhesion molecule expression, and plasma levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/KC), MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha in 1-mo ovariectomized rats. Chronic treatment of ovariectomized rats with low dose of 17-beta-estradiol, losartan, both, or benazepril inhibited ovariectomy-induced arteriolar mononuclear leukocyte adhesion by 77%, 58%, 92%, and 65% respectively, partly by inhibition of cell adhesion molecule up-regulation and the increase in circulating chemokines. These results demonstrate that menopause and ovariectomy generate a low grade of systemic inflammation. Therefore, administration of low doses of estrogens or inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, at early stages of estrogen deficiency, might prevent the systemic inflammation associated with menopause and decrease the risk of suffering further cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19553526

Abu-Taha, May; Rius, Cristina; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Noguera, Inmaculada; Cerda-Nicolas, Jose-Miguel; Issekutz, Andrew C; Jose, Peter J; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Sanz, Maria-Jesus

2009-07-15

351

Increased Serum and Musculotendinous Fibrogenic Proteins following Persistent Low-Grade Inflammation in a Rat Model of Long-Term Upper Extremity Overuse  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship between grip strength declines and muscle-tendon responses induced by long-term performance of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) reaching task in rats. We hypothesized that grip strength declines would correlate with inflammation, fibrosis and degradation in flexor digitorum muscles and tendons. Grip strength declined after training, and further in weeks 18 and 24, in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Flexor digitorum tissues of reach limbs showed low-grade increases in inflammatory cytokines: IL-1? after training and in week 18, IL-1? in week 18, TNF-? and IL-6 after training and in week 24, and IL-10 in week 24, with greater increases in tendons than muscles. Similar cytokine increases were detected in serum with HRLF: IL-1? and IL-10 in week 18, and TNF-? and IL-6 in week 24. Grip strength correlated inversely with IL-6 in muscles, tendons and serum, and TNF-? in muscles and serum. Four fibrogenic proteins, TGFB1, CTGF, PDGFab and PDGFbb, and hydroxyproline, a marker of collagen synthesis, increased in serum in HRLF weeks 18 or 24, concomitant with epitendon thickening, increased muscle and tendon TGFB1 and CTGF. A collagenolytic gelatinase, MMP2, increased by week 18 in serum, tendons and muscles of HRLF rats. Grip strength correlated inversely with TGFB1 in muscles, tendons and serum; with CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in tendons; and with MMP2 in tendons and serum. Thus, motor declines correlated with low-grade systemic and musculotendinous inflammation throughout task performance, and increased fibrogenic and degradative proteins with prolonged task performance. Serum TNF-?, IL-6, TGFB1, CTGF and MMP2 may serve as serum biomarkers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, although further studies in humans are needed. PMID:24015193

Gao, Helen G. L.; Fisher, Paul W.; Lambi, Alex G.; Wade, Christine K.; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E.; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

2013-01-01

352

Effects in the use of a genetically engineered strain of Lactococcus lactis delivering in situ IL-10 as a therapy to treat low-grade colon inflammation.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating. Interestingly, there is now evidence of the presence of a low-grade inflammatory status in many IBS patients, including histopathological and mucosal cytokine levels in the colon, as well as the presence of IBS-like symptoms in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The use of a genetically engineered food-grade bacterium, such as Lactococcus lactis, secreting the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 has been proven by many pre-clinical studies to be a successful therapy to treat colon inflammation. In this study, we first reproduced the recovery-recurrence periods observed in IBS-patients in a new chronic model characterized by 2 episodes of DiNitro-BenzeneSulfonic-acid (DNBS)-challenge and we tested the effects of a recombinant strain of L. lactis secreting IL-10 under a Stress-Inducible Controlled Expression (SICE) system. In vivo gut permeability, colonic serotonin levels, cytokine profiles, and spleen cell populations were then measured as readouts of a low-grade inflammation. In addition, since there is increasing evidence that gut microbiota tightly regulates gut barrier function, tight junction proteins were also measured by qRT-PCR after administration of recombinant L. lactis in DNBS-treated mice. Strikingly, oral administration of L. lactis secreting active IL-10 in mice resulted in significant protective effects in terms of permeability, immune activation, and gut-function parameters. Although genetically engineered bacteria are, for now, used only as a "proof-of-concept," our study validates the interest in the use of the novel SICE system in L. lactis to express therapeutic molecules, such as IL-10, locally at mucosal surfaces. PMID:24732667

Martín, Rebeca; Martín, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane M; Natividad, Jane M; Sokol, Harry; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; Verdu, Elena F; Langella, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

2014-06-01

353

Early lymphoid lesions: conceptual, diagnostic and clinical challenges.  

PubMed

There are no "benign lymphomas", a fact due to the nature of lymphoid cells to circulate and home as part of their normal function. Thus, benign clonal expansions of lymphocytes are only rarely recognized when localized. Recent studies have identified a number of lymphoid proliferations that lie at the interface between benign and malignant. Some of these are clonal proliferations that carry many of the molecular hallmarks of their malignant counterparts, such as BCL2/IGH and CCND1/IGH translocations associated with the in situ forms of follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. There are other clonal B-cell proliferations with low risk of progression; these include the pediatric variants of follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Historically, early or incipient forms of T/NK-cell neoplasia also have been identified, such as lymphomatoid papulosis and refractory celiac disease. More recently an indolent form of T-cell lymphoproliferative disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract has been described. Usually, CD8(+), the clonal cells are confined to the mucosa. The clinical course is chronic, but non-progressive. NK-cell enteropathy is a clinically similar condition, composed of cytologically atypical NK-cells that may involve the stomach, small bowel or colon. Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a cytologically alarming lesion that is self-limited if confined to the seroma cavity. Atypical lymphoid proliferations that lie at the border of benign and malignant can serve as instructive models of lymphomagenesis. It is also critical that they be correctly diagnosed to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful therapy. PMID:25176983

Ganapathi, Karthik A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Odejide, Oreofe O; Freedman, Arnold S; Jaffe, Elaine S

2014-09-01

354

Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

1987-12-01

355

Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells  

SciTech Connect

The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

1987-05-01

356

Transcription factors controlling development and function of innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphocytes, which play an important role in tissue homeostasis at epithelial surfaces. They are scarce in spleen and lymph nodes, but substantial numbers can be found in the intestinal mucosa even at steady state. There, they represent the first line of defence against invading pathogens and contribute to lymphorganogenesis, tissue repair and, when inappropriately activated, immune pathology. Lineage-specific development, function and maintenance of these cells depend on a restricted set of transcription factors that partially emerged as a result of diversification and selection during vertebrate evolution. The differential expression of transcription factors regulates unique developmental programs, which endow the different ILC subsets with specific effector functions. Despite this division of labour, ILCs are considered to share a common origin, as they all are progeny of the common lymphoid progenitor, rely on the common ?-chain (?c) used by various cytokine receptors and show a developmental requirement for the transcriptional regulator Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2). Here, we review the transcriptional programs required for the development and function of ILCs and give an overview of the evolution of transcription factors and cytokines expressed by ILCs. PMID:24585669

Tanriver, Yakup; Diefenbach, Andreas

2014-03-01

357

Staying innate: transcription factor maintenance of innate lymphoid cell identity.  

PubMed

Innate and adaptive lymphocytes are characterized by phenotypic and functional characteristics that result from genomic rearrangements (in the case of antigen-specific B and T cells) coupled with selective gene expression patterns that are generated in a context-dependent fashion. Cell-intrinsic expression of transcription factors (TFs) play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression that establish the distinct lymphoid subsets but also have been proposed to play an ongoing role in the maintenance of lineage-associated transcriptional signatures that comprise lymphocyte identity. This is the case for CD19(+) B cells that require Pax5 expression throughout their lifespan, as well as for diverse T-helper subsets that have specialized immune functions. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprise diverse effectors cells that differentiate under TF control and have critical roles in the early stages of immune responses. In this review, ILC development is reviewed and the requirement for persistent TF expression in the maintenance of transcriptional signatures that define ILC identity is explored. PMID:25123284

Di Santo, James P

2014-09-01

358

HMGB1: The Central Cytokine for All Lymphoid Cells  

PubMed Central

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a leaderless cytokine, like the IL-1 and FGF family members, that has primary roles within the nucleus and the cytosol. Within the nucleus, it serves as another guardian of the genome, protecting it from oxidant injury and promoting access to transcriptional complexes such as nuclear hormone/nuclear hormone receptors and p53/p73 complexes. Within the cytosol it promotes autophagy and recruitment of the myddosome to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 vesicular compartments. Outside of the cell, it can either bind to specific receptors itself, or with high affinity to DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1?, lipopolysaccharide, and lipoteichoic acid to mediate responses in specific physiological or pathological conditions. Currently identified receptors include TLR2, TLR4, the receptor for advanced glycation end products, CD24-Siglec G/10, chemokine CXC receptor 4, and TIM-3. In terms of its effects or functions within lymphoid cells, HMGB1 is principally secreted from mature dendritic cells (DCs) to promote T-cell and B-cell reactivity and expansion and from activated natural killer cells to promote DC maturation during the afferent immune response. Some studies suggest that its primary role in the setting of chronic inflammation is to promote immunosuppression. As such, HMGB1 is a central cytokine for all lymphoid cells playing a role complementary to its better studied role in myeloid cells. PMID:23519706

Li, Guanqiao; Liang, Xiaoyan; Lotze, Michael T.

2013-01-01

359

Immune Responses Elicited in Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues Display Distinctive Features  

PubMed Central

During chronic inflammation, immune effectors progressively organize themselves into a functional tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) within the targeted organ. TLT has been observed in a wide range of chronic inflammatory conditions but its pathophysiological significance remains unknown. We used the rat aortic interposition model in which a TLT has been evidenced in the adventitia of chronically rejected allografts one month after transplantation. The immune responses elicited in adventitial TLT and those taking place in spleen and draining lymph nodes (LN) were compared in terms of antibody production, T cell activation and repertoire perturbations. The anti-MHC humoral response was more intense and more diverse in TLT. This difference was associated with an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells and a symmetric reduction of regulatory T cell subsets. Moreover, TCR repertoire perturbations in TLT were not only increased and different from the common pattern observed in spleen and LN but also “stochastic,” since each recipient displayed a specific pattern. We propose that the abnormal activation of CD4+ T cells promotes the development of an exaggerated pathogenic immune humoral response in TLT. Preliminary findings suggest that this phenomenon i) is due to a defective immune regulation in this non-professional inflammatory-induced lymphoid tissue, and ii) also occurs in human chronically rejected grafts. PMID:20613979

Thaunat, Olivier; Graff-Dubois, Stephanie; Brouard, Sophie; Gautreau, Chantal; Varthaman, Aditi; Fabien, Nicole; Field, Anne-Christine; Louedec, Liliane; Dai, Jianping; Joly, Etienne; Morelon, Emmanuel; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino

2010-01-01

360

Immune responses elicited in tertiary lymphoid tissues display distinctive features.  

PubMed

During chronic inflammation, immune effectors progressively organize themselves into a functional tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) within the targeted organ. TLT has been observed in a wide range of chronic inflammatory conditions but its pathophysiological significance remains unknown. We used the rat aortic interposition model in which a TLT has been evidenced in the adventitia of chronically rejected allografts one month after transplantation. The immune responses elicited in adventitial TLT and those taking place in spleen and draining lymph nodes (LN) were compared in terms of antibody production, T cell activation and repertoire perturbations. The anti-MHC humoral response was more intense and more diverse in TLT. This difference was associated with an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells and a symmetric reduction of regulatory T cell subsets. Moreover, TCR repertoire perturbations in TLT were not only increased and different from the common pattern observed in spleen and LN but also "stochastic," since each recipient displayed a specific pattern. We propose that the abnormal activation of CD4+ T cells promotes the development of an exaggerated pathogenic immune humoral response in TLT. Preliminary findings suggest that this phenomenon i) is due to a defective immune regulation in this non-professional inflammatory-induced lymphoid tissue, and ii) also occurs in human chronically rejected grafts. PMID:20613979

Thaunat, Olivier; Graff-Dubois, Stéphanie; Brouard, Sophie; Gautreau, Chantal; Varthaman, Aditi; Fabien, Nicole; Field, Anne-Christine; Louedec, Liliane; Dai, Jianping; Joly, Etienne; Morelon, Emmanuel; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino

2010-01-01

361

IL-17-producing ?? T cells and innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

The inflammatory cytokine IL-17 plays a critical role in immunity to infection and is involved in the inflammatory pathology associated with certain autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. While CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are important sources of this cytokine, recent evidence has suggested that ?? T cells and a number of families of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can secrete IL-17 and related cytokines. The production of IL-17 by ?? T cells appears to be largely independent of T-cell receptor activation and is promoted through cytokine signalling, in particular by IL-23 in combination with IL-1? or IL-18. Therefore IL-17-secreting ?? T cells can be categorised as a family of cells similar to innate-like lymphoid cells. IL-17-secreting ?? T cells function as a part of mucosal defence against infection, with most studies to date focusing on their response to bacterial pathogens. ?? T cells also play a pathological role in certain autoimmune diseases, where they provide an early source of IL-17 and IL-21, which initiate responses mediated by conventional IL-17-secreting CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells). ILCs lack an antigen receptor or other lineage markers, and ILC subsets that express the transcriptional factor ROR?t have been found to secrete IL-17. Evidence is emerging that these newly recognised sources of IL-17 play both pathological and protective roles in inflammatory diseases as discussed in this article. PMID:22949320

Sutton, Caroline E; Mielke, Lisa A; Mills, Kingston H G

2012-09-01

362

Disease-specific mutations in mature lymphoid neoplasms: recent advances.  

PubMed

Mature lymphoid neoplasms (MLN) are clinically and pathologically more complex than precursor lymphoid neoplasms. Until recently, molecular characterization of MLN was mainly based on cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization, allele copy number, and mRNA expression, approaches that yielded scanty gene mutation information. Use of massive parallel sequencing technologies has changed this outcome, and now many gene mutations have been discovered. Some of these are considerably frequent in, and substantially specific to, distinct MLN subtypes, and occur at single or several hotspots. They include the V600E BRAF mutation in hairy cell leukemia, the L265P MYD88 mutation in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, the G17V RHOA mutation in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and the Y640F//D661Y/V/H/I//N647I STAT3 mutations in T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Detecting these mutations is highly valuable in diagnosing MLN subtypes. Defining these mutations also sheds light on the molecular pathogenesis of MLN, furthering development of molecular targeting therapies. In this review, we focus on the disease-specific gene mutations in MLN discovered by recent massive sequencing technologies. PMID:24689848

Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Enami, Terukazu; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Shigeru

2014-06-01

363

Peyer's patches export lymphocytes throughout the lymphoid system in sheep.  

PubMed

The lymphocyte output from small intestine containing either the long continuous ileal Peyer's patch (PP) or several smaller jejunal PP was examined in young lambs. Most studies were done in 2-mo-old lambs, 1 mo after removal of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Extracorporeal perfusion of part of the intestine and addition of fluorescein isothiocyanate to the perfusate led to the labeling, in their normal microenvironment, of a regionally defined population of cells. One day later considerable numbers of emigrant lymphocytes were identified by fluorescence microscopy in the spleen, MLN and peripheral lymph nodes, jejunal PP, and bone marrow. In nonperfused ileal PP and thymus the labeling indexes were low. The highest labeling index was in the blood where 3.7% of the lymphocytes were labeled. A similar organ distribution of emigrant cells was found on day 3. When MLN were included in the perfused region more emigrants were identified. In some animals the intestinal lymphatic draining the perfused ileum was cannulated. Continual lymph drainage caused a dramatic decrease in the labeling indexes in other lymphoid organs. A substantial number of lymphocytes leave both ileal PP and jejunal PP via lymphatics and travel to all other lymphoid organs. However, the number of emigrant lymphocytes compared with the total number of labeled lymphocytes in the perfused tissue was about 10 times greater after perfusing gut with the jejunal PP than after ileal PP perfusion. We conclude that relatively more lymphocytes emigrate from the jejunal PP than from the ileal PP. PMID:3693898

Pabst, R; Reynolds, J D

1987-12-15

364

Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy.

Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

1981-10-01

365

Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweek mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy.

Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

1981-10-22

366

Radiation therapy of conjunctival and orbital lymphoid tumors  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid tumors of the conjuctiva and orbit are rare and remain localized in the majority of cases. Sometimes it is not possible either clinically or histologically to differentiate between a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and benign lymphoid hyperplasia. A series of 24 patients is reported. Nineteen were classified as having malignant NHL and 5 benign hyperplasia; 1 of these 5 later developed metastases, however. All patients had systemic work-up: 18 had Stage I, 1 had Stage II, and 5 had Stage IV disease. All patients received local radiation therapy with doses of 2400 to 2750 rad in 2-3 weeks for lesions of the eyelid and conjunctiva, and between 3000 and 3750 rad in 3-4 weeks for retrobulbar lesions. A method of shielding the lens with a lead block mounted on a low vac lens is described, and the dose distribution within the eye and orbit is presented. Patients who were treated with doses higher than 3000 rad experienced conjunctivitis and skin erythema that resolved completely. No other effects of radiation on normal structures of the ocular adnexa were observed in the 20 patients who are alive and without signs of tumor 10-46 months with a median follow-up time of 22 months.

Jereb, B.; Lee, H.; Jakobiec, F.A.; Kutcher, J.

1984-07-01

367

Complementation analysis in lymphoid cells from five patients with different forms of maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of genetic heterogeneity in maple syrup urine discase was investigated by measuring branchedchain ketoacid dehydrogenase in polyethylene glycol-induced heterokaryons of lymphoid cells. The lymphoid cell lines from five patients with varying forms of the disease were establisjed after incubation with Epstein-Barr virus. The results suggested that there are at least two genetic complementation groups in the disease.

Y. Jinno; I. Akaboshi; I. Matsuda

1984-01-01

368

Prolonged Lymphopenia, Lymphoid Depletion, and Hypoprolactinemia in Children with Nosocomial Sepsis and Multiple Organ Failure1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphopenia and lymphoid depletion occur in adults dying of sepsis. Prolactin increases Bcl-2 expression, suppresses stress- induced lymphocyte apoptosis, and improves survival from experimental sepsis. We hypothesized that prolonged lymphopenia, lymphoid depletion, and hypoprolactinemia occur in children dying with sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). Fifty-eight critically ill children with and 55 without MOF admitted to a university hospital pediatric

Kate A. Felmet; Mark W. Hall; Robert S. B. Clark; Ronald Jaffe; Joseph A. Carcillo

369

Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: Colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiographic pattern of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological

Stephen R. Ell; Paul H. Frank

1981-01-01

370

Drugs with antihistaminic properties as a cause of atypical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although an association between antihistaminic drugs and atypical cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates has not been reported previously, in vitro evidence suggests that these agents perturb certain lymphoid functions through binding to histamine receptors, including a novel growth-promoting intracellular histamine receptor, designated HIC.Objective: We studied the clinical findings and histopathologic findings in 14 patients taking antihistaminic drugs in whom atypical cutaneous

C. M Magro; A. N Crowson

1995-01-01

371

Characterisation of mucosal lymphoid aggregates in ulcerative colitis: immune cell phenotype and TcR-?? expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMSA histopathological feature considered indicative of ulcerative colitis (UC) is the so-called basal lymphoid aggregates. Their relevance in the pathogenesis of UC is, however, unknown. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the immune cells in these aggregates most likely corresponding to the lymphoid follicular hyperplasia also described in other colitides.METHODSResection specimens of UC and normal colon were

M M-W Yeung; S Melgar; V Baranov; ? Öberg; ? Danielsson; S Hammarström; M-L Hammarström

2000-01-01

372

The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier. PMID:24569801

Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

2014-05-01

373

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases, including histopathologic relationship with sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma in a subset of cases.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon tumor with diverse histopathologic features. It has been found to be histopathologically and genetically related to hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes. Lately, sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) has been identified as another rare variant of fibrosarcoma. Very few studies have addressed the aspect of its histopathologic relationship with LGFMS. The present study was conducted to critically analyze the clinicopathologic features of a series of LGFMS cases, including identification of cases with histopathologic similarity with SEF. During a 7-year period, 18 LGFMS cases were diagnosed in 9 male and 9 female patients, had ages ranging from 10 to 69 years (median, 32.5 years), and were most commonly identified in the lower extremities (8 cases, or 44.4%). Most cases (16, 88.8%) showed "classic" features of LGFMS with mild (13 cases, or 72.2%) to moderate atypia (5 cases) and nil mitosis (12 cases, or 66.6 %). Variable features included whorling tumor growth pattern, small rosettes, perivascular hyalinization, and amianthoid-like collagen, along with epithelioid differentiation and nuclear pseudoinclusions within tumor cells. Four cases (22.2%) with large collagenous rosettes were diagnosed as hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes. Distinct SEF-like areas were observed in 6 cases (33.3%). On immunohistochemistry, consistent vimentin positively reinforced fibroblastic lineage of the tumor. Therapeutically, all 4 of 7 cases with available follow-up details, which underwent wide excisions, have been free of disease at 5 to 61 months. Eight excisions with unclear margins included 3 cases free of disease (24, 36, and 52 months) and 1 case with recurrence and metastasis. Two cases of marginal excision had tumor recurrences, including 1 case that recurred after 10 years. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is an uncommon sarcoma with diverse histopathologic features. Histopathologic relationship exists between LGFMS and SEF in a few cases. An LGFMS is optimally managed with surgical wide excision and follow-up. PMID:21550274

Rekhi, Bharat; Deshmukh, Mahesh; Jambhekar, Nirmala A

2011-10-01

374

Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: a recently described entity of low-grade malignant cutaneous B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Recently a new classification of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCLs) has been proposed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)--Cutaneous Lymphoma Project Group. The marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZLs) were not included as a distinct entity because of insufficient experience and controversial opinions. We have studied 32 patients (M:F ratio 1.5:1; age range 25-93 years; mean age 49.6 years; median age 50 years) to determine the diagnostic criteria of primary cutaneous MZL and the relationship with other low-grade malignant PCBCLs. For comparison, three patients with immunocytoma were included in the study. Clinically, patients presented with solitary or clustered reddish or red-brown papules, nodules, and plaques, sometimes surrounded by an erythematous halo. Histopathologic sections showed nodular or diffuse infiltrates involving the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Cytomorphologically small to medium-sized cells with indented nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm (marginal zone cells, centrocyte-like cells) predominated. In addition, scattered blasts, lymphoplasmacytoid cells, and plasma cells were observed below the epidermis and at the periphery of the infiltrates. Reactive germinal centers were present in 75% of the cases. The three cases of immunocytoma showed a more monomorphous pattern with predominance of lymphoplasmacytoid cells. The marginal zone cells showed a CD20+, CD79a+, CD5- and Bcl-2+ immunophenotype. They expressed immunoglobulin G in the majority of the cases. Staining with the monocytoid B cell-related antibody KiM1p gave positive results in all specimens with a typical intracytoplasmic granular pattern. A monoclonal distribution of immunoglobulin light chains was observed in marginal zone cells in 75% of the cases. Germinal centers, when present, were either polyclonal or negative for both kappa and lambda light chains. Monoclonal rearrangement of the JH gene was detected via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 18 of 26 investigated specimens. Analysis in 12 patients of the bcl-2/immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement using PCR yielded negative results. Lesions were treated by surgical excision followed in some patients by local radiotherapy. Systemic antibiotic therapy was administered to three patients, with good response in two. The prognosis is excellent. After a mean follow-up of 47.9 months (range 6-252; median 24) all patients are alive without signs of systemic lymphoma. Primary cutaneous MZL represents a distinct clinicopathologic subtype of low-grade malignant PCBCL. PMID:9351568

Cerroni, L; Signoretti, S; Höfler, G; Annessi, G; Pütz, B; Lackinger, E; Metze, D; Giannetti, A; Kerl, H

1997-11-01

375

In Vitro and In Vivo Infectivity and Pathogenicity of the Lymphoid Cell-Derived Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and human hepatitis B virus are closely related, highly hepatotropic mammalian DNA viruses that also replicate in the lymphatic system. The infectivity and pathogenicity of hepadnaviruses propagating in lymphoid cells are under debate. In this study, hepato- and lymphotropism of WHV produced by naturally infected lymphoid cells was examined in specifically established woodchuck hepatocyte and lymphoid

YUAN-YEE LEW; TOMASZ I. MICHALAK

2001-01-01

376

Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojevi? Šoštari? et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pami? et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the main body of the Alpine orogen exposed north of the E-trending Periadriatic fault. In previous interpretations, the eastern Southalpine unit was considered to differ in many respects from Alpine units north of the Periadriatic fault including (1) no Alpine metamorphic overprint and, therefore, (2) also no Alpine ductile deformation in contrast to amphibolite- and even eclogite- grade metamorphism (ca. 100 - 85 Ma) in Austroalpine units north of the fault, and by (3) S- to SW-, Adria-directed vergency of the deformation of mostly Eocene to Neogene age in contrast to all units basically directed to the north and northwest, towards the stable European plate. The Southalpine unit is considered as back-thrust of the Middle-Late Eocene plate collision between Stable Europe and the Alpine thrust wedge (Doglioni & Bosellini, 1987). The new data from the eastern part of the Southalpine unit challenge this view and imply a steadily but slowly growing Adria-directed thrust wedge between Maastrichtian and Early Eocene times. Acknowledement: The work has been supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project no. 22,110). References Borojevi? Šoštari?, S. Neubauer, F., Handler, R., Palinkaš, L. A., 2012. Variscan vs. Alpine tectonothermal events in NW-Dinarides: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geologica Carpathica, 63, 441-452. Doglioni, C., Bosellini, A., 1987. Eoalpine and mesoalpine tectonics in the Southern Alps. Geologische Rundschaus, 76, 735-754. Feijth, J., 2002. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonometamorphic development and geochronology of the Orobic chain (Southern Alps, Lombardy, Italy). PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Berlin, 136 p. Ili?, A., Neubauer, F., Handler, R. (submitted). Formation of a structural dome due to transpression: The Lim unit in Central Dinarides. Journal of Structural Geology. Läufer, A.L., Frisch, W., Steinitz, G., Loeschke, J., 1997. Exhumed fault-bounded Alpine blocks along the Periadriatic lineament: the Eder unit (Carnic Alps, Austria). Geologische Rundschau, 86, 612-626. P

Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

2014-05-01

377

Where are we now? And where are we going? A report from the Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure (ABC2) low-grade glioma research workshop.  

PubMed

Diffuse gliomas consist of both low- and high-grade varieties, each with distinct morphological and biological features. The often extended periods of relative indolence exhibited by low-grade gliomas (LGG; WHO grade II) differ sharply from the aggressive, rapidly fatal clinical course of primary glioblastoma (GBM; WHO grade IV). Nevertheless, until recently, the molecular foundations underlying this stark biological contrast between glioma variants remained largely unknown. The discoveries of distinctive and highly recurrent genomic and epigenomic abnormalities in LGG have both informed a more accurate classification scheme and pointed to viable avenues for therapeutic development. As such, the field of neuro-oncology now seems poised to capitalize on these gains to achieve significant benefit for LGG patients. This report will briefly recount the proceedings of a workshop held in January 2013 and hosted by Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure (ABC(2)) on the subject of LGG. While much of the meeting covered recent insights into LGG biology, its focus remained on how best to advance the clinical management, whether by improved preclinical modeling, more effective targeted therapeutics and clinical trial design, or innovative imaging technology. PMID:24305708

Huse, Jason T; Wallace, Max; Aldape, Kenneth D; Berger, Mitchel S; Bettegowda, Chetan; Brat, Daniel J; Cahill, Daniel P; Cloughesy, Timothy; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Marra, Marco; Miller, C Ryan; Nelson, Sarah J; Salama, Sofie R; Soffietti, Riccardo; Wen, Patrick Y; Yip, Stephen; Yen, Katharine; Costello, Joseph F; Chang, Susan

2014-01-01

378

Response assessment in neuro-oncology (a report of the RANO group): assessment of outcome in trials of diffuse low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Although low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a less aggressive course than do high-grade gliomas, the outcome of these tumours is ultimately fatal in most patients. Both the tumour and its treatment can cause disabling morbidity, particularly of cognitive functions. Because many patients present with seizures only, with no other signs and symptoms, maintenance of quality of life and function constitutes a particular challenge in LGG. The slow growth pattern of most LGG, and the rare radiological true responses despite a favourable clinical response to treatment, interferes with the use of progression-free survival as the primary endpoint in trials. Overall survival as an endpoint brings logistical challenges, and is sensitive to other non-investigational salvage therapies. Clinical trials for LGG need to consider other measures of patient benefit such as cognition, symptom burden, and seizure activity, to establish whether improved survival is reflected in prolonged wellbeing. This Review investigates clinical and imaging endpoints in trials of LGG, and provides response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) criteria for non-enhancing tumours. Additionally, other measures for patients with brain tumours that assess outcome are described. Similar considerations are relevant for trials of high-grade gliomas, although for these tumours survival is shorter and survival endpoints generally have more value than they do for LGG. PMID:21474379

van den Bent, M J; Wefel, J S; Schiff, D; Taphoorn, M J B; Jaeckle, K; Junck, L; Armstrong, T; Choucair, A; Waldman, A D; Gorlia, T; Chamberlain, M; Baumert, B G; Vogelbaum, M A; Macdonald, D R; Reardon, D A; Wen, P Y; Chang, S M; Jacobs, A H

2011-06-01

379

An evaluation of the morphologic features of low-grade mucinous neoplasms of the appendix metastatic in the ovary, and comparison with primary ovarian mucinous tumors.  

PubMed

It may be difficult to distinguish ovarian involvement by a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) from a primary gastrointestinal-type primary borderline (proliferative) ovarian tumor (IBMT) or an ovarian mucinous tumor arising within a teratoma, particularly when the latter is associated with mucinous ascites/pseudomyxoma peritonei. We noted that LAMNs involving the ovaries show 2 distinctive histologic features, "scalloped" glands and subepthelial stromal clefts, whereas IBMTs more often are associated with reactive cellular stroma and histiocyte aggregates (mucin granulomas). The frequency of these features was investigated in 18 LAMNs (16 with pseudomyxoma peritonei), 18 primary IBMTs, and 6 teratoma-associated mucinous tumors (selected on the basis of associated pseudomyxoma peritonei). Scalloped glands and subepithelial clefts were identified in 17 and 16 LAMNs, respectively, and in 3 and 7 IBMTs, respectively. Conversely, reactive stroma and histiocyte aggregates were present in 2 and 0 LAMNs, respectively, and in 11 and 10 IBMTs, respectively. LAMNs were often bilateral (12/18 cases) and they more frequently showed mucin dissection of the ovarian stroma and tall mucin-rich (hypermucinous) epithelial cells compared with IBMTs. Our findings suggest that scalloped glands, subepithelial clefts, cellular stroma, and histiocyte aggregates may be useful additional morphologic parameters to help distinguish these tumor types. However, teratoma-associated mucinous neoplasms can show identical histologic features to those of LAMNs involving the ovary, and therefore accurate diagnosis of such cases requires careful macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the ovaries together with complete histologic assessment of the appendix. PMID:24300528

Stewart, Colin J R; Ardakani, Nima M; Doherty, Dorota A; Young, Robert H

2014-01-01

380

Randomized trial on the efficacy of radiotherapy for cerebral low-grade glioma in the adult: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Study 22845 with the Medical Research Council study BRO4: an interim analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: There is no consensus on the treatment strategy for adult patients with cerebral low-grade glioma. The diagnosis and primary treatment are usually undertaken by surgery. Some investigators doubt the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), whereas others advise routine postoperative RT. We report the primary results of a multicenter randomized trial on this controversy.Methods and Materials: From 24 European centers,

Abul B. M. F Karim; Denes Afra; Philippe Cornu; Norman Bleehan; Simon Schraub; Olivier De Witte; François Darcel; Sally Stenning; Marianne Pierart; Martine Van Glabbeke

2002-01-01