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Immunoglobulin specificity of low grade B cell gastrointestinal lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type.  

PubMed Central

The specificity of the tumor cell immunoglobulin in three cases of low grade B cell gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has been studied. Using anti-idiotypic antibodies to detect the reactivity of tumor immunoglobulin in tissue sections from the patients and other individuals, we observed specificity for normal tissue components in all three cases studied. Reactivity in one case was with follicular dendritic cells, in the second case with a novel antigen on mucosal post capillary venules, and, in the third case, a broad pattern of reactivity was observed. This study suggests that autoimmunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric lymphoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Hussell, T.; Isaacson, P. G.; Crabtree, J. E.; Dogan, A.; Spencer, J.



Low grade B cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach: clinical and endoscopic features, treatment, and outcome.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of the clinical and endoscopic features of low grade gastric lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in 16 patients together with treatment and outcome was undertaken. Immunohistochemical studies of fresh tissue easily distinguished MALT lymphoma from benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (pseudolymphoma) and showed that tumour cells had the characteristic phenotype indicative of their origin from MALT. Persistent epigastric pain was the main presenting complaint, and was often associated with acute bleeding, anaemia, or weight loss. Eight patients had a past history of recurrent peptic ulcers or gastritis. The endoscopic appearance suggested malignancy in only half the cases and was compatible with gastritis or a benign peptic ulcer in the remainder. There was extragastric involvement of other mucosal sites in eight patients (mainly the lung, but also the parotid gland and small bowel), but rarely was bone marrow and never the spleen or peripheral lymph nodes affected. Conservative treatment with long term cyclophosphamide was effective in both stage I and stage IV disease, and all the patients are alive after a median follow up of 4.5 years. These findings confirm that low grade gastric MALT lymphomas are usually indolent tumours with non-specific endoscopic aspects and show that dissemination to other mucosal sites was more frequent than previously reported. Monochemotherapy could be an effective alternative treatment to surgery.

Blazquez, M; Haioun, C; Chaumette, M T; Gaulard, P; Reyes, F; Soule, J C; Delchier, J C



Relationship between high-grade lymphoma and low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) of the stomach.  

PubMed Central

The distinctive low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) of the stomach has been well characterized in recent years, but its relationship with the more commonly occurring large B-cell gastric lymphoma has not been clarified. This study aimed to elucidate their relationship. Among 48 consecutive cases of primary malignant lymphoma found in gastrectomy specimens, there were 10 cases showing coexistence of these two elements, which were further studied in detail. The high-grade component predominated in six cases, the low-grade component predominated in two cases, and the two components were intermingled in two cases. In the low-grade component, the small neoplastic cells possessed irregular nuclei (centrocytelike), and glandular invasion was a prominent feature. In the high-grade component, the blasts occurred in clusters or sheets, and often possessed plasmacytoid cytoplasm; glandular invasion was a rare event. In both components, the neoplastic cells frequently showed formation of nodules suggestive of colonization of reactive lymphoid follicles. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the neoplastic cells in the low- and high-grade components expressed the same class of immunoglobulin light chain in eight of the nine cases studied; staining in one case was unsatisfactory. Their intimate relationship as well as identical light chain restriction suggests that the high-grade component arises through blastic transformation of the low-grade component. Images Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Chan, J. K.; Ng, C. S.; Isaacson, P. G.



Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 97 patients by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim was to examine characteristics and treatment results of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Patients and methods: Epidemiological and clinical features of 97 patients with MALT lymphoma from the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group registry were analysed retrospectively for their prognostic significance in progression- free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Comparisons were made between patients

G. Papaxoinis; G. Fountzilas; D. Rontogianni; M. A. Dimopoulos; N. Pavlidis; C. Tsatalas; D. Pectasides; N. Xiros; T. Economopoulos



Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  


A distinctive type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma recapitulates the cytomorphologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Typically, these MALT lymphomas arise from sites normally devoid of lymphoid tissue, but are preceded by chronic inflammatory, usually autoimmune, disorders that result in the accumulation of lymphoid tissue. The stomach is the most common site of MALT lymphoma, which arises from lymphoid tissue acquired as the result of Helicobacter pylori infection. The indolent clinical behavior of gastric MALT lymphoma coupled with certain histologic features suggests that its growth is subject to immunologic stimuli, and the role of H pylori in this respect has been examined in detail. In vitro experiments have shown that the growth of lymphoma cells is stimulated by contact with T cells, which, in turn, show strain specific responses to heat-killed H pylori. Clinically, approximately 70% of cases of stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma regress following eradication of H pylori with antibiotics. Large, deeply invasive tumors and those that have undergone high-grade transformation typically do not respond to antibiotic therapy. Other common sites of MALT lymphoma include the salivary glands, lung, and ocular adnexa. The clinicopathologic features of these lymphomas are remarkably similar to gastric MALT lymphoma, which suggests that they, too, may be antigen-driven. PMID:10319382

Isaacson, P G



Immunoglobulin G1 Antibody Response to Helicobacter pylori Heat Shock Protein 60 Is Closely Associated with Low-Grade Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Specifically, it has been pointed out that pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma involves the 60-kDa heat shock protein (hsp60). To investigate humoral immune responses to the H. pylori hsp60 in patients with gastroduodenal diseases and patients with MALT lymphoma, the hsp60 of H. pylori was expressed with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and was purified (recombinant hsp60). Sera were obtained from H. pylori-positive patients with gastroduodenal diseases (MALT lymphoma, n = 13; gastric ulcer, n = 20; duodenal ulcer, n = 20; gastritis, n = 20) and from H. pylori-negative healthy volunteers (n = 9). Sera from patients with MALT lymphoma were also obtained at two times: before and after eradication therapy. Antibodies to hsp60 and H. pylori were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the hsp60 of H. pylori-positive patients with gastroduodenal diseases were significantly elevated compared to those in the controls. The levels of IgG1 antibodies to hsp60 were elevated and correlated with the levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies in patients with MALT lymphoma. Humarol immunity against hsp60 may be important and relevant to gastroduodenal diseases induced by H. pylori infection.

Ishii, E.; Yokota, K.; Sugiyama, T.; Fujinaga, Y.; Ayada, K.; Hokari, I.; Hayashi, S.; Hirai, Y.; Asaka, M.; Oguma, K.



Function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in antibody formation.  


Abundant evidence supports the notion that human intestinal plasma cells are largely derived from B cells initially activated in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Nevertheless, insufficient knowledge exists about the uptake, processing, and presentation of luminal antigens occurring in GALT to accomplish priming and sustained expansion of mucosal B cells. Also, it is unclear how the germinal center reaction so strikingly promotes class switch to IgA and expression of J chain, although the commensal microbiota appears to contribute to both diversification and memory. B-cell migration from GALT to the intestinal lamina propria is guided by rather well-defined adhesion molecules and chemokines/chemokine receptors, but the cues directing homing to secretory effector sites beyond the gut require better definition. In this respect, the role of human Waldeyer's ring (including adenoids and the palatine tonsils) as a regional mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue must be better defined, although the balance of evidence suggests that it functions as nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) like the characteristic NALT structures in rodents. Altogether, data suggest a remarkable compartmentalization of the mucosal immune system that must be taken into account in the development of effective local vaccines to protect specifically the airways, small and large intestines, and the female genital tract. PMID:20450282

Brandtzaeg, Per



[Case of pancreatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma].  


A 77-year-old woman underwent abdominal ultrasonic diagnosis in a screening test for diabetes mellitus. A 65 x 45 mm tumor with low echo level was revealed and located from the uncinate process of the pancreas to the body. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated the pancreas had a low density area in the arterial phase and a comparable area in the equilibrium phase, compared with the parenchyma of the normal pancreas. Gallium-scintigraphy showed strong accumulation, consistent with the tumor. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was diagnosed by endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB). Complete remission was achieved after radiation therapy. PMID:19057166

Miwa, Ichita; Maruyama, Yasuhiko; Kageoka, Masanobu; Nagata, Ken; Ohata, Akihiko; Noda, Yuji; Ikeya, Kentarou; Koda, Kenji; Watanabe, Fumitoshi



Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma involving lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving lymph nodes is quite rare with only 13 previous cases reported in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE The 33-years-old female was referred to our department for the investigation of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans. CT scans showed a 9-cm × 3-cm mass composed of a mixture of soft tissue and fat at the anterior mediastinum with lymphadenopathy in the neck, axillary and mediastinal regions. She was underwent complete surgical resection of the mass with regional lymph node dissection through a median sternotomy. Histological examination of the surgical specimens confirmed the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma arising in the thymus with nodal metastasis. She achieved complete remission after postoperative rituximab combined chemotherapy. DISCUSSION Thymic MALT lymphoma occurs most frequently in Asian female aged 40–60 years and commonly appears anterior mediastinal masses on CT scans. The excised tissue is necessary to confirm the accurate histological diagnosis. The disease usually remains localized for a long time, making local surgical resection highly effective. However, when the lymph nodes are involved, effective treatment approaches of the disease is still undefined. CONCLUSION We report a case of thymic MALT lymphoma involving lymph nodes, in which the patient was successfully treated with primary site resection with regional lymph node dissection followed by rituximab combined chemotherapy. Surgery provided not only a useful approach for collecting tissue for an accurate histological diagnosis, but also an effective local treatment, even in the case of advanced-stage thymic MALT lymphoma.

Ota, Hideki; Kawai, Hideki; Tsubasa, Matsuo



Synchronous mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach.  


The development of simultaneous primary gastric lymphoma and carcinoma is a rare event for which a possible etiopathogenetic role for Helicobacter pylori (HP) recently has been postulated. We report a series of eight such cases diagnosed from 1980 to 1995. In two cases, both tumors arose in a gastric stump, at 26 and 34 years, respectively, after gastric resection for a duodenal ulcer. Grossly, the lymphoma and carcinoma formed a single lesion in four cases (collision tumor); they were separated in the other four cases. Histologically, all the lymphomas fit into the category of B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; six of them were low-grade lymphomas and two were low-grade lymphomas with a high-grade component. The adenocarcinomas were intestinal-type in four cases, diffuse in three, and mixed in one. Regarding the depth of infiltration, four carcinomas were early gastric cancers and four were advanced. All the collision tumors contained an early gastric cancer. Our observations confirmed the association of HP with gastric lymphoma and carcinoma in 4 cases. Spiral bacteria with the features of Helicobacter heilmannii were found in one case. The occurrence of two different tumors in a gastric stump, which has not been reported previously, suggests that postgastrectomy gastritis might contribute to the development of both gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. PMID:9158673

Goteri, G; Ranaldi, R; Rezai, B; Baccarini, M G; Bearzi, I



Trisomy 3 Is Not a Common Feature in Malignant Lymphomas of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Type  

PubMed Central

The genetic background of extranodal marginal zone B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type is poorly understood. In contrast to most entities of primary nodal lymphomas, few cytogenetic data are available, and gene rearrangements frequently encountered in and highly characteristic of certain entities of systemic NHL are absent in this type of lymphoma. Recently, it was suggested that MALT-type NHLs are associated with certain numerical chromosome aberrations and especially with trisomy 3. We performed an extensive study using a sensitive double (bicolor) fluorescence in situ hybridization technique for the analysis of trisomies for chromosomes 3, 7, 12, and 18 in 60 samples of low-grade and 45 high-grade MALT-type tumors. In the low-grade cases, trisomy 3 was found in a frequency of only 20%. High-grade lymphomas of MALT type were associated with trisomies 3, 7, 12, and 18 in 36, 20, 18, and 13% of the cases, respectively. Whereas no difference was encountered for trisomy 3 in primary and secondary/simultaneous high-grade lymphomas, +7 and +12 were associated with primary lymphomas, and a +18 was predominantly found in secondary/simultaneous high-grade NHL. These results challenge earlier reports describing a high frequency of +3 in low-grade MALT-type NHL and indicate a possibly different genetic evolution pattern of primary and secondary/simultaneous high-grade lymphomas of primary mucosal origin.

Ott, German; Kalla, Jorg; Steinhoff, Antje; Rosenwald, Andreas; Katzenberger, Tiemo; Roblick, Uwe; Ott, M. Michaela; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad



Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission.

Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan



Fludarabine phosphate for the treatment of low grade lymphoid malignancy.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-four patients with previously treated, advanced, low grade NHL were treated with Fludarabine, a deamination-resistant analogue of adenosine arabinoside, at a dose of 25 mg m-2 intravenously, daily for 5 days (median number of cycles = 3, range 1-10). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in six and partial remission (PR) in a further seven. Overall, responses were seen in 11/23 patients (48%) with follicular lymphoma and in 2/11 (18%) with low grade, diffuse NHL. Fifteen patients with previously treated CLL and one patient with prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL) were also treated as above (median no. of cycles = 3, range 1-6). A partial response was seen in three of the 11 evaluable patients with CLL and CR was achieved in the patient with PLL. There were four deaths due to infection and 19 further episodes requiring admission to hospital. No other significant toxicity was reported in a total of 164 cycles of Fludarabine. This agent is active in advanced low grade lymphoid malignancy. Further studies are required to assess its role in newly diagnosed patients.

Whelan, J. S.; Davis, C. L.; Rule, S.; Ranson, M.; Smith, O. P.; Mehta, A. B.; Catovsky, D.; Rohatiner, A. Z.; Lister, T. A.



Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma 8 years after resection of the same type of lymphoma of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 64-year-old woman presented with hepatic and pulmonary tumors of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma occurring 8\\u000a years apart. The present case carries the possibility of pulmonary metastasis of hepatic lymphoma or double primary lymphoma.\\u000a Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas tend to develop in the extranodal primary organ, rarely developing systemically\\u000a among extranodal organs as in our case. Our experience is useful

Fengshi Chen; Osamu Ike; Hiromi Wada; Shigeki Hitomi



Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the duodenum together with multiple intra-abdominal thromboses and hepatitis C virus infection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue MALT lymphoma is a low grade malignancy that arises most commonly from the gastric mucosa. Small intestinal involvement is very rare. The causative relationship between Helicobacter pylori and the gastric MALT lymphoma is a well known issue, but recently there are several data suggesting the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the pathogenesis of lymphoma including MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a rare case of duodenal MALT lymphoma with multiple intra-abdominal thromboses together with HCV infection that was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction detecting HCV-RNA within the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.



[Pulmonary Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue( MALT) Lymphoma after Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvent].  


A 68-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a left chest abnormal shadow on chest film. She had a history of occupational exposure to organic solvent for about 30 years until 10 years ago. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a nodular shadow 12 mm in diameter in the left lower lobe. As a lung cancer was suspected, partial resection of the lobe including the small lesion was performed. Since mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT) lymphoma was diagnosed by intraoperative pathological examination, we finished the operation without any more lung resection. The diagnosis was finally confirmed by histological finding of small lymphoid cell proliferation and positive staining for CD20. Chronic inflammation, such as Helicobacter pylori infection, is considered to be a cause of MALT lymphoma. We speculate that the long term exposure to organic solvent may develop the disease by continuous chemical stimulation to bronchus. PMID:24008643

Oyaizu, Takeshi; Karube, Yoko; Hayama, Makio; Kobayashi, Satoru; Chida, Masayuki



The spectrum of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lesions in pediatric patients infected with HIV: A clinicopathologic study of six cases.  


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lesions in nonimmunocompromised individuals include reactive lymphoid proliferations and both low- and high-grade lymphoid neoplasms. These lesions occur at extranodal mucosal sites, such as the gastrointestinal tract, bronchus, salivary gland, and other locations. The spectrum of MALT lesions in children with HIV infection had not been previously described. In this study, six cases that demonstrated the spectrum of MALT lesions in pediatric patients, aged 28 months to 23 years, who had HIV infection were described. Half the patients acquired the infection perinatally, and half acquired it by transfusion. Mucosal sites of involvement included the salivary gland (4 patients), bronchiolar mucosa (2 patients), and oropharyngeal mucosa (1 patient). One patient had lesions in lung and oropharynx sequentially; all others had involvement of solitary sites. The histologic diagnoses included myoepithelial sialadenitis (MESA), MESA with low-grade MALT lymphoma, typical low-grade MALT lymphoma, diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), and atypical pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis complex. The two cases of high-grade DLCL were confined to mucosal sites (tonsil and parotid); in one of these patients, a previous biopsy specimen showed a MALT lesion with low-grade features. In two cases, quantitation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome by the polymerase chain reaction showed a very high copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but a low copy number in the MALT lesion, which suggested that MALT lesions may not be directly associated with EBV infection. Two patients who had high-grade tumors (DLCL) were successfully treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The remaining patients, all of whom had low-grade MALT lesions, received either corticosteroids or alpha-interferon or no specific therapy; in all patients, the lesions followed an indolent clinical course. Clinicians and pathologists should be alert to the possibility that MALT lesions, including MALT lymphomas, may be present in children who have AIDS. PMID:9128273

Joshi, V V; Gagnon, G A; Chadwick, E G; Berard, C W; McClain, K L; Leach, C T; Jenson, H B; Murphy, S B



Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the lacrimal gland: case report and review of literature.  


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are increasingly recognized as a distinct clinical-pathologic entity among the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. It usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues or organs such as stomach, salivary gland, thyroid gland, and not infrequently in orbital adnexa. Radiotherapy has an important role in the management, although long-term clinical results specifically addressing localized MALT lymphomas are lacking. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with successful treatment by radiation therapy (total dose 25 Gy) with 3 years of clinical follow-up. A review of the published literature was undertaken to assess the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease involving orbital tissues, specifically, the lacrimal gland. Based on previous reports of patients with orbital lymphomas (low grade) and pseudolymphomas, of which many will now be recognized as MALT lymphomas, radiotherapy has an excellent local control rate and would be the treatment of choice. However, long-term results of pathologically confirmed cases of MALT lymphomas need further study because occasional relapses at distant sites can occur. PMID:11232953

Agulnik, M; Tsang, R; Baker, M A; Kazdan, M S; Fernandes, B



Novel approach to treatment of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A 78-year-old Hispanic woman with a medical history of osteoporosis, hyperlipidaemia and dyspepsia presented to a gastrointestinal clinic complaining of a small amount of rectal bleeding following bowel movements for 6 months. Colonoscopy demonstrated a 3×3 cm submucosal rectal mass. Pathological analysis revealed ulcerated colonic mucosa with diffuse proliferation suggestive of a lymphoproliferative process. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry of the specimen supported a diagnosis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The patient was treated with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. A C-14 urea breath test confirmed eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Repeat colonoscopy showed no regression of the tumour. The patient received external beam radiation treatment. Subsequent positron emission tomography/CT scans demonstrated no evidence of viable tumour tissue and no regional or distant metastasis. Follow-up sigmoidoscopy with biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphoma.

Chahil, Neetu; Bloom, Peter; Tyson, Jeremiah; Jazwari, Saad; Robilotti, James; Gaultieri, Nicholas



Tracheal stenting for primary tracheal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  


Primary tracheal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is extremely rare. We report a 49-year-old female patient with the complaint of dyspnea. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed polypoid, variable-sized and irregular nodules causing narrowing of the tracheal lumen from the proximal trachea to the left main bronchus. Because of severe stenosis in the airway and the severity of symptoms, this case was unresectable. The patient was then treated successfully with placement of an endobronchial stent through bronchofibroscopy. After the placement of the stent, bronchoscopic biopsy was performed. Pathological analysis confirms a diagnosis of MALT-associated malignant lymphoma. We performed systemic chemotherapy on the patient. The temporary stent was removed after the reduction of the stenosis. This is the first case in which tracheal MALT lymphoma was treated successfully following tracheal stent insertion guided by bronchofibroscopy. Temporary tracheal stenting can be a favorable choice for a patient with tracheal stenosis caused by primary tracheal MALT lymphoma. PMID:23547898

Ding, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhuochang; Shi, Manli



Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: a practical guide for pathologists  

PubMed Central

Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa?associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the third most common non?Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, accounting for around 6–8% of all non?Hodgkin lymphomas in the Western hemisphere. Although MALT lymphomas are clinically indolent, the disease is typically chronic, requiring long?term clinical surveillance and, often, repeated biopsies. Pathologists thus play a central role in the diagnosis and management of these patients. The optimal diagnosis and management of a MALT lymphoma requires careful integration of morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular information, together with close cooperation with the clinician treating the patient. This review discusses recent developments in the molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma and provides strategies for integrating this information into daily pathological practice.

Bacon, Chris M; Du, Ming-Qing; Dogan, Ahmet



Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with initial supradiaphragmatic presentation: natural history and patterns of disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma commonly presents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Supradiaphragmatic MALT lymphoma is less common and its natural history is not well defined. This study was conducted to understand the natural history, to determine the frequency of synchronous disease in the GI tract, and to understand the patterns of disease progression after treatment for supradiaphragmatic MALT

Zhongxing Liao; Chul S Ha; Peter McLaughlin; John T Manning; Mark Hess; Fernando Cabanillas; James D Cox



Regression of primary gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after cure of Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphoma of gastric-mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) type has been linked to infection with Helicobacter pylori. We investigated the effect on MALT lymphoma of eradicating H pylori infection. 33 patients with primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori gastritis were treated with omeprazole (120 mg daily) and amoxycillin (2·25 g daily) for 14 days to eradicate H pylori. In

E. Bayerdörffer; B. Rudolph; A. Neubauer; C. Thiede; N. Lehn; S. Eidt; M. Stolte



Occult pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting as catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome  

PubMed Central

Catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS) is characterized by fulminant thrombosis of the arterial and venous beds of multiple organ systems over a relatively short period of time and with a high mortality rate. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the lung has never been reported as a causative or precipitating factor for CAPS in the CAPS registry database. The present study describes a rare case of pulmonary MALT lymphoma of the lung that presented as CAPS. A 19-year-old Hispanic female presented with shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen revealed multiple portal vein thromboses and bilateral pulmonary nodules. Within one week of presentation, the patient developed a straight sinus thrombosis and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, which led to shortness of breath. A biopsy of the lung nodule revealed MALT lymphoma. The present case illustrates a rarely reported pulmonary MALT lymphoma presenting as CAPS in a young female. The patient was successfully treated with 90 mg/m2 bendamustine on days one and two and rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day one of each 28-day cycle. Complete remission of the lung nodules was observed following three cycles of treatment, as visualized by positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. Fondaparinux was identified as a feasible anticoagulation drug of choice for this case. At seven months post-treatment, the patient continues to be stable with no further evidence of thrombosis and is currently undergoing rituximab maintenance therapy every six months for two years. A repeat lupus anticoagulant antibody assay turned and remained negative during the clinical follow-up period. A prompt diagnosis and early aggressive treatment is potentially curative and may dramatically decrease the mortality risk. Future studies should explore the role of rituximab in the management of CAPS-associated B-cell lymphoid malignancies.




Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma followed by primary central nervous system lymphoma.  


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is one of the most common lymphomas and accounts for about 7% of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The clinical course of MALT lymphoma is relatively indolent and, in the majority of cases (50%), the lymphoma arises within the stomach. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), an uncommon variant of extranodal NHL, can affect any part of the neuraxis, including the eyes, brain, leptomeninges, or spinal cord. Herein, we present a rare case of PCNSL, which occurred one year after radiochemotherapy of gastric MALT lymphoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of left facial palsy. One year ago, he underwent antibiotic eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori, local stomach fractional radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for gastric MALT lymphoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a strong enhancing solid mass in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was completely removed, and the histological diagnosis of PCNSL developing from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was made. Although elucidating the correlation between the first gastric MALT lymphoma and the second PCNSL seemed difficult, we have postulated and discussed some possible pathogeneses, together with a review of literature. PMID:22949970

Eom, Ki Seong; Park, Moo Rim; Choi, Keum Ha; Kim, Tae Young



Thymic extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a gene methylation study.  


Although rare, thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is considered to be a distinct clinicopathological entity. Using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed thymic MALT lymphomas (n = 18) for their methylation of the following seven tumor suppressor genes: DAPK1, p16(INK4A), p14(ARF), CDH1, RARB, TIMP3 and MGMT. Reactive lymph nodes (n = 16) were used as a control. Of the seven genes examined, thymic MALT lymphomas had an increased number of genes that were methylated (2.9 genes) as compared with reactive lymph nodes (0.63, p = 0.0003). In particular, thymic MALT lymphomas showed a frequent methylation of DAPK1, CDH1, TIMP3 and p14(ARF). In addition, gene methylation of p14(ARF) was associated with a larger tumor size, while that of the other three genes was not associated with any clinicopathological features examined. This study suggests that methylation of tumor suppressor genes may play an important role in thymic MALT lymphoma. PMID:23320886

Takino, Hisashi; Li, Chunmei; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Masaki, Ayako; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi



Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area. RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.

Kim, Sang-Won; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Hyeh; Kim, Kyoung-Mee



90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in heavily pretreated patients with mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  


Radioimmunotherapy using (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan has predominantly been used in patients with follicular lymphoma, but little is known about its activity in patients with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). A total of six patients progressing/relapsing following conventional therapy for MALT lymphoma were treated with (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan at our institution. Two patients had gastric MALT lymphoma, one suffered from orbital MALT lymphoma, and two had cutaneous MALT lymphoma, while one patient had a widely disseminated lymphoma involving the stomach, lungs, lymph nodes, and salivary glands. All patients were at least in third relapse following various forms of therapy including Helicobacter pylori-eradication, radiation, chemotherapy, and application of rituximab. Following two doses of rituximab at 250?mg/m(2) at an interval of 1 week, (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan was given immediately at a dose of 0.4?mCi/kg body weight. Treatment was well tolerated apart from one episode of pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Four patients developed a complete remission (ongoing now for 4, 16, 23, and 24 months), one patient had a partial response lasting for 5 months, and one patient had stable disease for 13 months. After a follow-up of 9-29 months, all patients are alive. Application of (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is active and safe in heavily pretreated patients with MALT lymphoma. PMID:21133720

Hoffmann, Martha; Troch, Marlene; Eidherr, Harald; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Jonak, Constanze; Muellauer, Leonhard; Raderer, Markus



Importance of extensive staging in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type usually arises in MALT acquired through chronic antigenic stimulation triggered by persistent infection and/or autoimmune processes. Due to specific ligand–receptor interactions between lymphoid cells and high-endothelial venules of MALT, both normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells display a pronounced homing tendency to MALT throughout the body. In the case of neoplastic disease these homing properties may be responsible for lymphoma dissemination among various MALT-sites. According to this concept, we have standardized staging procedures in all patients diagnosed with MALT-type lymphoma. All patients with MALT-type lymphoma underwent standardized staging procedures before treatment. Staging included ophthalmologic examination, otolaryngologic investigation, gastroscopy with multiple biopsies, endosonography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, enteroclysis, colonoscopy, computed tomography of thorax and abdomen and bone marrow biopsy. Biopsy was performed in all lesions suggestive for lymphomatous involvement, and evaluation of all biopsy specimens was performed by a reference pathologist. 35 consecutive patients with histologically verified MALT-type lymphoma were admitted to our department. Twenty-four patients (68%) had primary involvement of the stomach, five (15%) had lymphoma of the ocular adnexa, three (8.5%) had lymphoma of the parotid, and three (8,5%) of the lung. Lymph-node involvement corresponding to stage EII disease was found in 13 patients (37%), only one patient with primary gastric lymphoma had local and supradiaphragmatic lymph-node involvement (stage EIII). Bone marrow biopsies were negative in all patients. Overall, eight of 35 patients (23%) had simultaneous biopsy-proven involvement of two MALT-sites: one patient each had lymphoma of parotid and lacrimal gland, conjunctiva and hypopharynx, conjunctiva and skin, lacrimal gland and lung, stomach and colon, and stomach and lung. The remaining two patients had bilateral parotideal lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for lymph-node involvement in all of these eight patients. The importance of extensive staging in MALT-type lymphoma is emphasized by the demonstration of multiorgan involvement in almost a quarter of patients. In addition, our data suggest that extra-gastrointestinal MALT-type lymphoma more frequently occurs simultaneously at different anatomic sites than MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI-tract. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Raderer, M; Vorbeck, F; Formanek, M; Osterreicher, C; Valencak, J; Penz, M; Kornek, G; Hamilton, G; Dragosics, B; Chott, A



Primary thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with multiple thin walled lung cysts: case report and literature review.  


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thymus is rare. We reported a case of a 37-year-old Chinese female with Sjögren's syndrome and hyperglobulinemia. She suffered from chronic cough for 3 weeks. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a multiloculated cystic mass in mediastinum prevascular space and multiple lung cysts. Laboratory exam of autoimmune markers showed positive of antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA), Sjögren's syndrome B (SSB), and rheumatoid factors (RF). Thymectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The pathology report revealed thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Under immunohistochemical stains, CD20 and Bcl-2 were positive. No evidence of recurrence of disease was found. PMID:23825913

Kang, Lung-Yun; Ho, Szu-Pei; Chou, Yi-Pin



Primary thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with multiple thin walled lung cysts: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thymus is rare. We reported a case of a 37-year-old Chinese female with Sjögren’s syndrome and hyperglobulinemia. She suffered from chronic cough for 3 weeks. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a multiloculated cystic mass in mediastinum prevascular space and multiple lung cysts. Laboratory exam of autoimmune markers showed positive of antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjögren’s syndrome A (SSA), Sjögren’s syndrome B (SSB), and rheumatoid factors (RF). Thymectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The pathology report revealed thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Under immunohistochemical stains, CD20 and Bcl-2 were positive. No evidence of recurrence of disease was found.

Kang, Lung-Yun; Ho, Szu-Pei



Malignant lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)--consecutive unusual manifestation in the rectum and gingiva.  


Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are characterized by a preferential mucosal manifestation. Each organ system may be involved. Exclusively local growth is usually treated with surgical tumour reduction, combined with radiotherapy. In cases of tumour dissemination, chemotherapy is warranted. Follow-up should be performed closely. This case report highlights an unexpected recurrence of NHL in the oral MALT, four years after primary manifestation in the rectum. PMID:8315597

Bschorer, R; Lingenfelser, T; Kaiserling, E; Schwenzer, N



FOXP1 Expression Predicts Polymorphic Histology and Poor Prognosis in Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale\\/Hypothesis: Forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) is one member of the forkhead box protein P (FOXP) subfamily, which are transcription factors that mediate signaling and affect gene regulation, and elevated expression of FOXP1 has been reported to correlate with poor prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Recently, it was also found that FOXP1 expression occurs in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

Shao-liang Han; Xiu-ling Wu; Li Wan; Qi-qiang Zeng; Jun-lin Li; Zhi Liu



Treatment of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Helicobacter pylori eradication and beyond.  


Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the paradigm of lymphomas developing in extranodal areas after antigen stimulation. In the stomach, Helicobacter pylori colonization induces the appearance of MALT and, eventually, MALT-derived lymphoma. This type of lymphoma is initially a localized form of disease, but may disseminate and transform into high-grade lymphoma, making full staging (as for nodal lymphomas) and endoscopic ultrasonography to evaluate the penetration of the lymphoma through the gastric wall mandatory. In localized gastric MALT lymphoma, the first step in treatment is eradication of H. pylori, which results in 60-90% regression. This response is maintained for years in most patients, with only 10-15% relapse, frequently precipitated by H. pylori reinfection. A component of high-grade lymphoma, penetration to gastric serosa or beyond and translocation t(11;18) are the main factors that make lymphoma resistant to eradication. Surgery or radiotherapy can cure localized lymphomas in 75-90% of patients. Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, combination chemotherapy and purine analogs, and anti-CD20 antibodies can also induce remission of localized lymphomas refractory to eradication, as well as locally advanced and disseminated lymphomas. The optimum chemotherapy treatment for advanced disease has not yet been established; however, combination therapy, including purine analogs with or without anti-CD20, may be a promising option. Despite histological responses and prolonged remissions, residual molecular disease can be demonstrated in most cases treated with H. pylori eradication, radiotherapy or alkylating agents, and even after more intense chemotherapy, although this does not seem to lead to late relapses. High-grade gastric MALT lymphoma should be treated with chemotherapy, with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oncovin and prednisone being the best first-line option. All gastric MALT lymphomas associated with H. pylori should receive eradication treatment in addition to other required treatment. PMID:16503853

Montalban, Carlos; Norman, Francesca



Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)



Analysis of microsatellite instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  


In Helicobacter pylori gastritis, constant antigenic stimulation triggers a sustained B-cell proliferation. Errors made during this continuous DNA replication are supposed to be corrected by the DNA mismatch repair mechanism. Failure of this mismatch repair mechanism has been described in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and results in a replication error phenotype. Inherent to their instability during replication, microsatellites are the best markers of this replication error phenotype. We aimed to evaluate the role of defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism and microsatellite instability (MSI) in relation to the most frequent genetic anomaly, translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Therefore, we examined 10 microsatellite loci (BAT25, BAT26, D5S346, D17S250, D2S123, TGFB, BAT40, D18S58, D17S787 and D18S69) for instability in 28 patients with MALT lymphomas. In addition, these tumors were also immunostained for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2, as well as screened for the presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found MSI in 5/28 (18%) lymphomas, with MSI occurring in both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive and -negative tumors. One tumor displayed high levels of instability, and, remarkably, this was the only case displaying features of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. All microsatellite unstable lymphomas showed a loss of MSH6 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest that a MMR-defect may be involved in the development of gastric MALT lymphomas, and that a defect of MSH6 might be associated with those MSI-driven gastric lymphomas. PMID:22916837

Degroote, Annemarie; Knippenberg, Lies; Vander Borght, Sara; Spaepen, Marijke; Matthijs, Gert; Schaeffer, David F; Owen, David A; Libbrecht, Louis; Lambein, Kathleen; De Hertogh, Gert; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier



Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the lacrimal gland: sustained remission after eradication of helicobacter pylori infection.  


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy. PMID:22606434

Hasosah, Mohammed; Baothman, Abdullah; Satti, Mohamed; Kutbi, Suzanne; Alghamdi, Khaled; Jacobson, Kevan



Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Lacrimal Gland: Sustained Remission after Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection  

PubMed Central

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Hasosah, Mohammed; Baothman, Abdullah; Satti, Mohamed; Kutbi, Suzanne; Alghamdi, Khaled; Jacobson, Kevan



Second-line 90Yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in a patient with conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to rituximab.  


Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the most common variety of lymphoma seen in the ocular adnexae. The authors present the case of a patient with MALT lymphoma refractory to treatment with rituximab. Subsequent treatment with 90Yttrium-Ibritumomab tiuxetan yielded a complete response. PMID:22820440

Oellers, Patrick; Savar, Aaron; Samaniego, Felipe; Pro, Barbara; Esmaeli, Bita


Pleuric presentation of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: a case report and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary pleural marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a very rare eventuality. Here,\\u000a we report a rare case of MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura and update the literature on this topic. A 74-year-old female\\u000a was hospitalized for persistent cough and weakness. A chest radiograph and total-body CT scan showed only large right-sided\\u000a pleural

Giovanna Motta; Concetta Conticello; Gabriella Amato; Gaetano Moschetti; Cristina Colarossi; Sebastiano Cosentino; Massimo Ippolito; Rosario Giustolisi; Francesco Di Raimondo



CD5-negative mantle cell lymphoma resembling extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue : a case report.  


A 71-year-old male underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ; as a result of a biopsy, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) was suspected. Abdominal computed tomography scan disclosed an approximately 4-cm-large mass in the ileocecal region. After ileocecal resection, the patient was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma (CD79a(+), CD20(+), CD3(-), CD5(-), CD10(-), and cyclin D1(-)). He achieved complete remission after receiving chemotherapy. However, four years after the primary onset, he was diagnosed with recurrence. Although he achieved remission again by salvage therapy, six years after the primary onset, he was referred to our hospital with second recurrence. Colonoscopy revealed the appearance of multiple lymphomatous polyposis and biopsy specimens showed monotonous proliferation of centrocyte-like cells (CD79a(+), CD20(+), CD3(-), CD5(-), CD10(-), and cyclin D1(+)), which were consistent with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) except for CD5. The result of reactivity to cyclin D1 was different from that at initial diagnosis, so we reexamined the initial surgical specimens, the histological and histochemical features of which were proven to be the same as those of colonic biopsy specimens. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with CD5-negative MCL (marginal zone-like variant). As MALT lymphoma and MCL sometimes show similar histological features, they are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is necessary to take the possibility of this rare phenotype of MCL into consideration and to reexamine the initial diagnosis, especially if the clinical course is unusual for MALT lymphoma. This case is very interesting in view of its indolent clinical feature and phenotype. PMID:23269078

Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Omura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Takayuki; Hino, Norihiko; Nakamoto, Shu



Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIE in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease-free survival.

Anacak, Yavuz, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Miller, Robert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Constantinou, Nikos [Department of Hematology, Theagenion Cancer Center, Thessaloniki (Greece); Mamusa, Angela M. [Division of Hematology, Armando Businco Cancer Center, Cagliari (Italy); Epelbaum, Ron [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Li Yexiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Calduch, Anna Lucas [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Barcelona (Spain); Kowalczyk, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Weber, Damien C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland); Kadish, Sidney P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School/Center, North Worcester, MA (United States); Bese, Nuran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kamer, Serra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)



The "intraendothelial canalicular formation": the route for lymphocyte diapedesis at the level of peripheral and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue HEVs.  


How the lymphocyte crosses the blood endothelium during transendothelial migration is demonstrated through the study of serial sections of high endothelial venules (HEVs) of peripheral (mesenteric lymph nodes) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (Peyer's patches, vermiform appendix) during normal lymphocyte homing and experimental intestinal inflammation. The sequence of serial ultrastructural features of lymphocytes englobed in the endothelial wall at different moments of transmigration made it possible to bring out that their transendothelial migration toward the extracellular matrix of lymphoid tissues occurs through an intraendothelial canalicular formation constituted by two adjacent endothelial cells that have closed interendothelial junctions. This intraendothelial canalicular formation, morphologically unlike the transcellular and paracellular migratory pathways, is an innovative model of migratory route for lymphocyte diapedesis that does not compromise the continuity of the endothelial wall. The increased presence of lymphocytes and intraendothelial canalicular formations during experimental inflammation and the metabolic hyperactivity of the spring/summer months compared to the lethargic fast in Chiropters underscores an influence on lymphocyte traffic through the HEVs of the peripheral and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:20857848

Azzali, Giacomo; Arcari, Maria L; Caldara, Gaetano F; Vitale, Marco



Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques in a lathe worker.  


Our patient was an 86-year-old man who had worked as a lathe operator for 40 years. He had no history of tuberculosis, pyothorax, or autoimmune disease. He had not been exposed to asbestos. He was asymptomatic, but an imaging study showed gradually increasing pleural plaques. A biopsy specimen of a pleural lesion showed sclerosis of the pleura and diffuse infiltration of small- to medium-sized B lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis detected monoclonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Histologic diagnosis was extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). The lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus. We report a rare case of a metal worker with MALT lymphoma arising in the pleura with pleural fibrous plaques. It is speculated that MALT lymphoma might develop in the background of pneumoconiosis. Inflammatory and/or immunologic reactions to metal particles might contribute to the oncogenesis of this tumor. PMID:21546297

Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanada, Shoji; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Iwata, Takashi



Low-grade MALT lymphoma of the stomach: a review of treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach (MLS) is often associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria. Eradication of the infection with antibiotic therapy may result in regression of the lymphoma. But when antibiotic treatment fails to reverse the malignant process or if H. pylori is absent, other treatment options should be considered. Because

Naomi R Schechter; Joachim Yahalom



Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)



Detection of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma cells: clinical and biological significance  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that CagA can be translocated into B cells in Helicobacter pylori (HP) coculture media, and the translocation appears biologically significant as activation of the relevant cellular pathways was noticed. In this study, we further explore if CagA can be detected in malignant B cells of HP-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Expression of CagA was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. CagA expression was further confirmed by western blot analysis. The association between CagA expression in malignant B cells and tumor response to HP eradication therapy (HPE) was evaluated in 64 stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma patients. We detected CagA expression in 31 (48.4%) of 64 patients: 26 (68.4%) of the 38 HP-dependent cases and 5 (19.2%) of the 26 HP-independent cases (P<0.001). Patients with CagA expression responded to HPE quicker than those without (median time to complete remission, 3.0 vs 6.5 months, P=0.025). Our results indicated that CagA can be translocated into malignant B cells of MALT lymphoma, and the translocation is clinically and biologically significant.

Kuo, S-H; Chen, L-T; Lin, C-W; Wu, M-S; Hsu, P-N; Tsai, H-J; Chu, C-Y; Tzeng, Y-S; Wang, H-P; Yeh, K-H; Cheng, A-L



A case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in which magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging was useful in the diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Recently, we reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma presenting with unique vascular features. In the report, we defined the tree-like appearance (TLA) on the images of abnormal blood vessels which resembled branches from the trunk of a tree in the shiny mucosa, in which the glandular structure was lost. The 67-year-old female was diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma. The patient received eradication therapy for H. pylori. Conventional endoscopy revealed multiple ill-delineated brownish depressions in the stomach and cobblestone-like mucosa was observed at the greater curvature to the posterior wall of the upper gastric body 7 mo after successful eradication. Unsuccessful treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma was suspected on conventional endoscopy. Conventional endoscopic observations found focal depressions and cobblestone-like appearance, and these lesions were subsequently observed using magnified endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging to identify abnormal vessels presenting with a TLA within the lesions. Ten biopsies were taken from the area where abnormal vessels were present within these lesions. Ten biopsies were also taken from the lesions without abnormal vessels as a control. A total of 20 biopsy samples were evaluated to determine whether the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma could be obtained histologically from each sample. A positive diagnosis was obtained in 8/10 TLA (+) sites and in 2/10 TLA(-) sites. Target biopsies of the site with abnormal blood vessels can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of gastric MALT lymphoma.

Nonaka, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arai, Shin; Nakao, Masamitsu; Shimizu, Michio; Sakurai, Takaki; Nagata, Koji; Nishimura, Makoto; Togawa, Osamu; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kita, Hiroto



API2-MALT1 Fusion Defines a Distinctive Clinicopathologic Subtype in Pulmonary Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue  

PubMed Central

t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma and results in API2-MALT1 fusion. However, its clinicopathologic significance remains unclarified. API2-MALT1 fusion is detected most frequently in MALT lymphomas primarily involving the lung. We therefore screened 51 cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma for API2-MALT1 fusion, and studied its relationship with clinicopathologic factors including the immunohistochemical expression of BCL10, another MALT lymphoma-associated molecule. The API2-MALT1 fusion transcript was detected in 21 of 51 (41%) cases, and was correlated with the absence of any underlying autoimmune disease, and with a normal serum lactate dehydrogenase, a “typical” histology without marked plasmacytic differentiation or an increased number of large cells, and aberrant nuclear BCL10 expression. However, its prognostic impact was not identified in the limited follow-up (6 to 187 months, median 27). These data suggest that the API2-MALT1 fusion may be a causative gene abnormality unrelated to autoimmune disease. In addition, this alteration may define a homogeneous MALT lymphoma subtype that is clinically more indolent and histologically more “typical.” Aberrant nuclear BCL10 expression may have a possible role as a tool to screen for this API2-MALT1 fusion. A large-scale study with a long follow-up is necessary to establish the prognostic significance of API2-MALT1 fusion.

Okabe, Mitsukuni; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Koichi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Li, Chunmei; Eimoto, Tadaaki; Ueda, Ryuzo; Nakamura, Shigeo



A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

Isobe, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail:; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Higuchi, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Gunma Prefecture Cancer Center, Gunma (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakazawa, Masanori [Department of Radiology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Fukuda, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nihei, Keiji [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Kana [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsuno, Yoshihiro [Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiologic Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)



Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 in Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Resistant to Helicobacter pylori Eradication  

PubMed Central

microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can function as endogenous silencers of target genes and play critical roles in human malignancies. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, the miRNA expression profile was analyzed. miRNA microarray analysis with tissue specimens from gastric MALT lymphomas and surrounding non-tumor mucosae revealed that a hematopoietic-specific miRNA miR-142 and an oncogenic miRNA miR-155 were overexpressed in MALT lymphoma lesions. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were significantly increased in MALT lymphomas which do not respond to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were associated with the clinical courses of gastric MALT lymphoma cases. Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 was also observed in Helicobacter heilmannii-infected C57BL/6 mice, an animal model of gastric MALT lymphoma. In addition, miR-142-5p and miR-155 suppress the proapoptotic gene TP53INP1 as their target. The results of this study indicate that overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. These miRNAs might have potential application as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers for gastric MALT lymphoma.

Saito, Yoshimasa; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Hosoe, Naoki; Nakamura, Masahiko; Mukai, Makio; Saito, Hidetsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi



A retrospective analysis of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with or without concomitant mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma components.  


Primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease entity that includes patients with (DLBCL/MALT) and without detectable mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma components (de novo DLBCL). We sought to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of this disease in a large number of cases. Patients with primary gastric DLBCL (n=162) seen on 2001-2011 at the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital and the First affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The distribution of sex, age, Lugano staging, and other main clinical characteristics was similar between the de novo DLBCL and DLBCL/MALT groups (p>0.05). However, the proportion of patients with a stage-modified international prognostic index (m-IPI) ? 2 was higher in the de novo DLBCL (34 %) than the DLBCL/MALT group (17 %) (p=0.026). In addition, the Helicobacter pylori infection rates were higher in the DLBCL/MALT (75 %) than the de novo DLBCL group (36 %) (p<0.001). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) estimates were similar for patients in the de novo DLBCL (p=0.705) and DLBCL/MALT groups (p=0.846). Surgical treatment did not offer survival benefits when compared with chemotherapy for 5-year PFS (p=0.607) and OS estimates (p=0.554). There were no significant differences in 5-year PFS and OS estimates for patients treated with rituximab-chemotherapy (p=0.261) or conventional chemotherapy (p=0.227). Non-GCB subtype and m-IPI ? 2 were independently associated with shorter OS, and advanced stages of lymphoma were independently associated with shorter PFS. PMID:23417758

Li, Xiaowu; Xia, Bing; Guo, Shanqi; Zhan, Zhongli; Zhang, Lianyu; Zhao, Dandan; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Zhang, Yizhuo



Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66 months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.

Hashimoto, Naoki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nakayama, Masao; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Ejima, Yasuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Azumi, Atsushi [Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Toshimitsu [Division of Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan)



Primary Radiation Therapy in Patients With Localized Orbital Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 patients who were treated with RT for pathologically confirmed localized stage IE marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The radiation dose ranged from 21.6 to 45 Gy (median, 30.6 Gy) at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction. Median follow-up duration was 32.3 months (range, 3.1-113.6 months). Results: Forty-three patients (93%) achieved complete remission (CR), and three patients (7%) achieved partial remission (PR). Five-year relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 93%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among the patients with CR, two had recurrence at three sites. One patient relapsed locally and was successfully salvaged with reirradiation. The other patient relapsed in a distant site and was successfully treated with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Late complications were noted in four patients. Two patients developed cataracts at 26 and 37 months after completion of RT. The other two patients developed nasolacrimal duct obstructions at 4 and 11 months after completion of RT. Conclusion: Our study showed that a modest dose of RT is an excellent treatment modality with low complication and recurrence rates. We suggest that a dose of 30.6 Gy is tolerable and sufficient for treating orbital MALT lymphoma. Even following recurrence, successful salvage is possible with RT or chemotherapy.

Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Gi Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Suk Woo [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Young Seon [Department of Hemato-Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ihl Bohng [Cyberknife Center of Gimpo Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Sil, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.  


According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs. For analysis, between June 1987 and June 2009, a total of 55 patients from 17 different institutions in Korea, all of whom were histologically diagnosed with MM-MZL, were included in this study. MM-MZL was defined as MZL involving more than 2 different MALT organs. Multiple involvements within one MALT organ (e.g. both side ocular lesions, multiple lung nodules, and multiple stomach lesions, etc.) were excluded from this study. The male/female ratio of the 55 patients was 41/14. The median age of our subjects was 59 years (range 30-82 years). MM-MZL without lymph node (LN) was detected only in 9 patients (36.2%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was observed in 17 patients (30.9%). The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%). Ocular MZLs were commonly accompanied with WR- or lung-MZLs. GI-MZLs were WR or GI-MZLs. Lung-MZLs were frequently observed with ocular and GI-MZLs. WR-MZLs were ocular or GI-MZLs. A total of 53 patients were treated, and 2 on watchful wait. As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment. Among them, CR or PR was achieved in 38 patients (79.2%, 95% CI 67-91%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years). Cause-specific overall survival (OS) did not reach the median value. The 5-year OS rate was 84.9%. MM-MZLs tend to be an indolent disease, characterized by prolonged survival with frequent relapses. The majority of cases could be controlled effectively via chemotherapy-based treatment, and prolonged survival was achieved in those patients. The GI, lung, WR, and ocular area were commonly presented with other MALT site MZLs, and an organ-specific relationship appears to be relevant to MM-MZLs. PMID:20838958

Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Suee; Lee, Dae Ho; Won, Jong-Ho; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Soon Il; Chae, Yee Soo; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kang, Hye Jin; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Jinny; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Won Sik; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Hyo-Jin



The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is pivotal for ectopic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue neogenesis in chronic Helicobacter pylori -induced inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectopic lymphoid follicles are a key feature of chronic inflammatory autoimmune and infectious diseases, such as rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Homeostatic chemokines are considered to be involved in the formation of such tertiary lymphoid tissue.\\u000a High expression of CXCL13 and its receptor, CXCR5, has been associated with the formation of ectopic lymphoid follicles in\\u000a chronic infectious

Susann Winter; Christoph Loddenkemper; Anton Aebischer; Katrin Räbel; Kirstin Hoffmann; Thomas F. Meyer; Martin Lipp; Uta E. Höpken



The chemokine receptor CXCR5 is pivotal for ectopic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue neogenesis in chronic Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.  


Ectopic lymphoid follicles are a key feature of chronic inflammatory autoimmune and infectious diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Homeostatic chemokines are considered to be involved in the formation of such tertiary lymphoid tissue. High expression of CXCL13 and its receptor, CXCR5, has been associated with the formation of ectopic lymphoid follicles in chronic infectious diseases. Here, we defined the role of CXCR5 in the development of mucosal tertiary lymphoid tissue and gastric inflammation in a mouse model of chronic H. pylori infection. CXCR5-deficient mice failed to develop organized gastric lymphoid follicles despite similar bacterial colonization density as infected wild-type mice. CXCR5 deficiency altered Th17 responses but not Th1-type cellular immune responses to H. pylori infection. Furthermore, CXCR5-deficient mice exhibited lower H. pylori-specific serum IgG and IgA levels and an overall decrease in chronic gastric immune responses. In conclusion, the development of mucosal tertiary ectopic follicles during chronic H. pylori infection is strongly dependent on the CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling axis, and lack of de novo lymphoid tissue formation attenuates chronic immune responses. PMID:20798913

Winter, Susann; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Aebischer, Anton; Räbel, Katrin; Hoffmann, Kirstin; Meyer, Thomas F; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E



Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the ileum in a 35-year-old Japanese woman  

PubMed Central

MALT lymphoma of the ileum is extremely rare: only several cases have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented abdominal pain and melena. Colorectal and small intestinal endoscopes revealed multiple tumors and ulcers of the entire ileum. Biopsy was taken. Histologically, the biopsy consisted of 6 tissue specimens taken from the various sites of the ileum. All the tissue specimens showed infiltration of small atypical cells resembling centrocyte-like cells (CLC). Immunoblastic cells were scattered, though the number was scant. Monocytoid, plasma cell differentiation, and germinal centers were seen. Lymphoepithelial lesions (LEL) were scattered. Some small atypical lymphocyte were destructive the vessels and stromal tissues. Giemsa and Gram stains demonstrated no Helicobacter pylori and any bacteria. Immunohistochemically, the atypical small lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, but negative for various kinds of cytokeratins (CKs), EMA, CEA and CA19-9. The CK highlighted the LEL. They were positive for CD45, and B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a, CD10, CD23, bcl-2). CD138-positive plasma cells were seen in large number. CD68-positive macrophages were scattered. CD30- and CD15-positive immunoblastic cells were scattered. Most of the lymphoid cells were negative for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO, and CD43) and negative for NK cell markers (CD56 and CD57). The lymphoid cells were positive for ?-chain but negative for ?-chain; thus the light chain restriction was seen. TdT and cyclin D1 were negative. P53 was positive and Ki-67 labeling index was 67%. The lymphoid cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers (NCAM, NSE, chromogranin, and synaptophysin). The pathological diagnosis was MALT lymphoma of the ileum. Post-biopsy imaging techniques including CT, MRI, PET endoscope and gallium scintigraphy identified no tumors and no lymphadenopathy in the body except the ileum. The stomach was free from MALT lymphoma. She was treated by low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up.

Terada, Tadashi



Immunological and molecular analysis of B lymphocytes in low-grade MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Are there any useful markers for predicting outcome after Helicobacter pylori eradication?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:\\u000a Background:   Although Helicobacter pylori eradication is effective in treating low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, the condition in\\u000a some patients deteriorates even after the eradication. Therefore, it is important to predict the disease outcome before starting\\u000a H. pylori eradication. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry, quantifying CD19- and CD20-positive B lymphocytes in MALT lymphoma\\u000a tissue, for predicting

Yumi Matsushima; Yoshikazu Kinoshita; Hirokazu Fukui; Toru Maekawa; Shujiro Yazumi; Akihiko Okada; Hiroshi Nakase; Chiharu Kawanami; Masahiro Iwano; Kimio Hashimoto; Zenju Takeda; Kazuichi Okazaki; Tsutomu Chiba



Detection of Helicobacter pylori associated antigen and heat shock protein 60 on follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centres of low grade B cell lymphoma of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To investigate the localisation of Helicobacter pylori antigens and the expression of human heat shock proteins (HSP) in stomachs affected by MALT lymphoma. METHODS: Surgically resected stomachs from 24 patients with MALT lymphoma were immunostained with anti-H pylori rabbit antibodies (ORP-1 and ORP-2) and anti-human HSP60 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (LK-1 and LK-2). RESULTS: Follicular dendritic cells of germinal centres in the stomachs affected by MALT lymphoma were immunostained with anti-H pylori polyclonal antibodies and with anti-human HSP60 mAb, as were the epithelial cells. None of the lymph node samples reacted. CONCLUSIONS: Human HSP60, which cross reacts with anti-H pylori polyclonal antibodies, is often expressed on follicular dendritic cells in gastric MALT lymphoma tissues and may be aetiologically relevant to lymphomagenesis of MALT lymphoma. Images

Kobayashi, K; Yokota, K; Yoshino, T; Kawahara, Y; Dey, A; Hirai, Y; Oguma, K; Akagi, T



Two Cases of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas in the Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Low-Grade Gastric Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma (MALT Lymphoma)  

PubMed Central

It is well known that gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and have a good prognosis. However, although rare, these low-grade lymphomas transform to the high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) which are thought to be the important cause of death in patients with MALT lymphoma. We report two cases of DLBCLs in the cervical lymph nodes that occurred 10 years and 1.5 years after diagnosing low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas.

Jung, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hwan; Lee, Jae Kwang; Kang, Ji Hoon; Jeon, Sung Jin; Park, Young-Su; Kim, Jin-Ho



Lymphoid tumor in the orbit: malignant or benign? MRI, histomorphological and molecular genetic analysis of eight cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation between benign and malignant lymphoid infiltrates of the conjunctiva and the orbit is difficult even on the basis of histopathological appearance. We describe eight cases with low-grade malignant lymphoma, mucosa-associated lesion tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Laboratory analysis was done using microscopy, immunophenotyping and gene rearrangement using the Southern blot technique. DNA-rearrangement analysis allows a very precise determination of the benign

Seishu Abe; Mitsuharu Tamakawa; Masakatu Andoh; Kyuhei Kohda; Chihiro Teranishi; Isao Ohta



Mucosa associated lymphoma of the lung.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of mucosa associated lymphoma (pseudolymphoma) of the lung are described which highlight the varied clinical and radiological features of this rare pulmonary condition. Following chemotherapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil, both patients are disease free three years later. Images

Bolton-Maggs, P H; Colman, A; Dixon, G R; Myskow, M W; Williams, J G; Donnelly, R J; Hind, C R



Role of 18F-FDG PET Scans in Patients with Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Low-Grade MALT Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; however, interobserver variation, inadequate accuracy in judging the depth of tumor invasion, and histological heterogeneity of the tumor can limit its role. Thus, we have assessed the role of 18F-FDG PET scans in the management of Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric MALT lymphoma. Methods Eighteen patients with H. pylori-infected low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma underwent an 18F-FDG PET scan prior to receiving H. pylori eradication therapy. We analyzed these patients' clinicopathologic data and measured the baseline and change in the metabolic activity of the tumor using standardized uptake values (SUVs). Results Two patients failed to achieve complete remission of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma after successful H. pylori eradication. The baseline SUVs were significantly higher in these patients compared to successfully treated patients, 13.35±0.07 vs 2.98±0.93, respectively (n=2 vs n=16, p<0.001). The reduction in the SUV was significantly greater in the complete remission patients compared to treatment failure patients (p=0.018). Conclusions A high SUV at baseline 18F-FDG PET and a lower reduction in the SUV within 3 months after eradication therapy are associated with treatment failure in H. pylori-positive low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma patients undergoing eradication treatment.

Song, Kyung Ho; Yun, Mijin; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Yang, Woo Ick; Kang, Dae Ryong; Chung, Jae Bock



Low-Grade Astrocytomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glial tumors constitute approximately 50% of newly diagnosed primary brain tumors, with low-grade gliomas (LGG) accounting\\u000a for approximately 15% of all brain tumors in adults [21]. The subset of tumors classified as LGG represents a heterogeneous\\u000a group of tumors with astrocytic, oligodendroglial, ependymal, or mixed cellular histologies. In the adult population, the\\u000a term LGG typically refers to the diffuse, infiltrating

Nader Sanai; Mitchel S. Berger


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


Described is a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) of the abdominal wall muscles in a 38-year-old black woman. There was no evidence of metastatic disease. A 5.2-kg LGFMS - the largest case ever reported - was resected. One year after surgery, the patient is alive without any sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Follow-up comprises abdominal and thoracic CT scans at 6-month intervals. PMID:10765121

van den Bossche, M R; Van Mieghem, H



Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) of the abdominal wall muscles in a 38-year-old black woman. There was no evidence of metastatic disease. A 5.2-kg LGFMS – the largest case ever reported – was resected. One year after surgery, the patient is alive without any sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Follow-up comprises abdominal and thoracic CT scans

M. R. P. Van den Bossche; H. Van Mieghem



[MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma of the lacrimal gland].  


MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland is rare. Orbital involvement is usually located on the anterior orbit. We report the case of a 65-year-old man consulting for an eyelid tumor located on the right upper and lateral lid, which clinically recalled lacrimal gland involvement. The gland biopsy and the immunohistochemical analysis concluded in the diagnosis of B and MALT lymphoma. The assessment of the ganglion and extra-ganglion enlargement of these lymphomas is of capital importance in treatment. A multidisciplinary analysis, especially oncological, is important so that the best therapeutic plan can be adopted. PMID:18046283

Roussel, B; Bettembourg, O; Cochard, C; Cochener, B



Primary intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare neoplasm commonly affecting young adults and typically arising in the somatic soft tissue of the proximal extremities. Its occurrence within the thoracic cavity is exceedingly rare. We report an LGFMS arising from the epicardial surface of the right side of the heart in a 44-year-old woman. Diagnosis was aided by a strikingly characteristic light microscopic appearance of a bland spindle cell sarcoma containing numerous so-called giant collagen rosettes and supported by immunohistology, evidence of FUS translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy demonstrating a fibroblastic phenotype. Aspiration cytology showed a nonspecific bland spindle cell lesion. Review of the literature uncovered 5 previously reported examples of intrathoracic LGFMS. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is probably an underrecognized intrathoracic neoplasm and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms of the mediastinum, pleura, heart, and lungs. PMID:18275982

Jakowski, Joseph D; Wakely, Paul E



Low-Grade Gliomas: Intraoperative Electrical Stimulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of low-grade gliomas (LGG) surgery is to optimize the extent of resection, while minimizing the risk of permanent\\u000a neurological deficit. Because LGG often invade “eloquent areas” and because of major interindividual anatomofunctional variability,\\u000a the cortical functional organization, the subcortical connectivity and the brain plastic potential should be studied at the\\u000a individual scale. Indeed, cortical and subcortical structures essential

Hugues Duffau


Primary Paravertebral Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

The authors report a 58-year-old woman with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma primarily located in the right paravertebral area with extension to L4 neural foramen. The patient complained lower back pain with radiating pain along the posterolateral aspect of the right lower leg. She underwent subtotal surgical removal and Cyber Knife therapy. Diagnosis was made by strikingly characteristic microscopic appearance of a bland spindle cell sarcoma which contained numerous giant collagen rosettes and was also supported by immunohistological findings. The diagnostic image findings and literatures are reviewed and discussed.

Lee, Woo Jin; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Chu, Young Chae



Nitinol engine for low grade heat  

SciTech Connect

A continuous band of nitinol wrapping in between a cluster of tightly engaged rollers to form a series of s-shaped bends is used as the principle working medium of a thermal engine to convert low grade heat to mechanical power output. The band, together with the rollers, divides the space into an inner and an outer zone. A stream of warmer water and a stream of cooler water are guided to flow separately through one or the other of the two zones to make uniform and intimate contact with the segments of the nitinol band alternatively at appropriate intervals. A well defined four-cycle operation of temperature and stress is thus established and can convert a portion of the energy which is available in the thermal gradient of the two water streams into a mechanical shaft power which may be tapped from one of the rollers.

Li, Y.T.



Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.  


Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23821212

Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo



Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Nasopharynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasopharynx is a rare disease. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a minor salivary gland neoplasm which occurs frequently in the mucosa of the soft and hard palates, in the buccal mucosa and in the upper lip. To date this entity has been identified within the oral cavity and only one case within the nasopharynx

Erzsébet Lengyel; András Somogyi; Mária Gõdény; Andrea Szerdahelyi; György Németh



Low-grade malignant eccrine spiradenoma with systemic metastases.  


Malignant eccrine spiradenoma (MES) is a very rare tumor. Tumors can be low grade or high grade. There are nine cases in the literature with systemic metastases. Of these, only one was low grade; the others had obvious features of high-grade malignancy such as pleomorphism, increased mitoses, and abnormal mitoses. Low grade MESs are more difficult to diagnose and are said to have a better prognosis. We report an additional case of low-grade MES with systemic metastases. It had a monotonous appearance with few mitotic figures and minimal pleomorphism. Vascular invasion was seen in both cases of low-grade MES and may be an important prognostic feature. PMID:12775989

Leonard, Niamh; Smith, David; McNamara, Paul



Desalination using low grade heat sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of freshwater along with the waste heat released from the condenser of air-conditioning system. This additional energy requirement is about 60% of the energy required by a multi stage flash distillation process. The experimental studies were conducted in three phases. In the first phase, electric power from grid as energy source was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. These tests showed that freshwater production rate of 0.25 kg/hr can be sustained at evaporation temperatures as low as 40°C with specific energy input of 3,370 kJ/kg, at efficiencies ranging from 65 to 70% during the winter. In the second phase, experiments were conducted utilizing direct solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy as well. Four different combinations of energy sources were studied. The following results were obtained from these experimental studies: (1) Utilizing direct solar energy produced 4.9 L/d of freshwater with an evaporator area of 1 m2 with an average efficiency of 61%. This yield is two times that can be obtained from a flat solar still. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 4157 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (2) Utilizing direct solar energy with aid of a reflector produced 7.5 L/d of freshwater with an average efficiency more than 80%. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 3118 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater; (3) Utilizing direct solar energy during sunlight hours and photovoltaic energy during non-sunlight hours produced 12 L/d of freshwater with 1 m2 evaporator area and 6 m2 photovoltaic areas respectively. The specific energy requirement for this configuration is 2926 kJ for production of 1 kilogram freshwater. Finally, the feasibility of this process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of a domestic wastewater treatment plant was studied. The process was able to achieve the following reductions: total dissolved solids from 727 mg/L to 21 mg/L (97%); nitrates from 2.4 mg/L to <0.1 mg/L (> 95%); ammonia from 23.2 mg/L to < 0.5 mg/L (> 97%); and

Gude, Veera Gnaneswar


Low-Grade Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the Palate: The Significance of Distinguishing it from Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma (LGPA) represents a relatively rare histological variant of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma\\u000a (PLGA). There has been a debate as to whether LGPA is associated with greater aggressive potential compared to PLGA; this\\u000a is further obfuscated by the fact that diagnostic criteria for LGPA have not been well-defined. We believe that this is the\\u000a first report of a patient

Jacob B. Hunter; Richard V. Smith; Margaret Brandwein-Gensler



Low-grade central osteosarcoma arising from bone infarct.  


Bone infarct-associated sarcoma is a rare sarcoma, accounting for less than 1% of all bone sarcomas. Its histology usually reflects a high-grade sarcoma, such as malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone or conventional osteosarcoma. Low-grade sarcoma arising from bone infarct has not been described well in the literature. Here, we present a 17-year follow-up of a female patient with bone infarct in her right humerus, from which a low-grade central osteosarcoma developed during follow-up. A histologic diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was confirmed by immunohistochemical expression of MDM2 and CDK4. She underwent a wide resection surgery. As of 4 years after surgery, she has remained free of any evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Here, we present clinical and pathologic findings of our case in detail and discuss the differential diagnoses of this extremely rare condition. PMID:23375641

Endo, Makoto; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ishii, Takeaki; Setsu, Nokitaka; Kohashi, Kenichi; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in the big toe.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare neoplasm commonly affecting young adults and typically arising in the somatic soft tissue of the proximal extremities. Its occurrence within the big toe is exceedingly rare. A 43-year-old man had surgery on a mass located in the big toe, which was first noted 6 months previously. Histological examination revealed LGFMS. One year after surgery, the patient is alive with no evidence of disease. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare neoplasm that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms of the foot. PMID:21297533

Kaoutar, Znati; Benlemlih, Amal; Taoufiq, Harmouch; Laila, Chbani; Hinde, Elfatemi; Bennis, Sanae; Afaf, Amarti



Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading…

Thayer, Robert E.


Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by…

Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.



Giant cystic superficial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare type of fibrosarcoma characterized by combination of myxoid and fibrous zones consisted of bland spindled cells. Despite its innocuous histopathological appearance LGFMS can produce local recurrence and distant metastasis in the significant number of cases. Tumors are usually situated in deep soft tissues whereas superficial localization in the dermis and subcutaneous fat is

Dimitrije Brasanac; Natasa Sulovic Dzelatovic; Martina Stojanovic


Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Children with Low-Grade Gliomas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors…

Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.



Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma arising within the parotid gland is described. This appears to be only the second case of this distinctive neoplasm to have arisen ab initio within a major salivary gland. It displayed the relatively indolent course associated with this adenocarcinoma subtype and emphasises that this diagnosis now has to be considered in tumours of major

W. J. Merchant; M. G. Cook; J. W. Eveson



Abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in the healthy human colon  

PubMed Central

Hydrogenotrophic microbiota have a significant impact on colonic health; however, little is known about their diversity and ecology in situ. Here, molecular-based methods and multivariate analyses were used to examine the abundance and diversity of mucosa-associated hydrogenotrophic microbes in 90 biopsies collected from right colon, left colon and rectum of 25 healthy subjects. Functional genes of all three hydrogenotrophic groups were detected in at least one colonic region of all subjects. Methanogenic archaea (MA) constituted approximately one half of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota in each colonic region. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were more abundant than acetogens in right colon, while acetogens were more abundant than SRB in left colon and rectum. MA genotypes exhibited low diversity, whereas SRB genotypes were diverse and generally similar across the three regions within subject but significantly variable among subjects. Multivariate cluster analysis defined subject-specific patterns for the diversity of SRB genotypes; however, neither subject- nor region-specific clusters were observed for the abundance of hydrogenotrophic functional genes. Sequence analyses of functional gene clones revealed that mucosa-associated SRB were phylogenetically related to Desulfovibrio piger, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bilophila wadsworthia; whereas MA were related to Methanobrevibacter spp., Mb. smithii and the order Methanomicrobiales. Together these data demonstrate for the first time that the human colonic mucosa is persistently colonized by all three groups of hydrogenotrophic microbes, which exhibit segmental and interindividual variation in abundance and diversity.

Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Croix, Jennifer A; Greenberg, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex



Adjuvant activity of naturally occurring monophosphoryl lipopolysaccharide preparations from mucosa-associated bacteria.  


Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphorylation of the diglucosamine backbone, both differences known to decrease LPS toxicity. The effect of decreased toxicity on the adjuvant properties of many of these LPS structures has not been fully explored. Here we demonstrate that two naturally produced forms of monophosphorylated LPS, from the mucosa-associated bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Prevotella intermedia, function as immunological adjuvants for antigen-specific immune responses. Each form of mucosal LPS increased vaccination-initiated antigen-specific antibody titers in both quantity and quality when given simultaneously with vaccine antigen preparations. Interestingly, adjuvant effects on initial T cell clonal expansion were selective for CD4 T cells. No significant increase in CD8 T cell expansion was detected. MyD88/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TRIF/TLR4 signaling pathways showed equally decreased signaling with the LPS forms studied here as with endotoxic LPS or detoxified monophosphorylated lipid A (MPLA). Natural monophosphorylated LPS from mucosa-associated bacteria functions as a weak but effective adjuvant for specific immune responses, with preferential effects on antibody and CD4 T cell responses over CD8 T cell responses. PMID:23798540

Chilton, Paula M; Hadel, Diana M; To, Thao T; Mitchell, Thomas C; Darveau, Richard P



Cerebellar low-grade oligoastrocytoma presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage.  


Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) associated with intra-axial tumours is extremely uncommon and is usually seen in association with intratumoural bleed. Tumours located near the ventricle or subarachnoid spaces have a higher propensity for SAH compared to intraparenchymal lesions. Low-grade tumours rarely demonstrate any evidence of bleed on imaging. Oligoastrocytomas of the posterior fossa are rare tumours in adults and their presentation with intratumoural haemorrhage and SAH is unknown. We report a unique case of cerebellar low-grade oligoastrocytoma that mimicked a tentorial-based extraaxial lesion on imaging and presented with SAH. Susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a useful imaging modality to demonstrate blood within and outside the tumour. PMID:22665014

Viswanathan, Gopalakrishnan; Nair, Suresh; Chandrasekhar, Kesavadas; Vishnupuri, Radhakrishnan



Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the gingiva  

PubMed Central

Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma is a malignant tumour from myofibroblasts, which has only recently become clearly defined. It represents a rare entity developing in the soft tissues of the head and neck. About 20 cases have been reported in the oral cavity, especially in the tongue and bone, while gingiva as the primary site has been described only once to date. Diagnostic methods include histology and immunohistochemistry. The present report concerns a case of a 37-year-old man who presented with a persistent gingival ulcerated swelling that was interpreted for a long time as a gingival epulis. A low-grade myofibrosarcoma was diagnosed and the patient underwent a segmental osteotomy of the mandibular symphisys for complete excision. There was no sign of recurrence or metastatic disease during the 18-month postoperative period.

Montebugnoli, L; Venturi, M; Gissi, D B; Flamminio, F; Foschini, M P



Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the maxillary sinus.  


Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare tumor, mostly affecting the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. We report a case of PLGA which occurred within the maxillary sinus in a 59-year-old woman. The tumor was resected through a transnasal endoscopic approach with wide margins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with primary PLGA of the maxillary sinus. PMID:23714964

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul



Zinc and cadmium adsorption on low-grade phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to utilize low-grade phosphate (LGP) as an adsorbent for Zn2+ and Cd2+ over a range of initial metal ions concentrations (10–50 ppm), agitation time (5–210 min), adsorbent concentration (1–7 g\\/l) and pH (2–6). Adsorption of both Zn2+ and Cd2+ increased with increased LGP concentration and reached maximum uptake at 5 g\\/l and pH between 4 and

Munther Issa Kandah



Antioxidant potential of low-grade coffee beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade coffee beans (triage) are widely known to adversely affect the beverage quality. These represent about 15–20% of coffee production on weight basis and attempts are being explored for their utilization. These beans were evaluated for the physico-chemical characteristics and subjected to soxhlet extraction using the solvents (viz., hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol successively). The extracts were evaluated for antioxidant

K. Ramalakshmi; I. Rahath Kubra; L. Jagan Mohan Rao



Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.  


Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren



Bioleaching of low grade nickel sulfide mineral in column reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jinchuan low grade nickel (0.4%–0.6% Ni, mass fraction) sulfide mineral ore contains a remarkably high content of magnesia (30%–35% MgO, mass fraction) present in the main gangue minerals. Bioleaching was performed to investigate the feasibility to process the mineral due to its relative simplicity, eco-friendly operation and low capital cost requirements. The mixed mesophiles were enriched from acid mine drainage

Shi-jie ZHEN; Wen-qing QIN; Zhong-qiang YAN; Yan-sheng ZHANG; Jun WANG; Liu-yi REN



Uranium mobilization from low-grade ore by cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cyanobacterial isolates (two LPP-B forms and one Anabaena or Nostoc species) from different environments could mobilize uranium from low-grade ores. After 80 days, up to 18% uranium had been extracted from coal and 51% from carbonate rock by the filamentous cyanobacterium OL3, a LPP-B form. Low growth requirements with regard to light and temperature optima make this strain a

Michael G. Lorenz; Wolfgang E. Krumbein



Carcinogenetic Pathway of Superficial Low-Grade Urothelial Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bladder cancer is estimated to be the seventh most prevalent malignancy worldwide. Greater than 90% of the tumors within the\\u000a bladder are urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is distinct from other epithelial carcinomas in that\\u000a it is thought to have two divergent pathways of carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that superficial\\/low grade papillary tumors\\u000a develop along one molecular pathway

Shang-Tian Chuang; Robert A. Tracy; Ximing J. Yang


Low-grade astrocytoma in a child with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), or Haberland syndrome, is an uncommon congenital disorder with unique cutaneous, ocular\\u000a and neurological features. In the present article, we describe a 3-year-old boy with ECCL who developed an extensive and recurring\\u000a intraventricular low-grade glioma with atypical pathological features and elevated mitotic index. Cytogenetic analysis from\\u000a tumor sample was also performed. This is the first report of

María Sol Brassesco; Elvis Terci Valera; Aline Paixão Becker; Angel Mauricio Castro-Gamero; André de Aboim Machado; Antônio Carlos Santos; Carlos Alberto Scrideli; Ricardo Santos Oliveira; Hélio Rubens Machado; Luiz Gonzaga Tone



Successfully resected intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), an Evans tumor, is highly unusual. It is rarely described as a primary neoplasm in\\u000a the thoracic cavity. We experienced a case of a 20-year-old woman with a right intrathoracic tumor that was surgically treated.\\u000a Postoperative pathology of the resected specimen revealed the tumor to be LGFMS based on its histological appearance, immunohistological\\u000a staining, and

Mitsunori Higuchi; Hiroyuki Suzuki; Yutaka Shio; Sayuri Hoshi; Mitsukazu Gotoh



Brittle frictional mountain building 3. Low-grade metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active fold-and-thrust belt in unchanging tectonic and climatic conditions exhibits a dynamic steady state, with the flux of rocks accreted at the toe balanced by the flux of rocks eroded off the top. Rocks entering the toe are buried and heated before they are uplifted and eroded; this results in a characteristic map pattern of low-grade metamorphism on the

Terence D. Barr; F. A. Dahlen; D. C. McPhail



Platelet activation in atherogenesis associated with low-grade inflammation.  


Further to the established role of platelets in thrombosis and hemostasis, increasing evidence suggests that they also play a crucial role in atherogenesis. Platelets produce a number of agents contributing to the systemic low-grade inflammation implicated in atherogenesis. Platelet activation following inflammatory stimulus leads to the expression of surface receptors such as GPIb/IX/V, P-selectin, CD40, and to the release of several pro-inflammatory agents. Platelet receptors and released molecules play a critical role during the initiation and the progression of atherosclerosis by mediating leukocytes recruitment and adhesion to the vascular wall. Endothelial dysfunction, an early feature in atherosclerosis, is associated with low-grade inflammation within the vascular wall, and it leads to the reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. Dysfunctional endothelium itself releases inflammatory molecules leading toward platelets activation and adhesion to the vascular wall. Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. They are regulators of multiple processes in the human body, including inflammation, regulation of endothelial physiology and atherogenesis. The design of new therapeutic strategies targeting platelets and their impact in atherosclerosis-related low-grade inflammation are in the center of current cardiovascular research. PMID:20632958

Antoniades, Charalambos; Bakogiannis, Constantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Demosthenous, Michael; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Stefanadis, Christodoulos



Differentiation of low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas using paraffin sections by image processing.  


In a previous study, we were able to demonstrate that the differentiation of low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) using digital image analysis of touch imprints obtained from native tumor tissue is feasible. The availability of touch imprints in routine diagnostics, however, is restricted. Therefore, we extended our studies toward paraffin sections being used as routine material for histological diagnoses. To identify five types of NHL classified according to the Revised European American Lymphoma classification, paraffin sections (n=53) of NHL and 9 reactive lymphoid tissues (RLTs) were scanned with a color-video-based microscope system and analyzed by digital image processing. A reliable division between benign and neoplastic lymphoproliferations was achieved. We were able to identify 78% of RLTs as benign and 94% of NHLs as neoplastic. The average probability of correct identification into the six subgroups was 66%. In detail, 78% of RLTs, 50% of chronic lymphocytic lymphomas and MALT-type lymphomas, 72% of mantle cell lymphomas, and 67% of follicle center cell lymphoma were classified correctly. Although the method of subclassifying or identifying NHLs on the basis of a computer-mediated assay is still not usable in daily practice, we show that a reliable differentiation between reactive and neoplastic lymphoproliferative lesions can be achieved by analysis of paraffin sections with high-resolution image analysis and that it is possible to define nuclear structures by identifying subtypes of NHL. PMID:9579604

Kneitz, S; Ott, G; Albert, R; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Harms, H



Uterine C-Kit positive low grade stromal sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine C-Kit positive stromal tumors are rare, however, there are a few cases reported in literature. A 58-year-old post menopausal lady presented with bleeding per vaginum. An abdominal examination revealed an enlarged uterus. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a large myomatous uterus, with a probable subserosal intramural and intracavitary myoma or cervical myoma in the presence of a solitary large aortocaval node, with multiple bone lesions. The biopsy taken from the uterine mass had revealed, a low-grade uterine sarcoma, which was positive for CD117. This case is presented for its rarity and management dilemma.

Martin, Jovitha; Ramesh, Anita; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Lalitha, D



Successfully resected intrathoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


A low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), an Evans tumor, is highly unusual. It is rarely described as a primary neoplasm in the thoracic cavity. We experienced a case of a 20-year-old woman with a right intrathoracic tumor that was surgically treated. Postoperative pathology of the resected specimen revealed the tumor to be LGFMS based on its histological appearance, immunohistological staining, and evidence of fused in sarcoma (FUS) translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Tumor resection was performed with a free surgical margin, and the resultant chest wall defect was repaired using prosthetic mesh. The patient has been well without any recurrence for 18 months since surgery. PMID:20628852

Higuchi, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Shio, Yutaka; Hoshi, Sayuri; Gotoh, Mitsukazu



Characterization of high- and low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.  


A need exists to characterize the various grades of cervical intrapithelial neoplasia (CIN), and attempt to differentiate between high- and low-grade lesions, that may have different behavioral and progressive potentials. The identification of patients with high- or low-grade CIN is useful, as it may allow identification of those patients that have true cancer precursors. Fifty patients referred for colposcopy with abnormal cytology were studied. Univariate analysis identified three factors as important predictors of histologic grade; the colposcopic opinion, lesion surface area and the index cytology (P < 0.005). Colposcopic opinion was associated with the index cytology (P < 0.01) and the lesion surface area (P < 0.005). Only the colposcopic opinion and the index cytologic smear appeared in the final model using a stepwise logistic regression analysis, indicating their independent prognostic importance in prediction of grade of abnormality in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The study demonstrates the value of colposcopic training and experience being necessary prior to utilizing excisional treatment methods if overtreatment is to be avoided. PMID:11578346

Shafi, M.I.; Dunn, J.A.; Finn, C.B.; Kehoe, S.; Buxton, E.J.; Jordan, J.A.; Luesley, D.M.



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma arising in the big toe.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor. Reported herein is a case of LGFMS arising in the big toe. The patient was a 58-year-old man who underwent excision of the tumor. The tumor was well-demarcated. Histologically, there were proliferating spindle-shaped tumor cells arranged in a whorled growth pattern, and the stroma showed hyalinized collagen bundles and a myxoid matrix. Nuclear mitotic figures were conspicuous in part. A large rosette-like structure with hyalinized stroma was found, which is characteristic of LGFMS. The differential diagnosis included tumor occurrence in adults; tending to arise in distal extremities; and having bland fibromyxoid histological features, such as fibroma of tendon sheath, low-grade myxofibrosarcoma and acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. It was not possible to detect the FUS/CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L1 fusion genes from the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, although the histological features of the present case were typical of LGFMS. LGFMS may become more common with time, and unique cases may accumulate. PMID:16287497

Kusumi, Tomomi; Nishikawa, Shinji; Tanaka, Masanori; Ogawa, Taro; Jin, Hiromichi; Sato, Fuyuki; Toh, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kijima, Hiroshi



Experimental mucosal disease in cattle: changes of lymphocyte subpopulations in Peyer's patches and in lymphoid nodules of large intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the number and distribution of lymphocyte subtypes were investigated in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and ileum, and mucosa-associated lymphoid nodules in the proximal colon and rectum of cattle with end-stage mucosal disease. Mucosal disease had been induced experimentally in seven of 13 animals by inoculation with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus (cp BVD-virus). For comparison, six clinically

E. M. Liebler; C. Küsters; J. F. Pohlenz



Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: A 17 patient case series.  


Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a rare malignancy most commonly seen in the minor salivary glands. First described in 1983, this entity has been recognized to have an indolent course with rare metastases or deaths. We describe our experience with 17 patients treated at our institution for PLGA from 1984 to 2012. All tumors were located in the oral cavity or soft palate. All patients were treated surgically, with the exception of one patient who declined therapy. No deaths or metastases have been identified in subsequent follow-up. Three patients in this series had undergone prior surgery up to 20 years previously and were treated for recurrences at our institution; no other recurrences have been noted. In summary, PLGA is best treated with wide excision to negative margins with excellent prognosis, but long-term follow-up is recommended given the propensity for late recurrences. PMID:23618791

Fife, Tim A; Smith, Brooks; Sullivan, Christopher A; Browne, J Dale; Waltonen, Joshua D



Interaction of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol  

SciTech Connect

How conditions of alkylation of low-grade metamorphic coals with methanol in the presence of benzenesulfonic acid influence the yield of extractable matter was experimentally studied and relevant regression equations were obtained. It was shown that catalytic methylation considerably increases the yield of the extractable matter, as well as reducing the thermal stability of modified samples and alters the elemental composition of the samples and their extracts. A possible mechanism of coal methylation is discussed on the basis of regression models and experimental results. The interaction of the coal matter with the alkylating agent presumably involves the formation of the carbocation and its reaction with the coal organic matter. Both depolymerization reactions and the addition reactions of a portion of extractable compounds, the alkylating agent, and the catalyst with the high-molecular mass coal matrix take place.

S.I. Zherebtsov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Division



Intramuscular low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a case report.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare neoplasm that commonly arises in the deep soft tissues of the lower extremities, particularly in the thigh. LGFMS occurs preferentially in young male adults. The microscopic appearance of LGFMS exhibits bland fibroblastic spindle cells with a whorled or linear arrangement in fibrous and myxoid areas. Although LGFMS has a deceptively benign histologic appearance, local recurrence and late metastases have frequently been reported. Diagnosis of LGFMS is still difficult because of its characteristic bland-looking histologic features that can be confused with other benign or low-grade fibromyxoid lesions. Although immunohistochemical staining can offer an overview of the differential diagnosis of myxoid tumors of soft tissue, it is sometimes limited for diagnosis of LGFMS. However, recent cytogenetic and molecular analyses have provided significant improvements in the diagnosis of LGFMS. Such analyses have demonstrated that most cases of LGFMS have a characteristic t(7,16)(q33;p11) translocation, resulting in the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion gene. We report a 29-year-old female who presented with a LGFMS located in the soleus muscle of her left lower leg. Preoperative imaging suggested the possibility of an intramuscular histiocytoma of the left soleus muscle. In conclusion, diagnosis of LGFMS can be challenging in routine practice in surgical pathology because of its bland-looking features. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings were consistent with the fibroblastic properties of LGFMS. Cytogenetic and/or molecular genetic analyses can be used as ancillary diagnostic tools for LGFMS. PMID:19605340

Liao, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Wan-Ting; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Chien, Song-Hsiung; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Chai, Chee-Yin; Wu, Chun-Chieh



Human Intestinal Lumen and Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Patients with Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have suggested the involvement of gut microbiota in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We utilized pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the overall structure of microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls; we investigated microbiota of the intestinal lumen, the cancerous tissue and matched noncancerous normal tissue. Moreover, we investigated the mucosa-adherent microbial composition using rectal swab samples because the structure of the tissue-adherent bacterial community is potentially altered following bowel cleansing. Our findings indicated that the microbial structure of the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue differed significantly. Phylotypes that enhance energy harvest from diets or perform metabolic exchange with the host were more abundant in the lumen. There were more abundant Firmicutes and less abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in lumen. The overall microbial structures of cancerous tissue and noncancerous tissue were similar; howerer the tumor microbiota exhibited lower diversity. The structures of the intestinal lumen microbiota and mucosa-adherent microbiota were different in CRC patients compared to matched microbiota in healthy individuals. Lactobacillales was enriched in cancerous tissue, whereas Faecalibacterium was reduced. In the mucosa-adherent microbiota, Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were reduced in CRC patients, whereas Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Peptostreptococcus, and Mogibacterium were enriched. In the lumen, predominant phylotypes related to metabolic disorders or metabolic exchange with the host, Erysipelotrichaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were increased in cancer patients. Coupled with previous reports, these results suggest that the intestinal microbiota is associated with CRC risk and that intestinal lumen microflora potentially influence CRC risk via cometabolism or metabolic exchange with the host. However, mucosa-associated microbiota potentially affects CRC risk primarily through direct interaction with the host.

Ling, Zongxin; Tong, Xiaojuan; Xiang, Charlie



Aerosol flotation of low-grade refractory molybdenum ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of aerosol flotation, which include the effect of the concentration and particle size of kerosene aerosol on the molybdenum (Mo) flotation index and the effect of kerosene aerosol dosing method on the kerosene dosage and flotation time, were studied in the flotation of low-grade refractory molybdenum ores using kerosene aerosol. The results revealed that the particle size and concentration of kerosene aerosol had little effect on the Mo grade but had significant effect on the Mo recovery. A smaller particle size and a lower concentration of kerosene aerosol were beneficial to the Mo aerosol flotation. For the received Mo ore samples, the optimized particle size of kerosene aerosol was 0.3-2 ?m and the optimized aerosol concentration was 14 mg/L. The compressed air atomizer had a more uniform distribution of aerosol particles than the ultrasonic atomizer, and the aerosol concentration was controlled easily, so the compressed air atomizer was more suitable for the research of aerosol flotation. Compared with conventional flotation in which kerosene was directly added into the ore pulp, the flotation time was reduced by ˜30%, and the dosage was decreased by ˜20% in aerosol flotation, while the Mo flotation index was similar.

Xu, Tao; Sun, Chun-bao



Giant cystic superficial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare type of fibrosarcoma characterized by combination of myxoid and fibrous zones consisted of bland spindled cells. Despite its innocuous histopathologic appearance, LGFMS can produce local recurrence and distant metastasis in the significant number of cases. Tumors are usually situated in deep soft tissues, whereas superficial localization in the dermis and subcutaneous fat is rare. We present a case of 56-year-old man with the huge tumor on the lateral part of the right buttock that had been slowly enlarging over the previous 15 years. Needle aspiration cytology provided only serohemorrhagic fluid with the red blood cells and rare inflammatory elements. Complete surgical excision revealed subcutaneous tumor, measuring 220 × 180 × 130 mm, which was completely cystic, with the residual tumor tissue in the 3- to 25-mm-thick wall. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic analysis confirmed LGFMS diagnosis. Long evolution, large size, and the superficial location could cause the repetitive tissue damage and hemorrhage, eventually transforming the tumor into a large cystic mass. In some parts, collagen rosettes composed of eosinophilic core surrounded by a palisade of tumor cells could be seen, occasionally appearing to sprout from the perivascular fibrous coat. Data from the literature regarding cystic appearance as well as the superficial location and the size of LGFMS in relation to the clinical outcome are presented and discussed. PMID:22136982

Brasanac, Dimitrije; Dzelatovic, Natasa Sulovic; Stojanovic, Martina



A low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma in the abdominal cavity.  


Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMFS) is a fusiform cell tumor which develops in bone or soft tissues. This type of tumor frequently occurs in the oral cavity and extremities, while it is extremely rarely found in the abdominal cavity. This article reports a case of LGMFS exceeding 20 cm in diameter in the abdominal cavity observed in a 65-year-old male patient. The patient visited our hospital complaining of a heavy feeling of the stomach and abdominal distension. Imaging examinations revealed a giant solid tumor in the abdomen, and surgical treatment was scheduled. During the operation, a tumor about 20 cm in diameter with its anterior aspect covered with the greater omentum was found. The tumor had firm adhesions to the surrounding tissues, and it was excised with concomitant resections of the tail of the pancreas and the spleen. Histopathologically, fusiform cells were arranged in a complicated or storiform pattern, and immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was positive for ?-smooth muscle actin, negative for S100?, H-caldesmon and c-KIT, and a diagnosis of LGMFS was made. PMID:21868549

Miyazawa, Miki; Naritaka, Yoshihiko; Miyaki, Akira; Asaka, Shinichi; Isohata, Noriyuki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Murayama, Minoru; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Katsube, Takao; Ogawa, Kenji; Fujibayashi, Mariko



Mucosa-associated but not luminal Escherichia coli is augmented in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Escherichia coli is believed to participate in the etiology of Crohn’s disease (CD) and possibly of ulcerative colitis (UC), due at least in part to the observed rise in the number of these bacteria in the gut microbiota of CD and UC patients. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood whether this quantitative variation occurs equally throughout the mucosal and luminal spaces of the gut. To assess this question, stools and mucosa biopsies from distinct intestinal sites were cultured aiming at determining their E. coli concentration. The cultures were additionally screened for the presence of some virulence genes of pathogenic E. coli. Results Analyses of clinical materials from 14 controls (38 biopsies and 14 stools samples), 11 CD (25 biopsies and 11 stools samples) and 7 UC patients (18 biopsies and 7 stools samples) indicated no significant variation in the number of E. coli present in stools, but a rise of at least one log10 CFU/mg in biopsies from the ileum of CD patients and the sigmoid and rectum of CD and UC patients. The cultures were screened for the presence of E. coli attaching and effacing (eae), invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH), aggregative adherence transcriptional activator (aggR), Shiga cytotoxins (stx), and heat labile enterotoxin (elt) and the following serine proteases autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) genes: plasmid encoded toxin (pet), secreted autotransporter toxin (sat), Shigella extracellular protein (sepA), protein involved in intestinal colonization (pic) and Shigella IgA-like protease homolog (sigA). Six of the 10 genes screened were detected in the total of samples investigated: aggR, eae, pet, sat, sepA and sigA. No difference in the prevalence of any of these markers was observed in cultures from different clinical materials or groups of patients. Methods Bacterial quantitation was carried out following cultures of diluted samples suspensions in MacConkey agar, Wilkins Chalgren agar for anaerobes, E. coli/coliform chromocult agar, and blood agar. Screening for E. coli virulence genes was performed by multiplex PCR of DNA purified from total MacConkey undiluted broth cultures. Conclusion In CD and UC patients only the mucosa associated population of E. coli is augmented and the proliferation is prominent in the ileum of CD and rectum and sigmoid of both UC and CD patients which are sites where the lesions usually are observed. The augmented E. coli population in these sites presented a low number of the virulence markers, possibly meaning that they are not relevant for the disease process.



Feline low-grade alimentary lymphoma: how common is it?  


Low-grade alimentary lymphoma (LGAL) requires histological assessment of biopsies for diagnosis whereas intermediate- (IGAL) and high-grade (HGAL) alimentary lymphoma (AL) can be diagnosed by cytology of intestinal or mesenteric lymph node aspirates. Assessment of the relative frequency of subtypes of AL using histology alone may be skewed towards an increased frequency of LGAL as cases of IGAL or HGAL diagnosed cytologically may not progress to biopsy. We investigated the relative prevalence of AL subtypes diagnosed by both histopathology and cytology among primary accession cases across Australia during a 5-year period. Clinicopathological features of LGAL were compared with those of IGAL/HGAL. Fifty-three cases of AL were identified, including 30 diagnosed by histology (15 LGAL, 13 HGAL, two IGAL) and 23 IGAL/HGAL diagnosed by cytology. LGAL cases comprised 50% of histological diagnoses, but only 28% of all AL. A palpable abdominal mass was more common in IGAL/HGAL (43%) than in LGAL (7%) [odds ratio (OR) 7.6, P = 0.01]. Anaemia was more common in IGAL/HGAL (41%) compared with LGAL (7%) (OR 9.6, P = 0.02). On abdominal ultrasound, a gastrointestinal mural mass was visualised in 41% of IGAL/HGAL and 0% of LGAL (P = 0.01). Where a detailed abdominal ultrasound report was provided, gastric/intestinal wall thickening was the most commonly reported abnormality (82%). In cats with intestinal thickening, a loss of normal layering was more common (P = 0.02) in cats with IGAL/HGAL (71%) compared with those with LGAL (20%). The relative prevalence of LGAL was lower when cases diagnosed by cytology were included in addition to those diagnosed by histology in the study population. The relative frequency with which LGAL is diagnosed has increased since initial reports from this region. A number of significant clinicopathological findings are useful to distinguish LGAL from IGAL/HGAL. PMID:22811481

Russell, Kieran J; Beatty, Julia A; Dhand, Navneet; Gunew, Marcus; Lingard, Amy E; Baral, Randolph M; Barrs, Vanessa R



Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas.  


The current World Health Organization classification recognizes three histological types of grade II low-grade diffuse glioma (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma). However, the diagnostic criteria, in particular for oligoastrocytoma, are highly subjective. The aim of our study was to establish genetic profiles for diffuse gliomas and to estimate their predictive impact. In this study, we screened 360 World Health Organization grade II gliomas for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes and for 1p/19q loss and correlated these with clinical outcome. Most tumors (86%) were characterized genetically by TP53 mutation plus IDH1/2 mutation (32%), 1p/19q loss plus IDH1/2 mutation (37%), or IDH1/2 mutation only (17%). TP53 mutations only or 1p/19q loss only was rare (2 and 3%, respectively). The median survival of patients with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation was significantly shorter than that of patients with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation (51.8 months vs. 58.7 months, respectively; P = 0.0037). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for age and treatment confirmed these results (P = 0.0087) and also revealed that TP53 mutation is a significant prognostic marker for shorter survival (P = 0.0005) and 1p/19q loss for longer survival (P = 0.0002), while IDH1/2 mutations are not prognostic (P = 0.8737). The molecular classification on the basis of IDH1/2 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p/19q loss has power similar to histological classification and avoids the ambiguity inherent to the diagnosis of oligoastrocytoma. PMID:21075857

Kim, Young-Ho; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Vital, Anne; Mariani, Luigi; Stawski, Robert; Watanabe, Takuya; De Girolami, Umberto; Kleihues, Paul; Ohgaki, Hiroko



Relative survival of patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

We sought to assess the population-based estimates of age-standardized survival among patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) and to determine the impact of age and time on relative survival (RS). Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of NCI from 1973 through 2006 were analyzed to assess survival among 5037 patients. Relationships were modeled using Dickman's piecewise constant hazards RS model. The 3- and 10-year age-standardized RS were 67% and 37%, respectively. When analyzed by age group, the 10-year overall survival (OS) and RS for children (age, <16 years), young adults (age, 16–39 years), adults (age, 40–64 years), and older patients (age, ?65 years) were 86% and 86%, 61% and 62%, 40% and 43%, and 10% and 14%, respectively. The observed difference between OS and RS was larger among older patients (4%) and smallest among children (<1%). Older patients were 30.5 times (excess hazard ratio [eHR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.3–50.0) as likely as young adults to die during the first year and 18.2 times as likely to die during the second year. Adults were 5.3 (eHR; 95% CI, 3.5–8.1) times as likely to die during their first year as young adults. In the remaining years, the observed survival differences were substantially decreased, and the presence of an age-by-follow-up interaction was observed. Survival among older patients with LGG was substantially different from the one computed for young adults and children. Despite the hazards across age groups not being proportional, RS does not provide additional information, compared with OS, in patients with LGG.

Smoll, Nicolas R.; Gautschi, Oliver P.; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Schaller, Karl; Weber, Damien C.



Validation of Use of Rectoanal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a family of fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of abnormal prion proteins in the brain. The abnormal prion protein is the major constituent of the infectious agent and is a reliable marker for disease. The occurrence of ...


Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade

T. S. Jayadev; D. K. Benson



Active low-grade energy recovery potential for building energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With environmental protection and energy source posing as the biggest issue of the global problems, human beings have no choice but to reduce energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to increase the efficiency of energy consumption and sufficiently exploit the low-grade energy in our lives. Low-grade energy recovery devices are of significance to meet the needs for energy

Di Liu; Fu-Yun Zhao; Guang-Fa Tang



High-grade pelvic sarcoma after radiation therapy for low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma  

SciTech Connect

A high-grade heterologous pelvic sarcoma arose in a 60-year-old woman 15 years after she received whole-pelvic radiation for a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. This complication must be considered in determining therapy for low-grade endometrial sarcomas, which are usually inherently of indolent biological behavior.

Chumas, J.C.; Patsner, B.; Mann, W.J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))



Clusterin in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids: localization to M cells and follicular dendritic cells.  


The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the follicles of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a key player in the initiation of mucosal immune responses. We recently reported strong clusterin expression in the FAE of murine Peyer's patches. In this study, we examined the expression of clusterin in the human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Waldeyer's ring. Immunohistochemistry for clusterin in human Peyer's patches, appendix and colon lymphoid follicles revealed expression in M cells and in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Using cryo-immunogold electron microscopy in Peyer's patches, we observed cytosolic immunoreactivity in M cells and labeling in the ER/Golgi biosynthetic pathway in FDCs. In palatine tonsils and adenoids, we demonstrated clusterin expression in germinal centers and in the lymphoepithelium in the crypts where M cells are localized. In conclusion, clusterin is expressed in M cells and follicular dendritic cells at inductive sites of human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue suggesting a role for this protein in innate immune responses. Moreover, the use of clusterin as a human M cell marker could prove to be a valuable tool in future M cell research. PMID:18097679

Verbrugghe, Phebe; Kujala, Pekka; Waelput, Wim; Peters, Peter J; Cuvelier, Claude A



Total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.



Selected topics on lymphoid lesions in the head and neck regions.  


Lymphoid tissue located in the head and neck region include multiple regional lymph node chains as well as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue of the conjunctiva, buccal and nasopharyngeal cavities (Waldeyer's ring), and thyroid and salivary glands. This region is a rich source of antigenic stimuli including infectious agents coming from the outside environment. Many reactive conditions that affect lymphoid tissue in this region may mimic neoplasia. In fact, distinguishing between benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations in the head and neck region is a relatively frequent diagnostic challenge and in many instances, this distinction is not straightforward. It therefore behooves the practicing pathologist to be able to recognize the benign lymphoproliferative disorders that affect this region so as to effectively guide the appropriate clinical management of such patients. Kimura disease, Epstein Barr lymphadenitis, HIV associated salivary gland disease and chronic sialadenitis are benign conditions that not infrequently affect lymphoid tissue in the head and neck region and that share certain overlapping features with malignant lymphoma. In this brief review, we discuss these conditions and highlight clinicopathological features that may help distinguish them from neoplastic lymphoproliferations that may share similar features. PMID:21287407

Greaves, Wesley O; Wang, Sa A



Low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions and human papillomavirus infection in Colombian women  

PubMed Central

Low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions could be considered as a manifestation of human papillomavirus exposition, however the discrepancy between rates of infection with human papillomavirus and development of low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions is notable. Here we report a cross-sectional three-armed case–control study in the Colombian population, to compare the risk factors of women with low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions with that of human papillomavirus DNA-negative and positive women with normal cytology. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1417–1421. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600650 © 2002 Cancer Research UK

Molano, M; van den Brule, A J C; Posso, H; Weiderpass, E; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Meijer, C J L M; Arslan, A; Munoz, N



Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with filgrastim support in patients with previously untreated indolent lymphoid malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the response rate and poten- tial toxicities, a phase II trial was con- ducted of fludarabine and cyclophospha- mide with filgrastim support in patients with previously untreated low-grade and select intermediate-grade lymphoid malig- nancies. Symptomatic patients with pre- served end organ function received cyclo- phosphamide 600 mg\\/m2 intravenous (iv) day 1 and fludarabine 20 mg\\/m 2 iv days1

Ian W. Flinn; John C. Byrd; Candis Morrison; Janet Jamison; Louis F. Diehl; Timothy Murphy; Steve Piantadosi; Eric Seifter; Richard F. Ambinder; Georgia Vogelsang; Michael R. Grever


Evolution of lymphoid tissues.  


Lymphoid organs are integral parts of all vertebrate adaptive immune systems. Primary lymphoid tissues exhibit a remarkable functional dichotomy: T cells develop in specialized thymopoietic tissues located in the pharynx, whereas B cells develop in distinct areas of general hematopoietic areas, such as the kidney or bone marrow. Among secondary lymphoid tissues, the spleen is present in all vertebrates, whereas lymph nodes represent an innovation particular to mammals and some birds. A comparative analysis of anatomical, functional and genomic features thus reveals the core components of adaptive immune systems. Such information has guided recent attempts at reconstructing lymphopoietic functions in vivo and in the future might inspire the development of new strategies for medical interventions restoring and modulating immune functions. PMID:22483556

Boehm, Thomas; Hess, Isabell; Swann, Jeremy B



Microbial Removal of Silver and Gold from Low Grade Industrial Wastewaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal goal of the research was to ascertain the feasibility of using non-growing microorganisms as biosorption agents for removal of precious metals from low-grade industrial wastewaters. After screening 14 microorganisms for metal sorption, one r...

J. A. Brierly



Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy predicts proliferative activity in diffuse low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of 1HMRS to reflect proliferative activity of diffuse low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II). Between November 2002 and March 2007,\\u000a a prospective study was performed on consecutive patients with suspected supratentorial hemispheric diffuse low-grade tumors.\\u000a All the patients underwent MR examination using uniform procedures, and then surgical resection or biopsy within

Remy Guillevin; Carole Menuel; Hugues Duffau; Michel Kujas; Laurent Capelle; Agnès Aubert; Sophie Taillibert; Ahmed Idbaih; Joan Pallud; Giovanni Demarco; Robert Costalat; Khê Hoang-Xuan; Jacques Chiras; Jean-Noel Vallée



Sulfidation roasting of low grade lead–zinc oxide ore with elemental sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade complex Pb–Zn oxide ore is an important source, and the reserve is very great in the world. It is very difficult to obtain Pb and Zn from the source by traditional technology. In this work, a new technology characterized by sulfidation of low grade Pb–Zn oxide ore with elemental sulfur was developed. The effects of temperature, time, particle size

Yong Li; Ji-kun Wang; Chang Wei; Chun-Xia Liu; Ji-Bo Jiang; Fan Wang



Silver catalyzed bioleaching of low-grade copper ores. Part III: Column reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effect of different variables (inoculation, [Ag], silver addition mode, reactivation of the ore (i.e. delayed silver addition), composition of the pregnant liquid solution, ore particle size, pH and aeration) on the silver-catalyzed bioleaching of two different low-grade copper (>600 ?m) has been investigated in column reactors.The two low-grade copper ores tested, lower K-ore and Pinto Valley Dump

J. A. Muñoz; D. B. Dreisinger; W. C. Cooper; S. K. Young



Organically modified low-grade kaolin as a secondary containment material for underground storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch scale reactions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified low-grade kaolin for the treatment of petroleum\\u000a contaminants. Low-grade kaolin, which has been unvalued as material in the mining process because of its low quality for commercial\\u000a products, was modified with HDTMA (hexadecyl-trimethylammonium), and its efficiency was compared with that of HDTMA-modified\\u000a bentonite, which is used as a secondary

Chul-Hwan Moon; Jai-Young Lee; Byung-Taek Oh; Sang-Il Choi



Low grade astrocytomas in the West of Scotland 1987-96: treatment, outcome, and cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Low grade astrocytomas are among the most common central nervous system tumours in children. Aims—To identify risk factors for the development of persistent intellectual handicap. Methods—The notes of 30 children with histologically proven low grade astrocy- toma who presented during the period 1987-96 were reviewed. Thirteen of these children who were diagnosed with intrac- ranial tumours between 1992 and 1996

S M Yule; M Cranney; E Simpson; A Barrett



Successful Use of Intracavitary Bleomycin for Low-Grade Astrocytoma Tumor Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report successful use of bleomycin in a low-grade astrocytoma tumor cyst of the tectal plate. A 6-year-old male underwent subtotal resection of a low-grade astrocytoma of the tectal plate followed by chemotherapy and proton beam radiation at age 2 and a half. Despite resolution of the solid portion of the tumor, serial MRI showed enlargement of a bilobar tumor

Jennifer A. Disabato; Michael H. Handler; John D. Strain; Julie M. Fleitz; Nicholas K. Foreman



Using Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Mouse Models to Understand Human Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common genetic cause for low-grade glioma in children and accounts for 15% of all\\u000a reported cases of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas. Children with NF1 develop low-grade pilocytic astrocytomas\\u000a most frequently along the anterior optic pathway with a mean age at diagnosis of 4.5 years. Recent advances in mouse genetic\\u000a engineering

David H. Gutmann


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings in two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare, slow-growing, yet metastasizing neoplasm characterized by histopathological fibrous\\/myxoid zonal alternations, which occasionally display an intralesional multinodular appearance. We report on the radiological features of two cases of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Case 1 was a large ovoid mass with a well-defined margin in the thigh, showing the characteristic multiple, intralesional variable-sized nodules on high-frequency ultrasound

Sung Hye Koh; Hyung Sim Choe; In Jae Lee; Hye Rim Park; Sang Hoon Bae



Subjective Quality of Life in Persons with Low-Grade Glioma and Their Next of Kin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patients with low-grade glioma have a longer survival than patients with highly malignant glioma, and for this reason questions of quality of life (QoL) are of particular importance to such patients as well as to their next of kin. No studies have been found in which both adult patients with low-grade glioma and their next of kin have estimated…

Edvardsson, Tanja I.; Ahlstrom, Gerd I.



Prognostic Factors in Children and Adolescents with Low-Grade Oligodendrogliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few reports exist describing the progression-free and overall survival of children with low-grade (WHO grade II) oligodendrogliomas treated uniformly with aggressive surgery but without adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Furthermore, significant prognostic features, including the MIB-1 labeling index (LI), have not been reported for children with oligodendrogliomas. The medical records of 20 consecutive patients with low-grade oligodendrogliomas were reviewed. All

Daniel C. Bowers; Arlynn F. Mulne; Bradley Weprin; Derek A. Bruce; Kenneth Shapiro; Linda R. Margraf



Molecular neuropathology of low-grade gliomas and its clinical impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “low-grade glioma” refers to a heterogeneous group of slowly growing glial tumors corresponding histologically to\\u000a World Health Organization (WHO) grade I or II. This group includes astrocytic, oligodendroglial, oligoastrocytic and ependymal\\u000a tumor entities, most of which preferentially manifest in children and young adults. Depending on histological type and WHO\\u000a grade, growth patterns of low-grade gliomas are quite variable,

M. J. Riemenschneider; G. Reifenberger


Primary cerebral low-grade B-cell lymphoma, monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease, cerebral light chain deposition disease and "aggregoma": an update on classification and diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background This work aims to add evidence and provide an update on the classification and diagnosis of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) and primary central nervous system low-grade lymphomas. MIDD is characterized by the deposition of light and heavy chain proteins. Depending on the spatial arrangement of the secreted proteins, light chain-derived amyloidosis (AL) can be distinguished from non-amyloid light chain deposition disease (LCDD). We present a case of an extremely rare tumoral presentation of LCDD (aggregoma) and review the 3 previously published LCDD cases and discuss their presentation with respect to AL. Case presentation A 61-year-old woman presented with a 3½-year history of neurologic symptoms due to a progressive white matter lesion of the left subcortical parieto-insular lobe and basal ganglia. 2 former stereotactic biopsies conducted at different hospitals revealed no evidence of malignancy or inflammation; thus, no therapy had been initiated. After performing physiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the tumor was removed under intraoperative monitoring at our department. Histological analysis revealed large amorphous deposits and small islands of lymphoid cells. Conclusion LCCD is a very rare and obscure manifestation of primary central nervous system low-grade lymphomas that can be easily misdiagnosed by stereotactic biopsy sampling. If stereotactic biopsy does not reveal a definite result, a “wait-and-see” strategy can delay possible therapy for this disease. The impact of surgical removal, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in LCDD obviously remains controversial because of the low number of relevant cases.



Low-grade clear cell carcinoma with myoepithelial features in the submandibular gland.  


Clear cell carcinoma is rarely found in the salivary gland. It is classified as a low-grade carcinoma. This case demonstrates a low-grade clear cell carcinoma with myoepithelial features in the submandibular gland which differs from hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. A 32-year-old man presented with a 7 month history of left submandibular swelling. Left submandibular gland excision and left-sided supra-omohyoid neck dissection were performed. Microscopically, the tumor was circumscribed and composed predominantly of cords and nests of clear ovoid cells, set in a densely hyalinizing stroma. These cells are diffusely immunoreactive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and focally reactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin (SMA). Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as "a low-grade clear cell carcinoma with myoepithelial features". The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient is free from disease 21 month after surgery. PMID:22754864

Haruyama, Takuo; Furukawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Abe, Keiko; Arakawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa



Low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in gastrointestinal dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is considered to be multifactorial and includes psychosocial factors, visceral hypersensitivity, infection, microbiota and immune activation. It is becoming increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is present in IBS patients and a number of biomarkers have emerged. This review describes the evidence for low-grade inflammation in IBS and explores its mechanism with particular focus on gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. Understanding of the immunological basis of the altered gastrointestinal motor function in IBS may lead to new therapeutic strategies for IBS.

Akiho, Hirotada; Ihara, Eikichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko



Low-Grade Clear Cell Carcinoma with Myoepithelial Features in the Submandibular Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell carcinoma is rarely found in the salivary gland. It is classified as a low-grade carcinoma. This case demonstrates\\u000a a low-grade clear cell carcinoma with myoepithelial features in the submandibular gland which differs from hyalinizing clear\\u000a cell carcinoma and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. A 32-year-old man presented with a 7 month history of left submandibular\\u000a swelling. Left submandibular gland excision and left-sided

Takuo Haruyama; Masayuki Furukawa; Fumihiko Matsumoto; Keiko Abe; Atsushi Arakawa; Katsuhisa Ikeda


Compound absorption cooling from low-grade heat using advanced desorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commercial feasibility of an advanced absorption cooling system know as the Compound Absorption Chiller (CAC) which is motivated by low grade heat is demonstrated. Preliminary indications of technical and economic feasibility in recommended applications are shown analytical performance estimates for a demonstration unit are provided. Experimental equipment is designed and a design basis for an advanced desorber to be scaled up for use in the cooling system is established. Bench scale experiments are conducted on conventional and advanced desorber designs to determine heat transfer coefficients and other design information. A nominal 25 ton capacity chiller, motivated by low grade grad is constructed to verify the performance predictions of the analytical model.

Hanna, W. T.; Wilkinson, W. H.



[Low-grade central chondrosarcoma: difficult diagnosis in an adolescent girl].  


Central chondrosarcoma of the tibia is exceptional, particularly in young patients. Low-grade tumors raise difficult problems for histological distinction with enchondroma. We report a case of grade 1 chondrosarcoma located in the upper portion of the tibia in a 17-year-old girl. After radical surgery, outcome was favorable with no recurrence or metastasis at three years follow-up. The distinction between low-grade central chondrosarcoma and enchondroma is one of the most difficult challenges in bone pathology. Clinical, radiographic and pathological data must be considered together to reach certain diagnosis. PMID:16609621

Bettaieb, I; Zermani, R; Karray, M; Bouzidi, R; Farah, F; Rammeh, S; Kourda, N; Zlitni, M; Ben Jilani, S



Using neurofibromatosis-1 to better understand and treat pediatric low-grade glioma.  


Relatively little is known about the seminal genetic events that trigger the development of low-grade gliomas in children. Genetically engineered mouse models of the neurofibromatosis-1-inherited tumor predisposition syndrome have identified key intracellular growth control pathways, defined the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to glioma growth, and helped researchers understand the genetic basis for glioma susceptibility. In addition, genetically engineered mouse low-grade glioma models have recently been used in preclinical therapeutic studies to evaluate the efficacy of particular biologically based therapies and to define outcome measures. PMID:18952585

Gutmann, David H



Haemorrhagic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: MR findings in two young women  

PubMed Central

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma characterised by a deceptively bland histological appearance and a paradoxically aggressive behaviour. LGFMS usually presents in young-to-middle-aged adults as a painless, slow-growing mass with the potential for local recurrence and metastasis despite low-grade histology. Several case reports have described variable MR findings of LGFMS without haemorrhage or necrosis. We report here on the MR findings in two young women with haemorrhagic LGFMS in the thigh.

Kim, S K; Jee, W-H; Lee, A W; Chung, Y G



Haemorrhagic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: MR findings in two young women.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma characterised by a deceptively bland histological appearance and a paradoxically aggressive behaviour. LGFMS usually presents in young-to-middle-aged adults as a painless, slow-growing mass with the potential for local recurrence and metastasis despite low-grade histology. Several case reports have described variable MR findings of LGFMS without haemorrhage or necrosis. We report here on the MR findings in two young women with haemorrhagic LGFMS in the thigh. PMID:21697411

Kim, S K; Jee, W-H; Lee, A W; Chung, Y G



Lymphoid organ development: from ontogeny to neogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of lymphoid organs can be viewed as a continuum. At one end are the 'canonical' secondary lymphoid organs, including lymph nodes and spleen; at the other end are 'ectopic' or tertiary lymphoid organs, which are cellular accumulations arising during chronic inflammation by the process of lymphoid neogenesis. Secondary lymphoid organs are genetically 'preprogrammed' and 'prepatterned' during ontogeny, whereas

Danielle L Drayton; Shan Liao; Rawad H Mounzer; Nancy H Ruddle



Lymphoid organogenesis in the intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphoid organogenesis is dependent upon a series of intricate cellular interactions involving adhesion molecules, chemokines,\\u000a and cytokines that generate fully compartmentalized lymphoid structures. Development of organized lymphoid structures in the\\u000a intestine begins prenatally and continues through adulthood, with constant adaptations to changes in the luminal flora. While\\u000a much is known about the mechanisms that govern the development of macroscopic intestinal

Rebekah T. Taylor; Ifor R. Williams



Low grade astrocytomas in the West of Scotland 1987-96: treatment, outcome, and cognitive functioning  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Low grade astrocytomas are among the most common central nervous system tumours in children.?AIMS—To identify risk factors for the development of persistent intellectual handicap.?METHODS—The notes of 30 children with histologically proven low grade astrocytoma who presented during the period 1987-96 were reviewed. Thirteen of these children who were diagnosed with intracranial tumours between 1992 and 1996 underwent cognitive assessment one year after the completion of treatment.?RESULTS—Low grade astrocytomas were found in the cerebellum (59%), thalamus (17%), cerebral hemispheres (10%), and the cervical spinal cord (9%). Where possible all patients were treated with gross total resection of the tumour. Symptomatic children with tumours judged to be inoperable underwent biopsy followed by radiotherapy (13%). Three patients developed progressive disease following surgery and underwent repeat surgery and radiotherapy. Survival at a median follow up of 75 months (range 30-131) is 97%. At one year after the completion of treatment persisting cognitive impairment was common. The strongest predictor of IQ scores was the duration of symptoms of increased intracranial pressure preoperatively.?CONCLUSIONS—Although the overall survival rate of children with low grade astrocytoma is excellent, significant long term disability occurs. Early diagnosis is essential to reduce postoperative cognitive morbidity.??

Yule, S; Hide, T; Cranney, M; Simpson, E; Barrett, A



Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Low-Grade Domestic Laterites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is being developed by the Bureau of Mines to selectively recover nickel and cobalt from low-grade domestic laterites. In laboratory evaluation of the process, the oxides in the laterite were selectively reduced with carbon monoxide at temperatur...

R. E. Siemens P. C. Good W. A. Stickney



The Use of Waste and Low-grade Materials in Road Construction. 7. Miscellaneous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the seventh in the series which describes the use of waste and low-grade materials in road construction. It deals with those wastes which for one reason or another have less potential for use as roadmaking materials than those described in ...

P. T. Sherwood L. W. Tubey P. G. Roe



Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia.  


We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A



Analysis of an innovative water desalination system using low-grade solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results for an innovative water desalination system using low-grade solar heat. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The system consists of an evaporator connected to a

S. Al-Kharabsheh



The SHOLO Mill: Make Pallet Parts and Pulp Chips from Low-Grade Hardwoods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SHOLO (from SHOrt LOg) process is used to produce pulp chips and pallet parts from low-grade hardwood. Long logs are bucked to short logs of predetermined lengths and quality and the round residue remaining is converted into pulp chips. A detailed des...

H. W. Reynolds C. J. Gatchell



Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma with a high metastasizing potential and sometimes long interval between tumour presentation and metastasis. We present the case of a 50-year-old male who developed a large mass in the posterior aspect of his lower left thigh. The tumor was excised with preservation of the neurovascular structures surrounded by the

Christina Arnaoutoglou; Marios G. Lykissas; Ioannis D. Gelalis; Anna Batistatou; Anna Goussia; Michalis Doukas; Theodoros A. Xenakis



Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision.

Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A



Theoretical Analysis of a Water Desalination System Using Low Grade Solar Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis of a solar desalination system utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses low-grade solar heat, is presented. The system utilizes natural means of gravity and atmospheric pressure to create a vacuum, under which liquid can be evapo- rated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The uniqueness of the system is in the way

S. Al-Kharabsheh; D. Yogi Goswami



Optimal water purification using low grade waste heat in an absorption heat transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal for rational energy saving using wasted heat is showed in the present paper. Thermodynamicmathematical model is presented like an effort for water purification from waste heat. This paper describes computing results of heat transformer operation for water purification using low grade waste heat. Equations, parameters and simplifications used in the model are briefly described. The main parameter of

Rosenberg J. Romero; A. Rodríguez-Martínez



Using Neurofibromatosis1 to Better Understand and Treat Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about the seminal genetic events that trigger the development of low-grade gliomas in children. Genetically engineered mouse models of the neurofibromatosis-1—inherited tumor predisposition syndrome have identified key intracellular growth control pathways, defined the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to glioma growth, and helped researchers understand the genetic basis for glioma susceptibility. In addition, genetically engineered mouse

David H. Gutmann



Improvements in Heap Leaching to Recover Silver and Gold from Low-Grade Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A particle agglormeration technique was investigated as a means for improving the flow of leaching solution through heaps of clayey or finely crushed, low-grade, gold-silver ores. Bench- and pilot-scale experiments showed that the percolation rate of cyan...

G. E. McClelland J. A. Eisel



Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the falciform ligament: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMS) are very rarely seen. They commonly arise from deep soft tissues of the lower extremities. Very few cases of intra-abdominal location have been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 37 year old man who presented with an abdominal mass and dragging pain. Pre-operative imaging suggested the possibility of a subcapsular hemangioma of liver. CONCLUSIONS:

K Harish; AC Ashok; NK Alva



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: CT, sonography, and MR findings in 3 cases.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma characterized by deceptively bland histologic features and a paradoxically aggressive clinical course. The radiologic finding of this uncommon tumor has not been described to date. In this report, 3 cases of LGFMS occurring in axilla, chest wall, and pleura are presented with CT, MRI, and sonographic findings. PMID:16282909

Kim, Su Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Han, Yoon Hee; Seo, Jung Wook; Kim, Yong Hoon; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the hand: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma with giant collagen rosettes in the hand of a 21-year-old female. This is\\u000a a clinically and radiological benign appearing tumor that has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis.

Guy Rubin; Micha Rinott; Alejandro Wolovelsky; Irit Elmalach; Nimrod Rozen



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the hand: a case report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma with giant collagen rosettes in the hand of a 21-year-old female. This is a clinically and radiological benign appearing tumor that has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis.

Rinott, Micha; Wolovelsky, Alejandro; Elmalach, Irit; Rozen, Nimrod



Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is difficult to diagnose both clinically and histologically due to its indolent presentation, and because of its morphological diversity that includes several microscopic patterns. The aggres- sive biologic behavior seen in minor salivary glands as compared to major glands is apparently associated histologically to a predominance of the papillary pattern in the former. Biologic behavior of

L Ruíz-Godoy; L Suárez; A Mosqueda; A Meneses; Abelardo Meneses García


Autoimmunity, intestinal lymphoid hyperplasia, and defects in mucosal B-cell homeostasis in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.  


The Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog Deleted On Chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway. In a series of 34 patients with PTEN mutations, we described gastrointestinal lymphoid hyperplasia, extensive hyperplastic tonsils, thymus hyperplasia, autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and colitis. Functional analysis of the gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue revealed increased signaling via the PI3K-AKT pathway, including phosphorylation of S6 and increased cell proliferation, but also reduced apoptosis of CD20(+)CD10(+) B cells. Reduced activity of PTEN therefore affects homeostasis of human germinal center B cells by increasing PI3K-AKT signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin as well as antiapoptotic signals. PMID:22266152

Heindl, Mario; Händel, Norman; Ngeow, Joanne; Kionke, Janina; Wittekind, Christian; Kamprad, Manja; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Ehl, Stephan; Reifenberger, Julia; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Maul, Jochen; Hoffmeister, Albrecht; Aretz, Stefan; Kiess, Wieland; Eng, Charis; Uhlig, Holm H



Subureteral Polydimethylsiloxane Injection Versus Extravesical Reimplantation For Primary Low Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe compare the outcome of extravesical ureteral reimplantation to endoscopic polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique, Uroplasty, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) subureteral injection for primary low grade vesicoureteral reflux in children.




Transformation of low grade glioma and correlation with outcome: an NCCTG database analysis.  


Glioblastomas (GBM) may originate de novo (primary), or following transformation from a lower grade glioma (secondary), and it has been postulated that these tumors may have different biological behaviors. We performed a correlative analysis involving 204 patients with glioma treated prospectively on NCCTG clinical trials. Central pathology review of tumor tissues taken at the time of initial diagnosis and at recurrence were performed in all patients. Tumors progressed from low (WHO grade 2) to high (grade 3-4) at recurrence in 45% low grade oligodendroglioma patients, in 70% with low grade oligoastrocytoma, and 74% with low grade astrocytoma (P = 0.031). Median overall survival (OS) from initial diagnosis varied by histology: oligodendroglioma, 8.8 years; (95% CI 5.7-10.2); oligoastrocytoma, 4.4 years (95% CI 3.5-5.6); astrocytoma grade 2 3.1 years (astrocytoma grade 2-4, 2.1 years) (95% CI 1.7-2.5, P < 0.001). Mean time to recurrence (TTR) also varied between patients with de novo GBM, those secondary GBM, and those that remained non-GBM at recurrence (1.1 ± 1.1 vs. 2.9 ± 1.8 vs. 4.0 ± 2.9 years, respectively, P < 0.001). Median OS from time of recurrence also varied between these three categories (0.7 years, 95% CI: 0.5-1.1 vs. 0.6 years, CI: 0.5-1.0 vs. 1.4 years, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, respectively) (P < 0.001). At time of relapse, transformation to higher grade is frequent in low grade pure and mixed astrocytomas, but is observed in less than half of those with low grade oligodendroglioma. From time of recurrence, OS was not significantly different for those with primary versus secondary GBM, and it may thus be reasonable include patients with secondary GBM in clinical therapeutic trials for recurrent disease. PMID:21153680

Jaeckle, K A; Decker, P A; Ballman, K V; Flynn, P J; Giannini, C; Scheithauer, B W; Jenkins, R B; Buckner, J C



Biomarker expression in normal fimbriae: Comparison of high- and low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.  


The objective of this study was to assess the difference in fimbriae of high- and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC). The fimbriae of normal appearance [without serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)] from 28 patients with high-grade OSCs and 24 patients with low-grade OSCs were assessed for the expression of 6 markers [E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), phospho-AKT (pAKT), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and p53] using immunohistochemistry. Sectioning and extensively examining the fimbria (SEE-FIM) was performed to exclude fimbrial involvement for all the cases. The immunostaining levels of pAKT and COX-2 were significantly higher in the fimbriae of normal appearance from high-grade OSCs compared with low-grade OSCs (61 vs. 8% and 71 vs. 21%; P=0.005 and 0.007, respectively). The immunostaining of E-cadherin was significantly higher in the fimbriae of low-grade OSCs compared with high-grade OSCs (83 vs. 21%; P= 0.003). The remaining 3 markers (MMP-2, VEGF and p53) had similar expression in low- and high-grade OSCs (21 vs. 13%; 25 vs. 21%; and 14 vs. 8%; P=0.78, 0.86 and 0.82, respectively). Our results suggest marked biological differences in the behavior of the fimbriae in high- and low-grade OSCs and indicate that proliferation, cell adhesion and the inflammatory microenvironment of fimbriae in high-grade OSCs without STIC had changed prior to p53 mutation. PMID:23162641

Xuyin, Zhang; Jingxin, Ding; Xiang, Tao; Luoqi, Jia; Keqin, Hua



Case Study of the Distribution of Mucosa-Associated Bifidobacterium Species, Lactobacillus Species, and Other Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Human Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of mucosa-associated bacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and closely related lactic acid bacteria, in biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending parts of the colon from four individuals was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bifidobacterial genus-spe- cific, Lactobacillus group-specific, and universal bacterial primers were used in a nested PCR approach to amplify a fragment of the

D. S. Nielsen; P. L. Moller; V. Rosenfeldt; A. Paerregaard; K. F. Michaelsen; M. Jakobsen



Heterosubtypic Immunity to Lethal Influenza A Virus Infection Is Associated with Virus-Specific CD8 +Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses Induced in Mucosa-Associated Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosubtypic immunity, defined as cross-reactive immune responses to influenza virus of a different serotype than the virus initially encountered, was investigated in association with virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced in systemic and mucosa-associated lymph nodes after immunization via different routes. Mice immunized by the pulmonary route with live nonpathogenic influenza virus, strain Udorn (H3N2), survived challenge with mouse-adapted

Huan H. Nguyen; Zina Moldoveanu; Miroslav J. Novak; Frederik W. van Ginkel; Elisabeth Ban; Hiroshi Kiyono; Jerry R. McGhee; Jiri Mestecky



Mutation analysis of papillary tubal hyperplasia associated with ovarian atypical proliferative serous tumor and low-grade serous carcinoma.  


We present a patient with ovarian atypical proliferative serous tumor and low-grade serous carcinoma, related to KRAS mutation. Bilateral fallopian tubes had papillary tubal hyperplasia, providing additional evidence that it is the putative precursor of low-grade serous tumors. Mutation analysis of papillary tubal hyperplasia has not been done in previous literature. PMID:23711666

Huang, Wen-Chih; Tsai, Chien-Chen; Wei, Ming-Chow; Kuo, Kuan-Ting



Intraosseous polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of mandible: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare type of minor salivary gland malignancy. The characteristic features of these tumors are the varied histomorphology and the malignant, albeit indolent behavior. It occurs commonly in the minor salivary glands, with the palate (58.5%) being the most common intra oral site. Maxillary area (2%), mandibular mucosal area (1.5%) and posterior trigone region (0.5%) are the least affected areas. An occasional case has been reported arising from an intraosseous location i.e the maxilla, and only two cases have been reported in the English literature originating from the mandible. One such very rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the mandible, which radiographically has a soap bubble appearance, is reported here.

Ramesh, Gayathri; Manohar, Ram; Raghunath, Vandana; Nagarajappa, Ramesh



[Stem cell transplantation in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma].  


Patients with a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of low-grade malignancy have been considered incurable for decades. Several conventional therapies have resulted in an improved disease-free survival but not in a prolonged overall survival. Intensified treatment of relapsed patients with myeloablative conditioning followed by autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is being applied more and more. In both forms of SCT the anti-tumour effect of the high-dose chemo- (and radio-) therapy is used; allogeneic SCT has an additional so-called graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Thus allogeneic SCT appears to be a promising and potentially curative treatment for this patient group, despite complications like graft-versus-host disease and higher treatment-related mortality. Early in the course of a low-grade NHL, especially at first relapse, an allogeneic SCT should at least be considered for a patient having an HLA-compatible stem cell donor. PMID:11072506

Mandigers, C M; Schattenberg, A V; Raemaekers, J M



Multiple low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma on the upper arms with atypical histological presentation.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare variant of spindle cell tumor that is composed of collagen-rich and myxoid parts. We describe the case of a 61-year-old Japanese patient with multiple, recurrent LGFMS on the upper arms with atypical histological presentation. In the present case, we resected the tumor several times with a minimal surgical margin, as in Moh's microsurgery. However, this can frequently lead to local recurrence of the tumor. Our case suggested that, regarding mesenchymal tumors with potential of malignancy in the skin, an initial wide excision is indispensable for complete remission of the tumor, even for low-grade malignancy such as LGFMS. PMID:23741216

Furudate, Sadanori; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Tsukada, Akira; Numata, Yukikazu; Aiba, Setsuya



Health-related quality of life aspects in patients with low-grade glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Standard therapeutic options for brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Unfortunately, these same therapies\\u000a pose risks of neurotoxicity, the most common long-term complications being radiation necrosis, chemotherapy-associated leukoencephalopathy,\\u000a and cognitive deficits. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment strategy for these tumors. Because of the relatively\\u000a slow growth rate of low-grade gliomas, patients have a relatively long expected

M. Klein


Use of waste and low-grade materials in road construction. 7. Miscellaneous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of waste and low-grade materials in road construction is described. Those wastes which for one reason or another have less potential for use as roadmaking materials than those previously described are emphasized. The materials discussed are cement-kiln dust, slate waste, demolition wastes, metallurgical (non-ferrous) slags, waste rubber, and waste glass. Freshly-produced cement-kiln dust has little application in roadmaking

P. T. Sherwood; L. W. Tubey; P. G. Roe



Impaired duodenal mucosal integrity and low-grade inflammation in functional dyspepsia.  


OBJECTIVE: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is an extremely common functional gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. We hypothesised that impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the onset and persistence of this disorder by inducing low-grade inflammation. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate duodenal mucosal integrity and low-grade inflammation in patients with FD. DESIGN: Duodenal biopsy specimens were obtained from 15 patients with FD fulfilling the Rome III criteria and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability were measured in Ussing chambers. Expression of cell-to-cell adhesion proteins was evaluated by real-time PCR, western blot and/or immunofluorescence. Numbers of mast cells, eosinophils and intraepithelial lymphocytes were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Patients with FD displayed lower TEER and increased paracellular passage compared with healthy controls, which is indicative of impaired mucosal integrity. In addition, abnormal expression of cell-to-cell adhesion proteins at the level of tight junctions, adherens junctions and desmosomes was shown. Furthermore, patients were characterised by the presence of low-grade inflammation, as demonstrated by increased infiltration of mucosal mast cells and eosinophils. A significant association between the expression level of several cell-to-cell adhesion proteins, the extent of increased permeability and the severity of low-grade inflammation was found. CONCLUSIONS: These findings challenge the classical paradigm that patients with FD show no structural changes in the gastrointestinal tract. We suggest that impaired intestinal barrier function is a pathophysiological mechanism in FD. Thus, restoration of intestinal barrier integrity may be a potential therapeutic target for treating patients with FD. PMID:23474421

Vanheel, Hanne; Vicario, Maria; Vanuytsel, Tim; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Martinez, Cristina; Keita, Asa V; Pardon, Nicolas; Santos, Javier; Söderholm, Johan D; Tack, Jan; Farré, Ricard



Metabolic imaging of low-grade gliomas with three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The role of radiotherapy (RT) seems established for patients with low-grade gliomas with poor prognostic factors. Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) has been reported to be of value in defining the extent of glioma infiltration. We performed a study examining the impact MRSI would have on the routine addition of 2–3-cm margins around MRI T2-weighted hyperintensity to

Andrea Pirzkall; Sarah J Nelson; Tracy R McKnight; Michelle M Takahashi; Xiaojuan Li; Edward E Graves; Lynn J Verhey; William W Wara; David A Larson; Penny K Sneed



Chronic Low-Grade Metabolic Acidosis in Normal Adult Humans: Pathophysiology and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal adult humans eating modern-day diets have a chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis whose severity is determined in part\\u000a by the net rate of endogenous acid production (NEAP). NEAP varies mainly with diet composition. The greater the quantity of\\u000a organic and sulfuric acids produced from metabolism of animal foods, and the lower the amounts of potassium salts metabolizable\\u000a to bicarbonate, which

Lynda Frassetto; R. Curtis Morris; Karen Todd; Anthony Sebastian


Low-grade thermal energy-conversion Joule effect heat engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade thermal energy conversion is discussed with attention to energy sources, heat engines, and potential Joule engine applications. Nitinol heat engine concepts are discussed, and the Nitinol equation-of-state surfaces and transition characteristics are indicated. Bottoming cycles are considered, the untapped low-temperature water energy sources are estimated, the heat-transfer limitation of gas phase heat engines is examined, and solid-state heat engines

W. S. Ginell; J. L. McNichols; J. S. Cory



Stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy for progressive low-grade gliomas of childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe the rationale, technique, and early results of stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) in the treatment of progressive or inoperable low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of childhood.Methods and Materials: Between September 1994 and May 1999, 14 children (median age 6 years, range 5–16) with LGG were treated with SCRT at the Royal Marsden NHS Trust. Tumors were located at the

Frank H Saran; Brigitta G Baumert; Vincent S Khoo; Elizabeth J Adams; Maria L Garré; Alan P Warrington; Michael Brada



The relationship between function, quality of life and coping in patients with low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The principal aim of the study was to describe function, quality of life and coping with illness-related problems in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), to evaluate the need of support. A second aim was to investigate how function, quality of life and coping were related.Materials and methods  Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of LGG answered the European Organization for Research and

Margareta Gustafsson; Tanja Edvardsson; Gerd Ahlström



The microtubule binding drug EM011 inhibits the growth of paediatric low grade gliomas.  


Low grade gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours representing the most common form of neoplasms in the central nervous system among children. Although gross total resection remains the principal treatment, it is often impractical especially for the resection of tumours within eloquent regions of the brain. Instead Radiotherapy is utilised in such cases, but because of its associated toxicities, it is refrained from use among younger children. These limitations coupled with hypersensitivity and toxicities associated with some commonly used chemotherapeutic agents, have ignited the need to search for safer and more effective treatments for paediatric low grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated the EM011 drug on the growth of two pilocytic and one diffuse paediatric astrocytoma cell lines, using an assortment of cancer assays. We discovered that treatments of low grade gliomas with EM011 abrogated cell viability by inducing a decrease in cell proliferation and an arrest in the S and G2M cell cycle phases, followed by a converse increase in apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell migratory and invasion indices, as well as anchorage independent growth in soft agarose, were significantly attenuated. These findings were mechanistically associated with a transient release of AIF, a disruption of microtubule architecture, and a decline in the expression of key genes which drive cancer progression including EGFR, mTORC1, JUN and multiple MMPs. In fact, the activity of MMP2 was also perturbed by EM011. These findings, in conjunction with the insignificant adverse side effects established from other studies, make EM011 an appealing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of paediatric low grade gliomas. PMID:23402815

Ajeawung, Norbert F; Joshi, Harish C; Kamnasaran, Deepak



The place of interstitial brachytherapy and radiosurgery for low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Even though stereotactic brachytherapy has been used for treatment of complex located low-grade glioma for many years, its\\u000a place within modern treatment concepts is still debated and only a few centers have gained experience with this complex treatment\\u000a modality. The current article reviews selection criteria, treatment protocols, radiobiology, treatment effects, risk models\\u000a and side effects of stereotactic brachytherapy. Potentially alternative

F. W. Kreth; N. Thon; A. Siefert; J. C. Tonn


Low-grade geothermal energy conversion by organic Rankine cycle turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a demonstration project which helped determine the feasibility of converting low-grade thermal energy in 49 C water into electrical energy via an organic Rankine cycle 2500 watt (electrical) turbine-generator are presented. The geothermal source which supplied the water is located in a rural Alaskan village. The reasons an organic Rankine cycle turbine-generator was investigated as a possible source

J. P. Zarling; J. D. Aspnes



Low grade astrocytomas in the West of Scotland 1987–96: treatment, outcome, and cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDLow grade astrocytomas are among the most common central nervous system tumours in children.AIMSTo identify risk factors for the development of persistent intellectual handicap.METHODSThe notes of 30 children with histologically proven low grade astrocytoma who presented during the period 1987–96 were reviewed. Thirteen of these children who were diagnosed with intracranial tumours between 1992 and 1996 underwent cognitive assessment one

S M Yule; T A H Hide; M Cranney; E Simpson; A Barrett



Classification of low-grade neuroendocrine tumors of midgut and unknown origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasized neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and of unknown origin show a highly variable clinical course. Within this group, low-grade and high-grade malignant tumors can be recognized based on the revised classification of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, pancreas, and gut published by Capella et al in 1995. The present study investigated whether fine-tuning the prediction of prognosis was

Susanne van Eeden; Pascal F. H. J. Quaedvlieg; Babs G. Taal; G. Johan A. Offerhaus; Cornelis B. H. W. Lamers; Marie-Louise F. van Velthuysen



Bioactivities of low-grade green coffee and spent coffee in different in vitro model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of low-grade green coffee beans (LCB) and spent coffee were analysed for radical-scavenging activity (?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The extracts were also evaluated for anti-tumour (P388 cell assay), anti-inflammatory (J774A.1 cell assay) and anti-allergenic (RBL-2H3 cell line) activities in vitro. LCB extract was found to exhibit a radical-scavenging activity of 92.0% followed by spent

K. Ramalakshmi; L. Jagan Mohan Rao; Yuko Takano-Ishikawa; Masao Goto



Imaging findings of thoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: report of three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging findings of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are reported in three thoracic cases, two in the mediastinum and\\u000a one in the chest wall. The multinodular intralesional structure with strongly enhancing components in the periphery and components\\u000a with abrupt transition may be suggestive of LGFMS. Strongly enhancing areas correlated with the hypercellular zone, and weakly\\u000a enhancing areas correlated with the myxoid

Eriko Maeda; Satoshi Ohta; Takeyuki Watadani; Akiteru Goto; Atsushi Nakajima; Kuni Ohtomo



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the medial vastus: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) was first described by Evans in 1987, and since then, just over 150 cases have been\\u000a reported, showing the rarity of this tumor. We report the clinical case of a 56-year-old man with a swelling on the distal\\u000a third of the left thigh. The mass had grown in the course of 1 year and was surgically excised,

Angela Notarnicola; Lorenzo Moretti; Maria Pia Cocca; Antonio Martucci; Umberto Orsini; Biagio Moretti



Imaging findings of thoracic low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: report of three cases.  


Imaging findings of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are reported in three thoracic cases, two in the mediastinum and one in the chest wall. The multinodular intralesional structure with strongly enhancing components in the periphery and components with abrupt transition may be suggestive of LGFMS. Strongly enhancing areas correlated with the hypercellular zone, and weakly enhancing areas correlated with the myxoid zone with less cellularity, or hyalinization. No differences in vasculature densities between the myxoid and fibrous zones were demonstrated. PMID:19943150

Maeda, Eriko; Ohta, Satoshi; Watadani, Takeyuki; Goto, Akiteru; Nakajima, Atsushi; Ohtomo, Kuni



Process for exploitation of low grade oxidic and iron-bearing complex ores or concentrates  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for the exploitation of low-grade oxidic and iron-bearing complex ores or concentrates, whereby the initial materials are reduced in a rotary kiln at a temperature of C. in such a manner that the products are a magnetic fraction primarily consisting of iron, and a non-magnetic oxide fraction, the materials present in this fraction being further exploitable by conventional methods.



Zircon growth in very low grade metasedimentary rocks: evidence for zirconium mobility at ~250°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zircon outgrowths are present on detrital zircon grains in many very low to low-grade metasedimentary rocks worldwide, ranging\\u000a in age from mid-Archaean to Palaeozoic. The outgrowths comprise minute (typically <3 ?m) crystals that form an irregular fringe\\u000a on detrital zircon grains, and in a few cases, on diagenetic xenotime outgrowths. Textural relationships indicate that while\\u000a zircon growth postdates diagenetic xenotime precipitation,

Birger Rasmussen



Somatic hypermutation signature in B-cell low-grade lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation is a biologically relevant and clinically useful prognostic factor in different types of low-grade B-cell lymphomas, including chronic lympho- cytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Design and Methods With the aim of identifying surrogate markers of somatic hypermutation, a combined investiga- tion of IgVH mutational status and expression profiles of 93

Lorraine Tracey; Mohit Aggarwal; Mónica García-Cosio; Raquel Villuendas; Patrocinio Algara; Margarita Sánchez-Beato; Abel Sánchez-Aguilera; Juan F. García; Antonia Rodríguez; Francisca I. Camacho; Nerea Martínez; Elena Ruiz-Ballesteros; Manuela Mollejo; Miguel Á



What is the place of conservative management for adult supratentorial low-grade glioma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adult supratentorial low-grade gliomas (LGG) cover a spectrum of neuropathologies that invariably present with seizure disorders.\\u000a Following neuroradiological diagnosis management strategy will be determined by prognostic indicators such as patient age,\\u000a lesion size, lesion location, clinical performance status and radiological differential diagnosis. Conservative management,\\u000a characterised by a “watch and wait” policy, with serial neuroimaging and clinical observation, may form an

I. R. Whittle


Molecular characterization of microbial populations in a low-grade copper ore bioleaching test heap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture-independent approach based on PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments from both Bacteria and Archaea were used to analyze the microbial community inhabiting a low-grade copper sulfide run-of-mine (ROM) test heap of a project in Chile. In this paper, we summarize results of a 1-year monitoring study. Phylogenetic analyses of

Cecilia S. Demergasso; Danny Castillo; Emilio O. Casamayor



Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF1 children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients are prone to developing low-grade glioma (LGG). The HIT-LGG study 1996\\u000a aimed to observe the natural history of pediatric LGG and to postpone irradiation in younger children by using carboplatinum\\u000a and vincristine in case non-surgical treatment was required. A total of 109 of 1,044 (10.4%) protocol patients had a genetic\\u000a NF-1 trait [57 female

Pablo Hernáiz Driever; Stephan von Hornstein; Torsten Pietsch; Rolf Kortmann; Monika Warmuth-Metz; Angela Emser; Astrid K. Gnekow



Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Afsin Gungor [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture



Psychological effects of a low-grade abnormal cervical smear test result: anxiety and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result often generates fear and confusion and can have a negative impact on a woman's well-being. Most previous studies have focussed on high-grade abnormal smears. This study describes the psychological and psychosocial effects, on women, of having received a low-grade abnormal smear result. Over 3500 women recruited to TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) participated in this study. Anxiety was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at recruitment. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, locus of control and factors associated with the psychosocial impact of the abnormal smear result were also assessed. Women reported anxiety levels consistent with those found in previous studies of women with high-grade smear results. Women at highest risk of anxiety were younger, had children, were current smokers, or had the highest levels of physical activity. Interventions that focus particularly on women's understanding of smear results and pre-cancer, and/or directly address their fears about cancer, treatment and fertility might provide the greatest opportunity to reduce the adverse psychosocial impact of receiving a low-grade abnormal cervical smear result.

Gray, N M; Sharp, L; Cotton, S C; Masson, L F; Little, J; Walker, L G; Avis, M; Philips, Z; Russell, I; Whynes, D; Cruickshank, M; Woolley, C M



Leptomeningeal Dissemination of a Low-Grade Brainstem Glioma without Local Recurrence.  


It is rare for low-grade gliomas to disseminate to the leptomeninges. However, low-grade gliomas with dissemination to the leptomeninges have been occasionally reported in children, and have generally been associated with local recurrence. A 16-year-old boy sought evaluation for diplopia and gait disturbance. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pontine mass, which was proved to be fibrillary astrocytoma on biopsy, later. Radiation therapy (5400 cGy) was given and the patient's symptoms were improved. He was followed-up radiologically for brain lesion. Seven months after diagnosis he complained of back pain and gait disturbance. A brain MRI showed a newly-developed lesion at the left cerebellopontine angle without an interval change in the primary lesion. A spinal MRI demonstrated leptomeningeal dissemination of the entire spine. Radiation therapy (3750 cGy) to the spine, and adjuvant chemotherapy with a carboplatin plus vincristine regimen were administered. However, he had a progressive course with tumoral hemorrhage and expired 13 months after diagnosis. We report an unusual case of a low-grade brainstem glioma with spinal dissemination, but without local recurrence, and a progressive course associated with hemorrhage. PMID:22500205

Moon, Jung-Ho; Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin; Jang, Woo-Youl



Interplay among BRAF, p16, p53, and MIB1 in pediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

BRAF rearrangements and BRAF V600E point mutations are recurring events in pediatric low-grade gliomas. However, their clinical significance, including possible interactions between these markers and other glioma biomarkers, is unclear. In this study a retrospective cohort of 198 pediatric low-grade gliomas (including 40 treated with adjuvant therapy) was analyzed for BRAF rearrangements, BRAF V600E, p16/CDKN2A deletion, p53 expression, and MIB1 proliferation index. In tumors with BRAF rearrangement, homozygous p16 deletion correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .04). A high MIB1 proliferation index trended toward worse response to adjuvant radiotherapy compared to BRAF-rearranged, p16-intact tumors (P = .08). On multivariate analysis, the 2 most consistently powerful independent adverse prognostic markers were midline location (P = .0001) and p16 deletion (P = .03). Tumors with BRAF V600E had a strong trend toward an increased risk for progression (hazard ratio = 2.48, P = .07), whereas those with BRAF rearrangement had a milder trend toward reduced risk (hazard ratio = .54, P = .15). These data suggest that p16 deletion adversely impacts the outcomes of BRAF-driven gliomas, that high proliferation index may be a better marker of progression risk than BRAF, that BRAF rearrangement and BRAF V600E might not necessarily produce comparable outcomes, and that none of these markers is stronger than tumor location in determining prognosis in pediatric low-grade gliomas.

Horbinski, Craig; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Hagenkord, Jill M.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Pollack, Ian F.



Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the chest wall: case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS) are extremely rare. Case presentation We present the first case of low-grade ESOS of the chest wall, which occurred in a 30-year-old man. Because of initial misdiagnosis and patient's refusal of surgery, the diagnosis was done after a 4-year history of a slowly growing mass in soft tissues, leading to a huge (30-cm diameter) calcified mass locally extended over the left chest wall. Final diagnosis was helped by molecular analysis of MDM2 and CDK4 oncogenes. Unfortunately, at this time, no surgical treatment was possible due to loco-regional extension, and despite chemotherapy, the patient died one year after diagnosis, five years after the first symptoms. Conclusion We describe the clinical, radiological and bio-pathological features of this unique case, and review the literature concerning low-grade ESOS. Our case highlights the diagnostic difficulties for such very rare tumours and the interest of molecular analysis in ambiguous cases.



Composite hemangioendothelioma and its classification as a low-grade malignancy.  


Hemangioendotheliomas are vascular neoplasms occupying a spectrum of biological potential ranging from benign to low-grade malignancy. Composite hemangioendothelioma (CH) is one of the less commonly encountered variants exhibiting a mixture of elements of other hemangioendothelioma subtypes, such as epithelioid, retiform, and spindle cell. Some authors have identified areas histopathologically equivalent to angiosarcoma within CH, raising the question of the true nature of this neoplasm. Although CH recurs locally, there are only 3 reported cases which metastasized. To date, 26 cases (including the present case) have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe a unique case of CH arising in the background of previous radiation therapy and long-standing lymphedema (classically associated with the development of angiosarcoma-Stewart-Treves syndrome) that harbored higher grade areas but behaved as a low-grade malignant neoplasm. This, in conjunction with the many reported cases of CH-harboring angiosarcoma-like areas, and the occasional association with a history of lymphedema, raises the question of whether this variant of hemangioendothelioma may actually be an angiosarcoma that behaves prognostically better than the conventional type. After careful study of the natural disease progression of the current case and review of the literature, we discuss justification for the continued classification of CH as a low-grade malignancy. PMID:23694827

McNab, Patricia Moody; Quigley, Brian Christopher; Glass, L Frank; Jukic, Drazen M



Macrophage heterogeneity in lymphoid tissues.  


Macrophages in lymphoid organs exhibit a wide variety of phenotypes and functions. These cells excel in the removal of apoptotic cells that arise during the generation of immune cells and are thereby essential for the prevention of auto-immune responses. In addition to this macrophages in the secondary lymphoid organs form an important barrier for spreading of infections by phagocytosis of pathogens and the activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, the remarkable ability of macrophages to phagocytose and handle a wide range of self and non-self material and to produce immunomediators is effectively exploited within lymphoid organs to regulate immune activation. PMID:23579230

den Haan, Joke M M; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa



Combined clinical and computed tomographic diagnosis of orbital lymphoid tumors.  


Computed tomography has made it possible to make a strongly presumptive preoperative diagnosis of orbital lymphoid tumors, particularly when the radiographic findings are analyzed in conjunction with the clinical features. Twenty-six patients (with 27 orbital lymphoid tumors) had an average age of 57 years and had painless swelling or low-grade proptosis averaging 7.5 months in duration. The computed tomographic findings were highly characteristic. Almost all of the tumors had a retrobulbar or superior orbital component. In both the coronal and axial planes, distinctive growth patterns and contourings were discovered. The lesions molded themselves to preexisting orbital structures without eroding bone or enlarging the orbit. Against the bone, globe, and muscle edges, the lesions featured smooth, sharply demarcated contours with abruptly acute or perpendicular angulations, whereas a streaky profile became apparent as they irregularly infiltrated the retrobulbar fat, reflecting involvement of microfascial structural elements. No distinguishing differences were discovered in the growth patterns of the benign and the malignant tumors. PMID:7114147

Yeo, J H; Jakobiec, F A; Abbott, G F; Trokel, S L



Lymphoid Tissue Inducer Cells in Intestinal Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During fetal development, lymphoid tissue inducer cells (LTis) seed the developing lymph node and Peyer’s patch anlagen and\\u000a initiate the formation of both types of lymphoid organs. In the adult, a similar population of cells, termed lymphoid tissue\\u000a inducer-like cells (LTi-like cells), supports the formation of organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the intestine,\\u000a including both isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs)

I. I. Ivanov; G. Diehl; D. Littman


Mucosa-Associated Bacteria in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Are Uniformly Distributed along the Colon and Differ from the Community Recovered from Feces  

PubMed Central

The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex community of bacterial cells in the mucosa, lumen, and feces. Since most attention has been focused on bacteria present in feces, knowledge about the mucosa-associated bacterial communities in different parts of the colon is limited. In this study, the bacterial communities in feces and biopsy samples from the ascending, transverse, and descending colons of 10 individuals were analyzed by using a 16S rRNA approach. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that 105 to 106 bacteria were present in the biopsy samples. To visualize the diversity of the predominant and the Lactobacillus group community, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed. DGGE analysis and similarity index comparisons demonstrated that the predominant mucosa-associated bacterial community was host specific and uniformly distributed along the colon but significantly different from the fecal community (P < 0.01). The Lactobacillus group-specific profiles were less complex than the profiles reflecting the predominant community. For 6 of the 10 individuals the community of Lactobacillus-like bacteria in the biopsy samples was similar to that in the feces. Amplicons having 99% sequence similarity to the 16S ribosomal DNA of Lactobacillus gasseri were detected in the biopsy samples of nine individuals. No significant differences were observed between healthy and diseased individuals. The observed host-specific DGGE profiles of the mucosa-associated bacterial community in the colon support the hypothesis that host-related factors are involved in the determination of the GI tract microbial community.

Zoetendal, Erwin G.; von Wright, Atte; Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; de Vos, Willem M.



Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy for patients with previously untreated low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical efficacy and safety of fludarabine combination chemotherapy was investigated for the treatment of previously untreated patients with low-grade (NHL). Methods Twenty-five patients who were newly diagnosed as low-grade NHL were treated with fludarabine combination chemotherapy. Fludarabine combination regimens consisted of fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone with or without rituximab and repeated every 4 weeks. Results The median age was 60 years (range, 35-77 years), with 13 of 25 patients (52%) ?60 years of age. Seven of 25 patients (28%) with an intermediate risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) and 9 of 25 patients (36%) with a high risk FLIPI were enrolled in this study. The delivered median number of chemotherapy was six (range, 2-9 cycles). The overall response rate with fludarabine-based treatment was 88%, including 52% complete remission and 36% partial remission. During the median follow-up of 19 months, the estimated 2-year event-free survival was 63±10% (95% CI, 43-83) and the 2-year overall survival was 78±9% (95% CI, 60-96). Fludarabine combination chemotherapy was frequently associated with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 84% patients. However, neutropenic infection was observed in only one (4%) patient. Four patients (16%) showed grade 3 or more non-hematologic toxicities, such as acute coronary syndrome, intracranial hemorrhage, anaphylaxis and gastric cancer. Conclusion Fludarabine-combination treatment was a highly active regimen with well toleration in untreated low-grade NHL.

Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Soo-Young; Tran, Huong Thi Thanh; Park, Hyung Chul; Kim, Ha-Na; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon



Alterations in the RB1 pathway in low-grade diffuse gliomas lacking common genetic alterations.  


We recently reported that the vast majority (>90%) of low-grade diffuse gliomas (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma) carry at least one of the following genetic alterations: IDH1/2 mutation, TP53 mutation or 1p/19q loss. Only 7% of cases were triple-negative (ie, lacking any of these alterations). In the present study, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 15 triple-negative WHO grade II gliomas (eight diffuse astrocytomas and seven oligodendrogliomas) showed loss at 9p21 (p14(ARF) , p15(INK4b) , p16(INK4a) loci) and 13q14-13q32 (containing the RB1 locus) in three and two cases, respectively. Further analyses in 31 triple-negative cases as well as a total of 160 non-triple-negative cases revealed that alterations in the RB1 pathway (homozygous deletion and promoter methylation of the p15(INK4b) , p16(INK4a) and RB1 genes) were significantly more frequent in triple-negative (26%) than in non-triple-negative cases (11%; P?=?0.0371). Multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, histology and treatment showed that RB1 pathway alterations were significantly associated with unfavorable outcome for patients with low-grade diffuse glioma [hazard ratio, 3.024 (1.279-6.631); P?=?0.0057]. These results suggest that a fraction of low-grade diffuse gliomas lacking common genetic alterations may develop through a distinct genetic pathway, which may include loss of cell-cycle control regulated by the RB1 pathway. PMID:21470325

Kim, Young-Ho; Lachuer, Joel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Vital, Anne; Mariani, Luigi; Ohgaki, Hiroko



Autoantibodies in glioma patients: immune biomarkers for identification of low grade tumours.  


Gliomas comprise an aggressive group of heterogeneous tumours with poor 5-year survival: vague initial symptoms predispose to delayed diagnosis with subsequent poor prognosis. Invasive biopsy and current diagnostic challenges emphasise the need to identify novel, specific and non-invasive early-diagnostic biomarkers. The presence of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) in patients' sera long before symptom onset suggests that detecting autoantibodies directed to these antigens may be useful in early tumour diagnosis. We developed high throughput antigen production techniques to produce a total of 22 recombinant TAAs. Sera from adult patients with glioma (n=60) and age, sex and smoking status matched normal controls were collected. AdditonalAdditional control patients with Multiple Sclerosis with or without intercurrent relapse were recruited (n=18). Analysis of sera by ELISA tested for the presence of IgG autoantibodies against all 22 TAAs. Autoantibody responses towards SOX11, SSX-2, HER-2-ICD and MMP-7 were significantly raised in glioma patients compared with matched controls. A six antigen diagnostic panel including the four significant antigens in addition to SOX9 and SOX13 elicited 31% sensitivity with 94% specificity (n=60). Additionally, a low-grade glioma (n=17) panel, comprising significantly raised antibodies to p53 and GFAP, demonstrated 29% sensitivity and 98% specificity: antibodies to these two TAA were not present in patients with high-grade glioma (n=43) (P<0.05). Autoantibodies to some TAAs are significantly raised in individuals with glioma compared with matched controls. Validation of these results in a larger prospective clinical cohort study will enable us to identify specific antibody profiles which will distinguish a low grade from high grade tumour, and predict the timescale of a patient's low grade glioma high grade transformation. PMID:24109017

Coleman, James; Sedehizadeh, Saam; Chapman, Caroline; Shafei, Rachelle; Thorpe, Alison; Robertson, John; Maddison, Paul



MUC4 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive fibroblastic neoplasm that is characterized by alternating collagenous and myxoid areas, deceptively bland spindle cell morphology, a whorling architecture, and a t(7;16) translocation involving FUS and CREB3L2. Owing to variable morphology and a lack of discriminatory markers, LGFMS can be difficult to distinguish from benign mesenchymal tumors and other low-grade sarcomas. Gene expression profiling has identified differential upregulation of the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene in LGFMS compared with histologically similar tumors. MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions in cell growth signaling pathways; aberrant MUC4 expression has been reported in various carcinomas. We investigated MUC4 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in LGFMS and in other soft tissue tumors to determine the potential diagnostic use of this novel marker. Whole-tissue sections of 309 tumors were evaluated: 49 LGFMSs (all with FUS gene rearrangement confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization), 40 soft tissue perineuriomas, 40 myxofibrosarcomas, 20 cellular myxomas, 20 solitary fibrous tumors, 20 low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 20 cases of desmoid fibromatosis, 20 neurofibromas, 20 schwannomas, 20 monophasic synovial sarcomas, 20 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 10 myxoid liposarcomas, and 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. The LGFMS cases included 7 with marked hypercellularity, 4 with prominent hemangiopericytoma-like vessels, 3 with giant collagen rosettes, 3 with epithelioid morphology, 2 with focal nuclear pleomorphism, and 2 with areas of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. All 49 LGFMS cases (100%) showed cytoplasmic staining for MUC4, which was usually diffuse and intense. All the other tumor types were negative for MUC4, apart from 6 (30%) monophasic synovial sarcomas. In conclusion, MUC4 is a highly sensitive and quite specific immunohistochemical marker for LGFMS, and can be helpful to distinguish this tumor type from histologic mimics. PMID:21415703

Doyle, Leona A; Möller, Emely; Dal Cin, Paola; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik; Hornick, Jason L



[The training of Zemstvo low-grade medical workers in Middle Volga Gubernia].  


The article deals with the input of zemstvo self-management into establishment and development of secondary professional medical education in the Middle Volga region in second half of XIX-early XX centuries. The activities of zenmstvo is discussed concerning the organization and support of the infrastructure of feldsher schools, midwifes schools, the admission rules, the requirements to feldsher school graduates being the zemstvo scholarship grant holders. The activity of feldsher schools is reflected concerning the advanced training of low-grade medical workers. PMID:22611996

Ponomarev, A V; Khlebodarov, S A


Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in combination with temozolomide in low-grade oligoastrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination.  


Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade gliomas is an uncommon event. A 43-year old male presented with dizziness, gait ataxia, and diplopia. A nonenhancing lesion in the right cerebellar peduncle was identified, subtotally resected, and diagnosed as a grade II astrocytoma. After one year a nodular spread in the brain and leptomeninges was diagnosed, so the patient started chemotherapy with temozolomide and liposomal cytarabine. Complete remission was achieved after 12 months of treatment and the patient is still free from the disease after a follow-up of 24 months. We suggest that this combination may be a valuable treatment option. PMID:19876600

Passarin, Maria Grazia; Moretto, Giuseppe; Musso, Anna Maria; Ottaviani, Sarah; Masotto, Barbara; Ghimenton, Claudio; Iuzzolino, Paolo; Buffone, Ebba; Rudà, Roberta; Soffietti, Riccardo; Vattemi, Emanuela; Pedersini, Rebecca



Harvesting low grade heat to generate electricity with thermosyphon effect of room temperature liquid metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on thermosyphon effect of room temperature liquid metal, a technical strategy of harvesting low grade heat to generate electricity was proposed. A conceptual system was constructed and an open circuit voltage of 2.62 V with an electrical output power of 110 mW was yielded when the heating power was 45.6 W. This method resolves the difficulty of installing an electric generator in confined space and significantly enlarges the area for converting heat to electricity. Due to its simplicity, avoidance of moving parts, wide working temperature range, and self powering feature, this electric generation system is extremely reliable, completely silent, and flexible.

Li, Peipei; Liu, Jing



Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the falciform ligament: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Low grade fibromyxoid sarcomas (LGFMS) are very rarely seen. They commonly arise from deep soft tissues of the lower extremities. Very few cases of intra-abdominal location have been reported. Case presentation We report a 37 year old man who presented with an abdominal mass and dragging pain. Pre-operative imaging suggested the possibility of a subcapsular hemangioma of liver. Conclusions Laparoscopy was useful to locate the tumor as arising from falciform ligament and made the subsequent surgery simpler. This is one of the large fibromyxoid sarcomas to be reported.

Harish, K; Ashok, AC; Alva, NK



Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma of the Rib: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Low-grade central osteosarcoma is a rare variant of osteosarcoma which comprises less than 1-2% of all osteosarcomas. Most low-grade osteosarcomas involve long bones, most commonly distal femur, and proximal tibia. Histologically this tumor is difficult to diagnose, and an unusual location makes this diagnosis even more challenging. Here we report a case of low-grade osteosarcoma presenting as a chest wall mass involving the left 6th–8th ribs. This unusual site of presentation significantly added to the diagnostic difficulties of this rare tumor with challenging histologic features. To the best of our knowledge, only six cases of low-grade central osteosarcoma of the ribs have been reported in the English literature.

Moghadamfalahi, Mana; Alatassi, Houda



Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at

Nadia N. Laack; Paul D.. Brown; Robert J. Ivnik; Alfred F. M. S. Furth; Karla V. Ballman; Julie E. Hammack; Robert M. Arusell; Edward G. Shaw; Jan C. Buckner



The Continuum of Serous Ovarian Tumors of Low Malignant Potential and Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Serous tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) and low-grade serous carcinomas appear to exist on a continuum. Factors that\\u000a increase the risk of relapse of serous tumors of LMP include stage (presence of peritoneal implants), type of peritoneal implant\\u000a (noninvasive or invasive), and the micropapillary pattern. Of serous tumors of LMP that recur, approximately 80% do so as\\u000a low-grade serous

David M. Gershenson


Current and Future Strategies inRadiotherapy of Childhood Low-Grade Glioma of theBrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: For more than 60 years, radiation therapy has been an integral part in the management of childhood low-grade glioma. As this tumor carries an excellent long-term prognosis, the risk of late effects is of particular clinical importance and impinges upon radiotherapeutic treatment strategies. Material and Methods: Studies on the use of radiation therapy in children with low-grade glioma were

Rolf-Dieter Kortmann; Beate Timmermann; Roger E. Taylor; Giovanni Scarzello; Ludwig Plasswilm; Frank Paulsen; Branislav Jeremic; Astrid K. Gnekow; Karin Dieckmann; Sylvia Kay; Michael Bamberg



Refinement of low-grade clay by microbial removal of sulfur and iron compounds using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The refinement of low-grade clay, of which impurities are mainly sulfur and iron compounds, is required because of the recent shortage of high-grade clay for manufacturing of structural ceramics. The major impurity compound contained in the low-grade clay we treated was identified as pyrite by X-ray powder diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analyses. The well-formed crystals of pyrite had a

Hee Wook Ryu; Kyeoung Suk Cho; Yong Keun Chang; Sang Done Kim; Tadahiro Mori



Invasive cribriform carcinoma in a Chinese population: comparison with low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified.  


Invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC) and low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) were recently considered to belong to a low-grade breast neoplasia family. However, none of publications has compared ICC and low-grade IDC at present. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate prognostic significance of clinicopathological characteristics of different cribriform contents in ICC and invasive breast cancer with less cribriform structures, a retrospective review of fifty-one cases of ICC and forty cases of invasive breast cancer with less cribriform pattern (less than fifty percent) was conducted in a Chinese population. Forty-nine cases of low-grade IDC without cribriform elements were selected as a control. ICC presented more favorable prognostic factors than those of invasive breast carcinoma with less cribriform pattern and low-grade IDC, such as smaller tumor size, less frequent axillary lymph node involvement, higher positive rate of estrogen receptor and/or progestogen receptor expression, and lower proliferation index. The expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor two in ICC and invasive breast cancer with less cribriform pattern was mostly negative. Pure ICC showed less frequency of axillary lymph node involvement, but not its number. The proliferation index in the pure type was lower, although the tumor size in these two types was not obviously different. Tumors contained cribriform structures had a more favorable prognosis than those with low-grade IDC. Considering the tumor biology, and the benign course of pure ICC studied, chemotherapy may not be indicated in the typical case. PMID:23412348

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tongxian; Lin, Zhichun; Zhang, Xuebao; Liu, Fen; Wang, Yahong; Liu, Han; Yang, Yiling; Niu, Yun



Adult Supratentorial Low-Grade Glioma: Long-Term Experience at a Single Institution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the long-term follow-up of a cohort of adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 145 adult patients treated at the London Regional Cancer Program between 1979 and 1995 was reviewed. Results: With a median follow-up of 105 months, the median progression-free survival was 61 months (95% confidence interval, 53-77), and the median overall survival was 118 months (95% confidence interval, 93-129). The 10- and 20-year progression-free and overall survival rate was 18% and 0% and 48% and 22%, respectively. Cox regression analysis confirmed the importance of age, histologic type, presence of seizures, Karnofsky performance status, and initial extent of surgery as prognostic variables for overall and cause-specific survival. Function among long-term survivors without tumor progression was good to excellent for most patients. Conclusion: Low-grade glioma is a chronic disease, with most patients dying of their disease. However, long-term survival with good function is possible. Survival is determined primarily by the disease factors with selection and timing of adjuvant treatments having less influence on outcome.

Bauman, Glenn, E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.c [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Fisher, Barbara [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Watling, Christopher [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Department of Neurosciences, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Cairncross, J. Gregory [Department of Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, David [Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Department of Neurosciences, London Health Sciences Center, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)



Upgrading of Low-Grade Manganese Ore by Selective Reduction of Iron Oxide and Magnetic Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of low-grade manganese ores has become necessary due to the intensive mining of high-grade ores for a long time. In this study, calcined ferruginous low-grade manganese ore was selectively reduced by CO, which converted hematite to magnetite, while manganese oxide was reduced to MnO. The iron-rich component was then separated by magnetic separation. The effects of the various reduction parameters such as particle size, reduction time, temperature, and CO content on the efficiency of magnetic separation were studied by single-factor experiments and by a comprehensive full factorial experiment. Under the best experimental conditions tested, the manganese content in the ore increased from around 36 wt pct to more than 44 wt pct, and almost 50 wt pct of iron was removed at a Mn loss of around 5 pct. The results of the full factorial experiments allowed the identification of the significant effects and yielded regression equations for pct Fe removed, Mn/Fe, and pct Mn loss that characterize the efficiency of the upgrading process.

Gao, Yubo; Olivas-Martinez, M.; Sohn, H. Y.; Kim, Hang Goo; Kim, Chan Wook



Stand-Alone Lateral Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6 ± 10?y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4 ± 3.4?BMI) with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.). The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P < 0.001) and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P < 0.001). Segmental lordosis (P < 0.001) and disc height (P < 0.001) were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17%) and 7/52 cases (13%) spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Marchi, Luis; Abdala, Nitamar; Oliveira, Leonardo; Amaral, Rodrigo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz



Stand-alone lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis.  


The purpose of this paper was to investigate the stand-alone lateral interbody fusion as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month followup. Prospective nonrandomized observational single-center study. 52 consecutive patients (67.6 ± 10 y/o; 73.1% female; 27.4 ± 3.4 BMI) with single-level grade I/II single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis without significant spine instability were included. Fusion procedures were performed as retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas interbody fusions without screw supplementation. The procedures were performed in average 73.2 minutes and with less than 50cc blood loss. VAS and Oswestry scores showed lasting improvements in clinical outcomes (60% and 54.5% change, resp.). The vertebral slippage was reduced in 90.4% of cases from mean values of 15.1% preoperatively to 7.4% at 6-week followup (P < 0.001) and was maintained through 24 months (7.1%, P < 0.001). Segmental lordosis (P < 0.001) and disc height (P < 0.001) were improved in postop evaluations. Cage subsidence occurred in 9/52 cases (17%) and 7/52 cases (13%) spine levels needed revision surgery. At the 24-month evaluation, solid fusion was observed in 86.5% of the levels treated. The minimally invasive lateral approach has been shown to be a safe and reproducible technique to treat low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:22545019

Marchi, Luis; Abdala, Nitamar; Oliveira, Leonardo; Amaral, Rodrigo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz



Update on molecular findings, management and outcome in low-grade gliomas.  


Low-grade infiltrating gliomas in adults include diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. The current gold standard diagnosis of these tumors relies on histological classification; however, emerging molecular abnormalities discovered in these tumors are playing an increasingly prominent part in the process of tumor diagnosis and, consequently, patient management. The frequency and clinical importance of tumor protein p53 (TP53) abnormalities, deletions involving chromosomes 1p and 19q, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, abnormalities in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene and the BRAF oncogene, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations have become better defined. Molecular markers have not, historically, had an important role in determining the course of treatment for patients with low-grade gliomas, but ongoing phase III clinical trials incorporate 1p deletion or 1p19q codeletion status-and future trials plan to incorporate MGMT promoter methylation status-as stratification factors. Future trials will need to incorporate IDH mutational status in addition to these factors. Ultimately, molecular marker assessment will, hopefully, improve the accuracy of tumor diagnosis and enhance the effectiveness of treatment to achieve improved patient outcomes. PMID:21045797

Bourne, T David; Schiff, David



Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger.  


The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient, economic technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulfuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition, different auxiliary processes were evaluated in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron co-dissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. PMID:15177728

Mulligan, Catherine N; Kamali, Mahtab; Gibbs, Bernard F



Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

The commonest pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We utilized whole genome sequencing to discover multiple novel genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24/39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes containing TKD-duplicated FGFR1 into brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. TKD-duplicated FGFR1 induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs/LGGNTs.

Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Miller, Claudia P.; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Dalton, James D.; Tang, Bo; Orisme, Wilda; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Parker, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Boop, Fredrick A.; Lu, Charles; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Lee, Ryan; Huether, Robert; Chen, Xiang; Hedlund, Erin; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Rusch, Michael; Boggs, Kristy; Cheng, Jinjun; Becksfort, Jared; Ma, Jing; Song, Guangchun; Li, Yongjin; Wei, Lei; Wang, Jianmin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Easton, John; Zhao, David; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Dooling, David J.; Vadodaria, Bhavin; Mulder, Heather L.; Tang, Chunlao; Ochoa, Kerri; Mullighan, Charles G.; Gajjar, Amar; Kriwacki, Richard; Sheer, Denise; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Downing, James R.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Ellison, David W.



A Pilot Phase II Study of Valproic Acid for Treatment of Low-Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Notch1 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Previous in vitro studies in NET cell lines have also suggested that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, can induce Notch1 and that Notch1 activation correlates with a decrease in tumor markers for NETs. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the role of VPA in treating NETs and to determine whether VPA induced the Notch signaling pathway signaling in vivo. Patients and Methods. Eight patients with low-grade NETs (carcinoid and pancreatic) were treated with 500 mg of oral VPA twice a day with dosing adjusted to maintain a goal VPA level between 50 and 100 ?g/mL. All patients were followed for 12 months or until disease progression. Results. Notch1 signaling was absent in all tumors prior to treatment and was upregulated with VPA. One patient had an unconfirmed partial response and was noted to have a 40-fold increase in Notch1 mRNA levels. Four patients had stable disease as best response. Tumor markers improved in 5 out of 7 patients. Overall, treatment with VPA was well tolerated. Conclusion. VPA activates Notch1 signaling in vivo and may have a role in treating low-grade NETs.

Holen, Kyle D.; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Mulkerin, Daniel; Lubner, Sam J.; Schelman, William R.; Eickhoff, Jens; Chen, Herbert



In vitro radiation-induced neoplastic progression of low-grade uroepithelial tumors  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest has focused on the identification of molecular genetic mechanisms in multistep neoplastic transformation. In vitro exposure of simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC) that are environmentally relevant to bladder carcinogens has been shown to produce tumorigenic transformation, as assessed by the ability of cells exposed to a carcinogen to form xenograph tumors with heterogeneous cancer phenotypes ranging from very aggressive, invasive high-grade carcinomas to superficial low-grade indolent tumors. In addition, exposure of a low-grade indolent tumor generated in the SV-HUC system, MC-T11, to the same carcinogens results in neoplastic progression as assessed by the production of high-grade aggressive cancers. In the present study, we show neoplastic progression of MC-T11 after in vitro exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy X-rays. In addition, we show that the chromosome deletions, including losses of 4q, 11p, 13q and 18, observed in these radiation-induced tumors are similar to those observed in carcinogen-induced tumors, thus supporting the hypothesis that the experimental cell system, not the transforming agent, dictates the genetic losses required for tumorigenic transformation and progression. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Pazzaglia, S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) ENEA CRE-Casaccia, Rome (Italy)); Chen, Xiao-Rong; Aamodt, C.B.; Wu, Shi-Qi; Kao, Chinghai; Gilchrist, K.W.; Reznikoff, C.A.; Ritter, M.A. (Univ. of Wisconisn, Madison, WI (United States)); Oyasu, R. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States))



In ovarian neoplasms, BRAF, but not KRAS, mutations are restricted to low-grade serous tumours.  


Genes of the RAF family, which mediate cellular responses to growth signals, encode kinases that are regulated by RAS and participate in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK/MAP-kinase pathway. Activating mutations in BRAF have recently been identified in melanomas, colorectal cancers, and thyroid and ovarian tumours. In the present study, an extensive characterization of BRAF and KRAS mutations has been performed in 264 epithelial and non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms. The epithelial tumours ranged from adenomas and borderline neoplasms to invasive carcinomas including serous, mucinous, clear cell, and endometrioid lesions. It is shown that BRAF mutations in ovarian tumours occur exclusively in low-grade serous neoplasms (33 of 91, 36%); these included serous borderline tumours (typical and micropapillary variants), an invasive micropapillary carcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. KRAS mutations were identified in 26 of 91 (29.5%) low-grade serous tumours, 7 of 49 (12%) high-grade serous carcinomas, 2 of 6 mucinous adenomas, 22 of 28 mucinous borderline tumours, and 10 of 18 mucinous carcinomas. Of note, two serous borderline tumours were found to harbour both BRAF and KRAS mutations. The finding that at least 60% of serous borderline tumours harbour mutations in two members of the ERK-MAP-kinase pathway (BRAF 36%, KRAS 30%) compared with 12% of high-grade serous carcinomas (BRAF 0%, KRAS 12%) indicates that the majority of serous borderline tumours do not progress to serous carcinomas. Furthermore, no BRAF mutations were detected in the other 173 ovarian tumours in this study. PMID:14991899

Sieben, Nathalie L G; Macropoulos, Patricia; Roemen, Guido M J M; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra M; Jan Fleuren, Gert; Houmadi, Rifat; Diss, Tim; Warren, Bretta; Al Adnani, Mudher; De Goeij, Anton P M; Krausz, Thomas; Flanagan, Adrienne M



Is it necessary to resect bone for low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the palate?  


Minor intraoral tumours of the salivary glands are relatively uncommon. Most are histologically low grade and display no aggressive clinical features such as bony invasion or regional metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate retrospectively a bone-sparing approach to resection of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the hard palate in 18 patients. Only one had radiographic evidence of bony invasion and was treated by composite resection of the hard palate. Sixteen patients were treated by wide local excision with 1cm margins of soft tissue using the periosteum of the hard palate as the deep margin. The mean (SD) follow-up time was 44 months, (range 2-140). Among patients who had only soft tissue resection the histological margins were clear in 11 patients, and 5 had close or invaded margins that were all localised to the deep margin. There were no local recurrences during the follow-up period. We suggest that a bone-sparing approach to such tumours gives adequate local control, and composite resections should be reserved for tumours that have obviously invaded the hard palate. PMID:22444946

Ord, Robert A; Salama, Andrew R



Optimization of Fluidized Roasting Reduction of Low-Grade Pyrolusite Using Biogas Residual as Reductant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the novel technology of fluidized roasting reduction of samples of low-grade pyrolusite using biogas residual as reductant has been conducted. According to the response surface design and the analysis of results, orthogonal experiments have been conducted on the major factors, and the effects on the manganese reduction efficiency have been studied. The maximum manganese reduction efficiency could be optimized to nearly 100%, when the mass ratio of biogas residual to pyrolusite was 0.16:1, the dosage of sulfuric acid was 1.6 times that of the stoichiometric amount, the roasting temperature was 680°C, and the roasting time was 70 min. The results in terms of manganese reduction efficiency of the actual experiments were close to those anticipated by modeling the experiments, indicating that the optimum conditions had a high reliability. Other low-grade pyrolusites such as Guangxi pyrolusite (China), Hunan pyrolusite (China), and Guizhou pyrolusite (China) were tested and all these materials responded well, giving nearly 100% manganese reduction efficiency.

Cai, Z. L.; Feng, Y. L.; Li, H. R.; Liu, X. W.; Yang, Z. C.



Tectonic setting of the low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Orogen, central eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic setting on both the northern and southern sides of the Dabie Mountains reveals that low-grade metamorphic rocks are important constituents produced by the subduction of the oceanic crust prior to collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Zhangbaling Group/Mulanshan schist is a pre-Ordovician oceanic crust. The Sujiahe and Xinyang/Foziling Groups are trench sediments of the Ordovician-Devonian age, and constitute an accretionary prism associated with subduction. The Yangshan coal measures/Meishan Group was a forearc basin sediment of Carboniferous age, and was overthrust by the accretionary prism during collision. The Susong Group is composed of passive continental margin sediments of the Yangtze craton. Backarc basin sediments are postulated to be concealed by Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments to the north of the Dabie Mountains. High-ultrahigh pressure terrains are exotic tectonic slices exhumed from depths, located between low-grade metamorphic rocks, and disturb the integrity of the earlier subduction orogen. Subduction occurred during the Ordovician to Devonian periods, and collision initiated at the beginning of the Permian.

Xu, Shutong; Wu, Weiping; Lu, Yiqun; Wang, Dehua



CD30L/CD30 is critical for maintenance of IL-17A-producing ?? T cells bearing V?6 in mucosa-associated tissues in mice.  


CD30 ligand (CD30L, CD153), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and its receptor CD30 are important for differentiation and activation of CD4(+) T helper type 17 (Th17) cells. In this report, we demonstrate that the interleukin 17A (IL-17A)-producing ?? T cells normally developed in the fetal thymus, whereas V?1(-)V?4(-) ?? T cells expressed V?6/V?1 gene transcript selectively decreased in mucosa-associated tissues in naive CD30KO or CD30LKO mice. Moreover, CD30 and CD30L were expressed preferentially by V?1(-)V?4(-) ?? T cells in naive mice. The bacteria clearance was attenuated by the impaired response of the IL-17A-producing ?? T cells and decreased infiltration of neutrophils in CD30KO or CD30LKO mice. In vivo administration of agonistic anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody restored the ability of protection against Listeria monocytogenes by enhancing V?1(-)V?4(-) ?? T cells producing IL-17A not only in wild-type but also CD30LKO mice. Taken together, it appears that CD30L/CD30 signaling plays an important role in the maintenance and activation of IL-17A-producing ?? T cells presumably bearing V?6 in the mucosa-associated tissues of mice. PMID:23549449

Sun, X; Shibata, K; Yamada, H; Guo, Y; Muta, H; Podack, E R; Yoshikai, Y



A subset of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli isolates from patients with colon cancer, but not Crohn's disease, share pathogenicity islands with urinary pathogenic E. coli.  


Adherent and invasive mucosa-associated Escherichia coli have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. It has been reported that such isolates share features of extraintestinal E. coli (ExPEC) and particularly uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to subtract the genome of E. coli K-12 from that of a colon cancer mucosal E. coli isolate. Of the subtracted sequences, 53 % were present in the genomes of one or more of three sequenced UPEC strains but absent from the genome of an enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain. Of the subtracted sequences, 80 % matched at least one UPEC genome, whereas only 4 % were absent from the UPEC genomes but present in the genome of the EHEC strain. A further genomic subtraction against the UPEC strain 536 enriched for sequences matching mobile genetic elements, other ExPEC strains, and other UPEC strains or commensals, rather than strains associated with gastrointestinal disease. We analysed the distribution of selected subtracted sequences and UPEC-associated pathogenicity islands (PAIs) amongst a panel of mucosa-associated E. coli isolated from colonoscopic biopsies of patients with colon cancer, patients with Crohn's disease and controls. This enabled us to identify a group of isolates from colon cancer (30-40 %) carrying multiple genes previously categorized as UPEC-specific and implicated in virulence. PMID:18227261

Bronowski, Christina; Smith, Shirley L; Yokota, Kyoko; Corkill, John E; Martin, Helen M; Campbell, Barry J; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Hart, C Anthony; Winstanley, Craig



Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Lymphatic Malformations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Examine lymphatic malformation lymphoid aggregates for the expression of tertiary lymphoid organ markers. Determine how lymphoid aggregate density relates to lymphatic malformation clinical features. Methods and Results Retrospective cohort study. Tissue and clinical data were reviewed from 29 patients in the Vascular Anomaly Database who represented the spectrum of head and neck lymphatic malformations and had >5 years of follow-up. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphatic malformation tissue was immunohistochemically stained with antibodies for tertiary lymphoid organ markers, which included follicular and mature myeloid dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, segregated B and T-cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and lymphoid homing chemokines (CXCL13, CCL21). Lymphoid aggregate density (count/mm2) was quantified by 2 independent, blinded reviewers. Lymphoid aggregate density and lymphatic malformation clinical features were characterized using analysis of variance. Larger lymphatic malformation tissue lymphoid aggregates stained consistently for tertiary lymphoid organ markers. In oral cavity and neck specimens from the same patients (n?=?9), there were more tertiary lymphoid organ in oral cavity than in neck specimens (p?=?0.0235). In lymphatic malformation neck tissue, de Serres stage 4 lymphatic malformations displayed the highest tertiary lymphoid organ density. No significant association was seen between tertiary lymphoid organ density and other clinical features. Conclusion This study demonstrates that some lymphoid aggregates within lymphatic malformations represent tertiary lymphoid organs. There was an association between tertiary lymphoid organ density and lymphatic malformation location. Further study is required to define the role of lymphoid neogenesis and tertiary lymphoid organ formation in lymphatic malformation pathogenesis.

Kirsh, Andrew L.; Cushing, Sharon L.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Schwartz, Stephen M.



Atypical lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking lymphoma.  


The distinction between reactive and neoplastic lymphoid infiltrates is a common problem in clinical practice and can be problematic. The clinical implications for both the patient and the treating clinician are profound. In this article, we discuss six of the common entities that can present as atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and thus can mimic malignant lymphomas, with emphasis on morphologic features, immunophenotypic findings, and molecular correlates that help distinguish these disorders from neoplastic conditions. The six conditions to be discussed in detail include reactive follicular hyperplasia versus follicular lymphoma; progressive transformation of germinal centers versus nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; immunoblastic proliferations versus diffuse large B-cell lymphomas; variant forms of Castleman disease that may mimic a number of lymphoid cancers; Kikuchi's disease versus large cell lymphomas; and finally, dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and its distinction from lymph nodes showing early involvement by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Mycosis fungoides). PMID:19577167

Good, David J; Gascoyne, Randy D



Cytologic diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms (low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma) in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification.  


The 1998 World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification of urothelial neoplasms introduced a category called papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (LMP) and separated it from low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC), which was thought to yield abnormal cells in cytology specimens. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of urine cytology in diagnosing these lesions. Eighty-six paired transurethral surgical biopsy and corresponding urine cytology specimens representing the spectrum of urothelial papillary lesions were examined. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was made, and the distribution was as follows: 16 benign urothelium, 27 LMP, 28 LGPUC, and 15 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (HGPUC). This was followed by a blinded independent review of the urine cytology specimens by three observers. Each cytology case was marked as negative, atypical, suspicious, or positive for malignant cells by using previously published cytologic criteria. When the negative and atypical diagnoses were grouped together as "benign" and the suspicious and malignant diagnoses as "malignant," the detection rate of "malignancy" of the lesions was as follows: LMP, 37%; LGPUC, 25%; and HGPUC, 53%. The false positive rate was 6%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 94%. Detection rates of cells that were at least "atypical" were as follows: LMP, 74%; LGPUC, 79%; and HGPUC, 100%. While most of the LMP and LGPUC cases yielded cells that were at least "atypical," there was no significant difference in the distribution of cytologic diagnoses for LMP and LGPUC cases (P > 0.05). Urine cytology in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification appears to be useful as a screening tool but does not appear to discriminate LMP effectively from LGPUC. PMID:12672093

Whisnant, Richard E; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Ohori, N Paul



Mechanisms of organogenesis of primary lymphoid follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary lymphoid follicles in secondary lymphoid tissue of mammals are the backbone for the formation of follicular dendritic cell networks. These are important for germinal center reactions. In the context of organogenesis molecular requirements for the formation of follicles have been identified. The present study complements this work with a simulation of the dynamics of the primary lymphoid follicle formation.

Tilo Beyer; Michael Meyer-Hermann



Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the mandible: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma is a rare entity, which mostly develops in the soft tissues of the head and neck. Within the oral cavity lingual lesions are the most common. It tends to recur locally rather than to metastasise. Case presentation We present a 54-year-old man with a one-year history of buccal oedema. He also had arterial hypertension and clinical examination revealed distension of the left mandibular ramus with laminar deflection in the area of the retromolar triangle. Conclusion We present a rare intramandibular encapsulated lesion that caused diagnostic difficulties. Our diagnostic methods included immunohistochemistry and molecular investigations. We emphasise the uncommon location of this tumour type.



Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma with a high metastasizing potential and sometimes long interval between tumour presentation and metastasis. We present the case of a 50-year-old male who developed a large mass in the posterior aspect of his lower left thigh. The tumor was excised with preservation of the neurovascular structures surrounded by the mass. The tumour measured 11 × 10 × 9 cm and on pathology evaluation was diagnosed as LGFMS. Due to the relative rarity of LGFMS, there is no dedicated protocol regarding follow-up recommendations. In order to early diagnose possible metastasis it is important to inform the patients about the longstanding metastatic potential of the disease.



Low-grade geothermal energy conversion by organic Rankine cycle turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a demonstration project which helped determine the feasibility of converting low-grade thermal energy in 49 C water into electrical energy via an organic Rankine cycle 2500 watt (electrical) turbine-generator are presented. The geothermal source which supplied the water is located in a rural Alaskan village. The reasons an organic Rankine cycle turbine-generator was investigated as a possible source of electric power in rural Alaska are: (1) high cost of operating diesel-electric units and their poor long-term reliability when high-quality maintenance is unavailable and (2) the extremely high level of long-term reliability reportedly attained by commercially available organic Rankine cycle turbines. Data is provided on the thermal and electrical operating characteristics of an experimental organic Rankine cycle turbine-generator operating at a uniquely low vaporizer temperature.

Zarling, J. P.; Aspnes, J. D.


Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Low Grade Heat Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Research on supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles has been mainly focused on high temperature applications, such as Brayton cycle in a nuclear power plant. This paper conducts a comprehensive study on the feasibility of a CO2-based supercritical power cycle for low-grade heat conversion. Energy and exergy analyses of the cycle were conducted to discuss the obstacles as well as the potentials of using supercritical carbon dioxide as the working fluid for supercritical Rankine cycle, Carbon dioxide has desirable qualities such as low critical temperature, stability, little environmental impact and low cost. However, the low critical temperature might be a disadvantage for the condensation process. Comparison between a carbon dioxide-based supercritical Rankine cycle and an organic fluid-based supercritical Rankine cycle showed that the former needs higher pressure to achieve the same efficiency and a heat recovery system is necessary to desuperheat the turbine exhaust and pre-heat the pressure charged liquid.

Vidhi, Rachana [University of South Florida, Tampa; Goswami, Yogi D. [University of South Florida, Tampa; Chen, Huijuan [University of South Florida, Tampa; Stefanakos, Elias [University of South Florida, Tampa; Kuravi, Sarada [University of South Florida, Tampa; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, a deceptively benign tumor in a 5-year-old child.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is very uncommon in the pediatric population with only 20% of reported cases under the age of 18. The youngest reported case to date has been in a 4-year-old child. Lesions are usually slow growing and asymptomatic, and locations described in children have included paravertebral, thigh and intrathoracic. Although benign in appearance, these lesions can behave aggressively, with local recurrence and distant metastases primarily to lungs. These lesions can be resistant to the usual chemotherapy and radiotherapy with surgical resection being the treatment of choice. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with a mass in the left buttock. PMID:22130782

Menon, Seema; Krivanek, Michael; Cohen, Ralph



Recurring facial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma in an elderly patient: a case report.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare type of sarcoma that is characterized by benign-appearing histologic features but a paradoxically aggressive clinical course. These tumors generally occur in young to middle-aged adults, sometimes in children, but rarely in high-aged adults. LGFMS typically affects the deep soft tissues of the trunk or lower extremities; however, it is rarely seen in the face. We here describe a case of LGFMS on the right forehead of an 84-year-old woman. After resection with a 1-cm skin margin, recurrence occurred at 15 months postoperatively. Additional wide excision was subsequently performed with a 2-cm skin margin. Recurrence and metastasis have not been observed for 1 year after the second excision. A wide surgical margin should be considered in cases of LGFMS. PMID:23037198

Abe, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Hideki



Plantar fibromatosis may adopt the brain gyriform pattern of a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


We report the case of a 42-year-old man with histologically proven plantar fibromatosis (Ledderhose disease) demonstrating an uncommon brain gyriform pattern at MRI, so far exclusively described in the low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). An acoustic posterior enhancement at ultrasound, a high intensity on T2w and post-contrast T1wMR images were unusual and related to a high tumor cellularity at histology with no myxoid tissue. The juxtaposition of areas of high and low cellularity (with more fibrous material) in a multilobulated mass built a brain gyriform pattern at MR, similar to what was so far described exclusively in LGFMS. This case demonstrates that the brain gyriform pattern may also be observed in other soft tissue fibrous tumors with no myxoid material but with high cellularity areas alternating with fibrous zones of low cellularity. PMID:23415764

Touraine, Sébastien; Bousson, Valérie; Kaci, Rachid; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Haddad, Samuel; Laouisset, Liess; Petrover, David; Laredo, Jean-Denis



Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a case report and review of the literature.  


Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma with a high metastasizing potential and sometimes long interval between tumour presentation and metastasis. We present the case of a 50-year-old male who developed a large mass in the posterior aspect of his lower left thigh. The tumor was excised with preservation of the neurovascular structures surrounded by the mass. The tumour measured 11 x 10 x 9 cm and on pathology evaluation was diagnosed as LGFMS. Due to the relative rarity of LGFMS, there is no dedicated protocol regarding follow-up recommendations. In order to early diagnose possible metastasis it is important to inform the patients about the longstanding metastatic potential of the disease. PMID:20670445

Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Lykissas, Marios G; Gelalis, Ioannis D; Batistatou, Anna; Goussia, Anna; Doukas, Michalis; Xenakis, Theodoros A



Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the retro-peritoneum: histologically low-grade type.  


A dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the retro-peritoneum of a 45-year-old female is described in this case report. It showed dedifferentiation into a histological low-grade type and thus defies the traditional definition of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The excised specimen was a huge, multi-nodular encapsulated mass surrounding the kidney and infiltrating into it. The mass showed a dedifferentiated focus different in color from the surrounding tumor and containing areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. The sections from the dedifferentiated part of the tumor appeared predominantly as benign spindle cell component on histology but the tumor was infiltrating into the kidney. Hence, a close and long-term follow-up is expected in such cases though they look benign. In the retro-peritoneum, a lipoma-like well-differentiated liposarcoma with spindle cell component, like the present tumor, which shows dedifferentiation, should not be overlooked. PMID:20551557

Parakh, Rugvedita Satyajeet; Zawar, Meera Prem; Gadgil, Pradeep Achyut; Kaujalagi, Neeraja Shashikant


Primary pulmonary lymphoma: a re-appraisal of its histogenesis and its relationship to pseudolymphoma and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia.  


The clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of 15 cases of pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease are described. The diagnosis of primary pulmonary lymphoma was based in 13 cases on the demonstration of light chain restriction and in two cases on morphological characteristics. Many patients had a prolonged clinical course without significant clinical or radiographic deterioration, a feature associated with malignant lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in other sites. Lymphoepithelial lesions were characteristic and malignant cells had the features of centrocyte-like cells, similar to those described in gastric and salivary gland lymphomas. Germinal centres were present in three cases: some were partially overgrown by centrocyte-like cells but residual polyclonal follicle centre cells and dendritic reticulum cells were still detectable. It is suggested that primary pulmonary lymphoma arises from centrocyte-like cells normally present in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. In addition to the malignant population, reactive follicles and polytypic plasma cells are frequently present and may prejudice interpretation of immunohistochemical features. In the light of these findings, cases previously diagnosed as pseudolymphoma or lymphoid interstitial pneumonia require careful assessment and the majority are, in reality, examples of primary pulmonary lymphomas. PMID:3209184

Addis, B J; Hyjek, E; Isaacson, P G



Adult Low-grade Glioma: 19-year Experience at a Single Institution.  


OBJECTIVES:: To determine prognostic factors and optimal timing of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in adult low-grade gliomas. METHODS:: Records from 554 adults diagnosed with nonpilocytic low-grade gliomas at Mayo Clinic between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS:: Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Histology revealed astrocytoma in 22%, oligoastrocytoma in 34%, and oligodendroglioma in 45%. Initial surgery achieved gross total resection in 31%, radical subtotal resection in 10%, subtotal resection (STR) in 21%, and biopsy only in 39%. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 11.4 and 4.1 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with lower OS included astrocytomas and use of postoperative RT. Adverse prognostic factors for PFS on multivariate analysis included tumor size, astrocytomas, STR/biopsy only and not receiving RT. Patients undergoing gross total resection/radical subtotal resection had the best OS and PFS. Comparing survival with the log-rank test demonstrated no association between RT and PFS (P=0.24), but RT was associated with lower OS (P<0.0001). In patients undergoing STR/biopsy only, RT was associated with improved PFS (P<0.0001) but lower OS (P=0.03). Postoperative RT was associated with adverse prognostic factors including age >?40 years, deep tumors, size?5 cm, astrocytomas and STR/biopsy only. Patients delaying RT until recurrence experienced 10-year OS (71%) similar to patients never needing RT (74%; P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS:: This study supports the association between aggressive surgical resection and better OS and PFS, and between postoperative RT and improved PFS in patients receiving STR/biopsy only. In addition, our findings suggest that delaying RT until progression is safe in patients who are eligible. PMID:22892428

Youland, Ryan S; Brown, Paul D; Giannini, Caterina; Parney, Ian F; Uhm, Joon H; Laack, Nadia N



Quantitative characterization of the imaging limits of diffuse low-grade oligodendrogliomas.  


Background Supratentorial diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults extend beyond maximal visible MRI-defined abnormalities, and a gap exists between the imaging signal changes and the actual tumor margins. Direct quantitative comparisons between imaging and histological analyses are lacking to date. However, they are of the utmost importance if one wishes to develop realistic models for diffuse glioma growth. Methods In this study, we quantitatively compared the cell concentration and the edema fraction from human histological biopsy samples (BSs) performed inside and outside imaging abnormalities during serial imaging-based stereotactic biopsy of diffuse low-grade gliomas. Results The cell concentration was significantly higher in BSs located inside (1189 ± 378 cell/mm(2)) than outside (740 ± 124 cell/mm(2)) MRI-defined abnormalities (P = .0003). The edema fraction was significantly higher in BSs located inside (mean, 45% ± 23%) than outside (mean, 5 %± 9%) MRI-defined abnormalities (P < .0001). At borders of the MRI-defined abnormalities, 20% of the tissue surface area was occupied by edema and only 3% by tumor cells. The cycling cell concentration was significantly higher in BSs located inside (10 ± 12 cell/mm(2)), compared with outside (0.5 ± 0.9 cell/mm(2)), MRI-defined abnormalities (P = .0001). Conclusions We showed that the margins of T2-weighted signal changes are mainly correlated with the edema fraction. In 62.5% of patients, the cycling tumor cell fraction (defined as the ratio of the cycling tumor cell concentration to the total number of tumor cells) was higher at the limits of the MRI-defined abnormalities than closer to the center of the tumor. In the remaining patients, the cycling tumor cell fraction increased towards the center of the tumor. PMID:23771168

Gerin, Chloé; Pallud, Johan; Deroulers, Christophe; Varlet, Pascale; Oppenheim, Catherine; Roux, Francois-Xavier; Chrétien, Fabrice; Thomas, Stephen R; Grammaticos, Basile; Badoual, Mathilde



A Preclinical and Clinical Study of Lithium in Low-Grade Neuroendocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background. Low-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) respond poorly to chemotherapy; effective, less toxic therapies are needed. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? has been shown to regulate growth and hormone production in NETs. Use of lithium chloride in murine models suppressed carcinoid cell growth, reduced GSK-3? levels, and reduced expression of chromogranin A. This study assessed the efficacy of lithium chloride in patients with NETs. Design. Eligible patients had low-grade NETs. A single-arm, open-label phase II design was used. Lithium was dosed at 300 mg orally three times daily, titrated to serum levels of 0.8–1.0 mmol/L. The primary endpoint was objective tumor response by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, GSK-3? phosphorylation, and toxicity. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled between October 3, 2007 and July 17, 2008, six men and nine women. The median age was 58 years. Patient diagnoses were carcinoid tumor for eight patients, islet cell tumor for five patients, and two unknown primary sites. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status scores were 0 or 1. Two patients came off study because of side effects. The median progression-free survival interval was 4.50 months. There were no radiographic responses. Because of an early stopping rule requiring at least one objective response in the first 13 evaluable patients, the study was closed to further accrual. Patients had pre- and post-therapy biopsies. Conclusions. Lithium chloride was ineffective at obtaining radiographic responses in our 13 patients who were treated as part of this study. Based on the pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies, lithium did not potently inhibit GSK-3? at serum levels used to treat bipolar disorders.

Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Holen, Kyle D.; Ning, Li; Ndiaye, Mary; LoConte, Noelle K.; Mulkerin, Daniel L.; Schelman, William R.; Chen, Herbert



Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering



Plasmablastic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphomas: report on 6 cases.  


Histologic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis. Although plasma cell differentiation is common in these lymphomas, an overt plasmablastic transformation (PBL-T) has been only rarely reported. We report 6 cases of PBL-T occurring in 3 chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) and 3 follicular lymphomas. Five patients were men, and the mean age was 65 years (range, 52 to 72 y). None of them had history of immunodeficiency. In 3 cases the PBL-T occurred 34 to 85 months after the initial diagnosis, and in 3 it was detected simultaneously with the small cell component at diagnosis. All patients received chemotherapy after transformation, and 4 died 4 to 24 months after this diagnosis. In 3 cases, PBL-T occurred in an extranodal site. All PBL-Ts had immunoblastic morphology with admixed plasma cells, were CD20 and PAX5 negative, expressed ? light chain, and 5 were CD138 positive. All cases were negative for HHV8, and only 1 PBL-T was Epstein-Barr virus positive. Evidence of a clonal relationship between the small cell and PBL-T components was found in 5 cases. In 2 CLL cases, both components had 13q deletions, and in all follicular lymphoma cases both components harbored the t(14;18) translocation. MYC translocations were observed in 2 cases transformed from a CLL. In conclusion, PBL-T expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of the transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphomas. These transformed tumors are clinically, histologically, and phenotypically similar to primary plasmablastic lymphomas, but they are not associated with immunodeficiency and rarely have Epstein-Barr virus infection or MYC alterations. PMID:23282972

Martinez, Daniel; Valera, Alexandra; Perez, Nhora Silva; Sua Villegas, Luz Fernanda; Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Sole, Carla; Gine, Eva; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Roue, Gaël; Martinez, Salome; Sant, Francesc; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Robak, Tadeusz; Czader, Magdalena; Villamor, Neus; Colomo, Lluis; Campo, Elias; Martinez, Antonio



Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli.  


Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a "healthy" enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek; Gookin, Jody L



Microevolution in fimH gene of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli strains isolated from pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.  


Several studies reported increased numbers of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli strains in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The majority of E. coli strains possess type 1 fimbriae, whose tip fibrillum protein, FimH, naturally undergoes amino acid replacements, an important process in the adaptation of commensal E. coli strains to environmental changes, like those observed in IBD and urinary tract infections. In this study, we analyzed mutational patterns in the fimH gene of 52 mucosa-associated E. coli strains isolated from IBD and non-IBD pediatric patients, in order to investigate microevolution of this genetic trait. FimH-positive strains were also phylogenetically typed and tested for their adhesive ability on Caco-2 cells. Specific FimH alleles for each grouping feature were found. Mutations G66S and V27A were related to CD, while mutations A242V, V163A, and T74I were attributed to UC. Otherwise, the G66S, N70S, and S78N mutations were specifically attributed to B2/D phylogroups. The N70S and A119V mutations were related to adhesive E. coli strains. Phylogroup B2, adhesive, and IBD E. coli strains showed a higher site substitution rate (SSR) in the fimH gene, together with a higher number of mutations. The degree of naïve mucosal inflammation was related to specific FimH alleles. Moreover, we could suggest that the V27A mutation is pathoadaptive for the CD intestinal habitat, while we could also suggest that both the N70S and S78N mutations are related to the more virulent E. coli B2 phylogroup. In conclusion, we found some FimH variants that seem to be more involved than others in the evolution of IBD pathogenesis. PMID:22290143

Iebba, Valerio; Conte, Maria Pia; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Santangelo, Floriana; Aloi, Marina; Totino, Valentina; Checchi, Monica Proietti; Longhi, Catia; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Schippa, Serena



Lymphoid nodules and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in bone marrow biopsies.  


Out of 2,474 bone marrow biopsies we have observed 330 cases (13.3%) with presence of lymphoid nodules (LN). LN were frequent in old age (24.6% over 80 years), in females (17%) and in some diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (73.7% of the cases), partial aplasia (34%), hypersplenism (30.4%), hemopoietic dysplasia (25%), chronic renal failure (20.4%), polycythemia vera (20.2%), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (18.8%), acute leukemia (17.7%). Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the bone marrow was found especially in systemic autoimmune diseases (26.3%), hypersplenism (9.8%), preleukemia (7.3%) and acute leukemia (4.2%). The presence of excessive medullary LN could indicate a bone marrow microenvironment damage, possibly of autoimmune origin. PMID:3934902

Navone, R; Valpreda, M; Pich, A



Lymphoid Nodules and Nodular Lymphoid Hyperplasia in Bone Marrow Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 2,474 bone marrow biopsies we have observed 330 cases (13.3%) with presence of lymphoid nodules (LN). LN were frequent in old age (24.6% over 80 years), in females (17%) and in some diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (73.7% of the cases), partial aplasia (34%), hypersplenism (30.4%), hemopoietic dysplasia (25%), chronic renal failure (20.4%), polycythemia

Roberto Navone; Mauro Valpreda; Achille Rich



Plasmablastic transformation of low-grade CD5+ B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with MYC gene rearrangements.  


Plasmablastic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is rarely reported, particularly in cases with clonal evolution. Moreover, the relationship of these 2 morphologically and immunophenotypically distinctive neoplasms remains elusive. Here, we report 2 exceptional cases of plasmablastic transformation with apparently direct transformation from their preceding low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. In both cases, the plasmablastic transformation and low-grade lymphoproliferative disorder shared the same immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and an identical chromosomal translocation. Notably, both plasmablastic transformation cases also carried MYC gene rearrangements on chromosome 8q24, which have been frequently identified in de novo plasmablastic lymphoma. Therefore, our data suggest that dysregulation of MYC gene may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of plasmablastic transformation. PMID:23791008

Pan, Zenggang; Xie, Qingmei; Repertinger, Susan; Richendollar, Bill G; Chan, Wing C; Huang, Qin



Involution of lymphoid organs in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the western Gulf of Mexico: implications for life in an aquatic environment.  


Involution of lymphoid tissues in relation to age has not been defined for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Twenty-five bottlenose dolphins from the coast of Texas and western Louisiana were examined and complete necropsies were performed with histological samples taken of nearly all tissues. Ages ranged from several days to 27 years. The histology of four lymphoid organs-thymus, pharyngeal tonsil, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the colon, and anal tonsil-was assessed. Numerical scores were assigned to specific morphological features, thus creating an involution score. Definable and scorable features of each organ were selected for evaluation and determination of loss of lymphoid elements. Neonatal dolphins were recorded as the reference standard for no involution. The highest score for each organ represented the greatest amount of retention of tissue elements. Thus, the lower the score, the greater degree of involution. Comparing involution scores to tooth age permitted an assessment of involution over time. The greatest degree of involution was found in the MALT of the colon. The MALT of the colon declined dramatically so that after age 10 it was absent from 4 of 14 animals and minimally present in 8 others. Thymic tissue also suffered a precipitous drop in volume after about age 5, but was found in animals up to 24 years of age. Involution was moderate and variable in both pharyngeal and anal tonsils. In some animals, these tissues were reduced in volume early, and prominent in others well into adult life (over 20 years). PMID:15622514

Clark, Lance S; Turner, Jason P; Cowan, Daniel F



Thymic non-lymphoid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In formulating this summary of our simon-pure knowledge of the structure\\/function relationships in the thymus, we decided\\u000a that the time may have come to introduce a suitable dose of cynicism to balance the sometimes hopeless optimism of the past.\\u000a \\u000a Are the non-lymphoid cells of the thymus necessary for thymic function? Probably, but not to the extent or uniqueness that\\u000a some

David A. Crouse; James B. Turpen; J. Graham Sharp



Endothelial dysfunction and low grade chronic inflammation in subclinical hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis.  


The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and cardiovascular disease has been one of the most popular topics recently. There is still some controversy concerning its cardiovascular impact and management protocols. Our study aims to investigate the presence of the well known preceding clinical situations of atherosclerosis like endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in subclinical hypothyroidism. Thirty-seven patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (29 women, 8 men) and 23 healthy volunteers (19 women, 4 men) were recruited for the study. Endothelial dysfunction was measured by examining brachial artery responses to endothelium-dependent (flow mediated dilation, FMD) and endothelium-independent stimuli (sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG)). Serum TNF-alpha, interleukin-6, and hs-CRP were measured. The estimate of insulin resistance by HOMA score was calculated with the formula: fasting serum insulin (µIU/mL) x fasting plasma glucose (µM/L) / 22.5. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, waist circumference, HOMA scores. There was a statistically significant difference in endothelium-dependent (FMD) and endothelium-independent vascular responses (NTG) between the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and the normal healthy controls. The groups were well matched for baseline brachial artery diameter. The TSH and LDL, IL-6, TNF-alpha and hs-CRP levels in the patient group were significantly higher than those in control group. A positive correlation was found only between endothelium-dependent vasodilation and TNF-alpha, hs-CRP and IL-6, TSH, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides. Endothelium-independent vascular response was not correlated with any of the metabolic or hormonal parameters. Neither of the groups were insulin resistant and there was not any difference either in fasting insulin or in glucose levels. We found endothelial dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism group. Endothelium-dependent (FMD) and endothelium-independent vascular responses (NTG) were lower in patient group. Our findings suggest that there is endothelial dysfunction and low grade chronic inflammation in SH due to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are several contributing factors which can cause endothelial dysfunction in SH such as changes in lipid profile, hyperhomocysteinemia. According to our results low grade chronic inflammation may be one of these factors. PMID:21490407

Türemen, Esat Erdem; Çetinarslan, Berrin; ?ahin, Tayfun; Cantürk, Zeynep; Tarkun, ?lhan



First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy  

PubMed Central

Background To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Patients and methods Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Results Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Conclusion Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation.



Aerobic training improved low-grade inflammation in obese women with intellectual disability.  


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Accordingly, we assessed the influence of aerobic training on pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in women with Down syndrome. METHODS: To achieve this outcome, 20 premenopausal obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study. Eleven were randomly assigned to the intervention group and performed a 10-week aerobic training programme, three sessions per week, consisting of a warm-up then a 30- to 40-min treadmill exercise at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate followed by a cooling-down period. The control group included nine age-, sex- and body mass index-matched women with Down syndrome. Fat mass percentage and fat distribution were measured. Plasmatic levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and fibrinogen were assessed by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed by nephelometry. RESULTS: Plasmatic levels of TNF-? (11.7?±?1.6 vs. 9.2?±?1.3?pg/ml; P?=?0.022), IL-6 (8.2?±?1.1 vs. 6.1?±?0.9?pg/ml; P?=?0.014) and high sensitive CRP (0.62?±?0.11 vs. 0.53?±?0.09?mg/dl; P?=?0.009) were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Further, significant correlations between plasmatic and anthropometric parameters were found. CONCLUSION: A 10-week training programme reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese young women with Down syndrome. Long-term, well-conducted studies are still required to determine whether correction of this low-grade inflammation improves clinical outcomes of women with trisomy 21. PMID:23742222

Ordonez, F J; Rosety, M A; Camacho, A; Rosety, I; Diaz, A J; Fornieles, G; Garcia, N; Rosety-Rodriguez, M



Immunoexpression of Survivin in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissues and malignant lymphomas using a new monoclonal antibody reactive on paraffin sections  

PubMed Central

Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family, which is also implicated in mitosis regulation. Most reports in the literature impute poor prognosis to neoplasms with overexpression of this protein. The purpose of the present study is to validate and compare the immunohistochemical reactivity of malignant lymphomas and reactive lymphoid tissue using a new mouse monoclonal antibody to Survivin produced in our laboratory, 6-78. Survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. It was shown that the antibody anti-Survivin 6-78 reliably stains formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissues, mostly in a nuclear pattern. We confirmed using this novel antibody that Survivin immunostaining has a tendency to be lower in reactive lymphoid tissues and low-grade B cell lymphomas than in aggressive lymphomas. This antibody may represent a useful tool for standardizing the study of the immunoexpression of Survivin in neoplasms.

Al Saati, Talal; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Welsh, Kathyrn; Reed, John C.; Brousset, Pierre; Delsol, Georges



Magnetic Resonance of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in IDH1-Mutated Low-Grade Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have indicated that a significant survival advantage is conferred to patients with gliomas whose lesions harbor mutations in the genes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2). IDH1/2 mutations result in aberrant enzymatic production of the potential oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Here, we report on the ex vivo detection of 2HG in IDH1-mutated tissue samples from patients with recurrent low-grade gliomas using the nuclear magnetic resonance technique of proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy. Relative 2HG levels from pathologically confirmed mutant IDH1 tissues correlated with levels of other ex vivo metabolites and histopathology parameters associated with increases in mitotic activity, relative tumor content, and cellularity. Ex vivo spectroscopic measurements of choline-containing species and in vivo magnetic resonance measurements of diffusion parameters were also correlated with 2HG levels. These data provide extensive characterization of mutant IDH1 lesions while confirming the potential diagnostic value of 2HG as a surrogate marker of patient survival. Such information may augment the ability of clinicians to monitor therapeutic response and provide criteria for stratifying patients to specific treatment regimens.

Phillips, Joanna J.; Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Parvataneni, Rupa; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bourne, Gabriela; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J.



FMP regimen (fludarabine, mitoxantrone, prednisone) as therapy in recurrent low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  


Fludarabine (FLU) is a new antimetabolite chemotherapeutic agent with promising therapeutic activity in the lymphoproliferative disorders and in particular in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LG-NHL). In order to evaluate FLU in combination with other antineoplastic agents, we used a three-drug combination of FLU, mitoxantrone and prednisone (FMP) to treat 18 patients with recurrent LG-NHL. The FMP regimen was as follows: FLU, 25 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 to 3; mitoxantrone, 10 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1; prednisone 40 mg i.v. on days 1 to 5. Of the 18 patients, 4 (22%) achieved complete response (CR), 9 (50%) partial response, and the remaining 5 showed no benefit from the treatment. The 4 CR patients are still in remission after 4, 6, 6, and 8 months, respectively. The median duration of overall survival of all patients was 9 months. The major toxic effects observed were neutropenia (50%) and infections and/or febrile episodes (17%); no fatalities due to drug side effects occurred. These results confirm the efficacy of the fludarabine-mitoxantrone combination-containing regimen in inducting a good remission rate with moderate side effects in recurrent LG-NHL. PMID:7589345

Zinzani, P L; Bendandi, M; Tura, S



MYB upregulation and genetic aberrations in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of genetic abnormalities in pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have focused on activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway by KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusions in the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and by rare mutations in elements of the pathway across histopathologically diverse LGGs. This study reports that MYB, an oncogene not previously implicated in gliomagenesis, is activated in a diverse subset of pediatric LGGs. The study cohort comprised 57 pediatric LGGs and a comparative cohort of 59 pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The LGG cohort included 34 PAs and 23 diffuse gliomas; fibrillary astrocytomas (n=14), oligodendroglial tumors (n=7), and angiocentric gliomas (n=2). MYB copy number abnormalities were disclosed using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP arrays and confirmed using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Novel MYB amplifications that upregulate MYB RNA and protein expression were demonstrated in 2/14 diffuse astrocytomas. In addition, focal deletion of the terminal region of MYB was seen in 1 of 2 angiocentric gliomas (AGs). Increased expression of MYB was demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MYB upregulation at the protein level was demonstrated in a proportion of diffuse LGGs (60%), pilocytic astrocytomas (41%), and HGGs (19%), but abnormalities at the genomic level were only a feature of diffuse gliomas. Our data suggest that MYB may have a role in a subset of pediatric gliomas, through a variety of mechanisms in addition to MYB amplification and deletion.

Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Tang, Bo; Dalton, James; Forshew, Tim; Lawson, Andrew R.; Ma, Jing; Neale, Geoff; Shurtleff, Sheila A.; Bailey, Simon; Gajjar, Amar; Baker, Suzanne J.; Sheer, Denise; Ellison, David W.



Response to postoperative radiotherapy as a prognostic factor for patients with low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Due to the favorable natural history in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs), there is no consensus on the treatment strategy following maximal safe surgical resection. A number of studies have been conducted to identify prognostic factors in patients treated for LGG. The present study evaluated the treatment outcomes as well as prognostic factors and their impact on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We retrospectively reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated for LGG at the Department of Radiotherapy from February 2008 to July 2011. The patients underwent surgical intervention and postoperative radiotherapy. The response to radiotherapy was evaluated from six to eight weeks after the end of treatment using MRI analysis. Kaplan-Maier analysis was used for OS and DFS estimation. The endpoint was mortality as a result of any cause. Within a median follow-up of 21.8 months, 9 patients (30%) with disease progression were reported. The two- and five-year DFS and OS was 85.2 and 68.3% for DFS, and 84.3 and 63.4% for OS, respectively. The response to radiotherapy, evaluated in an MRI study, was found to be highly correlated with OS (p<0.0001). We also observed a significantly higher OS in patients with disease progression treated with salvage chemotherapy after the end of radiotherapy (p=0.08). Improved outcome among patients with LGG may be predicted by response to radiotherapy evaluated by MRI following termination of treatment.




Reduced efficiency of functional brain network underlying intellectual decline in patients with low-grade glioma.  


Low-grade glioma (LGG) patients are typically accompanied by varying degrees of intellectual impairments. However, the neural mechanisms underlying intellectual decline have not yet been well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between possibly altered functional brain network properties and intellectual decline in LGG patients. Chinese revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-RC) was used to assess the intelligence of 21 LGG patients and 20 healthy controls, matched in age, gender and education. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed for all the subjects to analyze functional network characteristics with graph theory. The LGG patients showed significantly poor performance on intelligence test than controls (P<0.05). Compared with controls, the patients displayed disturbed small-world manner (increased characteristic path length L and normalized characteristic path length ?) and decreased global efficiency Eglob. Specially, we found that Eglob was positively correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ) test scores in LGG group. Furthermore, network hubs, which could significantly affect the network efficiency, were in the right insula and right posterior cingulate cortex in controls, while in the right thalamus and right posterior cingulate cortex in the patients. From the perspective of brain network, our results provided evidence of reduced global efficiency for poorer intellectual performance in LGG patients, which contributed to understanding the basis of intellectual impairments. PMID:23562503

Xu, Huazhong; Ding, Shangwen; Hu, Xinhua; Yang, Kun; Xiao, Chaoyong; Zou, Yuanjie; Chen, Yijun; Tao, Ling; Liu, Hongyi; Qian, Zhiyu



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the medial vastus: a case report.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) was first described by Evans in 1987, and since then, just over 150 cases have been reported, showing the rarity of this tumor. We report the clinical case of a 56-year-old man with a swelling on the distal third of the left thigh. The mass had grown in the course of 1 year and was surgically excised, obtaining complete resolution. Immuno-histological examination demonstrated the lesion to be a LGFMS, defined as a benign tumor but with a high incidence of local and distant recurrence (5-10%). At 2-year follow-up the patient was disease-free, confirming the efficacy of the surgical excision. In literature, the frequency of incomplete excision of LGFMS due to inappropriate diagnosis is stressed. It is this element that contributes most to the high rate of recurrence. We recommend that the eventuality of observing this rare tumor be borne in mind, and that care be taken to perform a complete, ample excision. PMID:20376587

Notarnicola, Angela; Moretti, Lorenzo; Cocca, Maria Pia; Martucci, Antonio; Orsini, Umberto; Moretti, Biagio



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma versus fibromatosis: a comparative study of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.  


We have studied 11 cases of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) and 15 cases of fibromatosis with respect to clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, nm23, cyclinD1, and p53, in order to investigate the differential diagnosis between this two groups. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 11 cases of LGFMS and 15 cases of fibromatosis were studied histologically and immunohistochemically. The immunostainings were semiquantitatively evaluated using the Allred score system. Microscopically, LGFMS was composed of bland spindle cells arranged in a whorled pattern showing alternating myxoid zones and fibrous stroma zones with prominent arcade curvilinear capillaries. Cytological atypia, mitotic figures, and tumor necrosis were absent in all 11 cases of LGFMS. In contrast, fibromatosis was less cellular and more fascicular, containing more collagen and showing no alternating fibrous and myxoid zones as compared with LGFMS. The immunostaining scores of nm23 in LGFMS were significantly lower than that in fibromatosis. The immunostaining scores of Ki-67, p53, and cyclinD1 in LGFMS were significantly higher than that in fibromatosis. Thus, we consider that LGFMS can be distinguished from fibromatosis by clinicopathological features, and assessments of the immunohistochemical expression level of cyclinD1, p53, nm23, and Ki-67 are helpful in the differential diagnosis. PMID:19021197

Meng, Guo-Zhao; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Bu, Hong; Geng, Jian-Guo



Low-grade toxicity after conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer-impact of bladder volume  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain with urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.

Pinkawa, Michael [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail:; Fischedick, Karin [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Asadpour, Branka [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Gagel, Bernd [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Piroth, Marc D. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Eble, Michael J. [Department of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)



In situ instrumented posterolateral fusion without decompression in symptomatic low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults  

PubMed Central

Forty patients with an average age of 26.5 years were treated for symptomatic low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis with in situ instrumented posterolateral fusion. All patients had failed previous conservative treatment. Average follow-up was 42.2 months (range: 30–62 months). Low-back pain resolved in 70% of the patients, whereas 65% of those with radicular pain reported complete resolution of the symptoms. At the final follow-up 82.5% of the patients had improvement in their function. Solid fusion was achieved in 70% of the patients. It was uncertain in 10% and a fusion failure was seen in 20%. The anterior slippage as measured by the Taillard method was 31.55% and an average 35% correction was seen after surgery. However, an average 10% loss of correction was seen at the final evaluation. The clinical results were evaluated by Kim and Kim criteria. Satisfactory results were obtained in 65% of patients and this was closely associated with the rate of successful fusion. The results suggest that clinical outcome is closely related to the attainment of solid fusion and decompression or removal of the loose laminar fragment seems unnecessary in patients without major neurological symptoms.

Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Hakeem, Imtiyaz; Farooq, Munir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmed; Mir, Mohammad Ramzan; Kangu, Khursheed Ahmed



Fast thermal calibration of low-grade inertial sensors and inertial measurement units.  


The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy. PMID:24036581

Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong



Considerations on the Role of Chemotherapy and Modern Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Childhood Low Grade Glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of childhood low grade glioma (LGG), if not amenable to complete resection, quite often is a relevant clinical challenge. LGG in many instances are indeed slow growing tumors, which, if not controlled, can cause severe morbidity and ultimately jeopardize life. Most of the time children bearing an unresectable LGG can be considered affected by a chronic disease, deserving

Giorgio Perilongo



Cognitive and Adaptive Outcome in Extracerebellar Low-Grade Brain Tumors in Children: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether pediatric patients treated with surgery only for low-grade tumors in the cerebral hemispheres, supratentorial midline, and exophytic brainstem evidence neurocognitive, academic, adaptive, or emotional/behavioral sequelae. Patients and Methods Ninety-three patients from a natural history study of low-grade astrocytomas were tested an average of 111 days after surgery. Rates of below average (? 25th percentile) scores in this sample were compared with test norms, and performances were compared across anatomic sites. Finally, the relationships of pre-, peri-, and postsurgical complications to outcome were investigated. Results For the entire sample, there was a significantly elevated rate of below average scores across intelligence quotient, achievement, and adaptive behavior, but not behavioral/emotional adjustment measures. Patients with hemispheric, midline, and brainstem tumors did not differ significantly. Patients with left hemisphere tumors generally performed worse than those with right hemisphere tumors. Finally, neurobehavioral outcome was unrelated to pre-, peri-, or postsurgery complications. Conclusion After surgery for low-grade brain tumors, a significant number of patients was found to function below average, by as much as 55% compared with 25% in the normative population. Moreover, these results suggest greater risk for patients with lesions situated in the left cerebral hemisphere. Routine neuropsychological follow-up of children after treatment for low-grade tumors is recommended.

Ris, M. Douglas; Beebe, Dean W.; Armstrong, F. Daniel; Fontanesi, John; Holmes, Emi; Sanford, Robert A.; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.



Melville’s Unknown Pathology: The Humoral Theory of Disease and Low Grade Lead Poisoning in Bartleby the Scrivener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melville wrote Bartleby the Scrivener as a literary portrayal of the Humoral theory of disease. Virchow disproved that theory five years after the novella was published, suggesting Melville was humanizing an unknown pathology. A clinical assessment of the text reveals low-grade lead poisoning, which best explains the strange behavior, abnormal appearance, and premature death of the character Bartleby as depicted

Gerard Bogin



Solvent extraction of Fe(III) from the chloride leach liquor of low grade iron ore tailings using Aliquat 336  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent extraction of iron (III) from the HCl leach liquor of low grade iron ore tailings was studied with Aliquat 336, a quaternary amine in kerosene. p-Nonyl phenol was used as the third phase modifier. The effect of different parameters such as equilibration time, HCl concentration, H+ concentration, Cl? concentration and extractant concentration on extraction of iron was studied. The

R. K. Mishra; P. C. Rout; K. Sarangi; K. C. Nathsarma



Recurrent gain of chromosome arm 7q in low-grade astrocytic tumors studied by comparative genomic hybridization.  


Consistent tumor-specific chromosomal aberrations have not been described in low-grade astrocytic tumors. The most frequent genetic alterations are mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene and/or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 17p that occur in about 30% of the cases in adult patients but that are uncommon in childhood tumors. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to map DNA copy number alterations in 18 primary low-grade astrocytic tumors (ten adult patients and eight children). A gain of chromosome arm 7q was the most frequent event detected in five of ten astrocytomas (50%) from adult patients, followed by DNA amplification on chromosome arm 8q and gain on 12p (two cases). Loss of chromosomal regions on 1p, 4q, and the X chromosome was observed in two of ten cases [including one patient afflicted with Turner syndrome (45,X)]. In contrast, no consistent changes were observed in low-grade astrocytomas in children. A loss of the X chromosome was the sole aberration detected in two of eight cases using DNA extracted from the normal brain tissue. The findings suggest that a gain of 7q is an early event in the initiation of astrocytomas in adult patients. The discrepant findings in low-grade astrocytic tumors in adults compared to tumors in children support the the hypothesis that there might be different mechanisms responsible for tumor development. PMID:8703845

Schröck, E; Blume, C; Meffert, M C; du Manoir, S; Bersch, W; Kiessling, M; Lozanowa, T; Thiel, G; Witkowski, R; Ried, T; Cremer, T



Low-grade serous neoplasms of the ovary with transformation to high-grade carcinomas: a report of 3 cases.  


Ovarian borderline tumors usually occur in young patients and are associated with good clinical outcomes. A proportion of these tumors, particularly those with micropapillary features, may progress to low-grade serous carcinomas. Evolution of low-grade serous neoplasms to high-grade carcinomas is rare and infrequently reported. In this case report, we describe 3 cases of serous borderline tumor that progressed to high-grade carcinoma. Patient ages were 22, 35, and 47 yr. Two patients were initially diagnosed with ovarian serous borderline tumor, and recurred in the pelvis 3 and 10 yr later with sarcomatoid carcinoma. The third patient presented with low-grade serous carcinoma arising in a micropapillary serous borderline tumor, and recurred with a carcinosarcoma 3 yr later. All 3 patients had an aggressive clinical course: 2 died of disease and 1 patient has disease progression on chemotherapy. Occasional low-grade serous tumors of the ovary may transform to high-grade carcinomas, which can occur many years after initial diagnosis. The presence of a high-grade component significantly worsens patient outcomes. PMID:22833081

Garg, Karuna; Park, Kay J; Soslow, Robert A



A study of organic working fluids on system efficiency of an ORC using low-grade energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rankine cycles using organic fluids (as categorized into three groups: wet, dry, and isentropic fluids) as working fluids in converting low-grade energy are investigated in this study. The main purpose is to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system. Efficiencies of ORC systems are calculated based on an assumption that

T. C. Hung; S. K. Wang; C. H. Kuo; B. S. Pei; K. F. Tsai



Updated therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma stratified by resection and tumor subtype.  


The importance of surgical resection for patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG) remains controversial. This retrospective study of patients (n = 153) treated between 2000 to 2010 at a single institution assessed whether increasing the extent of resection (EOR) was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Histological subtypes of World Health Organization grade II tumors were as follows: diffuse astrocytoma in 49 patients (32.0%), oligoastrocytoma in 45 patients (29.4%), and oligodendroglioma in 59 patients (38.6%). Median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes and median EOR were 29.0 cm(3) (range 0.7-162 cm(3)) and 1.7 cm(3) (range 0-135.7 cm(3)) and 95%, respectively. Five- and 10-year OS for all LGG patients were 95.1% and 85.4%, respectively. Eight-year OS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 70.7%, 91.2%, and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year PFS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 42.6%, 71.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups by EOR ?90% and <90%, and OS and PFS were analyzed. Both OS and PFS were significantly longer in patients with ?90% EOR. Increased EOR resulted in better PFS for diffuse astrocytoma but not for oligodendroglioma. Multivariate analysis identified age and EOR as parameters significantly associated with OS. The only parameter associated with PFS was EOR. Based on these findings, we established updated therapeutic strategies for LGG. If surgery resulted in EOR <90%, patients with astrocytoma will require second-look surgery, whereas patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma, which are sensitive to chemotherapy, will be treated with chemotherapy. PMID:23883555

Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Iseki, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Soko; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Taichi; Tamura, Manabu; Chernov, Michael; Watanabe, Atsushi; Okamoto, Saori; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okada, Yoshikazu



Incidence of low-grade infection in aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the hypothesis that many total hip arthroplasty revisions that are classified as aseptic are in fact low-grade infections missed with routine diagnostics. Methods In 7 Dutch hospitals, 176 consecutive patients with the preoperative diagnosis of aseptic loosening of their total hip arthroplasty were enrolled. During surgery, between 14 and 20 tissue samples were obtained for culture, pathology, and broad-range 16S rRNA PCR with reverse line blot hybridization. Patients were classified as either not being infected, suspected of having infection, or infected according to strict, predefined criteria. Each patient had a follow-up visit after 1 year. Results 7 patients were classified as infected, 4 of whom were not identified by routine culture. 15 additional patients were suspected of having infection. 20 of these 22 patients received a cemented prosthesis, fixated with antibiotic-loaded bone cement. All 22 patients received prophylactic systemic antibiotics. 7 of them reported complaints one year after surgery, but only one showed signs of early loosening. However, additional surgery was not performed in any of the patients. Interpretation Although the proportions were not as high as previously reported in the literature, between 4% and 13% of patients with the preoperative diagnosis of aseptic loosening were infected. However, as thorough debridement was performed during surgery and prophylactic antibiotics were used, the diagnosis of infection did not have any obvious clinical consequences, as most patients performed well at the 1-year follow-up. Whether this observation has implications for long-term implant survival remains to be seen.



Proton Therapy in Pediatric Skull Base and Cervical Canal Low-Grade Bone Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes and tolerance of high-dose photon and proton therapy in the management of skull base and cervical canal primary bony malignancies in children. Patients and Methods: Thirty children were treated postoperatively with high-dose photon-proton (29 patients) or protons-only (1 patient) radiotherapy. Twenty-six patients had chordomas (CH), 3 had low-grade chondrosarcomas (CS), and 1 had an aggressive chondroma (AC). The mean age was 12.8 years. At the time of radiation, all but 1 patient had a gross residue. The anatomic sites affected were skull base (n 16), cervical canal (n = 1), or both (n = 13). Mean total dose was 68.4 cobalt Gray equivalents, conventionally fractionated. Results: With a mean follow-up of 26.5 months, 5 of 30 children failed locally: 5 of 5 lesions were CH, 5 of 5 patients had experienced pain at presentation (p = 0.03), and 4 of 5 had cervical extension (p = 0.07). The 5-year overall survival/progression-free survival rates for CS and CH were 100%/100% and 81%/77%, respectively. Side effects were scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Acute toxicity ranged between 0 and 2. Late toxicity of radiotherapy was severe in 1 patient (Grade 3 auditory) and minor or mild in the rest of the population (7 patients with Grade 2 pituitary dysfunction). Conclusions: High-dose combined fractionated photon-proton therapy is well tolerated in children and allows excellent local control with minimal long-term toxicity.

Habrand, Jean-Louis [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France)], E-mail:; Schneider, Ralf M.D.; Alapetite, Claire; Feuvret, Loic [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Petras, Slavo [University Hospital, Caen Cyceron Laboratory, Caen (France); Datchary, Jean [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Grill, Jacques [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Noel, Georges; Helfre, Sylvie; Ferrand, Regis; Bolle, Stephanie [Centre de Protontherapie de l'Institut Curie a Orsay, Campus Universitaire, Orsay (France); Sainte-Rose, Christian [Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)



Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients’ QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working.

Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M.



Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update  

PubMed Central

To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival.

Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.



Proteomic Helicobacter pylori biomarkers discriminative of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma and duodenal ulcer.  


To date no reliable diagnostic method exists to predict, among the very large and clinically heterogeneous group of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients, the extremely small group at risk for developing low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma (LG-MALT). Search of proteomic biomarkers holds promise for the classification of the H. pylori strains with regard to this severe clinical outcome. In the present study 69 H. pylori strains isolated from patients with two different H. pylori-associated diseases, duodenal ulcer (DU, n=29) and LG-MALT (n=40) were used. Protein expression patterns of the strains were analyzed by using the high-throughput methodology SELDI. Selected proteins were purified by means of chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in view of further sequencing by LC-MS/MS. Univariate analysis (Mann-Whitney test) of the protein expression patterns generated nine significant biomarkers that can discriminate between H. pylori strains from patients with DU and LG-MALT. These biomarkers are of low molecular weight, ranging from 6 to 26.6?kDa. Among them, two are overexpressed in LG-MALT strains and seven - in DU strains. Two biomarker proteins, one overexpressed in LG-MALT strains (13.2?kDa) and another one - overexpressed in DU strains (26.6?kDa), were purified to homogeneity and identified by using LC-MS/MS as a 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12 and a urease subunit, respectively. These biomarkers can be included in novel protein arrays for the differential diagnosis of H. pylori-associated clinical outcomes. PMID:21136979

Bernarde, Cédric; Khoder, Ghalia; Lehours, Philippe; Burucoa, Christophe; Fauchère, Jean-Louis; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Mégraud, Francis; Atanassov, Christo



Phase II Trial of Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of radiotherapy in pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG) is controversial, especially for young patients. We conducted a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) to estimate disease control by using a 10-mm clinical target volume (CTV) margin. Materials and Methods Between August 1997 and August 2006, 78 pediatric patients with LGG and a median age of 8.9 years (range, 2.2 to 19.8 years) received 54 Gy CRT by using a 10-mm CTV and by targeting with systematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registration. Tumor locations were diencephalon (n = 58), cerebral hemisphere (n = 3), and cerebellum (n = 17). Sixty-seven patients had documented or presumed WHO grade 1 tumors, 25 patients had prior chemotherapy, and 13 patients had neurofibromatosis type 1. Results During a median follow-up of 89 months, 13 patients experienced disease progression. One patient experienced marginal treatment failure, eight experienced local failures, and four experienced metastatic failure. The mean and standard error 5- and 10-year event-free (87.4% ± 4.4% and 74.3% ± 15.4%, respectively) and overall (98.5% ± 1.6% and 95.9% ± 5.8%, respectively) survival rates were determined. The mean and standard error cumulative incidences of local failure at 5 and 10 years were 8.7% ± 3.5% and 16.4% ± 5.4%, respectively. The mean and standard error cumulative incidence of vasculopathy was 4.79% ± 2.73% at 6 years, and it was higher for those younger than 5 years of age (P = .0105) at the time of CRT. Conclusion This large, prospective series of irradiated children with LGG demonstrates that CRT with a 10-mm CTV does not compromise disease control. The results suggest that CRT should be delayed in young patients to reduce the risk of vasculopathy.

Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A.



Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: an analysis of epidemiological studies and hints for pathologists  

PubMed Central

Background This study is an analysis of the prevalence of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in epidemiological surveys of salivary tumors published in the English language from 1992 to 2012. Methods These surveys included studies from different researchers, countries and continents. The 57 surveys for which it was possible to calculate the percentage of PLGAs among all malignant minor salivary gland tumors (MMSGT) were included in this review. Results The statistical analyses show significant differences in the PLGA percentage by time period, country and continent in the studies included in this review. The percentage of PLGAs among MMSGTs varied among the studies, ranging from 0.0% to 46.8%. PLGA rates have varied over the period studied and have most recently increased. The frequency of reported PLGA cases also varied from 0.0% to 24.8% by the country in which the MMSGT studies were performed. The PLGA percentages also varied significantly by continent, with frequencies ranging from 3.9% in Asia to 20.0% in Oceania Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that although the accuracy of PLGA diagnoses has improved, they remain a challenge for pathologists. To facilitate PLGA diagnoses, we have therefore made some suggestions for pathologists regarding tumors composed of single-layer strands of cells that form all of the histological patterns present in the tumor, consistency of the cytological appearance and uniformly positive CK7, vimentin and S100 immunohistochemistry, which indicate a single PLGA phenotype. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:



Racial differences in oncogene mutations detected in early stage, low grade endometrial cancers  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the pattern and frequency of oncogene mutations in white and African American (AA) women with endometrial cancer, and to determine if racial differences in oncogene mutations exist among women with pathologically similar tumors. Methods Endometrial cancer patients from a large, urban hospital were identified through medical records, and representative formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor blocks were retrieved. The study sample included 150 patients (84 AA) who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. The Sequenom MassARRAY system and the OncoCarta Assay v1.0 (Sequenom), were employed to test for 238 mutations in 19 common oncogenes. Chi-square tests and Fisher’s exact tests were used to assess differences in distribution of variables by race and oncogene mutation status. Results There were 20 mutations identified in 2 oncogenes (PIK3CA and KRAS) in tumors from 19 women (12.7%). The majority of mutations were found in PIK3CA (16/20). Thirteen percent of endometroid tumors harbored mutations (11 PIK3CA and 2 KRAS), as did 29% of the Malignant Mixed Mullerian tumors (3 PIK3CA and 1 KRAS). There were no observed mutations in serous, clear cell, or mucinous tumor types. Among low grade endometrioid cancers, tumors from AA patients were significantly associated with harboring either a KRAS or PIK3CA mutation (p=0.04), with 7 PIK3CA mutations and all 4 KRAS mutations identified in AA women. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that oncogene mutation frequency of some subtypes of histologically similar endometrial carcinoma differ by race. Additional studies are needed to further explore this phenomenon in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Cote, Michele L.; Atikukke, Govindaraja; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Olson, Sara H.; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Elshaikh, Mohammad A.; Gaba, Arthur R.; Schultz, Daniel; Haddad, Ramsi; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba



Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO.  


This study aims to evaluate the potential of low grade MgO (LGMgO) for the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace wastes. Relevant characteristics such as setting time, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behaviour assessed by acid neutralisation capacity (ANC), monolithic and granular leaching tests were examined in light of the UK landfill Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal. The results demonstrated that all studied mix designs with Portland cement type 1 (CEM1) and LGMgO, CEM1-LGMgO 1:2 and 1:4 at 40% and 70% waste addition met the WAC requirements by means of UCS, initial and final setting times and consistence. Most of the ANC results met the WAC limits where the threshold pH values without acid additions were stable and between 11.9 and 12.2 at 28d. Granular leaching results indicate fixation of most of the metals at all mix ratios. An optimum ratio was obtained at CEM1-LGMgO 1:4 at 40% waste additions where none of the metals leaching exceeded the WAC limits and hence may be considered for landfill disposal. The monolithic leaching test results showed that LGMgO performed satisfactorily with respect to S/S of Zn, as the metal component present at the highest concentration level in the waste exhibited very little leaching and passed the leaching test requirement at all mix ratios studied. However, its performance with respect to Pb, Cd and Cr was less effective in reducing their leaching suggesting a higher cumulative rate under those leaching regimes. PMID:22172635

Cubukcuoglu, B; Ouki, S K



Primary lymphoid neoplasms of the stomach  

PubMed Central

Primary lymphoid neoplasms of the stomach may closely simulate carcinomata but carry an appreciably better prognosis after surgical treatment. This paper reports a clinical and pathological study of local gastric lymphoid tumours and also studies in patients with gastric involvement with generalized reticulosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8

Ellis, H. A.; Lannigan, R.



Fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes in a supernumerary ring chromosome in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare, low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor that is often mistaken for either benign or more malignant tumor types. Commonly, this tumor affects young adults and typically arises in the deep proximal extremities or trunk with frequent recurrences and can metastasize to the lungs many years later. Most cases have a recurrent balanced translocation involving

Hammurabi Bartuma; Emely Möller; Anna Collin; Henryk A. Domanski; Fredrik Vult Von Steyern; Nils Mandahl; Fredrik Mertens



Bioextraction (reductive dissolution) of iron from low-grade iron ores. Fundamental and applied studies.  


Results of the present study indicate that S. putrefaciens 200 may be a suitable Fe(3+)-reducing microorganism for commercial application in a microbially catalyzed iron ore bioextraction (reductive dissolution) process. The proposed scheme of the bioextraction process (Fig. 1) entails the addition of a suitable iron ore to anaerobic, batch cultures of aerobically grown S. putrefaciens 200, with subsequent recovery of Fe2+ in the product stream. Although batch growth under low oxygen tension is known to induce expression of the high-rate Fe3+ reduction system in S. putrefaciens, such growth conditions do not appreciably enhance the rate at which S. putrefaciens catalyzes the reductive dissolution of iron from low-grade iron ore. As a result, strict monitoring of dissolved oxygen levels during batch growth is not required. Highly aerobic growth conditions are most desirable because such conditions maximize microbial growth rates. Commercial application of the proposed process is made more attractive by the ability to grow S. putrefaciens aerobically on a relatively inexpensive organic substrate (filter-sterilized, primary effluent wastewater) as sole carbon and energy source. Physical and chemical factors that accelerate overall reductive dissolution rates include (i) pulverization of the iron ores before their addition to the anaerobic, batch cultures, and (ii) subsequent addition of an Fe(III)-chelating agent to the anaerobic iron ore-microorganism slurry. Recycle of residual ore remaining in the initial reactor vessel after a one-hour incubation is recommended, since overall reductive dissolution rates decrease dramatically after that time. Significant enhancement of the overall reductive dissolution rates may reside in the ability to genetically engineer a more robust Fe(3+)-reducing microorganism. Preliminary genetic studies presented here indicate that S. putrefaciens is a suitable model microorganism for studying the molecular basis of microbial Fe3+ reduction. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the Fe3+ reduction system of S. putrefaciens is physiologically uncoupled from other electron-accepting processes carried out by this bacterium, and that a distinct ferrireductase enzyme is expressed after growth under either highly aerobic or microaerobic conditions. An array of S. putrefaciens mutants (Class I), deficient only in their ability to grow anaerobically on Fe3+ as sole terminal electron acceptor, were isolated and a single mutant selected for subsequent gene cloning (complementation) experiments. Restriction enzyme analysis of putative, complemented clones (i.e., transconjugates in which the ability to grow anaerobically on Fe3+ had been restored) revealed the presence of a common cloned DNA insert.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8010693

DiChristina, T J



Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Paediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) encompass a heterogeneous set of tumours of different histologies, site of lesion, age and gender distribution, growth potential, morphological features, tendency to progression and clinical course. Among LGGs, Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children. They are typically well-circumscribed, classified as grade I by the World Health Organization (WHO), but recurrence or progressive disease occurs in about 10-20% of cases. Despite radiological and neuropathological features deemed as classic are acknowledged, PA may present a bewildering variety of microscopic features. Indeed, tumours containing both neoplastic ganglion and astrocytic cells occur at a lower frequency. Methods Gene expression profiling on 40 primary LGGs including PAs and mixed glial-neuronal tumours comprising gangliogliomas (GG) and desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) using Affymetrix array platform was performed. A biologically validated machine learning workflow for the identification of microarray-based gene signatures was devised. The method is based on a sparsity inducing regularization algorithm l1l2 that selects relevant variables and takes into account their correlation. The most significant genetic signatures emerging from gene-chip analysis were confirmed and validated by qPCR. Results We identified an expression signature composed by a biologically validated list of 15 genes, able to distinguish infratentorial from supratentorial LGGs. In addition, a specific molecular fingerprinting distinguishes the supratentorial PAs from those originating in the posterior fossa. Lastly, within supratentorial tumours, we also identified a gene expression pattern composed by neurogenesis, cell motility and cell growth genes which dichotomize mixed glial-neuronal tumours versus PAs. Our results reinforce previous observations about aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in LGGs, but still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. Conclusions The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs.



Low grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma pelvic recurrence masquerading as high grade invasive carcinoma, ten years after radical cystectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy for a low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is exceedingly uncommon and has not been reported previously. Case presentation We describe a case of a young male presenting with anorexia, weight loss and a large, painful locally destructive pelvic recurrence, ten years after radical cystoprostatectomy. The pathology was consistent with a low-grade urothelial carcinoma. After an unsuccessful treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the patient underwent a curative intent hemipelvectomy with complete excision of tumor and is disease free at one year follow-up. Conclusion A literature review related to this unusual presentation is reported and a surgical solutions over chemotherapy and radiotherapy is proposed.

Dangle, Pankaj P; Wang, Wenle Paul; Mayerson, Joel; Mortazavi, Amir; Monk, Paul



Albite crystallographic preferred orientation and grain misorientation distribution in a low-grade mylonite: implications for granular flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallographic orientation data from pure albite domains in a low-grade sheared metagabbro from the Combin Zone of the western Italian Alps were measured by electron backscatter diffraction. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in four high-strain domains are non-random and have a triclinic symmetry. The clusters of [100], [010] and [001] show an angular relationship that corresponds to that of the albite

Zhenting Jiang; David J Prior; John Wheeler



Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma Arising at the Retromolar Region: A Rare Case of High-Grade Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is an entity under the subclassifica- tion of adenocarcinoma from salivary glands. We report here a rare case of PLGA with suspected metastases to a regional lymph node and the liver, confirmed by magnetic res- onance imaging and computed tomography. An 88-year-old Japanese woman complain- ing of pain in the left mandible, specifically in the gingiva

Kazuko Takubo; Rieko Doi; Kazunori Kidani; Motoki Nakabayashi; Masayuki Sonoda; Fumihiro Ohtake; Isamu Kodani; Yasushi Horie; Kazuo Ryoke


Bioleaching of zinc from low-grade complex sulfide ores in an airlift by isolated Leptospirillum ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioleaching of low-grade complex sulfide ores from La Silvita and La Resbalosa (Patagonia Argentina) were carried out in a reverse flow airlift reactor by a native strain of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans (Lf-LS04). The reactor was filled with iron free 9K medium pH 1.8, with mineral particle size of –74 ?m, pulp density of 1% and a superficial air velocity of 0.01m s?

A. Giaveno; L. Lavalle; P. Chiacchiarini; E. Donati



Associations of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness with low-grade inflammation in adolescents: the AFINOS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the independent associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and fatness with low-grade inflammatory markers in adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional study in Spain.Subjects:A sample of 192 adolescents aged 13–17 years.Measurements:PA was assessed with an accelerometer for 7 days. A 20-m shuttle-run test was used to assess CRF. Skinfold thicknesses at six sites and WCs were measured. BMI was

D Martinez-Gomez; J C Eisenmann; J Wärnberg; S Gomez-Martinez; A Veses; O L Veiga; A Marcos



Associations of low-grade inflammation with physical activity, fitness and fatness in prepubertal children; the European Youth Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the associations of low-grade inflammation with objectively measured physical activity, cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness in prepubertal children.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:One hundred and forty-two children (74 boys and 68 girls) aged 9–10 years (pubertal stage I and II) from the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study.Measurements:Total physical activity and its intensity levels (moderate, vigorous, moderate + vigorous) were

J R Ruiz; F B Ortega; J Warnberg; M Sjöström



Using different schedules of Temozolomide to treat low grade gliomas: systematic review of their efficacy and toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low grade gliomas (LGG) contribute to 50% of all central nervous tumors in children and 15% of all gliomas in adults. Temozolomide\\u000a (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent with activity in high and LGG. Various regimens of TMZ are currently in use. We attempted\\u000a to assess the impact of different TMZ regimens on the treatment of LGG. A systematic review

Harsha Prasada Lashkari; Srdjan Saso; Lucas Moreno; Thanos Athanasiou; Stergios Zacharoulis


Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements in argillaceous sediments: Implications for dating diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr data for the fine fractions of Lower Paleozoic argillaceous rocks from Wales, UK and New York, USA, spanning the range of low-grade metamorphic conditions from the diagenetic zone (zeolite facies) to the epizone (greenschist facies). In all cases, leaching of the fine fractions results in a high 147 Sm \\/ 144 Nd (0.09-0.29) acid-soluble component

Matthias Ohr; Alexander N. Halliday; Donald R. Peacor



Indices of low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome and the beneficial effect of metformin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and related disorders. Elevated serum levels of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) reflect low-grade chronic inflammation and have been associated with several insulin-resistant states. The objective of this study is to investigate whether soluble inflammatory markers (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial leu- kocyte adhesion

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Thomas Paterakis; Krystallenia Alexandraki; Christina Piperi; Athanasios Aessopos; Ilias Katsikis; Nikolaos Katsilambros; George Kreatsas; Dimitrios Panidis



CT and MRI features of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma in the shoulder of a pediatric patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a 10-year-old boy with low-grade fibromyxoid\\u000a sarcoma (LGFMS) in the shoulder and correlate them with the clinicopathological features. LGFMS, a rare soft tissue sarcoma\\u000a with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior, tends to occur in superficial regions and in children\\u000a more than previously recognized. To date,

Mototaka Miyake; Ukihide Tateishi; Tetsuo Maeda; Yasuaki Arai; Kunihiko Seki; Tadashi Hasegawa; Kazuro Sugimura



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the small bowel mesentery: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor that commonly arises in the lower extremities but rarely in the mesentery.\\u000a We report computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of LGFMS of the small bowel mesentery. On\\u000a CT, the mass was composed of two components. One component, on its right side, appeared to have isointense attenuation relative\\u000a to

Shinya Fujii; Yoko Kawawa; Shinichiro Horiguchi; Noriko Kamata; Toshibumi Kinoshita; Toshihide Ogawa



Massive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma presenting as acute respiratory distress in a 12-year-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that usually presents in young adults as a painless, slow-growing\\u000a mass. Evans first described LGFMS in 1987 as a spindle-cell sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive\\u000a behavior. Although young adults are most frequently affected, recent reports describe pediatric cases being increasingly more\\u000a common. Males and females are affected approximately

Michael A. Steiner; Henry W. Giles; William P. Daley



Retrospective protein expression and epigenetic inactivation studies of CDH1 in patients affected by low-grade glioma.  


Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of tumour cells results in loss of gene function. In addition to genetic lesions, changes in the methylation profile of the promoters may be considered a factor for tumour-specific aberrant expression of the genes.We investigated the methylation status of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter in low-grade glioma and correlated it with clinical outcome. Eighty-four cases of low-grade glioma (43 diffuse astrocytomas, 27 oligodendrogliomas and 14 oligoastrocytomas) with assessable paraffin-embedded tumour blocks and normal brain tissue, derived from non-cancerous tissue adjacent to tumour and commercially normal brain tissue, were collected, from which we determined CDH1 promoter methylation status and E-cadherin protein expression by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CDH1 promoter was found hypermethylated in 54 out of 84 low grade gliomas (64%) compared with 84 normal brain tissue. CDH1 hypermethylation was found in 65% astrocytomas, 66% oligodendrogliomas and 57% oligoastrocytomas. A significant correlation between hypermethylation status, patient survival and progression-free survival was found (P = 0.04). Survival and progression-free survival were lower in patients with hypermethylated CDH1 promoter. We found that 15 astrocytomas, 9 oligodendrogliomas and 6 oligoastrocytomas were immunoreactive for E-cadherin. The incidence of loss of immunoreactivity for E-cadherin decreased significantly with age, overall survival and progression-free survival (P = 0.001, Kaplan-Meier test). We have demonstrated that CDH1 promoter hypermethylation significantly associated with down-regulated E-cadherin expression and overall survival of patients. This may have a bearing on the prognosis of low-grade glioma. PMID:21127944

D'Urso, Pietro Ivo; D'Urso, Oscar Fernando; Storelli, Carlo; Catapano, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Muscella, Antonella; Marsigliante, Santo



Simulated small-scale pilot heap leaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore with selective extraction of copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioleaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore and the selective extraction of copper were investigated. Lix984 dissolved in kerosene was used as extractant. The results show that it is possible to selectively leach copper from the ores by heap leaching. The copper concentration of leaching liquor after 250 d is 2.17 g\\/L, and the copper concentration is 0.27 g\\/L after

Wen-qing QIN; Yan-sheng ZHANG; Wei-zhong LI; Jun WANG



Energetic and exergetic analysis of CO 2- and R32-based transcritical Rankine cycles for low-grade heat conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcritical Rankine cycles using refrigerant R32 (CH2F2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as the working fluids are studied for the conversion of low-grade heat into mechanical power. Compared to CO2, R32 has higher thermal conductivity and condenses easily. The energy and exergy analyses of the cycle with these two fluids shows that the R32-based transcritical Rankine cycle can achieve 12.6–18.7% higher

Huijuan Chen; D. Yogi Goswami; Muhammad M. Rahman; Elias K. Stefanakos



Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry



Disease-Associated Prion Protein in Neural and Lymphoid Tissues of Mink (Mustela vison) Inoculated with Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Summary Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd). The distribution of PrPd within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrPTME and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrPTME in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrPTME in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrPTME was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrPTME was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrPTME in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrPTME accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrPTME in the lymphoid tissues of mink but not in hamsters. Thus mink are a relevant animal model for further study of this unique strain, which ultimately may have been introduced through consumption of a TSE of ruminant origin.

Schneider, D. A.; Harrington, R. D.; Zhuang, D.; Yan, H.; Truscott, T. C.; Dassanayake, R. P.; O'Rourke, K. I.



Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States  

PubMed Central

Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely-used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. Since exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared to the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91 mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28 mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures.

Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa; Trachtman, Howard



Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1.  


Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas. PMID:23633565

Ramkissoon, Lori A; Horowitz, Peleg M; Craig, Justin M; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Rich, Benjamin E; Schumacher, Steven E; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J; Hill, D Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L; Eberhart, Charles G; Dunn, Ian F; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C; Stiles, Charles D; Ligon, Azra H; Kieran, Mark W; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L



Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States.  


Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. As exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91?mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28?mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures. PMID:23302717

Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M; Trachtman, Howard



Myxoid mixed low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and smooth muscle tumor of the uterus. Case report.  


We report the case of a 73-year-old female with myxoid mixed low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and smooth muscle tumor of the uterus. Grossly, the tumor sized 130 x 130 x 100 mm involved the uterine corpus almost in its entirety. Histologically, the tumor consisted of two cell types. In some areas, the tumor cells showed typical features of endometrial stromal tumors and resembled stromal cells of proliferative endometrium. In other areas, however, the tumor showed smooth muscle features and consisted of larger mostly epitheloid cells with a moderate amount of cytoplasm. In all areas, myxoid changes and multiple hyalinizing giant rosettes were present. The tumor infiltrated the myometrium in a pattern typical of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed expression of vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors and variable expression of CD10, ?-smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3. Other markers examined including CD99, ?-inhibin, cytokeratin CAM5.2, S-100 protein, and HMB45 were negative. To the best of our knowledge, mixed low-grade endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumor with myxoid changes has not been described to date. PMID:22716064

Dundr, P; Fischerová, D; Povýšil, C; Cibula, D; Zikán, M



Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat  

SciTech Connect

The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

Dexin Wang



Fluid composition and mineral equilibria in low grade metamorphic rocks, Bündnerschiefer, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of fluid inclusions (FI) hosted in quartz veins from low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bündnerschiefer (two locations near Thusis and Schiers that represent subgreenschist and lower greenschist facies conditions, respectively), Swiss Alps, was determined by combination of microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis. Elongate-blocky quartz and euhedral quartz crystals were sampled form two sets of veins, which are foliation-parallel and open fissure veins that crosscut the main foliation. The host rocks are organic-rich metapelites, that in places contain relatively high amounts of carbonate. Several metamorphic temperature indicators were used to determine the temperature and pressure during metamorphism of the host rocks. These included the Kübler index (Kübler & Jaboyedoff 2000), Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (Beyssac et al., 2002), Na-Mg and Li-Mg fluid solute geothermometry (Giggenbach, 1988; Kharaka & Mariner, 1989) and mineral assemblages. The geothermometers point to equilibrium temperatures around 320±20 °C (Thusis) and 250±20 °C (Schiers). The results of pseudosection modeling show very close agreement with the pressure-temperature conditions that were derived from conventional geothermobarometry. The FI bulk salinity and homogenization temperatures are 4±0.2 wt% eqv. NaCl and 122-140 °C for Thusis, and 2±0.2 wt% and 82-86 °C at Schiers. Most of the important rock-forming elements have been successfully determined in individual FI, with consistent concentrations obtained for well-constrained fluid inclusion assemblages. The FI contain measurable concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Sr, Ba, B, As, B, Zn, Pb, Cu and S. Typical concentrations are 30-40 ppm Al, 5-7 ppm Mg, 300-400 ppm Ca, 3-5 ppm Mn, and 300-350 ppm S for FI from Thusis. Concentrations for most elements are roughly half an order of magnitude lower for FI from Schiers. The total element concentrations are lower compared with data from similar metamorphic vein settings (Yardley et al., 1993; Yardley, 2005). This likely reflects the lower salinity of fluids in the Bündnerschiefer veins, which exerts a major control on those elements that are complexed by chloride. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbars for Thusis, and around 3.4 kbars for Schiers. The geothermal gradient decreases from the southern location (27-22 °C/km: Thusis) to the northern location (19 °C/km: Schiers), in agreement with their position during metamorphism. The fluid composition data, in conjunction with metamorphic indicators and petrological modeling, demonstrate that fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during metamorphism and vein formation. Fluid composition and pressure-temperature conditions remained essentially unchanged during the evolution of the vein systems. The veins evolved as rock-buffered closed systems, due to the low permeability of the organic-rich metapelites.

Miron, G. D.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.



Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

Strober, S.



Immune functions of nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue.  


This brief review will focus on nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue as a unique inductive immune site for B cell responses and plasma cell generation. The anatomical and immunological characteristics of Waldeyer's lymphoid ring should make the nasal route for vaccine administration highly relevant in future clinical trials to stimulate both mucosal and systemic immunity. In this context, the potential immunological consequences of removing both the tonsils and the adenoids have to be considered. PMID:21865681

Brandtzaeg, Per



No correlation between slip reduction in low-grade spondylolisthesis or change in neuroforaminal morphology and clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background In instrumented posterolateral fusion reduction of a spondylolisthesis is appealing on theoretical grounds since this may lead to indirect decompression of the entrapped nerve roots. However, there is no consensus in the literature whether a beneficial effect of reduction on outcome can be expected. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether a correlation between the extent of listhesis reduction and clinical improvement could be established. Methods From two ongoing prospective studies 72 patients with a single-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion for low-grade spondylolisthesis (isthmic/degenerative 51/21) were evaluated. Radiographs and clinical outcome scores were available at baseline, 6 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Changes in neuroforaminal morphology were measured on calibrated radiographs. These changes in radiographic parameters were correlated to clinical outcome (Visual Analogue Score (VAS) leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)). Fusion status was assessed on Computed Tomography-scan at one year. Results A mean spondylolisthesis of 25 percent was reduced to 15 percent at 6 weeks with some loss of reduction to 17 percent at one year. The VAS and ODI significantly improved at both time intervals after surgery (p?low grade spondylolisthesis. Loss of reduction or non-union on CT-scans had no effect on the clinical outcome. Reduction of a low-grade spondylolisthesis in spinal fusion is appealing, however, there is no evidence that it positively affects clinical outcome on the short term. Trial registration ISRCTN43648350



Effect of diindolylmethane supplementation on low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities: double-blind, randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical screening identifies many women with low-grade abnormalities. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that diindolylmethane (DIM) could potentially halt (cervical) carcinogenesis. We report on a randomised controlled trial of the effect of DIM in women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities. Methods: We conducted a pragmatic double-blind, randomised controlled trial of 150?mg DIM (from BioResponse DIM) or placebo daily for 6 months in women with newly diagnosed, low-grade cytological abnormalities. Randomisation was in the ratio 2 (DIM) to 1 (placebo). All women were invited for colposcopy at 6 months with biopsy of any abnormality. Results: Of the 551 randomised women available for analysis, 9% on DIM and 12% on placebo had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-2 (CIN2) or worse after 6-month supplementation (risk ratio (RR) 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4–1.2)), whereas 4.6% and 5.1%, respectively, had CIN3 or worse (RR 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4–2.0)). A total of 27.3% of women on DIM and 34.3% on placebo had no sign of disease (negative cytology, colposcopy and human papilloma virus (HPV) tests) at 6 months (RR 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6–1.0)). Of those HPV-positive at baseline, 69% (114 out of 166) of the DIM group were positive at 6 months compared with 61% (43 out of 71) of the placebo group: RR 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9–1.4). Diindolylmethane supplementation was well tolerated. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term DIM supplementation (150?mg?day?1) is well tolerated, but is unlikely to have an effect on cytology or HPV infection. Uncertainty remains regarding its effect on CIN2+.

Castanon, A; Tristram, A; Mesher, D; Powell, N; Beer, H; Ashman, S; Rieck, G; Fielder, H; Fiander, A; Sasieni, P



Clinical effects of oral green tea extracts in four patients with low grade B-cell malignancies.  


Green tea or its constituents have long been touted as a health promoting substance including claims it may have cancer prevention properties. We previously reported the in vitro ability of one tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), to induce apoptotic cell death in the leukemic B-cells from a majority of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). After the publication of our findings many patients with CLL and other low grade lymphomas began using over-the-counter products containing tea polyphenols despite the absence of evidence to suggest clinical benefit, definition of possible toxicities, or information on optimal dose and schedule. We have become aware of four patients with low grade B-cell malignancies seen in our clinical practice at Mayo Clinic who began, on their own initiative, oral ingestion of EGCG containing products and subsequently appeared to have an objective clinical response. Three of these four patients met criteria for partial response (PR) by standard response criteria. Although spontaneous remission/regression is occasionally observed in individuals with low grade B-cell malignancies, such events are rare. Several patients presented here had documented steady clinical, laboratory, and/or radiographic evidence of progression immediately prior to initiation of over-the-counter green tea products and then developed objective responses shortly after self-initiating this therapy. Such anecdotes highlight the need for clinical trials of tea polyphenols to define the optimal dosing, schedule, toxicities, and clinical efficacy before widespread use can be recommended. An NCI sponsored phase I/II trial of de-caffeinated green tea extracts for patients with asymptomatic, early stage CLL opened at Mayo Clinic in August 2005. PMID:16325256

Shanafelt, T D; Lee, Y K; Call, T G; Nowakowski, G S; Dingli, D; Zent, C S; Kay, N E



Emerging Functions of RANKL in Lymphoid Tissues  

PubMed Central

The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members play pivotal roles in embryonic development of lymphoid tissue and their homeostasis. RANKL (Receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, also called TRANCE, TNFSF11) is recognized as an important player in bone homeostasis and lymphoid tissue formation. In its absence bone mass control is deregulated and lymph nodes fail to develop. While its function in bone is well described, there is still little functional insight into the action of RANKL in lymphoid tissue development and homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the known functions of RANKL, its signaling receptor RANK and its decoy receptor OPG from the perspective of lymphoid tissue development and immune activation in the mouse. Expressed by the hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducing (LTi) cells and the mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells, RANKL was shown to stimulate Lymphotoxin (LT) expression and to be implicated in LTi cell accumulation. Our recent finding that RANKL also triggers proliferation of adult lymph node stroma suggests that RANKL may furthermore directly activate LTo cells. Beyond bone, the RANKL-RANK-OPG triad plays important roles in immunobiology that are waiting to be unraveled.

Mueller, Christopher G.; Hess, Estelle



The clinical significance of the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with a deceptively benign histological appearance. Local\\u000a recurrences and metastases can manifest many years following excision. The FUS-CREB3L2 gene translocation, which occurs commonly in LGFMS, may be detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)\\u000a and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We assessed the relationship between clinical outcome and translocation test\\u000a result

Barry Rose; George S Tamvakopoulos; Kamaljit Dulay; Robin Pollock; John Skinner; Timothy Briggs; Steven Cannon



Outcome of children with low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma: long-term complications and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objects  To study the long-term outcome of surgically treated low-grade cerebellar astrocytomas in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We followed 31 consecutive patients under 16 years of age who were diagnosed between 1980 and 2005 in a single institution.\\u000a In 21 of 31 survivors (median follow-up time 7.9 years; range 5.6–27.4 years) who agreed to participate, tumor control, neurological\\u000a and cognitive complications, and their impact on

Tycho J. Zuzak; Andrea Poretti; Barbara Drexel; Daniel Zehnder; Eugen Boltshauser; Michael A. Grotzer



Low-Grade Albuminuria Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Micro-albuminuria has been well established as one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the association of MetS and its components with low-grade albuminuria among those with normal urinary albumin excretion has not been clearly elucidated in Chinese population. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9,579 participants with normal urinary albumin excretion, who were recruited from Jia Ding District, Shanghai, China. The single-void first morning urine sample was collected for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated as urinary albumin divided by creatinine. Low-grade albuminuria was classified as sex-specific upper UACR quartile in this population. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of MetS and its components increased across the UACR quartiles (all P trend <0.01). A multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of MetS was gradually elevated according to the UACR quartiles (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] were 1.14, 1.24 and 1.59 for UACR quartiles 2, 3 and 4, compared with the lowest quartile; P trend<0.0001). In the further stratified logistic regression analyses, the associations between low-grade albuminuria and MetS were significant in both sex strata (male and female), both age strata (<60 and ?60 years), both body mass index strata (<24 and ?24 kg/m2), and both diabetes strata (yes and no). Compared to the lowest UACR quartile, the participants in the highest quartile of UACR had the highest prevalence of central obesity (OR?=?1.43; 95%CI?=?1.25–1.63), high blood pressure (OR?=?1.64; 95%CI?=?1.43–1.87), hyperglycemia (OR?=?1.52; 95%CI?=?1.30–1.78) and high triglycerides (OR?=?1.19; 95%CI?=?1.04–1.37). Conclusions and Significance Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with the increasing prevalence of MetS and its components in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population with normal urinary albumin excretion.

Xu, Yu; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Xu, Baihui; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang



Latitude gradients for lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in Australia support an association with ultraviolet radiation exposure.  


Given the uncertainty surrounding solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and risk of lymphoid neoplasms, we performed an ecological analysis of national Australian data for incident cases diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Subtype-specific incidence was examined by latitude band (<29°S, 29-36°S, ?37°S), a proxy for ambient UVR exposure, using multiple Poisson regression, adjusted for sex, age-group and calendar year. Incidence increased with distance from the equator for several mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell [incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.61 for latitude ?37°S relative to <29°S], lymphoplasmacytic (IRR?=?1.34; 95% CI: 1.12-1.61), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (IRR?=?1.32; 95% CI: 0.97-1.80) and mantle cell lymphoma (IRR?=?1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.58), as well as plasmacytoma (IRR?=?1.52; 95% CI: 1.09-2.11) and plasma cell myeloma (IRR?=?1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.27). A similar pattern was observed for several mature cutaneous T-cell neoplasms, including primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (IRR?=?4.26; 95% CI: 1.85-9.84), mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome (IRR?=?1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (NOS) (IRR?=?1.53; 95% CI: 1.17-2.00). Incidence of mixed cellularity/lymphocyte-depleted (IRR?=?1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.20) and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (IRR?=?1.57; 95% CI: 1.33-1.85) also increased with distance from the equator. Many of these subtypes have a known association with infection or immune dysregulation. Our findings support a possible protective effect of UVR exposure on the risk of several lymphoid neoplasms, possibly through vitamin D-related immune modulation critical in lymphomagenesis. PMID:23382012

van Leeuwen, Marina T; Turner, Jennifer J; Falster, Michael O; Meagher, Nicola S; Joske, David J; Grulich, Andrew E; Giles, Graham G; Vajdic, Claire M



Late sequela after treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 69 long-term survivors treated between 1983 and 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the spectrum of late effects in a large cohort of pediatric patients with low-grade\\u000a gliomas (WHO grade I and II) during an observation period of 20 years. Eighty-seven patients with low-grade gliomas grouped\\u000a according to tumor location (cerebellum: n=28; cerebral hemispheres: n=21; central midline: n=15; brainstem: n=12; tectum: n=5; other locations: n=6)

Martin Benesch; Herwig Lackner; Petra Sovinz; Elisabeth Suppan; Wolfgang Schwinger; Hans-Georg Eder; Hans Jürgen Dornbusch; Andrea Moser; Karin Triebl-Roth; Christian Urban



Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma of salivary glands: report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a recently described rare tumor of salivary gland which exhibits clinically indolent behavior. This tumor predominantly consists of intraductal components and frequently exhibits papillary-cystic or cribriform proliferation pattern. Considering the histological features of LGCCC, it should be distinguished with papillocystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma, conventional salivary duct carcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Herein, we presented two cases of LGCCC. One arose in the left parotid region in a 48-year-old male, and the other one arose in the right parotid gland in a 59-year-old female. For both cases, immunohistochemically, the luminal tumor cells showed diffuse expression of CK and S100; p63 and smooth muscle actin displayed a continuous rim of myoepithelial cells around all tumor islets; no myoepithelial cells were admixed with the luminal cells. Both patients were alive with no tumor recurrence or metastasis at follow-up. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:



On a minimal model for hemodynamics and metabolism of lactate: application to low grade glioma and therapeutic strategies.  


WHO II low grade glioma evolves inevitably to anaplastic transformation. Magnetic resonance imaging is a good non-invasive way to watch it, by hemodynamic and metabolic modifications, thanks to multinuclear spectroscopy (1)H/(31)P. In this work we study a multi-scale minimal model of hemodynamics and metabolism applied to the study of gliomas. This mathematical analysis leads us to a fast-slow system. The control of the position of the stationary point brings to the concept of domain of viability. Starting from this system, the equations bring to light the parameters that push glioma cells out of their domain of viability. Four fundamental factors are highlighted. The first two are cerebral blood flow and the rate of lactate transport through monocarboxylate transporters, which must be reduced in order to push glioma out of its domain of viability. Another factor is the intra arterial lactate, which must be increased. The last factor is pH, indeed a decrease of intra cellular pH could interfere with glioma growth. These reflections suggest that these four parameters could lead to new therapeutic strategies for the management of low grade gliomas. PMID:23334287

Lahutte-Auboin, Marion; Guillevin, Rémy; Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Vallée, Jean-Noël; Costalat, Robert



Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling  

PubMed Central

Summary In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), pro-inflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines, but at levels ~100–1000x lower than seen within the islet during insulitis, which have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca2+]i in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca2+]i oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca2+]i dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca2+]i was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D.

Dula, Stacey B.; Jecmenica, Mladen; Wu, Runpei; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Verrilli, Gretchen M.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Brayman, Kenneth L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.



Can Proliferation Biomarkers Reliably Predict Recurrence in World Health Organization 2003 Defined Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma, Low Grade?  

PubMed Central

An estimated 1500–3000 invasive Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) cases annually occur worldwide. Before 2003, ESS was divided as low and high grade ESS based on mitotic activity. In 2003 the WHO changed the names, excluded mitoses and made nuclear atypia and necrosis the essential diagnostic criteria to distinguish ESS, Low Grade (ESS-LG, recurrence-free survival >90%) and Undifferentiated Endometrial Sarcoma (UES, poor prognosis). We have evaluated in WHO2003 defined ESS-LG whether proliferation biomarkers predict recurrence. Using survival analysis, the prognostic value of classical mitosis counts (Mitotic Activity Index, MAI) in haematoxyllin-eosin (H&E) sections, and immunohistochemical proliferation biomarkers (Ki-67 and PhosphoHistone-3 (PPH3)) were examined in 24 invasive endometrial stromal sarcomas. Three of 24 (12.5%) ESS-LG recurred. The MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 were all prognostic (P?=?0.001, 0.002 and 0.03). MAI values were >3 in the recurrent cases, but never exceeded 10 (the classical threshold for low and high grade). Non-recurrent cases had 0?MAI?3. PPH3 and Ki67 counts can be easier to perform than MAI and therefore helpful in the diagnosis of ESS, Low Grade. In conclusion, in this small study of WHO2003 defined ESS-LG, high levels of proliferation as measured by MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 are predictive of recurrence. Larger studies are required to confirm these results.

Feng, Weiwei; Malpica, Anais; Skaland, Ivar; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Robboy, Stanley J.; Dalen, Ingvild; Hua, Keqin; Zhou, Xianrong; Baak, Jan P. A.



Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content.

Laack, Nadia N. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)]. E-mail:; Ivnik, Robert J. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Furth, Alfred F. M.S. [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Hammack, Julie E. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Fargo, ND (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)



The chimeric FUS/CREB3l2 gene is specific for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a variant of fibrosarcoma that was recognized as a distinct tumor entity only quite recently. We previously described a translocation, t(7;16)(q33;p11), that resulted in a fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 (also known as BBF2H7) genes in two soft tissue tumors that fulfilled morphologic criteria for LGFMS. To delineate the spectrum of tumors that may harbor the FUS/CREB3L2 gene, we selected 45 low-grade spindle cell sarcomas for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses; none of these tumors had originally been diagnosed as LGFMS. Furthermore, also included were two benign soft tissue tumors and nine high-grade sarcomas with supernumerary ring chromosomes or 7q3 rearrangement and three tumors diagnosed as LGFMS prior to the genetic analysis. Of the 59 tumors analyzed, 12 were FUS/CREB3L2-positive, all of which were diagnosed at histopathologic re-examination as being LGFMS, of both the classical subtype and the subtype with giant collagen rosettes. The breakpoints in the fusion transcripts were always in exons 6 or 7 of FUS and exon 5 of CREB3L2. The results indicated that FUS/CREB3L2 is specifically associated with LGFMS and that RT-PCR or FISH analysis may be useful for the differential diagnosis. PMID:15139001

Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Nascimento, Antonio; Domanski, Henryk A; Wejde, Johan; Brosjö, Otte; Rydholm, Anders; Isaksson, Margareth; Mandahl, Nils; Mertens, Fredrik



Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines



Can proliferation biomarkers reliably predict recurrence in world health organization 2003 defined endometrial stromal sarcoma, low grade?  


An estimated 1500-3000 invasive Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (ESS) cases annually occur worldwide. Before 2003, ESS was divided as low and high grade ESS based on mitotic activity. In 2003 the WHO changed the names, excluded mitoses and made nuclear atypia and necrosis the essential diagnostic criteria to distinguish ESS, Low Grade (ESS-LG, recurrence-free survival >90%) and Undifferentiated Endometrial Sarcoma (UES, poor prognosis). We have evaluated in WHO2003 defined ESS-LG whether proliferation biomarkers predict recurrence. Using survival analysis, the prognostic value of classical mitosis counts (Mitotic Activity Index, MAI) in haematoxyllin-eosin (H&E) sections, and immunohistochemical proliferation biomarkers (Ki-67 and PhosphoHistone-3 (PPH3)) were examined in 24 invasive endometrial stromal sarcomas. Three of 24 (12.5%) ESS-LG recurred. The MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 were all prognostic (P?=?0.001, 0.002 and 0.03). MAI values were >3 in the recurrent cases, but never exceeded 10 (the classical threshold for low and high grade). Non-recurrent cases had 0?MAI?3. PPH3 and Ki67 counts can be easier to perform than MAI and therefore helpful in the diagnosis of ESS, Low Grade. In conclusion, in this small study of WHO2003 defined ESS-LG, high levels of proliferation as measured by MAI, PPH3 and Ki-67 are predictive of recurrence. Larger studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:24146786

Feng, Weiwei; Malpica, Anais; Skaland, Ivar; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Robboy, Stanley J; Dalen, Ingvild; Hua, Keqin; Zhou, Xianrong; Baak, Jan P A



Preoperative chemotherapy for infiltrative low-grade oligoastrocytoma: a useful strategy to maximize surgical resection -case report-.  


A 38-year-old woman presented with a large infiltrative left frontal low-grade glioma manifesting as partial seizures of the left arm and lower limb. First line chemotherapy with temozolomide reduced infiltration and volume, allowing subtotal surgical resection. The patient suffered postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome with right hemiparesis and mutism that resolved completely after approximately one month. She was able to return to her full-time job after 4 months. The residual tumor was stable, and the frequency of seizures had lessened dramatically at the last follow-up examination at 18 months. The present case demonstrates that this new therapeutic approach of chemotherapy followed by surgery can offer safer and more radical surgical resection, improving the quality of life of the patient. PMID:20505301

Spena, Giannantonio; Garbossa, Diego; Barletta, Laura; Prevost, Chiara; Versari, Pietro



CT and MRI features of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma in the shoulder of a pediatric patient.  


We report the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a 10-year-old boy with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) in the shoulder and correlate them with the clinicopathological features. LGFMS, a rare soft tissue sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior, tends to occur in superficial regions and in children more than previously recognized. To date, few imaging studies have been reported, particularly in pediatric patients. In this case, precontrast CT showed a low- to isodensity mass and punctate calcification. On contrast-enhanced CT, heterogeneous enhancement was seen. MRI findings correlated well with the pathological features of the tumor. The myxoid area showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and heterogeneous enhancement after administration of contrast material; the hypercellular area demonstrated lower signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and slight enhancement. PMID:17058145

Miyake, Mototaka; Tateishi, Ukihide; Maeda, Tetsuo; Arai, Yasuaki; Seki, Kunihiko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Sugimura, Kazuro



Massive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma presenting as acute respiratory distress in a 12-year-old girl.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that usually presents in young adults as a painless, slow-growing mass. Evans first described LGFMS in 1987 as a spindle-cell sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior. Although young adults are most frequently affected, recent reports describe pediatric cases being increasingly more common. Males and females are affected approximately equally and common locations include the deep soft tissue of the lower extremity, particularly the thigh and trunk. Primary occurrence within the chest cavity is exceedingly rare. Local recurrence and metastasis are not uncommon and present the clinician and radiologist with challenges regarding follow-up recommendations. Review of the literature reveals many cases of slowly progressive symptoms related to a mass effect. We present a healthy 12-year-old African-American girl who interestingly developed acute symptoms of shortness of breath and chest pain while playing with her brother. PMID:19205685

Steiner, Michael A; Giles, Henry W; Daley, William P



Factors Influencing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Young Patients With Benign and Low-Grade Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present the effect of radiotherapy doses to different volumes of normal structures on neurocognitive outcomes in young patients with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients (median age, 13 years) with residual/progressive brain tumors (10 craniopharyngioma, 8 cerebellar astrocytoma, 6 optic pathway glioma and 4 cerebral low-grade glioma) were treated with SCRT to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Prospective neuropsychological assessments were done at baseline before RT and at subsequent follow-up examinations. The change in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores was correlated with various factors, including dose-volume to normal structures. Results: Although the overall mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) at baseline before RT remained unchanged at 2-year follow-up after SCRT, one third of patients did show a >10% decline in FSIQ as compared with baseline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients aged <15 years had a significantly higher chance of developing a >10% drop in FSIQ than older patients (53% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Dosimetric comparison in patients showing a >10% decline vs. patients showing a <10% decline in IQ revealed that patients receiving >43.2 Gy to >13% of volume of the left temporal lobe were the ones to show a significant drop in FSIQ (p = 0.048). Radiotherapy doses to other normal structures, including supratentorial brain, right temporal lobe, and frontal lobes, did not reveal any significant correlation. Conclusion: Our prospectively collected dosimetric data show younger age and radiotherapy doses to left temporal lobe to be predictors of neurocognitive decline, and may well be used as possible dose constraints for high-precision radiotherapy planning.

Jalali, Rakesh, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Mallick, Indranil; Dutta, Debnarayan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)



A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma.  


After successfully using cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)/day) and etoposide (150 mg/m(2)/day) in ten three-day courses for progressive low-grade gliomas, a subsequent protocol reduced the daily doses of cisplatin (to 25 mg) and etoposide (to 100 mg), with the objective of achieving the same response and three-year PFS rates with lower neurotoxicity and myelotoxicity. We treated 37 patients (median age 6 years); 23 had optochiasmatic tumours and nine were metastatic cases. Diagnoses were clinical in 13 cases and histological in 24, and comprised: pilocytic astrocytoma (17), ganglioglioma (3), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (2), and fibrillary astrocytoma (2). Treatment was prompted by radiological evidence of progression and/or clinical deterioration a median 18 months after the first diagnosis. After initial MRI staging, neurological and clinical examinations were performed before each chemotherapy cycle, with MRI after the first three courses and every three months thereafter. After a median 48 months, a volume reduction was appreciable in 24 cases (65%) and response was maximum 12 months after starting treatment. The three-year EFS and OS rates were 65 and 97%, respectively. Clinical, neurological, or functional improvements were seen in 26/37 cases. No children had a WBC nadir below 2,000/mm(3). Audiological toxicity caused damage in 4/34 cases. The previous protocol had achieved volume reductions in 70% of cases, causing audiological damage (data updated) in 11/31 (P = 0.023), with three-year PFS and OS rates of 70 and 100%, respectively. Lower doses of cisplatin/etoposide are still effective in progressive low-grade glioma, with less acute and persistent morbidity. PMID:20151174

Massimino, Maura; Spreafico, Filippo; Riva, Daria; Biassoni, Veronica; Poggi, Geraldina; Solero, Carlo; Gandola, Lorenza; Genitori, Lorenzo; Modena, Piergiorgio; Simonetti, Fabio; Potepan, Paolo; Casanova, Michela; Meazza, Cristina; Clerici, Carlo A; Catania, Serena; Sardi, Iacopo; Giangaspero, Felice



Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades. Methods: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003. All patients underwent decompressive laminectomy followed by biopsy (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 6), or gross total resection (n = 1). Ten patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (median total dose 50 Gy in 28 fractions). The overall survival, progression-free survival, and changes in neurologic function and KPS were measured. Results: The overall survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 100%, 75%, and 60%, respectively. The progression-free survival rate at 5, 10, and 20 years was 93%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors. Neurologic function and KPS worsened after surgery in 8 (57%) of 14 and 9 (69%) of 13 patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, neurologic function had stabilized or improved in 8 (73%) of 11 remaining patients, but the KPS had worsened in 5 (50%) of 10. Most patients who were employed before surgery were working at last follow-up. Conclusion: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely. Patients who undergo limited resection should continue to receive postoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). The functional measures should be routinely evaluated to appreciate the treatment outcomes.

Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Prayson, Richard A. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kalfas, Iain H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Whitfield, Melvin D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Tumor Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)]. E-mail:



Pathologically Altered Fibroblasts within Lymphoid Cell Infiltrates in Early Gingivitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the lymphoid cell infiltrate, the fibroblasts demonstrated consistent pathologic alterations indicative of cell injury. The altered fibroblasts were usually in intimate relationship to lymphoid cells which often were located within indentations at ...

D. M. Simpson B. E. Avery



Epstein-Barr virus-associated high-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue in a 9-year-old Boy.  


We report an unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma involving the lungs, kidneys, and axillary lymph nodes in a child with congenital hypoadrenalism and panhypopituitarism. The patient presented with an aggressive clinical course and histologic evolution. Initial biopsies (1994) of the lung and kidney revealed histologic features of low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma with lymphoepithelial lesions within the renal tubules and bronchial epithelium. Subsequent biopsies (1996, 1997, and 1999) revealed progressively greater cytologic atypia, polymorphism, and necrosis; an increased mitotic rate; and a preponderance of large cells, indicative of progression from a low-grade to a high-grade MALT lymphoma. Immunophenotyping of the lung and lymph node lesions revealed identical surface marker profiles: cells were CD19(+), CD20(+), immunoglobulin (Ig) G(+), kappa(+), lambda(-), CD5(-), CD10(-), CD23(-), and IgM(-), and also negative for T-cell markers. Genotypic analysis demonstrated the presence of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement and monoclonality of EBV in the lung lesion by Southern blot hybridization and polymerase chain re()action (PCR). The clinicopathologic features suggest that these lesions might represent an immunosupression-related continuum of low-grade to high-grade MALT lymphomas. Infection with EBV may have contributed to this tumor's aggressive clinical and histologic evolution. PMID:11035588

Tao, J; Kahn, L



A rare case of low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the femur in a 38-year-old woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary myofibroblastic sarcoma of the bone is a rare spindle cell tumour with, to the best of our knowledge, only eight cases reported in the available English language literature. The disease's rarity and its low-grade features make an accurate diagnosis difficult in most cases. The differential diagnoses of this unusual tumour include various benign entities as well as other sarcomas. Due to the difference in prognosis, a precise pathologic diagnosis is essential, which requires a combination of thorough morphologic examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy wherever available. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Indian woman with a lytic lesion in her left femur. The tumour was associated with cortical destruction and soft tissue extension. A biopsy from the soft tissue component showed features suggestive of a low-grade malignant mesenchymal tumour. Excision of the tumour was performed and histopathological examination showed a low-grade spindle cell sarcoma with collagenous stroma. Expressions of vimentin and smooth muscle actin were also noted. Ultrastructural examination confirmed its myofibroblastic nature. A final diagnosis of low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the left femur was thus rendered. Conclusion Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma is one of the rarer osseous spindle cell sarcomas depicting a favourable prognosis in the cases reported so far. Its diagnosis requires ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, we report the ninth case in the literature and the first case from our subcontinent.



9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis... VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...Procedures § 113.31 Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis...complement-fixation test for detection of avian lymphoid...inactivated, or separated, a sample of another...



9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis... VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...Procedures § 113.31 Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis...complement-fixation test for detection of avian lymphoid...inactivated, or separated, a sample of another...



[Lymphoid lesions of the head and neck].  


Lymphoid lesions of the head and neck mainly affect four regions: Waldeyer's ring, nasal and paranasal sinus, oral cavity and salivary glands. Each site is affected by lymphoid proliferation that reflected the biology of local lymphocytes. Waldeyer's ring, functionally similar to the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract is most commonly affected by large B-cell lymphomas. The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are the typical site of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, a proliferation of cytotoxic, EBV infected cells. This lesion is sometimes difficult to distinguish from inflammatory processes as Wegener disease. Plasmablastic lymphoma have been first described in oral cavity in HIV patients. Endemic Burkitt lymphoma, considered as a polymicrobial disease associated with the t(14;18) translocation presented in the great majority of cases as a jaw tumor with oral extension. Salivary glands, not normally containing lymphoid tissue are the site of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis associated to Sjögren syndrome. It represents a pre lymphomatous state of marginal zone lymphoma. These different lymphoproliferations serve as a model for mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. PMID:19900637

Costes, Valérie



Total lymphoid irradiation in renal transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), used in the treatment of some patients with Hodgkin's disease, produces profound immunological changes. In small rodents, mice and rats, a modified version of TLI results in transplantation tolerance for skin and heart allografts. The concept has been expanded to large outbred animals. In baboons transplantation tolerance has been produced for kidney and liver transplantation. The

J. Albertus Myburgh; Jacobus A. Smit; Anthony M. Meyers; J. René Botha; Selma Browde; Peter D. Thomson



Basic Sciences - Lymphoid Signal Transduction Biology

The Lymphoid Signal Transduction Biology Lab studies the mechanisms of the regulatory targeting of p300 co-activator complexes in activated T-cells. Much of the work has recently focussed on defining the functional partitioning of p300 within the molecular anatomy of the activated T-cells nucleus. This work has pursued two major lines of investigation.


Regression of gastric MALT lymphoma after eradication of Helicobacter pylori is predicted by endosonographic staging. MALT Lymphoma Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies suggest that eradication of Helicobacter pylori may result in complete regression of low-grade lymphoma of the gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Which patients benefit from this treatment is unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively study whether staging by echoendoscopy predicts the outcome of treatment of MALT lymphoma by eradication of H. pylori.METHODS:

M Sackmann; A Morgner; B Rudolph; A Neubauer; C Thiede; H Schulz; W Kraemer; G Boersch; P Rohde; E Seifert; M Stolte; E Bayerdoerffer



MALT lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses and the hard palate: report of two cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra-nodal low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract recapitulate the structure and features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, called “MALT lymphomas.” In the head and neck region except for the salivary glands the occurrence of this neoplasm is very rare. The authors report on two such cases of MALT lymphoma, one of the hard palate in a 71-year-old woman and

Stefan Tauber; Andreas Nerlich; Stephan Lang



Mapping of NKp46+ Cells in Healthy Human Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Tissues  

PubMed Central

Understanding Natural Killer (NK) cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ?t (ROR?t) transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs, and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes ROR?t+ ILCs with a lineage?CD94?CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases.

Tomasello, Elena; Yessaad, Nadia; Gregoire, Emilie; Hudspeth, Kelly; Luci, Carmelo; Mavilio, Domenico; Hardwigsen, Jean; Vivier, Eric



Middle segmental pancreatectomy: A safe and organ-preserving option for benign and low-grade malignant lesions  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the feasibility and safety of middle segmental pancreatectomy (MSP) compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and extended distal pancreatectomy (EDP). METHODS: We studied retrospectively 36 cases that underwent MSP, 44 patients who underwent PD, and 26 who underwent EDP with benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the mid-portion of the pancreas, between April 2003 and December 2009 in Ruijin Hospital. The perioperative outcomes and long-term outcomes of MSP were compared with those of EDP and PD. Perioperative outcomes included operative time, intraoperative hemorrhage, transfusion, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess/infection, postoperative bleeding, reoperation, mortality, and postoperative hospital time. Long-term outcomes, including tumor recurrence, new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, were evaluated. RESULTS: Intraoperative hemorrhage was 316.1 ± 309.6, 852.2 ± 877.8 and 526.9 ± 414.5 mL for the MSP, PD and EDP groups, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean postoperative daily fasting blood glucose level was significantly lower in the MSP group than in the EDP group (6.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L vs 7.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The rate of pancreatic fistula was higher in the MSP group than in the PD group (42% vs 20.5%, P = 0.039), all of the fistulas after MSP corresponded to grade A (9/15) or B (6/15) and were sealed following conservative treatment. There was no significant difference in the mean postoperative hospital stay between the MSP group and the other two groups. After a mean follow-up of 44 mo, no tumor recurrences were found, only one patient (2.8%) in the MSP group vs five (21.7%) in the EDP group developed new-onset insulin-dependent DM postoperatively (P = 0.029). Moreover, significantly fewer patients in the MSP group than in the PD (0% vs 33.3%, P < 0.001) and EDP (0% vs 21.7%, P = 0.007) required enzyme substitution. CONCLUSION: MSP is a safe and organ-preserving option for benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the neck and proximal body of the pancreas.

Du, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Shi; Han, Bao-San; Shen, Bai-Yong; Liu, Ying-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Hong



Low-grade spondylolisthesis.  


Spondylolisthesis is an often painful condition affecting millions of people in North America with some ethnic variability. It is characterized by the displacement, usually anterior, of on vertebral body upon another. There are familial predispositions to having the lesion, and a family history of spondylolisthesis may raise one's clinical suspicion. Although the diagnosis is easily made on radiographic evaluation, the pathoetiology and appropriate treatment modality are not always as clear. In the absence of severe neurological symptoms or an unsafe component of instability, a trial of conservative management is reasonable and prudent. Nevertheless, surgical management is more efficacious for enduring symptomatic relief and restoration of physical function. Whereas assessment of postoperative radiographic results lends insight to surgical technique, the true barometer of treatment success is improvement in patient quality of life. PMID:17556124

Metz, Lionel N; Deviren, Vedat



Epigenetic to low-grade tourmaline in the Gdoumont metaconglomerates (Belgium): A sensitive probe of its chemical environment of formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the first observation and compositional data of tourmaline overgrowths in the post-Caledonian basal Gdoumont conglomerates of the Belgian part of the Rhenohercynian basin. Authigenic tourmaline occurs as monopolar hemimorphic and bipolar asymmetrical foitite overgrowths within fractures and along the margins of detrital tourmaline grains and tourmalinite pebbles. Formulae calculated from electron-microprobe analyses reveal high amounts of vacancies in the X-site (61 to 84%), placing this tourmaline amongst the most alkali-deficient tourmaline recorded to date. Besides the alkali-deficiency, Gdoumont overgrowths are characterized by high Al, low Na and Ca, and low-to-moderate Mg/(Fe + Mg) ratios. These characteristics reflect the composition of the host conglomerates and suggest local derivation of the chemical components. Slightly differing zoning patterns (sample scale) and differences between localities (regional scale) indicate heterogeneity of the low-grade host rock. Host tourmaline grains as well as tourmaline occurring in quartz-veins crosscutting the Gdoumont metasediments have distinctly different compositions. The absence of discontinuous zoning suggests growth of the authigenic tourmaline in just one stage. It is most likely that tourmaline formed from boron released by metamorphic breakdown of detrital minerals, e.g. illite and/or K-feldspar. Based on their crystal chemistry and the observed optical properties, the overgrowths must have developed during diagenetic to lower-greenschist facies conditions. Scarce concurrency of bipolar overgrowths, isolated neoblasts and cryptocrystalline nests of tourmaline indicates limited growth until middle-greenschists facies conditions.

van den Bleeken, G.; Corteel, C.; van den Haute, P.



Surgical management of low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis; a randomized controlled study of the surgical fixation with and without reduction  

PubMed Central

Background spondylolisthesis is a condition in which a vertebra slips out of the proper position onto the bone below it as a result of pars interarticularis defect. The slipped segment produces abnormal positioning of the vertebrae in relation to each other along the spinal column and causes mechanical back pain and neural breach. Materials and methods A randomized and double blinded study consisted of 41 patients aged 36-69 years (18 females and 28 males) treated for symptomatic spondylolisthesis between December,2006 and December, 2009. All patients were randomly distributed into two groups I and II. Twenty patients were in Group I; they underwent reduction of the slipped vertebrae by using Reduction-Screw Technique and posterior lumbar interbody fixation (PLIF). Group II consisted of twenty one patients who underwent only surgical fixation (PLIF) without reduction. All patients in this study had same pre and post operative management. Results only one case had broken rod in group I that required revision. Superficial wound infection was experienced in two patients and one patient, from group II, developed wound hematoma. The outcome in both groups was variable on the short term but was almost the same on the long term follow up. Conclusion surgical management of symptomatic low grade spondylolisthesis should include neural decompression and surgical fixation. Reduction of slipped vertebral bodies is unnecessary as the ultimate outcome will be likely similar.



Analysis of factors related to prognosis and curative effect for posterolateral fusion of lumbar low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis.  


The objective of this study was to select factors related to the prognosis and curative effect for posterolateral fusion (PLF) of lumbar low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis (LGIS). Of 125 patients who accepted PLF treatment, 119 obtained solid union in this prospective study. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate factors related to the prognosis and curative effect. Spondylolisthetic position (L4, L5), gender and postoperative percent disc height were not significant factors for the prognosis and curative effect. Length of disease history (LDH), preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and postoperative percentage of slipping (% slip) were significantly related to postoperative JOA score and postoperative improved JOA score. LDH and postoperative % slip were significantly related to postoperative recovery rate. LDH, preoperative JOA score and postoperative % slip were independent related factors for the prognosis and improvement of LGIS. LDH and postoperative % slip were independent related factors for the curative effect. However, age, gender, spondylolisthetic position and postoperative percent disc height were not significant factors. PMID:18679680

Ming-li, Feng; Hui-liang, Shen; Yi-min, Yong; Huai-jian, Hu; Qing-ming, Zhang; Cao-Li



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the small bowel mesentery: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare tumor that commonly arises in the lower extremities but rarely in the mesentery. We report computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of LGFMS of the small bowel mesentery. On CT, the mass was composed of two components. One component, on its right side, appeared to have isointense attenuation relative to muscle, whereas the other component, on its left side, appeared to have low attenuation. On MRI the mass on the right side showed hypointensity similar to muscle on both T1-and T2-weighted images as well as mostly slight enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. On the other hand, the mass on the left side showed relative hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images as well as intense enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, suggesting that the tumor contained myxoid tissue. The myxoid area of LGFMS may have a tendency to reveal intense enhancement on contrast-enhanced images. PMID:18509725

Fujii, Shinya; Kawawa, Yoko; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Kamata, Noriko; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ogawa, Toshihide



Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: Incidence, Treatment Strategy of Metastases, and Clinical Significance of the FUS Gene.  


Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), present treatment results of metastatic LGFMS, and investigate the clinical significance of the FUS gene rearrangement. Methods. This study included 14 consecutive LGFMS patients treated at the Aarhus Sarcoma Centre in 1979-2010. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for FUS break-apart was performed for all patients. Results. The incidence of LGFMS was 0.18 per million, representing 0.6% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Four patients needed multiple biopsies/resections before the correct diagnosis was made. Four patients experienced local recurrence, and three patients developed metastases. The treatment of metastatic LGFMS varied from multiagent chemotherapy to repeated, selective surgery of operable metastases. The best response to chemotherapy was short-term stabilization of disease progression, seen with Trabectedin. The prevalence of the FUS break-apart was 21.4%. We found no significant difference in clinical characteristics and outcomes in correlation with the FUS break-apart. Conclusion. LGFMS is a rare disease with multiple challenges. The FUS break-apart was not associated with local recurrence or metastases in our study. To date the only treatment resulting in disease-free periods is surgery; however further investigation into the management of metastatic LGFMS is necessary. PMID:23818812

Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Baerentzen, Steen; Keller, Johnny; Dyrop, Heidi Buvarp; Safwat, Akmal



Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural comparative investigation.  


Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCTGR) and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) are 2 variants of fibrosarcoma, which share several clinicopathologic features. This study compares the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of 2 examples of HSCTGR and 3 of LG FMS to determine the degree of overlap of these 2 tumors. HSCTGR were composed of bland spindle cells within hyalinized to myxoid stroma. Scattered throughout the lesions were characteristic rosette-like structures, formed by a central collagenous core surrounded by spindled neoplastic cells. LGFMS consisted of a mixture of fibrous and myxoid areas, composed of fibroblast-like cells arranged in a swirling, whorled growth pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis showed diffuse positivity for vimentin in all cases, while few scattered tumor cells stained for CD57, CD34, factor XIIIA, and actin. The extracellular matrix showed intense positivity for type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, with the exception of myxoid areas of LGFMS and the central core of the giant rosettes in HSCTGR. Ultrastructurally, both tumor types were composed of cells with the features of fibroblasts, embedded in a collagenous stroma with irregular deposits of amorphous basal lamina-like substance. In conclusion, HSCTGR and LGFMS share similar immunophenotypic and ultrastructural features, and together with other fibrosing fibrosarcomas, like sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, may constitute a subset of fibrosarcomas formed by fibroblasts capable of producing large amounts of basal lamina-like material. PMID:14708726

Franchi, Alessandro; Massi, Daniela; Santucci, Marco


Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, epithelial cell abnormality-adjusted workload, and the ThinPrep imaging system.  


Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between screening sensitivity using the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) and epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) adjusted workload (ECA rate × actual slides screened/day) at the thresholds of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We sought to determine if a similar correlation could be shown at the threshold of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Using data in seven manuscripts from the literature that contain sufficient information, the change in screening sensitivity using the TIS compared with manual screening was negatively correlated with ECA adjusted workload (y = -3.75x + 54, R(2) = 0.104). Using the sensitivity of manual screening of 79% for manual screening at a threshold of LSIL from the original TIS trial, 100% sensitivity could be achieved at an ECA adjusted workload of approximately seven slides/day, the same workload that achieves 100% sensitivity at a threshold of ASCUS and slightly higher than the threshold for HSIL. We conclude that the ECA adjusted workload is a valuable method to assess workload for the TIS at the threshold of LSIL. Laboratories using the TIS should restrict workload to seven ECA adjusted slides/day (maximum actual slides/day = 700/ECA percentage). PMID:22807385

Renshaw, Andrew A; Elsheikh, Tarik M



Low-grade quarry products, reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes -- their use in unbound mixtures for road pavements  

SciTech Connect

The UK Specification for Highway Works appears to encourage the use of low-grade quarry products and a range of reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes in earthworks. However, in practice, materials used in earthworks are judged against requirements designed to assess the compatibility of soils. Compliance with compactibility criteria rather than fit for purpose criteria can lead to the use of higher quality aggregates than is strictly necessary. For many years UK clients have had supplies of good quality granular subbase material available at low cost. The use of such aggregates in non-structural fill layers presents few risks, but diverts the aggregate from more appropriate end uses, such as asphalts. Proponents of the greater use of wastes and reclaimed aggregates face the same dilemma. The development of European (CEN) Standards may influence the situation. These Standards are designed to ensure that barriers to trade are removed for products placed on the market. The new Standards aim to be blind to the source of the material and to reflect the wide range of national practices across Europe. The CEN work may give a status to a number of tests that are more appropriate to the control of unbound mixtures than those currently used in the UK.

Rockliff, D. [Tilcon North Ltd., Scotton (United Kingdom). Quality Systems Office



Innate lymphoid cells in the airways.  


The airways, similar to other mucosal surfaces, are continuously exposed to the outside environment and a barrage of antigens, allergens, and microorganisms. Of critical importance therefore is the ability to mount rapid and effective immune responses to control commensal and pathogenic microbes, while simultaneously limiting the extent of these responses to prevent immune pathology and chronic inflammation. The function of the adaptive immune response in controlling these processes at mucosal surfaces has been well documented but the important role of the innate immune system, particularly the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells, has only lately become apparent. In this review, we give an overview of the innate lymphoid cells that exist in the airways and examine the evidence pertaining to their emerging roles in airways immunity, inflammation, and homeostasis. PMID:22678892

Walker, Jennifer A; McKenzie, Andrew



Exergetic analysis of a double stage LiBr–H 2O thermal compressor cooled by air\\/water and driven by low grade heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, an exergetic analysis of a double stage thermal compressor using the lithium bromide–water solution is performed. The double stage system considered allows obtaining evaporation temperatures equal to 5 °C using solar heat coming from flat plate collectors and other low grade thermal sources. In this study, ambient air and water are alternatively used as cooling fluids

M. Izquierdo; M. Venegas; N. García; E. Palacios



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases, including histopathologic relationship with sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma in a subset of cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon tumor with diverse histopathologic features. It has been found to be histopathologically and genetically related to hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes. Lately, sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) has been identified as another rare variant of fibrosarcoma. Very few studies have addressed the aspect of its histopathologic relationship with LGFMS. The present study

Bharat Rekhi; Mahesh Deshmukh; Nirmala A. Jambhekar



Correlation of very low grade data to calibrate a thermal maturity model in a nappe tectonic setting, a case study from the Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitrinite and bituminite reflectance data, XRD studies on clay minerals, radiometric data, and geochemical data have been used to investigate metamorphism of very low and low grade sediments from the Lower Austroalpine and South Penninic nappes in the Oberhalbstein valley (central Alps). Numerical maturity modelling methods are calibrated with petrological, structural and new geochronological data to reconstruct temperature histories, even

Rafael Ferreiro Mählmann



Cholinergic Staining of Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic staining of human bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was studied in humans. Morsels of the human lung (containing BALT) were harvested, after having obtained the appropriate approvals, during autopsies in 24 human subjects. The samples were stained by means of the enzymatic technique of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and\\/or the monoclonal immunohistochemical method of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). A morphometrical analysis was

Carlo Cavallotti; Gianfranco Tonnarini; Vito D’Andrea; Daniela Cavallotti



Immunodeficient Mouse Models of Lymphoid Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice lack functional T- and B-cells and readily accept human xenografts, including\\u000a hematopoietic malignancies.Accordingly, SCID mice have been used to study the growth and behavior of lymphoid tumors in vivo.\\u000a The SCID mouse models of disease mimic human diseases and have provided valuable information. However, this mouse strain has\\u000a some residual immunity that somewhat limits posttransplantation

Kazunori Imada



Indirubin derivatives inhibit malignant lymphoid cell proliferation.  


Indirubin-3'-monoxime (IO) is a derivative of indirubin, an active compound of a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe used to treat various inflammatory and malignant diseases. The main in vitro targets of IO (i.e. cyclin dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, Stat 3 and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor) are regulators of lymphocyte activation. We investigated the interest of IO and its derivative 6-bromo-indirubin-3'oxime (6BIO) for inhibiting the growth of malignant lymphoid cells. IO (1-20 microM) induced cell cycle inhibition and cell death in malignant B- (IM9, Reh6) and T- (Jurkat, CEM-T) lymphoid cell lines depending to cell type, doses, and duration of treatment. IO and 6BIO (10 microM) treatment for 24 and 48 h were compared: 6BIO treatment resulted in a stronger cytotoxicity and more profound inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, these results showed that IO and, moreover, its derivative 6BIO may be potent antiproliferative agents in malignant lymphoid cells. PMID:19860623

Chebel, Amel; Kagialis-Girard, Sandrine; Catallo, Regine; Chien, Wei Wen; Mialou, Valérie; Domenech, Carine; Badiou, Cedric; Tigaud, Isabelle; Ffrench, Martine



Innate lymphoid cells promote anatomical containment of lymphoid-resident commensal bacteria  

PubMed Central

The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here we identify that interleukin (IL)-22-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration of IL-22. Disseminating bacteria were identified as Alcaligenes species originating from host lymphoid tissues. Alcaligenes was sufficient to promote systemic inflammation following ILC-depletion in mice, and Alcaligenes-specific systemic immune responses were associated with Crohn's disease and progressive HCV infection in patients. Collectively, these data indicate that ILCs regulate selective containment of lymphoid-resident bacteria to prevent systemic inflammation associated with chronic diseases.

Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Fung, Thomas C.; Hutnick, Natalie A.; Kunisawa, Jun; Shibata, Naoko; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Zahm, Adam M.; Tardif, Melanie R.; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Kubota, Masaru; Farber, Donna L.; Collman, Ronald G.; Shaked, Abraham; Fouser, Lynette A.; Weiner, David B.; Tessier, Philippe A.; Friedman, Joshua R.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Bushman, Frederic D.; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Artis, David



Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings.  


Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = -0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo



Provenance of Paleozoic very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks of South Tisia (Slavonian Mountains, Radlovac Complex, Croatia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monazite age dating, detrital heavy mineral content and whole-rock geochemistry provided insight into the provenance, depositional history and paleogeological setting of the Radlovac Complex very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks (South Tisia, Slavonian Mountains, Croatia). Electron microprobe based Th-U-Pb dating of detrital monazite indicates a Variscan age of the protolith (330 ± 10 Ma). The detrital heavy mineral assemblages of representative metasedimentary rocks are dominated by apatite, zircon, tourmaline and rutile accompanied by minor quantity of epidote/zoisite, monazite and titanite. Judging from the heavy mineral assemblage, felsic igneous rocks served as the source material. This is consistent with the major and trace element spectrum of studied metasedimentary rocks characterized by high concentration of Th, high L + MREEs and high ratios of La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co and Th/Cr. The occurrence of magmatic monazite, zircon and xenotime and the absence of metamorphic heavy minerals suggest that granitoids, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses served as one major source for the metapsammites. Such rock types are commonly exposed in the Papuk Complex of the older surrounding complexes, while the Psunj Complex also contains metamorphic rocks. This is in good correlation with the monazite ages presented here which fits better with ages of Papuk Complex representative rocks than with those of the Psunj Complex known from the literature. Overall, data show that the Radlovac Complex represents the detritus of the local Variscan crust characterized by granitoid bodies, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses typical for the Papuk Complex.

Biševac, Vanja; Krenn, Erwin; Finger, Fritz; Lužar-Oberiter, Borna; Balen, Dražen



Intracranial low-grade gliomas in adults: 30-year experience with long-term follow-up at Mayo Clinic.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term survival in patients with nonpilocytic low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Records of 314 adult patients with nonpilocytic LGGs diagnosed between 1960 and 1992 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, were retrospectively reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age at diagnosis was 36 years. Median follow-up was 13.6 years. Operative pathology revealed pure astrocytoma in 181 patients (58%), oligoastrocytoma in 99 (31%), and oligodendroglioma in 34 (11%). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 41 patients (13%), radical subtotal resection (rSTR) in 33 (11%), subtotal resection in 130 (41%), and biopsy only in 110 (35%). Median OS was 6.9 years (range, 1 month-38.5 years). Adverse prognostic factors for OS identified by multivariate analysis were tumor size 5 cm or larger, pure astrocytoma histology, Kernohan grade 2, undergoing less than rSTR, and presentation with sensory motor symptoms. Statistically significant adverse prognostic factors for PFS by multivariate analysis were only tumor size 5 cm or larger and undergoing less than rSTR. In patients who underwent less than rSTR, radiotherapy (RT) was associated with improved OS and PFS. A substantial proportion of patients have a good long-term prognosis after GTR and rSTR, with nearly half of patients free of recurrence 10 years after diagnosis. Postoperative RT was associated with improved OS and PFS and is recommended for patients after subtotal resection or biopsy. PMID:19018039

Schomas, David A; Laack, Nadia N Issa; Rao, Ravi D; Meyer, Fredric B; Shaw, Edward G; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Giannini, Caterina; Brown, Paul D



Low Grade Gliomas in Eloquent Locations - Implications for Surgical Strategy, Survival and Long Term Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical management of suspected LGG remains controversial. A key factor when deciding a surgical strategy is often the tumors’ perceived relationship to eloquent brain regions Objective To study the association between tumor location, survival and long-term health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas (LGG). Methods Adults (?18 years) operated due to newly diagnosed LGG from 1998 through 2009 included from two Norwegian university hospitals. After review of initial histopathology, 153 adults with supratentorial WHO grade II LGG were included in the study. Tumors’ anatomical location and the relationship to eloquent regions were graded. Survival analysis was adjusted for known prognostic factors and the initial surgical procedure (biopsy or resection). In long-term survivors, HRQL was assessed with disease specific questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20) as well as a generic questionnaire (EuroQol 5D). Results There was a significant association between eloquence and survival (log-rank, p<0.001). The estimated 5-year survival was 77% in non-eloquent tumors, 71% in intermediate located tumors and 54% in eloquent tumors. In the adjusted analysis the hazard ratio of increasing eloquence was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–2.0, p?=?0.022). There were no differences in HRQL between patients with eloquent and non-eloquent tumors. The most frequent self-reported symptoms were related to fatigue, cognition, and future uncertainty. Conclusion Eloquently located LGGs are associated with impaired survival compared to non-eloquently located LGG, but in long-term survivors HRQL is similar. Although causal inference from observational data should be done with caution, the findings illuminate the delicate balance in surgical decision making in LGGs, and add support to the probable survival benefits of aggressive surgical strategies, perhaps also in eloquent locations.

Jakola, Asgeir S.; Unsgard, Geirmund; Myrmel, Kristin S.; Kloster, Roar; Torp, Sverre H.; Lindal, Sigurd; Solheim, Ole



Dynamic imaging response following radiation therapy predicts long-term outcomes for diffuse low-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Quantitative imaging assessment of radiation therapy (RT) for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) by measuring the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) over time has never been studied. We assessed the VDE changes following RT and determined whether this parameter can serve as a prognostic factor. We reviewed a consecutive series of 33 adults with supratentorial DLGG treated with first-line RT with available imaging follow-up (median follow-up, 103 months). Before RT, all patients presented with a spontaneous tumor volume increase (positive VDE, mean 5.9 mm/year). After RT, all patients demonstrated a tumor volume decrease (negative VDE, mean, ?16.7 mm/year) during a mean 49-month duration. In univariate analysis, initial tumor volume (>100 cm3), lack of IDH1 expression, p53 expression, high proliferation index, and fast post-RT tumor volume decrease (VDE at ?10 mm/year or faster, fast responders) were associated with a significantly shorter overall survival (OS). The median OS was significantly longer (120.8 months) for slow responders (post-RT VDE slower than ?10.0 mm/year) than for fast responders (47.9 months). In multivariate analysis, fast responders, larger initial tumor volume, lack of IDH1 expression, and p53 expression were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. A high proliferation index was significantly more frequent in the fast responder subgroup than in the slow responder subgroup. We conclude that the pattern of post-RT VDE changes is an independent prognostic factor for DLGG and offers a quantitative parameter to predict long-term outcomes. We propose to monitor individually the post-RT VDE changes using MRI follow-up, with particular attention to fast responders.

Pallud, Johan; Llitjos, Jean-Francois; Dhermain, Frederic; Varlet, Pascale; Dezamis, Edouard; Devaux, Bertrand; Souillard-Scemama, Raphaelle; Sanai, Nader; Koziak, Maria; Page, Philippe; Schlienger, Michel; Daumas-Duport, Catherine; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine; Roux, Francois-Xavier



The role of up-front radiation therapy for incompletely resected pediatric WHO grade II low-grade gliomas1  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of early radiation therapy and extent of surgical resection on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with WHO grade II low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We conducted a historical cohort study of 90 patients, ages 21 or younger, diagnosed with WHO grade II LGGs between 1970 and 1995. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 9.4 years (range, 0.5–22.6 years). Tests for variables correlating with OS and PFS were conducted by using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Eleven patients underwent gross total resections (GTRs), 43 had subtotal resections, and 34 underwent biopsy only at diagnosis. Two patients underwent biopsy at time of recurrence. Of the 90 patients, 52 received radiation as part of their initial therapy following diagnosis (early-RT group). The overall five-year PFS and OS rates ± SE were 56% ± 5% and 90% ± 3%, respectively. Ten-year PFS and OS rates were 42% ± 6% and 81% ± 5%, respectively. For patients older than three years and without GTRs, administration of early radiation did not appear to influence PFS or OS (P = 0.98 and P = 0.40, respectively; log-rank test). This was confirmed by multivariate analyses (P = 0.95 and P = 0.33 for PFS and OS, respectively). Of the 11 patients with GTRs, disease progressed in only two, and all were alive with no evidence of disease at last follow-up. Patients who underwent GTRs had significantly longer PFS (P = 0.02), but did not have significantly improved OS. Excellent long-term survival rates were achieved for children with WHO grade II LGGs. We were unable to demonstrate a benefit for administering radiation as part of initial treatment. An outcome benefit was seen with greater extent of resection.

Mishra, Kavita K.; Puri, Dev R.; Missett, Brian T.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.



The clinical significance of the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Background Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm with a deceptively benign histological appearance. Local recurrences and metastases can manifest many years following excision. The FUS-CREB3L2 gene translocation, which occurs commonly in LGFMS, may be detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We assessed the relationship between clinical outcome and translocation test result by both methods. Methods We report genetic analysis of 23 LGFMS cases and clinical outcomes of 18 patients with mean age of 40.6 years. During follow-up (mean 24.8 months), there were no cases of local recurrence or metastasis. One case was referred with a third recurrence of a para-spinal tumour previously incorrectly diagnosed as a neurofibroma. Results Results showed 50% of cases tested positive for the FUS-CREB3L2 translocation by RT-PCR and 81.8% by FISH, suggesting FISH is more sensitive than RT-PCR for confirming LGFMS diagnosis. Patients testing positive by both methods tended to be younger and had larger tumours. Despite this, there was no difference in clinical outcome seen during short and medium-term follow-up. Conclusions RT-PCR and FISH for the FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcript are useful tools for confirming LGFMS diagnosis, but have no role in predicting medium-term clinical outcome. Due to the propensity for late recurrence or metastasis, wide excision is essential, and longer-term follow-up is required. This may identify a difference in long-term clinical outcome between translocation-positive and negative patients.



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the small intestine: report of 4 cases with molecular cytogenetic confirmation.  


Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft tissue tumor that typically involves the deep soft tissues of the extremities. However, LGFMS has been described in other locations including the head and neck, retroperitoneum, and mesentery. Translocations involving the FUS gene located at 16p are considered to be highly specific for the diagnosis of this tumor when present in conjunction with the appropriate morphologic appearance. We report 4 cases of LGFMS arising in the small bowel. The patients' ages (3 female, 1 male) ranged from 52 to 71 years (median, 61 y). None of the patients had a history of soft tissue sarcoma. An intramural tumor was presented in all cases, ranging from 4.5 to 14.5 cm in greatest diameter (mean, 10 cm). Microscopically, the tumors consisted of an admixture of hypocellular, heavily collagenized zones and more cellular myxoid nodules, containing a greater number of neoplastic cells arranged around characteristic curvilinear vessels. By immunohistochemistry, all tumors were positive for vimentin and negative for smooth muscle actin, CD117, CD34, and S100 protein. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for rearrangement of the FUS locus at 16p11 was positive in 3 informative cases. Follow-up information was available in 3 cases; 2 patients are alive without disease and another patient died of disease. We conclude that LGFMS should be included in the differential diagnosis of fibrous or myxoid spindle cell tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. On the basis of limited follow-up, the natural history of enteric LGFMS seems to be similar to that of LGFMS in other locations, with potential for late metastases. PMID:21677541

Laurini, Javier A; Zhang, Lizhi; Goldblum, John R; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Folpe, Andrew L



Seizure characteristics and outcomes in 508 Chinese adult patients undergoing primary resection of low-grade gliomas: a clinicopathological study  

PubMed Central

Seizure is a common presenting manifestation and plays an important role in the clinical presentation and quality of life for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The authors set out to identify factors that influence preoperative seizure characteristics and postoperative seizure control. Cases involving adult patients who had undergone initial surgery for LGGs in a single institution between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control. Of the 508 patients in the series, 350 (68.9%) presented with seizures. Age less than 38 years and cortical involvement of tumor were more likely to be associated with seizures (P = .003 and .001, respectively, multivariate logistic analysis). For the cohort of 350 patients with seizures, Engel classification was used to evaluate 6- and 12-month outcome after surgery: completely seizure free (Engel class I), 65.3% and 62.5%; not seizure free (Engel classes II, III, IV), 34.7% and 37.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis, favorable seizure prognosis was more common in patients with secondary generalized seizure (P = .006) and with calcification on MRI (.031). With respect to treatment-related variables, patients achieved much better seizure control after gross total resection than after subtotal resection (P < .0001). Ki67 was an independent molecular marker predicting poor seizure control in the patients with a history of seizure if overexpressed but was not a predictor for those without preoperative seizures. These factors may provide insight into developing effective treatment strategies aimed at prolonging patients' survival.

You, Gan; Sha, Zhi-Yi; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Li, Shao-Wu; Sang, Lin; Wang, Zi; Li, Gui-Lin; Li, Shou-Wei; Song, Yi-Jun; Kang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Tao



Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours  

PubMed Central

Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive from LMP tumours.

Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.



Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements in argillaceous sediments: Implications for dating diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr data for the fine fractions of Lower Paleozoic argillaceous rocks from Wales, UK and New York, USA, spanning the range of low-grade metamorphic conditions from the diagenetic zone (zeolite facies) to the epizone (greenschist facies). In all cases, leaching of the fine fractions results in a high 147Sm /144Nd (0.09-0.29) acid-soluble component and a complementary low 147Sm /144Nd (0.05-0.14) residual component. The observed fractionation is an ancient feature related to diagenesis, burial and metamorphism. The magnitude of Sm-Nd fractionation between leachates and residues, as well as the resulting Sm-Nd ages, vary as a function of grain size and metamorphic grade. Uncleaved Welsh mudrocks of the diagenetic zone yield Sm-Nd leachate-residue ages of 453-484 Ma, in agreement with their Llanviian to Caradocian biostratigraphic ages, whereas higher grade rocks of the anchizone and epizone yield Sm-Nd ages as young as 413 Ma. These ages are transitional between the time of deposition and the time of regional deformation related to the Acadian Orogeny at 390 Ma. Distinct convex-upward rare earth element (REE) patterns of the leachates suggest that the precipitation of early diagenetic apatite controls the trace element budget of the rock, forcing a depletion of middle REEs on the subsequently formed diagenetic phyllosilicates. The amount of organic matter present and the extent of later prograde reactions are probable modifiers of this fractionation process. Ordovician and Devonian clastic rocks associated with the Trenton and Onondaga limestones of New York yield single-sample and multi-sample Sm-Nd isochron ages that agree well with their biostratigraphic ages of 454 Ma and 390 Ma, respectively. The REE fractionation observed in shale leachates of the Ordovician Utica Formation is related to Ca/Mg of the bulk rock and hence to the composition of the diagenetic carbonate cement. In all cases the Sm-Nd system remained closed subsequent to the peak of diagenesis or metamorphism, including the North American rocks that show no evidence of being isotopically reset during widespread remagnetization of the subjacent limestone units in the late Paleozoic.

Ohr, Matthias; Halliday, Alexander N.; Peacor, Donald R.



Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

Daniels, Thomas B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting [Cancer Center Statistics, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Arusell, Robert M. [Roger Maris Cancer Center, Meritcare Hospital CCOP, Fargo, ND (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Schiff, David [Department of Neurology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)



Fluid inclusion studies in datolite of low grade metamorphic origin from a Jurassic pillow basalt series in northeastern Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jurassic pillow basalt blocks in the Szarvask? Unit in the SW-Bükk Mountains are incorporated into an accretionary mélange of Cretaceous age which had been displaced from the Dinarides to NE-Hungary during the Alpine-Carpathian collision. The pillow basalt series is a part of an incomplete remnant of an ophiolite-like sequence from which ultramafic units and sheeted dikes are almost completely absent. At the studied Egerbakta quarry, closely packed pillow, pillow fragmented hyaloclastite breccia and peperitic facies of submarine basaltic volcanism were recognized. Peperitic facies was formed by local admixture of unconsolidated siliciclastic sediment into the basaltic lava. Basaltic pillows contains short and thin prehnite-chlorite-carbonate-quartz veins formed during the interaction of seawater with the cooling lava, as well as cross-cutting datolite-prehnite-quartzchlorite-albite bearing veins. Calcite in the short cooling cracks crystallised from upheated seawater at around 160°C temperature and 0.5-0.6 kbar pressure (water depth of about 5-6 km). Datolite precipitations in veins can be classified into at least three different textural-morphological types but all of them contain methane bearing primary fluid inclusion assemblages, with variable methane/water ratios, suggesting an inhomogeneous entrapment from a heterogeneous aqueous-carbonic fluid. End member primary fluid inclusions contain aqueous liquid with methane rich vapour phase and apparently methane only inclusions characterized by liquid phase on room temperature. A combination of results from fluid inclusion microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy (used not only for phase identification but also for determination of salinities) and temperatures calculated from chlorite compositions, show that the precipitation of datolite had taken place from low salinity (0.2-2 NaCl equiv. mass%) aqueous-methane fluids under increasing temperature and pressure (from 160 to 210°C, and from 0.6 to 1.1 kbar) conditions. The elevated pressures and temperatures in comparison to the submarine hydrothermal processes suggest that the datolite bearing mineral parageneses had been formed during the progression of Alpine very low grade metamorphic processes.

Kiss, Gabriella; Molnár, Ferenc; Zaccarini, Federica



Restoration of lymphoid organ integrity through the interaction of lymphoid tissue–inducer cells with stroma of the T cell zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of lymphoid microenvironments in early life depends on the interaction of lymphoid tissue–inducer cells with stromal lymphoid tissue–organizer cells. Whether this cellular interface stays operational in adult secondary lymphoid organs has remained elusive. We show here that during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, antiviral cytotoxic T cells destroyed infected T cell zone stromal cells, which led to

Elke Scandella; Beatrice Bolinger; Evelyn Lattmann; Simone Miller; Stéphanie Favre; Dan R Littman; Daniela Finke; Sanjiv A Luther; Tobias Junt; Burkhard Ludewig



Two-peaked 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence emission spectrum distinguishes glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas  

PubMed Central

5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence enables to guiding in intra-operative surgical glioma resection. However at present, it has yet to be shown that this method is able to identify infiltrative component of glioma. In extracted tumor tissues we measured a two-peaked emission in low grade gliomas and in the infiltrative component of glioblastomas due to multiple photochemical states of PpIX. The second emission peak appearing at 620 nm (shifted by 14 nm from the main peak at 634 nm) limits the sensibility of current methods to measured PpIX concentration. We propose new measured parameters, by taking into consideration the two-peaked emission, to overcome these limitations in sensitivity. These parameters clearly distinguish the solid component of glioblastomas from low grade gliomas and infiltrative component of glioblastomas.

Montcel, Bruno; Mahieu-Williame, Laurent; Armoiry, Xavier; Meyronet, David; Guyotat, Jacques



Low-grade recurrence of a congenital high-grade supratentorial tumor with astrocytic features in the absence of adjuvant therapy.  


The biological behavior of pediatric gliomas and embryonal tumors can be highly variable. A few case reports have described differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) and medulloblastomas, presumably induced by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation. Herein we describe a case of a congenital supratentorial high-grade tumor with astrocytic features that, after near-total surgical resection, was not treated with adjuvant therapies. Thirteen years later the patient presented with recurrent tumor at the original surgical site. The recurrent tumor had completely different morphology compared to the original, with evidence of ganglion cell differentiation and changes more reminiscent of a low-grade pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of an untreated high-grade pediatric tumor that spontaneously differentiated into a low grade tumor. The clinical and biological implications of this are briefly discussed. PMID:20880322

Horbinski, Craig; Dillon, Donita; Pittman, Thomas



Primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma forming a mass in the colon mimicking a colonic primary carcinoma: a case report.  


Primary carcinomas of Müllerian origin involving the colon is not an uncommon phenomenon, with most cases reportedly associated with endometriosis. On the other hand, a primary peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma presenting as a dominant mass in the colon and causing clinical symptoms mimicking a primary colonic carcinoma has not been reported in the literature to the best of the authors' knowledge. A case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented clinically with rectal bleeding and a rectosigmoid mass is described. The final histologic examination revealed a peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma forming a dominant mass in the rectosigmoid colon. Of particular interest was a microscopic spectrum of serous epithelial proliferation in the peritoneal cavity and lymph nodes with morphologic features reminiscent of non-invasive and invasive implants in ovarian borderline serous tumors, which most likely denoted the precursors of the tumor in the colon. PMID:23590009

Tran, T A; Holloway, R W



Effects of Soy Protein Isolate Consumption on Prostate Cancer Biomarkers in Men With HGPIN, ASAP, and Low-Grade Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight men at high risk of prostate cancer or with low-grade prostate cancer were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 protein isolates containing 40 g protein: 1) soy protein (SPI+, 107 mg isoflavones\\/d); 2) alcohol-washed soy protein (SPI–, <6 mg isoflavones\\/d); or 3) milk protein (MPI). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), epidermal growth factor receptor, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2),

Jill M. Hamilton-Reeves; Salome A. Rebello; Will Thomas; Mindy S. Kurzer; Joel W. Slaton



Extracting vanadium and uranium from low-grade and mill-grade ores from the Colorado plateau. Report of investigations\\/1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines is investigating vanadium recovery from various domestic resources. A low-grade carnotite ore sample containing 0.34 %V²O⁵ and 0.04 % U³O⁸ was leached, and the results were compared with those of similar leach tests using a mill-grade sample containing 1.26 % V²O⁵ and 0.19 % U³O⁸. Experiments on the two ore samples included agitation leaching, pugging, salt-roast

I. L. Nichols; G. R. Palmer; J. L. Huiatt



Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 is positively associated with low-grade prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study 1993-2004  

PubMed Central

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays a role in growth and progression of prostate cancer. High circulating IGF-1 levels have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Results for IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) are inconclusive. Some studies have indicated that the positive association with IGF-1 is observed only for low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason sum <7). We previously reported in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) a direct positive association between ELISA-measured plasma IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate cancer (462 cases diagnosed after providing a blood specimen (between 1993 and 1995), but before February 1998). With additional follow-up through January 31st 2004, and 1331 case-control pairs in total, we were now able to investigate low-grade (Gleason sum <7, n=635) and high-grade (Gleason sum ?7, n=515) prostate cancer separately. Matched odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. ORs of total prostate cancer comparing top to bottom quartiles were 1.41 (95% CI 1.12–1.78, p-trend=0.001) for IGF-1 and 1.58 (95% CI 1.24–2.01, p-trend=0.003) for IGFBP-3. IGF-1 was more strongly associated with low-grade (OR=1.61 top versus bottom quartile, 95% CI 1.16–2.25, p-trend=0.01), than with high-grade (OR=1.29, 95% CI 0.89–1.88, p-trend-0.12) prostate cancer (p-heterogeneity=0.08). We hypothesize that these findings reflect that high-grade prostate cancers are more autonomous, and, thus, less sensitive to the action of IGF-1 than low-grade cancers.

Nimptsch, Katharina; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Pollak, Michael N.; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward



Low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance independently explain substantial parts of the association between body fat and serum C3: The CODAM study (Online first)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) in adiposity-related increases in serum complement factor 3 (C3). Although C3 has been linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and C3 levels are closely related to body fat, the underlying mechanisms explaining this association are still unknown. METHODS: Adiposity measures (including BMI, waist circumference (WC), sagittal

N. Wlazlo; M. M. J. Greevenbroek; I. Ferreira; E. J. H. M. Jansen; E. J. M. Feskens; Kallen van der C. J. H; C. G. Schalkwijk; B. Bravenboer; C. D. A. Stehouwer



Human papillomavirus testing as triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: Sensitivity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the use of a Food and Drug Administration–approved human papillomavirus test in triaging patients with Papanicolaou smears showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for colposcopy compared with an algorithm that used cytologic follow-up.STUDY DESIGN: Four hundred sixty-two women referred to our Colposcopy Clinic with

Raymond H. Kaufman; Ervin Adam; Joseph Icenogle; William C. Reeves



Water distribution in low-grade siliceous metamorphic rocks by micro-FTIR and its relation to grain size: a case from the Kanto Mountain region, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared microspectroscopy reveals that liquid-like water is always present in polycrystalline quartz grains from low-grade metamorphic cherts and shale in the Chichibu Group and the Mikabu Greenrock Complex of the Kanto Mountains area. The water distribution in these rocks is heterogeneous and is related to rock textures. In the microcrystalline quartz, O–H species due possibly to Si–OH are generally present.

Yuki Ito; Satoru Nakashima



Low Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: Diagnosis by Detecting FUS-CREB3L2 Fusion Gene Using Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma first described by Evans (1987) to have bland-looking fibromyxoid features that had been diagnosed as “fibroma” or “fibromatosis” but metastasize. Hyalinizing\\u000a spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCT), which was initially reported by Lane et al. (1997), has been considered a histologic variant of LGFMS. Although LGFMS has a

Atsuji Matsuyama; Masanori Hisaoka; Hiroshi Hashimoto


Extensional emplacement of a high-grade granite gneiss complex into low-grade greenstones, Eastern Goldfields, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-grade granite gneiss complex was emplaced into low-grade greenstones after an early episode of Late Archaean deformation (D1) in the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia. The components of the granitic gneiss complex range from migmatitic granitic gneiss to foliated and massive granite. The complex is surrounded by a marginal zone of high-grade (amphibolite facies) greenstones. The oldest phases of

C. P. Swager; D. R. Nelson



Two-step acid hydrolysis process kinetics in the saccharification of low-grade biomass: 1. Experimental studies on the formation and degradation of sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-step acid hydrolysis studies were performed on various types of low-grade biomass, such as bakery waste, grain dust, wood chips and wheat straw. These wastes contain predominantly starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, or combinations of these carbohydrates. The hydrolysis conditions for each step were determined by using pure starch and cellulose as substrates. Starch and hemicellulose were hydrolyzed at 132°C for 40

C. H. Choi; A. P. Mathews



A concise follow-up of a previous report: posterior reduction and anterior lumbar interbody fusion in symptomatic low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the updated results for a previously evaluated surgical treatment for adult low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. In 12 patients a decompressive laminectomy was performed followed by a circumferential fusion using posterior pedicle screw instrumented reduction and staged anterior cage-assisted interbody fusion. Average time to follow-up was 5.6 (range 4.9–6.6) years. The average Oswestry Disability Index at last follow-up was 14

M. Spruit; J. P. W. van Jonbergen; M. de Kleuver



Impact of Physical Inactivity on Adipose Tissue Low-Grade Inflammation in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 13 healthy FDR subjects and 20 control (CON) subjects matched for age, sex, and BMI before and after 10 days of bed rest (BR). Insulin sensitivity was measured by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Key low-grade inflammation mediators were measured in arterial blood and microdialysate from subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and femoral adipose tissue. Adipokine mRNA expression was determined in SCAAT. RESULTS Before BR, FDR subjects displayed insulin resistance, elevated plasma C-reactive protein, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, high interleukin (IL)-6, and MCP-1 expressions, as well as low adiponectin and leptin expressions. FDR subjects responded to BR by decreasing plasma adiponectin and IL-10 expression and increasing plasma expression of IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-?. In contrast, CON subjects responded to BR by increasing plasma adiponectin and adiponectin expression and by decreasing SCAAT microdialysate leptin. CONCLUSIONS Young and nonobese FDR of patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit low-grade inflammation, which is further and disproportionately aggravated when exposed to physical inactivity. The study provides support for the notion that people at increased risk of type 2 diabetes should avoid even short periods of physical inactivity.

H?jbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Nielsen, Ninna Bo; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Stallknecht, Bente



TGF-Beta Induces Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumor Cell Invasion by Activating EMT but Triggers Apoptosis in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells is induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?). However, high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGC) are refractory to the inhibitory functions of TGF-?; their invasiveness is up-regulated by TGF-? through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) activation. Serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOT) have been recognized as distinct entities that give rise to invasive low-grade serous carcinomas (LGC), which

Jung-Chien Cheng; Nelly Auersperg; Peter C. K. Leung



EGF-Induced EMT and Invasiveness in Serous Borderline Ovarian Tumor Cells: A Possible Step in the Transition to Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Cells?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-grade ovarian cancer cultures, it has been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell invasion by activating an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the effect of EGF on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOT) and low-grade serous carcinomas (LGC) cell invasion remains unknown. Here, we show that EGF receptor (EGFR) was expressed, that EGF treatment increased cell migration and invasion

Jung-Chien Cheng; Nelly Auersperg; Peter C. K. Leung



Geochemical characterisation of pyrite oxidation and environmental problems related to release and transport of metals from a coal washing low-grade waste dump, Shahrood, northeast Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite oxidation and release of the oxidation products from a low-grade coal waste dump to stream, groundwater and soil was\\u000a investigated by geochemical and hydrogeochemical techniques at Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, Shahrood, northeast Iran.\\u000a Hydrogeochemical analysis of water samples indicates that the metal concentrations in the stream waters were low. Moreover,\\u000a the pH of the water showed no considerable

Faramarz Doulati Ardejani; Behshad Jodieri Shokri; Ali Moradzadeh; Seyed Ziadin Shafaei; Reza Kakaei


Comparison of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography findings in early and low-grade coal worker’s pneumoconiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray (CXR) in the depiction of parenchymal abnormalities. We aimed to present and compare CXR and HRCT findings in coal workers with and without early and low-grade coal worker’s pneumoconiosis (CWP). Materials and Methods: 71 coal workers were enrolled in this study. All workers were male. The CXR and HRCT

Ahmet Savranlar; Remzi Alt?n; Kamran Mahmutyaz?c?o?lu; Hüseyin Özdemir; Levent Kart; Tülay Özer; Sadi Gündo?du



Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study  

SciTech Connect

We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis.

Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.



Fueling the debate: Are outcomes better after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or after posterolateral fusion (PLF) in adult patients with low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis?  


Study design: ?Retrospective cohort study. Clinical question: ?Do more adult patients affected by low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis have significant clinical and radiological improvement following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) than those who receive posterolateral fusion (PLF)? Methods: ?One hundred and fourteen patients affected by adult low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis, treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion or posterolateral fusion, were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed by means of the questionnaires ODI, RMDQ and VAS. Radiographic evaluation included CT, MRI, and x-rays. The results were analyzed using the Student t-test. Results: ?The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and surgical characteristics. At an average follow-up of 62.1 months, 71 patients were completely reviewed. Mean ODI, RMDQ and VAS scores didn't show statistically significant differences. Fusion rate was similar between the two groups (97% in PLIF group, 95% in PLF group). Major complications occurred in 5 of 71 patients reviewed (7%): one in the PLIF group (3.6%), four in the PLF group (9.3%). Pseudarthrosis occurred in one case in the PLIF group (3,6%) and in two cases in PLF group (4.6%). Conclusions: ?In our series, there does not appear to be a clear advantage of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) over posterolateral fusion (PLF) in terms of clinical and radiological outcome for treatment of adult low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:23544021

Barbanti Bròdano, G; Lolli, F; Martikos, K; Gasbarrini, A; Bandiera, S; Greggi, T; Parisini, P; Boriani, S



Antiproliferative effects of suramin on lymphoid cells.  


Suramin, a polyanionic drug used in the treatment of Rhodesian and Gambian trypanosomiasis and more recently in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is a potent inhibitor of the constitutive mammalian DNA polymerases alpha, beta, and gamma and the lymphoid-specific polymerase terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. To define the effect of this inhibition on cell proliferation, we studied the effect of suramin on several cell lines in culture and in mice in vivo. Suramin, at 200 micrograms/ml (which is regularly achieved in the plasma of patients), had no effect on the proliferation of 4 of 5 nonlymphoid cell lines. In contrast, exposure of 10 lymphoid cell lines to 200 micrograms/ml suramin for 4 days caused significant growth inhibition in 8 of these 10 lines. Suramin given i.p. to BALB/cBYJ mice at clinically relevant doses (15-60 mg/kg) caused profound and prolonged thymic atrophy within 5-7 days of drug administration (greater than a 90% weight loss in mice treated with 60 mg/kg). Thymic sections revealed severe cortical loss, prominence of dendritic cells, and vacuolated macrophages. Liver, peripheral blood, spleen, kidney, and total body weights were not affected. The apparent selective lymphocytotoxicity of suramin may represent an important property of this drug. We speculate that this may account for the persistent immune suppression reported in suramin-treated acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. PMID:3621163

Spigelman, Z; Dowers, A; Kennedy, S; DiSorbo, D; O'Brien, M; Barr, R; McCaffrey, R



Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases.

Mabbott, Neil A.