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1

Immunoglobulin specificity of low grade B cell gastrointestinal lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of the tumor cell immunoglobulin in three cases of low grade B cell gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been studied. Using anti-idiotypic antibodies to detect the reactivity of tumor immunoglobulin in tissue sections from the patients and other individuals, we observed specificity for normal tissue components in all three cases studied. Reactivity in one case was with follicular dendritic cells, in the second case with a novel antigen on mucosal post capillary venules, and, in the third case, a broad pattern of reactivity was observed. This study suggests that autoimmunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric lymphoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8424461

Hussell, T.; Isaacson, P. G.; Crabtree, J. E.; Dogan, A.; Spencer, J.

1993-01-01

2

Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 97 patients by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim was to examine characteristics and treatment results of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Patients and methods: Epidemiological and clinical features of 97 patients with MALT lymphoma from the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group registry were analysed retrospectively for their prognostic significance in progression- free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Comparisons were made between patients

G. Papaxoinis; G. Fountzilas; D. Rontogianni; M. A. Dimopoulos; N. Pavlidis; C. Tsatalas; D. Pectasides; N. Xiros; T. Economopoulos

2008-01-01

3

A novel gene, MALT1 at 18q21, is involved in t(11;18) (q21;q21) found in low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The t(11;18) (q21;q21) translocation is a characteristic chromosomal aberration in low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. We previously identified a YAC clone y789F3, which includes the breakpoint at 18q21 in a MALT lymphoma patient. BAC and PAC contigs were constructed on the YAC, and BAC 193f9 was found to encompass the breakpoint region. In the present study,

Tomoaki Akagi; Mutsuhito Motegi; Akiko Tamura; Ritsuro Suzuki; Yoshitaka Hosokawa; Hiroko Suzuki; Hiroyoshi Ota; Shigeo Nakamura; Yasuo Morishima; Masafumi Taniwaki; Masao Seto; M Seto

1999-01-01

4

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) remains undefined. We began a controlled\\u000a clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the most common therapies. Two hundred and forty-one patients with gastric\\u000a low-grade MALT lymphoma in early stage (IE and IIE) were randomized to surgery (80 cases), radiotherapy (78 cases), and chemotherapy\\u000a (83 cases). With a

Agustin Avilés; María Jesús Nambo; Natividad Neri; Alejandra Talavera; Sergio Cleto

2005-01-01

5

Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A

1996-07-01

6

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy  

PubMed Central

Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

2014-01-01

7

Management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type represent 7-8% of all B cell lymphomas and up to 50% of primary gastric lymphomas and can arise at any extranodal site. The most common manifestation is the stomach, which is almost invariably associated with a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. The diagnosis is based on the histopathological evaluation of multiple gastric biopsies in accordance with the current WHO classification. The mainstay of therapy is H. pylori eradication, which must be delivered to all gastric MALT lymphoma patients, independent of stage. In patients who do not achieve lymphoma regression following antibiotic therapy, irradiation and/or systemic oncological therapies should be applied, depending on the stage of the disease. Radiotherapy might be the preferred option for localized stage. However, in the presence of disseminated or advanced disease, chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy with the anti-CD 20 antibody rituximab is the treatment of choice, but no standard chemotherapy has been defined so far. Gastric MALT lymphomas have a limited tendency to distant spreading and to histological transformation and thus MALT lymphoma usually has a favorable outcome, with an overall survival rate at 5 years of more than 85%. PMID:25531492

Neumeister, Peter; Troppan, Katharina; Raderer, Markus

2015-01-01

8

The Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess radiotherapy for patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with respect to survival, treatment response, and complications. Materials and Methods Enrolled into this study were 48 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma from January 2000 to September 2012. Forty-one patients had low grade and seven had mixed component with high grade. Helicobacter pylori eradication was performed in 33 patients. Thirty-four patients received radiotherapy alone. Ten patients received chemotherapy before radiotherapy, and three patients underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One patient received surgery followed by radiotherapy. All patients received radiotherapy of median dose of 30.6 Gy. Results The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 158 months (median, 48 months). Five-year overall survival and cause-specific survival rates were 90.3% and 100%. All patients treated with radiotherapy alone achieved pathologic complete remission (pCR) in 31 of the low-grade and in three of the mixed-grade patients. All patients treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery prior to radiotherapy achieved pCR except one patient who received chemotherapy before radiotherapy. During the follow-up period, three patients developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the stomach, and one developed gastric adenocarcinoma after radiotherapy. No grade 3 or higher acute or late complications developed. One patient, who initially exhibited gastroptosis, developed mild atrophy of left kidney. Conclusion These findings indicate that a modest dose of radiotherapy alone can achieve a high cure rate for low-grade and even mixed-grade gastric MALT lymphoma without serious toxicity. Patients should be carefully observed after radiotherapy to screen for secondary malignancies. PMID:24520221

Nam, Taek-Keun; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Kim, Yong-Hyeob; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ja

2014-01-01

9

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach: results of a controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) remains undefined. We began a controlled clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the most common therapies. Two hundred and forty-one patients with gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma in early stage (IE and IIE) were randomized to surgery (80 cases), radiotherapy (78 cases), and chemotherapy (83 cases). With a median follow-up of 7.5 yr, actuarial curves at 10 yr showed that event-free survival was 52% in patients treated with surgery, 52% in radiotherapy arm, and 87% in the chemotherapy group (p < 0.01). However, overall survival did not showed any statistical differences: 80%, 75% and 87%, respectively (p = 0.4). Acute and late toxicities were mild. No death-related treatments were observed. No clear differences were observed between the most common therapies in patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma in early stages, probably because this type of lymphoma has an high response rate to salvage treatment after failure to local treatment (surgery and radiotherapy). Thus considered, chemotherapy alone is an effective and safe therapeutic approach in this setting of patients. Surgery or radiotherapy will be reserved to patients that are not candidates for chemotherapy. PMID:15750197

Avilés, Agustin; Nambo, María Jesús; Neri, Natividad; Talavera, Alejandra; Cleto, Sergio

2005-01-01

10

A case of conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Ocular adnexal lymphoma may involve the eyelids, conjunctiva, orbital tissue, or lacrimal structures. The majority are non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma type. Follicular lymphomas represent a small percentage of ocular adnexa lymphomas, particularly in Japan. We report a 68-year-old female patient who presented with a salmon pink patch-like lesion of the left conjunctiva, suspected of being (MALT) lymphoma. However, histologic and immunohistologic examinations were consistent with follicular lymphoma. This case demonstrates the importance of considering such rare lymphomas when making a diagnosis of ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(1): 49-52, 2013]. PMID:23801133

Abd Al-Kader, Lamia; Sato, Yasuharu; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Ohshima, Koh-Ichi; Sogabe, Yuka; Fujii, Kazuhiro; Iwaki, Noriko; Yoshino, Tadashi

2013-01-01

11

Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an indolent extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, originating in acquired MALT that is induced in mucosal barriers as part of a normal adaptive immune response to a chronic immunoinflammatory stimulus, most notably chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This antigenic stimulation initially leads to lymphoid hyperplasia; the acquisition of additional genetic aberrations culminates in the activation of intracellular survival pathways, with disease progression due to proliferation and resistance to apoptosis, and the emergence of a malignant clone. There are descriptions of MALT lymphomas affecting practically every organ and system, with a marked geographic variability partially attributable to the epidemiology of the underlying risk factors; nevertheless, the digestive system (and predominantly the stomach) is the most frequently involved location, reflecting the gastrointestinal tract’s unique characteristics of contact with foreign antigens, high mucosal permeability, large extension and intrinsic lymphoid system. While early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma can frequently regress after the therapeutic reversal of the chronic immune stimulus through antibiotic eradication of H. pylori infection, the presence of immortalizing genetic abnormalities, of advanced disease or of eradication-refractoriness requires a more aggressive approach which is, presently, not consensual. The fact that MALT lymphomas are rare neoplasms, with a worldwide incidence of 1-1.5 cases per 105 population, per year, limits the ease of accrual of representative series of patients for robust clinical trials that could sustain informed evidence-based therapeutic decisions to optimize the quality of patient care. PMID:24574742

Pereira, Marta-Isabel; Medeiros, José Augusto

2014-01-01

12

Synchronous Adenocarcinoma and Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Colon  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) tumors are a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Synchronous appearance of adenocarcinoma and colonic MALT lymphoma in the same patient is quite rare. In the present report, we describe a 68-year-old female who presented with a history of bleeding per rectum. She had no history of fever, loss of weight or drenching night sweats. Rectal examination revealed no abnormality. Colonoscopy showed a large ulceroproliferative mass arising from the hepatic flexure, biopsy of which came out to be adenocarcinoma of colon. A right hemicolectomy was performed and microscopic study revealed the tumor type to be synchronous adenocarcinoma with lymphoma. The final diagnosis of this patient turned out to be a synchronous manifestation of both colonic adenocarcinoma and colonic MALT lymphoma. Although the patient remains asymptomatic two years after surgery, the case highlights the therapeutic dilemma that prevails in the definitive management in such scenarios. PMID:21196657

Devi, Padmalaya; Pattanayak, Lucy; Samantaray, Sagarika

2011-01-01

13

Simultaneous Occurrence of Early Gastric Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Omentum  

PubMed Central

The simultaneous association of gastric carcinoma with omental mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare event that has not been reported previously. We focused on the hypothetic pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. A 55-year-old woman with Helicobacter pylori infection underwent distal gastrectomy in our hospital. Three independent early gastric cancers and a mass near the cecum were diagnosed preoperatively. Pathological review of the resected stomach showed three independent early signet ring cell gastric carcinomas, and the mass in the omentum near the cecum was shown to be omental MALT lymphoma. Due to the nature of the patient's disease, she was started on medical eradication of H. pylori. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and omental MALT lymphoma is a rare event. Special attention given to H. pylori-associated gastric cancer patients can avoid misdiagnosis and lead to adequate treatment. PMID:24803894

Murakami, Tomohiro; Shoji, Tuyoshi; Suzuki, Katsunori; Ishikawa, Shintaro; Maruo, Hirotoshi

2014-01-01

14

Sensitive detection of PrPCWD in rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue from preclinical white-tailed deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report summarizes the comparative diagnostic performance of postmortem rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) sampling in four white-tailed deer test populations: from Wisconsin, a sample of free-ranging deer and a captive herd; and from Saskatchewan, Canada, two captive herds. Th...

15

Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2011-12-01

16

Trisomy 3 in Low-Grade B-Cell Lymphomas of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

HARACTERISTIC chromosomal translocations with disregulation of specific oncogenes are associated with specific subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The t(8;14) and deregulation of the c-myc oncogene is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma,' t( 14;18) and rearrangements of the bcl-2 oncogene with centroblastic-centrocytic (follicle center cell) lymphoma,* and the t( 1 1 ; 14) involving the bcl- 1 (PRAD-lKCND1) oncogene with mantle cell

Andrew C. Wotherspoon; Teresa M. Finn

2006-01-01

17

Primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and hemangioma with chronic hepatitis B virus infection as an underlying condition.  

PubMed

Primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has a low incidence and is a rare subtype of hepatic malignant lymphoma. Described here is a rare case of primary hepatic MALT lymphoma and hepatic hemangioma with chronic HBV infection as an underlying condition. Possible treatment modalities, which should be selected in accordance with tumor size, tumor location, tumor number, and underlying liver disease, are discussed in conjunction with a review of the literature. In addition, the potential use of hepatic resection, radio frequency ablation (RFA), or radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy via the R-CHOP regimen is also discussed. PMID:25030854

Zhong, Yuesi; Wang, Xuehua; Deng, Meihai; Fang, Heping; Xu, Ruiyun

2014-06-01

18

Severe retinopathy following radiation therapy with a moderate dose for orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a radiosensitive malignancy. We report on a case of severe retinopathy following radiation therapy with a moderate dose for orbital MALT lymphoma. A 69-year-old woman with orbital MALT lymphoma received definitive radiation therapy with a total dose of 36 Gy in 18 fractions. The patient showed complete response but had severe retinopathy along with marked deterioration in visual acuity at 2 years after irradiation. Although the patient underwent treatments for retinopathy, including laser photocoagulation and steroid injection, improvement of the visual acuity was modest. This case developed severe radiation-induced retinopathy after radiation therapy with the moderate dose of 36 Gy that is considered to be usually safe. PMID:25471380

Hata, Masaharu; Kaneko, Akihiro; Tomita, Naoto; Inoue, Tomio

2014-12-01

19

Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 ?g/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 ?g/kg bw/day; E3: 1 ?g/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases. PMID:25655413

Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; ?lencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

2015-03-01

20

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the esophagus masquerading as a benign tumor  

PubMed Central

We report a case of primary esophageal low-grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type in a 50-year-old Saudi male patient who presented to our hospital with a history of dysphagia and heartburn for more than 2 years. Endoscopy showed a large esophageal mass with an intact mucosa located in the distal esophagus, 28 cm–35 cm from the incisor teeth. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a large well demarcated sub-epithelial lesion 4 cm in width and 10 cm in length arising from the muscularis mucosa with mixed echogenicity consistent with benign leiomyoma. Subsequently, the patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor; the histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal lymphoma. The tumor was considered to be completely resected and therefore additional treatment was not administered. The patient was doing well on follow up after treatment. Clinically and radiologically he did not reveal any signs of recurrence. Surgical resection is beneficial as a primary treatment option in incipient primary low grade MALT esophageal lymphomas. PMID:25568784

Bardisi, Ekhlas S.; Alghanmi, Najla; Merdad, Adnan A.

2014-01-01

21

Prevalence of Achromobacter xylosoxidans in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in different regions of Europe.  

PubMed

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) comprises 7-8% of B-cell lymphomas and commonly originates from a background of long-standing chronic inflammation. An association with distinct bacteria species has been confirmed for several anatomical sites of MALT lymphoma. For pulmonary MALT lymphoma, however, a clear link with an infectious agent or autoimmune disorder has not yet been reported. Using a 16S rRNA gene-based approach, we have recently identified Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans in eight of nine cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. A. xylosoxidans is a gram-negative betaproteobacterium with low virulence, but high resistance to antibiotic treatment. To further examine a potential association with A. xylosoxidans, 124 cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma and 82 control tissues from six European countries were analysed using a specific nested PCR. Although prevalence rates for A. xylosoxidans varied significantly from country to country, they were consistently higher for MALT lymphoma as compared to controls. Overall, 57/124 (46%) pulmonary MALT lymphomas and 15/82 (18%) control tissues were positive for A. xylosoxidans (P = 0·004). Whether the significant association of A. xylosoxidans with pulmonary MALT lymphoma demonstrated in our study points to a potential causal role in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma will require further studies. PMID:24372375

Adam, Patrick; Czapiewski, Piotr; Colak, Seba; Kosmidis, Perikles; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Boudova, Ludmila; Oko?, Krzysztof; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Du, Ming-Qing; Fend, Falko

2014-03-01

22

Genome Sequence and Annotation of Helicobacter pylori Strain Hp238, Isolated from a Taiwanese Patient with Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

We present the complete genome sequence of Helicobacter pylori strain Hp238, isolated from a Taiwanese patient with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Importantly, H. pylori strain Hp238 can multiply in THP-1 cells after internalization through the induction of autophagosome formation. These genome data will help to identify genes associated with H. pylori intracellular multiplication and pathogenesis. PMID:25700392

Kao, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Huang, Yi-Ting; Sheu, Shew-Meei; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

2015-01-01

23

Plasmablastic lymphoma following combination treatment with fludarabine and rituximab for nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon malignancy which predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Sporadic cases have been published describing PBL in immunocompetent patients as well as in immunodeficient patients following immunosuppressive therapy or transplantation. We hereby reported a case of PBL in a 69-year-old, HIV-negative male subjected to combination treatment with fludarabine and rituximab for nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The diagnosis of PBL was made with tumor cells of immunoblasts or plasmablasts morphology strongly positive for MUM-1, EMA and CD138, and partly positive for CD38, and negative for CD20, BCL-6, and CD56, and approximately 80% of which were positive for Ki-67. The case presented PBL after MALT, and a history of chemotherapy including fludarabine and rituximab led to the potential immunocompromised state. The patient died 5 months after the diagnosis of PBL. PMID:25120825

Wu, Jia-Zhu; Min, Ke; Fan, Lei; Wang, Li; Xu, Ji; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

2014-01-01

24

Value of multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphomas in the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to review the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging features of eight mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma cases of the parotid gland and to explore the diagnostic value of MDCT. A total of eight patients with pathologically confirmed MALT-lymphomas of the parotid gland underwent pre-operative MDCT plain and dual-phase scans. The changes in the CT values and enhancement patterns of the tumors were assessed. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine the CT value changes of the tumors in the various enhanced phases compared with the plain scan. The MALT-lymphomas of the parotid gland exhibited even density isodense or hyperdense nodules, with occasional calcification and necrosis. The dual-phase scan of the MALT-lymphomas revealed a pattern of lower or moderate enhancement, circumambient enhancement or delayed enhancement. The MALT-lymphomas were closely associated with Sjögre’s syndrome and demonstrated malignant features and isodense or hyperdense nodules and lower or moderate enhancement on the CT scans. PMID:24520295

DONG, YUE; WEN, FENG; SHI, AIJUN; GUAN, HONG WEI; GE, YING; JIANG, YUAN

2014-01-01

25

Genetic polymorphisms and tissue expression of interleukin-22 associated with risk and therapeutic response of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Chronic Helicobacter pylori-stimulated immune reactions determine the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We aimed to explore the genetic predisposition to this lymphoma and its clinical implication. A total of 68 patients and 140 unrelated controls were genotyped for 84 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and related receptors that play important roles in T cell-mediated gastrointestinal immunity. Five genotypes in IL-22, namely CC at rs1179246, CC at rs2227485, AA at rs4913428, AA at rs1026788 and TT at rs7314777, were associated with disease susceptibility. The former four genotypes resided in the same linkage disequilibrium block (r2=0.99) that conferred an approximately threefold higher risk. In vitro experiments demonstrated that co-culturing peripheral mononuclear cells or CD4+ T cells with H. pylori stimulated the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), and that IL-22 induced the expression of antimicrobial proteins, RegIII? and lipocalin-2, in gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, patients with gastric tissue expressing IL-22 were more likely to respond to H. pylori eradication (14/22 vs 4/19, P<0.006). We conclude that susceptibility of gastric MALT lymphoma is influenced by genetic polymorphisms in IL-22, the product of which is involved in mucosal immunity against H. pylori and associated with tumor response to H. pylori eradication. PMID:25303370

Liao, F; Hsu, Y-C; Kuo, S-H; Yang, Y-C; Chen, J-P; Hsu, P-N; Lin, C-W; Chen, L-T; Cheng, A-L; Fann, C S J; Lin, J-T; Wu, M-S

2014-01-01

26

Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

2012-07-01

27

A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

Isobe, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: isobeko@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Higuchi, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Gunma Prefecture Cancer Center, Gunma (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakazawa, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Fukuda, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nihei, Keiji [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Kana [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsuno, Yoshihiro [Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiologic Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2007-11-15

28

Treatment of gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone.  

PubMed

There is no standard treatment for patients with gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who are resistant to, or ineligible for, anti-Helicobacter pylori (anti-HP) therapy. In this study, we investigated the activity of the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (R-CVP) regimen in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. Patients were included provided they had untreated gastric MALT lymphoma (except for anti-HP therapy) and were resistant to, or ineligible for, anti-HP therapy. Treatment plan consisted of six to eight 21-day?cycles of the R-CVP chemotherapy regimen. Toxicity, response, relapse and survival were evaluated. Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men) were included in the analyses with median age of 59?years. Thirteen patients (65%) had stage I tumours, and seven patients (35%) had stages II-IV tumours. The overall response rate was 100%, with 19 (95%) complete responses and one (5%) partial response. Regimen toxicity was mild and mainly hematological, and no cases of gastric bleeding or perforation occurred. After a median follow-up of 56.3?months, three patients had relapsed, and 19 patients remained alive (specific lymphoma survival 100%), of whom 17 had no evidence of disease. In our experience, the R-CVP regimen is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for patients with gastric MALT lymphoma who are resistant to, or ineligible for, anti-HP therapy. PMID:24123108

Aguiar-Bujanda, David; Llorca-Mártinez, Ignacio; Rivero-Vera, José C; Blanco-Sánchez, María J; Jiménez-Gallego, Pedro; Mori-De Santiago, Marta; Limeres-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Cabrera-Marrero, José C; Hernández-Sosa, María; Galván-Ruíz, Saray; Hernández-Sarmiento, Samuel; Saura Grau, Salvador; Bohn-Sarmiento, Uriel

2014-09-01

29

Rituximab plus bendamustine is active in pretreated patients with extragastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).  

PubMed

Recently, the combination of rituximab and bendamustine (R-Benda) has been defined as highly active in patients with follicular lymphomas, but little is known about the efficacy of R-Benda in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. In a retrospective analysis, we have defined 14 patients with MALT lymphoma undergoing therapy with R-Benda. Seven patients were female and seven male (aged 44-88 years), and all had relapsed extragastric MALT lymphoma. R-Benda was given at first relapse in ten patients, while four patients had more than two prior forms of therapy. Bendamustine was given at a dose of 90 mg/m(2) on days 2 and 3 in ten patients and at 70 mg/m(2) in three patients, while all received 375 mg/m(2) rituximab on day 1. Ten patients received six courses of therapy, while two patients discontinued therapy after three, and one after four courses for personal reasons, while one patient had progressive disease after four courses. Tolerance of therapy was excellent, and all except one patient responded. Ten patients achieved a complete remission (CR) (71 %), three a partial remission (21 %), while one patient progressed. Toxicities were mild and mainly hematological but did not result in relevant delays or the necessity for dose reductions. After a median follow-up of 23 months (range, 4-42+), 13 patients are alive and one patient has relapsed 23 months after initial CR. Our data suggest high activity and good tolerance of R-Benda in patients with relapsed MALT lymphoma despite intensive pretreatment in some patients. In view of this, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:23925930

Kiesewetter, Barbara; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Lukas, Julius; Zielinski, Christoph C; Müllauer, Leonhard; Raderer, Markus

2014-02-01

30

Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)

2012-03-15

31

Primary Radiation Therapy in Patients With Localized Orbital Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 patients who were treated with RT for pathologically confirmed localized stage IE marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The radiation dose ranged from 21.6 to 45 Gy (median, 30.6 Gy) at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction. Median follow-up duration was 32.3 months (range, 3.1-113.6 months). Results: Forty-three patients (93%) achieved complete remission (CR), and three patients (7%) achieved partial remission (PR). Five-year relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 93%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among the patients with CR, two had recurrence at three sites. One patient relapsed locally and was successfully salvaged with reirradiation. The other patient relapsed in a distant site and was successfully treated with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Late complications were noted in four patients. Two patients developed cataracts at 26 and 37 months after completion of RT. The other two patients developed nasolacrimal duct obstructions at 4 and 11 months after completion of RT. Conclusion: Our study showed that a modest dose of RT is an excellent treatment modality with low complication and recurrence rates. We suggest that a dose of 30.6 Gy is tolerable and sufficient for treating orbital MALT lymphoma. Even following recurrence, successful salvage is possible with RT or chemotherapy.

Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Gi Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Suk Woo [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Young Seon [Department of Hemato-Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ihl Bohng [Cyberknife Center of Gimpo Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Sil, E-mail: yeonkim7@catholic.ac.k [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-01

32

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman  

PubMed Central

MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for ?-chain but negative for ?-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. PMID:23638229

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

33

Persistent monoclonality after histological remission in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery: influence of t(11;18)(q21;q21).  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study retrospectively the molecular response and outcome of 19 gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma patients achieving histological remission after chemotherapy or surgery. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IgV(H)) gene rearrangements were studied by PCR in biopsies obtained at diagnosis and follow-up. Presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) was studied by FISH or RT-PCR. Sequencing analysis of three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive and two negative lymphomas with persistent monoclonal IgV(H) rearrangements was also performed. Long-term IgV(H) monoclonality was demonstrated in 11/19 patients (58%); in five of them monoclonal rearrangements were present in all samples throughout the follow-up. Persistent IgV(H) monoclonality was detected a median of 49 months after the achievement of histological response and did not condition histological relapse in most cases. All three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive patients had maintained IgV(H) monoclonality and sequencing analyses revealed the same mutated IgV(H) alleles in the diagnostic and the follow-up samples. Over half of the patients with gastric MALT lymphoma with histological response after chemotherapy and/or surgery have long-term persistent monoclonality. The presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) seems to condition long-term persistence of the initial lymphoma clone.trade mark. PMID:18766964

Santón, Almudena; García-Cosio, Mónica; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Patricia; Cristóbal, Eva; Serrano, Sergio; Besses, Carlos; Abraira, Victor; Salar, Antonio; Montalbán, Carlos

2008-08-01

34

Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma

2015-03-10

35

Low-Grade Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated. PMID:24664484

Forst, Deborah A.; Nahed, Brian V.; Loeffler, Jay S.

2014-01-01

36

A study of the properties of a low-grade mucosal B-cell lymphoma using a monoclonal antibody specific for the tumour immunoglobulin.  

PubMed

Primary low-grade B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are tumours with distinctive clinico-pathological characteristics, two of which are studied in this paper, namely the tendency of the tumours to remain localized and the morphologic and phenotypic resemblance of the malignant cells to splenic marginal zone B cells. We have made a detailed study of a small intestinal lymphoma and a gastric lymphoma, which together with the spleen were resected from the same patient. Using a monoclonal antibody (7G3) raised against a unique determinant on the small intestinal tumour, we were able to detect disseminated small intestinal tumour cells in the stomach and spleen. The tumour in the stomach was genetically related, but non-identical to that in the small intestine, and was not recognized by 7G3. Lymphocytes expressing the marker of the small intestinal tumour (7G3) were present in lymphoid nodules in the stomach, and 7G3+ plasma cells were present beneath the gastric epithelium. In the spleen, cells expressing 7G3 were present in the marginal zone and plasma cells expressing the same marker were present in the red pulp. These findings suggest that low-grade MALT lymphomas may migrate beyond the primary tumour site, but that tumour cells distant to the primary site may differentiate into mature, non-dividing plasma cells. The localization of small intestinal tumour cells in the splenic marginal zones reinforces the suggestion of lineage homology between these populations of cells. PMID:2335804

Spencer, J; Diss, T C; Isaacson, P G

1990-03-01

37

Alisertib, Bortezomib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma or B-cell Low Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2014-11-21

38

Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Low-Grade Follicular Lymphoma, Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia, or Mantle Cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2015-01-16

39

TLR9 Agonist SD-101, Ipilimumab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Recurrent B-cell Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

2014-10-01

40

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach in a patient with multiple submucosal tumors  

PubMed Central

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Here, we report a 38-year-old man who presented with multiple submucosal tumors of the stomach. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by multiple discrete submucosal nodules of lymphoid cells. The infiltrates between the lymphoid follicles were composed mainly of medium-sized lymphoid cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, as well as a few large cells with vesicular nuclei. The gastric mucosa exhibited multifocal lymphoid aggregates and some of the epithelial cells were infiltrated by small lymphocytes mimicking lymphoepithelial lesions. Histopathology was consistent with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the infiltrating lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7. In addition, polymerase chain reaction analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements demonstrated polyclonality. This case was diagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach. PMID:24466554

Jeon, Ja Young; Lim, Sun Gyo; Kim, Jang Hee; Lee, Kee Myung; Cho, Sung Ran

2013-01-01

41

Laser capture microdissection and metagenomic analysis of intact mucosa-associated microbial communities of human colon.  

PubMed

Metagenomic analysis of colonic mucosa-associated microbes has been complicated by technical challenges that disrupt or alter community structure and function. In the present study, we determined the feasibility of laser capture microdissection (LCM) of intact regional human colonic mucosa-associated microbes followed by phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and massively parallel sequencing for metagenomic analysis. Samples were obtained from the healthy human subject without bowel preparation and frozen sections immediately prepared. Regional mucosa-associated microbes were successfully dissected using LCM with minimal contamination by host cells, their DNA extracted and subjected to phi29 MDA with a high fidelity, prior to shotgun sequencing using the GS-FLX DNA sequencer. Metagenomic analysis of approximately 67 million base pairs of DNA sequences from two samples revealed that the metabolic functional profiles in mucosa-associated microbes were as diverse as those reported in feces, specifically the representation of functional genes associated with carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acid utilization. In summary, these studies demonstrate the feasibility of the approach to study the structure and metagenomic profiles of human intestinal mucosa-associated microbial communities at small spatial scales. PMID:20931185

Wang, Yunwei; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Zhu, Xiaorong; Harrell, Laura; Hanan, Ira; Alverdy, John C; Meyer, Folker; Musch, Mark W; Young, Vincent B; Chang, Eugene B

2010-12-01

42

Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

43

Rituximab and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2011-08-11

44

Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU). Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD), revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS), and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH) region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy. PMID:22985187

Fukuhara, Junichi; Kase, Satoru; Noda, Mika; Ishijima, Kan; Yamamoto, Teppei; Ishida, Susumu

2012-01-01

45

Structural Shifts of Mucosa-Associated Lactobacilli and Clostridium leptum Subgroup in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of mucosa-associated microbiota in the pathogenicity of ulcerative colitis (UC), paired biopsies were obtained during colonoscopy from the ulcerated and nonulcerated gut mucosa of 24 patients with UC. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis was employed to profile the composition of the dominant bacteria (16S rRNA gene V3 region) and three important groups: lactobacilli, the Clostridium leptum

Meiling Zhang; Bianying Liu; Yan Zhang; Hua Wei; Yufeng Lei; Liping Zhao

46

Nitinol engine for low grade heat  

SciTech Connect

A continuous band of nitinol wrapping in between a cluster of tightly engaged rollers to form a series of s-shaped bends is used as the principle working medium of a thermal engine to convert low grade heat to mechanical power output. The band, together with the rollers, divides the space into an inner and an outer zone. A stream of warmer water and a stream of cooler water are guided to flow separately through one or the other of the two zones to make uniform and intimate contact with the segments of the nitinol band alternatively at appropriate intervals. A well defined four-cycle operation of temperature and stress is thus established and can convert a portion of the energy which is available in the thermal gradient of the two water streams into a mechanical shaft power which may be tapped from one of the rollers.

Li, Y.T.

1981-12-01

47

Organogenesis of lymphoid tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lymphoid organs depends on the correct expression of several molecules within a defined timeframe during ontogeny. Although this is an extremely complex process, with each secondary lymphoid tissue requiring subtly different signals, a common framework for lymphoid development is beginning to emerge. Drawing on studies of lymph nodes, Peyer's patches and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, an integrative model

Reina E. Mebius

2003-01-01

48

Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: The mucosa associated flora of the large intestine is important in determining mucosal function although what controls its composition is unknown. This study has determined the effect of the prebiotic carbohydrates oligofructose and inulin on the mucosal flora. Methods: An in vitro chemostat model of both planktonic and surface associated bacteria was used followed by an intervention study in 29 subjects undergoing colonoscopy. Subjects: Fourteen subjects, recruited from colonoscopy waiting lists, supplemented their diet for two weeks with a mix of 7.5 g of oligofructose and 7.5 g inulin. Fifteen subjects were recruited at the time of colonoscopy and given no supplement. Multiple endoscopic biopsies were taken from the caecum, transverse and descending colon, and rectum. The mucosal flora was characterised by culture and to species level by cellular fatty acid profiles. Cell proliferation was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for minichromosome maintenance protein 2, Ki67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results: In vitro prebiotics increased surface counts of bifidobacteria from 6.6 to 7.3 log10 colony forming units (CFU) per slide (p<0.0006) with no significant changes in planktonic bacteria. In the feeding study, prebiotics increased mucosal bifidobacteria (log CFU/g mucosa (SEM)) in both the proximal (control 5.3 (0.4) v prebiotic 6.3 (0.3)) (p?=?0.059) and distal (control 5.2 (0.3) v prebiotic 6.4 (0.3)) colon (p?=?0.01). Lactobacilli were also increased (3.0 (0.1) v 3.7 (0.2) (p?=?0.02) in the proximal and 3.1 (0.1) v 3.6 (0.2) (p?=?0.04) in the distal colon, respectively). There were significantly more eubacteria in fed subjects but no changes in total anaerobes clostridia, bacteroides, or coliforms, nor in proliferation indices. Conclusion: Prebiotic carbohydrates can change the composition of the mucosa associated flora significantly. PMID:15479681

Langlands, S J; Hopkins, M J; Coleman, N; Cummings, J H

2004-01-01

49

Experimental mucosal disease in cattle: changes of lymphocyte subpopulations in Peyer's patches and in lymphoid nodules of large intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the number and distribution of lymphocyte subtypes were investigated in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and ileum, and mucosa-associated lymphoid nodules in the proximal colon and rectum of cattle with end-stage mucosal disease. Mucosal disease had been induced experimentally in seven of 13 animals by inoculation with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus (cp BVD-virus). For comparison, six clinically

E. M. Liebler; C. Küsters; J. F. Pohlenz

1995-01-01

50

Desalination using low grade heat sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of freshwater along with the waste heat released from the condenser of air-conditioning system. This additional energy requirement is about 60% of the energy required by a multi stage flash distillation process. The experimental studies were conducted in three phases. In the first phase, electric power from grid as energy source was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. These tests showed that freshwater production rate of 0.25 kg/hr can be sustained at evaporation temperatures as low as 40°C with specific energy input of 3,370 kJ/kg, at efficiencies ranging from 65 to 70% during the winter. In the second phase, experiments were conducted utilizing direct solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy as well. Four different combinations of energy sources were studied. The following results were obtained from these experimental studies: (1) Utilizing direct solar energy produced 4.9 L/d of freshwater with an evaporator area of 1 m2 with an average efficiency of 61%. This yield is two times that can be obtained from a flat solar still. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 4157 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (2) Utilizing direct solar energy with aid of a reflector produced 7.5 L/d of freshwater with an average efficiency more than 80%. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 3118 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (3) Utilizing direct solar energy during sunlight hours and photovoltaic energy during non-sunlight hours produced 12 L/d of freshwater with 1 m2 evaporator area and 6 m2 photovoltaic areas respectively. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 2926 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater. Finally, the feasibility of this process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant was studied. The process was able to achieve the following reductions: total dissolved solids from 727 mg/L to 21 mg/L (97%); nitrates from 2.4 mg/L to <0.1 mg/L (> 95%); ammonia from 23.2 mg/L to < 0.5 mg/L (> 97%); and

Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

51

Human Intestinal Lumen and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; howerer the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host. PMID:22761885

Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie

2012-01-01

52

High Prevalence of Mucosa-Associated E. coli Producing Cyclomodulin and Genotoxin in Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs) which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%), (p<0.01). Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%), (p?=?0.01). Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis), and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n?=?21/76) E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p?=?0.91). In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of patients with CRC. PMID:23457644

Sauvanet, Pierre; Raisch, Jennifer; Delmas, Julien

2013-01-01

53

Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses of RT but results in significant late morbidity. The majority of late effects were successfully managed. Lens shielding reduced the risk of cataracts and other late sequelae.

Goda, Jayant Sastri [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Simpson, Rand [Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, Richard W., E-mail: richard.tsang@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2011-11-15

54

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.

2008-01-01

55

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the sigmoid colon.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft tissue tumor with a slight male predominance. The tumor has a tendency to arise from deep soft tissue of the trunk and lower extremities. Rare cases are reported to arise from the mediastinal and retroperitoneal areas. Its deceptively bland histologic appearance makes this tumor difficult to diagnose. Also, there are several histologic mimics that may hinder in its diagnosis. We report a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma from a 48-year-old woman, first documented herein to arise from the sigmoid. We also report the value of CD99, BCL2 and MUC4 stains in the diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:25708661

Mendoza, Alejandro S; O'Leary, Michael P; Peng, Shi-Kaung; Petrie, Beverley A; Li, Andrew I; French, Samuel W

2015-04-01

56

Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa: Single Center Experience of 60 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (OAML) constitutes for the most frequent diagnosis in orbital lymphoma. Relatively little data, however, have been reported in larger cohorts of patients staged in a uniform way and no therapy standard exists to date. Material and Methods We have retrospectively analyzed 60 patients diagnosed and treated at our institution 1999–2012. Median age at diagnosis was 64 years (IQR 51–75) and follow-up time 43 months (IQR 16–92). All patients had undergone uniform extensive staging and histological diagnosis was made by a reference pathologist according to the WHO classification. Results The majority of patients presented with stage IE (n?=?40/60, 67%), three had IIE/IIIE and the remaining 17 stage IVE. Seven patients with IVE had bilateral orbital disease whereas the others showed involvement of further organs. Treatment data were available in 58 patients. Local treatment with radiotherapy (14/58, 24%) or surgery (3/58, 5%) resulted in response in 82% of patients. A total of 26 patients (45%) received systemic treatment with a response rate of 85%. Nine patients received antibiotics as initial therapy; response rate was 38%. Watchful-waiting was the initial approach in 6/58 patients. In total 28/58 patients (48%) progressed and were given further therapy. Median time-to-progression in this cohort was 20 months (IQR 9–39). There was no difference in time-to-progression after first-line therapy between the different therapy arms (p?=?0.14). Elevated beta-2-microglobulin, plasmacytic differentiation, autoimmune disorder and site of lymphoma were not associated with a higher risk for progress. Conclusion Our data underscore the excellent prognosis of OAML irrespective of initial therapy, as there was no significant difference in time-to-progression and response between local or systemic therapy. In the absence of randomized trials, the least toxic individual approach should be chosen for OAML. PMID:25077481

Kiesewetter, Barbara; Lukas, Julius; Kuchar, Andreas; Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Streubel, Berthold; Lagler, Heimo; Müllauer, Leonhard; Wöhrer, Stefan; Fischbach, Julia; Raderer, Markus

2014-01-01

57

Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...

58

Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease (IgG4-RD) in the Orbit: Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)-Type Lymphomas.  

PubMed

Background MALT lymphomas were classified for differential diagnostics of IgG4-dependent disease due to their exceptional predilection to intraorbital localization. Therefore, the goal of our studies was large retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with MALT lymphomas within the orbital tissues, since no such studies have been conducted in Poland. Material and Methods The starting study population consisted of 167 patients with isolated infiltrative tumor diseases within the orbital region treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Medical College Jagiellonian University in Cracow. The immunohistochemical assays using anti-IgG, anti-IgG4 and anti-CD138 antibodies were used to estimate the IgG4+/CD138+ and IgG4+/IgG+ ratios. Results Of all the studied and analyzed patients, a final group of 19 patients with orbital MALT lymphomas was selected to undergo diagnostic examinations for IgG4-related disease. Detailed analysis and diagnostic screening for IgG4-related disease was performed and results meeting the criteria of IgG4-dependent disease were obtained in 10 out of 19 patients with the diagnosis of MALT tumor established on the basis of immunohistochemical assays. Conclusions MALT lymphomas are the most common of all lymphomas occurring within orbital tissues. In this study, results consistent with the criteria of IgG4-related disease were obtained in approximately 50% patients with immunohistochemical diagnosis of orbital MALT lymphoma. PMID:25858500

Ole?, Krzysztof; Sk?adzie?, Jacek; Szczepa?ski, Wojciech; Oko?, Krzysztof; Leszczy?ska, Joanna; Bojanowska, Emilia; Bartu?, Krzysztof; Mika, Joanna

2015-01-01

59

Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.  

PubMed

Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

2009-08-01

60

Notch signaling activation in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.  

PubMed

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in the development, stem cell biology, and pathogenesis of several cancers, but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomic sites compared with non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res186 and Res259 using either RNA interference or a ?-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable, but significant, reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

Brandt, William D; Schreck, Karisa C; Bar, Eli E; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J

2015-02-01

61

Current surgical results with low-grade brain arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

OBJECT Resection is an appealing therapy for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) because of its high cure rate, low complication rate, and immediacy, and has become the first-line therapy for many AVMs. To clarify safety, efficacy, and outcomes associated with AVM resection in the aftermath of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs (ARUBA), the authors reviewed their experience with low-grade AVMs-the most favorable AVMs for surgery and the ones most likely to have been selected for treatment outside of ARUBA's randomization process. METHODS A prospective AVM registry was searched to identify patients with Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II AVMs treated using resection during a 16-year period. RESULTS Of the 232 surgical patients included, 120 (52%) presented with hemorrhage, 33% had Spetzler-Martin Grade I, and 67% had Grade II AVMs. Overall, 99 patients (43%) underwent preoperative embolization, with unruptured AVMs embolized more often than ruptured AVMs. AVM resection was accomplished in all patients and confirmed angiographically in 218 patients (94%). There were no deaths among patients with unruptured AVMs. Good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-1) were found in 78% of patients, with 97% improved or unchanged from their preoperative mRS scores. Patients with unruptured AVMs had better functional outcomes (91% good outcome vs 65% in the ruptured group, p = 0.0008), while relative outcomes were equivalent (98% improved/unchanged in patients with ruptured AVMs vs 96% in patients with unruptured AVMs). CONCLUSIONS Surgery should be regarded as the "gold standard" therapy for the majority of low-grade AVMs, utilizing conservative embolization as a preoperative adjunct. High surgical cure rates and excellent functional outcomes in patients with both ruptured and unruptured AVMs support a dominant surgical posture for low-grade AVMS, with radiosurgery reserved for risky AVMs in deep, inaccessible, and highly eloquent locations. Despite the technological advances in endovascular and radiosurgical therapy, surgery still offers the best cure rate, lowest risk profile, and greatest protection against hemorrhage for low-grade AVMs. ARUBA results are influenced by a low randomization rate, bias toward nonsurgical therapies, a shortage of surgical expertise, a lower rate of complete AVM obliteration, a higher rate of delayed hemorrhage, and short study duration. Another randomized trial is needed to reestablish the role of surgery in unruptured AVM management. PMID:25658789

Potts, Matthew B; Lau, Darryl; Abla, Adib A; Kim, Helen; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

2015-04-01

62

B cell lymphoma of the thymus and salivary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of primary low grade B cell lymphoma of the salivary gland associated with a low grade B cell lymphoma of the thymus and involvement of the skin is reported. The lesions in the salivary gland and in the thymus showed the typical features of a lymphoma arising from the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and comprised lymphatic follicles,

C Di Loreto; L Mariuzzi; A De Grassi; C A Beltrami

1996-01-01

63

Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.  

PubMed

Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease. PMID:24608036

Rohleder, Nicolas

2014-04-01

64

Low-grade chronic inflammation induces behavioral stereotypy in rats.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is known to be associated with metabolic disturbances including diabetes mellitus, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. A growing body of evidence has suggested abnormal cytokine levels in schizophrenia. In the present study, we explored the effects of low-grade chronic inflammation on behavioral stereotypy in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In order to induce NAFLD, rats were fed with either water enriched with 30 % fructose or plain tap water for 8 weeks. Following feeding period, behavioral stereotypy was evaluated with apomorphine-induced stereotypy test. Also, levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the liver and brain tissues were assessed biochemically. Brain homovanilic acid (HVA) was measured to evaluate the dopamine turnover. NAFLD rats showed significantly higher stereotypy score compared to controls (p?=?0.016). TNF-?, IL-2, and NF-?B levels were significantly increased in NAFLD rats compared to control group. Brain HVA levels were elevated in NAFLD rats as well (p?=?0.008). Morever, NAFLD group prompted a considerable increase in brain IL-2 immunoexpression (p?=?0.005). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that low-grade chronic inflammation such as NAFLD may enhance apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior via increasing dopaminergic activity in rats. PMID:25413450

Erba?, Oytun; Akseki, Hüseyin Serdar; Aktu?, Hüseyin; Ta?k?ran, Dilek

2014-11-21

65

Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources  

SciTech Connect

Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

1995-12-31

66

Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with filgrastim support in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoid malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the response rate and poten- tial toxicities, a phase II trial was con- ducted of fludarabine and cyclophospha- mide with filgrastim support in patients with previously untreated low-grade and select intermediate-grade lymphoid malig- nancies. Symptomatic patients with pre- served end organ function received cyclo- phosphamide 600 mg\\/m2 intravenous (iv) day 1 and fludarabine 20 mg\\/m 2 iv days1

Ian W. Flinn; John C. Byrd; Candis Morrison; Janet Jamison; Louis F. Diehl; Timothy Murphy; Steve Piantadosi; Eric Seifter; Richard F. Ambinder; Georgia Vogelsang; Michael R. Grever

67

Low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in a premenopausal woman.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma are rare malignant tumors of the uterus and has been described as the second most common malignant uterine mesenchymal tumor. The diagnosis is confirmed on hysterectomy for a presumed benign disease. In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2003), the term endometrial stromal tumor is applied to neoplasms typically composed of cells that morphologically resemble endometrial stromal cells of the nonneoplastic proliferative phase endometrium. The WHO recognizes three categories of endometrial stromal tumors: Endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESS), and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. We report here an interesting case of a 39-year-old female who presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum and urinary retention with a clinical impression of a leiomyomatous polyp, which on histological examination showed a LGESS. PMID:24678233

Jetley, Sujata; Rana, Safia; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S

2014-01-01

68

Low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: a case report.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare malignant tumor of the endometrium, occurring in the age group of 40-50 years. We report a case of low-grade ESS in a 39-year-old woman, presenting as rapid enlargement of a uterine fibroid polyp associated with irregular and excessive vaginal bleeding. Polypectomy followed by pan hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed LGESS. As the tumor is rarely encountered, management protocols are still questionable. In our case, we tried a different post-surgical protocol and the patient is being closely followed up. Although rare, ESS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all women who present with a rapid enlargement of a uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25648534

Jain, Reena; Batra, Swaraj; Ahmad, Ayesha; Elahi, Arifa Anwar; Gupta, Monika; Saith, Poonam

2015-01-01

69

Interaction of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol  

SciTech Connect

How conditions of alkylation of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid influence the yield of extractable matter was experimentally studied and relevant regression equations were obtained. It was shown that catalytic methylation considerably increases the yield of the extractable matter, as well as reducing the thermal stability of modified samples and alters the elemental composition of the samples and their extracts. A possible mechanism of coal methylation is discussed on the basis of regression models and experimental results. The interaction of the coal matter with the alkylating agent presumably involves the formation of the carbocation and its reaction with the coal organic matter. Both depolymerization reactions and the addition reactions of a portion of extractable compounds, the alkylating agent, and the catalyst with the high-molecular mass coal matrix take place.

S.I. Zherebtsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Division

2007-06-15

70

Characterizing the adoption of low-grade hardwood lumber by the secondary wood processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the adoption of low-grade lumber in the secondary hard- wood industry. Factors influencing decisions regarding the utilization of low-grade lumber were identified and value-added opportunities to increase the use of low-grade lumber among manufacturers currently using higher grades were evaluated. Data were collected via a nationwide mail survey of secondary hardwood manufacturers. The sin- gle most important

Robert L. Smith; Wibke Pohle; Philip Araman; Dan Cumbo

71

Transcriptional response of immune genes in gills and the interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic salmon challenged with infectious salmon anaemia virus.  

PubMed

Previously, it has been assumed that fish lack organized mucosa-associated lymphoid structures. Recently, an interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) was described in salmonid gills at a site with substantial exposure to antigen. In this study, immune responses were examined in gills, mid-kidney and the laser-dissected ILT of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). A strong innate response was observed in gills and mid-kidney and even in the laser-dissected ILT, despite the fact that no virus could be traced in this tissue. A small delayed increase in IgT transcripts, exclusively in the ILT, could indicate that this tissue has a role as a secondary lymphoid organ with clonal expansion of IgT expressing B-cells. Compared to the other examined tissues, gills displayed the earliest replication of the virus, further supporting this tissue as the main entry route for infection with ISAV. PMID:24561102

Austbø, Lars; Aas, Ida Bergva; König, Melanie; Weli, Simon Chioma; Syed, Mohasina; Falk, Knut; Koppang, Erling Olaf

2014-07-01

72

Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

2014-10-01

73

Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcomas of the maxilla  

PubMed Central

Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) is a distinct mesenchymal myofibroblastic malignancy. The tumor may occur at a variety of sites, but is particularly associated with the head and neck. Of the two maxillary sarcomas that were analyzed in the present study, one was misdiagnosed as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor during pre-operative excision biopsy, and later presented with a different immunophenotype upon recurrence. Representative paraffin blocks from formalin-fixed tissues were selected from each patient and designated as case 1 and case 2. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 3-?m thick sections using primary antibodies against ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), muscle-specific actin (MSA), desmin, vimentin, calponin, h-caldesmon, fibronectin, cytokeratin, cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), S-100 protein, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and Ki-67. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The tumor cells from the two maxillary LGMSs, including the recurrent lesion, were positive for vimentin and fibronectin, and negative for S-100 protein, CD34, EMA, h-caldesmon, ALK, MSA and calponin. The tumor cells from case 1 demonstrated positive staining for ?-SMA protein and negative staining for desmin. By contrast, the tumor cells from the primary lesion in case 2 presented with negative staining for ?-SMA and positive staining for desmin, while the cells of the recurrent lesion were ?-SMA-positive and desmin-negative. The present study concluded that cases of LGMS with immunoprofile alterations are predictive of relatively poor prognoses. PMID:25624890

QIU, JIN-YU; LIU, PENG; SHI, CE; HAN, BING

2015-01-01

74

AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

2015-02-16

75

Histologically Proven, Low-grade Brainstem Gliomas in Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction To evaluate long-term overall survival (OS), progression- free survival (PFS), and outcomes in pathologically proven brainstem low-grade gliomas (BS-LGG) in children. Methods The Mayo Clinic tumor registry identified 48 consecutive children (?20 y, 52% female) with biopsy-proven BS-LGG treated at Mayo Clinic between January 1971 and December 2004. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. For analysis, patients were censored at the time of recurrence, death, or last follow-up. Results The median age at diagnosis was 12 years with a median follow-up of 6.0 years. The majority of tumors were grade I (69%) and pathology was consistent with an astrocytoma in the majority of patients (98%). Gross total resection was obtained in 4, subtotal in 17, and 27 patients were biopsied only. Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) was used in 29 patients. Median OS for the entire group was 14.8 years with a 1-, 5-, and 10-year OS of 85%, 67% and 59%, respectively. Median PFS for the entire group was 7.3 years. Improved survival was associated with undergoing resection versus biopsy-only with 5-year OS rates of 85% and 50% (P = 0.002), respectively. A high proportion of patients (42%) had diffuse tumors and 13 patients (27%) had diffuse pontine gliomas (DPGs). DPGs had an OS of 1.8 years with a worse median PFS than non-DPGs (1.8 vs. 11.1 y; P = 0.009). RT was used preferentially in patients with poor prognosis such as those who had a biopsy-only procedure (19/27) and DPGs (9/13). Conclusions OS in this single institution retrospective study in pathologically proven BS-LGG with extensive follow-up displayed favorable long-term outcomes. Improved outcomes were associated with nondiffuse classification. PMID:23357966

Ahmed, Kamran A.; Laack, Nadia N.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Orme, Nicholas M.; Wetjen, Nicholas M.

2015-01-01

76

Molecular Classification of Low-Grade Diffuse Gliomas  

PubMed Central

The current World Health Organization classification recognizes three histological types of grade II low-grade diffuse glioma (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma). However, the diagnostic criteria, in particular for oligoastrocytoma, are highly subjective. The aim of our study was to establish genetic profiles for diffuse gliomas and to estimate their predictive impact. In this study, we screened 360 World Health Organization grade II gliomas for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes and for 1p/19q loss and correlated these with clinical outcome. Most tumors (86%) were characterized genetically by TP53 mutation plus IDH1/2 mutation (32%), 1p/19q loss plus IDH1/2 mutation (37%), or IDH1/2 mutation only (17%). TP53 mutations only or 1p/19q loss only was rare (2 and 3%, respectively). The median survival of patients with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation was significantly shorter than that of patients with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation (51.8 months vs. 58.7 months, respectively; P = 0.0037). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for age and treatment confirmed these results (P = 0.0087) and also revealed that TP53 mutation is a significant prognostic marker for shorter survival (P = 0.0005) and 1p/19q loss for longer survival (P = 0.0002), while IDH1/2 mutations are not prognostic (P = 0.8737). The molecular classification on the basis of IDH1/2 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p/19q loss has power similar to histological classification and avoids the ambiguity inherent to the diagnosis of oligoastrocytoma. PMID:21075857

Kim, Young-Ho; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Vital, Anne; Mariani, Luigi; Stawski, Robert; Watanabe, Takuya; De Girolami, Umberto; Kleihues, Paul; Ohgaki, Hiroko

2010-01-01

77

Feline low-grade alimentary lymphoma: how common is it?  

PubMed

Low-grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL) requires histological assessment of biopsies for diagnosis whereas intermediate- (IGAL) and high-grade (HGAL) alimentary lymphoma (AL) can be diagnosed by cytology of intestinal or mesenteric lymph node aspirates. Assessment of the relative frequency of subtypes of AL using histology alone may be skewed towards an increased frequency of LGAL as cases of IGAL or HGAL diagnosed cytologically may not progress to biopsy. We investigated the relative prevalence of AL subtypes diagnosed by both histopathology and cytology among primary accession cases across Australia during a 5-year period. Clinicopathological features of LGAL were compared with those of IGAL/HGAL. Fifty-three cases of AL were identified, including 30 diagnosed by histology (15 LGAL, 13 HGAL, two IGAL) and 23 IGAL/HGAL diagnosed by cytology. LGAL cases comprised 50% of histological diagnoses, but only 28% of all AL. A palpable abdominal mass was more common in IGAL/HGAL (43%) than in LGAL (7%) [odds ratio (OR) 7.6, P = 0.01]. Anaemia was more common in IGAL/HGAL (41%) compared with LGAL (7%) (OR 9.6, P = 0.02). On abdominal ultrasound, a gastrointestinal mural mass was visualised in 41% of IGAL/HGAL and 0% of LGAL (P = 0.01). Where a detailed abdominal ultrasound report was provided, gastric/intestinal wall thickening was the most commonly reported abnormality (82%). In cats with intestinal thickening, a loss of normal layering was more common (P = 0.02) in cats with IGAL/HGAL (71%) compared with those with LGAL (20%). The relative prevalence of LGAL was lower when cases diagnosed by cytology were included in addition to those diagnosed by histology in the study population. The relative frequency with which LGAL is diagnosed has increased since initial reports from this region. A number of significant clinicopathological findings are useful to distinguish LGAL from IGAL/HGAL. PMID:22811481

Russell, Kieran J; Beatty, Julia A; Dhand, Navneet; Gunew, Marcus; Lingard, Amy E; Baral, Randolph M; Barrs, Vanessa R

2012-12-01

78

Successful pregnancy following conservative management of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A case report.  

PubMed

It is uncommon that fertility is preserved in young nulliparous females with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). Therefore, successful pregnancy following such conservative management has been rarely reported in previous literature. A 25-year-old female (gravida, 0; para, 0) underwent hysteroscopic surgery and was pathologically diagnosed with an endometrial stromal nodule. The patient underwent fertility-preserving local resection and uterine reconstruction, with a final pathological diagnosis of low-grade ESS. Endocrine therapy was then administered. Conservative management resulted in the complete remission of low-grade ESS. The patient naturally conceived and successfully delivered a healthy baby at 42 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, ~30 months following diagnosis with low-grade ESS. In conclusion, conservative management, including fertility-preserving local mass resection and endocrine therapy, can be effective for low-grade ESS and may yield a favorable outcome for young nulliparous females desiring fertility preservation. PMID:24944665

Dong, Ruiying; Pang, Yingxin; Mao, Hongluan; Yang, Ning; Liu, Peishu

2014-04-01

79

Mucosa-associated but not luminal Escherichia coli is augmented in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Escherichia coli is believed to participate in the etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD) and possibly of ulcerative colitis (UC), due at least in part to the observed rise in the number of these bacteria in the gut microbiota of CD and UC patients. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood whether this quantitative variation occurs equally throughout the mucosal and luminal spaces of the gut. To assess this question, stools and mucosa biopsies from distinct intestinal sites were cultured aiming at determining their E. coli concentration. The cultures were additionally screened for the presence of some virulence genes of pathogenic E. coli. Results Analyses of clinical materials from 14 controls (38 biopsies and 14 stools samples), 11 CD (25 biopsies and 11 stools samples) and 7 UC patients (18 biopsies and 7 stools samples) indicated no significant variation in the number of E. coli present in stools, but a rise of at least one log10 CFU/mg in biopsies from the ileum of CD patients and the sigmoid and rectum of CD and UC patients. The cultures were screened for the presence of E. coli attaching and effacing (eae), invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH), aggregative adherence transcriptional activator (aggR), Shiga cytotoxins (stx), and heat labile enterotoxin (elt) and the following serine proteases autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) genes: plasmid encoded toxin (pet), secreted autotransporter toxin (sat), Shigella extracellular protein (sepA), protein involved in intestinal colonization (pic) and Shigella IgA-like protease homolog (sigA). Six of the 10 genes screened were detected in the total of samples investigated: aggR, eae, pet, sat, sepA and sigA. No difference in the prevalence of any of these markers was observed in cultures from different clinical materials or groups of patients. Methods Bacterial quantitation was carried out following cultures of diluted samples suspensions in MacConkey agar, Wilkins Chalgren agar for anaerobes, E. coli/coliform chromocult agar, and blood agar. Screening for E. coli virulence genes was performed by multiplex PCR of DNA purified from total MacConkey undiluted broth cultures. Conclusion In CD and UC patients only the mucosa associated population of E. coli is augmented and the proliferation is prominent in the ileum of CD and rectum and sigmoid of both UC and CD patients which are sites where the lesions usually are observed. The augmented E. coli population in these sites presented a low number of the virulence markers, possibly meaning that they are not relevant for the disease process. PMID:23234341

2012-01-01

80

Mutant BRAF in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors and focal cortical dysplasia  

PubMed Central

BRAF alterations, namely BRAF fusion and BRAF V600E mutation, have been recently reported in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors. Twenty low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors were retrieved to evaluate the BRAF mutational status. BRAF mutations were present in 10 tumors and concomitantly in associated dysplastic tissue of three patients. We here show for the first time that BRAF mutations are present not only in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors but, in some cases, also in the associated focal cortical dysplasia. PMID:25356392

Marucci, Gianluca; de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Giulioni, Marco; Martinoni, Matteo; Volpi, Llilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Rubboli, Guido; Michelucci, Roberto; Tallini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

81

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing within a rectal tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colorectal lymphomas represent only 5% to 10% of gastrointestinal lymphomas, after the stomach and small intestine. Primary lymphoma of the colon and rectum is an unusual observation, constituting only 0.2% to 0.5% of all malignant tumors arising from the colorectal region. Very little is known about the correlation between adenoma and lymphoma in the colorectal tract. We report here a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing within a solitary tubular adenoma with low-grade dysplasia of the rectum. Case presentation An 83-year-old Caucasian man was referred to our hospital intermittent anal bleeding and irregular bowel. Colonoscopy revealed a 1cm solitary rectal polyp, which was completely removed by endoscopic resection. Histologic studies revealed low-grade intraepithelial dysplasia; the stroma of adenoma showed focal localization by highly proliferative lymphoid cells. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that lymphoid cells were positive for CD20 and bcl2, whereas they were negative for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD23, CD30, CD138 and cyclin D1. Approximately 90% of the neoplastic cells reacted positively when stained with an antibody to Ki-67. Molecular studies showed the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. To determine primary or secondary lymphoma localization, Dawson’s criteria were applied to the case. A diagnosis of primary diffuse large B- lymphoma Ann Arbor stage 1A was established. Subsequently, the patient was referred to oncology to establish the stage and to select appropriate treatment. Conclusions The case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing within a tubular adenoma, as reported here, is considered a rare event. Little about the prognosis of primary colorectal lymphomas is available and therapeutic treatment protocol is unclear. This case report provides more information on the history and macroscopic appearance of lymphomas presenting in an unusual location. To report additional cases in the future would be helpful in redefining the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:24661491

2014-01-01

82

Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

Shevyrev, Sergei; Bogomolov, Aleksandr; Alekssev, Maksim

2015-01-01

83

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy  

E-print Network

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

Lee, Seok Woo

84

Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.

2009-01-01

85

Molecular neuropathology of low-grade gliomas and its clinical impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “low-grade glioma” refers to a heterogeneous group of slowly growing glial tumors corresponding histologically to\\u000a World Health Organization (WHO) grade I or II. This group includes astrocytic, oligodendroglial, oligoastrocytic and ependymal\\u000a tumor entities, most of which preferentially manifest in children and young adults. Depending on histological type and WHO\\u000a grade, growth patterns of low-grade gliomas are quite variable,

M. J. Riemenschneider; G. Reifenberger

86

Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

1980-05-27

87

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy and resection specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To compare the sensitivity of detecting Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy and resection specimens using tinctorial and silver impregnation stains, immunohistochemistry and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 33 gastric biopsy specimens (26 showing chronic gastritis and seven showing low grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma) together with blocks of uninvolved

M Ashton-Key; T C Diss; P G Isaacson

1996-01-01

88

Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

2013-01-01

89

An excess of dietary iodine accelerates the development of a thyroid-associated lymphoid tissue in autoimmune prone BB rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that dietary iodine enhances the severity and incidence of focal thyroiditis in autoimmune BB rats and OS chickens. However, which lymphoid cells are involved in the development of the iodine-induced focal thyroiditis and what the consequences are for the anticolloid antibody production have not been studied in detail. We therefore performed a study in which 3-week-old female BB rats were kept on either an enriched iodine diet (EID; iodine intake, 100 micrograms iodine/day) or a normal iodine diet (NID; iodine intake, 7 micrograms iodine/day) for a period of 18 weeks. The development of the focal thyroiditis was immunohistologically studied. Immunohistological data were compared to the thyroid hormone status and anti-colloid antibody production. Our data confirm that a high dietary iodine intake results in an accelerated development of the focal lymphoid cell infiltrates in the thyroid of the BB rat. After 12-18 weeks of an EID 50% of the BB rats developed these infiltrates. Our data additionally show that: (a) the process starts with increases in the number of infiltrating MHC class II-positive dendritic cells and a clustering of these cells with T cells, B cells, and some macrophages and (b) the focal infiltrates are highly organized and consist of central B cell follicle-like structures surrounded by rims and areas of T cells. The architecture of the focal thyroiditis is hence very similar to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and secondary lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph node). Only minor signs of thyrocyte destruction were observed. We therefore consider the term "thyroiditis" as inappropriate and prefer the term "thyroid-associated lymphoid tissue." Since the thyroiditis component was small, it is also not surprising that the BB rats on the EID remained euthyroid. The presence of the thyroid-associated lymphoid tissue in the BB rats was positively correlated to the presence of anti-colloid antibody in the serum of the BB rats. We speculate that the dietary iodine might have direct effects on cells of the immune system or on cells forming the microenvironment of lymphoid tissue (reticulum cells). A role for highly iodinated thyroglobulin in the accelerated development of thyroid-associated lymphoid tissue is also possible. PMID:8403556

Mooij, P; de Wit, H J; Drexhage, H A

1993-11-01

90

Fusion for low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: a systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate which fusion technique provides the best clinical and radiological outcome for adult low-grade lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, and to assess the overall clinical and radiological outcome of each fusion technique. A systematic review was performed. Medline, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane databases as well as reference lists of selected articles were searched. Randomised

Wilco C. H. Jacobs; Arnold Vreeling; Marinus De Kleuver

2006-01-01

91

Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy  

PubMed Central

In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. PMID:24868331

Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

2014-01-01

92

Single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm after laparoscopic rectectomy.  

PubMed

In this case report, we discuss single-incision laparoscopic cecectomy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm after laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer. The optimal surgical therapy for low-grade appendiceal neoplasm is controversial; currently, the options include appendectomy, cecectomy, right hemicolectomy, and open or laparoscopic surgery. Due to the risk of pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete resection without rupture is necessary. We have encountered 5 cases of low-grade appendiceal neoplasm and all 5 patients had no lymph node metastasis. We chose the appendectomy or cecectomy without lymph node dissection if preoperative imaging studies did not suspect malignancy. In the present case, we performed cecectomy without lymph node dissection by single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), which is reported to be a reduced port surgery associated with decreased invasiveness and patient stress compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery. We are confident that SILS is a feasible alternative to traditional surgical procedures for borderline tumors, such as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. PMID:24868331

Fujino, Shiki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Noura, Shingo; Shingai, Tatsushi; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ohue, Masayuki; Yano, Masahiko

2014-05-27

93

Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism Jean-Paul Boudou  

E-print Network

Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism Jean-Paul Boudou a *, Arndt Schimmelmann b@ccr.jussieu.fr Abstract - Most of the organic nitrogen (Norg) on Earth is disseminated in crustal sediments and rocks in the form of fossil nitrogen-containing organic matter. The chemical speciation of fossil Norg within

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

C-kit Expression Distinguishes Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma from Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is characterized by persistent, relentless growth and a high rate of eventual metastasis. In contrast, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) has a much lower risk of recurrence and rarely metastasizes. The histologic patterns of these two neoplasms can be similar. Expression of c-kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, has recently been reported to be expressed in ACC

Carla R. Penner; Andrew L. Folpe; Steven D. Budnick

2002-01-01

95

Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

2013-01-01

96

The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas  

E-print Network

The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

1983-01-01

97

Hotspot activating PRKD1 somatic mutations in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most frequent type of malignant tumor of the minor salivary glands. We identified PRKD1 hotspot mutations encoding p.Glu710Asp in 72.9% of PLGAs but not in other salivary gland tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that this kinase-activating alteration likely constitutes a driver of PLGA. PMID:25240283

Weinreb, Ilan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Martelotto, Luciano G; Waggott, Daryl; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Harding, Nicholas J; Alfaro, Javier; Chu, Kenneth C; Viale, Agnes; Fusco, Nicola; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Marchio, Caterina; Sakr, Rita A; Lim, Raymond; Thompson, Lester D R; Chiosea, Simion I; Seethala, Raja R; Skalova, Alena; Stelow, Edward B; Fonseca, Isabel; Assaad, Adel; How, Christine; Wang, Jianxin; de Borja, Richard; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Howlett, Christopher J; Nichols, Anthony C; Wen, Y Hannah; Katabi, Nora; Buchner, Nicholas; Mullen, Laura; Kislinger, Thomas; Wouters, Bradly G; Liu, Fei-Fei; Norton, Larry; McPherson, John D; Rubin, Brian P; Clarke, Blaise A; Weigelt, Britta; Boutros, Paul C; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

2014-11-01

98

Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

2014-01-01

99

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (?3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: ?6.41, ?1.42]) and language (?3.19 [?6.19, ?0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

2014-01-01

100

Transformation of low grade glioma and correlation with outcome: an NCCTG database analysis.  

PubMed

Glioblastomas (GBM) may originate de novo (primary), or following transformation from a lower grade glioma (secondary), and it has been postulated that these tumors may have different biological behaviors. We performed a correlative analysis involving 204 patients with glioma treated prospectively on NCCTG clinical trials. Central pathology review of tumor tissues taken at the time of initial diagnosis and at recurrence were performed in all patients. Tumors progressed from low (WHO grade 2) to high (grade 3-4) at recurrence in 45% low grade oligodendroglioma patients, in 70% with low grade oligoastrocytoma, and 74% with low grade astrocytoma (P = 0.031). Median overall survival (OS) from initial diagnosis varied by histology: oligodendroglioma, 8.8 years; (95% CI 5.7-10.2); oligoastrocytoma, 4.4 years (95% CI 3.5-5.6); astrocytoma grade 2 3.1 years (astrocytoma grade 2-4, 2.1 years) (95% CI 1.7-2.5, P < 0.001). Mean time to recurrence (TTR) also varied between patients with de novo GBM, those secondary GBM, and those that remained non-GBM at recurrence (1.1 ± 1.1 vs. 2.9 ± 1.8 vs. 4.0 ± 2.9 years, respectively, P < 0.001). Median OS from time of recurrence also varied between these three categories (0.7 years, 95% CI: 0.5-1.1 vs. 0.6 years, CI: 0.5-1.0 vs. 1.4 years, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, respectively) (P < 0.001). At time of relapse, transformation to higher grade is frequent in low grade pure and mixed astrocytomas, but is observed in less than half of those with low grade oligodendroglioma. From time of recurrence, OS was not significantly different for those with primary versus secondary GBM, and it may thus be reasonable include patients with secondary GBM in clinical therapeutic trials for recurrent disease. PMID:21153680

Jaeckle, K A; Decker, P A; Ballman, K V; Flynn, P J; Giannini, C; Scheithauer, B W; Jenkins, R B; Buckner, J C

2011-08-01

101

Low grade heat conversion using bellowslike Stirling engines. Final technical report, November 1, 1981September 15, 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate purpose is to develop a heat engine which is powered by low grade heat. The immediate objective of most of the present work is to design, fabricate, test and evaluate diaphragms which promise improvements including less friction, no leakage and longer life when compared to pistons in Stirling engines so that such engines are practical for low grade

Raser

1983-01-01

102

Low grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma pelvic recurrence masquerading as high grade invasive carcinoma, ten years after radical cystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy for a low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is exceedingly uncommon and has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a young male presenting with anorexia, weight loss and a large, painful locally destructive pelvic recurrence, ten years after radical cystoprostatectomy. The pathology was consistent with a low-grade urothelial carcinoma.

Pankaj P Dangle; Wenle Paul Wang; Joel Mayerson; Amir Mortazavi; Paul Monk

2008-01-01

103

A new thermal cycle using low grade heat temperature pressure potential amplifier  

SciTech Connect

The science of thermodynamics, which arose in the 19th century, largely through the genius of Maxwell, directs that greater efficiency is achieved in heat engines with the use of high temperature and thus high grade heat input. Since then nearly all research dealing with heat engines has involved high temperature heat sources whether depletable fuel, nuclear or solar. But we are living in an ocean of renewable low grade heat with small temperature differentials. Choice of research has been to work with such low grade heat sources, following the leads suggested by two hitherto unpublished new principles which were found and incorporated in my Washington State University master's thesis in 1932. After much searching the operation of these principles was found in the case of absorption of refrigerants in certain alcohols. The unique behavior of these fluid solutions made a new thermal cycle possible.

Schlichtig, R.C.

1983-12-01

104

[Solitary pulmonary metastasis of low-grade uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma resected 31 years before].  

PubMed

A 74-year-old female underwent hysterectomy and bilateral ovariectomy for uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma( ESS), low grade, at another hospital 31 years previously. When the patient was admitted for pneumonia, a lung tumor was pointed out on her chest X-ray and computed tomography( CT) scan. Chest X-ray showed an oval figure shadow of about 3.5 cm in diameter in the right lower lung field.Chest CT scan revealed an irregular form tumor of 3.5 cm in diameter in the right S8 of the lung. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan identified an abnormal accumulation of FDG at the tumor site. A pulmonary metastasis of the ESS was suspected by transbronchial lung biopsy, and the patient underwent the thoracoscopic partial resection of the right lower lobe of the lung.Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as metastasis of the ESS, low grade. PMID:24917166

Takizawa, Masaya; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Tsunezuka, Yoshio; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

105

Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report.  

PubMed

Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25741469

Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung Jun

2015-02-01

106

Low-Grade Fibromatosis-like Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Breast.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma is a rare tumor in the breast, and represents a variant of the very heterogeneous group of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. These tumors warrant distinction because of their resemblance to pure fibromatosis, their propensity for local recurrence, and their favorable prognosis among the metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. The diagnosis is potentially challenging, particularly on core needle biopsies, because of the morphologic overlap with other low-grade spindle cell lesions. Recognition of a proliferation of cytologically bland spindle cells with areas of epithelial differentiation in combination with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against cytokeratins and myoepithelial markers should aid in producing a definitive diagnosis. These tumors can be locally aggressive with an increased incidence of local recurrence, but the potential for lymph node or distant metastasis is low. Complete excision with adequate margins is considered curative in the majority of cases. PMID:25822766

Dwyer, Jessica B; Clark, Beth Z

2015-04-01

107

Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25741469

Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young

2015-01-01

108

Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma

Jean-Louis Habrand; Ralf M. D. Schneider; Claire Alapetite; Loic Feuvret; Slavo Petras; Jean Datchary; Jacques Grill; Georges Noel; Sylvie Helfre; Regis Ferrand; Stephanie Bolle; Christian Sainte-Rose

2008-01-01

109

Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older  

Cancer.gov

Long-term follow-up results from a phase III trial show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the risk of low-grade prostate cancer in men age 55 and older compared with that in men who received a placebo. Although high-grade cancers were more common in the finasteride group, the finasteride and placebo groups had similar 15-year overall survival rates.

110

Hormonal therapy for recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether hormonal therapies have efficacy in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Methods We searched departmental databases for patients with histologically-confirmed, evaluable, recurrent low-grade serous ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma who received hormonal therapy at our institution between 1989 and 2009. We retrospectively reviewed patients' medical records for demographic, disease, hormonal therapy, and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression data. We used the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 to determine patients' responses to hormonal therapy. Because patients could have received more than one evaluable hormonal therapy regimen, we chose to define the outcome metric as “patient-regimens.” Median time to disease progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were also calculated. Regression analysis was also performed. Results We identified 64 patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Patients' median TTP and median OS were 7.4 and 78.2 months, respectively. Patients received 89 separate hormonal patient-regimens, which produced an overall response rate of 9% (6 complete responses and 2 partial responses). Sixty-one percent of the patient-regimens resulted in a 6-month progression-free survival duration of at least 6 months. Patient-regimens involving ER+/PR+ disease produced a longer median TTP (8.9 months) than patient-regimens involving ER+/PR- disease did (6.2 months; p = 0.053). This difference approached but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Hormonal therapies have moderate anti-tumor activity in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Further study to determine whether ER/PR expression status is a predictive biomarker for this rare cancer subtype is warranted. PMID:22406638

Gershenson, David M.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Iyer, Revathy B.; Malpica, Anais L.; Kavanagh, John J.; Bodurka, Diane C.; Schmeler, Kathleen; Deavers, Michael

2015-01-01

111

Stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the stabilising effect of dynamic interspinous spacers (IS) in combination with interlaminar\\u000a decompression in degenerative low-grade lumbar instability with lumbar spinal stenosis and to compare its clinical effect\\u000a to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis in stable segments treated by interlaminar decompression only. Fifty consecutive patients\\u000a with a minimum age of 60 years were

Johannes Holinka; Petra Krepler; Michael Matzner; Josef G. Grohs

2011-01-01

112

Leaching and kinetic modelling of low-grade calcareous sphalerite in acidic ferric chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaching kinetics of a low grade-calcareous sphalerite concentrate containing 38% ankerite and assaying 32% Zn, 7% Pb and 2.2% Fe was studied in HCl–FeCl3 solution. An L16 (five factors in four levels) standard orthogonal array was employed to evaluate the effect of Fe(III) and HCl concentration, reaction temperature, solid-to-liquid ratio and particle size on the reaction rate of sphalerite.

R. Dehghan; M. Noaparast; M. Kolahdoozan

2009-01-01

113

Health-related quality of life aspects in patients with low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Standard therapeutic options for brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Unfortunately, these same therapies\\u000a pose risks of neurotoxicity, the most common long-term complications being radiation necrosis, chemotherapy-associated leukoencephalopathy,\\u000a and cognitive deficits. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment strategy for these tumors. Because of the relatively\\u000a slow growth rate of low-grade gliomas, patients have a relatively long expected

M. Klein

114

Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of low-grade zinc silicate ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a leaching kinetics study of low-grade zinc silicate ore with sulfuric acid are presented. Effect of ore particle size, reaction temperature, and acid concentration on zinc dissolution rate were determined. The results obtained show that leaching of about 94% of zinc is achieved using ?200+270 mesh ore particle size at a reaction temperature of 70°C for 180

E. A Abdel-Aal

2000-01-01

115

Temozolomide chemotherapy for progressive low-grade glioma: clinical benefits and radiological response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimal treatment for low-grade glioma (LGG) is still controversial. Recent data indicate a potential influence of chemotherapy on the natural evolution of these tumors, allowing for the deferral of more aggressive therapies. Patients and methods: Forty-three patients affected with LGG (29 astrocytoma, four oligodendroglioma and 10 mixed oligo-astrocytoma) were treated with temozolomide (TMZ) at the time of documented

A. Pace; A. Vidiri; E. Galiè; M. Carosi; S. Telera; A. M. Cianciulli; P. Canalini; D. Giannarelli; B. Jandolo; C. M. Carapella

2003-01-01

116

Investigation on exergo-economic performance of evaporator in ORC recovering low-grade waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the perspective of exergy recovery (profit), an exergo-economic performance evaluation model of evaporator in ORC recovering low-grade waste heat is established. Selecting dry fluid R600a as a working fluid, an exergo-economic criterion was defined to estimate the effects of operating parameters and tube length on the performance of evaporator when the boiling temperature of evaporator is fixed. The

Shuang-Ying Wu; Liang Jiang; Lan Xiao; You-Rong Li; Jin-Liang Xu

2012-01-01

117

Alteration of Lysosome Fusion and Low-grade Inflammation Mediated by Super-low-dose Endotoxin.  

PubMed

Subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin LPS is a risk factor for the establishment of low-grade inflammation during the pathogenesis and progression of chronic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. At the cellular level, a disruption of lysosome fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes may contribute to the potentiation of low-grade inflammation. In this study, we identified that subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin LPS can potently inhibit the process of endosome acidification and lysosome fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes in primary macrophages. Super-low-dose LPS induced the inhibitory phosphorylation of VPS34, thus leading to the disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion. This effect may depend upon the clearance and relocation of Tollip in macrophages by super-low-dose LPS. Consistent with this notion, Tollip-deficient macrophages had constitutively elevated levels of VPS34 inhibitory phosphorylation and constitutive disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion. By employing a skin excision wound-healing model, we observed that Tollip-deficient mice had significantly elevated levels of cell stress and reduced wound repair. This study reveals a novel mechanism responsible for the modulation of endosome-lysosome fusion and low-grade inflammation in innate macrophages. PMID:25586187

Baker, Bianca; Geng, Shuo; Chen, Keqiang; Diao, Na; Yuan, Ruoxi; Xu, Xiguang; Dougherty, Sean; Stephenson, Caroline; Xiong, Huabao; Chu, Hong Wei; Li, Liwu

2015-03-01

118

Hierarchical cluster analysis of myoepithelial/basal cell markers in adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Distinguishing adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands is important for their management. We studied the expression of several myoepithelial and basal/stem cell markers (smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, metallothionein, maspin, and p63) by immunohistochemistry in 23 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 24 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, to identify the most useful marker or combination of markers that may help their diagnoses. The results were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and chi(2) test for trend. We noted diffuse expression of smooth muscle actin in 20 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001), calponin in 15 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain in 15 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P=0.001), metallothionein in 22 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs eight polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (P<0.001), maspin in 22 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs 14 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, and p63 in 21 adenoid cystic carcinoma vs 14 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Hierarchical clustering of smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and metallothionein was virtually identical (kappa< or =0.0035), suggesting no significant advantage to their use in combination than individually. Diffuse smooth muscle actin expression showed the highest accuracy (91.5%) and positive predictive value (95.2%) for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Thus, diffuse expression of smooth muscle actin, calponin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and metallothionein was highly predictive of adenoid cystic carcinoma, whereas maspin and p63 were frequently expressed in both tumors. In differentiating adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, smooth muscle actin as a single ancillary test in support of the histological findings, appears to be as efficient as multiple immunohistochemical tests. PMID:18084258

Prasad, Manju L; Barbacioru, Catalin C; Rawal, Yeshwant B; Husein, Omar; Wen, Ping

2008-02-01

119

Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of mink but not in hamsters. Thus mink are a relevant animal model for further study of this unique strain, which ultimately may have been introduced through consumption of a TSE of ruminant origin. PMID:22595634

Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.

2012-01-01

120

Velocity of tumor spontaneous expansion predicts long-term outcomes for diffuse low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas present a slow macroscopic tumor growth that can be quantified through the measurement of their velocity of diametric expansion. We assessed whether spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion can predict long-term outcomes as a categorical variable and as a continuous predictor. Methods A total of 407 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults were studied. Results The mean spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion before first-line treatment was 5.8 ± 6.3 mm/year. During the follow-up (mean, 86.5 ± 59.4 months), 209 patients presented a malignant transformation, and 87 died. The malignant progression-free survival and the overall survival were significantly longer in cases of slow velocity of diametric expansion (median, 103 and 249 months, respectively) than in cases of fast velocity of diametric expansion (median, 35 and 91 months, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analyses, spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion as a categorical variable (<4, ?4 and <8, ?8 and <12, ?12 mm/year) was an independent prognostic factor for malignant progression-free survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–5.52) and for overall survival (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.58–7.97). Velocity of diametric expansion was also an independent prognostic factor for overall survival as a continuous predictor, showing a linear relationship between overall survival and spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion (hazard ratio, 1.09 per one unit increase; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001). Conclusions Independent of the molecular status, the spontaneous velocity of diametric expansion allows the identification of rapidly growing diffuse low-grade gliomas (at higher risk of worsened evolution) during the pretherapeutic period and without delaying treatment. PMID:23393207

Pallud, Johan; Blonski, Marie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Audureau, Etienne; Fontaine, Denys; Sanai, Nader; Bauchet, Luc; Peruzzi, Philippe; Frénay, Marc; Colin, Philippe; Guillevin, Rémy; Bernier, Valérie; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Guyotat, Jacques; Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc; Capelle, Laurent

2013-01-01

121

Specific Visualization of Glioma Cells in Living Low-Grade Tumor Tissue  

PubMed Central

Background The current therapy of malignant gliomas is based on surgical resection, radio-chemotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent retrospective case-series have highlighted the significance of the extent of resection as a prognostic factor predicting the course of the disease. Complete resection in low-grade gliomas that show no MRI-enhanced images are especially difficult. The aim in this study was to develop a robust, specific, new fluorescent probe for glioma cells that is easy to apply to live tumor biopsies and could identify tumor cells from normal brain cells at all levels of magnification. Methodology/Principal Findings In this investigation we employed brightly fluorescent, photostable quantum dots (QDs) to specifically target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is upregulated in many gliomas. Living glioma and normal cells or tissue biopsies were incubated with QDs coupled to EGF and/or monoclonal antibodies against EGFR for 30 minutes, washed and imaged. The data include results from cell-culture, animal model and ex vivo human tumor biopsies of both low-grade and high-grade gliomas and show high probe specificity. Tumor cells could be visualized from the macroscopic to single cell level with contrast ratios as high as 1000: 1 compared to normal brain tissue. Conclusions/Significance The ability of the targeted probes to clearly distinguish tumor cells in low-grade tumor biopsies, where no enhanced MRI image was obtained, demonstrates the great potential of the method. We propose that future application of specifically targeted fluorescent particles during surgery could allow intraoperative guidance for the removal of residual tumor cells from the resection cavity and thus increase patient survival. PMID:20614029

Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Caarls, Wouter; de Vries, Anthony H. B.; Hagen, Guy M.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rohde, Veit; Giese, Alf; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

2010-01-01

122

Dietary Phthalates and Low-Grade Albuminuria in US Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Low-grade albuminuria is an indicator of endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A graded level of exposure to bisphenol A was recently identified to be associated with increased risk of low-grade albuminuria in children and adults. Because bisphenol A and phthalates coexist as dietary contaminants, this study investigated whether exposure to phthalates is also associated with low-grade albuminuria. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were examined from 667 children who participated in the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had results for urinary phthalate metabolites and albumin excretion. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were measured in a first morning specimen using a solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay and a Roche/Hitachi Modular P Chemistry Analyzer with an enzymatic method, respectively. Phthalate metabolites were analyzed in a separate spot urine sample from each participant, using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy. Results For each (roughly) 3-fold increase in metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (a high molecular weight phthalate commonly found in foods), a 0.55 mg/g increase in albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was identified (P=0.02), whereas a 1.30-fold odds of a higher ACR quartile was also identified for each (roughly) 3-fold increase (P=0.02). Higher ACR was not identified in relationship to metabolites of lower molecular phthalates commonly found in lotions or shampoos, suggesting specificity. Conclusions Although reverse causation and unmeasured confounders represent alternative explanations, these findings, in conjunction with our earlier data on bisphenol A, indicate that a wide array of environmental toxins may adversely affect albuminuria and potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the potential long-term health implications of ongoing exposure in this vulnerable subpopulation, our data support both further study and renewed regulatory efforts to limit exposure during childhood. PMID:24178978

Trasande, Leonardo; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

2014-01-01

123

MUC4 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive fibroblastic neoplasm that is characterized by alternating collagenous and myxoid areas, deceptively bland spindle cell morphology, a whorling architecture, and a t(7;16) translocation involving FUS and CREB3L2. Owing to variable morphology and a lack of discriminatory markers, LGFMS can be difficult to distinguish from benign mesenchymal tumors and other low-grade sarcomas. Gene expression profiling has identified differential upregulation of the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene in LGFMS compared with histologically similar tumors. MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions in cell growth signaling pathways; aberrant MUC4 expression has been reported in various carcinomas. We investigated MUC4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in LGFMS and in other soft tissue tumors to determine the potential diagnostic use of this novel marker. Whole-tissue sections of 309 tumors were evaluated: 49 LGFMSs (all with FUS gene rearrangement confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization), 40 soft tissue perineuriomas, 40 myxofibrosarcomas, 20 cellular myxomas, 20 solitary fibrous tumors, 20 low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 20 cases of desmoid fibromatosis, 20 neurofibromas, 20 schwannomas, 20 monophasic synovial sarcomas, 20 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 10 myxoid liposarcomas, and 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. The LGFMS cases included 7 with marked hypercellularity, 4 with prominent hemangiopericytoma-like vessels, 3 with giant collagen rosettes, 3 with epithelioid morphology, 2 with focal nuclear pleomorphism, and 2 with areas of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. All 49 LGFMS cases (100%) showed cytoplasmic staining for MUC4, which was usually diffuse and intense. All the other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from 6 (30%) monophasic synovial sarcomas. In conclusion, MUC4 is a highly sensitive and quite specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, and can be helpful to distinguish this tumor type from histologic mimics. PMID:21415703

Doyle, Leona A; Möller, Emely; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik; Hornick, Jason L

2011-05-01

124

Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

2013-11-25

125

Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2015-02-20

126

Rituximab monoclonal antibody as initial systemic therapy for patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 B cells, produces a 48% response rate in patients with refractory low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this phase II trial, patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had previ- ously received no systemic therapy were treated with rituximab, 375 mg\\/m2, admin- istered by IV infusion for 4 consecutive weeks. Patients with objective response or stable disease received repeat 4-week courses of

John D. Hainsworth; Howard A. Burris; Lisa H. Morrissey; Sharlene Litchy; Daniel C. Scullin Jr; James D. Bearden; Paul Richards; F. Anthony Greco

127

A new thermal cycle using low grade heat temperature pressure potential amplifier  

SciTech Connect

The science of thermodynamics, which arose in the 19th century, largely through the genius of Maxwell, directs that greater efficiency is achieved in heat engines with the use of high temperature and thus high grade heat input. Since then nearly all research dealing with heat engines has involved high temperature heat sources whether depletable fuel, nuclear or solar. But we are living in an ocean of renewable low grade heat with small temperature differentials. After much searching the operation of these principles was found in the case of absorption of refrigerants in certain alcohols. The unique behavior of these fluid solutions made a new thermal cycle possible.

Schlichtig, R.C.

1983-12-01

128

Low-grade appendiceal neoplasm presenting as a volvulus of the cecum  

PubMed Central

Mucocele of the appendix is an uncommon disorder that is often asymptomatic, but can present similarly to acute appendicitis. Timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative due to the many complications that can result from the mucocele, such as perforation. Appendiceal mucoceles (AM) were previously thought to be either benign or malignant; however, a different pathological classification of AM is currently favored. Also, only a few cases of volvulus of a benign AM have been reported. Here, we present the first reported case of a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm resulting in a volvulus of the cecum. PMID:24759968

Costa, Vincent; DeMuro, Jonas P.

2013-01-01

129

Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

2014-01-01

130

Outcomes of Pediatric Low-grade Gliomas Treated With Radiation Therapy: A Single-institution Study  

PubMed Central

Summary Radiation therapy is often considered the treatment of choice for low-grade gliomas. However, given the long-term effects of radiation on the developing brain, the appropriate use of radiation therapy in pediatric patients remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) of pediatric low-grade glioma patients treated with radiation therapy. Data were obtained through a retrospective chart review of patients treated between 1991 and 2008 from a single tertiary care center in the midwest. The study population consisted of 17 patients, of whom 8 (47%) had tumor recurrence after radiation therapy. The median follow-up time was 8.2 years, with a range of 2.3 to 17.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 5.4 years, and the median age at radiation therapy was 9.4 years. The 3- and the 10-year PFS were 69% ± 11.7% and 46% ± 13.3%, respectively. A significant difference in PFS was seen when comparing brainstem tumors with hypothalamic/optic pathway tumors (P = 0.019). Differences in PFS based on the age at diagnosis, the extent of initial surgery, and indication for radiation therapy were not significant. A larger multicenter study is needed to better assess PFS in these patients. PMID:24714505

Raikar, Sunil S.; Halloran, Donna R.; Elliot, Michael; McHugh, Michele; Patel, Shaun; Gauvain, Karen M.

2014-01-01

131

Outcomes of pediatric low-grade gliomas treated with radiation therapy: a single-institution study.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is often considered the treatment of choice for low-grade gliomas. However, given the long-term effects of radiation on the developing brain, the appropriate use of radiation therapy in pediatric patients remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) of pediatric low-grade glioma patients treated with radiation therapy. Data were obtained through a retrospective chart review of patients treated between 1991 and 2008 from a single tertiary care center in the midwest. The study population consisted of 17 patients, of whom 8 (47%) had tumor recurrence after radiation therapy. The median follow-up time was 8.2 years, with a range of 2.3 to 17.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 5.4 years, and the median age at radiation therapy was 9.4 years. The 3- and the 10-year PFS were 69%± 11.7% and 46%± 13.3%, respectively. A significant difference in PFS was seen when comparing brainstem tumors with hypothalamic/optic pathway tumors (P=0.019). Differences in PFS based on the age at diagnosis, the extent of initial surgery, and indication for radiation therapy were not significant. A larger multicenter study is needed to better assess PFS in these patients. PMID:24714505

Raikar, Sunil S; Halloran, Donna R; Elliot, Michael; McHugh, Michele; Patel, Shaun; Gauvain, Karen M

2014-08-01

132

Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-? induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-?, or interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-? and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-?, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-? increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-? is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3. PMID:25104880

Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders; Andreasen, Anne S.; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente K.

2014-01-01

133

Mineralogical and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Iron Ore Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations were carried out, to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation. Mineralogical studies, with the help of microscope as well as XRD, SEM-EDS revealed that the sample consists of magnetite, hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as quartz and kaolinite form the gangue minerals in the sample. Processes involving combination of classification, dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product. The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible. The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator. Dry beneficiation studies by Permaroll separator indicated that it is possible to get a product with 60.2 % Fe at 22 % weight recovery. It is possible to get an over all concentrate with 54 % Fe at 32.4 % weight recovery by combination of size reduction followed by LIMS and WHIMS.

Dwari, R. K.; Rao, D. S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

2014-10-01

134

Magnetic Separation and Magnetic Properties of Low-Grade Manganese Carbonate Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between the magnetic separation behavior and magnetic properties of a low-grade manganese ore was analyzed before and after treatment by direct reduction with coal. It was found that raw ore with an initial average grade of 10.39% Mn and consisting of diamagnetic and paramagnetic minerals can be concentrated by high-intensity magnetic separation to produce a salable product with a grade of 22.75% Mn and a recovery of 89.88%. In contrast, direct reduction of the ore results in a new Mn-Fe oxide phase formed with a combination of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties, thereby increasing the magnetic susceptibilities of the ore by almost two orders of magnitude. The grade of Mn for the roasted ore could only be concentrated to 15.49% with a recovery of 66.67%. Therefore, it is concluded that the low-grade manganese ores with antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic (or diamagnetic, but not strongly ferromagnetic) properties could be efficiently beneficiated via high-intensity magnetic separation.

Wu, Y.; Shi, B.; Ge, W.; Yan, C. J.; Yang, X.

2015-02-01

135

Low-grade inflammation disrupts structural plasticity in the human brain.  

PubMed

Increased low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by decreased neuronal plasticity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between structural changes in the human brain during cognitive training and the intensity of low-grade peripheral inflammation in healthy individuals (n=56). A two-month training (30 min/day) with a platformer video game resulted in a significantly increased volume of the right hippocampal formation. The number of stressful life events experienced during the past year was associated with less pronounced enlargement of the hippocampus. However, the main predictor of hippocampal volume expansion was the relative peripheral expression of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF-?B), a transcription factor playing a central role in the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein levels were not related to hippocampal plasticity when NF-?B was taken into consideration. These results suggest that more intensive peripheral inflammation is associated with weaker neuronal plasticity during cognitive training. PMID:24929068

Szabó, C; Kelemen, O; Kéri, S

2014-09-01

136

Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

2014-12-01

137

A case of fibroblastic low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor--a true neurofibrosarcoma.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of low-grade retroperitoneal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) showing Schwannian and fibroblastic differentiation in individual tumor cells. The tumor was detected in a 29-year-old male and posed diagnostic difficulty because of the unusual morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Morphologic examination of the H&E sections revealed a rather circumscribed, highly vascular, moderately cellular spindle cell tumor. The neoplastic cells were arranged in vague, short fascicles, distributed haphazardly amid hemangiopericytoma-like vascular channels, and showed occasional whorls. Myxoid stroma and keloid-like collagen bundles were frequently seen. There were satellite nodules outside the main tumor mass and low mitotic activity but no necrosis. The tumor cells stained strongly and diffusely for both S-100 protein and CD34. Electron microscopy revealed cells with processes and focal lamina, and prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum. Although the capacity of MPNST to exhibit divergent differentiation is well known, fibroblastic differentiation is generally poorly and inconsistently documented. The present case represents an unambiguous demonstration of the co-expression within individual tumor cells of Schwannian and fibroblastic differentiation in a low-grade MPNST. The literature on this subject is reviewed. PMID:17963184

Houreih, Mohammad Adib; Eyden, Brian; Deolekar, Madhuri; Banerjee, Sankar

2007-01-01

138

Tumor border sharpness correlates with HLA-G expression in low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a tumor microenvironment molecule that is involved in the escape of cancerous tumors from host immune recognition and destruction. This study investigated the potential relationship between HLA-G expression levels and the sharpness of low-grade glioma tumor borders in magnetic resonance images. Preoperative T2-weighted images from 72 patients were retrospectively examined by manually segmenting the hyperintensive tumor areas and subsequently registering them to a standard brain template. Then, the intensity of the voxels inside the tumor border (tumor voxels) was compared with that of the voxels outside the tumor border (paratumor voxels). The radiologic sharpness of a tumor was defined as the mean ratio of the intensity of the tumor voxels to the intensity of the paratumor voxels. Tumors with high HLA-G expression were associated with larger tumors and lower mean hyperintensive contrast. These findings suggest that tumors with blurred boundaries may be those prone to diffuse invasion. Additionally, patients with tumors having high HLA-G expression were less likely to have undergone complete resections. Thus, this study is the first to identify an association between HLA-G expression and the radiologic morphology of the tumor border, and may further our understanding of the role of the HLA gene in immune escape in patients with low-grade gliomas. PMID:25903722

Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Li, Hongming; Lin, Zhiguo; Bao, Hongbo; Li, Shaowu; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Tianzi; Fan, Yong; Jiang, Tao

2015-05-15

139

Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs. PMID:23583981

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Dooling, David J; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Baker, Suzanne J; Ellison, David W

2013-06-01

140

Filamentous microbial fossil from low-grade metamorphosed basalt in northern Chichibu belt, central Shikoku, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past two decades have seen the reporting of microbial fossils within ancient oceanic basalts that could be identical to microbes within modern basalts. Here, we present new petrographic, mineralogical, and stable isotopic data for metabasalts containing filamentous structures in a Jurassic accretionary complex within the northern Chichibu Belt of the Yanadani area of central Shikoku, Japan. Mineralized filaments within these rocks are present in interstitial domains filled with calcite, pumpellyite, or quartz, and consist of iron oxide, phengite, and pumpellyite. ?13CPDB values for filament-bearing calcite within these metabasalts vary from -2.49‰ to 0.67‰. A biogenic origin for these filamentous structures is indicated by (1) the geological context of the Yanadani metabasalt, (2) the morphology of the filaments, (3) the carbon isotope composition of carbonates that host the filaments, and (4) the timing of formation of these filaments relative to the timing of low-grade metamorphism in a subduction zone. The putative microorganisms that formed these filaments thrived between eruption (Late Paleozoic) and accretion (Early Jurassic) of the basalt. The data presented here indicate that cryptoendolithic life was present within water-filled vesicles in pre-Jurassic intraplate basalts. The mineralogy of the filaments reflects the low-grade metamorphic recrystallization of authigenic microbial clays similar to those formed by the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments. These findings suggest that a previously unusual niche for life is present within intraplate volcanic rocks in accretionary complexes.

Sakakibara, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tsuji, T.; Ikehara, M.

2014-05-01

141

Colonic mucosa-associated diffusely adherent afaC+ Escherichia coli expressing lpfA and pks are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Colonic mucosa-associated Escherichia coli are increased in Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). They variously haemagglutinate, invade epithelial cell lines, replicate within macrophages, translocate across M (microfold) cells and damage DNA. We investigated genes responsible for these effects and their co-association in colonic mucosal isolates. Design A fosmid library yielding 968 clones was prepared in E coli EPI300-T1 using DNA from a haemagglutinating CRC isolate, and resulting haemagglutinating clones were 454-pyrosequenced. PCR screening was performed on 281 colonic E coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (35 patients), CRC (21) and controls (24; sporadic polyps or irritable bowel syndrome). Results 454-Pyrosequencing of fosmids from the haemagglutinating clones (n=8) identified the afimbrial adhesin afa-1 operon. Transfection of afa-1 into E coli K-12 predictably conferred diffuse adherence plus invasion of HEp-2 and I-407 epithelial cells, and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. E coli expressing afaC were common in CRC (14/21, p=0.0009) and CD (9/14, p=0.005) but not ulcerative colitis (UC; 8/21) compared with controls (4/24). E coli expressing both afaC and lpfA (relevant to M-cell translocation) were common in CD (8/14, p=0.0019) and CRC (14/21, p=0.0001), but not UC (6/21) compared with controls (2/24). E coli expressing both afaC and pks (genotoxic) were common in CRC (11/21, p=0.0015) and UC (8/21, p=0.022), but not CD (4/14) compared with controls (2/24). All isolates expressed dsbA and htrA relevant to intra-macrophage replication, and 242/281 expressed fimH encoding type-1 fimbrial adhesin. Conclusions IBD and CRC commonly have colonic mucosal E coli that express genes that confer properties relevant to pathogenesis including M-cell translocation, angiogenesis and genotoxicity. PMID:23846483

Prorok-Hamon, Maelle; Friswell, Melissa K; Alswied, Abdullah; Roberts, Carol L; Song, Fei; Flanagan, Paul K; Knight, Paul; Codling, Caroline; Marchesi, Julian R; Winstanley, Craig; Hall, Neil; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

2014-01-01

142

Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

Vidhi, Rachana [University of South Florida, Tampa; Goswami, Yogi D. [University of South Florida, Tampa; Chen, Huijuan [University of South Florida, Tampa; Stefanakos, Elias [University of South Florida, Tampa; Kuravi, Sarada [University of South Florida, Tampa; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2011-01-01

143

A preliminary report on the rapid fluorimetric determination of uranium in low-grade ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple and very rapid fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of uranium in low-grade shale and phosphate ores. The best working range is from 0.001 to about 0.04 percent U. The procedure employs batch extraction of uranium nitrate by ethyl acetate, using aluminum nitrate as the salting agent, prior to the visual fluorimetric estimation. The procedure is especially designed to save reagents; only 9.5 g of aluminum nitrate and 10 ml of ethyl acetate being used for one analysis. The solution of the sample by means of a fusion with NaOH-NaNO3 flux is rapid. After fusion the sample is immediately extracted without removing silica and other hydrolytic precipitates. Aluminum nitrate very effectively ties up fluoride and phosphate, thus eliminating steps required for their removal.

Grimaldi, F.S.; Levine, Harry

1950-01-01

144

Low grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: Should we worry?  

PubMed Central

The optimal management for low-grade dysplasia (LGD) in Barrett’s esophagus is unclear. In this article the importance of LGD is discussed, including the significant risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic surveillance is a management option but is plagued by sampling error and issues of suboptimal endoscopy. Furthermore endoscopic surveillance has not been demonstrated to be cost-effective or to reduce cancer mortality. The emergence of endoluminal therapy over the past decade has resulted in a paradigm shift in the management of LGD. Ablative therapy, including radiofrequency ablation, has demonstrated promising results in the management of LGD with regards to safety, cost-effectiveness, durability and reduction in cancer risk. It is, however, vital that a shared-decision making process occurs between the physician and the patient as to the preferred management of LGD. As such the management of LGD should be “individualised.” PMID:24891980

Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Kelty, Clive J

2014-01-01

145

Cystic appearance of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma in the right atrium: case report  

PubMed Central

A 71-year-old woman presented with a right adnexal solid mass invading the right gonadal vein and inferior vena cava up to the hepatic veins revealed by CT and confirmed by MRI. A thin-walled cyst and a solid mass were unexpectedly found in the right atrium by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the operating room. Using color Doppler and air bubbles as contrast material a circumscribed cyst was confirmed and localized close to the IVC. The cyst was connected to the mass in the inferior vena cava. The tumor, including the cyst, was removed without using cardiopulmonary bypass and described as a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, a rare slowly growing tumor. This is the first TEE description of endometrial stromal sarcoma manifesting as a right atrial cyst. PMID:21864385

2011-01-01

146

Giant Sporadic Low Grade Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath (MPNST) of Left Thigh  

PubMed Central

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (MPNST) are rare spindle- cell sarcomas which are derived from the schwann cells or the pleuripotent cells of the neural crest. MPNSTs are usually located in the peripheral nerve trunk roots, extremities and in the head and neck region. These tumours may arise as sporadic variants or in patients with neurofibromatosis1 (NF1). The estimated incidence of MPNSTs in the patients with NF1is 2-5% as compared to a 0.001% incidence in the general population. Herein, we are reporting a case of a giant sporadic (NF1 independent) low grade MPNST of the left thigh in 65 year female patient, which had a good prognosis. PMID:23905127

Nikumbh, Dhiraj B.; Suryawanshi, K.H.; Dravid, N.V.; Patil, T.B.; Rokade, C.M.

2013-01-01

147

Microcytic adenoma coexistent with low-grade malignant islet cell tumor of the pancreas.  

PubMed

We report a case of microcystic (glycogen-rich) adenoma of the whole pancreas with coexistent pancreatic low-grade malignant islet cell tumor in a 29-year-old woman. She complained of nausea, vomiting, and growing abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple cysts in the whole pancreas and a calcified solid mass in the pancreatic head. A Whipple's operation and total pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed to treat pancreatic cystic neoplasm. The pancreas was entirely replaced by variable-sized, multilocular cysts, which were lined by a flattened-to-cuboidal glycogen-rich epithelium. Furthermore, in the head of the pancreas, a focal yellowish solid mass showed a positive reaction for chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase. Careful examination of the pancreas is warranted in cases of microcystic adenoma to rule out a possible coexistent pancreatic malignancy. PMID:11319320

Jung, H K; Son, H Y; Lee, H C; Yi, S Y

2001-01-01

148

Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.  

PubMed

Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system. PMID:25500538

Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

2015-03-01

149

Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-07-15

150

Adult Low-grade Glioma 19-year Experience at a Single Institution  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine prognostic factors and optimal timing of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in adult low-grade gliomas. Methods Records from 554 adults diagnosed with nonpilocytic low-grade gliomas at Mayo Clinic between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Histology revealed astrocytoma in 22%, oligoastrocytoma in 34%, and oligodendroglioma in 45%. Initial surgery achieved gross total resection in 31%, radical subtotal resection in 10%, subtotal resection (STR) in 21%, and biopsy only in 39%. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 11.4 and 4.1 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with lower OS included astrocytomas and use of postoperative RT. Adverse prognostic factors for PFS on multivariate analysis included tumor size, astrocytomas, STR/biopsy only and not receiving RT. Patients undergoing gross total resection/radical subtotal resection had the best OS and PFS. Comparing survival with the log-rank test demonstrated no association between RT and PFS (P = 0.24), but RT was associated with lower OS (P < 0.0001). In patients undergoing STR/biopsy only, RT was associated with improved PFS (P < 0.0001) but lower OS (P = 0.03). Postoperative RT was associated with adverse prognostic factors including age > 40 years, deep tumors, size ? 5 cm, astrocytomas and STR/biopsy only. Patients delaying RT until recurrence experienced 10-year OS (71%) similar to patients never needing RT (74%; P = 0.34). Conclusions This study supports the association between aggressive surgical resection and better OS and PFS, and between postoperative RT and improved PFS in patients receiving STR/biopsy only. In addition, our findings suggest that delaying RT until progression is safe in patients who are eligible. PMID:22892428

Youland, Ryan S.; Brown, Paul D.; Giannini, Caterina; Parney, Ian F.; Uhm, Joon H.; Laack, Nadia N.

2015-01-01

151

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood  

PubMed Central

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

2014-01-01

152

Endometrial involvement in pseudomyxoma peritonei secondary to low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm: report of 2 cases.  

PubMed

Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a clinical condition characterized by the presence of mucinous ascites, usually with variable amounts of neoplastic enteric-type mucinous epithelium, and most commonly secondary to spread from a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. We report 2 cases of pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms where there was colonization of the endometrium (both cases) and cervical mucosa (1 case) by low-grade atypical enteric-type mucinous epithelium (CK20 positive and CK7 negative). The patients had symptoms of mucoid vaginal discharge and endometrial biopsies in both (1 patient had multiple endometrial biopsies over a period of 11 mo) and were initially interpreted as representing mucinous metaplasia. Pseudomyxoma peritonei may rarely result in endometrial and cervical mucosal involvement, presumably secondary to transtubal spread. PMID:25760906

McVeigh, Gerard; Shah, Varsha; Longacre, Teri A; McCluggage, W Glenn

2015-05-01

153

Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) was first reported in endometrium carcinoma, termed with dedifferentiated carcinoma (DC). However, the coexistence of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) or serous carcinoma (LGSC) with UC has received minimal attention in ovary, and the behavior of this kind of neoplasm remains at further discussion. In this study, we reported a case of low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma associated with UC and reviewed another four cases previously reported. We found a histological continuity between the LGEC and UC components in H&E section, which suggested a dedifferentiation from LGEC to UC components. In summary, this kind of pathological type has aggressive behavior and these patients have very poor prognosis regardless of the amount of undifferentiated carcinoma. PMID:25120828

Chen, Ling; Pang, Shujie; Shen, Yan; Liu, Zaiping; Luan, Jing; Shi, Yiquan; Liu, Yixin

2014-01-01

154

Risk-scoring models for individualized prediction of overall survival in low-grade and high-grade endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Overall survival (OS) in endometrial cancer (EC) is dependent on patient-, disease-, and treatment-specific risk factors. Comprehensive risk-scoring models were developed to estimate OS in low-grade and high-grade EC. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for EC from 1999 through 2008 were stratified histologically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) as either (i) low grade: grades 1 and 2 endometrioid EC or (ii) high grade: grade 3, including non-endometrioid EC. Associations between patient-, pathological-, and treatment-specific risk factors and OS starting on postoperative day 30 were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. Factors independently associated with OS were used to construct nomograms and risk-scoring models. Results Eligible patients (N= 1281) included 925 low-grade and 356 high-grade patients; estimated 5-year OSs were 87.0% and 51.5%, respectively. Among patients alive at last follow-up, median follow-up was 5.0 (low grade) and 4.6 years (high grade), respectively. In low-grade patients, independent factors predictive of compromised OS included age, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary dysfunction, stage, tumor diameter, pelvic lymph node status, and grade 2 or higher 30-day postoperative complications. Among high-grade patients, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, stage, lymphovascular space invasion, adjuvant therapy, para-aortic nodal status, and cervical stromal invasion were independent predictors of compromised OS. The two risk-scoring models/nomograms had excellent calibration and discrimination (unbiased c-indices = 0.803 and 0.759). Conclusion Patients with low-grade and high-grade EC can be counseled regarding their predicted OS using the proposed risk-scoring models. This may facilitate institution of personalized treatment algorithms, surveillance strategies, and lifestyle interventions. PMID:24690476

AlHilli, Mariam M.; Mariani, Andrea; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Peethambaram, Preema P.; Keeney, Gary L.; Cliby, William A.; Podratz, Karl C.

2015-01-01

155

Comparison of the clinical behavior of newly diagnosed stages II–IV low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary with that of serous ovarian tumors of low malignant potential that recur as low-grade serous carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Serous ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (STLMP) frequently coexist with low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary (LGSC) and, when they recur, frequently do so as LGSC. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients with these two tumor types.

Hyun S. Shvartsman; Charlotte C. Sun; Diane C. Bodurka; Vrinda Mahajan; Marta Crispens; Karen H. Lu; Michael T. Deavers; Anais Malpica; Elvio G. Silva; David M. Gershenson

2007-01-01

156

Identifying malignant transformations in recurrent low grade gliomas using high resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether metabolic parameters derived from ex vivo analysis of tissue samples are predictive of biologic characteristics of recurrent low grade gliomas (LGGs). This was achieved by exploring the use of multivariate pattern recognition methods to generate statistical models of the metabolic characteristics of recurrent LGGs that correlate with aggressive biology and poor clinical outcome. Methods Statistical models were constructed to distinguish between patients with recurrent gliomas that had undergone malignant transformation to a higher grade and those that remained grade 2. The pattern recognition methods explored in this paper include three filter-based feature selection methods (chi-square, gain ratio, and two-way conditional probability), a genetic search wrapper-based feature subset selection algorithm, and five classification algorithms (linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, functional trees, support vector machines, and decision stump logit boost). The accuracy of each pattern recognition framework was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation and bootstrapping. Materials The population studied included fifty-three patients with recurrent grade 2 gliomas. Among these patients, seven had tumors that transformed to grade 4, twenty-four had tumors that transformed to grade 3, and twenty-two had tumors that remained grade 2. Image-guided tissue samples were obtained from these patients using surgical navigation software. Part of each tissue sample was examined by a pathologist for histological features and for consistency with the tumor grade diagnosis. The other part of the tissue sample was analyzed with ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results Distinguishing between recurrent low grade gliomas that transformed to a higher grade and those that remained grade 2 was achieved with 96% accuracy, using areas of the ex vivo NMR spectrum corresponding to myoinositol, 2-hydroxyglutarate, hypo-taurine, choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glutathione, and lipid. Logistic regression and decision stump boosting models were able to distinguish between recurrent gliomas that transformed to a higher grade and those that did not with 100% training accuracy (95% confidence interval [93%–100%]), 96% leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy (95% confidence interval [87%–100%]), and 96% bootstrapping accuracy (95% confidence interval [95%–97%]). Linear discriminant analysis, functional trees, and support vector machines were able to achieve leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy above 90% and bootstrapping accuracy above 85%. The three feature ranking methods were comparable in performance. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of using quantitative pattern recognition methods for the analysis of metabolic data from brain tissue obtained during the surgical resection of gliomas. All pattern recognition techniques provided good diagnostic accuracies, though logistic regression and decision stump boosting slightly outperform the other classifiers. These methods identified biomarkers that can be used to detect malignant transformations in individual low grade gliomas, and can lead to a timely change in treatment for each patient. PMID:22387185

Constantin, Alexandra; Elkhaled, Adam; Jalbert, Llewellyn; Srinivasan, Radhika; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M.; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Nelson, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

157

Clinical Predictors of Depression in Patients with Low-Grade Brain Tumors: Consideration of a Neurologic Versus a Psychogenic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined quality of life issues in patients with brain tumors, though coping with cancer is stressful and is associated with heightened levels of depression. We used regression to examine the clinical factors that might predict depression in a group of 57 adults with low-grade brain tumors after surgery but prior to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A neurological model

Carol L. Armstrong; Bram Goldstein; Brian Cohen; Mi-Yeoung Jo; Emily M. Tallent

2002-01-01

158

Predictive capabilities of a finite difference model of copper leaching in low grade industrial sulfide waste dumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite difference model describing industrial leaching of low grade sulfide waste and efforts to test the model are reviewed. The model includes air convection, heat balance, temperature dependent mixed oxidation kinetics, and bacterial catalysis. The model is shown to have general validity, but detailed predictions of how a given waste will leach in a given dump are not possible.

L. M. Cathles

1979-01-01

159

Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma following a metal implantation in femur: a case report  

PubMed Central

Myxofibrosarcoma is a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma that most commonly involves the extremities of elderly people. However, a primary myxofibrosarcoma with bone invasion in young adults is extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old male with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass, who had a history of left femur fracture and received an open reduction and internal fixation with titanium alloy plates and screws 33 months previously. Imaging investigations revealed an irregularly shaped soft tissue mass around the left femur shaft and a partial bone defect in the middle one-third of the left femur. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a multi-nodular appearance, abundant myxoid matrix and elongated curvilinear capillaries. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells was positive for VIM and MDM2, and was negative for CK, MSA, SMA, DES, S-100 and CD34. Labeling index of Ki-67 was 25%. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The clinical and imaging examinations did not reveal the evidence of a primary cancer elsewhere, and the patient had no personal or family history of malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary myxofibrosarcoma developed following a fracture and metal implantation in young adults. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1745984882113605 PMID:24444015

2014-01-01

160

Distinction of brain tissue, low grade and high grade glioma with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Neuropathology frozen section diagnoses are difficult in part because of the small tissue samples and the paucity of adjunctive rapid intraoperative stains. This study aims to explore the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a rapid adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of glioma specimens and for distinction of glioma from normal tissues intraoperatively. Ten low grade gliomas, 15 high grade gliomas without necrosis, 6 high grade gliomas with necrosis and/or radiation effect, and 14 histologically uninvolved "normal" brain specimens are spectroscopicaly analyzed and contrasted. Tissue autofluorescence was induced with a pulsed Nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the transient intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 370-500 nm spectral range with a fast digitized (0.2 ns time resolution). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site were used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithm was used for tissue classification. Both low and high grade gliomas can be distinguished from histologically uninvolved cerebral cortex and white matter with high accuracy (above 90%). In addition, the presence or absence of treatment effect and/or necrosis can be identified in high grade gliomas. Taking advantage of tissue autofluorescence, this technique facilitates a direct and rapid investigation of surgically obtained tissue. PMID:16368511

Yong, William H; Butte, Pramod V; Pikul, Brian K; Jo, Javier A; Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Black, Keith; Marcu, Laura

2006-01-01

161

Distinction of brain tissue, low grade and high grade glioma with time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Neuropathology frozen section diagnoses are difficult in part because of the small tissue samples and the paucity of adjunctive rapid intraoperative stains. This study aims to explore the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a rapid adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of glioma specimens and for distinction of glioma from normal tissues intraoperatively. Ten low grade gliomas, 15 high grade gliomas without necrosis, 6 high grade gliomas with necrosis and/or radiation effect, and 14 histologically uninvolved “normal” brain specimens are spectroscopicaly analyzed and contrasted. Tissue autofluorescence was induced with a pulsed Nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the transient intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 370-500 nm spectral range with a fast digitized (0.2 ns time resolution). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site were used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithm was used for tissue classification. Both low and high grade gliomas can be distinguished from histologically uninvolved cerebral cortex and white matter with high accuracy (above 90%). In addition, the presence or absence of treatment effect and/or necrosis can be identified in high grade gliomas. Taking advantage of tissue autofluorescence, this technique facilitates a direct and rapid investigation of surgically obtained tissue. PMID:16368511

Yong, William H.; Butte, Pramod V.; Pikul, Brian K.; Jo, Javier A.; Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Black, Keith L.; Marcu, Laura

2010-01-01

162

Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.  

PubMed

This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching. PMID:24374030

Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

2014-02-01

163

Optimal management of biopsy-proven low-grade gastric dysplasia.  

PubMed

Gastric adenocarcinoma generally culminates via the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence progression. The prevalence of gastric adenomas shows marked geographic variation. Recently, the rate of diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) has increased due to increased use of upper endoscopy. Many investigators have reported that gastric high-grade dysplasia has high potential for malignancy and should be removed; however, the treatment for gastric LGD remains controversial. Although the risk of LGD progression to invasive carcinoma has been reported to be inconsistent, progression has been observed during follow-up. Additionally, the rate of upgraded diagnosis in biopsy-proven LGD is high. Therefore, endoscopic resection (ER) may be useful in the treatment and diagnosis of LGD, especially if lesions are found to have risk factors for upgraded histology after ER, such as large size, surface erythema or depressed morphology. Fatal complications in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are extremely low and its therapeutic and diagnostic outcomes are excellent. Therefore, ESD should be applied preferentially instead of endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:25901219

Kim, Jung-Wook; Jang, Jae Young

2015-04-16

164

Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Some of the universal characteristics of pre-agricultural hominin diets are strikingly different from the modern human diet. Hominin dietary choices were limited to wild plant and wild animal foods, while the modern diet includes more than 70 % of energy consumed from refined sugars, refined vegetable oils, and highly processed cereals and dairy products. The modern diet, with higher intake of fat has also resulted in a higher ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), contributing to low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) and thus promoting the development of many chronic diseases, including obesity and osteoporosis. In this review, we describe the changes in modern diet, focusing on the kind and amount of consumed fat; explain the shortcomings of the modern diet with regard to inflammatory processes; and delineate the reciprocity between adiposity and inflammatory processes, with inflammation being a common link between obesity and osteoporosis. We present the evidence that overconsumption of n-6 PUFA coupled with under-consumption of n-3 PUFA results in LGCI and, along with the increased presence of reactive oxygen species, leads to a shift in mesenchymal stem cells (precursors for both osteoblasts and adipocytes) lineage commitment toward increased adipogenesis and suppressed osteoblastogenesis. In turn, high n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratios in the modern diet, coupled with increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to adiposity, propagate obesity and osteoporosis by increasing or maintaining LGCI. PMID:24945416

Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kelly, Owen J; Kim, Youjin; Spicer, Maria T

2014-06-01

165

Functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas in eloquent brain: hypothesis of brain compensation  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas (LGG) in eloquent brain areas, and discuss the mechanisms of compensation. Methods: Seventy-seven right-handed patients without deficit were operated on for a LGG invading primary and/or secondary sensorimotor and/or language areas, as shown anatomically by pre-operative MRI and intraoperatively by electrical brain stimulation and cortico-subcortical mapping. Results: Tumours involved 31 supplementary motor areas, 28 insulas, 8 primary somatosensory areas, 4 primary motor areas, 4 Broca's areas, and 2 left temporal language areas. All patients had immediate post-operative deficits. Recovery occurred within 3 months in all except four cases (definitive morbidity: 5%). Ninety-two percent of the lesions were either totally or extensively resected on post-operative MRI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that spatio-temporal functional re-organisation is possible in peritumoural brain, and that the process is dynamic. The recruitment of compensatory areas with long term perilesional functional reshaping would explain why: before surgery, there is no clinical deficit despite the tumour growth in eloquent regions; immediately after surgery, the occurrence of a deficit, which could be due to the resection of invaded areas participating (but not essential) to the function; and why three months after surgery, almost complete recovery had occurred. This brain plasticity, which decreases the long term risk of surgical morbidity, may be used to extend the limits of surgery in eloquent areas. PMID:12810776

Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Denvil, D; Sichez, N; Gatignol, P; Lopes, M; Mitchell, M; Sichez, J; Van Effenterre, R

2003-01-01

166

Optimal management of biopsy-proven low-grade gastric dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenocarcinoma generally culminates via the inflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence progression. The prevalence of gastric adenomas shows marked geographic variation. Recently, the rate of diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) has increased due to increased use of upper endoscopy. Many investigators have reported that gastric high-grade dysplasia has high potential for malignancy and should be removed; however, the treatment for gastric LGD remains controversial. Although the risk of LGD progression to invasive carcinoma has been reported to be inconsistent, progression has been observed during follow-up. Additionally, the rate of upgraded diagnosis in biopsy-proven LGD is high. Therefore, endoscopic resection (ER) may be useful in the treatment and diagnosis of LGD, especially if lesions are found to have risk factors for upgraded histology after ER, such as large size, surface erythema or depressed morphology. Fatal complications in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are extremely low and its therapeutic and diagnostic outcomes are excellent. Therefore, ESD should be applied preferentially instead of endoscopic mucosal resection.

Kim, Jung-Wook; Jang, Jae Young

2015-01-01

167

Significance of proximal margin involvement in low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms.  

PubMed

Context .- Appendiceal adenomas and low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) confined to the appendix are cured by appendectomy. However, involvement of the proximal margin raises concern for residual disease. Some patients with a positive margin at appendectomy undergo cecal resection to eliminate a perceived risk for tumor recurrence or dissemination, although that likelihood is assumed rather than demonstrated. Objective .- To determine whether involvement of the proximal appendiceal resection margin by adenoma or LAMN is a risk factor for local development of recurrence or pseudomyxoma peritonei. Design .- Appendiceal adenomas and LAMNs confined to the appendix were considered for the study if they showed neoplasia or dissecting mucin at the proximal margin. The presence or absence of residual tumor in cecal resections was determined. Follow-up data were obtained from clinical records. Results .- Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) with LAMN (n = 15) or adenoma (n = 1) and an involved proximal resection margin were identified, including 9 with neoplastic epithelium within the lumen and 7 with acellular mucin in the appendiceal wall at the margin. Six patients underwent cecal resection and the others were nonsurgically followed. No cecal resection had residual neoplasia. No patient developed recurrence or pseudomyxoma peritonei (mean follow-up, 4.7 years). Conclusions .- In patients with LAMNs confined to the appendix, involvement of the appendectomy margin by neoplastic epithelium or acellular mucin does not predict recurrence of disease, even without further surgery. A conservative approach to managing these patients can be justified. PMID:24971927

Arnason, Thomas; Kamionek, Michal; Yang, Michelle; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Misdraji, Joseph

2015-04-01

168

A dynamic model for the optimization of oscillatory low grade heat engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of a thermodynamic system is a key quantity on which its usefulness and wider application relies. This is especially true for a device that operates with marginal energy sources and close to ambient temperatures. Various definitions of efficiency are available, each of which reveals a certain performance characteristic of a device. Of these, some consider only the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the working fluid, whereas others contain additional information, including relevant internal components of the device that are not part of the thermodynamic cycle. Yet others attempt to factor out the conditions of the surroundings with which the device is interfacing thermally during operation. In this paper we present a simple approach for the modeling of complex oscillatory thermal-fluid systems capable of converting low grade heat into useful work. We apply the approach to the NIFTE, a novel low temperature difference heat utilization technology currently under development. We use the results from the model to calculate various efficiencies and comment on the usefulness of the different definitions in revealing performance characteristics. We show that the approach can be applied to make design optimization decisions, and suggest features for optimal efficiency of the NIFTE.

Markides, Christos N.; Smith, Thomas C. B.

2015-01-01

169

Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.  

PubMed

A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72?°C produced a power density of 236±8?W?m(-2) , with a linear decrease in power to 95±5?W?m(-2) at 23?°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650?Wh?m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54?% and a temperature of 37?°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13?% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5?%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. PMID:25684619

Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

2015-03-01

170

Low-grade toxicity after conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer-impact of bladder volume  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain with urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.

Pinkawa, Michael [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: mpinkawa@ukaachen.de; Fischedick, Karin [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Asadpour, Branka [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Gagel, Bernd [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Piroth, Marc D. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Eble, Michael J. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

2006-03-01

171

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma mimicking a giant cell tumor. Is this low grade dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma?  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma mimicking a benign giant cell tumor. A 22-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with a history of mild left wrist pain after a skiing trauma. Radiology revealed an extensive meta-epiphyseal osteolytic lesion in the distal ulna, which appeared to be a giant cell tumor. Histological examination showed a biphasic tumor comprising chondroid and non-chondroid areas with a giant cell-rich lesion resembling a conventional giant cell tumor of the bone. Immunohistochemistry showed no expression of p16(INK4a), VEGFR1, KDR (VEGFR2), VEGFR3, cKIT, MDM2 or CDK4. However, high expression of the tyrosine kinases PDGFRA and PDGFRB was observed. Molecular analysis showed no amplification of the cMYC gene and no activating mutations in the cKIT (exons 9 and 11) or PDGFRA (exon 18) genes. He has been on follow-up for ten months, with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease. In summary, this report highlights a very rare case of a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in which the dedifferentiated component of the tumor bears histologic resemblance to a conventional giant cell tumor of bone. We suggest that this tumor might be categorized in the group of low-grade dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. PMID:24405942

Knösel, Thomas; Werner, Mathias; Jung, Andreas; Kirchner, Thomas; Dürr, Hans Roland

2014-03-01

172

Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To describe the clinical features of rheumatic fever and to assess the Jones criteria in a population and setting similar to that in many developing countries.?METHODS—The charts of 555 cases of confirmed acute rheumatic fever in 367 patients (97% Aboriginal) and more than 200 possible rheumatic fever cases from the tropical "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory were reviewed retrospectively.?RESULTS—Most clinical features were similar to classic descriptions. However, monoarthritis occurred in 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases and 35% of unconfirmed cases, including up to 27 in whom the diagnosis was missed because monoarthritis is not a major manifestation. Only 71% and 25% of confirmed non-chorea cases would have had fever using cut off values of 38°C and 39°C, respectively. In 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases, anti-DNase B titres were raised but antistreptolysin O titres were normal. Although features of recurrences tended to correlate with initial episodes, there were numerous exceptions.?CONCLUSIONS—Monoarthritis and low grade fever are important manifestations of rheumatic fever in this population. Streptococcal serology results may support a possible role for pyoderma in rheumatic fever pathogenesis. When recurrences of rheumatic fever are common, the absence of carditis at the first episode does not reliably predict the absence of carditis with recurrences.?? PMID:11517105

Carapetis, J; Currie, B

2001-01-01

173

Surgical management of eloquent supratentorial low-grade gliomas with special emphasis on intraoperative imaging.  

PubMed

Objective?Eloquent diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) threaten patients' neurologic function and are also associated with inferior survival. Many neurosurgeons still refrain from early resection due to the fear of iatrogenic neurologic injury. However, the perceived safety of expectant management strategies may soon be overshadowed by the progressive deficits of tumor growth in eloquent regions. It is also known that radical and successful surgery prolongs progression-free survival, overall survival, and may reduce seizure burden and also potentially neurocognitive functions. Thus early successful surgery with preservation of function has a significant impact on patients' health. In modern neurosurgery, safe resection is often possible with detailed knowledge of anatomy and function together with the active use of various intraoperative surgical tools. We present illustrative cases of eloquent LGGs treated with different intraoperative tools. Methods?An introduction to important intraoperative tools in LGG surgery is provided by experts in the field and described in five cases viewed in the context of the recent LGG literature. Results?We present five cases with presumed eloquently located LGGs where extensive resection was offered using different intraoperative techniques. The clinical and radiologic outcomes are described. Conclusions?Correct use of intraoperative tools together with the surgeon's knowledge of anatomy and function will provide good functional and oncologic results in eloquently located LGGs. Watchful waiting or deferral of surgery due to tumor location (i.e., claiming inoperability) is very rarely good practice. PMID:25539070

Jakola, Asgeir Store; Senft, Christian; Unsgaard, Geirmund; Solheim, Ole

2015-03-01

174

Fast thermal calibration of low-grade inertial sensors and inertial measurement units.  

PubMed

The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy. PMID:24036581

Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

2013-01-01

175

Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

1991-01-01

176

Low-grade, M1 metamorphism of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex of western Canada and southeastern Alaska that developed as a result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collision of the Alexander terrane and Gravina assemblage on the west against the Yukon Prong and Stikine terranes to the east. Sub-greenschist to lower greenschist facies metabasalts exposed along the west end of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska record the earliest metamorphic event (M1). These low-grade rocks are gradational with younger, higher-grade assemblages that define an inverted metamorphic gradient (metamorphic event M5). The most common metamorphic mineral assemblages are chlorite-epidote-actinolite with or without pumpellyite and stilpnomelane. There is no systematic distribution of metamorphic mineral assemblages in the study area, and all assemblages are in the pumpellyite-actinolite facies near the transition to the lower greenschist facies. Different low-variance assemblages can be attributed to minor differences in pressure, temperature, or X[sub CO[sub 2

Himmelberg, G.R. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Geology); Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

177

Evolution of DNA repair defects during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas after temozolomide treatment.  

PubMed

Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O (6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an improved response to TMZ treatment, while inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is associated with therapeutic resistance and TMZ-induced mutagenesis. We previously demonstrated that TMZ treatment of LGG induces driver mutations in the RB and AKT-mTOR pathways, which may drive malignant progression to secondary GBM. To better understand the mechanisms underlying TMZ-induced mutagenesis and malignant progression, we explored the evolution of MGMT methylation and genetic alterations affecting MMR genes in a cohort of 34 treatment-naïve LGGs and their recurrences. Recurrences with TMZ-associated hypermutation had increased MGMT methylation compared to their untreated initial tumors and higher overall MGMT methylation compared to TMZ-treated non-hypermutated recurrences. A TMZ-associated mutation in one or more MMR genes was observed in five out of six TMZ-treated hypermutated recurrences. In two cases, pre-existing heterozygous deletions encompassing MGMT, or an MMR gene, were followed by TMZ-associated mutations in one of the genes of interest. These results suggest that tumor cells with methylated MGMT may undergo positive selection during TMZ treatment in the context of MMR deficiency. PMID:25724300

van Thuijl, Hinke F; Mazor, Tali; Johnson, Brett E; Fouse, Shaun D; Aihara, Koki; Hong, Chibo; Malmström, Annika; Hallbeck, Martin; Heimans, Jan J; Kloezeman, Jenneke J; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Lamfers, Martine L M; Saito, Nobuhito; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Mukasa, Akitake; Berger, Mitchell S; Söderkvist, Peter; Taylor, Barry S; Molinaro, Annette M; Wesseling, Pieter; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Chang, Susan M; Ylstra, Bauke; Costello, Joseph F

2015-04-01

178

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma mimicking solitary fibrous tumor: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon fibroblastic neoplasm with many morphologic mimics. Solitary fibrous tumor is a more common fibroblastic neoplasm, but the two rarely enter the same differential diagnosis. However, here, we report two unusual cases of LGFMS, containing dilated, hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels, which prompted diagnostic considerations of solitary fibrous tumor. Both cases presented were confirmed to harbor FUS gene rearrangement, thereby confirming a diagnosis of LGFMS. One case is that of an 18-year-old male with a left forearm mass, and the other a 50-year-old man with a left popliteal mass. While both cases show some histologic features of LGFMS, the non-classical, dilated blood vessel pattern seen here may serve as a diagnostic pitfall, as LGFMS normally exhibits fine, curvilinear blood vessels. To our knowledge, there is only one other report of LGFMS displaying such hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels. In summary, when encountering a bland spindle cell neoplasm with classic hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels, it is prudent to consider a diagnosis of LGFMS besides solitary fibrous tumor-particularly in the absence of CD34 immunoreactivity as it may be a rare, mimicking variant of LGFMS. PMID:25416841

Papp, Sylvia; Dickson, Brendan C; Chetty, Runjan

2015-02-01

179

Kinetics of chemical leaching of chalcopyrite from low grade copper ore: behavior of different size fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of the chemical leaching of copper from low grade ore in ferric sulfate media was investigated using the constrained least square optimization technique. The experiments were carried out for different particle sizes in both the reactor and column at constant oxidation-reduction potential ( E h), pH values, and temperature. The main copper mineral was chalcopyrite. About 40% of Cu recovery is obtained after 7 d of reactor leaching at 85°C using -0.5 mm size fraction, while the same recovery is obtained at 75°C after 24 d. Also, about 23% of Cu recovery is obtained after 60 d of column leaching for +4--8 mm size fraction whereas the Cu recovery is as low as about 15% for +8--12.7 and +12.7--25 mm size fractions. A 4-stage model for chalcopyrite dissolution was used to explain the observed dissolution behaviors. The results show that thick over-layers of sulphur components cause the parabolic behavior of chalcopyrite dissolution and the precipitation of Fe3+ plays the main role in chalcopyrite passivation. In the case of coarse particles, transformation from one stage to another takes a longer time, thus only two stages including the initial reaction on fresh surfaces and S0 deposition are observed.

Naderi, H.; Abdollahy, M.; Mostoufi, N.; Koleini, M. J.; Shojaosadati, S. A.; Manafi, Z.

2011-12-01

180

Identification of a novel, recurrent MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of rare uterine neoplasms that are commonly driven by recurrent gene rearrangements. In conventional low-grade ESS, JAZF1-SUZ12, PHF1-JAZF1, EPC1-PHF1 and MEAF6-PHF1, and recently described ZC3H7-BCOR chimeric fusions have been reported in > 50% of cases. Conversely, oncogenic t(10;17)(q22;p13) translocation yields YWHAE-FAM22A/B chimeric proteins that are associated with histologically high-grade and clinically more aggressive ESS. Integrating whole-transcriptome paired-end RNA sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and banding cytogenetics, we identified MBTD1 (malignant brain tumor domain-containing 1) and CXorf67 (chromosome X open reading frame 67) as the genes involved in the novel reciprocal t(X;17)(p11.2;q21.33) translocation in two independent low-grade ESS of classical histology. The presence of the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion transcript was validated in both cases using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by Sanger sequencing. A specific FISH assay was developed to detect the novel t(X;17) translocation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material, and resulted in identification of an additional low-grade ESS case positive for the MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion among 25 uterine stromal tumors [14 ESS and 11 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UESs)] that were negative for JAZF1 and YWHAE rearrangements. Gene expression profiles of seven ESS (including three with YWHAE and two with JAZF1 rearrangements) and four UES without specific chromosomal aberrations indicated clustering of tumors with MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion together with low-grade JAZF1-associated ESS. The chimeric MBTD1-CXorf67 fusion identifies yet another cytogenetically distinct subgroup of low-grade ESS and offers the opportunity to shed light on the functions of two poorly characterized genes. PMID:23959973

Dewaele, Barbara; Przybyl, Joanna; Quattrone, Anna; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; Vanspauwen, Vanessa; Geerdens, Ellen; Gianfelici, Valentina; Kalender, Zeynep; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Moerman, Philippe; Sciot, Raf; Croce, Sabrina; Amant, Frederic; Vandenberghe, Peter; Cools, Jan; Debiec-Rychter, Maria

2014-03-01

181

Reduction of low grade inflammation restores blunting of postprandial muscle anabolism and limits sarcopenia in old rats  

PubMed Central

Ageing is characterized by a decline in muscle mass that could be explained by a defect in the regulation of postprandial muscle protein metabolism. Indeed, the stimulatory effect of food intake on protein synthesis and its inhibitory effect on proteolysis is blunted in old muscles from both animals and humans. Recently, low grade inflammation has been suspected to be one of the factors responsible for the decreased sensitivity of muscle protein metabolism to food intake. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of long-term prevention of low grade inflammation on muscle protein metabolism during ageing. Old rats (20 months of age) were separated into two groups: a control group and a group (IBU) in which low grade inflammation had been reduced with a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug (ibuprofen). After 5 months of treatment, inflammatory markers and cytokine levels were significantly improved in treated old rats when compared with the controls: ?22.3% fibrinogen, ?54.2%?2-macroglobulin, +12.6% albumin, ?59.6% IL6 and ?45.9% IL1? levels. As expected, food intake had no effect on muscle protein synthesis or muscle proteolysis in controls whereas it significantly increased muscle protein synthesis by 24.8% and significantly decreased proteolysis in IBU rats. The restoration of muscle protein anabolism at the postprandial state by controlling the development of low grade inflammation in old rats significantly decreased muscle mass loss between 20 and 25 months of age. In conclusion, the observations made in this study have identified low grade inflammation as an important target for pharmacological, nutritional and lifestyle interventions that aim to limit sarcopenia and muscle weakness in the rapidly growing elderly population in Europe and North America. PMID:19752122

Rieu, Isabelle; Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Averous, Julien; Bos, Cécile; Peyron, M A; Combaret, Lydie; Dardevet, Dominique

2009-01-01

182

The biology of innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to promote immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Innate lymphoid cells are the most recently identified constituents of the innate immune system and have been the focus of intense investigation over the past five years. We summarize the studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:25592534

Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

2015-01-15

183

Lymphatic vessels and tertiary lymphoid organs  

PubMed Central

Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are accumulations of lymphoid cells in chronic inflammation that resemble LNs in their cellular content and organization, high endothelial venules, and lymphatic vessels (LVs). Although acute inflammation can result in defective LVs, TLO LVs appear to function normally in that they drain fluid and transport cells that respond to chemokines and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) gradients. Molecular regulation of TLO LVs differs from lymphangiogenesis in ontogeny with a dependence on cytokines and hematopoietic cells. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LVs in TLOs is providing insight into therapies for conditions as diverse as lymphedema, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:24590281

Ruddle, Nancy H.

2014-01-01

184

Dedifferentiated liposarcoma with extensive lymphoid component  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual variant of dedifferentiated liposarcoma with extensive lymphocytic component is described. A 71-year-old patient suffered from a relapse of an atypical lipomatous tumor\\/well-differentiated liposarcoma with early micronodular (low-grade) dedifferentiation, which had been resected 4 years before. The relapse revealed features of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma with spindle-cell, partly pleomorphic dedifferentiation and osseous metaplasia. Clearly separated from the spindle-cell areas, an

Cornelius Kuhnen; Thomas Mentzel; Raf Sciot; Marcus Lehnhardt; Heinz-Herbert Homann; Maria Debiec-Rychter

2005-01-01

185

Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody and Combination Chemotherapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Lymphoid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-12-29

186

Clinical value of chromosome arms 19q and 11p losses in low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) form a heterogeneous subgroup of gliomas in adults. Chromosome (chr) arms 1p/19q codeletion and IDH mutation have been shown to be closely associated with oligodendroglial phenotype and better prognosis. We sought to identify relevant biomarkers in non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs. Methods We characterized a retrospective series of 126 LGGs using genomic arrays, microsatellite analysis, IDH sequencing, MGMT promoter methylation assay, and p53 expression analysis. Results Our study confirms that 1p/19q codeletion, mutually exclusive with p53 overexpression, was associated with: (i) better prognosis, (ii) oligodendroglial phenotype, (iii) MGMT promoter methylation, and (iv) IDH mutation. Interestingly, 1p/19q codeleted tumors occur in older patients at diagnosis. Our study shows that non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs can be divided in 5 main genomic subgroups: (i) 11p loss, (ii) 19q loss (iii) 7 gain, (iv) 19 gain, and (v) unclassified. In non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs, we demonstrated that (i) 11p loss is associated with astrocytoma phenotype and has an independent negative prognostic value, and (ii) 19q loss diminished the favorable prognostic value of IDH mutation. Our findings were validated in an independent cohort of 98 LGGs. Conclusion Novel genomic entities and biomarkers have been identified in non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs. Our findings may help to stratify non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs, facilitating future individualization of treatment. Further prospective studies are warranted to support our findings. PMID:24335697

Alentorn, Agustí; van Thuijl, Hinke F.; Marie, Yannick; Alshehhi, Hussa; Carpentier, Catherine; Boisselier, Blandine; Laigle-Donadey, Florence; Mokhtari, Karima; Scheinin, Ilari; Wesseling, Pieter; Ylstra, Bauke; Capelle, Laurent; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Sanson, Marc; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Idbaih, Ahmed

2014-01-01

187

Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The enhanced spatial and spectral resolution provided by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has led to the discovery of numerous hydrated silicate minerals on Mars, particularly in the ancient, cratered crust comprising the southern highlands. Phases recently identified using visible/near-infrared spectra include: smectite, chlorite, prehnite, high-charge phyllosilicates (illite or muscovite), the zeolite analcime, opaline silica, and serpentine. Some mineral assemblages represent the products of aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures. Geologic occurrences of these mineral assemblages are described using examples from west of the Isidis basin near the Nili Fossae and with reference to differences in implied temperature, fluid composition, and starting materials during alteration. The alteration minerals are not distributed homogeneously. Rather, certain craters host distinctive alteration assemblages: (1) prehnite-chlorite-silica, (2) analcime-silica-Fe,Mg-smectite-chlorite, (3) chlorite-illite (muscovite), and (4) serpentine, which furthermore has been found in bedrock units. These assemblages contrast with the prevalence of solely Fe,Mg-smectites in most phyllosilicate-bearing terrains on Mars, and they represent materials altered at depth then exposed by cratering. Of the minerals found to date, prehnite provides the clearest evidence for subsurface, hydrothermal/metamorphic alteration, as it forms only under highly restricted conditions (T = 200 400??C). Multiple mechanisms exist for forming the other individual minerals; however, the most likely formation mechanisms for the characteristic mineralogic assemblages observed are, for (1) and (2), low- grade metamorphism or hydrothermal (400??C has not been found.

Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Murchie, S.L.

2011-01-01

188

Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

Habrand, Jean-Louis [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France)], E-mail: jean-louis.habrand@curie.net; Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Petras, Slavo [University Hospital, Caen Cyceron Laboratory, Caen (France); Datchary, Jean [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Grill, Jacques [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Sainte-Rose, Christian [Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

2008-07-01

189

Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

Di Pinto, Marcos [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-11-01

190

Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-04-01

191

Disturbed Small-World Networks and Neurocognitive Function in Frontal Lobe Low-Grade Glioma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Brain tumor patients often associated with losses of the small-world configuration and neurocognitive functions before operations. However, few studies were performed on the impairments of frontal lobe low-grade gliomas (LGG) after tumor resection using small-world network features. Methodology/Principal Findings To detect differences in the whole brain topology among LGG patients before and after operation, a combined study of neurocognitive assessment and graph theoretical network analysis of fMRI data was performed. We collected resting-state fMRI data of 12 carefully selected frontal lobe LGG patients before and after operation. We calculated the topological properties of brain functional networks in the 12 LGG, and compared with 12 healthy controls (HCs). We also applied Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in a subset of patients (n?=?12, including before and after operation groups) and HCs (n?=?12). The resulting functional connectivity matrices were constructed for all 12 patients, and binary network analysis was performed. In the range of , the functional networks in preoperative LGG and postoperative one both fitted the definition of small-worldness. We proposed as small-world network interval, and the results showed that the topological properties were found to be disrupted in the two LGG groups, meanwhile the global efficiency increased and the local efficiency decreased. in the two LGG groups both were longer than HCs. in the LGG groups were smaller than HCs. Compared with the Hcs, MoCA in the two LGG groups were lower than HCs with significant difference, and the disturbed networks in the LGG were negatively related to worse MoCA scores. Conclusions Disturbed small-worldness preperty in the two LGG groups was found and widely spread in the strength and spatial organization of brain networks, and the alterated small-world network may be responsible for cognitive dysfunction in frontal lobe LGG patients. PMID:24714669

Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Xinhua; Ding, Shangwen; Qian, Jingguang; Lei, Ting; Cao, Xuan; Tao, Ling; Qian, Zhiyu; Liu, Hongyi

2014-01-01

192

The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 ? Mn3O4 ? MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

2013-08-01

193

Outcome After Surveillance of Low-grade and Indefinite Dysplasia in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background The management of low-grade (LGD) and indefinite dysplasia (IND) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) remains controversial, as outcomes after a diagnosis of LGD or IND in previous studies vary widely. Methods All patients evaluated were from a single institution referral center who had a history of UC and a diagnosis of either LGD or IND between 1994 and 2008 as confirmed by 2 expert gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists. Data were collected by chart review of electronic and paper medical records. All patients who did not undergo a colectomy within 90 days of their dysplasia diagnosis were included in the final analysis. Hazard ratios for risk factors as well as incidence rates and Kaplan–Meier estimates were used to calculate the progression to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC). Results Thirty-five patients were included in the analysis, of whom 2 patients with IND and 2 patients with LGD developed HGD or CRC over a mean duration of 49.8 months. In total, the incident rate for advanced neoplasia for all patients was 2.7 cases of HGD or CRC per 100 person-years at risk. For flat and polypoid LGD the incident rate of advanced neoplasia was 4.3 and 1.5 cases per 100 person-years at risk, respectively. Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) had an incident rate of 10.5 cases per 100 years of patient follow-up. Conclusions We report a low rate of progression to HGD or CRC in patients who underwent surveillance for LGD or IND; polypoid dysplasia showed less risk of progression than flat dysplasia. PMID:20027656

Pekow, Joel R.; Hetzel, Jeremy T.; Rothe, Jami A.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Hart, John; Noffsinger, Amy; Huo, Dezheng; Rubin, David T.

2011-01-01

194

Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the potential of low grade MgO (LGMgO) for the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace wastes. Relevant characteristics such as setting time, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behaviour assessed by acid neutralisation capacity (ANC), monolithic and granular leaching tests were examined in light of the UK landfill Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal. The results demonstrated that all studied mix designs with Portland cement type 1 (CEM1) and LGMgO, CEM1-LGMgO 1:2 and 1:4 at 40% and 70% waste addition met the WAC requirements by means of UCS, initial and final setting times and consistence. Most of the ANC results met the WAC limits where the threshold pH values without acid additions were stable and between 11.9 and 12.2 at 28d. Granular leaching results indicate fixation of most of the metals at all mix ratios. An optimum ratio was obtained at CEM1-LGMgO 1:4 at 40% waste additions where none of the metals leaching exceeded the WAC limits and hence may be considered for landfill disposal. The monolithic leaching test results showed that LGMgO performed satisfactorily with respect to S/S of Zn, as the metal component present at the highest concentration level in the waste exhibited very little leaching and passed the leaching test requirement at all mix ratios studied. However, its performance with respect to Pb, Cd and Cr was less effective in reducing their leaching suggesting a higher cumulative rate under those leaching regimes. PMID:22172635

Cubukcuoglu, B; Ouki, S K

2012-02-01

195

The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

2014-01-01

196

Functional changes after treatment of optic pathway paediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the functional changes after treatment of paediatric optic pathway gliomas (OPGs). Methods All patients with monofocal OPG seen from January 2004 to January 2011 were included. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, LogMAR), contrast sensitivity (Hiding-Heidi low-contrast ‘face' test (HH) and Pelli?Robson (PR) contrast sensitivity test), and the Color Test (Ishihara plate) were obtained. Results Twenty-one patients (10 boys and 11 girls with a mean age of 5.5±4.4 years at diagnosis) were included in the study. Neurofibromatosis was present in four cases. Eighteen patients (85.7%) were treated with initial surgery and three patients (14.3%) with initial chemotherapy. BCVA was 0.67±0.8 LogMAR at baseline and 0.62±0.9 LogMAR at last visit (P=0.41). The Color test was not significantly changed at last visit (P=0.62). Contrast sensitivity with the HH test was 9.1±11.1% at baseline and 3.8±6.4% at last visit (P=0.03). Contrast sensitivity with PR chart was 1.33±0.9log at baseline and 1.05±0.7 log at last visit (P=0.005). A reduction in contrast sensitivity at both tests was significantly greater in patients who relapsed than in patients who did not relapse (P=0.001). Conclusion After the treatment of paediatric optic pathway low-grade gliomas, a reduction in contrast sensitivity during follow-up was observed and may be correlated with tumour relapses. PMID:23970029

Magli, A; Forte, R; Cinalli, G; Esposito, F; Parisi, S; Capasso, M; Papparella, A

2013-01-01

197

Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8-7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0-7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

2010-10-01

198

Mediterranean Diet and Low-grade Subclinical Inflammation: The Moli-sani Study.  

PubMed

Low-grade chronic inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological mechanism linking risk factors and/or metabolic disorders to increased risk of chronic degenerative disease. A meat-based pattern, as the Western type diet, is positively linked to higher levels of some important biomarkers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and fibrinogen. Conversely, a Mediterranean-like eating behavior is associated with lower degree of these biomarkers thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory action of its main food components. This chapter goes through the most important investigations addressing the relationship between dietary habits and subclinical inflammation. Attention was focussed on the findings from the Moli-sani study: this is a large prospective cohort study that recruited 24,325 men and women from the general population of the Molise Region, a Southern Italian area, with the aim of investigating genetic and environmental risk/protection factors for cardiovascular and tumor disease. For the first time, the Moli-sani study carefully investigated the Mediterranean diet as an environmental determinant of both platelet and white blood cell counts, starting from the hypothesis that a diet rich in healthy compounds could favorably influence the production and/or the clearance of these two cellular biomarkers of lowgrade inflammation. Additionally, evidence from this large Italian cohort showed that a Mediterranean-like diet was closely associated with relatively lower values of glucose, lipids, CRP, blood pressure and 10-year cardiovascular risk, while the consumption of healthy foods with high rather than low content in antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals was associated with lower blood pressure and CRP plasma levels at least in men. PMID:25329200

Bonaccio, Marialaura; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

2015-01-01

199

Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.  

PubMed

Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

1995-01-01

200

Gene expression trees in lymphoid development  

PubMed Central

Background The regulatory processes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation are central to developmental biology. Particularly well studied in this respect is the lymphoid system due to its importance for basic biology and for clinical applications. Gene expression measured in lymphoid cells in several distinguishable developmental stages helps in the elucidation of underlying molecular processes, which change gradually over time and lock cells in either the B cell, T cell or Natural Killer cell lineages. Large-scale analysis of these gene expression trees requires computational support for tasks ranging from visualization, querying, and finding clusters of similar genes, to answering detailed questions about the functional roles of individual genes. Results We present the first statistical framework designed to analyze gene expression data as it is collected in the course of lymphoid development through clusters of co-expressed genes and additional heterogeneous data. We introduce dependence trees for continuous variates, which model the inherent dependencies during the differentiation process naturally as gene expression trees. Several trees are combined in a mixture model to allow inference of potentially overlapping clusters of co-expressed genes. Additionally, we predict microRNA targets. Conclusion Computational results for several data sets from the lymphoid system demonstrate the relevance of our framework. We recover well-known biological facts and identify promising novel regulatory elements of genes and their functional assignments. The implementation of our method (licensed under the GPL) is available at . PMID:17925013

Costa, Ivan G; Roepcke, Stefan; Schliep, Alexander

2007-01-01

201

Involvement of gut microbiota in the development of low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes associated with obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations related to glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. These metabolic alterations are associated with low-grade inflammation that contributes to the onset of these diseases. We and others have provided evidence that gut microbiota participates in whole-body metabolism by affecting energy balance, glucose metabolism, and low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders. Recently, we defined gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (and metabolic endotoxemia) as a factor involved in the onset and progression of inflammation and metabolic diseases. In this review, we discuss mechanisms involved in the development of metabolic endotoxemia such as the gut permeability. We also discuss our latest discoveries demonstrating a link between the gut microbiota, endocannabinoid system tone, leptin resistance, gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2), and metabolic features. Finally, we will introduce the role of the gut microbiota in specific dietary treatments (prebiotics and probiotics) and surgical interventions (gastric bypass). PMID:22572877

Cani, Patrice D.; Osto, Melania; Geurts, Lucie; Everard, Amandine

2012-01-01

202

Low grade heat conversion using bellowslike Stirling engines. Final technical report, November 1, 1981-September 15, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate purpose is to develop a heat engine which is powered by low grade heat. The immediate objective of most of the present work is to design, fabricate, test and evaluate diaphragms which promise improvements including less friction, no leakage and longer life when compared to pistons in Stirling engines so that such engines are practical for low grade heat conversion. Among these diaphragms, the best performance was obtained by one which consisted simply of metal plates clamped to a rubber sheet. Although the worst performance was observed using a diaphragm of which most of the active area is free of any non-metal sealing material, other factors make an evaluation of this feature inconclusive so far. Engine testing confirmed that diaphragm performance is significant.

Raser, W.H.

1983-09-01

203

Unilateral lateral mass fixation of cervical spinal low-grade chondrosarcoma with intralesional resection: A case report  

PubMed Central

In total, ~10% of chondrosarcomas arise from the mobile spine, and these are prone to local recurrence despite being low-grade malignant tumors. Almost all patients will present with pain and a palpable mass in the area of the lesion. For adequate management of the disease, an early diagnosis and careful surgical staging are important. The present study reports a case of cervical spinal low-grade chondrosarcoma in a young female presenting with a slow-growing mass that had not metastasized during a 3-year period. A unilateral lateral mass fixation system of screws and rods was installed following an intralesional resection of the tumor. At present, two years following the surgery, the patient exhibits no neurological deficiency symptoms. Therefore, unilateral fixation presents an effective alternative technique for the treatment of patients with a lesion on the cervical spine. PMID:24765168

CHEN, BO; YANG, YAN; CHEN, LIANG; ZHOU, FENG; YANG, HUILIN

2014-01-01

204

Associations of low-grade inflammation with physical activity, fitness and fatness in prepubertal children; the European Youth Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the associations of low-grade inflammation with objectively measured physical activity, cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness in prepubertal children.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:One hundred and forty-two children (74 boys and 68 girls) aged 9–10 years (pubertal stage I and II) from the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study.Measurements:Total physical activity and its intensity levels (moderate, vigorous, moderate + vigorous) were

J R Ruiz; F B Ortega; J Warnberg; M Sjöström

2007-01-01

205

Prospective Study of the Progression of Low-Grade Dysplasia in Ulcerative Colitis Using Current Cancer Surveillance Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to assess the natural history of low-grade dysplasia and its risk of progression in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients by prospective endoscopic surveillance. Methods 42 UC patients with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) were followed prospectively using a uniform approach to surveillance colonoscopy with an average of 43 biopsies per exam. The interval between colonoscopies ranged from 3–12 months. Progression was defined as development of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer (CA) at subsequent colonoscopy or at colectomy. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify risk factors associated with progression. Results Patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years (range 1–13). Over that period 19% (8/42) of patients progressed to advanced neoplasia (2 cancers, 6 HGD) while 17% (7/42) had persistent LGD and 64% (27/42) had indefinite dysplasia or no dysplasia at the end of follow-up. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the number of biopsies with low grade dysplasia at baseline was associated with an increased risk of progression to advanced neoplasia (RR-5.8, 95%CI (1.29–26.04). Among the 15 patients who underwent colectomy, four were found to have higher grade neoplasia on their colectomy specimen that their pre-operative colonoscopy, and these patients were more likely to be nonadherent with recommendations for colectomy. Conclusions The majority (81%) of UC patients with LGD did not progress to higher grades of dysplasia during a 4 year follow-up. Patients with 3 or more biopsies demonstrating low grade dysplasia at a single colonoscopy were at increased risk for progression to advanced neoplasia. PMID:22508402

Zisman, Timothy L.; Bronner, Mary P.; Rulyak, Stephen; Kowdley, Kris V.; Saunders, Michael; Lee, Scott D.; Ko, Cynthia; Kimmey, Michael B.; Stevens, Allyn; Maurer, Josephine; Brentnall, Teresa A.

2012-01-01

206

Predictive value of multimodality MRI using conventional, perfusion, and spectroscopy MR in anaplastic transformation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and MR perfusion in the follow-up\\u000a of low-grade gliomas, since conventional MR imaging (MRI) is not reliable in detecting the passage from a low- to high-grade\\u000a tumor. Twenty-one patients with a World Health Organisation (WHO) grade II glioma were followed up using proton MR spectroscopy,

Chadi Hlaihel; Laurent Guilloton; Jacques Guyotat; Nathalie Streichenberger; Jerome Honnorat; François Cotton

2010-01-01

207

Recovery of iron oxide concentrate from high-sulfur and low-grade pyrite cinder using an innovative beneficiating process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces was recovered from high-sulfur and low-grade pyrite cinder. Pyrite cinder was treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolved most of the silica and alumina, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which was an acid-soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue

Binbin He; Xike Tian; Yan Sun; Chao Yang; Yanglin Zeng; Yanxin Wang; Suxin Zhang; Zhenbang Pi

2010-01-01

208

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy γ-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

2007-01-01

209

OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems  

PubMed Central

Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

2009-01-01

210

p53 protein overexpression in low grade dysplasia (LGD) in barrett's esophagus: Immunohistochemical marker predictive of progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:The presence of low grade dysplasia (LGD) within Barrett's esophagus (BE) has a multitude of ramifications. Identification of markers that could risk stratify LGD would be of great clinical benefit. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the prognosis of the immunohistochemical overexpression of p53 protein in BE colocalized to LGD.METHODS:Consecutive BE patients in whom LGD was found had a repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy

Allan P. Weston; Sushanta K. Banerjee; Prateek Sharma; Trang M. Tran; Robert Richards; Rachel Cherian

2001-01-01

211

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01

212

Sephadex and sephadex ion-exchange filtration improves the quality and freezability of low-grade buffalo semen ejaculates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sephadex and sephadex ion-exchange filtration on the improvement in quality and freezability of low-grade buffalo semen ejaculates was assessed. Two types of filtration columns were used: one containing only sephadex G-10 (FS) and the other sephadex G-10 along with ion-exchangers (diethyl amino ethane-52 (DEAE-52) cellulose and carboxy methyl-52 (CM-52) cellulose; FS+IE). Unfiltered samples served as controls. Semen

Z Ahmad; M Anzar; M Shahab; N Ahmad; S. M. H Andrabi

2003-01-01

213

Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage  

PubMed Central

Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.

2013-01-01

214

Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1.  

PubMed

Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas. PMID:23633565

Ramkissoon, Lori A; Horowitz, Peleg M; Craig, Justin M; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Rich, Benjamin E; Schumacher, Steven E; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J; Hill, D Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L; Eberhart, Charles G; Dunn, Ian F; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C; Stiles, Charles D; Ligon, Azra H; Kieran, Mark W; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L

2013-05-14

215

Deep sequencing detects very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the unaffected mother of siblings with nemaline myopathy.  

PubMed

When an expected mutation in a particular disease-causing gene is not identified in a suspected carrier, it is usually assumed to be due to germline mosaicism. We report here very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in ACTA1 in an unaffected mother of two siblings affected with a neonatal form of nemaline myopathy. The mosaicism was detected by deep resequencing using a next-generation sequencer. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation in ACTA1, c.448A>G (p.Thr150Ala), in the affected siblings. Three-dimensional structural modeling suggested that this mutation may affect polymerization and/or actin's interactions with other proteins. In this family, we expected autosomal dominant inheritance with either parent demonstrating germline or somatic mosaicism. Sanger sequencing identified no mutation. However, further deep resequencing of this mutation on a next-generation sequencer identified very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the mother: 0.4%, 1.1%, and 8.3% in the saliva, blood leukocytes, and nails, respectively. Our study demonstrates the possibility of very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in suspected carriers, rather than germline mosaicism. PMID:24852243

Miyatake, Satoko; Koshimizu, Eriko; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Miya, Kazushi; Shiina, Masaaki; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

2014-07-01

216

Chemical mobility during low-grade metamorphism of a Jurassic lava flow: Río Grande Formation, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and mineralogical changes produced by very low-grade metamorphism in a 40 meter thick, K-rich, calc-alkaline andesite flow of the marine Jurassic Río Grande Formation of southern coastal Peru are discussed. This metamorphism (=spilitization) was non-deformational and generated spilitic domains at (and near) both vesicular margins of the flow, whereas the massive central zone remained relatively unaltered. The metadomains are characterized by mineral associations of the zeolite facies. Primary minerals are Ca-plagioclase, augitic pyroxene, iron-titanium oxides, and (pseudomorphs after) olivine. Metamorphic minerals are: albite (three generations), K-feldspar, pumpellyite, chlorite, interlayered chlorite-celadonite, celadonite, various mixed-layer Si- and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, "iddingsite," calcite, analcime, titanite, and white mica. The effect of the metamorphism on the rock chemistry is reflected in changes especially observed at the marginal zones of the flow which affect major, trace, and RE elements: 1) strong increase of the iron oxidation ratio (Fe 2O 3/FeO); 2) enrichment in Na 2O accompanied by a concomitant depletion of CaO in non-amygdaloidal domains; 3) depletion of SiO 2; 4) strong enrichment in H 2O and CO 2; 5) marked depletion of Sr and Rb; 6) enrichment in Cl and S; and 7) slight depletion in RE elements, notably in the top zone of the flow. Conversely, elements such as Ti, P, Nb, and Y were fairly immobile, whereas Zr and K were only slightly mobilized. The effect of the metamorphism on the mineral chemistry is expressed by the predominance of metastable equilibrium evidenced by the existence of wide compositional ranges in the phyllosilicates, the incomplete albitization of the Ca-plagioclase, and the Al-rich character of the pumpellyites. The metamorphism is considered to be of hydrothermal-burial type, which takes place at low temperature and pressure — probably about 125-230°C and less than 3 kb, and is produced mainly through permeability-controlled seawater/rock interaction.

Aguirre, L.

217

Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.  

PubMed

Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p?

Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

2014-12-01

218

Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Methods Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l1l2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. Results We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs, but still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. Conclusions The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs. PMID:23947815

2013-01-01

219

Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal. PMID:21843311

2011-01-01

220

The lymphoid follicle variant of dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the clinical and morphologic spectrum of early adult–onset dermatomyositis (DM), an inflammatory disease that affects small vessels of the muscle and the skin. Methods: Histologic evaluation of frozen muscle samples was employed to visualize the cellular organization of ectopic lymphoid structures in muscle biopsies obtained from 2 patients diagnosed with DM. Clinical presentation and morphologic features, as well as treatment and follow-up, were assessed and documented. Electron microscopy was used to confirm the light microscopic diagnosis of DM. Clonality analysis of B-cell populations using PCR was performed. Results: Muscle biopsy of both patients fulfilled the morphologic European Neuromuscular Centre criteria of DM. Analyses of muscle biopsy samples revealed ectopic lymphoid follicle-like structures that showed a remarkable similarity to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) with distinct T- and B-cell compartmentalization. Our 2 patients exhibited an atypical and mild clinical presentation and responded favorably to therapy. Conclusions: The clinical and histopathologic features of DM can be atypical, and the presence of SLOs is not inevitably linked to an unfavorable prognosis. PMID:25340071

Pehl, Debora; Aronica, Eleonora; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Schneider, Udo; Heppner, Frank L.; de Visser, Marianne; Goebel, Hans H.; Stenzel, Werner

2014-01-01

221

Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat  

SciTech Connect

The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

Dexin Wang

2011-12-19

222

Effect of diindolylmethane supplementation on low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities: double-blind, randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical screening identifies many women with low-grade abnormalities. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that diindolylmethane (DIM) could potentially halt (cervical) carcinogenesis. We report on a randomised controlled trial of the effect of DIM in women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities. Methods: We conducted a pragmatic double-blind, randomised controlled trial of 150?mg DIM (from BioResponse DIM) or placebo daily for 6 months in women with newly diagnosed, low-grade cytological abnormalities. Randomisation was in the ratio 2 (DIM) to 1 (placebo). All women were invited for colposcopy at 6 months with biopsy of any abnormality. Results: Of the 551 randomised women available for analysis, 9% on DIM and 12% on placebo had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-2 (CIN2) or worse after 6-month supplementation (risk ratio (RR) 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4–1.2)), whereas 4.6% and 5.1%, respectively, had CIN3 or worse (RR 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4–2.0)). A total of 27.3% of women on DIM and 34.3% on placebo had no sign of disease (negative cytology, colposcopy and human papilloma virus (HPV) tests) at 6 months (RR 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6–1.0)). Of those HPV-positive at baseline, 69% (114 out of 166) of the DIM group were positive at 6 months compared with 61% (43 out of 71) of the placebo group: RR 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9–1.4). Diindolylmethane supplementation was well tolerated. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term DIM supplementation (150?mg?day?1) is well tolerated, but is unlikely to have an effect on cytology or HPV infection. Uncertainty remains regarding its effect on CIN2+. PMID:22075942

Castañon, A; Tristram, A; Mesher, D; Powell, N; Beer, H; Ashman, S; Rieck, G; Fielder, H; Fiander, A; Sasieni, P

2012-01-01

223

Antioxidant response at early stages and low grades of simple coal worker's pneumoconiosis diagnosed by high resolution computed tomography.  

PubMed

In miners exposed to coal dusts, coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) can occur. The purpose of the present study is to better understand the relations between coal dust exposure and activities of blood plasma antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in coal workers with early and low grade simple CWP diagnosed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Forty-three coal workers who had profusions of 0/1-2/2 according to ILO 1980 chest X-ray (CXR) classification, 43 coal workers without CWP (control group 1) and 44 healthy subjects (control group 2) who were randomly selected from the population register or recruited from the hospital staff were enrolled. Coal workers were reevaluated by HRCT (Hosoda-Shida classification) due to its higher sensitivity than standard CXR. Then, blood plasma SOD and GSH-Px activities and MDA plasma levels were measured. CWP was found positive in 46 of 89 coal workers by HRCT evaluation. Profusion 0 (P0, CWP not present), profusion 1 (P1, early CWP) and profusion 2 (P2, low grade CWP) were found in 43, 23 and 19 of patients found to have CWP by HRCT, respectively. We had no worker with profusion 3 (P3). Complicated CWP was shown in four of 46 patients and thesecases were excluded as the study was restricted to early and low-grade pneumoconiosis. In respect to the plasma levels of MDA and plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px, statistically significant differences were found between CWP cases and control groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 respectively). Statistical differences were also obtained for the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and levels of MDA in relation to HRCT profusions (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest an oxidative stress due to increased free radicals and reactive oxygen metabolite production in early stages and low grades of simple CWP diagnosed by HRCT. PMID:15575561

Altin, Remzi; Armutcu, Ferah; Kart, Levent; Gurel, Ahmet; Savranlar, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Hüiseyin

2004-10-01

224

T lymphoid differentiation in human bone marrow  

PubMed Central

The unique role of the thymus in the development of T cells was established >4 decades ago. To elucidate how uncommitted lymphoid progenitor cells are instructed to migrate from bone marrow to the thymus to undergo T lymphoid differentiation, we generated and analyzed a genome-wide gene expression profile of CD7+ CD10+ human bone marrow T cell lineage precursors (TLPs) by using the serial analysis of gene expression technique. Unexpectedly, the serial analysis of gene expression profile identified a high number of (pre-) T cell receptor antigen (TCR)-related transcripts in bone marrow TLPs. To determine the configuration of the TCR? locus in these cells at a quantitative level, we sorted and analyzed bone marrow TLPs from five donors by single-cell PCR. Similar proportions of TLPs harbored TCR? germ-line alleles, D-J, or V-DJ gene rearrangements. Thus, bone marrow TLPs are heterogenous with respect to TCR? rearrangement status, suggesting an active recombination machinery that is consistent with the expression of RAG1, RAG2, and TdT in this population. As a hallmark of ongoing TCR? V-DJ rearrangement, we could amplify broken-ended recombination-signal sequence DNA intermediates from bone marrow TLPs, but not from mature T cells by ligation-mediated PCR. Approximately half of the TCR? rearrangements were compatible with the expression of a functional pre-TCR, which is in agreement with surface expression of pre-T? on bone marrow TLPs as shown by confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry. At a frequency <0.5% of mononucleated cells in human bone marrow, this population is rare, yet it exemplifies T lymphoid differentiation in the human already before immigration into the thymus. PMID:12738882

Klein, Florian; Feldhahn, Niklas; Lee, Sanggyu; Wang, Hui; Ciuffi, Fiammetta; von Elstermann, Mirko; Toribio, María L.; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria; Barath, Varun Singh; Krönke, Martin; Wernet, Peter; Rowley, Janet D.; Müschen, Markus

2003-01-01

225

Undiagnosed HIV Presenting with Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

Undiagnosed or untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection can lead to devastating complications. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman who was found to have HIV-related lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. LIP is uncommon, and its presentation can be quite similar to that of other chronic lung conditions. This case illustrates one of the possible protean manifestations of untreated HIV and is a sobering reminder of the need to screen all adults for HIV infection. Additionally, further invasive diagnostic testing may be required to guide therapy in patients with advanced acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This patient's LIP was likely related to long-standing unrecognized HIV disease. PMID:22567465

Rizqallah, Jason J.; Shah, Christopher T.; Oluwole, Oladoyin; Sheagren, John N.

2011-01-01

226

Can Proliferation Biomarkers Reliably Predict Recurrence in World Health Organization 2003 Defined Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma, Low Grade?  

PubMed Central

An estimated 1500–3000 invasive Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) cases annually occur worldwide. Before 2003, ESS was divided as low and high grade ESS based on mitotic activity. In 2003 the WHO changed the names, excluded mitoses and made nuclear atypia and necrosis the essential diagnostic criteria to distinguish ESS, Low Grade (ESS-LG, recurrence-free survival >90%) and Undifferentiated Endometrial Sarcoma (UES, poor prognosis). We have evaluated in WHO2003 defined ESS-LG whether proliferation biomarkers predict recurrence. Using survival analysis, the prognostic value of classical mitosis counts (Mitotic Activity Index, MAI) in haematoxyllin-eosin (H&E) sections, and immunohistochemical proliferation biomarkers (Ki-67 and PhosphoHistone-3 (PPH3)) were examined in 24 invasive endometrial stromal sarcomas. Three of 24 (12.5%) ESS-LG recurred. The MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 were all prognostic (P?=?0.001, 0.002 and 0.03). MAI values were >3 in the recurrent cases, but never exceeded 10 (the classical threshold for low and high grade). Non-recurrent cases had 0?MAI?3. PPH3 and Ki67 counts can be easier to perform than MAI and therefore helpful in the diagnosis of ESS, Low Grade. In conclusion, in this small study of WHO2003 defined ESS-LG, high levels of proliferation as measured by MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 are predictive of recurrence. Larger studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:24146786

Feng, Weiwei; Malpica, Anais; Skaland, Ivar; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Robboy, Stanley J.; Dalen, Ingvild; Hua, Keqin; Zhou, Xianrong; Baak, Jan P. A.

2013-01-01

227

Amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid: fine-needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlations.  

PubMed

Amyloid deposits are unexpected in salivary gland tumors. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1.8 cm, slow-growing parotid mass. Both fine-needle aspiration and frozen section were misinterpreted as pleomorphic adenoma. The final pathology was amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The aspirates consisted of three components: mucin, amyloid, and tumor cells. The mucin was unusually thick, stringy, and metachromatic. The amyloid presented as innumerable concretions scattered solitarily or in small jigsaw puzzle-like aggregates, individually wrapped by tumor cells. The tumor cells had bland oval nuclei and scant-to-abundant cytoplasm, arranged in loosely cohesive small sheets. On histology, the tumor cells were arranged in interconnecting monolayered glands of a wide range of size with small patches of cellular regions composed of plump tumor cells. As the luminal mucin and amyloid deposits enlarged, the lining tumor cells became thin and flat. The glandular lumen molded amyloid concretions into different shapes and sizes. Atrophic or pyknotic tumor cells outlined the amyloid concretions with concentric laminations, reminiscent of corpora amylacea. Alcian blue positive luminal mucin, associated with newly formed amyloid, was present in mucinous regions of the tumor. This is the first description of cytologic features of amyloid-rich low grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid and the second case in the pathology literature. The literature of amyloid-rich tumors was reviewed and the implication of the presence of abundant amyloid on the death of tumor cells suggested. PMID:24550230

Yang, Grace C H; Kuhel, William I; Scognamiglio, Theresa

2014-09-01

228

Multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic type in the setting of HIV and acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old white male with a history of HIV (CD4 245), acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis, anal carcinoma in situ, hepatitis B and C presented with 3 asymptomatic, nontender, firm pink/skin-colored nodules involving the arm, left lateral leg, and right third finger. One year later, he developed a similar lesion on his right medial lower leg. Excisional biopsy of one of the lesions showed an atypical spindle cell neoplasm of the dermis compatible with a low-grade sarcoma of fibroblastic origin. Testing for human herpes virus-8, 23 human papillomavirus types, Epstein-Barr virus, and FUS fusion protein were negative. The patient underwent diagnostic imaging with computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis along with positron emission tomography scan to ensure that there was no other occult primary tumor, all of which were negative. The lesions were excised and have not recurred with 3 years of follow-up. The best histopathologic term for these lesions is multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic phenotype. They have been proven to be nonaggressive, with little or no metastatic potential. This is a neoplastic process that has not been well defined in the literature. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of these lesions occurring in multiple sites or in an HIV-positive patient. PMID:23759878

Dosal, Jacquelyn; Nelson, Ann M; Shelling, Michael; Romaguera, Rita; Poulos, Evangelos; Alonso-Llamazares, Javier

2014-10-01

229

Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

Laack, Nadia N. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail: brown.paul@mayo.edu; Ivnik, Robert J. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Furth, Alfred F. M.S. [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hammack, Julie E. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Fargo, ND (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2005-11-15

230

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

2007-08-15

231

Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children  

E-print Network

Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder intestinal abnormalities, ranging from lymphoid nodular hyperplasia to aphthoid ulceration. Histology showed

Chapman, Michael S.

232

Aging impacts isolated lymphoid follicle development and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Immunosenescence is the age-related decline and dysfunction of protective immunity leading to a marked increase in the risk of infections, autoimmune disease, and cancer. The majority of studies have focused on immunosenescence in the systemic immune system; information concerning the effect of aging on intestinal immunity is limited. Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are newly appreciated dynamic intestinal lymphoid structures

Keely G McDonald; Matthew R Leach; Conway Huang; Caihong Wang; Rodney D Newberry

2011-01-01

233

Adult hypocellular acute leukaemia with lymphoid differentiation.  

PubMed

The rare hypocellular variants of acute leukemia (AL) previously also termed smouldering leukemia, almost always exhibit myeloid differentiation. Very rare cases of hypocellular AL with lymphoid differentiation have been reported, usually in children. This paper describes two cases (an 87-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man) in whom the blood findings were suggestive of AL. Paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens revealed similar findings in both patients: there was severe hypocellularity, the cells of normal hemopoiesis were greatly reduced in number, and there was a diffuse increase in blast cells, which represented more than 50% of nucleated marrow cells. The blasts coexpressed TdT and CD34 and were negative for myeloperoxidase, CD117, CD68 and naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase. For the first time immunohistochemical Pax-5/CD34 doublestainings are provided, which revealed the blasts in one case to coexpress Pax-5 and CD34. All the blasts were CD79a-positive and 20% were also CD10-positive. In the other case, 20% of the blasts were CD79a-positive, 30% coexpressed Pax-5 and CD34 by doublestaining, and showed a clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Thus a diagnosis of AL of lymphoid lineage, hypocellular variant, was made on the basis of immunohistochemical findings. The clinical course appears to be similar to that of hypocellular AML, as neither patient has developed overt leukemia during the one-year follow-up period. PMID:14692536

Kröber, Stefan Martin; Horny, Hans-Peter; Steinke, Berthold; Kaiserling, Edwin

2003-10-01

234

The diagnostic utility of TP53 and CDKN2A to distinguish ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma from low-grade serous ovarian tumors.  

PubMed

Low-grade serous carcinomas and serous borderline tumors, combined herein and referred to as low-grade serous tumors, show distinct molecular alterations and clinical behaviors compared with high-grade serous carcinomas. The discrimination between low-grade serous tumors and high-grade serous carcinomas can be challenging on small tissue samples, such as cell blocks of paracentesis fluid or biopsies from omental disease. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of TP53 and CDKN2A immunohistochemistry to distinguish between high-grade serous carcinomas and low-grade serous tumors on small tissue samples. Tissue microarrays containing 582 high-grade serous carcinomas, 45 low-grade serous carcinomas, and 49 serous borderline tumors, confirmed by contemporary histopathological review, were stained for TP53 and CDKN2A (DO7 and E6H4 antibody clones, respectively). TP53 was scored as completely absent, wild-type pattern or overexpressed (>60%), and CDKN2A was scored as either negative/patchy (<90%) or block expression (>90%). The combination of the two markers, ie, the TP53 wild-type pattern and CDKN2A patchy expression, had sensitivity for low-grade serous tumors of 89%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 68%, and a negative predictive value of 98%. These markers can, therefore, be used on small biopsies/cell blocks to refute a diagnosis of low-grade serous tumors. These findings may inform emerging neoadjuvant therapeutic strategies in advanced ovarian cancers and may be crucial for future clinical trials on molecular-based therapies. PMID:23558569

Altman, Alon D; Nelson, Gregg S; Ghatage, Prafull; McIntyre, John B; Capper, David; Chu, Pamela; Nation, Jill G; Karnezis, Anthony N; Han, Guangming; Kalloger, Steve E; Köbel, Martin

2013-09-01

235

Ectopic lymphoid-like structures in infection, cancer and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Ectopic lymphoid-like structures often develop at sites of inflammation where they influence the course of infection, autoimmune disease, cancer and transplant rejection. These lymphoid aggregates range from tight clusters of B cells and T cells to highly organized structures that comprise functional germinal centres. Although the mechanisms governing ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in human pathology remain poorly defined, the presence of ectopic lymphoid-like structures within inflamed tissues has been linked to both protective and deleterious outcomes in patients. In this Review, we discuss investigations in both experimental model systems and patient cohorts to provide a perspective on the formation and functions of ectopic lymphoid-like structures in human pathology, with particular reference to the clinical implications and the potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:24948366

Pitzalis, Costantino; Jones, Gareth W; Bombardieri, Michele; Jones, Simon A

2014-07-01

236

Management and outcome of focal low-grade brainstem tumors in pediatric patients: the St. Jude experience  

PubMed Central

Object Whereas diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas generally have a short symptom duration and more cranial nerve involvement, focal brainstem gliomas are commonly low grade, with fewer cranial neuropathies. Although these phenotypic distinctions are not absolute predictors of outcome, they do demonstrate correlation in most cases. Because there is a limited literature on focal brainstem gliomas in pediatric patients, the objective of this paper was to report the management and outcome of these tumors. Methods The authors reviewed the records of all children diagnosed with radiographically confirmed low-grade focal brainstem gliomas from 1986 to 2010. Each patient underwent biopsy or resection for tissue diagnosis. Eventfree survival (EFS) and overall survival were evaluated. Univariate analysis was conducted to identify demographic and treatment variables that may affect EFS. Results Fifty-two patients (20 girls, 32 boys) with follow-up data were identified. Median follow-up was 10.0 years, and the median age at diagnosis was 6.5 years (range 1–17 years). The tumor locations were midbrain (n = 22, 42%), pons (n = 15, 29%), and medulla (n = 15, 29%). Surgical extirpation was the primary treatment in 25 patients (48%). The 5- and 10-year EFS and overall survival were 59%/98% and 52%/90%, respectively. An event or treatment failure occurred in 24 patients (46%), including 5 deaths. Median time to treatment failure was 3.4 years. Disease progression in the other 19 patients transpired within 25.1 months of diagnosis. Thirteen of these patients received radiation, including 11 within 2 months of primary treatment failure. Although children with intrinsic tumors had slightly better EFS at 5 years compared with those with exophytic tumors (p = 0.054), this difference was not significant at 10 years (p = 0.147). No other variables were predictive of EFS. Conclusions Surgery suffices in many children with low-grade focal brainstem gliomas. Radiation treatment is often reserved for disease progression but offers comparable disease control following biopsy. In the authors’ experience, combining an assessment of clinical course, imaging, and tumor biopsy yields a reasonable model for managing children with focal brainstem tumors. PMID:23289916

Klimo, Paul; Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; Thompson, Clinton J.; Boop, Frederick A.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Gajjar, Amar; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Ellison, David W.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.; Sanford, Robert A.

2015-01-01

237

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2013-02-01

238

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-07-15

239

Fractionated proton radiation therapy of chordoma and low-grade chondrosarcoma of the base of the skull.  

PubMed

Sixty-eight patients with chordoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma at the base of the skull received fractionated high-dose postoperative radiation delivered with a 160-MeV proton beam. Protons have favorable physical characteristics which allow the delivery of high doses of radiation to these critically located tumors. The methods employed for these treatments are described. These patients have been followed for at least 17 months and for a median of 34 months. The median tumor dose was 69 CGE (cobalt Gy equivalent): CGE is the dose in proton Gy multiplied by 1.1, which is the relative biological effectiveness for protons compared to cobalt-60. The daily dose was 1.8 to 2.1 CGE. For this group the 5-year actuarial local control rate is 82% and disease-free survival rate is 76%. The incidence of treatment-related morbidity has been acceptable. PMID:2535872

Austin-Seymour, M; Munzenrider, J; Goitein, M; Verhey, L; Urie, M; Gentry, R; Birnbaum, S; Ruotolo, D; McManus, P; Skates, S

1989-01-01

240

Paresis of the L5 nerve root after reduction of low-grade lumbosacral dysplastic spondylolisthesis: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a 16-year-old patient who underwent lumbar decompression surgery (L4-S1), low-grade spondylolisthesis reduction surgery at L5-S1, and posterior instrumented fusion from L4 to the pelvis. Neurologic monitoring did not show any sustained changes throughout the operation. The patient was awoken from endotracheal anesthesia with grade 0 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles resulting in left-sided foot drop. At the last follow-up 12 months after surgery, the patient had partial recovery, with grade 4 muscle function of the left extensor hallucis longus and tibialis anterior muscles. We suggest that early identification with direct nerve root stimulation and wake-up test immediately after reduction of spondylolisthesis will allow prompt release of the reduction and further foramen exploration, and increase the possibility of good postoperative nerve root recovery. PMID:24887052

Lykissas, Marios G; Aichmair, Alexander; Widmann, Roger; Sama, Andrew A

2014-09-01

241

Low-Grade Malignant Triton Tumor of the Neck: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is termed malignant triton tumor (MTT), a rare neoplasm that poses a diagnostic dilemma in the differential diagnosis of neck masses and portends poor prognosis. We report a sporadic case of MTT of the neck in a 23-year-old female. We present the pathological findings. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the neurogenic origin with S-100 expression and the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with desmin and vimentin positivity. Radical surgical excision was done. After 4 years there were no signs of recurrence or distant metastasis. The clinical, microscopic, and long-term follow-up of this case are consistent with those of a low-grade malignancy. PMID:25328740

Omar, Taissir; Raslan, Hanaa; El Sheikh, Sahar

2014-01-01

242

Skin as a peripheral lymphoid organ: revisiting the concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed

Antigen presentation to T cells is essential for the induction of adaptive immunity. This event takes place not solely in the lymph node (LN) but also in the skin. Recent in vivo trafficking studies using Kaede-transgenic mice reveal that skin-homing effector memory T cells alter their effector function and homing ability by transitioning to a central memory T cell-like phenotype through antigen recognition that occurs in the skin. In addition, these cells travel back and forth between the skin and draining LNs. These studies are evocative of the classic concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissues and underscore the critical role of skin as a peripheral lymphoid organ. PMID:21734715

Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

2011-11-01

243

Presence of Antigen-Experienced T Cells with Low Grade of Differentiation and Proliferative Potential in Chronic Chagas Disease Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

Background The main consequence of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection is the development of myocarditis in approximately 20–30% of infected individuals but not until 10–20 years after the initial infection. We have previously shown that circulating interferon-?-secreting T cells responsive to Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in chronic Chagas disease patients display a low grade of differentiation and the frequency of these T lymphocytes decreases along with the severity of heart disease. This study thought to explore the expression of inhibitory receptors, transcription factors of type 1 or regulatory T cells, and markers of T cell differentiation, immunosenescence or active cell cycle in cardiac explants from patients with advanced Chagas disease myocarditis. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of different markers for T and B cells as well as for macrophages was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques in cardiac explants from patients with advanced chronic Chagas disease submitted to heart transplantation. Most infiltrating cells displayed markers of antigen-experienced T cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+) with a low grade of differentiation (CD27+, CD57?, CD45RA?, PD-1?). A skewed T helper1/T cytotoxic 1 profile was supported by the expression of T-bet; whereas FOXP3+ cells were scarce and located only in areas of severe myocarditis. In addition, a significant proliferative capacity of CD3+ T cells, assessed by Ki67 staining, was found. Conclusions/Significance The quality of T cell responses and immunoregulatory mechanisms might determine the pattern of the cellular response and the severity of disease in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. PMID:25144227

Cabeza-Meckert, Patricia; Viotti, Rodolfo; Garelli, Fernando; Favaloro, Liliana E.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Laguens, Rubén; Laucella, Susana A.

2014-01-01

244

Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

Korinthenberg, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.korinthenberg@uniklinik-freiburg.d [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Neuburger, Daniela [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido [Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Neurocentre, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2011-03-15

245

Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Prayson, Richard A. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kalfas, Iain H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Whitfield, Melvin D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)]. E-mail: suhj@ccf.org

2005-09-01

246

Cervical squamocolumnar junction-specific markers define distinct, clinically relevant subsets of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions  

PubMed Central

Low grade cervical squamous abnormalities [low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, CIN1)] can be confused with or followed by high grade (HSIL, CIN2/3) lesions, expending considerable resources. Recently, a cell of origin for cervical neoplasia was proposed in the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ); HSILs are almost always SCJ marker-positive (+) but LSILs include SCJ+ and negative (?) subsets. Abnormal cervical biopsies from 214 patients were classified by two experienced pathologists ("panel") as LSIL or HSIL using published criteria. SILs were scored SCJ+ and SCJ- using SCJ-specific antibodies (Keratin7, AGR2, MMP7 and GDA). Assessments of interobserver agreement, p16ink4 staining pattern, proliferative index and outcome were compared. The original diagnostician agreed with the panel diagnosis of HSIL and SCJ- LSIL in all cases (100%). However for SCJ+ LSIL, panelists disagreed with each other on 15% and with the original diagnostician on 46.2%. Comparing SCJ- and SCJ+ LSILs, 60.2% and 94.9% scored p16ink4 positive, 23% and 74.4% showed strong (full-thickness) p16ink4 staining, and 0/54 (0%) and 8/33 (24.2%) with follow-up had an HSIL outcome respectively. Some SCJ+ LSILs are more likely to both generate diagnostic disagreement and be associated with HSIL. Conversely, SCJ- LSILs generate little observer disagreement and when followed, have a very low risk of HSIL outcome. Thus, SCJ biomarkers in conjunction with histology may segregate LSILs with very low risk of HSIL outcome and conceivably could be used as a management tool to reduce excess allocation of resources to the followup of these lesions. PMID:24076771

Herfs, Michael; Herran, Carlos Parra; Howitt, Brooke; Laury, Anna; Nucci, Marisa R; Feldman, Sarah; Jimenez, Cynthia A; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Crum, Christopher P

2014-01-01

247

AB 32. Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Case report  

PubMed Central

Background Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is considered to represent a localized form of lymphoid hyperplasia, which presents as a discreet pulmonary mass or masses Median age of diagnosis are 65 years (range, 19-80 years). Chest X-ray and CT scan show an isolated mass (64%) or multiple nodules (36%). Hilar or mediastinal adenopathy may be present is some patients. Patients and methods We describe the case of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 52 year-old woman who presented with pulmonary multiple nodules, bilateral and mediastinal adenopathy, apparent by chest X-ray and CT-scan. Open biopsy was performed from the upper and down lobe of the right lung and from the mediastinal lymph nodes. Macroscopic examination revealed small white nodules, measuring 0.3 to 0.7 cm in maximum diameter. The sections were examined with H+E and followed by immunohistochemical study. Results Histological examination revealed multiple well demarcated nodules consisting of aggregates of lymphoid follicles and sheets of interfollicular small lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymphoepithelial lesions were absent. The immunohistochemical stains for lymphoid markers were consistent with a reactive process. Bcl-2 protein expression was absent in germinal centers, but presented in the mantle zone and interfollicular T-cells. Similar were the immunohistochemical findings of the lymph nodes study. Conclusions Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a benign lesion, although surgical excision is usually needed to allow correct diagnosis. The main entity in the differential diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is BALT lymphoma.

Papaemmanouil, Stiliani; Iordanidis, Fotis; Moraitis, Dimitrios; Sakkas, Leonidas

2012-01-01

248

Bursa Fabricii as a peripheral lymphoid organ  

PubMed Central

In tracer studies, various particulate and molecular materials applied on the anal lips of chickens were transported to the bursal lumen. From here some of the tracers were further transported into the bursal lymphoid follicles and colloidal carbon even to the bursal stroma. In immunization experiments, Brucella abortus organisms and SRBC were applied on the anal lips of 1-day-old, 4-week-old and 10-week-old chicks on 5 consecutive days. Although Brucella bacteria in tracer studies were not found in the bursal tissue, agglutinin response to Brucella was observed in the 4-week and 10-week groups as early as 3 days after the last application of this antigen. The response to SRBC was strong only in the oldest group of chickens. When stimulated continuously, the agglutinin titres reached their highest values after the 2nd week and then began to decrease to rather low levels. In the youngest age group, the anti-SRBC titres, however, remained low during the whole experimental period, and even in the 4-week group the anti-SRBC response was weak. Bursectomy, carried out at the age of 10 weeks, inhibited the agglutinin response to Brucella but affected only little the response to SRBC. It is concluded that by taking up antigens per anum the chicken possibly gains part of its basic immunity. In this immune response the bursa seems to play an important role at least with some antigens, and thus the bursa may have an immunofunction comparable with that found in peripheral lymphoid organs. PMID:564868

Sorvari, Rita; Sorvari, T. E.

1977-01-01

249

9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...can demonstrate to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...procedure acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...primary cells which are found contaminated with lymphoid leukosis...

2012-01-01

250

9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...can demonstrate to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...procedure acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...primary cells which are found contaminated with lymphoid leukosis...

2011-01-01

251

9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...can demonstrate to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...procedure acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...primary cells which are found contaminated with lymphoid leukosis...

2014-01-01

252

9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...can demonstrate to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...procedure acceptable to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...primary cells which are found contaminated with lymphoid leukosis...

2013-01-01

253

Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

1997-01-01

254

Are all lymphoid blasts in the cell cycle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Labelling index after one or repeated intravenous injections of 3H-thymidine was measured for various subpopulations of lymphatic\\u000a cells in different canine lymphoid compartments and correlated with cell morphology. High doses of tritiated thymidine were\\u000a injected and exposure times of up to 211 days were used. The labelling indices of lymphoid blasts were comparable in all tissues\\u000a investigated. Labelling index varied

G. Wiedemann; R. Pabst; T. Wagner; F. Trepel

1988-01-01

255

Hepatic lymphoid aggregates in chronic hepatitis C and mixed cryoglobulinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have examined the clinical (virological and immunological), histological and immunohistochemical features of liver lymphoid nodules in hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+)\\/mixed cryoglobulinemia (type II and III) and chronic hepatitis C. The clinical features of liver disease were found to be similar in all patients. In all these groups, liver lymphoid nodules were observed to a similar extent, being more frequent

Angelo Monteverde; Marco Ballarè; Stefano Pileri

1997-01-01

256

Lymphoid Tissue Targeting of Anti-HIV Drugs Using Liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that HIV-1 accumulates and replicates actively within lymphoid tissues, any strategy that will decrease viral stores in these tissues might be beneficial to the infected host. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC), B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells like macrophages, and activated CD4+ T cells are abundant in lymphoid tissues, and all express substantial levels of the HLA-DR determinant of the major histocompatibility

André Désormeaux; Michel G. Bergeron

2005-01-01

257

Middle segmental pancreatectomy: A safe and organ-preserving option for benign and low-grade malignant lesions  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the feasibility and safety of middle segmental pancreatectomy (MSP) compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and extended distal pancreatectomy (EDP). METHODS: We studied retrospectively 36 cases that underwent MSP, 44 patients who underwent PD, and 26 who underwent EDP with benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the mid-portion of the pancreas, between April 2003 and December 2009 in Ruijin Hospital. The perioperative outcomes and long-term outcomes of MSP were compared with those of EDP and PD. Perioperative outcomes included operative time, intraoperative hemorrhage, transfusion, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess/infection, postoperative bleeding, reoperation, mortality, and postoperative hospital time. Long-term outcomes, including tumor recurrence, new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, were evaluated. RESULTS: Intraoperative hemorrhage was 316.1 ± 309.6, 852.2 ± 877.8 and 526.9 ± 414.5 mL for the MSP, PD and EDP groups, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean postoperative daily fasting blood glucose level was significantly lower in the MSP group than in the EDP group (6.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L vs 7.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The rate of pancreatic fistula was higher in the MSP group than in the PD group (42% vs 20.5%, P = 0.039), all of the fistulas after MSP corresponded to grade A (9/15) or B (6/15) and were sealed following conservative treatment. There was no significant difference in the mean postoperative hospital stay between the MSP group and the other two groups. After a mean follow-up of 44 mo, no tumor recurrences were found, only one patient (2.8%) in the MSP group vs five (21.7%) in the EDP group developed new-onset insulin-dependent DM postoperatively (P = 0.029). Moreover, significantly fewer patients in the MSP group than in the PD (0% vs 33.3%, P < 0.001) and EDP (0% vs 21.7%, P = 0.007) required enzyme substitution. CONCLUSION: MSP is a safe and organ-preserving option for benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the neck and proximal body of the pancreas. PMID:23539545

Du, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Shi; Han, Bao-San; Shen, Bai-Yong; Liu, Ying-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Hong

2013-01-01

258

Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were then combined into a novel condenser design that uses passive cooling technology to cool the working fluid that was selected in the first part of the study. It was observed that the efficiency of the cycle improved by 2-2.5% when passive cooling system was used.

Vidhi, Rachana

259

Innate lymphoid cells regulate CD4+ T-cell responses to intestinal commensal bacteria.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently characterized family of immune cells that have critical roles in cytokine-mediated regulation of intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity. Alterations in ILC responses are associated with multiple chronic human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, implicating a role for ILCs in disease pathogenesis. Owing to an inability to target ILCs selectively, experimental studies assessing ILC function have predominantly used mice lacking adaptive immune cells. However, in lymphocyte-sufficient hosts ILCs are vastly outnumbered by CD4(+) T cells, which express similar profiles of effector cytokines. Therefore, the function of ILCs in the presence of adaptive immunity and their potential to influence adaptive immune cell responses remain unknown. To test this, we used genetic or antibody-mediated depletion strategies to target murine ILCs in the presence of an adaptive immune system. We show that loss of retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor-?t-positive (ROR?t(+)) ILCs was associated with dysregulated adaptive immune cell responses against commensal bacteria and low-grade systemic inflammation. Remarkably, ILC-mediated regulation of adaptive immune cells occurred independently of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22 or IL-23. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and functional analyses revealed that ROR?t(+) ILCs express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and can process and present antigen. However, rather than inducing T-cell proliferation, ILCs acted to limit commensal bacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. Consistent with this, selective deletion of MHCII in murine ROR?t(+) ILCs resulted in dysregulated commensal bacteria-dependent CD4(+) T-cell responses that promoted spontaneous intestinal inflammation. These data identify that ILCs maintain intestinal homeostasis through MHCII-dependent interactions with CD4(+) T cells that limit pathological adaptive immune cell responses to commensal bacteria. PMID:23698371

Hepworth, Matthew R; Monticelli, Laurel A; Fung, Thomas C; Ziegler, Carly G K; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Mantegazza, Adriana R; Ma, Hak-Ling; Crawford, Alison; Angelosanto, Jill M; Wherry, E John; Koni, Pandelakis A; Bushman, Frederic D; Elson, Charles O; Eberl, Gérard; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

2013-06-01

260

Genomics of lymphoid malignancies reveal major activation pathways in lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Breakdown of tolerance leads to autoimmunity due to emergence of autoreactive T or B cell clones. Autoimmune diseases predispose to lymphoid malignancies and lymphoid malignancies, conversely, can manifest as autoimmune diseases. While it has been clear for a long time that a competitive advantage and uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of both lymphoid malignancies as well as autoimmune diseases, the overlap of the underlying mechanisms have been less well described. Next generation sequencing has led to massive expansion of the available genomic data in many diseases over the last five years. These data allow for comparison of the molecular pathogenesis between autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies. Here, we review the similarities between autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies: 1) Both, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid malignancies are characterized by activation of the same T and B cell signaling pathways, and dysregulation of these pathways can occur through genetic or epigenetic events. 2) In both scenarios, clonal and subclonal evolution of lymphocytes contribute to disease. 3) Development of both diseases not only depends on T or B cell intrinsic factors, such as germline or somatic mutations, but also on environmental factors. These include infections, the presence of other immune cells in the microenvironment, and the cytokine milieu. A better mechanistic understanding of the parallels between lymphomagenesis and autoimmunity may help the development of precision treatment strategies with rationally designed therapeutic agents. PMID:23880067

Knoechel, Birgit; Lohr, Jens G.

2013-01-01

261

The Coexistence of Low-Grade Mucinous Neoplasms of the Appendix and Appendiceal Diverticula: A Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 38 appendectomies with diagnoses of mucocele, diverticulum, or adenoma to study the coincidence of appendiceal diverticula and appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms and to examine the possible role of diverticula in the pathogenesis of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Invasive adenocarcinomas and retention cysts were excluded (six cases). Cases were classified as adenomas or mucinous tumors of unknown malignant potential, with or

Laura W. Lamps; George F. Gray; Bradley R. Dilday; Mary Kay Washington

2000-01-01

262

Changes in Primary Lymphoid Organs With Aging  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with decreased immune function that leads to increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Immune senescence is accompanied by age-related changes in two primary lymphoid organs, bone marrow and thymus, that result in decreased production and function of B and T lymphocytes. In bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells exhibit reduced self-renewal potential, increased skewing toward myelopoiesis, and decreased production of lymphocytes with aging. These functional sequelae of aging are caused in part by increased oxidative stress, inflammation, adipocyte differentiation, and disruption of hypoxic osteoblastic niches. In thymus, aging is associated with tissue involution, exhibited by a disorganization of the thymic epithelial cell architecture and increased adiposity. This dysregulation correlates with a loss of stroma-thymocyte ‘cross-talk’, resulting in decreased export of naïve T cells. Mounting evidence argues that with aging, thymic inflammation, systemic stress, local Foxn1 and keratinocyte growth factor expression, and sex steroid levels play critical roles in actively driving thymic involution and overall adaptive immune senescence across the lifespan. With a better understanding of the complex mechanisms and pathways that mediate bone marrow and thymus involution with aging, potential increases for the development of safe and effective interventions to prevent or restore loss of immune function with aging. PMID:22559987

Chinn, Ivan K.; Blackburn, Clare C.; Manley, Nancy R.; Sempowski, Gregory D.

2012-01-01

263

Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements  

PubMed Central

Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants. PMID:23723985

Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L.; Matharu, Gulraj S.; Davenport, Alison J.; Martin, Richard A.; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P.; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

264

Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: A mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn>Ni>Cr>Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2)?0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. PMID:25690411

Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

2015-04-01

265

Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts.  

PubMed

Different lipidic wastes and low-grade oils and fats have been characterized and evaluated as feedstocks for the acid-catalyzed production of FAME. The characterization of these materials has revealed significant contents of free fatty acids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, unsaponifiable matter and humidity. Arenesulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 silica catalyst has provided yields to FAME close to 80% in the simultaneous esterification-transesterification of the different feedstocks, regardless of their nature and properties, using methanol under the following reaction conditions: 160 °C, 2 h, methanol to oil molar ratio of 30, 8 wt.% catalyst loading, and 2000 rpm stirring rate. Nevertheless, reutilization of the catalyst is compromised by high levels of impurities, especially because of deactivation by strong interaction of unsaponifiable matter with the catalytic sites. The conditioning of these materials by aqueous washing in the presence of cationic-exchange resin Amberlyst-15, followed by a drying step, resulted in a lower deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:21862322

Morales, Gabriel; Bautista, L Fernando; Melero, Juan A; Iglesias, Jose; Sánchez-Vázquez, Rebeca

2011-10-01

266

Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome patients*  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complex and not fully understood, so the aim of this study was to evaluate whether visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation of the gut wall are associated with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Sixty-two patients with D-IBS and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Using the ascending method of limits (AML) protocol, we demonstrated that D-IBS patients had significantly lower sensory thresholds compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). Using diverse methods, especially the ischemic sensitivity test, for the first time in China, we confirmed that D-IBS patients have somatic hypersensitivity. They had a significantly higher systolic blood pressure and heart rate after a cold stimulus, indicative of autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction. Compared with the control group, D-IBS patients had a significantly higher level of calprotectin (P<0.001). We also found significant correlations between visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, visceral hypersensitivity and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and somatic hypersensitivity and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction. Our findings may provide valuable suggestions for the treatment of D-IBS. PMID:25294380

Liu, Liang; Liu, Bei-ni; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Miao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yan-li; Yao, Shu-kun

2014-01-01

267

Targeted Radio-Immunotherapy with Bexxar Produces Durable Remissions in Patients with Late Stage Low Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

Patients with low grade (LG) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) typically have a median survival of 8-10 years during which they sustain a series of responses and relapses to therapy. More than 95% of B-cell NHLs express the CD20 surface antigen, affording opportunities for CD20-directed therapy of NHL. Since 1990, 5 trials have tested the safety and efficacy of the murine CD20 MAb Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab (Bexxar((R)) therapeutic regimen) in 250 patients with relapsed, refractory, or transformed LG NHL. The I-131 irradiates MAb-bound cells and those within the path length of the isotope. Response rates were 56% (overall) and 30% (complete). With a median follow-up of 44.6 months, 30% of the patients achieved a long-term, durable response; median time to progressive disease or death was 5 years. Thus, a single treatment with Bexxar may produce durable responses and partially reverse the natural history of LG NHL. PMID:17060972

Capizzi, Robert L.

2004-01-01

268

Management of low-grade gliomas: a review of patient-perceived quality of life and neurocognitive outcome.  

PubMed

Low-grade glioma (LGG) comprises nearly 20% of all central nervous system glial tumors, with approximately 2000-3000 patients diagnosed annually in the United States. Because of their infiltrative ability and aggressive nature, the average 10-year survival is 30% when <90% of the tumor is resected. Since the 1970s, prognosis for LGGs has improved significantly. This improvement is primarily attributable to earlier diagnoses via magnetic resonance imaging scanning, increased awareness of the more favorable oligo component, technical advances in intraoperative neurosurgery, and stratification for young age. Using a number of prognostic factors, LGGs have been classified into low-risk and high-risk subgroups. Optimal therapy for patients with low-risk, supratentorial grade II glioma remains a highly controversial issue in the neuro-oncology community. The concerns regarding the toxicity of therapy often outweigh the benefits of delaying tumor progression. The recommendation for observation is made without full prospective understanding of the impact of radiologic tumor progression on the quality of life (QOL), neurocognitive function (NCF), seizure control, and functional status of these patients. We present a review of the current knowledge of the management of LGG with emphasis upon patient-reported outcomes of QOL, NCF, and seizure control. We also discuss current clinical trials with proposals to evaluate QOL, NCF, and seizure control in patients undergoing observation alone after newly diagnosed low-risk LGG or treatment options for those patients in the high-risk group. PMID:24560709

Shields, Lisa B E; Choucair, Ali K

2014-01-01

269

[Cu and Fe bioleaching in low-grade chalcopyrite and bioleaching mechanisms using Penicillium janthinellum strain GXCR].  

PubMed

Bioleaching of Cu and Fe in low-grade chalcopyrite using Penicillium janthinellum strian GXCR was studied. As a result, shaking bioleaching was more efficient than submerged bioleaching; Cu bioleaching was much better than Fe bioleaching; under conditions of optimum carbon source (10% sucrose, W/V), optimum nitrogen source (1.5% NaNO3, W/V), shaking bioleaching and the optimum combination of conditions (initial pH 6.0 in leaching media, 5% (W/V) 200-mesh ore and initial inocula of 3.0x10(5) conidia/mL), Cu bioleaching efficiency reached 87.31% (W/W). One of the most important factors affecting Cu bioleaching in shaking bioleaching was the initial pH in leaching media (F > F0.05). The major organic acids for Cu and Fe bioleaching were citric and oxalic acids, respectively. Low bioleaching efficiency by submerged bioleaching was due to low production of citric and oxalic acids. The mechanisms employed by the GXCR in Cu bioleaching included biochemical functions of citric and oxalic acids as well as ore crack caused by mechanical power generated from mycelial growth. PMID:19256351

Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Huang, Guihai; Bai, Xiaobo; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Youzhi

2008-11-01

270

Current Understanding of BRAF Alterations in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapeutic Targeting in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas  

PubMed Central

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of many tumors as well as normal development. This often occurs through mutation of the genes encoding RAS and RAF proteins which are involved in signal transduction in this pathway. BRAF is one of three RAF kinases which act as downstream effectors of growth factor signaling leading to cell cycle progression, proliferation, and survival. Initially reported as a point mutation (V600E) in the majority of metastatic melanomas, other alterations in the BRAF gene have now been reported in a variety of human cancers including papillary thyroid cancer, colon carcinomas, hairy cell leukemia, and more recently in gliomas. The identification of oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene have led to a revolution in the treatment of metastatic melanoma using targeted molecular therapies that affect the MAPK pathway either directly through BRAF inhibition or downstream through inhibition of MEK. This review describes the molecular biology of BRAF in the context of pediatric low-grade gliomas, the role of BRAF as a diagnostic marker, the prognostic implications of BRAF, and evidence for therapeutic targeting of BRAF.

Penman, Catherine Louise; Faulkner, Claire; Lowis, Stephen P.; Kurian, Kathreena M.

2015-01-01

271

Current Understanding of BRAF Alterations in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapeutic Targeting in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas.  

PubMed

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of many tumors as well as normal development. This often occurs through mutation of the genes encoding RAS and RAF proteins which are involved in signal transduction in this pathway. BRAF is one of three RAF kinases which act as downstream effectors of growth factor signaling leading to cell cycle progression, proliferation, and survival. Initially reported as a point mutation (V600E) in the majority of metastatic melanomas, other alterations in the BRAF gene have now been reported in a variety of human cancers including papillary thyroid cancer, colon carcinomas, hairy cell leukemia, and more recently in gliomas. The identification of oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene have led to a revolution in the treatment of metastatic melanoma using targeted molecular therapies that affect the MAPK pathway either directly through BRAF inhibition or downstream through inhibition of MEK. This review describes the molecular biology of BRAF in the context of pediatric low-grade gliomas, the role of BRAF as a diagnostic marker, the prognostic implications of BRAF, and evidence for therapeutic targeting of BRAF. PMID:25785246

Penman, Catherine Louise; Faulkner, Claire; Lowis, Stephen P; Kurian, Kathreena M

2015-01-01

272

Treatment and survival of lymphoid malignancy in the north-west of England: a population-based study.  

PubMed Central

Classification of lymphoid malignancy has changed markedly in recent years and advances have been made in therapy. This study investigated the variations in treatment and survival of 1622 patients in a population-based registry. A total of 1009 cases of malignant lymphoma (ML) were classified according to the Kiel classification. Pathology review resulted in major diagnostic changes for 24% of cases. Of the ML cases, 39% had not had full staging procedures. Younger patients were more likely to have been treated with multiagent chemotherapy regimens, as were patients with B symptoms. Median survival for ML patients was 12 months for high-grade patients and more than 60 months for low-grade patients. Significant factors affecting the survival of ML patients were performance status, whether treatment had followed a recognised protocol, whether treatment had been carried out at a specialist oncology centre (SOC), grade of disease, stage, gender and age. The same factors had a significant effect on survival of the leukaemia patients, except for treatment at an SOC, which had a significant favourable effect on survival of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients only. Median survival for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 43 months and 7 months for ALL patients. PMID:7669590

Youngson, J. H.; Jones, J. M.; Chang, J. G.; Harris, M.; Banergee, S. S.

1995-01-01

273

Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

1988-01-01

274

Olig2 labeling index is correlated with histological and molecular classifications in low-grade diffuse gliomas.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of low-grade diffuse gliomas based on morphology is highly subjective and, therefore, is often difficult, with significant intra- and interobserver variability. Here, we investigated WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas for immunohistochemical expression of Olig2, measuring its labeling index (LI), and evaluated the significance of Olig2 LI in the histological and molecular classifications. The means of Olig2 LI in glioma cells were 43.7 % in diffuse astrocytomas, 59.3 % in oligoastrocytomas and 76.1 % in oligodendrogliomas. There was a statistically significant difference between all pairs of histological types. The mean of Olig2 LI of gliomas with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation, the majority of them being oligodendrogliomas, was significantly higher than the means of those with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation and IDH1/2 mutation only, the majority of which were diffuse astrocytomas (70.1 vs. 47.2 and 46.5 %, respectively). When categorized according to the classification of Jiao et al., Olig2 LI of I-CF gliomas (cases with IDH and one or more of CIC, FUBP1 or combined 1p/19q loss; mean 71.0 %) was significantly higher than that of I-A gliomas (cases with IDH and ATRX alterations; mean 45.3 %). These molecular classifications were reported to correlate well with clinical outcome. However, borderlines of Olig2 LI were broad and could not clearly distinguish genotypes in the molecular classifications. In conclusion, Olig2 LI cannot be taken as a complete surrogate marker for molecular genotype, but could possibly provide some ancillary information when molecular assay is not availabe. PMID:25085214

Suzuki, Aya; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Natsume, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kim, Young-Ho; Yokoo, Hideaki; Nagaishi, Masaya; Ikota, Hayato; Nakazawa, Takuro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Nakazato, Yoichi

2014-11-01

275

Provenance of Paleozoic very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks of South Tisia (Slavonian Mountains, Radlovac Complex, Croatia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monazite age dating, detrital heavy mineral content and whole-rock geochemistry provided insight into the provenance, depositional history and paleogeological setting of the Radlovac Complex very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks (South Tisia, Slavonian Mountains, Croatia). Electron microprobe based Th-U-Pb dating of detrital monazite indicates a Variscan age of the protolith (330 ± 10 Ma). The detrital heavy mineral assemblages of representative metasedimentary rocks are dominated by apatite, zircon, tourmaline and rutile accompanied by minor quantity of epidote/zoisite, monazite and titanite. Judging from the heavy mineral assemblage, felsic igneous rocks served as the source material. This is consistent with the major and trace element spectrum of studied metasedimentary rocks characterized by high concentration of Th, high L + MREEs and high ratios of La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co and Th/Cr. The occurrence of magmatic monazite, zircon and xenotime and the absence of metamorphic heavy minerals suggest that granitoids, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses served as one major source for the metapsammites. Such rock types are commonly exposed in the Papuk Complex of the older surrounding complexes, while the Psunj Complex also contains metamorphic rocks. This is in good correlation with the monazite ages presented here which fits better with ages of Papuk Complex representative rocks than with those of the Psunj Complex known from the literature. Overall, data show that the Radlovac Complex represents the detritus of the local Variscan crust characterized by granitoid bodies, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses typical for the Papuk Complex.

Biševac, Vanja; Krenn, Erwin; Finger, Fritz; Lužar-Oberiter, Borna; Balen, Dražen

2013-02-01

276

Evidence for Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation in Individuals with Agoraphobia from a Population-Based Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia. Methods In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women), we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3%) with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio), and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity), and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence) which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 – 8.5). Results Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007) and tumor-necrosis-factor-? (p = 0.042) as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032) than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies. PMID:25875094

Wagner, En-Young N.; Wagner, Jan T.; Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L.; Castelao, Enrique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin; von Känel, Roland

2015-01-01

277

[Low-grade fever of protracted course. Retrospective study of 30 cases and reflections for a low-cost management].  

PubMed

The objects of this paper were the following: 1) to establish in a group of persistent (over four weeks) low grade fever (LGF) patients the percentage of cases in which a definite diagnosis could not be made; 2) where a definite diagnosis could be made, to describe the most commonly occurring diseases; 3) to follow up the uncertain diagnosis cases for at least two years. Thirty cases of persistent LGF were retrospectively studied. They did not include drug hyper-dysthermia and temporary and/or metabolic vasomotor reactions. The data suggest that: 1) two thirds of persistent LGF are likely not to be definitely diagnosed; 2) some certain diagnoses were: dental granulomas, mycobacteria infections, thyroiditis, factitious fever, rheumatic polymyalgia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and pulmonary thromboembolism; 3) in 14/19 undiagnosed cases the fever subsided permanently, without any treatment, within one year, whereas it persisted in 5/19, but no deterioration of the overall clinical status was observed; 4) although some of the undiagnosed cases were examined elsewhere, a certain diagnosis was never achieved in spite of their undergoing sophisticated and expensive clinical, laboratory and X-ray tests. Therefore it is concluded that: 1) persistent LGF should be managed more conservatively than fever of unknown origin so as to preserve resources; 2) some diseases should be included in the differential diagnoses from the beginning of the initial clinical work up; 3) undiagnosed LGF fever either subsides and returns to normal within one year or the fever persists, but no deterioration of the clinical and performance status is likely to occur. PMID:9691731

Campanella, N; Pergolini, M; Morosini, P

1998-01-01

278

Dynamic imaging response following radiation therapy predicts long-term outcomes for diffuse low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Quantitative imaging assessment of radiation therapy (RT) for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) by measuring the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) over time has never been studied. We assessed the VDE changes following RT and determined whether this parameter can serve as a prognostic factor. We reviewed a consecutive series of 33 adults with supratentorial DLGG treated with first-line RT with available imaging follow-up (median follow-up, 103 months). Before RT, all patients presented with a spontaneous tumor volume increase (positive VDE, mean 5.9 mm/year). After RT, all patients demonstrated a tumor volume decrease (negative VDE, mean, ?16.7 mm/year) during a mean 49-month duration. In univariate analysis, initial tumor volume (>100 cm3), lack of IDH1 expression, p53 expression, high proliferation index, and fast post-RT tumor volume decrease (VDE at ?10 mm/year or faster, fast responders) were associated with a significantly shorter overall survival (OS). The median OS was significantly longer (120.8 months) for slow responders (post-RT VDE slower than ?10.0 mm/year) than for fast responders (47.9 months). In multivariate analysis, fast responders, larger initial tumor volume, lack of IDH1 expression, and p53 expression were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. A high proliferation index was significantly more frequent in the fast responder subgroup than in the slow responder subgroup. We conclude that the pattern of post-RT VDE changes is an independent prognostic factor for DLGG and offers a quantitative parameter to predict long-term outcomes. We propose to monitor individually the post-RT VDE changes using MRI follow-up, with particular attention to fast responders. PMID:22416109

Pallud, Johan; Llitjos, Jean-François; Dhermain, Frédéric; Varlet, Pascale; Dezamis, Edouard; Devaux, Bertrand; Souillard-Scémama, Raphaëlle; Sanai, Nader; Koziak, Maria; Page, Philippe; Schlienger, Michel; Daumas-Duport, Catherine; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Roux, François-Xavier

2012-01-01

279

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2014-06-01

280

BRAF Mutation is Associated with Early Stage Disease and Improved Outcome in Patients with Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade serous (LGS) ovarian cancer (OC) is a chemoresistant disease that accounts for 10% of serous ovarian cancers. Prior studies have reported that 28–35% of serous borderline (SB)/LGS ovarian tumors harbor a BRAF mutation, suggesting that BRAF inhibitors may be a rational therapeutic approach for this disease. We sought to determine if BRAF or KRAS mutation status is associated with disease stage and/or histology in patients with SB and LGS ovarian cancer. Methods We genetically profiled 75 SB and LGS ovarian tumors for mutations in BRAF and KRAS. The incidence and identity of BRAF and KRAS mutations were defined and the results were correlated with stage, response to treatment, and overall survival. Results Of 75 samples examined, 56(75%) were SB and 19(25%) LGS histology. Fifty-seven percent of tumors harbored either a KRAS mutation (n=17) or a BRAF V600E mutation (n=26). BRAF V600E mutation was significantly associated with early stage disease (Stage I/II, P<0.001) and serous borderline histology (P=0.002). KRAS mutation was not significantly associated with stage or histology. Of the 22 (29%) patients who required treatment with chemotherapy, 20 were KRAS/BRAF wild-type (WT), 2 were KRAS mutant, and none had tumors harboring a BRAF mutation. All BRAF mutant patients were alive at a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range 1.9–129.3 months). Conclusions V600E BRAF mutations are present in 35% of SB/LGS ovarian cancers. The presence of BRAF V600E mutation in SB/LGSOC is associated with early stage disease and improved prognosis. Patients with SB/LGSOC who require systemic therapy are unlikely to have BRAF mutant tumors. PMID:22930283

Garg, Karuna; Delair, Deborah; Hyman, David M.; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; Berger, Michael F.; Dao, Fanny; Spriggs, David R.; Levine, Douglas A.; Aghajanian, Carol; Solit, David B.

2014-01-01

281

Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

Weizman, Lior, E-mail: weizmanl@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [School of Engineering and Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Sira, Liat Ben [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)] [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel); Joskowicz, Leo [School of Engineering and Computer Science and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [School of Engineering and Computer Science and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)] [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)] [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)

2014-05-15

282

Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.  

PubMed

The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. PMID:24585532

Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

2014-05-01

283

Inhibition of autophagy overcomes glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoid malignant cells.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Till now, the precise mechanism of GC resistance remains unclear. In the present study, dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle in G0/G1-phase, and induced apoptosis in Dex-sensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, Dex failed to cause cell death in Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells. Intriguingly, we found that autophagy was induced by Dex in resistant cells, as indicated by autophagosomes formation, LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, p62 degradation, and formation of acidic autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, the results showed that Dex reduced the activity of mTOR pathway, as determined by decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR, Akt, P70S6K and 4E-BP1 in resistant cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either chloroquine (CQ) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA) overcame Dex-resistance in lymphoid malignant cells by increasing apoptotic cell death in vitro. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by stably knockdown of Beclin1 sensitized Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells to induction of apoptosis in vivo. Thus, inhibition of autophagy has the potential to improve lymphoid malignancy treatment by overcoming GC resistance. PMID:25778879

Jiang, Lei; Xu, Lingzhi; Xie, Jiajun; Li, Sisi; Guan, Yanchun; Zhang, Yan; Hou, Zhijie; Guo, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wang, Chang; Fan, Wenjun; Si, Yang; Yang, Ya; Kang, Zhijie; Fang, Meiyun; Liu, Quentin

2015-03-01

284

CCL21 Expression Pattern of Human Secondary Lymphoid Organ Stroma Is Conserved in Inflammatory Lesions with Lymphoid Neogenesis  

PubMed Central

CCL21 is a homeostatic lymphoid chemokine instrumental in the recruitment and organization of T cells and dendritic cells into lymphoid T areas. In human secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), CCL21 is produced by cells distributed throughout the T zone, whereas high endothelial venules (HEVs) lack CCL21 mRNA. A critical question remains whether the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) in chronic inflammation recapitulates the features of SLOs. Thus, we systematically investigated in situ the cellular sources of CCL21 in SLOs and ELTs in several human diseases characterized by lymphoid neogenesis. By in situ hybridization and the use of combinatorial cell markers, we show that CCL21-producing vessels in inflamed tissues systematically display typical markers of lymphatic vessels, whereas, as in SLOs, ectopic HEVs do not synthesize detectable levels of CCL21. We also provide first-time evidence that a common pattern of CCL21 expression by CD45-negative myofibroblast-like cells localized in extra-HEV position and organized in a fibroblastic reticular network similarly characterizes human SLOs and organized ELTs. Altogether, our results demonstrate that in humans the pattern of CCL21 production in SLOs is maintained during inflammation and that the phenotypic and functional properties of stromal cells, found in SLO T-cell areas, are reproduced at ectopic sites. PMID:17982129

Manzo, Antonio; Bugatti, Serena; Caporali, Roberto; Prevo, Remko; Jackson, David G.; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Buckley, Christopher D.; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Pitzalis, Costantino

2007-01-01

285

CCL21 expression pattern of human secondary lymphoid organ stroma is conserved in inflammatory lesions with lymphoid neogenesis.  

PubMed

CCL21 is a homeostatic lymphoid chemokine instrumental in the recruitment and organization of T cells and dendritic cells into lymphoid T areas. In human secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), CCL21 is produced by cells distributed throughout the T zone, whereas high endothelial venules (HEVs) lack CCL21 mRNA. A critical question remains whether the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) in chronic inflammation recapitulates the features of SLOs. Thus, we systematically investigated in situ the cellular sources of CCL21 in SLOs and ELTs in several human diseases characterized by lymphoid neogenesis. By in situ hybridization and the use of combinatorial cell markers, we show that CCL21-producing vessels in inflamed tissues systematically display typical markers of lymphatic vessels, whereas, as in SLOs, ectopic HEVs do not synthesize detectable levels of CCL21. We also provide first-time evidence that a common pattern of CCL21 expression by CD45-negative myofibroblast-like cells localized in extra-HEV position and organized in a fibroblastic reticular network similarly characterizes human SLOs and organized ELTs. Altogether, our results demonstrate that in humans the pattern of CCL21 production in SLOs is maintained during inflammation and that the phenotypic and functional properties of stromal cells, found in SLO T-cell areas, are reproduced at ectopic sites. PMID:17982129

Manzo, Antonio; Bugatti, Serena; Caporali, Roberto; Prevo, Remko; Jackson, David G; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Buckley, Christopher D; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Pitzalis, Costantino

2007-11-01

286

Radiation-induced regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) changes in normal brain and low-grade astrocytomas: quantification and time and dose-dependent occurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: New tumor-conformal radiation-treatment modalities have been established with the intention to spare normal tissue while maintaining or improving local tumor control. To document radiation-induced changes in normal brain and low-grade astrocytoma we measured regional cerebral blood volumes (rCBV) using a dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MR technique (DSC-MRI). We attempted to assess pretherapeutic rCBV values and time- and dose-dependent changes following

Martin Fuss; Frederik Wenz; Ralf Scholdei; Marco Essig; Jürgen Debus; Michael V Knopp; Michael Wannenmacher

2000-01-01

287

[Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine : Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].  

PubMed

A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

2015-04-01

288

Differences of tensile strength distribution between mechanically high-grade and low-grade Japanese larch lumber 11: Effect of knots on tensile strength distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength (TS) test results of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi, Carriere) lumber of varying length have shown that the length effects on TS were different between high-grade (H) and low-grade\\u000a (L) lumber. In this paper, we examined the effect of knots on the TS distribution by measuring the number of knots and the\\u000a knot area ratio of each specimen.

Takashi Takeda; Takeo Hashizume

1999-01-01

289

EGF-Induced EMT and Invasiveness in Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumor Cells: A Possible Step in the Transition to Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Cells?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-grade ovarian cancer cultures, it has been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell invasion by activating an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the effect of EGF on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOT) and low-grade serous carcinomas (LGC) cell invasion remains unknown. Here, we show that EGF receptor (EGFR) was expressed, that EGF treatment increased cell migration and invasion

Jung-Chien Cheng; Nelly Auersperg; Peter C. K. Leung

2012-01-01

290

TGF-Beta Induces Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumor Cell Invasion by Activating EMT but Triggers Apoptosis in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells is induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?). However, high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGC) are refractory to the inhibitory functions of TGF-?; their invasiveness is up-regulated by TGF-? through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) activation. Serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOT) have been recognized as distinct entities that give rise to invasive low-grade serous carcinomas (LGC), which

Jung-Chien Cheng; Nelly Auersperg; Peter C. K. Leung

2012-01-01

291

Disturbed functional brain networks and neurocognitive function in low-grade glioma patients: a graph theoretical analysis of resting-state MEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To understand neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in low-grade glioma (LGG) patients by evaluating the spatial structure of 'resting-state' brain networks with graph theory. METHODS: Standardized tests measuring 6 neurocognitive domains were administered in 17 LGG patients and 17 healthy controls. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were conducted during eyes-closed 'resting state'. The phase lag index (PLI) was computed in seven

Ingeborg Bosma; Jaap C Reijneveld; Martin Klein; Linda Douw; Bob W van Dijk; Jan J Heimans; Cornelis J Stam

2009-01-01

292

Impact of Prolonged Low-Grade Physical Training on the in vivo Glucocorticoid Sensitivity and on Glucocorticoid Receptor-? mRNA Levels of Obese Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Healthy individuals present variable responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis induced by different patterns of physical training. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prolonged low-grade physical training influences the HPA axis and also glucocorticoid receptor-? (GR?) mRNA levels in mononuclear cells of obese adolescents. Methods: We studied 19 patients with BMI above the 95th percentile (male:female

Cláudia Dutra Costantin Faria; Roberta Borges Castro; Carlos Alberto Longui; Cristiane Kochi; Vera Lúcia Perino Barbosa; Tatiane Sousa e Silva; Mylene Neves Rocha; Murilo Rezende Melo; Osmar Monte

2010-01-01

293

Transformation of a low-grade Korean natural zeolite to high cation exchanger by hydrothermal reaction with or without fusion with sodium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-grade Korean natural zeolite in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz and feldspars was treated hydrothermally with 3, 4 and 5 M NaOH solutions during different times ranging from 4 to 40 h, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder at 550°C during 2 h as a pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, zeolite Na-X and hydroxysodalite were identified as the reacted

Shin-Jyung Kang; Kazuhiko Egashira; Akira Yoshida

1998-01-01

294

Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

2014-01-01

295

Treatment of benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the orbit with rituximab.  

PubMed

Benign lymphoid hyperplasia is a disorder characterized by polyclonal lymphocytic infiltration of orbital tissues, predominantly with B-cells. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, a B-cell marker. Two patients with recurrent orbital masses involving the lacrimal glands were treated with rituximab. The diagnosis of benign lymphoid hyperplasia with predominance of CD20 cells was confirmed in both cases based on a surgical biopsy. Both patients had been previously treated with standard therapies, including high-dose steroids, and one patient had failed external-beam radiation therapy. They both responded well to treatment with intravenous rituximab. Neither patient experienced any side effects associated with rituximab. PMID:20090476

Ho, Hao H; Savar, Aaron; Samaniego, Felipe; Manning, John; Kasyan, Armen; Pro, Barbara; Esmaeli, Bita

2010-01-01

296

Malignant epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor with prominent reticular/microcystic pattern in a child: a low-grade neoplasm with 18-years follow-up.  

PubMed

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) constitute <2% of soft tissue neoplasms in children and display a wide histologic spectrum including low-grade and epithelioid variants, although most are high-grade spindle cell sarcomas. Here, we describe an unusual case of a large retroperitoneal epithelioid MPNST diagnosed in a 7-year-old girl without family history or clinical features of neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient was treated by repeated surgical interventions, polychemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplantation, and irradiation therapy. Over the years, she developed multiple disseminated abdominal recurrences but is currently alive with very slowly progressing disseminated intra-abdominal disease 18 years from initial diagnosis. Histologically, the tumor was composed of medium-sized polygonal and ovoid-to-spindled cells set within a copious myxoid matrix with a prominent reticular and microcystic pattern reminiscent of the recently described reticular/microcystic schwannoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong and diffuse expression of S100, CD56, CD57, collagen IV, and neuron-specific enolase, with negativity for perineurial cell markers (claudin-1, epithelial membrane antigen, and glucose transporter-1) and other lineage-specific mesenchymal and epithelial antigens. This unusual variant of low-grade MPNST must be differentiated from a variety of other entities, in particular benign perineurioma, myxoid neurofibroma, and benign reticular/microcystic schwannoma. Confinement of the recurrent disease to the abdominal cavity emphasizes the necessity of primary curative wide excision of this highly recurring but nonmetastasizing low-grade neoplasm. PMID:21768875

Agaimy, Abbas; Stachel, Klaus-Daniel; Jüngert, Jörg; Radkow, Tanja; Carbon, Roman; Metzler, Markus; Holter, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

297

Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis.

Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

1985-03-01

298

Utility of peripheral blood flow cytometry in differentiating low grade versus high grade myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and in the evaluation of cytopenias  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic utility of flow cytometry in the evaluation of cytopenias and in the differential diagnosis of low-grade versus high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is not widely appreciated. In this report, we measured granulocyte CD10/control fluorescence ratio in 29 patients with MDS & chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) using peripheral blood (PB) flow cytometry (FC). We found a lower ratio in high-grade MDS and CMML (mean ratio of 2.2 ± 0.7) vs. low-grade MDS (3.65 ± 0.9) and 16 cytopenic controls without MDS (3.67 ± 0.65; p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of CD10 ratio <3 for the group that included the high risk MDS and CMML patients were 87.5% and 100%, respectively. Our data suggests that FC of PB may be helpful in the work-up of patients with cytopenias and in the differential diagnosis of low-grade vs. high-grade MDS. PMID:22558477

Rashidi, Hooman H; Xu, Xiangdong; Wang, Huan-You; Shafi, Nelofar Q; Rameshkumar, Karuna; Messer, Karen; Smith, Brian R; Rose, Michal G

2012-01-01

299

EBV-positive low-grade marginal zone lymphoma in the breast with massive amyloid deposition arising in a heart transplant patient: A report of an unusual case.  

PubMed

According to the 2008 World Health Organization classification, low-grade lymphomas arising in transplant recipients are not considered as specific types of PTLD. Most such cases are not associated with EBV infections, although rare reports of post-transplant marginal zone lymphoma have been described. We describe the case of an 18-yr-old female with history of heart transplant who developed a breast mass, but was otherwise completely asymptomatic. Surgical excision of the mass and histopathologic examination showed a low-grade B-cell lymphoma most consistent with marginal zone lymphoma with massive amyloid deposition; furthermore, numerous tumor cells were positive for EBV by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA. The patient was treated with reduction in immunosuppression, and no additional lesions developed. This case describes an atypical presentation of post-transplant low-grade B-cell lymphoma, unusual in its location, histopathologic features, and association with EBV, thereby adding to the rare previous accounts of such an entity, suggesting the need to include post-transplant marginal zone lymphomas in the current classification of PTLD, and helping in determining the optimal treatment modalities for such tumors. PMID:23773403

Nassif, Samer; Ozdemirli, Metin

2013-09-01

300

Triage of Women with Low-Grade Cervical Lesions - HPV mRNA Testing versus Repeat Cytology  

PubMed Central

Background In Norway, women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are followed up after six months in order to decide whether they should undergo further follow-up or be referred back to the screening interval of three years. A high specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the triage test is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Materials and Methods At the University Hospital of North Norway, repeat cytology and the HPV mRNA test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, are used in triage of women with ASC-US and LSIL. In this study, women with LSIL cytology in the period 2005–2008 were included (n?=?522). Two triage methods were evaluated in two separate groups: repeat cytology only (n?=?225) and HPV mRNA testing in addition to repeat cytology (n?=?297). Histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was used as the study endpoint. Results Of 522 women with LSIL, 207 had biopsies and 125 of them had CIN2+. The sensitivity and specificity of repeat cytology (ASC-US or worse) were 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.1, 92.2) and 54.4 % (95% CI: 46.9, 61.9), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV mRNA test were 94.2% (95% CI: 88.7, 99.7) and 86.0% (95% CI: 81.5, 90.5), respectively. The PPV of repeat cytology was 38.4% (95% CI: 29.9, 46.9) compared to 67.0% (95% CI: 57.7, 76.4) of the HPV mRNA test. Conclusion HPV mRNA testing was more sensitive and specific than repeat cytology in triage of women with LSIL cytology. In addition, the HPV mRNA test showed higher PPV. These data indicate that the HPV mRNA test is a better triage test for women with LSIL than repeat cytology. PMID:21918682

Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Arbyn, Marc; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve

2011-01-01

301

Psychosocial Impact of Alternative Management Policies for Low-Grade Cervical Abnormalities: Results from the TOMBOLA Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care) and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. Methods Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20–59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n?=?1703) or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n?=?1696). At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A subgroup (n?=?2354) completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (?8) and significant anxiety (?11; “30-month percentages”). Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (?9). Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. Results There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR?=?0.99, 95% CI 0.80–1.21) or anxiety (OR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.81–1.16) between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR?=?0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR?=?0.67 95% CI 0.54–0.84). Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time-points. Conclusions There was no difference in the longer-term psychosocial impact of management policies based on cytological surveillance or initial colposcopy. Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 34841617 PMID:24386076

Little, Julian; Gray, Nicola M.; Cruickshank, Margaret; Smart, Louise; Thornton, Alison; Waugh, Norman; Walker, Leslie

2013-01-01

302

Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

Daniels, Thomas B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D., E-mail: Brown.paul@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Meritcare Hospital CCOP, Fargo, ND (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Schiff, David [Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2011-09-01

303

Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours  

PubMed Central

Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive from LMP tumours. PMID:22163003

Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.

2011-01-01

304

PHENOTYPE OF RECOVERING LYMPHOID CELL POPULATIONS AFTER MARROW TRANSPLANTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little question that the study of recovering lymphoid cell populations following bone marrow transplantation is important to the understanding of the biology of transplantation. With a full understanding of the types of cells, their sequence of appearance, and their relationship to such clinical situations as graft- vs.-host disease (GVHD) ~ and graft rejection, it is likely that it

KENNETH A. AULT; JOSEPH H. ANTIN; DAVID GINSBURG; STUART H. ORKIN; JOEL M. RAPPEPORT; MARY LOU KEOHAN; PAULA MARTIN; BRIAN R. SMITH

1985-01-01

305

Minimal change disease associated with MALT lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade Extranodal Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma,\\u000a involving the kidney is a rare clinical entity. Association of Minimal change disease nephrotic range proteinuria with Hodgkin’s\\u000a lymphoma is well described, however is extremely uncommon with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. We describe a patient who presented\\u000a with nephrotic syndrome and a kidney biopsy revealed marginal zone

Rahil Kasmani; Vamsee Priya Marina; Syed Abidi; Bikram Johar; Deepak Malhotra

306

Magnetic Anisotropy of Chloritoid and its Significance in Magnetic Fabric Studies of Low-Grade Metamorphic Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of monoclinic chloritoid, a relatively common mineral in aluminium-rich, metapelitic rocks, has been determined for the first time by measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), using two independent high-field approaches, i.e. (a) directional magnetic hysteresis measurements and (b) torque magnetometry, on a collection of single crystals collected from different tectonometamorphic settings worldwide [Haerinck et al., 2013a]. Magnetic remanence experiments show that all specimens contain ferromagnetic (s.l.) impurities, being mainly magnetite. The determined (paramagnetic) high-field-AMS (HF-AMS) ellipsoids have a highly oblate shape with the minimum susceptibility direction subparallel to the crystallographic c-axis of chloritoid. In the basal plane of chloritoid, though, the HF-AMS can be considered isotropic. The corrected degree of anisotropy (PJHF) is found to be 1.47, which is significantly higher than the anisotropy of most paramagnetic silicates and even well above the frequently used upper limit (i.e. 1.35) for the paramagnetic contribution to AMS of siliciclastic rocks. As there is no apparent relationship between PJHF and the high-field bulk susceptibility, it seems that the remarkably high magnetic anisotropy of chloritoid is not simply the result of more Fe (& Mn) cations and hence, a stronger ferrimagnetic interaction within the basal plane of the chloritoid lattice. Instead, an analysis of the paramagnetic Curie temperature, parallel (?par.) and perpendicular (?perp.) to the basal plane of the chloritoid crystals, indicates that this pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy is related to strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis (?perp. < 0) and rather weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions within the basal plane (?par. > 0). As a consequence, chloritoid-bearing metapelites with a pronounced mineral alignment can have a high degree of AMS without the need of invoking a significant contribution of strongly anisotropic, ferromagnetic (s.l.) minerals. This is tested by a magnetic fabric study of a particular stratigraphic horizon of Armorican metasiltstones, that covers both an area with chloritoid and white mica-bearing metasiltstones, associated with an epizonal metamorphic grade, and an area with chlorite and white mica-bearing metasiltstones, associated with an anchizonal metamorphic grade [Haerinck et al., 2013b]. It was found that the epizonal chloritoid-bearing metasiltstones show (dominantly paramagnetic) PJ values up to 1.45, whereas the anchizonal, chlorite and white mica-bearing metasiltstones show PJ values only up to 1.27. These observations clearly show that the presence of chloritoid in low-grade metamorphic rocks has a profound impact on the rock's magnetic fabric (AMS) which can be attributed to the very high intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of chloritoid. Therefore, our work calls for a revised approach of magnetic fabric interpretations in chloritoid-bearing rocks. Haerinck et al. 2013a, JGR-B, 118, 13-13, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50276. Haerinck et al. 2013b, JGS of London, 170 (2), 263-280, doi: 10.1144/jgs2012-062.

Haerinck, T.; Debacker, T. N.; Sintubin, M.

2013-12-01

307

GNAS is frequently mutated in both low-grade and high-grade disseminated appendiceal mucinous neoplasms but does not affect survival.  

PubMed

We analyzed a series of 55 disseminated appendiceal mucinous neoplasms treated at our institution for GNAS and KRAS mutations in an attempt to correlate mutation status with clinicopathological findings and patient survival. GNAS mutations (p.R201H, c.602G>A and p.R201C, and c.602C>T) were identified in 17 (31%) of 55 of disseminated mucinous neoplasms and were found in 8 (35%) of 23 low-grade mucinous neoplasms, 7 (37%) of 19 high-grade mucinous adenocarcinomas lacking a signet ring cell component, and 2 (15%) of 13 high-grade mucinous adenocarcinomas with a signet ring cell component. All 7 mucinous adenocarcinomas composed of pure (>95%) signet ring cells harbored wild-type GNAS. There was no significant association between GNAS mutations and sex and age (both with P > .05) or between GNAS mutations and individual adverse histologic features including cytologic grade, destructive invasion, tumor cellularity, angiolymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, and signet ring cells (all with P > .05). KRAS mutations were identified in 22 (40%) of 55 disseminated mucinous neoplasms. GNAS-mutated disseminated appendiceal mucinous neoplasms more frequently harbored concurrent KRAS mutations compared with GNAS wild-type tumors (65% versus 29%, P = .018). GNAS mutations were not significantly associated with overall survival (both with P > .05). Only overall tumor grade was an independent predictor of overall survival in the multivariate analysis (P = .01). Our results indicate that GNAS mutations are frequently identified in both low-grade and high-grade disseminated appendiceal mucinous neoplasms indicating that GNAS mutation status cannot be used to distinguish between low-grade from high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. PMID:24925222

Singhi, Aatur D; Davison, Jon M; Choudry, Haroon A; Pingpank, James F; Ahrendt, Steven A; Holtzman, Matthew P; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Mantha, Geeta; Nikiforova, Marina; Bartlett, David L; Pai, Reetesh K

2014-08-01

308

Grade II pilocytic astrocytoma in a 3-month-old patient with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL): Case report and literature review of low grade gliomas in ECCL.  

PubMed

Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a rare congenital syndrome with an unknown etiology. Since 1970, around 60 cases have been reported in English literature. ECCL is usually classified by cutaneous lesions and non-progressive intracranial or spinal lipomas; however three cases of ECCL associated with low grade glioma (LGG) have been described. We report on the fourth case of LGG in a patient with ECCL; a grade II pilocytic astrocytoma with pilomyxoid features in a 3-month-old male, the youngest in literature. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25705862

Bieser, Sarah; Reis, Martin; Guzman, Miguel; Gauvain, Karen; Elbabaa, Samer; Braddock, Stephen R; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed S

2015-04-01

309

Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

1980-01-01

310

Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

Pottern, L.M.

1987-01-01

311

Invited minireview: Stress-induced remodeling of lymphoid innervation  

PubMed Central

Lymphoid organs have long been known to harbor neural fibers from the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, but recent studies suggest a surprising degree of plasticity in the density of innervation. This review summarizes data showing that behavioral stress can increase the density of catecholaminergic neural fibers within lymphoid organs of adult primates. Stress-induced neural densification is associated with increased expression of neurotrophic factors, and functional consequences include alterations in lymph node cytokine expression and increased replication of a lymphotropic virus. The finding that behavioral stress can tonically alter lymph node neural structure suggests that behavioral factors could exert long-term regulatory influences on the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of immune responses. PMID:17697764

Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Cole, Steve W.

2009-01-01

312

Myeloid-lymphoid ontogeny in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).  

PubMed

Establishment of a functional immune system has important implications for health and disease, yet questions remain regarding the mechanism, location, and timing of development of myeloid and lymphoid cell compartments. The goal of this study was to characterize the ontogeny of the myeloid-lymphoid system in rhesus monkeys to enhance current knowledge of the developmental sequence of B-cell (CD20, CD79), T-cell (CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3), dendritic cell (CD205), and macrophage (CD68) lineages in the fetus and infant. Immunohistochemical assessments addressed the temporal and spatial expression of select phenotypic markers in the developing liver, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and bone marrow with antibodies known to cross-react with rhesus cells. CD3 was the earliest lymphoid marker identified in the first trimester thymus and, to a lesser extent, in the spleen. T-cell markers were also expressed midgestation on cells of the liver, spleen, thymus, and in Peyer's patches of the small and large intestine, and where CCR5 expression was noted. A myeloid marker, CD68, was found on hepatic cells near blood islands in the late first trimester. B-cell markers were observed mid-second trimester in the liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, bone marrow spaces, and occasionally in GALT. By the late third trimester and postnatally, secondary follicles with germinal centers were present in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. These results suggest that immune ontogeny in monkeys is similar in temporal and anatomical sequence when compared to humans, providing important insights for translational studies. PMID:24867874

Batchelder, Cynthia A; Duru, Nadire; Lee, Charles I; Baker, Chris A R; Swainson, Louise; Mccune, Joseph M; Tarantal, Alice F

2014-08-01

313

Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs  

SciTech Connect

Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-12-15

314

Lymphoid precursor cells adhere to two different sites on fibronectin  

PubMed Central

Several precursor lymphoid cell lines, blocked at specific stages of differentiation, adhere specifically to fibronectin in vitro. Whereas the Ba F3 cell line, which has both immunoglobulin heavy- and light- chain genes in germline configuration, interacts with the arg-gly-asp- containing cell-binding domain of fibronectin, the B-committed line PD 31, which is undergoing rearrangement of immunoglobulin light-chain genes, does not. Accordingly the Ba F3, but not the putative PD 31 surface fibronectin receptor, binds to an affinity matrix containing the 115-kD cell-binding domain of fibronectin. PD 31 cells recognize a different domain of the fibronectin molecule, which is contained within the carboxy terminal segment possessing a high-affinity binding site for heparin. A polyclonal antibody raised against the fibronectin receptor of mouse erythroleukemic cells inhibits adhesion of these lymphoid lines to fibronectin. It precipitates two major species of 140 and 70 kD from surface-radioiodinated Ba F3 cells and species of 140 and 120 kD from PD 31 cells. We propose that the two types of cells express different fibronectin receptors mediating substrate adhesion, and suggest that receptor(s) with different specificity might be expressed in the course of B cell maturation. Because we show that these adhesion properties are shared by normal bone marrow lymphoid precursors, we infer that these receptors may play a role in normal lymphopoiesis. PMID:2956270

1987-01-01

315

A committed hemopoietic precursor to innate lymphoid cells  

PubMed Central

Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) specialize in the rapid secretion of polarized sets of cytokines and chemokines to combat infection and promote tissue repair at mucosal barriers.1–9 Their diversity and similarities with previously characterized NK cells and lymphoid tissue inducers (LTi) have prompted a provisional classification of all innate lymphocytes into groups 1, 2 and 3 based solely on cytokine properties,10 but their developmental pathways and lineage relationships remain elusive. Using lineage tracing and transfer studies, we identified and characterized a novel subset of lymphoid precursors in fetal liver and adult bone marrow that transiently expressed high amounts of PLZF, a transcription factor previously associated with NKT cell development.11,12 PLZFhigh cells were committed ILC progenitors with multiple ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 potential at the clonal level. They excluded classical LTi and NK cells, but included a peculiar subset of NK1.1+DX5? ‘NK-like’ cells residing in the liver. Deletion of PLZF markedly altered the development of several ILC subsets, but not LTi or NK cells. PLZFhigh precursors also expressed high amounts of Id2 and GATA3, as well as TOX, a known regulator of PLZF-independent NK and LTi lineages.13 These findings establish novel lineage relationships between ILC, NK and LTi cells, and identify the common precursor to ILC, termed ILCP. They also reveal the broad, defining role of PLZF in the differentiation of innate lymphocytes. PMID:24509713

Constantinides, Michael G.; McDonald, Benjamin D.; Verhoef, Philip A.; Bendelac, Albert

2014-01-01

316

Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues.  

PubMed

For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34(+)CD45RA(+) hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A

2014-04-01

317

Invasive tubular carcinoma of the breast frequently is clonally related to flat epithelial atypia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ.  

PubMed

Low-grade precursor lesions, such flat epithelial atypia (FEA), low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (lg-DCIS), and lobular neoplasia (LN) often coexist with invasive tubular carcinomas (TCs) of the breast. To evaluate a possible clonal relationship, we have examined a series of 27 TC and the surrounding putative precursor lesions using loss of heterozygosity analysis and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. In these lesions (22 FEA, 10 lg-DCIS, 3 LN), loss of heterozygosity was most frequently observed on the long arm of chromosome 16 as well as at chromosome 8p21, 3p14, 1p36 and 11q14 with a high degree of homology of allelic losses between FEA, lg-DCIS and tubular carcinomas. In the adjacent invasive tubular carcinomas, mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed identical mutation patterns in 50% of the lg-DCIS and in 12 of 21 (57%) informative cases of FEA. No direct association was seen between TC and LN or columnar cell lesions without nuclear atypia. Our data indicate, that in the majority of cases lg-DCIS and FEA are directly related to tubular breast cancer with a possible precursor role. PMID:19675453

Aulmann, Sebastian; Elsawaf, Zeinab; Penzel, Roland; Schirmacher, Peter; Sinn, Hans Peter

2009-11-01

318

Expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins and physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies with and without low grade lesions  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between expression of HPV16 E6, p53 and p21 proteins and the physical state of HPV16 in cervical cytologies without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-SIL) and with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. 101 liquid-based cytological samples were analyzed. 50 samples were without squamous intraepithelial lesions (Non-IL) and 51 samples of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), both with HPV16 infection. HPV16 infection was determined by PCR-RFLP, and the physical state of HPV16 by in situ hybridization with tyramide-amplification. The expression of E6, p53 and p21 proteins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The expression of HPV16 E6 protein was significantly higher in LSIL that in Non-SIL samples (p=0.006). We found a significant correlation between E6 expression and the physical state of HPV16 in Non-SIL (p=0.049). Our results suggest that high expression of E6 in LSIL is an early event of cervical carcinogenesis and perhaps can be used as an early marker. PMID:24482706

Tagle, Diana K Jiménez; Sotelo, Daniel Hernández; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco A; Alfaro, Eugenia Flores; Coronel, Yaneth Castro; Hernández, Oscar del Moral; Romero, Luz del Carmen Alarcón

2014-01-01

319

Myoepithelial sialadenitis versus low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the salivary gland in FNAB: is discrimination by means of an image processing system possible?  

PubMed

The diagnosis of myoepithelial sialadenitis (MESA) in fine needle aspiration biopsy may be difficult. There is a dense lymphocytic infiltration in the gland and discrimination between a hyperimmune reaction and a low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of B-cell origin may be impossible. To get additional diagnostically helpful criteria, texture feature analysis on routinely obtained FNAB's of the salivary gland was applied. In the data set 36/36 cases of low grade B-NHL confirmed by histology and 10/13 histologically confirmed cases of MESA could be classified correctly by means of an image processing system. The chromatin structure of each nucleus was classified by texture features (n = 6), which were determined according to the method of Harms et al. For statistical analysis of the cell types a classification tree based on the commercial program CART was applied. The data set of 49 cases was proved by the crossvalidation test 10 fold. The calculated diagnosis for each case suggests that this method may be helpful in the cytologically doubtful cases. PMID:10757047

Ruschenburg, I; Kneitz, S; Brinck, U; Korabiowska, M; Harms, H; Droese, M

1999-01-01

320

Ubiquitous Transgenic Overexpression of C-C Chemokine Ligand 2: A Model to Assess the Combined Effect of High Energy Intake and Continuous Low-Grade Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Excessive energy management leads to low-grade, chronic inflammation, which is a significant factor predicting noncommunicable diseases. In turn, inflammation, oxidation, and metabolism are associated with the course of these diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be at the crossroads of mutual relationships. The migration of immune cells during inflammation is governed by the interaction between chemokines and chemokine receptors. Chemokines, especially C-C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), have a variety of additional functions that are involved in the maintenance of normal metabolism. It is our hypothesis that a ubiquitous and continuous secretion of CCL2 may represent an animal model of low-grade chronic inflammation that, in the presence of an energy surplus, could help to ascertain the afore-mentioned relationships and/or to search for specific therapeutic approaches. Here, we present preliminary data on a mouse model created by using targeted gene knock-in technology to integrate an additional copy of the CCl2 gene in the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus of the mouse genome via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Short-term dietary manipulations were assessed and the findings include metabolic disturbances, premature death, and the manipulation of macrophage plasticity and autophagy. These results raise a number of mechanistic questions for future study. PMID:24453432

Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Menendez, Javier A.; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sirvent, Juan J.; Martín-Paredero, Vicente; Corbí, Angel L.; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Aragonès, Gerard; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge

2013-01-01

321

Determination of regional myocardial blood flow with 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography during low-grade exercise for evaluating coronary artery stenosis.  

PubMed

We measured regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) by positron emission tomography (PET) with 13N-ammonia at rest and during low-grade exercise using a bicycle ergometer fixed at 25 watts for 6.5 min. The ischemic area with severe coronary artery stenosis was evaluated in terms of quantitative RMBF. The study was performed in 46 subjects consisting of 19 patients with old myocardial infarction, 20 with effort angina pectoris, and 7 normal individuals. RMBF was calculated using the radioactivity in myocardial tissue measured by PET and the radioactivity in arterial blood. The PET data were compared with coronary arteriographic findings and ECG findings. When the analysis was restricted to the anterior wall of the myocardium, it was found that exercise caused RMBF to increase by 44.9% (n = 28) in normal area, to increase by 23.3% (n = 37) in severely stenotic area (stenosis > or = 90%), and to decrease by 17.4% (n = 20) in infarcted area. When we considered only the infarcted area of the entire heart, exercise caused RMBF to decrease by 26.6% (n = 30) in the area of angiographically positive collaterals, and to increase by 0.8% (n = 31) in the area of negative collaterals. Thus, we were able to quantitate the degree of ischemia in myocardium that was associated with severe coronary artery stenosis. By application of low-grade exercise, RMBF in normal myocardium increased, while RMBF in myocardium perfused by collaterals decreased. PMID:8022047

Akutsu, Y; Hara, T; Watanabe, T; Yamanaka, H; Okazaki, O; Kashida, M; Michihata, T; Hasegawa, M; Harumi, K; Katagiri, T

1994-05-01

322

A multiplanar complex resection of a low-grade chondrosarcoma of the distal femur guided by K-wires previously inserted under CT-guide: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background In muscular skeletal oncology aiming to achieve wide surgical margin is one of the main factors influencing patient prognosis. In cases where lesions are either meta or epiphyseal, surgery most often compromises joint integrity and stability because muscles, tendons and ligaments are involved in wide resection. When lesions are well circumscribed they can be completely resected by performing multi-planar osteotomies guided by computer-assisted navigation. We describe a case of low-grade chondrosarcoma of the distal femur where a simple but effective technique was useful to perform complex multiplanar osteotomies. No similar techniques are reported in the literature. Case presentation A 57 year-old Caucasian female was referred to our department for the presence of a distal femur chondrosarcoma. A resection with the presenting technique was scheduled. The first step consists of inserting several K-wires under CT-scan control to delimitate the tumor; the second step consists of tumor removal: in operative theatre, following surgical access, k-wires are used as guide positioning; scalpels are externally placed to k-wires to perform a safe osteotomy. Conclusions Computed assisted resections can be considered the most advantageous method to reach the best surgical outcome; unfortunately navigation systems are only available in specialized centres. The present technique allows for a multiplanar complex resection when navigation systems are not available. This technique can be applied in low-grade tumours where a minimal wide margin can be considered sufficient. PMID:25123066

2014-01-01

323

IgG4-related disease in the head and neck.  

PubMed

Lymphoid infiltrates are relatively common in the ocular adnexa and the salivary glands. They are of a variety of types and include both reactive processes and lymphomas. Within the ocular adnexa in years past, lymphoid proliferations were classified as inflammatory pseudotumor, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and lymphoma. With improvements in diagnostic techniques and with advances in lymphoma subclassification, it became clear that many of the dense lymphoid infiltrates, including cases classified as lymphoma and likely some classified as atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, represented low-grade B-cell lymphomas, the most common of which by far were extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Ocular adnexal inflammatory pseudotumor, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis were recognized, but the focus in diagnosis had been on avoiding misdiagnosis as a neoplastic process and in planning appropriate therapy. Recently, it has become clear that many cases of these reactive processes fall into the spectrum of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease, offering new insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory lesions occurring in the ocular adnexa and the salivary glands. The majority of entities previously classified as chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Mikulicz disease, orbital pseudolymphoma, and eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis are now considered a part of the IgG4-related disease spectrum. In this review, we discuss the histologic and immunohistochemical features of IgG4-related disease of the head and neck and provide guidance for distinguishing this disease from its many mimics. PMID:23068303

Ferry, Judith A; Deshpande, Vikram

2012-11-01

324

The arrangement of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph pathways in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).  

PubMed Central

Gut-associated lymphoid tissues are poorly developed in koalas. They comprise paired caecocolic lymphoid patches, and a few small mesenteric lymph nodes. The patches lie opposite one another in the lateral gut wall at the junction of the ileum, caecum and proximal colon. The lymphoid parenchyma of the patches consists of a layer of nodules and internodular parenchyma in the submucosa. Apoptosis is common in the nodules. The mucosa and lymphoid tissue of each patch is continuous over a caecocolic recess, formed by the coalescence of laminae which extend along the large intestine. Lymph sinuses between and beneath the lymphoid nodules are continuous with efferent lymph vessels in the submucosa. These then enter 2-4 small lymph nodes at the root of the mesentery. The paucity of lymphoid tissue associated with the gut may be related to germicidal activity in the Eucalypt leaves eaten by the koala. Images Fig. 3 Figs 4-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7559107

Hanger, J J; Heath, T J

1994-01-01

325

Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients <16 years was 82 (range, 33-105). For those >16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in patients >16 years old was 23 at baseline and had improved to 17 and 14 at the 6-month and 24-month follow-up assessments, respectively. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated neuropsychological impairment in a cohort of young patients with benign and low-grade tumors even before starting radiotherapy. SCRT, however, did not result in any additional worsening. These encouraging results need to be validated in a study with a larger number of patients and longer follow-up.

Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: rjalali@medscape.com; Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); More, Niteen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Siddha, Manish [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Kamble, Rashmi [Brain Tumor Foundation of India, Mumbai (India)

2006-11-15

326

Growth-Factor-Driven Rescue to Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) Inhibitors through Akt and Erk Phosphorylation in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma and Ependymoma  

PubMed Central

Up to now, several clinical studies have been started investigating the relevance of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors upon progression free survival in various pediatric brain tumors. However, single targeted kinase inhibition failed, possibly due to tumor resistance mechanisms. The present study will extend our previous observations that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?, Src, the epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) family, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/cMet) are potentially drugable targets in pediatric low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma with investigations concerning growth-factor-driven rescue. This was investigated in pediatric low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma cell lines treated with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors e.g. sorafenib, dasatinib, canertinib and crizotinib. Flow cytometry analyses showed high percentage of cells expressing VEGFR-1, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1, ErbB1/EGFR, HGFR and recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) (respectively 52-77%, 34-51%, 63-90%, 83-98%, 65-95%). Their respective inhibitors induced decrease of cell viability, measured with WST-1 cell viability assays. At least this was partially due to increased apoptotic levels measured by Annexin V/Propidium Iodide apoptosis assays. EGF, HGF and FGF, which are normally expressed in brain (tumor) tissue, showed to be effective rescue inducing growth factors resulting in increased cell survival especially during treatment with dasatinib (complete rescue) or sorafenib (partial rescue). Growth-factor-driven rescue was less prominent when canertinib or crizotinib were used. Rescue was underscored by significantly activating downstream Akt and/or Erk phosphorylation and increased tumor cell migration. Combination treatment showed to be able to overcome the growth-factor-driven rescue. In conclusion, our study highlights the extensive importance of environmentally present growth factors in developing tumor escape towards RTK inhibitors in pediatric low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. It is of great interest to anticipate upon these results for the design of new therapeutic trials with RTK inhibitors in these pediatric brain tumors. PMID:25799134

Sie, Mariska; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Lourens, Harm Jan; Meeuwsen-de Boer, Tiny G. J.; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Zomerman, Walderik W.; Kampen, Kim R.; Hoving, Eelco W.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

2015-01-01

327

40Ar/39Ar Data for White Mica, Biotite, and K-Feldspar Samples from Low-Grade Metamorphic Rocks in the Westminster Terrane and Adjacent Rocks, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of white mica and K-feldspar mineral separates and matrix of a whole rock phyllite, all from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Westminster terrane and adjacent strata in central Maryland. This report presents these data in a preliminary form, but in more detail than can be accommodated in todays professional journals. Also included in this report is information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by readers unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results; many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context.

Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

2008-01-01

328

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma around the knee involving the proximal end of the tibia and patella: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma. LGFMS is a rare soft tissue tumor that tends to develop in the deep soft tissue of young adults and has the potential for local recurrence or distant metastasis. The current case report presents a 22-year-old male complaining of a slow growing painless mass in the right knee over a period of 10 years. Following complete evaluation by radiological and histopathological examination, a diagnosis of LGFMS was confirmed and a wide excision was performed. Currently, the patient has been under follow-up for the last five years without any evidence of metastasis. The present case report provides further information concerning the diagnosis, imaging and management of LGFMS. PMID:24944715

BAJPAI, JEETENDRA; SHUKLA, SAURAV; JAH, MOAZZAM; SINGH, ALOK KUMAR; GOEL, MOHIT; MOURYA, AMIT; SACHDEVA, NIKHIL

2014-01-01

329

90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan radiotherapy as first-line therapy for early stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including bulky disease.  

PubMed

(90) Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan ((90) YIT) was used as a first-line therapy for patients with early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) or marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL). Thirty-one patients were treated, with an overall 3-month response rate of 100% (68% complete response, 29% unconfirmed complete response and 3% partial response). At a median follow-up of 56 months, ten patients (32%) had disease relapse or progression. The progression-free rates at 3 and 5 years were lower in males, patients with FL, stage II disease and non-bulky disease, although they did not reach statistical significance. Grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia were 61%, 35%, and 3%, respectively. (90) YIT was well tolerated, including in those patients over 60 years old, and achieved high response rates in patients with early-stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Bulky disease did not adversely affect tumour response. PMID:25040450

Samaniego, Felipe; Berkova, Zuzana; Romaguera, Jorge E; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A; Pro, Barbara; Shah, Jatin J; McLaughlin, Peter; Sehgal, Lalit; Selvaraj, Vijairam; Braun, Frank K; Mathur, Rohit; Feng, Lei; Neelapu, Sattva S; Kwak, Larry W

2014-10-01

330

Aging impacts isolated lymphoid follicle development and function  

PubMed Central

Background Immunosenescence is the age-related decline and dysfunction of protective immunity leading to a marked increase in the risk of infections, autoimmune disease, and cancer. The majority of studies have focused on immunosenescence in the systemic immune system; information concerning the effect of aging on intestinal immunity is limited. Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are newly appreciated dynamic intestinal lymphoid structures that arise from nascent lymphoid tissues, or cryptopatches (CP), in response to local inflammatory stimuli. ILFs promote "homeostatic" responses including the production of antigen-specific IgA, thus playing a key role in mucosal immune protection. ILF dysfunction with aging could contribute to immunosenescence of the mucosal system, and accordingly we examined phenotypic and functional aspects of ILFs from young (2 month old) and aged (2 year old) mice. Results We observed that aged mice have increased numbers of ILFs and increased numbers of structures corresponding to an early stage of CPs transforming into ILFs. The cellular composition of ILFs in aged mice is altered with a smaller B-lymphocyte population and an increased T-lymphocyte population. The ILF T-lymphocyte population is notable by the presence of CD4+ CD8??+ T-lymphocytes, which are absent from the systemic compartment. The smaller B-lymphocyte population in ILFs from aged mice is directly correlated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of CCL20 and CXCL13, two chemokines that play crucial roles in recruiting B-lymphocytes into ILFs. Aged mice had elevated levels of serum and fecal immunoglobulins and despite the decreased B-lymphocyte population, ILFs from aged mice displayed increased IgA production. The immunoglobulin repertoire was skewed in aged mice, and ILFs demonstrated a repertoire usage similar to that of the systemic pool in both young and aged mice. Conclusions Here we observed that ILF development, cellular composition, and immunoglobulin production are altered with aging suggesting that ILF dysfunction contributes to mucosal immunosenescence. PMID:21214915

2011-01-01

331

Tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate impedes the anti-apoptotic effects of low-grade repetitive stress through inhibition of Akt and NFkappaB survival pathways.  

PubMed

V79 Chinese Hamster lung fibroblasts were subjected to repetitive low-grade stress through multiple exposures to 30 microM H2O2 in culture for 4 weeks. Akt/protein kinase B became phosphorylated at serine473 and threonine308 during this period of repetitive stress. Concurrent exposure of the cells to LY294002 (5 microM), a phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor or 4.5 microM epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), a tea polyphenol almost completely blocked Akt activation by repetitive stress. Phosphorylation of I kappa B kinase (IKK) and transcriptional activity driven by nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) were significantly enhanced by repetitive oxidative stress. These increases were largely abolished by simultaneous exposure to EGCG. The repetitively stressed cells demonstrated a significant resistance to apoptosis by subsequent acute stress in the form of ultraviolet radiation at 5 J/m2 or H2O2 (7.5 mM). The resistance to apoptosis conferred by repetitive stress was drastically reduced (>80%) by constant exposure to EGCG during the stress period while the presence of LY294002 or the NFkappaB inhibitor SN50 brought about a relatively moderate effect (about 50-65%). Our data indicate that activation of Akt and NFkappaB pro-survival pathways by repetitive low-grade stress results in a strong inhibition of the normal apoptotic response after subsequent acute stress. The tea polyphenol EGCG impedes the activation of both Akt and NFkappaB by repetitive stress and as a result preserves the normal apoptotic response during subsequent acute stress. PMID:16376342

Sen, Prosenjit; Chakraborty, Prabir Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra

2006-01-01

332

Increased Serum and Musculotendinous Fibrogenic Proteins following Persistent Low-Grade Inflammation in a Rat Model of Long-Term Upper Extremity Overuse  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship between grip strength declines and muscle-tendon responses induced by long-term performance of a high-repetition, low-force (HRLF) reaching task in rats. We hypothesized that grip strength declines would correlate with inflammation, fibrosis and degradation in flexor digitorum muscles and tendons. Grip strength declined after training, and further in weeks 18 and 24, in reach limbs of HRLF rats. Flexor digitorum tissues of reach limbs showed low-grade increases in inflammatory cytokines: IL-1? after training and in week 18, IL-1? in week 18, TNF-? and IL-6 after training and in week 24, and IL-10 in week 24, with greater increases in tendons than muscles. Similar cytokine increases were detected in serum with HRLF: IL-1? and IL-10 in week 18, and TNF-? and IL-6 in week 24. Grip strength correlated inversely with IL-6 in muscles, tendons and serum, and TNF-? in muscles and serum. Four fibrogenic proteins, TGFB1, CTGF, PDGFab and PDGFbb, and hydroxyproline, a marker of collagen synthesis, increased in serum in HRLF weeks 18 or 24, concomitant with epitendon thickening, increased muscle and tendon TGFB1 and CTGF. A collagenolytic gelatinase, MMP2, increased by week 18 in serum, tendons and muscles of HRLF rats. Grip strength correlated inversely with TGFB1 in muscles, tendons and serum; with CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in tendons; and with MMP2 in tendons and serum. Thus, motor declines correlated with low-grade systemic and musculotendinous inflammation throughout task performance, and increased fibrogenic and degradative proteins with prolonged task performance. Serum TNF-?, IL-6, TGFB1, CTGF and MMP2 may serve as serum biomarkers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, although further studies in humans are needed. PMID:24015193

Gao, Helen G. L.; Fisher, Paul W.; Lambi, Alex G.; Wade, Christine K.; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E.; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

2013-01-01

333

Biclonal low grade B-cell lymphoma confirmed by both flow cytometry and karyotypic analysis, in spite of a normal kappa/lambda Ig light chain ratio.  

PubMed

Composite low grade lymphoma with two subpopulations in a same site is uncommon. We herewith report the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with isolated bilateral dacryoadenomegaly. Pathological examination of an incisional biopsy of her right lacrimal gland was consistent with a marginal zone lymphoma. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping showed two distinct clonal B-cell populations expressing sIg D lambda or sIg M kappa restriction in the lacrimal gland, blood, and bone marrow. Both B-cells populations were sorted from peripheral blood for molecular biology investigations and comparison with molecular data performed on tumor and bone marrow cells. IgH PCR performed on purified blood populations disclosed two monoclonal peaks: 98 bp-sized peak in the sIg M kappa and a 107 bp in the sIg D lambda clones, respectively. The lacrimal gland tumor expressed mainly sIg M kappa population, and showed a major 98 bp-sized peak coexisting with a very minor 107 bp peak. Cytogenetic studies showed a 46, XX,del (7) (q22q32) karyotype. Bone marrow examination at diagnosis revealed the same B-cell clones distribution than the one observed in blood with a dominant sIg D lambda population, a Genescan profile showing a major peak of 107 bp and a minor peak of 98 bp. Chromosomal analysis disclosed a 46,XX,del (10) (?p14) karyotype without detectable 7q deletion. To our knowledge, this observation represents the first reported case of biclonal low grade lymphoma hidden behind a normal classical kappa/lambda Ig light chain ratio in blood, but clearly demonstrated by the combination of three ancillary techniques (flow cytometry both analytical and cell sorting, molecular biology, and cytogenetics) and analysis of different tissues (i.e., in this case, lacrimal gland biopsy, blood, and bone marrow). PMID:17211842

Delville, J P; Heimann, P; El Housni, H; Boutriaux, M; Jeronnez, A; Remmelink, M; Lasudry, J; Pradier, O; Kentos, A

2007-06-01

334

Association between Low-Grade Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have indicated that low UACR levels (<30 ?g/mg) previously considered to be in the normal range (‘low-grade albuminuria’) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We studied 9,736 participants with albuminuria in the normal range from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Results The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease measured using the Framingham risk score (FRS) ? 20% (high risk) were 22.5 ± 0.7% and 14.5 ± 0.7%, respectively, in males and 23.3 ± 0.8% and 8.5 ± 0.4%, respectively in females. Weighted comparisons among the tertiles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS increased with increasing UACR (MS: males, 15.9 ± 1.1, 20.2 ± 1.2, 32.4 ± 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 17.6 ± 1.0, 22.7 ± 1.0, 30.2 ± 1.4%, respectively; P < 0.001. High-risk FRS: males, 9.5 ± 0.7, 12.3 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.2, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 5.8 ± 0.6, 7.9 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The positive association persisted after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes. The weighted comparisons among the deciles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS began to increase at the ranges of 3.89–5.15 and 5.16–7.36 mg/g Cr, respectively. Conclusion Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with estimated cardiovascular risk and MS in a nationally representative sample of Koreans. PMID:25742159

Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2015-01-01

335

Combined cytotoxic effect of UV-irradiation and TiO2 microbeads in normal urothelial cells, low-grade and high-grade urothelial cancer cells.  

PubMed

The differentiation of urothelial cells results in normal terminally differentiated cells or by alternative pathways in low-grade or high-grade urothelial carcinomas. Treatments with traditional surgical and chemotherapeutical approaches are still inadequate and expensive, as bladder tumours are generally highly recurrent. In such situations, alternative approaches, using irradiation of the cells and nanoparticles, are promising. The ways in which urothelial cells, at different differentiation levels, respond to UV-irradiation (photolytic treatment) or to the combination of UV-irradiation and nanoparticles (photocatalytic treatment), are unknown. Here we tested cytotoxicity of UV-irradiation on (i) normal porcine urothelial cells (NPU), (ii) human low-grade urothelial cancer cells (RT4), and (iii) human high-grade urothelial cancer cells (T24). The results have shown that 1 minute of UV-irradiation is enough to kill 90% of the cells in NPU and RT4 cultures, as determined by the live/dead viability assay. On the other hand, the majority of T24 cells survived 1 minute of UV-irradiation. Moreover, even a prolonged UV-irradiation for 30 minutes killed <50% of T24 cells. When T24 cells were pre-supplemented with mesoporous TiO2 microbeads and then UV-irradiated, the viability of these high-grade urothelial cancer cells was reduced to <10%, which points to the highly efficient cytotoxic effects of TiO2 photocatalysis. Using electron microscopy, we confirmed that the mesoporous TiO2 microbeads were internalized into T24 cells, and that the cell's ultrastructure was heavily compromised after UV-irradiation. In conclusion, our results show major differences in the sensitivity to UV-irradiation among the urothelial cells with respect to cell differentiation. To achieve an increased cytotoxicity of urothelial cancer cells, the photocatalytic approach is recommended. PMID:25385056

Imani, Roghayeh; Verani?, Peter; Igli?, Aleš; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pazoki, Meysam; Hudoklin, Samo

2015-03-01

336

Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases: causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context.  

PubMed

In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture. PMID:23657158

Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

2013-07-01

337

Activation and effector functions of human RORC+ innate lymphoid cells.  

PubMed

Innate lymphoid cells expressing the nuclear hormone receptor RORC have emerged as important players in human mucosal immunity. These cells combine innate modes of activation such as Toll-like receptor signaling with secretion of adaptive effector molecules including IL-2, BAFF and the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. This endows these cells with the ability to rapidly respond to changes in cytokine milieu as well as changes in microbial composition and to affect both intestinal homeostasis and activation of adaptive immune cells. PMID:21561752

Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio Domingo, Patricia; Reijmers, Rogier M; Cupedo, Tom

2011-06-01

338

Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

1987-12-01

339

Bronchus-associated Lymphoid Tissue in Pulmonary Hypertension Produces Pathologic Autoantibodies  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. Objectives: We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. Methods: We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Measurements and Main Results: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3+ T cells over a core of CD45RA+ B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1+ high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule–positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Conclusions: Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue–directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24093638

Colvin, Kelley L.; Cripe, Patrick J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R.

2013-01-01

340

Recombinase, chromosomal translocations and lymphoid neoplasia: Targeting mistakes and repair failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of lymphoid malignancies is characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which are closely linked to the initial steps of pathogenesis. The hallmark of these translocations is the ectopic activation of a silent proto-oncogene through its relocation at the vicinity of an active regulatory element. Due to the unique feature of lymphoid cells to somatically rearrange and mutate receptor

Rodrig Marculescu; Katrina Vanura; Bertrand Montpellier; Sandrine Roulland; Trang Le; Jean-Marc Navarro; Ulrich Jäger; Fraser McBlane; Bertrand Nadel

2006-01-01

341

Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

1983-08-01

342

Radiation therapy of conjunctival and orbital lymphoid tumors  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid tumors of the conjuctiva and orbit are rare and remain localized in the majority of cases. Sometimes it is not possible either clinically or histologically to differentiate between a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and benign lymphoid hyperplasia. A series of 24 patients is reported. Nineteen were classified as having malignant NHL and 5 benign hyperplasia; 1 of these 5 later developed metastases, however. All patients had systemic work-up: 18 had Stage I, 1 had Stage II, and 5 had Stage IV disease. All patients received local radiation therapy with doses of 2400 to 2750 rad in 2-3 weeks for lesions of the eyelid and conjunctiva, and between 3000 and 3750 rad in 3-4 weeks for retrobulbar lesions. A method of shielding the lens with a lead block mounted on a low vac lens is described, and the dose distribution within the eye and orbit is presented. Patients who were treated with doses higher than 3000 rad experienced conjunctivitis and skin erythema that resolved completely. No other effects of radiation on normal structures of the ocular adnexa were observed in the 20 patients who are alive and without signs of tumor 10-46 months with a median follow-up time of 22 months.

Jereb, B.; Lee, H.; Jakobiec, F.A.; Kutcher, J.

1984-07-01

343

Disease-specific mutations in mature lymphoid neoplasms: recent advances.  

PubMed

Mature lymphoid neoplasms (MLN) are clinically and pathologically more complex than precursor lymphoid neoplasms. Until recently, molecular characterization of MLN was mainly based on cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization, allele copy number, and mRNA expression, approaches that yielded scanty gene mutation information. Use of massive parallel sequencing technologies has changed this outcome, and now many gene mutations have been discovered. Some of these are considerably frequent in, and substantially specific to, distinct MLN subtypes, and occur at single or several hotspots. They include the V600E BRAF mutation in hairy cell leukemia, the L265P MYD88 mutation in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, the G17V RHOA mutation in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and the Y640F//D661Y/V/H/I//N647I STAT3 mutations in T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Detecting these mutations is highly valuable in diagnosing MLN subtypes. Defining these mutations also sheds light on the molecular pathogenesis of MLN, furthering development of molecular targeting therapies. In this review, we focus on the disease-specific gene mutations in MLN discovered by recent massive sequencing technologies. PMID:24689848

Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Enami, Terukazu; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Shigeru

2014-06-01

344

MULTIPLICATION OF BRUCELLA IN CULTURED LYMPHOID AND NONLYMPHOID CELLS1  

PubMed Central

Richardson, Marvis (Michigan State University, East Lansing), and Jane N. Holt. Multiplication of Brucella in cultured lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells. J. Bacteriol. 88:1163–1168. 1964.—Growth curves were established for the multiplication of Brucella abortus in cultured bovine cells. The number of viable brucellae was determined by colony count after lysis of the parasitized tissue cells. It was found that the number of brucellae dropped during the first 3 to 6 hr. This was followed by intracellular growth. Brucellae multiplied in uterine mucosal and fetal skin cells at an exponential rate with a 4-hr generation time. In contrast, only limited multiplication occurred in spleen cell cultures, usually approaching the stationary phase by 20 to 30 hr. Preliminary results indicated an average generation time of 8 hr in calf spleen cells. Differences were apparent in the ability of spleen cells from individual calves to support intracellular growth. This suggests that a relationship may exist between the establishment of intracellular pathogens in vitro and the natural resistance of the animal. By the use of fluorescein-labeled antisera, some insight was gained into the fate of brucellae in lymphoid cells. Fluorescent antisera stained intact brucellae and also revealed soluble antigen in the cytoplasm of reticularlike cells. Images PMID:14219033

Richardson, Marvis; Holt, Jane N.

1964-01-01

345

MULTIPLICATION OF BRUCELLA IN CULTURED LYMPHOID AND NONLYMPHOID CELLS.  

PubMed

Richardson, Marvis (Michigan State University, East Lansing), and Jane N. Holt. Multiplication of Brucella in cultured lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells. J. Bacteriol. 88:1163-1168. 1964.-Growth curves were established for the multiplication of Brucella abortus in cultured bovine cells. The number of viable brucellae was determined by colony count after lysis of the parasitized tissue cells. It was found that the number of brucellae dropped during the first 3 to 6 hr. This was followed by intracellular growth. Brucellae multiplied in uterine mucosal and fetal skin cells at an exponential rate with a 4-hr generation time. In contrast, only limited multiplication occurred in spleen cell cultures, usually approaching the stationary phase by 20 to 30 hr. Preliminary results indicated an average generation time of 8 hr in calf spleen cells. Differences were apparent in the ability of spleen cells from individual calves to support intracellular growth. This suggests that a relationship may exist between the establishment of intracellular pathogens in vitro and the natural resistance of the animal. By the use of fluorescein-labeled antisera, some insight was gained into the fate of brucellae in lymphoid cells. Fluorescent antisera stained intact brucellae and also revealed soluble antigen in the cytoplasm of reticularlike cells. PMID:14219033

RICHARDSON, M; HOLT, J N

1964-10-01

346

In Vitro and In Vivo Infectivity and Pathogenicity of the Lymphoid Cell-Derived Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and human hepatitis B virus are closely related, highly hepatotropic mammalian DNA viruses that also replicate in the lymphatic system. The infectivity and pathogenicity of hepadnaviruses propagating in lymphoid cells are under debate. In this study, hepato- and lymphotropism of WHV produced by naturally infected lymphoid cells was examined in specifically established woodchuck hepatocyte and lymphoid

YUAN-YEE LEW; TOMASZ I. MICHALAK

2001-01-01

347

Microstructural, geothermobarometric and geochronological constraints on the complex Alpine collisional history recorded on the low-grade "Psunj Complex" metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. (Croatia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. (NE Croatia) cropping out on the SW edge of the Pannonian Basin belong to the Bihor nappe system of Tisia Mega-Unit i.e. of the lithospheric fragment broken off from the southern margin of the European plate. The present-day position of this Unit resulted from complex regional-scale Mesozoic and Cenozoic movements during the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system geodynamic evolution. Usually, the metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. are interpreted as a part of igneous-metamorphic complex belonging to metamorphic belt formed during or even prior to the Variscan orogeny. Until recently, the Alpine metamorphic evolution was considered insignificant and often neglected or described just in general terms due to considerable lack of geothermobarometric, phase equilibrium, fossil and/or geochronological age constraints. The chlorite schists are widely distributed lithology in the area, comprising simple peak metamorphic mineral assemblage chlorite + plagioclase (albite) + muscovite + quartz ± garnet and are associated to the local complex called Psunj complex (PsC). Metamorphic conditions for non-garnetiferous chlorite schists are obtained with chlorite (Al(IV)) thermometry and white mica barometry are 300 °C and 2.4±0.6 kbar. The chlorite schists are thrusted over (~ to the NE) microtectonically similar chloritoid-bearing schists that reached peak P-T values of 3.5-4 kbar and 340-380 °C. At least two distinct penetrative low-grade metamorphic foliations recorded in the chlorite schists are accompanied by existence of different populations of small (~3.5 µm) low-Th monazites, giving an average age 99±15 Ma. Histogram of obtained ages shows two peaks at 120 and 80 Ma while age modelling recognized two peaks at 113±20 and 82±23 Ma. First Alpine (113±20 Ma) event represents a rare record of late Early Cretaceous thermal event that affected Bihor nappe system. The age contradicts common opinion that Bihor nappe escaped thermal changes during east-facing thrusting i.e. "Austrian orogeny". The second (82±23 Ma) monazite age population is tentatively associated with Late Cretaceous regional orogenic event characterized by low-grade low-pressure metamorphism. The post-tectonic growth of chloritoid (in chloritoid schist) with respect to S2 foliation indicates that the major phase of Alpine deformation predates the peak metamorphic conditions (thermal climax) leaving opened the possibility for detection of three distinct events during the Cretaceous. Hence, the prograde Alpine metamorphic event(s) had a more significant influence on the evolution of the southern part of Tisia Mega-Unit than previously considered.

Balen, Dražen

2014-05-01

348

Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA testing and repeat Papanicolaou test in women with low-grade cervical cytologic abnormalities: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Results of cervical cytology screening showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) indicate risk for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2 or 3). In a community-based randomized trial we compared the test performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing with that of 6-month repeat Papanicolaou (Pap) test in detecting histologically confirmed CIN 2 or 3. Methods We randomly assigned 212 women aged 16-50 years with ASCUS or LSIL on cervical cytology screening to undergo either immediate HPV DNA testing or a repeat Pap test in 6 months. Cervical swabs for the HPV DNA testing and the Pap smears were obtained by their familiy physicians. We tested the swabs for oncogenic HPV using the Hybrid Capture II assay (Digene Corp., Beltsville, Md.). Community-based pathologists examined the Pap smears. All women were referred for colposcopy by their family physicians. Two gynecological pathologists assessed the histology findings. We calculated test performance in women who completed the trial using CIN 2 or 3 as the reference standard. Results A total of 159 women completed the study. Compared with HPV DNA testing, which detected 87.5% (7/8) of the cases of CIN 2 or 3, repeat Pap smear showing high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL) detected 11.1% (1/9) of cases (p = 0.004), and repeat Pap smear showing ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL detected 55.6% (5/9) (p = 0.16). Corresponding specificities were 50.6%, 95.2% (p = 0.002) and 55.6% (p = 0.61). Loss to follow-up was 17.1% in the HPV test group and 32.7% in the repeat Pap group (p = 0.009). Given the 7 cases of CIN 2 or 3 detected by HPV testing and the 5 cases detected by the repeat Pap smear, the incremental cost of HPV testing was calculated to be $3003 per additional case of CIN identified. Interpretation HPV DNA testing was more costly but was associated with significantly less loss to follow-up. It may detect more cases of CIN 2 or 3 in women with low-grade cytologic abnormalities. PMID:11022584

Lytwyn, Alice; Sellors, John W.; Mahony, James B.; Daya, Dean; Chapman, William; Ellis, Noella; Roth, Paula; Lorincz, Attila T.; Gafni, Amiran

2000-01-01

349

Pulmonary MALT lymphoma: A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an extranodal low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Pulmonary MALT lymphoma is considered to originate from bronchial MALT and is also referred to as bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Pulmonary MALT lymphoma is a rare disease, but it is the most frequent subset of primary pulmonary lymphoma. The median age at diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma is 50-60 years, with only few patients aged <30 years. This is the case report of a 19-year-old patient with pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting with a multiple pulmonary consolidation pattern on computed tomography scans, who underwent successful chemotherapeutic treatment with a chlorambucil-based regimen. PMID:25452791

Bi, Lintao; Li, Jun; Dan, Wang; Lu, Zhenxia

2015-01-01

350

Pulmonary MALT lymphoma: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an extranodal low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Pulmonary MALT lymphoma is considered to originate from bronchial MALT and is also referred to as bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Pulmonary MALT lymphoma is a rare disease, but it is the most frequent subset of primary pulmonary lymphoma. The median age at diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma is 50–60 years, with only few patients aged <30 years. This is the case report of a 19-year-old patient with pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting with a multiple pulmonary consolidation pattern on computed tomography scans, who underwent successful chemotherapeutic treatment with a chlorambucil-based regimen. PMID:25452791

BI, LINTAO; LI, JUN; DAN, WANG; LU, ZHENXIA

2015-01-01

351

Randomized trial on the efficacy of radiotherapy for cerebral low-grade glioma in the adult: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Study 22845 with the Medical Research Council study BRO4: an interim analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: There is no consensus on the treatment strategy for adult patients with cerebral low-grade glioma. The diagnosis and primary treatment are usually undertaken by surgery. Some investigators doubt the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), whereas others advise routine postoperative RT. We report the primary results of a multicenter randomized trial on this controversy.Methods and Materials: From 24 European centers,

Abul B. M. F Karim; Denes Afra; Philippe Cornu; Norman Bleehan; Simon Schraub; Olivier De Witte; François Darcel; Sally Stenning; Marianne Pierart; Martine Van Glabbeke

2002-01-01

352

Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation.  

PubMed

Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation. PMID:25214634

Goto, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takashi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Lamichhane, Aayam; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kamioka, Mariko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Matsuki, Takahiro; Setoyama, Hiromi; Imaoka, Akemi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Domino, Steven E; Kulig, Paulina; Becher, Burkhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2014-09-12

353

Large-Scale Production and Concentration of Human Lymphoid Interferon  

PubMed Central

A stable and predictable production system is described for pilot plant quantities (milligram) of human lymphoid interferon, using suspension culture of an African Burkitt's lymphoma derived cell line Namalva with induction by Newcastle disease virus, B-1 strain. Cell cultures were grown in impeller-driven 50-liter fermentors with dilution of the postinduction culture using serum-free medium. High levels of dissolved oxygen were necessary for optimum cell growth. A total of 4,207 liters of interferon culture was produced in a series of 116 fermentor runs. An average yield of 3.5 log10 international units of interferon per ml was realized before processing. Trichloroacetic acid was used to precipitate the interferon. An average of 3.35 log10 international units of interferon per ml was recovered in the final nonpurified product. PMID:464569

Klein, Frederick; Ricketts, Robert T.; Jones, William I.; DeArmon, Ira A.; Temple, Matthew J.; Zoon, Kathryn C.; Bridgen, Pamela J.

1979-01-01

354

Artery tertiary lymphoid organs contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses in advanced mouse atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Tertiary lymphoid organs emerge in tissues in response to nonresolving inflammation. Recent research characterized artery tertiary lymphoid organs in the aorta adventitia of aged apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The atherosclerosis-associated lymphocyte aggregates are organized into distinct compartments, including separate T-cell areas harboring conventional, monocyte-derived, lymphoid, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as activated T-cell effectors and memory cells; B-cell follicles containing follicular dendritic cells in activated germinal centers; and peripheral niches of plasma cells. Artery tertiary lymphoid organs show marked neoangiogenesis, aberrant lymphangiogenesis, and extensive induction of high endothelial venules. Moreover, newly formed lymph node-like conduits connect the external lamina with high endothelial venules in T-cell areas and also extend into germinal centers. Mouse artery tertiary lymphoid organs recruit large numbers of naïve T cells and harbor lymphocyte subsets with opposing activities, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector and memory T cells, natural and induced CD4(+) regulatory T cells, and memory B cells at different stages of differentiation. These data suggest that artery tertiary lymphoid organs participate in primary immune responses and organize T- and B-cell autoimmune responses in advanced atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the novel concept that pro- and antiatherogenic immune responses toward unknown arterial wall-derived autoantigens may be organized by artery tertiary lymphoid organs and that disruption of the balance between pro- and antiatherogenic immune cell subsets may trigger clinically overt atherosclerosis. PMID:24855201

Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Bontha, Vineela; Hu, Desheng; Weih, Falk; Weber, Christian; Gerdes, Norbert; Habenicht, Andreas J R

2014-05-23

355

Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: a lymphoproliferative continuum with lymphomatous potential.  

PubMed

Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) has been proposed to be the benign end of a continuum of lymphoproliferative disorders with cutaneous lymphoma at its malignant extreme. An intermediate condition, known as "clonal CLH," was first recognized by us and shown to be a transitional state capable of eventuating in overt lymphoma. To better determine the prevalence of dominant clonality and risk of lymphoma among CLH cases, we studied the immunohistology and clonality of fresh-frozen samples from 44 CLH patients referred to a multidisciplinary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders program. Using a large panel of lymphoid markers, the cases were divided into 38 typical mixed B-cell/T-cell type CLH and 6 T-cell-rich type (T-CLH), the latter containing > 90% T cells. Of the 44 patients, 38 had solitary or localized lesions (4 cases of T-CLH), and 6 had regional/generalized lesions (2 cases of T-CLH). Forty cases were of idiopathic etiology. Suspected etiologies among 4 other cases included mercuric tattoo pigment, doxepin, clozapine, and bacterial infection. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma gene rearrangements (GR) were studied using polymerase chain reaction assays, which are approximately 80% sensitive. Overall, 27 cases (61%) showed clonal CLH: 12 IgH+ (27%; 3 cases of T-CLH); 13 TCR+ (30%; 1 case of T-CLH); and 2 IgH+/TCR+ (4%; neither case was T-CLH). Two cases (4%; 1 case of T-CLH) progressed to cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Both of these patients presented with regional lesions. Our findings indicate that clonal overgrowth is common in CLH, links CLH to lymphoma, and probably involves both B- and T-cell lineages (although TCR GR by B cells and vice versa could not be ruled out). The high prevalence of dominant clonality in our series may have resulted from the sensitivity of our PCR assays as well as patient selection. PMID:12827617

Nihal, Minakshi; Mikkola, Debra; Horvath, Nancy; Gilliam, Anita C; Stevens, Seth R; Spiro, Timothy P; Cooper, Kevin D; Wood, Gary S

2003-06-01

356

Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

2012-10-01

357

An evaluation of the morphologic features of low-grade mucinous neoplasms of the appendix metastatic in the ovary, and comparison with primary ovarian mucinous tumors.  

PubMed

It may be difficult to distinguish ovarian involvement by a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) from a primary gastrointestinal-type primary borderline (proliferative) ovarian tumor (IBMT) or an ovarian mucinous tumor arising within a teratoma, particularly when the latter is associated with mucinous ascites/pseudomyxoma peritonei. We noted that LAMNs involving the ovaries show 2 distinctive histologic features, "scalloped" glands and subepthelial stromal clefts, whereas IBMTs more often are associated with reactive cellular stroma and histiocyte aggregates (mucin granulomas). The frequency of these features was investigated in 18 LAMNs (16 with pseudomyxoma peritonei), 18 primary IBMTs, and 6 teratoma-associated mucinous tumors (selected on the basis of associated pseudomyxoma peritonei). Scalloped glands and subepithelial clefts were identified in 17 and 16 LAMNs, respectively, and in 3 and 7 IBMTs, respectively. Conversely, reactive stroma and histiocyte aggregates were present in 2 and 0 LAMNs, respectively, and in 11 and 10 IBMTs, respectively. LAMNs were often bilateral (12/18 cases) and they more frequently showed mucin dissection of the ovarian stroma and tall mucin-rich (hypermucinous) epithelial cells compared with IBMTs. Our findings suggest that scalloped glands, subepithelial clefts, cellular stroma, and histiocyte aggregates may be useful additional morphologic parameters to help distinguish these tumor types. However, teratoma-associated mucinous neoplasms can show identical histologic features to those of LAMNs involving the ovary, and therefore accurate diagnosis of such cases requires careful macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the ovaries together with complete histologic assessment of the appendix. PMID:24300528

Stewart, Colin J R; Ardakani, Nima M; Doherty, Dorota A; Young, Robert H

2014-01-01

358

Where are we now? And where are we going? A report from the Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure (ABC2) Low-grade Glioma Research Workshop  

PubMed Central

Diffuse gliomas consist of both low- and high-grade varieties, each with distinct morphological and biological features. The often extended periods of relative indolence exhibited by low-grade gliomas (LGG; WHO grade II) differ sharply from the aggressive, rapidly fatal clinical course of primary glioblastoma (GBM; WHO grade IV). Nevertheless, until recently, the molecular foundations underlying this stark biological contrast between glioma variants remained largely unknown. The discoveries of distinctive and highly recurrent genomic and epigenomic abnormalities in LGG have both informed a more accurate classification scheme and pointed to viable avenues for therapeutic development. As such, the field of neuro-oncology now seems poised to capitalize on these gains to achieve significant benefit for LGG patients. This report will briefly recount the proceedings of a workshop held in January 2013 and hosted by Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure (ABC2) on the subject of LGG. While much of the meeting covered recent insights into LGG biology, its focus remained on how best to advance the clinical management, whether by improved preclinical modeling, more effective targeted therapeutics and clinical trial design, or innovative imaging technology. PMID:24305708

Huse, Jason T.; Wallace, Max; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Bettegowda, Chetan; Brat, Daniel J.; Cahill, Daniel P.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Marra, Marco; Miller, C. Ryan; Nelson, Sarah J.; Salama, Sofie R.; Soffietti, Riccardo; Wen, Patrick Y.; Yip, Stephen; Yen, Katharine; Costello, Joseph F.; Chang, Susan

2014-01-01

359

Colonic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and orthotopic endometrial stromal tumor with limited infiltration sharing the JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion.  

PubMed

Endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) are composed of cells resembling endometrial stroma, and are divided into benign and malignant types based on morphology. Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is a benign localized tumor, and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an infiltrative and potentially metastatic neoplasm. A series of genetic aberrations contribute to pathological diagnosis of ESTs. At present, subsets of ESN and ESS-low grade (ESS-LG) are characterized as JAZF1-SUZ12/JJAZ1 gene fusion. The ESTs that show higher grade atypia but lack nuclear pleomorphism include YWHAE-FAM22?ESS. Here we report an unusual case of ESTs. Sudden colonic perforation occurred to the patient, and emergency surgery was performed. Pathological findings suggested metastatic ESS. Thorough medical examination of the genital organs detected a 1?cm-sized well-demarcated uterine tumor. Microscopically, the tumor lacked infiltrative features, conforming to the definition of ESN. Both lesions demonstrated identical cytology and shared JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Endometriosis was not found in any areas of the resected organs, strongly suggesting that the uterine orthotopic tumor metastasized. The current case uncovered the problems of differential diagnosis between ESN and ESS-LG. We demonstrate detailed pathological features of the two lesions, and discuss the possibility of orthotopic EST with limited infiltration to develop into ESS-LG. PMID:24750188

Tokinaga, Aya; Furuya, Mitsuko; Niino, Hitoshi; Udaka, Naoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Sekido, Hitoshi; Miyagi, Etsuko

2014-04-01

360

Geochemical characterisation of pyrite oxidation and environmental problems related to release and transport of metals from a coal washing low-grade waste dump, Shahrood, northeast Iran.  

PubMed

Pyrite oxidation and release of the oxidation products from a low-grade coal waste dump to stream, groundwater and soil was investigated by geochemical and hydrogeochemical techniques at Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, Shahrood, northeast Iran. Hydrogeochemical analysis of water samples indicates that the metal concentrations in the stream waters were low. Moreover, the pH of the water showed no considerable change. The analysis of the stream water samples shows that except the physical changes, pyrite oxidation process within the coal washing waste dump has not affected the quality of the stream water. Water type was determined to be calcium sulphate. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples indicate that the pH varies from 7.41 to 7.51. The concentrations of the toxic metals were low. The concentration of SO4 is slightly above than its standard concentration in potable water. It seems that the groundwater less affected by the coal washing operation in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the sediment samples shows that Fe concentration decreases gradually downstream the waste dump with pH rising. SO(4) decreases rapidly downstream direction. Copper, Zn and Co concentrations decrease with distance from the waste dump due to a dilution effect by the mixing of uncontaminated sediments. These elements, in particular, Zn are considerably elevated in sediment sample collected at the nearest distance to the waste dump. There is no doubt that such investigations can help to develop an appropriate water remediation plan. PMID:21350923

Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Jodieri Shokri, Behshad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Shafaei, Seyed Ziadin; Kakaei, Reza

2011-12-01

361

Superdense CO2 inclusions in Cretaceous quartz stibnite veins hosted in low-grade Variscan basement of the Western Carpathians, Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 inclusions with density up to 1,197 kg m-3 occur in quartz stibnite veins hosted in the low-grade Palaeozoic basement of the Gemericum tectonic unit in the Western Carpathians. Raman microanalysis corroborated CO2 as dominant gas species accompanied by small amounts of nitrogen (<7.3 mol%) and methane (<2.5 mol%). The superdense CO2 phase exsolved from an aqueous bulk fluid at temperatures of 183 237°C and pressures between 1.6 and 3.5 kbar, possibly up to 4.5 kbar. Low thermal gradients (˜12 13°C km-1) and the CO2 CH4 N2 fluid composition rule out a genetic link with the subjacent Permian granites and indicate an external, either metamorphogenic (oxidation of siderite, dedolomitization) or lower crustal/mantle, source of the ore-forming fluids. According to microprobe U Pb Th dating of monazite, the stibnite-bearing veins formed during early Cretaceous thrusting of the Gemeric basement over the adjacent Veporic unit. The 15- to 18-km depth of burial estimated from the fluid inclusion trapping PT parameters indicates a 8- to 11-km-thick Upper Palaeozoic Jurassic accretionary complex overlying the Gemeric basement and its Permo-Triassic autochthonous cover.

Urban, Márian; Thomas, Rainer; Hurai, Vratislav; Koneèný, Patrik; Chovan, Martin

2006-03-01

362

Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400?mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10?mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15??g/mg epigallocatechin, 95??g/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8??g/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9??g/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNF? levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice. PMID:23431242

Cunha, Cláudio A.; Lira, Fábio S.; Rosa Neto, José C.; Pimentel, Gustavo D.; Souza, Gabriel I. H.; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T.; Ribeiro, Eliane B.; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M.

2013-01-01

363

Saccharomyces boulardii Administration Changes Gut Microbiota and Reduces Hepatic Steatosis, Low-Grade Inflammation, and Fat Mass in Obese and Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Growing evidence shows that gut microbes are key factors involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolic inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, gut microbiota modulations caused by selectively fermented oligosaccharides or probiotic bacteria constitute an interesting target in the physiopathology of obesity. However, to date, no probiotic yeast has been investigated in this context. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the most-studied probiotic yeast (i.e., Saccharomyces boulardii Biocodex) on obesity and associated metabolic features, such as fat mass development, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation, in obese mice. S. boulardii was administered daily by oral gavage to leptin-resistant obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks. We found that S. boulardii-treated mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. Interestingly, these effects of S. boulardii on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. S. boulardii increased cecum weight and cecum tissue weight but also induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum, family, and genus levels. These gut microbiota changes in response to S. boulardii may also be correlated with the host metabolism response. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that S. boulardii may act as a beneficial probiotic treatment in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24917595

Everard, Amandine; Matamoros, Sébastien; Geurts, Lucie; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

2014-01-01

364

Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojevi? Šoštari? et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pami? et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the main body of the Alpine orogen exposed north of the E-trending Periadriatic fault. In previous interpretations, the eastern Southalpine unit was considered to differ in many respects from Alpine units north of the Periadriatic fault including (1) no Alpine metamorphic overprint and, therefore, (2) also no Alpine ductile deformation in contrast to amphibolite- and even eclogite- grade metamorphism (ca. 100 - 85 Ma) in Austroalpine units north of the fault, and by (3) S- to SW-, Adria-directed vergency of the deformation of mostly Eocene to Neogene age in contrast to all units basically directed to the north and northwest, towards the stable European plate. The Southalpine unit is considered as back-thrust of the Middle-Late Eocene plate collision between Stable Europe and the Alpine thrust wedge (Doglioni & Bosellini, 1987). The new data from the eastern part of the Southalpine unit challenge this view and imply a steadily but slowly growing Adria-directed thrust wedge between Maastrichtian and Early Eocene times. Acknowledement: The work has been supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project no. 22,110). References Borojevi? Šoštari?, S. Neubauer, F., Handler, R., Palinkaš, L. A., 2012. Variscan vs. Alpine tectonothermal events in NW-Dinarides: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geologica Carpathica, 63, 441-452. Doglioni, C., Bosellini, A., 1987. Eoalpine and mesoalpine tectonics in the Southern Alps. Geologische Rundschaus, 76, 735-754. Feijth, J., 2002. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonometamorphic development and geochronology of the Orobic chain (Southern Alps, Lombardy, Italy). PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Berlin, 136 p. Ili?, A., Neubauer, F., Handler, R. (submitted). Formation of a structural dome due to transpression: The Lim unit in Central Dinarides. Journal of Structural Geology. Läufer, A.L., Frisch, W., Steinitz, G., Loeschke, J., 1997. Exhumed fault-bounded Alpine blocks along the Periadriatic lineament: the Eder unit (Carnic Alps, Austria). Geologische Rundschau, 86, 612-626. P

Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

2014-05-01

365

Practical diagnostic approaches to composite plasma cell neoplasm and low grade B-cell lymphoma/clonal infiltrates in the bone marrow.  

PubMed

Composite plasma cell neoplasm (PCN) and low grade B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) in the bone marrow are uncommon and raise the differential diagnosis of B-NHL with plasmacytic differentiation and PCN with lymphoplasmacytic morphology. This can be a challenging differential diagnosis, and the distinctions are important because of differences in management. We report five cases of composite PCN with B-NHL or clonal B-cell infiltrates involving the bone marrow. By using multiple different diagnostic modalities, including immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, cytogenetic analysis and IGH gene rearrangement studies by polymerase chain reaction, we were able to distinguish two distinct clonally unrelated neoplasms in all cases. We describe the utility and pitfalls of these different diagnostic modalities. Flow cytometric analysis with a panel of antibodies that includes CD19, CD56, CD138, CD45 and other aberrant markers commonly expressed by PCN will allow identification of clonally unrelated PCN and B-NHL in a composite neoplasm, and distinguish them from B-NHL with plasmacytic differentiation and PCN with lymphoplasmacytic morphology. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can give false-negative or false-positive results. In summary, a multimodal approach utilizing these different tools, including clinical data, should be used to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24395190

Hussein, Shafinaz; Gill, Kamraan; Baer, Lea N; Hoehn, Daniela; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Bhagat, Govind; Alobeid, Bachir

2015-03-01

366

Characteristics of submucosal lymphoid tissue located in the proximal colon of the rat.  

PubMed Central

In this study we have examined the morphology and steroid sensitivity of proximal colonic lymphoid tissue in the Fisher 344 rat. A time course study was conducted in which groups of animals were injected subcutaneously with hydrocortisone sodium succinate (125 mg/kg body weight) and killed on Days 0-4. Thymus, jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches and proximal colonic lymphoid tissue were excised, weighed and processed for histological analysis. The results showed that the maximum cytoreductive effects of the hydrocortisone were evident on Day 2. Thymus and proximal colonic lymphoid tissue weight decreased to 5 and 18% of the control values respectively, before returning towards control values over the next two days. In contrast, jejunal and ileal Peyer's patch weights were unaltered. A dose response experiment was conducted using the same endpoints. Rats were injected subcutaneously with hydrocortisone at 60, 120, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight and killed on Day 2. The results of this experiment showed that the proximal colonic lymphoid tissue, like thymus, responded with a dose-dependent loss of tissue weight. The spleen and Peyer's patches showed only a slight weight decrease compared to the control. These data showed that the response of proximal colonic lymphoid tissue to steroids was more similar to that of thymus, a primary lymphoid tissue, than to other secondary lymphoid tissues. Finally, grafts of fetal proximal colon under the kidney capsule of syngeneic adults supported the development of this lymphoid aggregate in the absence of luminal antigenic stimulation. These results suggest that the development and functional contribution of proximal colonic lymphoid tissue to the immune system warrants a more detailed examination. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2808123

Crouse, D A; Perry, G A; Murphy, B O; Sharp, J G

1989-01-01

367

Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation.  

PubMed

Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2d and H-2b, respectively). Infusion of 10(7) (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation. PMID:785599

Slavin, S; Strober, S; Fuks, Z; Kaplan, H S

1976-09-24

368

Abortive HIV Infection Mediates CD4 T-Cell Depletion and Inflammation in Human Lymphoid Tissue  

E-print Network

Abortive HIV Infection Mediates CD4 T-Cell Depletion and Inflammation in Human Lymphoid Tissue correspond to bystander cells. We now show that the death of these "bystander" cells involves abortive HIV

Levin, Judith G.

369

Inhibition of p16 tumor suppressor gene expression via promoter hypermethylation in canine lymphoid tumor cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the epigenetic regulation of the p16 gene in canine lymphoid tumor cells, its methylation status was examined in four canine lymphoid tumor cell lines. In three canine lymphoid tumor cell lines (CLBL-1, GL-1, and UL-1) with low-level p16 mRNA expression, 20 CpG sites in the promoter region of p16 gene were consistently methylated although all of the CpG sites were not methylated in another cell line (CL-1) and normal lymph node cells. The expression level of p16 mRNA in these three cell lines was restored after cultivation in the presence of a methylation inhibitor, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycitidine, indicating inactivation of p16 gene via hypermethylation. This study revealed the inactivation of p16 gene through hypermethylation of its CpG island in a fraction of canine lymphoid tumor cells. PMID:24815345

Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masahiko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2014-08-01

370

Characterization of Childhood Acute Leukemia With Multiple Myeloid and Lymphoid Markers at Diagnosis and at Relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

and combined populations of myeloperoxidase-positive large blasts and small blasts generally of hand-mirror morphology. LTHOUGH LEUKEMIC cells generally exhibit char- A acteristics of a single lineage, they sometimes coex- press both lymphoid and myeloid features.'.\\

Ching-Hon Pui; Susana C. Raimondi; David R. Head; Michael J. Schell; Gaston K. Rivera; Joseph Mirro; William M. Crist; Frederick G. Behm

1991-01-01

371

Calibration of low-grade metamorphic indicators with low-T thermochronometers: A test case from the western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the parlance of low-T thermochronology, sedimentary rocks are considered "reset" when they contain detrital grains (typically apatite or zircon) that have (U-Th)/He or fission-track ages younger than the depositional age. In studies focused on cooling histories, thermochronology data are frequently considered useful only if they come from reset samples, but in some cases it may be difficult to predict in advance whether a particular stratigraphic unit is reset. Quantitative indicators of low-grade metamorphism, which typically involve analyses that are less time-consuming and less costly than thermochronology analyses, may be useful for estimating peak temperatures experienced by sedimentary strata and thus whether those strata are reset, but currently there are no empirically-based calibrations between these indicators and the various low-T thermochronometers. We have focused on calibrating two of the most commonly used methods: illite crystallinity (IC; a low-grade metamorphic indicator sensitive to temperature variations in the range of ~100-300 °C) and the zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometer (which has a nominal closure temperature of ~190 °C). We utilize samples from a transect of siliciclastic Cambrian strata in the western US over which there is a large gradient in IC. Initial data suggest that the zircon (U-Th)/He partial retention zone is bracketed between quartzites and sandstones with IC of 0.3 and 1.1 °2?, respectively, consistent with previous temperature estimates for the IC scale. Additional data from samples with intermediate IC will narrow this range and improve the calibration. Furthermore, (U-Th)/He data from 21 individual zircon grains from the least-metamorphosed sample along the transect (the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone at Frenchman Mtn., NV; IC=1.1° 2?) have implications for the notion of "reset" ages and detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology. (U-Th)/He ages of detrital zircons in the Tapeats at Frenchman Mtn. range from >1600 Myr older than the depositional age to >400 Myr younger than the depositional age. The ratio of "reset" to "unreset" grains, as defined above, is roughly 1:1. The youngest grains tend to have high effective U concentrations, so poor He retention in radiation-damaged zircons may explain some, but not all, of the young ages. A likely explanation for the remainder of the young ages is the existence of zoned zircons with U- and Th-rich rims, a factor that was unaccounted for in the alpha-ejection correction we used to calculate ages. These results underscore the need for careful characterization of grain-to-grain and sub-grain compositional variations in zircon as part of detrital (U-Th)/He studies.

Verdel, C.; Stockli, D. F.

2011-12-01

372

Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)  

PubMed Central

Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. Methods We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio?=?8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. Conclusion High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment. PMID:24516611

Sørensen, Cecilie J.; Pedersen, Ole B.; Petersen, Mikkel S.; Sørensen, Erik; Kotzé, Sebastian; Thørner, Lise W.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rigas, Andreas S.; Møller, Bjarne; Rostgaard, Klaus; Riiskjær, Mads; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

2014-01-01

373

Randomized Study of Two Chemotherapy Regimens for Treatment of Low-Grade Glioma in Young Children: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Purpose Surgery is curative therapy for pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in areas of the brain amenable to complete resection. However, LGGs located in areas where complete resection is not possible can threaten both function and life. The purpose of this study was to compare two chemotherapy regimens for LGGs in children younger than age 10 years for whom radiotherapy was felt by the practitioner to pose a high risk of neurodevelopmental injury. Patients and Methods Previously untreated children younger than age 10 years with progressive or residual LGGs were eligible. Children were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin and vincristine (CV) or thioguanine, procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (TPCV). Children with neurofibromatosis are reported separately. Results Of 274 randomly assigned patients who met eligibility requirements, 137 received CV and 137 received TPCV. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all eligible patients were 45% ± 3.2% and 86% ± 2.2%, respectively. The 5-year EFS rates were 39% ± 4% for CV and 52% ± 5% for TPCV (stratified log-rank test P = .10; cure model analysis P = .007). On multivariate analysis, factors independently predictive of worse EFS and OS were younger age and tumor size greater than 3 cm2. Tumor location in the thalamus was also associated with poor OS. Conclusion The difference in EFS between the regimens did not reach significance on the basis of the stratified log-rank test. The 5-year EFS was higher for TPCV on the basis of the cure model analysis. Differences in toxicity may influence physician choice of regimens. PMID:22665535

Ater, Joann L.; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emiko; Mazewski, Claire M.; Booth, Timothy N.; Freyer, David R.; Lazarus, Ken H.; Packer, Roger J.; Prados, Michael; Sposto, Richard; Vezina, Gilbert; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Pollack, Ian F.

2012-01-01

374

Effect of the Addition of Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy on Cognitive Function in Patients With Low-Grade Glioma: Secondary Analysis of RTOG 98-02  

PubMed Central

Purpose The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with WHO grade 2 glioma improves progression-free survival (PFS). The effect of therapy intensification on cognitive function (CF) remains a concern in this population with substantial long-term survival. Patients and Methods A total of 251 patients with WHO grade 2 glioma age ? 40 years with any extent of resection or age < 40 years with subtotal resection/biopsy were randomly assigned to RT (54 Gy) or RT plus PCV. We observed 111 patients age < 40 years with gross total resection. CF was assessed by Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and years 1, 2, 3, and 5. Results Overall, few patients experienced significant decline in MMSE score. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients experiencing MMSE score decline between the randomized study arms at any time point. Both study arms experienced a significant gain in average MMSE score longitudinally over time, with no difference between arms. Conclusion The MMSE is a relatively insensitive tool, and subtle changes in CF may have been missed. However, the addition of PCV to RT did not result in significantly higher rates of MMSE score decline than RT alone through 5 years of follow-up. Patients in both randomly assigned arms experienced a statistically significant average MMSE score increase over time, with no difference between arms. The addition of PCV chemotherapy to RT improves PFS without excessive CF detriment over RT alone for patients with low-grade glioma. PMID:24419119

Prabhu, Roshan S.; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G.; Hu, Chen; Brachman, David G.; Buckner, Jan C.; Stelzer, Keith J.; Barger, Geoffrey R.; Brown, Paul D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Mehta, Minesh P.

2014-01-01

375

Comparison of Functional Outcomes following Surgical Decompression and Posterolateral Instrumented Fusion in Single Level Low Grade Lumbar Degenerative versus Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The two most common types of surgically treated lumbar spondylolisthesis in adults include the degenerative and isthmic types. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. Methods In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients with single level, low grade lumbar degenerative, and isthmic spondylolisthesis (groups A and B, respectively) from August 2007 to April 2011. We tried to compare paired settings with similar initial conditions. Group A included 52 patients with a mean age of 49.2 ± 6.1 years, and group B included 52 patients with a mean age of 47.3 ± 7.4 years. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. The surgical procedure comprised neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion. Pain and disability were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare indices. Results The most common sites for degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis were at the L4-L5 (88.5%) and L5-S1 (84.6%) levels, respectively. Surgery in both groups significantly improved VAS and ODI scores. The efficacy of surgery based on subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in the degenerative and isthmic groups. Notable complications were also comparable in both groups. Conclusions Neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion significantly improved pain and disability in patients with degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. The efficacy of surgery for overall subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in both groups. PMID:24900900

Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rahimi, Mohammad Dawood; Khanzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

376

A Genetic Dichotomy between Pure Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma (SEF) and Hybrid SEF/Low Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: A Pathologic and Molecular Study of 18 cases  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue tumor exhibiting considerable morphologic overlap with low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Moreover, both SEF and LGFMS show MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry. While the majority of LGFMS cases are characterized by a FUS-CREB3L1 fusion, both FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusions were recently demonstrated in a small number of LGFMS and SEF/LGFMS hybrid tumors. In contrast, recent studies pointed out that SEF harbor frequent EWSR1 rearrangements, with only a minority of cases showing FUS-CREB3L2 fusions. In an effort to further characterize the molecular characteristics of pure SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS lesions, we undertook a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of a series of 10 SEF and 8 hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors. The mortality rate was similar between the two groups, 44% within the pure SEF group and 37% in the hybrid SEF/LGFMS with a mean overall follow-up of 66 months. All but one pure SEF and all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tested cases showed MUC4 immunoreactivity. The majority (90%) of pure SEF cases showed EWSR1 gene rearrangements by FISH with only one case exhibiting FUS rearrangement. Of the 9 EWSR1 positive cases, 6 cases harbored CREB3L1 break-apart, two had CREB3L2 rearrangement (a previously unreported finding) and one lacked evidence of CREB3L1/2 abnormalities. In contrast, all hybrid SEF/LGFMS tumors exhibited FUS and CREB3L2 rearrangements. These results further demarcate a relative cytogenetic dichotomy between pure SEF, often characterized by EWSR1 rearrangements, and hybrid SEF/LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion; the latter group recapitulating the genotype of LGFMS. PMID:25231134

Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Jungbluth, Achim; Antonescu, Cristina R

2014-01-01

377

Major and trace-element composition and pressure-temperature evolution of rock-buffered fluids in low-grade accretionary-wedge metasediments, Central Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from Alpine fissure veins was determined by combination of microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and LA-ICPMS analysis. The veins are hosted in carbonate-bearing, organic-rich, low-grade metamorphic metapelites of the Bündnerschiefer of the eastern Central Alps (Switzerland). This strongly deformed tectonic unit is interpreted as a partly subducted accretionary wedge, on the basis of widespread carpholite assemblages that were later overprinted by lower greenschist facies metamorphism. Veins and their host rocks from two locations were studied to compare several indicators for the conditions during metamorphism, including illite crystallinity, graphite thermometry, stability of mineral assemblages, chlorite thermometry, fluid inclusion solute thermometry, and fluid inclusion isochores. Fluid inclusions are aqueous two-phase with 3.7-4.0 wt% equivalent NaCl at Thusis and 1.6-1.7 wt% at Schiers. Reproducible concentrations of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Cl, Br, and S could be determined for 97 fluid inclusion assemblages. Fluid and mineral geothermometry consistently indicate temperatures of 320 ± 20 °C for the host rocks at Thusis and of 250 ± 30 °C at Schiers. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbar for Thusis, and of 3.3-3.4 kbar for Schiers. Pressure-temperature estimates are confirmed by pseudosection modeling. Fluid compositions and petrological modeling consistently demonstrate that chemical fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during vein formation, indicating that the fluids originated locally by metamorphic dehydration during near-isothermal decompression in a rock-buffered system.

Miron, George D.; Wagner, Thomas; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.

2013-05-01

378

Next generation sequencing of pancreatic cyst fluid microRNAs from low grade-benign and high grade-invasive lesions.  

PubMed

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a precursor cystic lesion to pancreatic cancer. With the goal of classifying IPMN cases by risk of progression to pancreatic cancer, we undertook an exploratory next generation sequencing (NGS) based profiling study of miRNAs (miRNome) in the cyst fluids from low grade-benign and high grade-invasive pancreatic cystic lesions. Thirteen miRNAs (miR-138, miR-195, miR-204, miR-216a, miR-217, miR-218, miR-802, miR-155, miR-214, miR-26a, miR-30b, miR-31, and miR-125) were enriched and two miRNAs (miR-451a and miR-4284) were depleted in the cyst fluids derived from invasive carcinomas. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the relative abundance of tumor suppressor miR-216a and miR-217 varied significantly in these cyst fluid samples. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) analysis indicated that the genes targeted by the differentially enriched cyst fluid miRNAs are involved in five canonical signaling pathways, including molecular mechanisms of cancer and signaling pathways implicated in colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. Our findings make a compelling case for undertaking in-depth analyses of cyst fluid miRNomes for developing informative early detection biomarkers of pancreatic cancer developing from pancreatic cystic lesions. PMID:25304377

Wang, Jin; Paris, Pamela L; Chen, Jinyun; Ngo, Vy; Yao, Hui; Frazier, Marsha L; Killary, Ann M; Liu, Chang-Gong; Liang, Han; Mathy, Christian; Bondada, Sandhya; Kirkwood, Kimberly; Sen, Subrata

2015-01-28

379

An epigenetic marker panel for recurrence risk prediction of low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) and its potential use for surveillance after transurethral resection using urine  

PubMed Central

By a candidate gene approach, we analyzed the promoter methylation (PM) of 8 genes (ARF, TIMP3, RAR-?2, NID2, CCNA1, AIM1, CALCA and CCND2) by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in the DNA of 17 non-recurrent and 19 recurrent noninvasive low grade papillary urothelial cell carcinoma (LGPUCC) archival tissues. Among the genes tested, by establishing an empiric cutoff value, CCND2, CCNA1, NID2, and CALCA showed higher frequency of methylation in recurrent than in non-recurrent LGPUCC: CCND2 10/19 (53%) vs. 2/17 (12%) (p=0.014); CCNA1 11/19 (58%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%) (p=0.048); NID2 13/19 (68%) vs. 3/17 (18%) (p=0.003) and CALCA 10/19 (53%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%) (p=0.097), respectively. We further analyzed PM of CCND2, CCNA1, and CALCA in urine DNA from UCC patients including LGPUCC and controls. The frequency of CCND2, CCNA1, and CALCA was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in urine of UCC cases [38/148 (26%), 50/73 (68%) and 94/148 (63.5%) respectively] than controls [0/56 (0%), 10/60 (17%) and 16/56 (28.5%), respectively)]. Most importantly we found at least one of the 3 markers were methylated positive in 25 out of 30 (83%) cytology negative LGPUCC cases. We also explored the biological function of CCNA1 in UCC. Prospective confirmatory studies are needed to develop a reliable tool for prediction of recurrence using primary LGPUCC tissues and/or urine. PMID:24980822

Michailidi, Christina; Munari, Enrico; Driscoll, Tina; Schultz, Luciana; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Schoenberg, Mark; Sidransky, David; Netto, George J; Hoque, Mohammad Obaidul

2014-01-01

380

Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.  

PubMed

We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

2014-05-01

381

Connectivity in MEG resting-state networks increases after resective surgery for low-grade glioma and correlates with improved cognitive performance?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Low-grade glioma (LGG) patients often have cognitive deficits. Several disease- and treatment related factors affect cognitive processing. Cognitive outcome of resective surgery is unpredictable, both for improvement and deterioration, especially for complex domains such as attention and executive functioning. MEG analysis of resting-state networks (RSNs) is a good candidate for presurgical prediction of cognitive outcome. In this study, we explore the relation between alterations in connectivity of RSNs and changes in cognitive processing after resective surgery, as a stepping stone to ultimately predict postsurgical cognitive outcome. Methods Ten patients with LGG were included, who had no adjuvant therapy. MEG recording and neuropsychological assessment were obtained before and after resective surgery. MEG data were recorded during a no-task eyes-closed condition, and projected to the anatomical space of the AAL atlas. Alterations in functional connectivity, as characterized by the phase lag index (PLI), within the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and left- and right-sided frontoparietal networks (FPN) were compared to cognitive changes. Results Lower alpha band DMN connectivity was increased after surgery, and this increase was related to improved verbal memory functioning. Similarly, right FPN connectivity was increased after resection in the upper alpha band, which correlated with improved attention, working memory and executive functioning. Discussion Increased alpha band RSN functional connectivity in MEG recordings correlates with improved cognitive outcome after resective surgery. The mechanisms resulting in functional connectivity alterations after resection remain to be elucidated. Importantly, our findings indicate that connectivity of MEG RSNs may be used for presurgical prediction of cognitive outcome in future studies. PMID:24179752

van Dellen, E.; de Witt Hamer, P.C.; Douw, L.; Klein, M.; Heimans, J.J.; Stam, C.J.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Hillebrand, A.

2012-01-01

382

Dipeptidase 1 (DPEP1) is a marker for the transition from low-grade to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and an adverse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Improvements in the understanding of its molecular mechanism and the characterisation of CRC-specific biomarkers facilitating early detection are considered to increase overall survival. Methods: A meta-analysis of microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) has been performed to identify differentially regulated genes in CRC. Dipeptidase 1 (DPEP1/MDP/RDP) and Syntenin-2 (SDCBP2/SITAC18) were found to be differentially expressed in tumour tissue compared with normal mucosa. Expression of DPEP1 was assessed in a validation set of 87 normal mucosa samples, 20 hyperplastic polyps, 46 CR adenomas with low- and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) and 217 well-documented CRCs by immunohistochemistry and partially by immunoblotting and real-time PCR. Results: Expression of DPEP1 was specifically increased in human CRC tissue samples compared with normal mucosa (P<0.0001, Mann–Whitney U-test), showing a striking upregulation in high-grade compared with low-grade IEN. Furthermore, high DPEP1 expression was found to strongly correlate with histological stage (P<0.0001, chi-square test) as well as localisation (P<0.0001, chi-square test) and has been recognised as an independent adverse prognostic factor, showing significant prognostic values with an ROC (receiver operating characteristic)-AUC of 0.9230. Conclusion: Dipeptidase 1 has been identified as an excellent marker of high-grade IEN and CRC, and may thus be applied for screening of early neoplastic lesions and for prognostic stratification. PMID:23839495

Eisenach, P A; Soeth, E; Röder, C; Klöppel, G; Tepel, J; Kalthoff, H; Sipos, B

2013-01-01

383

Chronic inflammatory disease, lymphoid tissue neogenesis and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Chronic autoimmune or pathogen-induced immune reactions resulting in lymphoid neogenesis are associated with development of malignant lymphomas, mostly extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs). In this review we address (i) chemokines and adhesion molecules involved in lymphoid neogenesis; (ii) the autoimmune diseases and pathogens which are associated with development of B-cell lymphomas; (iii) the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of MZBCL; and (iv) ‘potential’ mouse models for MZBCL. PMID:19608670

Bende, Richard J.; van Maldegem, Febe; van Noesel, Carel J.M.

2009-01-01

384

Immunotoxicity of the anticancer drug CI994 in rats: effects on lymphoid tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

CI-994 (acetyldinaline) is an investigative oral anticancer drug currently in clinical trials. To characterize the effects\\u000a of CI-994 on lymphoid tissue, male rats were administered single oral doses at 0 (vehicle control), 10, 23, and 45?mg\\/kg and\\u000a killed up to 7 days after dosing for evaluation of white blood cell differentials, bone marrow differentials, lymphoid tissue\\u000a weights, and selected histopathology

Michael J. Graziano; Anthony J. Galati; Kathleen M. Walsh

1999-01-01

385

Classification of lymphoid neoplasms: the microscope as a tool for disease discovery  

PubMed Central

In the past 50 years, we have witnessed explosive growth in the understanding of normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells. B-cell, T-cell, and natural killer (NK)–cell neoplasms in many respects recapitulate normal stages of lymphoid cell differentiation and function, so that they can be to some extent classified according to the corresponding normal stage. Likewise, the molecular mechanisms involved the pathogenesis of lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias are often based on the physiology of the lymphoid cells, capitalizing on deregulated normal physiology by harnessing the promoters of genes essential for lymphocyte function. The clinical manifestations of lymphomas likewise reflect the normal function of lymphoid cells in vivo. The multiparameter approach to classification adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification has been validated in international studies as being highly reproducible, and enhancing the interpretation of clinical and translational studies. In addition, accurate and precise classification of disease entities facilitates the discovery of the molecular basis of lymphoid neoplasms in the basic science laboratory. PMID:19029456

Harris, Nancy Lee; Stein, Harald; Isaacson, Peter G.

2008-01-01

386

Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor ROR?t. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

2014-04-01

387