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Sample records for low-gravity optical spectral

  1. Single Bubble Sonoluminescence in Low Gravity and Optical Radiation Pressure Positioning of the Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiessen, D. B.; Young, J. E.; Marr-Lyon, M. J.; Richardson, S. L.; Breckon, C. D.; Douthit, S. G.; Jian, P. S.; Torruellas, W. E.; Marston, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Several groups of researchers have demonstrated that high frequency sound in water may be used to cause the regular repeated compression and luminescence of a small bubble of gas in a flask. The phenomenon is known as single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). It is potentially important because light emitted by the bubble appears to be associated with a significant concentration of energy within the volume of the bubble. Unfortunately, the detailed physical mechanisms causing the radiation of light by oscillating bubbles are poorly understood and there is some evidence that carrying out experiments in a weightless environment may provide helpful clues. In addition, the radiation pressure of laser beams on the bubble may provide a way of simulating weightless experiments in the laboratory. The standard model of SBSL attributes the light emission to heating within the bubble by a spherically imploding shock wave to achieve temperatures of 50,000 K or greater. In an alternative model, the emission is attributed to the impact of a jet of water which is required to span the bubble and the formation of the jet is linked to the buoyancy of the bubble. The coupling between buoyancy and jet formation is a consequence of the displacement of the bubble from a velocity node (pressure antinode) of the standing acoustic wave that drives the radial bubble oscillations. One objective of this grant is to understand SBSL emission in reduced buoyancy on KC-135 parabolic flights. To optimize the design of those experiments and for other reasons which will help resolve the role of buoyancy, laboratory experiments are planned in simulated low gravity in which the radiation pressure of laser light will be used to position the bubble at the acoustic velocity node of the ultrasonic standing wave. Laser light will also be used to push the bubble away from the velocity node, increasing the effective buoyancy. The original experiments on the optical levitation and radiation pressure on bubbles

  2. Low gravity phase separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Pope, W. L.; Smith, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for phase separating a gas-liquid mixture as might exist in a subcritical cryogenic helium vessel for cooling a superconducting magnet at low gravity such as in planetary orbit, permitting conservation of the liquid and extended service life of the superconducting magnet.

  3. Foam formation in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Matthews, John; Patel, Darayas

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus that produced the first polyurethane foam in low gravity has been described. The chemicals were mixed together in an apparatus designed for operation in low gravity. Mixing was by means of stirring the chemicals with an electric motor and propeller in a mixing chamber. The apparatus was flown on Consort 1, the first low-gravity materials payload launched by a commercial rocket launch team. The sounding rocket flight produced over 7 min of low gravity during which a polyurethane spheroidal foam of approximately 2300 cu cm was formed. Photographs of the formation of the foam during the flight show the development of the spheroidal form. This begins as a small sphere and grows to approximately a 17-cm-diam spheroid. The apparatus will be flown again on subsequent low-gravity flights.

  4. Low-gravity electrodeposition and growth of polymer thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities by electrochemical processes for devices: Thiophene-based polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Benjamin G.; Riley, Clyde

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that NLO thin film properties may be improved by low-gravity processing. Strong candidates for NLO thin film applications are the polythiophenes. Polymeric thiophenes are attractive materials due to their ease of preparation, stability, and high X(exp 3). A simple and convenient method for preparation of polythiophenes is electrochemical oxidation. We will apply some of our experience and lessons learned in low-gravity metal, metal/cermet electrode position to improve the quality of polythiophene(s) thin films. In low gravity electrode position of Ni at a high rate on an Au substrate often results in the production of an x-ray non diffracting surface. Cobalt metal deposition does not give this result nor does Ni when deposited similarly on a glassy carbon substrate. Co/Ni alloy composition produced during electrode position is strongly dependent upon the amount of convection. Code position of neutral inert cermets with metals is influenced significantly by the presence of gravity and the size of the cermets. Tracks left in the 1-g surfaces by unsuccessful particle occlusion indicate suspension of the large particles is not the only reason for poor volume percentages of the larger particles in the deposits. All size particles are more homogeneously distributed in the deposits in low-gravity electrocodeposition than in 1-g. Low gravity gives larger volume percentages for the larger particles in the deposits, while 1-g gives larger volume percentages for the smaller particles. Intermediate size particles give mixed results. The experimental cells were constructed with flat electrode end plates such that 1-g bench reference electrode positions could be carried out at various orientations with respect to gravity. A series of bench studies using similar designed cells are suggested so that convection modification can be applied to electrochemical thin film preparation. Convection effects can then be coupled with other parameter variations in current

  5. REXUS 16 Low Gravity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoliu, L.; Ciuca, I.; Lupu, E. S.; Ciobanu, I.; Cherciu, C.; Soare, C.; Murensan, C.; Dragomir, D.; Chitu, C.; Nachila, C.

    2015-09-01

    The REXUS/BEXUS is a programme realized under a bilateral agency agreement between the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) (Source: www.rexusbexus.net) . Within this programme, the experiment proposed by LOW Gravity was given the opportunity to fly on board of REXUS 16 from Kiruna, Sweden, in May 2014. Since space settlements are within our reach and material processing in reduced gravity is a key requirement, we aim to improve this field by investigating the melting and welding processes taking place in milligravity on board of a sounding rocket. Our main objective is to analyze the surface deformation and physical properties of titanium and acid core solder alloys welded/melted under miligravity conditions with a 25W LASER diode. The main components of our experiment are the metal samples, the LASER diode and the control electronics. The metal samples are placed in front of an optical system and are shifted during approximately 120 seconds of milligravity. The optical system is connected via an optic fiber to the LASER diode. The electronics consists of two custom-made boards: the mainboard which is connected to the REXUS interface and controls the LASER diode and the sample shifting and the logboard which has an SD card to log all experiment data (sample position, experiment acceleration and rotation rate, pressure and temperature, battery voltage and LASER diode status). During the flight, due to unexpected vibration levels, the fiber optics was damaged at T+70 and the experiment could not fulfill its main objective. A GoPro camera mounted inside the experiment box recorded the experiment operation. Valuable information regarding temperature and battery voltage was also sent remotely to our Ground Station. This data enabled us to perform a thorough failure analysis. Parallel readings of these parameters taken by other experiments and by the REXUS Service Module corroborate our data and increase the accuracy of our analysis

  6. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The final report of the Materials Processing in Low Gravity Program in which The University of Alabama in Huntsville designed, fabricated and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing from November 7, 1989 through November 6, 1990 is presented. The facilities used in these short duration low gravity experiments include the Drop Tube and Drop Tower at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field. During the performance of this contract, the utilization of these ground-based low gravity facilities for materials processing experiments have been instrumental in providing the opportunity to determine the feasibility of performing a number of experiments in the microgravity of Space, without the expense of a space-based experiment. Since the KC-135 was out for repairs during the latter part of the reporting period, a number of the KC-135 activities concentrated on repair and maintenance of the equipment that normally is flown on the aircraft. A number of periodic reports were given to the TCOR during the course of this contract, hence this final report is meant only to summarize the many activities performed and not redundantly cover materials already submitted.

  7. Low gravity transfer line chilldown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Collins, Frank G.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    The progress to date is presented in providing predictive capabilities for the transfer line chilldown problem in low gravity environment. A low gravity experimental set up was designed and flown onboard the NASA/KC-135 airplane. Some results of this experimental effort are presented. The cooling liquid for these experiments was liquid nitrogen. The boiling phenomenon was investigated in this case using flow visualization techniques as well as recording wall temperatures. The flow field was established by injecting cold liquid in a heated tube whose temperature was set above saturation values. The tubes were vertically supported with the liquid injected from the lower end of the tube. The results indicate substantial differences in the flow patterns established during boiling between the ground based, (1-g), experiments and the flight experiments, (low-g). These differences in the flow patterns will be discussed and some explanations will be offered.

  8. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Several NASA facilities are available for low gravity experimentation: the Drop Facilities at NASA Marshall and the KC-135 at NASA Johnson. The use of these facilities allows for a rather inexpensive method of determining whether or not particular experiments will be worthwhile candidates for space experiments. Equipment currently available include various furnaces for the Drop Tube, the Drop Tower, and the KC-135. The furnaces for the Drop Tube include both an electron beam and electromagnetic levitation furnace. A vacuum furnace is used for the Drop Tower. Several furnaces used in performing KC-135 solidification experiments include the Automated Directional Solidification Furnace, the Isothermal Casting Furnace, the Rapid Melt/Rapid Quench and the Polymer/Video Furnaces.

  9. Optical spectral singularities as threshold resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2011-04-15

    Spectral singularities are among generic mathematical features of complex scattering potentials. Physically they correspond to scattering states that behave like zero-width resonances. For a simple optical system, we show that a spectral singularity appears whenever the gain coefficient coincides with its threshold value and other parameters of the system are selected properly. We explore a concrete realization of spectral singularities for a typical semiconductor gain medium and propose a method of constructing a tunable laser that operates at threshold gain.

  10. Low gravity liquid motions in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.

    1987-01-01

    Low gravity liquid motions in a spacecraft are discussed in outline form and on viewgraphs. Free-surface sloshing, liquid draining, liquid reorientation, and sloshing in a bladdered tank are covered. Conclusions and recommendations are given.

  11. Spectral efficiency of optical direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alfonso

    2007-04-01

    The spectral efficiency (channel capacity) of the optical direct-detection channel is studied. The modeling of the optical direct-detection channel as a discrete-time Poisson channel is reviewed. Closed-form integral representations for the entropy of random variables with Poisson and negative binomial distributions are derived. The spectral efficiency achievable with an arbitrary input gamma density is expressed in closed integral form. Simple, nonasymptotic upper and lower bounds to the channel capacity are computed. Numerical results are presented and compared with previous bounds and approximations.

  12. Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.

  13. Limits of spectral resolution in optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Manuel B.

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays a growing number of scientists relies on optical spectral measurements for their research. The market is full of new plug-and-play equipment for spectral analysis that take the fuss out of the measurements. As with other instruments (computers, lasers, etc.) the researcher doesńt need any longer to work with someone with a post-graduate formation on the technology to be able to do excellent research. But, as in every instrument, there are limitations on the instrument use that affect its precision and resolution. Currently there is in the market a large variety of equipment for spectral measurements. They range from the huge long focal length double pass monochromators to the small pocket size USB connected array spectrometers. The different configurations have different sensitivities on the light input system, light intensity, coherence, polarization, etc. In this talk we will discuss a few of the limitations in spectral measurements that can be found in experimental setups.

  14. Bubble behavior during solidification in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papazian, J. M.; Wilcox, W. R.; Gutowski, R.

    1979-01-01

    The trapping and behavior of gas bubbles were studied during low-gravity solidification of carbon tetrabromide, a transparent metal-model material. The experiment was performed during a NASA-sponsored sounding rocket flight and involved gradient freeze solidification of a gas-saturated melt. Gas bubbles were evolved at the solid-liquid interface during the low-gravity interval. No large-scale thermal migration of bubbles, bubble pushing by the solid-liquid interface, or bubble detachment from the interface were observed during the low-gravity experiment. A unique bubble motion-fluid flow event occurred in one specimen: a large bubble moved downward and caused some circulation of the melt. The gas bubbles that were trapped by the solid in commercial-purity material formed voids that had a cylindrical shape, in contrast to the spherical shape that had been observed in a prior low-gravity experiment. These shapes were not influenced by the gravity level (0.0001 g-0 vs g-0), but were dependent upon the initial temperature gradient. In higher purity material, however, the shape of the voids changed from cylindrical in 1g to spherical in low gravity.

  15. Inhalation risk in low-gravity spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Sklar, Michael V.; Ramirez, W. Fred; Smith, Gerald J.; Morgenthaler, George W.; McKinnon, J. T.; Oberdörster, Günter; Schulz, Jon

    Inhalation risks on long-duration manned spaced flight include gasses chronically released by outgassing of materials, gasses released during spills, thermodegradation events (including fires) with their attendant particulates, and fire extinguishment. As an example, an event in which electronic insulation consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene undergoes thermodegradation on the Space Station Freedom was modeled experimentally and theoretically from the initial chemistry and convective transport through pulmonary deposition in humans. The low-gravity environment was found to impact various stages of event simulation. Critical unknowns were identified, and these include the extent of production of ultrafine particles and polymeric products at the source in low gravity, the transport of ultrafine particles in the spacecraft air quality control system, and the biological response of the lung, including alveolar macrophages, to this inhalation risk in low gravity.

  16. Vesta and low gravity impact mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Nathues, Andreas; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Sierks, Holger

    2013-04-01

    impacts into granular material lead to anything but a simple crater morphology. Unusual scaling laws (Uehara et al. 2003) and much more diverse phase patterns than in ordinary solid media have to be taken into account, if a consistent interpretation of the formation of a crater in very deep regolith is attempted (e.g. Opsomer et al. 2011). Additional effects are due to the low gravity environment on a small planetary body like Vesta (Tancredi et al. 2012). On Vesta many apparent counterparts to the results of the experiments can be found, as demonstrated by some examples. On a global scale, the multitude of small, unresolved primary and secondary impacts into the granular regolith contributes to the observed maturity on Vesta even after short time scales. References Cook, M. A., Mortensen, K. S. 1967. Impact cratering in granular materials. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5125-5128. Daniels, K. E., Coppock, J. E., Behringer, R. P. 2004. Dynamics of meteor impacts. Chaos 14, 84. Daraio, C., Nesterenko, V. F., Herbold, E. B., Jin S. 2006. Energy trapping and shock desintegration in a composite granular medium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 058002, 1-4. Opsomer, E., Ludewig, F., Vandewalle, N. 2011. Phase transitions in vibrated granular systems in microgravity. Phys. Rev. E84, 051306, 1-5. Rivas, N., Ponce, S., Gellet, B., Risso, D., Soto, R., Cordero, P. 2011. Sudden chain energy transfer events in vibrated granular media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 088001, 1-4. Tancredi, G., Maciel, A., Heredia, L., Richeri, P., Nesmachnow, S. 2012. Granular physics in low-gravity environments using discrete element method. Monthly Not. Royal Astron. Soc. 420, 3368-3380. Uehara, J. S., Ambroso, M. A., Ojha, R. J., Durian, D. J. 2003. Low-speed impact craters in loose granular media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 194301, 1-4.

  17. Passive and Active Stabilization of Liquid Bridges in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Thiessen, David B.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Wei, Wei; Niederhaus, Charles E.; Truong, Duc K.

    2001-01-01

    Tests are planned in the low gravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) of new methods for the suppression of the capillary instability of liquid bridges. Our suppression methods are unusual in that they are not limited to liquid bridges having very special properties and may impact a variety of low-gravity and earth-based technologies. There are two main approaches to be investigated: (1) Passive Acoustic Stabilization (PAS); and (2) Active Electrostatic Stabilization (AES). In PAS, the suppression of the mode growth is accomplished by placing the bridge in an acoustic field having the appropriate properties such that the acoustic radiation pressure automatically pulls outward on the thinnest portion of the bridge. In AES, the bridge deformation is sensed optically and counteracted by actively adjusting the electrostatic Maxwell stresses via two ring electrodes concentric with the slightly conducting bridge to offset the growth of the unstable mode. While the present work emphasizes cylindrical bridges, the methods need not be restricted to that case. The methods to be explored are relevant to the suppression of capillary instabilities in floating zone crystal growth, breakup of liquid jets and columns, bubbles, and annular films as well as the management of coolants or propellants in low-gravity.

  18. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  19. Spectral fusing Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meemon, Panomsak; Widjaja, Joewono; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-02-01

    Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) is one of many variations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques that aims for invariant high resolution across a 3D field of view by utilizing the ability to dynamically refocus the imaging optics in the sample arm. GD-OCM acquires multiple cross-sectional images at different focus positions of the objective lens, and then fuses them to obtain an invariant high-resolution 3D image of the sample, which comes with the intrinsic drawback of a longer processing time as compared to conventional Fourier domain OCT. Here, we report on an alternative Gabor fusing algorithm, the spectral-fusion technique, which directly processes each acquired spectrum and combines them prior to the Fourier transformation to obtain a depth profile. The implementation of the spectral-fusion algorithm is presented and its performance is compared to that of the prior GD-OCM spatial-fusion approach. The spectral-fusion approach shows twice the speed of the spatial-fusion approach for a spectrum size of less than 2000 point sampling, which is a commonly used spectrum size in OCT imaging, including GD-OCM. PMID:26907410

  20. Effects of Low Gravity on Superalloy Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Parr, R. A.; Curreri, P. A.; Alter, Wendy

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments on directional solidification on MAR-M246(Hf) superalloy in low gravity. Determines effects of reduction in gravity on growth of dendrites and on resultant interdendritic segregation of various constituents, particularly of additive hafnium. Interdendritic spacings and carbide contents increase.

  1. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of low gravity on the growth of protein crystals and those parameters which will affect growth and crystal quality. The application of graphoepitaxy (artificial epitaxy) to proteins is detailed. The development of a method for the control of nucleation is discussed. The factor affecting the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals is presented.

  2. Helium 2 slosh in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Graham O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the status and plans for the work being performed under NASA NRA contract NASW-4803 so that members of the Microgravity Fluid Dynamics Discipline Working Group are aware of this program. The contract is a cross-disciplinary research program and is administered under the Low Temperature Microgravity Research Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The purpose of the project is to perform low-gravity verification experiments on the slosh behavior of He II to use in the development of a CFD model that incorporates the two-fluid physics of He II. The two-fluid code predicts a different fluid motion response in low-gravity environment from that predicted by a single-fluid model, while the 1g response is identical for the both types of model.

  3. Solidifying Cast Iron in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, J. C.; Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes study of solidification of cast iron in low and normal gravity. Because flotation, sedimentation, and convection suppressed, alloys that solidify at nearly zero gravity have unusual and potentially useful characteristics. Study conducted in airplane that repeatedly flew along parabolic trajectories. Appears iron/carbon alloys made at low gravity have greater carbon content (as high as 5 to 10 percent) than those made of Earth gravity because carbon particles do not float to top of melt.

  4. Spectral superresolution with ultrashort optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Berger, Naum K

    2012-01-10

    A superresolution technique for the measurement of transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra is proposed. An ultrashort laser pulse is propagated in a dispersive element and then periodically phase modulated. The temporal modulation is transformed into periodic spectral modulation, for which the number of harmonics, 2M+1, is determined by the modulation index. The modulated pulse is transmitted through (reflected from) the sample to be tested and measured by a spectrometer. By performing 2M+1 measurements for 2M+1 delays between the dispersed pulse and modulation signal, one can restore the spectral response of the sample with superresolution after simple processing. We numerically demonstrate the measurement of the transmission spectrum of an ultranarrow optical filter with a minimum feature of 0.43 pm by an optical spectrum analyzer with a 10 pm resolution. A twentyfold enhancement of the resolution is achieved in the presence of noise with a level of 0.1%. The advantage of the system is its full reconfigurability. PMID:22270515

  5. Generation of Bubbly Suspensions in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Hoffmann, Monica I.; Hussey, Sam; Bell, Kimberly R.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of a uniform monodisperse bubbly suspension in low gravity is a rather difficult task because bubbles do not detach as easily as on Earth. Under microgravity, the buoyancy force is not present to detach the bubbles as they are formed from the nozzles. One way to detach the bubbles is to establish a detaching force that helps their detachment from the orifice. The drag force, established by flowing a liquid in a cross or co-flow configuration with respect to the nozzle direction, provides this additional force and helps detach the bubbles as they are being formed. This paper is concerned with studying the generation of a bubbly suspension in low gravity in support of a flight definition experiment titled "Behavior of Rapidly Sheared Bubbly Suspension." Generation of a bubbly suspension, composed of 2 and 3 mm diameter bubbles with a standard deviation <10% of the bubble diameter, was identified as one of the most important engineering/science issues associated with the flight definition experiment. This paper summarizes the low gravity experiments that were conducted to explore various ways of making the suspension. Two approaches were investigated. The first was to generate the suspension via a chemical reaction between the continuous and dispersed phases using effervescent material, whereas the second considered the direct injection of air into the continuous phase. The results showed that the reaction method did not produce the desired bubble size distribution compared to the direct injection of bubbles. However, direct injection of air into the continuous phase (aqueous salt solution) resulted in uniform bubble-diameter distribution with acceptable bubble-diameter standard deviation.

  6. Low-gravity processing of superconducting compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Low gravity conditions can be sustained on earth for several seconds in an evacuated drop tube. Because radiation cooling is most effective at high temperatures, the refractive metals and alloys are prime candidates for free fall solidification. The results of initial experiments on droplet formation, droplet release, critical size and evaporation losses are given. The time required for free fall solidification of different size droplets is calculated. The materials studied were copper, niobium and vanadium, and a niobium-tin alloys. Improvements in purity, composition, homogeneity and stoichiometry are expected during free fall solidification of niobium based alloys which should become evident in an increase in the superconducting transition temperature.

  7. Spectral/Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Johannes F.

    Optical coherence tomography is a low-coherence interferometric method for imaging of biological tissue [1, 2]. For more than a decade after its inception between 1988 and 1991, the dominant implementation has been time domain OCT (TD-OCT), in which the length of a reference arm is rapidly scanned. The first spectral or Fourier domain OCT (SD/FD-OCT) implementation was reported in 1995 [3]. In SD-OCT the reference arm is kept stationary, and the depth information is obtained by a Fourier transform of the spectrally resolved interference fringes in the detection arm of a Michelson interferometer. This approach has provided a significant advantage in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which despite reports as early as 1997 [4, 5] has taken about half a decade to be recognized fully by the OCT community in 2003 [6-8]. The first demonstration of SD-OCT for in vivo retinal imaging in 2002 [9] was followed by a full realization of the sensitivity advantage by video rate in vivo retinal imaging [10], including high-speed 3-D volumetric imaging [11], ultrahigh-resolution video rate imaging [12, 13], and Doppler blood flow determination in the human retina [14, 15]. The superior sensitivity of SD-OCT, combined with the lack of need for a fast mechanical scanning mechanism, has opened up the possibility of much faster scanning without loss of image quality and provided a paradigm shift from point sampling to volumetric mapping of biological tissue in vivo. The technology has been particularly promising for ophthalmology [16, 17]. In this chapter, the principles and system design considerations of SD-OCT will be discussed in more detail.

  8. Low gravity liquid level sensor rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

  9. Low gravity exothermic heating/cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A low gravity exothermic heating/cooling apparatus is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support carried within the casing which support a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of exothermic material stacked one upon another to produce a desired temperature profile when ignited. The sample container is arranged within the core of the stacked exothermic heating material. Igniters are spaced vertically along the axis of the heating material to ignite the exothermic material at spaced points to provide total rapid burn and release of heat. To rapidly cool and quench the heat, a source of liquid carbon dixoide is provided which is conveyed through a conduit and a metering orifice into a distribution manifold where the carbon dioxide is gasified and dispersed around the exothermic heating material and the sample container via tubes for rapidly cooling the material sample.

  10. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of low gravity on the growth of protein crystals and those parameters which will affect growth and crystal quality was studied. The proper design of the flight hardware and experimental protocols are highly dependent on understanding the factors which influence the nucleation and growth of crystals of biological macromolecules. Thus, those factors are investigated and the body of knowledge which has been built up for small molecule crystallization. These data also provide a basis of comparison for the results obtained from low-g experiments. The flows around growing crystals are detailed. The preliminary study of the growth of isocitrate lyase, the crystal morphologies found and the preliminary x ray results are discussed. The design of two apparatus for protein crystal growth by temperature control are presented along with preliminary results.

  11. Combustion and fires in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Fire safety always receives priority attention in NASA mission designs and operations, with emphasis on fire prevention and material acceptance standards. Recently, interest in spacecraft fire-safety research and development has increased because improved understanding of the significant differences between low-gravity and normal-gravity combustion suggests that present fire-safety techniques may be inadequate or, at best, non-optimal; and the complex and permanent orbital operations in Space Station Freedom demand a higher level of safety standards and practices. This presentation outlines current practices and problems in fire prevention and detection for spacecraft, specifically the Space Station Freedom's fire protection. Also addressed are current practices and problems in fire extinguishment for spacecraft.

  12. Low Gravity venting of Refrigerant 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, T. L.; Aydelott, J. C.; Lacovic, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in a five-second zero gravity facility to examine the effects of venting initially saturated Refrigerant 11 from a cylindrical container (15-cm diameter) under reduced gravitational conditions. The system Bond numbers studied were 0 (weightlessness), 9 and 63; the liquid exhibited a nearly zero-degree contact angle on the container surface. During the venting process, both liquid-vapor interface and liquid bulk vaporization occurred. The temperature of the liquid in the immediate vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface was found to decrease during venting, while the liquid bulk temperature remained constant. Qualitative observations of the effects of system acceleration, vent rate, and vapor volume presented. Quantitative information concerning the ullage pressure decay during low gravity venting is also included.

  13. [Spectral calibration for space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Jin; Liu, Wen-Qing; Si, Fu-Qi; Zhao, Min-Jie; Jiang, Yu; Xue, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer is used for remote sensing of atmospheric trace gas global distribution. This instrument acquires high accuracy UV/Vis radiation scattered or reflected by air or earth surface, and can monitor distribution and variation of trace gases based on differential optical absorption spectrum algorithm. Spectral calibration is the premise and base of quantification of remote sensing data of the instrument, and the precision of calibration directly decides the level of development and application of the instrument. Considering the characteristic of large field, wide wavelength range, high spatial and spectral resolution of the space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer, a spectral calibration method is presented, a calibration device was built, the equation of spectral calibration was calculated through peak searching and regression analysis, and finally the full field spectral calibration of the instrument was realized. The precision of spectral calibration was verified with Fraunhofer lines of solar light. PMID:23387142

  14. Granular physics in low-gravity enviroments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Maciel, A.; Heredia, L.; Richeri, P.; Nesmachnow, S.

    2011-10-01

    The granular media are formed by a set of macroscopic objects (named grains) which interact through temporal or permanent contacts. Several processes has been identified which require a full understanding, like: grain blocking, formation of arcs, size segregation, response to shakes and impacts, etc. These processes has been studied experimentally in the laboratory, and, in the last decades, numerically. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulate the mechanical behavior in a media formed by a set of particles which interact through their contact points. We describe the implementation of DEM for the study of several relevant processes in minor bodies of the Solar System. We present the results of simulations of the process of size segregation in low-gravity environments, the so-called Brazil nut effect, in the cases of Eros and Itokawa. The segregation of particles with different densities is also analyzed, with the application to the case of P/Hartley 2. The surface shaking in these different gravity environments could produce the ejection of particles from the surface at very low relative velocities. The shaking that cause the above processes is due to impacts or explosions like the release of energy by the liberation of internal stresses or the reaccommodation of material. We run simulations of the passage of seismic wave produced at impact through a granular media.

  15. Bubbly Suspension Generated in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    2000-01-01

    Bubbly suspensions are crucial for mass and heat transport processes on Earth and in space. These processes are relevant to pharmaceutical, chemical, nuclear, and petroleum industries on Earth. They are also relevant to life support, in situ resource utilization, and propulsion processes for long-duration space missions such as the Human Exploration and Development of Space program. Understanding the behavior of the suspension in low gravity is crucial because of factors such as bubble segregation, which could result in coalescence and affect heat and mass transport. Professors A. Sangani and D. Koch, principal investigators in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, are studying the physics of bubbly suspension. They plan to shear a bubbly suspension in a couette cell in microgravity to study bubble segregation and compare the bubble distribution in the couette gap with the one predicted by the suspension-averaged equations of motion. Prior to the Requirement Definition Review of this flight experiment, a technology for generating a bubbly suspension in microgravity has to be established, tested, and verified.

  16. Spectral separation of optical spin based on antisymmetric Fano resonances

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xianji; Yu, Sunkyu; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a route to the spectral separation of optical spin angular momentum based on spin-dependent Fano resonances with antisymmetric spectral profiles. By developing a spin-form coupled mode theory for chiral materials, the origin of antisymmetric Fano spectra is clarified in terms of the opposite temporal phase shift for each spin, which is the result of counter-rotating spin eigenvectors. An analytical expression of a spin-density Fano parameter is derived to enable quantitative analysis of the Fano-induced spin separation in the spectral domain. As an application, we demonstrate optical spin switching utilizing the extreme spectral sensitivity of the spin-density reversal. Our result paves a path toward the conservative spectral separation of spins without any need of the magneto-optical effect or circular dichroism, achieving excellent purity in spin density superior to conventional approaches based on circular dichroism. PMID:26561372

  17. Low gravity two-phase flow with heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1991-01-01

    A realistic model for the transfer line chilldown operation under low-gravity conditions is developed to provide a comprehensive predictive capability on the behavior of liquid vapor, two-phase diabatic flows in pipes. The tasks described involve the development of numerical code and the establishment of the necessary experimental data base for low-gravity simulation.

  18. Precision spectral manipulation: A demonstration using a coherent optical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkes, B. M.; Cairns, C.; Hosseini, M.; Higginbottom, D.; Campbell, G. T.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C.

    2014-12-04

    The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. Here we present experiments that use a multi-element solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.

  19. Spectral response of multilayer optical structures to dynamic mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scripka, David; LeCroy, Garrett; Summers, Christopher J.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2015-05-01

    A computational study of Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) and Optical Microcavities (OMC) was conducted to ascertain their potential as time-resolved mesoscale sensors due to their unique structure-driven spectral characteristics. Shock wave propagation simulations of polymer-based DBRs and glass/ceramic-based OMCs were coupled with spectral response calculations to demonstrate the combined dynamic mechanical and spectral response of the structures. Clear spectral shifts in both structures are predicted as a function of dynamic loading magnitude. Potential applications of the structures include high spatial and temporal resolution surface maps of material states, and in-situ probing of material interfaces during dynamic loading.

  20. Low-gravity environment in Spacelab.

    PubMed

    Knabe, W; Eilers, D

    1982-04-01

    This paper presents residual and system-generated accelerations with results from g-jitter spectral measurements in the Spacelab Engineering Model. An overview (classification, brief discussion, and assessment of magnitudes) of the various constituents of the perturbative acceleration field inside the Spacelab Module is presented, both steady and fluctuating components being considered. Results of local g-jitter spectral measurements taken in the Spacelab Engineering Model (EM-1)/Long Module Configuration are presented for frequencies from less than 1 to 200 Hz. The measured results for the system-generated perturbative accelerations exhibit, in the time domain, amplitudes of the order of 10(-3) g (peak value 3.6 x 10(-3) g). Spectral values of 4 x 10(-4) g are obtained in the frequency range up to 100 Hz; up to 10 Hz, however, the spectral values remain about an order of magnitude smaller, and also between 100 and 200 Hz the perturbation level is significantly lower than below 100 Hz. Measured results from simulated crew activities show, in the time domain, a peak amplitude of 2.6 x 10(-2)g, the spectral values being 6 x 10(-3)g below 100 Hz and 1 x 10(-3)g below 10 Hz for typical perturbances. PMID:11541689

  1. OPTICAL MICROVARIABILITY IN QUASARS: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RamIrez, A.; Dultzin, D.; De Diego, J. A. E-mail: deborah@astroscu.unam.m

    2010-05-01

    We present a method that we developed to discern where the optical microvariability (OM) in quasars originates: in the accretion disk (related to thermal processes) or in the jet (related to non-thermal processes). Analyzing nearly simultaneous observations in three different optical bands of continuum emission, we are able to determine the origin of several isolated OM events. In particular, our method indicates that from nine events reported by RamIrez et al., three of them are consistent with a thermal origin, three with non-thermal, and three cannot be discerned. The implications for the emission models of OM are briefly discussed.

  2. Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing

    2010-06-01

    A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography transmission in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth signal. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography transmission. PMID:20588368

  3. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality. PMID:25426320

  4. Optical unmixing using programmable spectral source based on DMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ding; Bauer, Sebastian; Taphanel, Miro; Längle, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Traditional spectral unmixing involves intense signal processing applied on multispectral or hyperspectral data captured from an imaging device, which is highly time-consuming. In this article, a novel method, namely "optical unmixing", is proposed to alleviate the post processing effort by replacing the heavy computation with a spectrally tunable light source. By choosing spectral features of the light source intelligently, the abundance map of each material can be retrieved with minimum computation from gray value images captured by a normal camera. For n unknown endmembers, 3n + 1 measurements are required to retrieve the abundance maps with proposed algorithms.

  5. Elastic Optical Path Network Architecture: Framework for Spectrally-Efficient and Scalable Future Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Masahiko; Takara, Hidehiko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Hirano, Akira

    This paper presents an elastic optical path network architecture as a novel networking framework to address the looming capacity crunch problem in internet protocol (IP) and optical networks. The basic idea is to introduce elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain to yield spectrally-efficient optical path accommodation, heightened network scalability through IP traffic offloading to the elastic optical layer, and enhanced survivability for serious disasters.

  6. Spectral Response of Multilayer Optical Structures to Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scripka, David; Lecroy, Garrett; Lee, Gyuhyon; Sun, Changyan; Kang, Zhitao; Summers, Christopher J.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2015-06-01

    Distributed Bragg Reflectors and optical microcavities are multilayer optical structures with spectral properties that are intrinsically sensitive to external perturbations. With nanometer to micrometer dimensions and near instantaneous optical response, these structures show significant potential as the basis for mesoscale time-resolved diagnostics that can be used to probe the dynamic behavior of mesoscale heterogeneous materials. In order to characterize the optical and mechanical behavior of the multilayer structures, a coupled computational-experimental study is underway. A mechanistic analysis of the spectral response of the structures to dynamic loading will be presented, along with computational simulations illustrating the observable spectral effects of 1D shock compression. Results from fabrication of specific multilayer designs and initial laser-driven shock loading experiments will be shown and compared to the simulation results. Preliminary results indicate that the magnitude of dynamic loading can be directly correlated to the altered spectral response. Potential applications of the theoretical diagnostics and challenges associated with spatially resolved data collection methodology will also be discussed. DTRA grant HDTRA-1-12-1-0052 is acknowledged. David Scripka is supported by the Department of Defense through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program.

  7. Perturbative analysis of spectral singularities and their optical realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali; Rostamzadeh, Saber

    2012-08-01

    We develop a perturbative method of computing spectral singularities of a Schrödinger operator defined by a general complex potential that vanishes outside a closed interval. These can be realized as zero-width resonances in optical gain media and correspond to a lasing effect that occurs at the threshold gain. Their time-reversed copies yield coherent perfect absorption of light that is also known as antilasing. We use our general results to establish the exactness of the nth-order perturbation theory for an arbitrary complex potential consisting of n delta functions, obtain an exact expression for the transfer matrix of these potentials, and examine spectral singularities of complex barrier potentials of arbitrary shape. In the context of optical spectral singularities, these correspond to inhomogeneous gain media.

  8. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  9. Liquid optical phantoms mimicking spectral characteristics of laboratory mouse biotissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, D. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krainov, A. D.; Agrba, P. D.; Kirillin, M. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Optical phantoms mimicking optical properties of real biotissues in the visible and IR spectral regions are developed based on measurements of the spectral characteristics of ex vivo samples of laboratory mouse biotissues. The phantoms are composed of aqueous solutions of Lipofundin, Indian ink and red ink with different spectral characteristics. The deviations of the measured absorption and scattering coefficients of phantoms in the wavelength range 480 – 580 nm from the corresponding values for real biotissues do not exceed 25% and 2%, respectively. For phantoms in the wavelength region 580 – 880 nm, the deviations of the absorption coefficient do not exceed 40% and the deviations of the scattering coefficient do not exceed 25%. These values, in general, fall within the range of variations for different individual mice of one strain.

  10. Fusion welding experiments under low-gravity conditions using aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masubuchi, Koichi; Nayama, Michisuke

    A series of gas tungsten arc welding experiments under low-gravity conditions created using parabolic flight of aircraft were performed. The materials used were aluminum and 2219 aluminum alloy. Welding was conducted in a small chamber filled with 100 percent argon gas, and the power source was a set of storage batteries. While welding was conducted, CCD image of welding phenomena, welding current, voltage, and the gravity level of the welding table were recorded continuously. It was found that sound welds can be obtained under low-gravity conditions. The bead appearance of the weld bead made under low-gravity conditions was very smooth and flat with no ripple lines which normally exist in welds made on the earth. The observed shape of the arc plasma under low-gravity conditions was larger than that made under normal gravity condition, but the difference was not so significant. Welds made under low-gravity conditions tend to contain more porosity compared with welds made under the earth conditions.

  11. [Application of spectral optical coherent tomography (SOCT) in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Bieganowski, Lech; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Kałuzny, Jakub J

    2004-01-01

    The article describes spectral optical coherent tomography (SOCT) constructed by Medical Physics Group, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics at Nicholas Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland). It presents the physical bases for the functioning of the constructed device and includes pictures of optical sections of various elements of the eyeball: an optic disc and the region of central fovea, a cornea and angle structures (trabecular meshwork). The article also discusses potential application of SOCT in ophthalmic diagnosis of anterior and posterior segments of the eye. PMID:15646498

  12. Hyper-spectral imaging using an optical fiber transition element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Brett C.; Otten, Leonard J., III; Schmoll, Juergen

    2007-09-01

    The Bi-static Optical Imaging Sensor (BOIS) is a 2-D imaging sensor that operates in the short-wave infra-red (SWIR) spectral regime over wavelengths from approximately 1.0 to 2.4 microns. The conceptual design of the sensor is based on integral field spectroscopy techniques. The BOIS sensor utilizes a fiber transition element consisting of multiple optical fibers to map the 2-D spatial input scene into a 1-D linear array for injection into a hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) sensor. The HSI spectrometer acquires fast time resolution snapshots (60 Hz) of the entire input target scene in numerous narrowband spectral channels covering the SWIR spectral band. The BOIS sensor is developed to spatially observe the fast time-evolving radiative signature of targets over a variety of spectral bands, thus simultaneously characterizing the overall scene in four dimensions: 2 spatial, wavelength, and time. We describe the successful design, operation, and testing of a laboratory prototype version of the BOIS sensor as well as further development of a field version of the sensor. The goal of the laboratory prototype BOIS sensor was to validate the proof-of-concept ability in the 4-D measurement concept of this unique design. We demonstrate the 2-D spatial remapping of the input scene (using SWIR laser and blackbody cavity sources) in multiple spectral channels from the spatial versus spectral pixel output of the HSI snapshot. We also describe algorithms developed in the data processing to retrieve temperatures of the observation scene from the hyper-spectral measurements.

  13. Terahertz wave electro-optic measurements with optical spectral filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyakov, I. E. Shishkin, B. V.; Kitaeva, G. Kh.; Akhmedzhanov, R. A.

    2015-03-23

    We propose electro-optic detection techniques based on variations of the laser pulse spectrum induced during pulse co-propagation with terahertz wave radiation in a nonlinear crystal. Quantitative comparison with two other detection methods is made. Substantial improvement of the sensitivity compared to the standard electro-optic detection technique (at high frequencies) and to the previously shown technique based on laser pulse energy changes is demonstrated in experiment.

  14. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity and low gravity fluid measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Peterson, Lee D.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-01-01

    The very large mass fraction of liquids stored on broad current and future generation spacecraft has made critical the technologies of describing the fluid-spacecraft dynamics and measuring or gauging the fluid. Combined efforts in these areas are described, and preliminary results are presented. The coupled dynamics of fluids and spacecraft in low gravity study is characterizing the parametric behavior of fluid-spacecraft systems in which interaction between the fluid and spacecraft dynamics is encountered. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of nonlinear fluid free surface phenomena to the coupled dynamics. An experimental apparatus has been developed for demonstrating a coupled fluid-spacecraft system. In these experiments, slosh force signals are fed back to a model tank actuator through a tunable analog second order integration circuit. In this manner, the tank motion is coupled to the resulting slosh force. Results are being obtained in 1-g and in low-g (on the NASA KC-135) using dynamic systems nondimensionally identical except for the Bond numbers.

  15. Spectral diffraction efficiency characterization of broadband diffractive optical elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Junoh; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Tanbakuchi, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Diffractive optical elements, with their thin profile and unique dispersion properties, have been studied and utilized in a number of optical systems, often yielding smaller and lighter systems. Despite the interest in and study of diffractive elements, the application has been limited to narrow spectral bands. This is due to the etch depths, which are optimized for optical path differences of only a single wavelength, consequently leading to rapid decline in efficiency as the working wavelength shifts away from the design wavelength. Various broadband diffractive design methodologies have recently been developed that improve spectral diffraction efficiency and expand the working bandwidth of diffractive elements. We have developed diffraction efficiency models and utilized the models to design, fabricate, and test two such extended bandwidth diffractive designs.

  16. Optical characterization in wide spectral range by a coherent spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirutkaitis, Valdas; Eckardt, Robert C.; Balachninaite, Ona; Grigonis, Rimantas; Melninkaitis, A.; Rakickas, T.

    2003-11-01

    We report on the development and use of coherent spectrophotometers specialized for the unusual requirements of characterizing nonlinear optical materials and multilayer dielectric coatings used in laser systems. A large dynamic range is required to measure the linear properties of transmission, reflection and absorption and nonlinear properties of laser-induced damage threshold and nonlinear frequency conversion. Optical parametric oscillators generate coherent radiation that is widely tunable with instantaneous powers that can range from milliwatts to megawatts and are well matched to this application. As particular example a laser spectrophotometer based on optical parametric oscillators and a diode-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and suitable for optical characterization in the spectral range 420-4500 nm is described. Measurements include reflectance and transmittance, absorption, scattering and laser-induced damage thresholds. Possibilities of a system based on a 130-fs Ti:sapphire laser and optical parametric generators are also discussed.

  17. Radiative Structures of Lycopodium-Air Flames in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.

    1989-01-01

    Initially uniform clouds of fuel particulates in air sustain processes which may lead to particle cloud nonuniformities. In low gravity, flame-induced Kundt's Tube phenomena are observed to form regular patterns of nonuniform particle concentrations. Irregular patterns of particle concentrations also are observed to result from selected nonuniform mixing processes. Low gravity flame propagation for each of these classes of particle cloud flames has been found to depend importantly on the flame-generated infrared radiative fields. The spatial structures of these radiative fields are described. Application is made for the observed clases of lycopodium-air flames.

  18. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The solubility and growth of the protein canavalin, and the application of the schlieren technique to study fluid flow in protein crystal growth systems were investigated. These studies have resulted in the proposal of a model to describe protein crystal growth and the preliminary plans for a long-term space flight experiment. Canavalin, which may be crystallized from a basic solution by the addition of hydrogen (H+) ions, was shown to have normal solubility characteristics over the range of temperatures (5 to 25 C) and pH (5 to 7.5) studies. The solubility data combined with growth rate data gathered from the seeded growth of canavalin crystals indicated that the growth rate limiting step is a screw dislocation mechanism. A schlieren apparatus was constructed and flow patterns were observed in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate), lysozyme, and canavalin. The critical parameters were identified as the change in density with concentration (dp/dc) and the change in index of refraction with concentration (dn/dc). Some of these values were measured for the materials listed. The data for lyrozyme showed non-linearities in plots of optical properties and density vs. concentration. In conjunction with with W. A. Tiller, a model based on colloid stability theory was proposed to describe protein crystallization. The model was used to explain observations made by ourselves and others. The results of this research has lead to the development for a preliminary design for a long-term, low-g experiment. The proposed apparatus is univeral and capable of operation under microprocessor control.

  19. Aerosol spectral optical depths - Jet fuel and forest fire smokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Ames autotracking airborne sun photometer was used to investigate the spectral depth between 380 and 1020 nm of smokes from a jet fuel pool fire and a forest fire in May and August 1988, respectively. Results show that the forest fire smoke exhibited a stronger wavelength dependence of optical depths than did the jet fuel fire smoke at optical depths less than unity. At optical depths greater than or equal to 1, both smokes showed neutral wavelength dependence, similar to that of an optically thin stratus deck. These results verify findings of earlier investigations and have implications both on the climatic impact of large-scale smokes and on the wavelength-dependent transmission of electromagnetic signals.

  20. Highly spectral efficient networks based on grouped optical path routing.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuki; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-21

    In order to mitigate the signal spectrum narrowing caused by optical filtering at nodes, an adequate guard band is needed between optical channels, which degrades the frequency utilization of optical fibers. In this study, we propose a grouped routing based network architecture that minimizes spectrum narrowing while greatly improving spectral efficiency. Coarse granular routing at GRE (grouped routing entity) level is employed at each ROADM node, but fine granular add/drop is adopted to retain high frequency utilization. Optical channels are packed densely in each GRE, and sufficient guard bands are inserted between GREs. As a result, signal spectrum narrowing is minimized and efficient spectrum utilization is achieved. Network design/control algorithms that support both static and dynamic traffic growth are developed. Extensive simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. To implement the scheme, current LCOS-based ROADMs are applied without any hardware changes; only the control schema are modified. PMID:27136815

  1. The Arcetri Spectral Code for optically thin plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Landini, M.

    2002-03-01

    The Arcetri Spectral Code allows one to evaluate the spectrum of the radiation emitted by hot and optically thin plasmas in the spectral range 1-2000 Å. The Arcetri Code consists of a series of files that contain the emissivity of the plasma as a function of electron temperature and density. Both line and continuum emission are considered. These quantities are calculated using a database of atomic data and transition probabilities, mostly taken from the CHIANTI database. In the present work we describe the updates to the spectrum and present the new results. A comparison with the previous version of the code allows us to assess the improvements to the spectrum; comparison with other spectral codes allows us to assess the completeness of the Arcetri Code and of the CHIANTI database.

  2. Control of Spectral Phase of Ultrafast Optical Pulses with Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Charles; Field, Jeff; Squier, Jeff; Kane, Steve

    2008-10-01

    High-quality dispersion management is critical for ultrafast optics. Grisms are a combination of diffraction gratings and prisms. We can use grisms for high-fidelity control of the spectral phase of ultrafast pulses, making systems much more compact and easy to adjust. While the spectral phase of a given system can be obtained with ray-tracing, analytic expressions are desirable for exploring and optimizing new designs. We show that we can analytically calculate the spectral phase of a range of grism-like structures by making a superposition of basic tilted window modules. For example, a prism pair can be described by starting with a tilted slab of glass, which defines the outer edges of the prism pair. The inner edges of the prism pair are then created by superposing a tilted slab of air, which removes glass between the prisms. We will discuss the applications of these grism designs to ultrafast amplifiers and pulse shapers.

  3. Algebraic reconstruction techniques for spectral reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) necessitates solving the diffusion equation, which is nonlinear with respect to the parameters that have to be reconstructed. Currently applied solving methods are based on the linearization of the equation. For spectral three-dimensional reconstruction, the emerging equation system is too large for direct inversion, but the application of iterative methods is feasible. Computational effort and speed of convergence of these iterative methods are crucial since they determine the computation time of the reconstruction. In this paper, the iterative methods algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and conjugated gradients (CGs) as well as a new modified ART method are investigated for spectral DOT reconstruction. The aim of the modified ART scheme is to speed up the convergence by considering the specific conditions of spectral reconstruction. As a result, it converges much faster to favorable results than conventional ART and CG methods.

  4. Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing; Adie, Steven G; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-06-21

    A dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography (OCE) imaging technique is reported. In this technique, audio-frequency compressive vibrations are generated by a piezoelectric stack as external excitation, and strain rates in the sample are calculated and mapped quantitatively using phase-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. At different driving frequencies, this technique provides contrast between sample regions with different mechanical properties, and thus is used to mechanically characterize tissue. We present images of a three-layer silicone tissue phantom and rat tumor tissue ex vivo, based on quantitative strain rate. Both acquisition speed and processing speed are improved dramatically compared with previous OCE imaging techniques. With high resolution, high acquisition speed, and the ability to characterize the mechanical properties of tissue, this OCE technique has potential use in non-destructive volumetric imaging and clinical applications. PMID:20588552

  5. Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xing; Adie, Steven G.; John, Renu; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography (OCE) imaging technique is reported. In this technique, audio-frequency compressive vibrations are generated by a piezoelectric stack as external excitation, and strain rates in the sample are calculated and mapped quantitatively using phase-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. At different driving frequencies, this technique provides contrast between sample regions with different mechanical properties, and thus is used to mechanically characterize tissue. We present images of a three-layer silicone tissue phantom and rat tumor tissue ex vivo, based on quantitative strain rate. Both acquisition speed and processing speed are improved dramatically compared with previous OCE imaging techniques. With high resolution, high acquisition speed, and the ability to characterize the mechanical properties of tissue, this OCE technique has potential use in non-destructive volumetric imaging and clinical applications. PMID:20588552

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Spectral Intensity Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ryczkowski, Piotr; Turunen, Jari; Friberg, Ari T.; Genty, Goëry

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally spectral-domain intensity optical coherence tomography using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with balanced detection. We show that the technique allows for a point spread function with reduced full-width at half maximum compared to conventional optical coherence tomography. The method further provides benefits similar to those of chirped-pulse interferometry in terms of dispersion cancellation but only requires a broadband incoherent source and standard detectors. The measurements are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Finally, we propose an approach that enables the elimination of potential artefacts arising from multiple interfaces. PMID:26916668

  7. Infrared hollow optical fiber probes for reflectance spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhui; Kino, Saiko; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-05-10

    Systems for infrared reflectance imaging are built with an FT-IR spectrometer, hollow optical fibers, and a high-speed infrared camera. To obtain reflectance images of biological samples, an optical fiber probe equipped with a light source at the distal end and a hybrid fiber probe composed of fibers for beam radiation and ones for image detection have been developed. By using these systems, reflectance spectral images of lipid painted on biomedical hard tissue, which provides reflectance of around 4%, are successfully acquired. PMID:25967522

  8. Spectral ellipsometry studying of iron's optical and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernukha, Yevheniia; Stashchuk, Vasyl S.; Polianska, Olena; Oshtuk, Olexsandr

    2014-05-01

    Fe's optical and electronic properties were investigated at room temperature in different structural states. The sample's surface was explored in wide spectral range λ = 0,23-17,0 μm (E = 4,96 - 0,07 еV ) by the Beatty's spectral ellipsometry method. While an experiment was carried out ellipsometry parameters Δ and ψ were measure near the principal angle of incidence. The refraction index R , permittivity Ɛ and optical conductivity σ( hν ) , that is proportional to the interband density of electronic states, were calculated using these parameters. Fe's optical conductivities in liquid, amorphous and crystalline states were compared in this work. The optical conductivity was calculated using the published data of the iron's density of electronic states in crystalline, amorphous and liquid states for the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results. It is shown that, at structural transformations "amorphous, liquid state- crystalline state", the optical properties of metallic iron are determined, in the first turn, by the nearest neighborhood, and the electronic structure is not subjected to significant modifications.

  9. CHOROIDAL IMAGING USING SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Regatieri, Caio V.; Branchini, Lauren; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2012-01-01

    Background A structurally and functionally normal choroidal vasculature is essential for retinal function. Therefore, a precise clinical understanding of choroidal morphology should be important for understanding many retinal and choroidal diseases. Methods PUBMED (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed) was used for most of the literature search for this article. The criterion for inclusion of an article in the references for this review was that it included materials about both the clinical and the basic properties of choroidal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Results Recent reports show successful examination and accurate measurement of choroidal thickness in normal and pathologic states using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography systems. This review focuses on the principles of the new technology that make choroidal imaging using optical coherence tomography possible and on the changes that subsequently have been documented to occur in the choroid in various diseases. Additionally, it outlines future directions in choroidal imaging. Conclusion Optical coherence tomography is now proven to be an effective noninvasive tool to evaluate the choroid and to detect choroidal changes in pathologic states. Additionally, choroidal evaluation using optical coherence tomography can be used as a parameter for diagnosis and follow-up. PMID:22487582

  10. Imaging tamoxifen retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Caramoy, Albert; Scholz, Paula; Fauser, Sascha; Kirchhof, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    A case of tamoxifen retinopathy examined with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is presented. The typical refractile deposits are located between ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer in SD-OCT. A defect on the outer retinal layer with disruption of the photoreceptor layer with sharp edges is seen. The still attached posterior hyaloids gives evidence of other pathomechanism involved in the outer retinal defect than that of macular hole, as suggested in the literature.

  11. Wire insulation degradation and flammability in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This view-graph presentation covers the following topics: an introduction to spacecraft fire safety, concerns in fire prevention in low gravity, shuttle wire insulation flammability experiment, drop tower risk-based fire safety experiment, and experimental results, conclusions, and proposed studies.

  12. Suppressing Spectral Diffusion of Emitted Photons with Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotso, H. F.; Feiguin, A. E.; Awschalom, D. D.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    In many quantum architectures the solid-state qubits, such as quantum dots or color centers, are interfaced via emitted photons. However, the frequency of photons emitted by solid-state systems exhibits slow uncontrollable fluctuations over time (spectral diffusion), creating a serious problem for implementation of the photon-mediated protocols. Here we show that a sequence of optical pulses applied to the solid-state emitter can stabilize the emission line at the desired frequency. We demonstrate efficiency, robustness, and feasibility of the method analytically and numerically. Taking nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as an example, we show that only several pulses, with the width of 1 ns, separated by few ns (which is not difficult to achieve) can suppress spectral diffusion. Our method provides a simple and robust way to greatly improve the efficiency of photon-mediated entanglement and/or coupling to photonic cavities for solid-state qubits.

  13. Optimization of narrow optical spectral filters for nonparallel monochromatic radiation.

    PubMed

    Linder, S L

    1967-07-01

    This paper delineates a method of determining the design criteria for narrow optical passband filters used in the reception of nonparallel modulated monochromatic radiation. The analysis results in straightforward mathematical expressions for calculating the filter width and design center wavelength which maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Two cases are considered: (a) the filter is designed to have a maximum transmission (for normal incidence) at the incident wavelength, but with the spectral width optimized, and (b) both the design wavelength and the spectral width are optimized. It is shown that the voltage signal-to-noise ratio for case (b) is 2((1/2)) that of case (a). Numerical examples are calculated. PMID:20062163

  14. Bridgman crystal growth in low gravity - A scaling analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. I. D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The results of an order-of-magnitude or scaling analysis are compared with those of numerical simulations of the effects of steady low gravity on compositional nonuniformity in crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. In particular, the results are examined of numerical simulations of the effect of steady residual acceleration on the transport of solute in a gallium-doped germanium melt during directional solidification under low-gravity conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the relevant dimensionless groups associated with the process, and scaling techniques are evaluated by comparing their predictions with the numerical results. It is demonstrated that, when convective transport is comparable with diffusive transport, some specific knowledge of the behavior of the system is required before scaling arguments can be used to make reasonable predictions.

  15. Specification of optical components using the power spectral density function

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Wolfe, C.R.; Manes, K.R.; Trenholme, J.B.; Aikens, D.M.; English, R.E. Jr.

    1995-06-20

    This paper describes the use of Fourier techniques to characterize the wavefront of optical components, specifically, the use of the power spectral density, (PSD), function. The PSDs of several precision optical components will be shown. Many of the optical components of interest to us have square, rectangular or irregularly shaped apertures with major dimensions up-to 800 mm. The wavefronts of components with non-circular apertures cannot be analyzed with Zernicke polynomials since these functions are an orthogonal set for circular apertures only. Furthermore, Zernicke analysis is limited to treating low frequency wavefront aberrations; mid-spatial scale and high frequency error are expressed only as ``residuals.`` A more complete and powerful representation of the optical wavefront can be obtained by Fourier analysis in 1 or 2 dimensions. The PSD is obtained from the amplitude of frequency components present in the Fourier spectrum. The PSD corresponds to the scattered intensity as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront and can be used to describe the intensity distribution at focus. The shape of a resultant wavefront or the focal spot of a complex multi-component laser system can be calculated and optimized using the PSDs of individual optical components which comprise it.

  16. Heterodyne detection using spectral line pairing for spectral phase encoding optical code division multiple access and dynamic dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Foster, Mark; Khurgin, Jacob B; Cooper, A Brinton

    2012-07-30

    A novel coherent optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) scheme is proposed that uses spectral line pairing to generate signals suitable for heterodyne decoding. Both signal and local reference are transmitted via a single optical fiber and a simple balanced receiver performs sourceless heterodyne detection, canceling speckle noise and multiple-access interference (MAI). To validate the idea, a 16 user fully loaded phase encoded system is simulated. Effects of fiber dispersion on system performance are studied as well. Both second and third order dispersion management is achieved by using a spectral phase encoder to adjust phase shifts of spectral components at the optical network unit (ONU). PMID:23038313

  17. High-Sensitivity Optical Pulse Characterization Using Sagnac Electro-Optic Spectral Shearing Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.; Bromage, J.

    2010-05-04

    An electro-optic spectral shearing interferometer for high-sensitivity optical pulse characterization is described. Two replicas of the test pulse counterpropagate in a Sagnac interferometer with orthogonal polarization states, resulting in two relatively sheared copolarized replicas after temporal phase modulation. The polarization interferometer is intrinsically stable, and its birefringence sets the delay between interfering replicas to reduce the spectrometer resolution requirement. Experimental implementations demonstrate real-time pulse characterization at average powers as low as 1 nWwith spectral shears as high as 280 GHz.

  18. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, S.; Kessler, T.J.; Letzring, S.A.

    1993-11-16

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse. 10 figures.

  19. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, Stanley; Kessler, Terrance J.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse.

  20. Polarized spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Sobolev, V. Val.; Anisimov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide Hg2I2 were determined for E ⊥ c and E || c polarizations in the range from 2 to 5.5 eV at 4.2 K. The permittivity and characteristic electron energy loss spectra were expanded in simple components with the determination of their main parameters, including the energy of the maximum and the oscillator strength. The calculations were performed based on known reflectance spectra. Computer programs based on Kramers-Kronig relations and the improved parameter-free method of Argand diagrams were used.

  1. Influence of flow on interface shape stability in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives are to: (1) Understand the influence in low gravity of flow on interface shape. For example, document and control the influence of axial flow on the Plateau-Rayleigh instability of a liquid bridge; and (2) Extend the ground-based density-matching technique of low gravity simulation to situations with flow; that is, develop Plateau chamber experiments for which flow can be controlled. Containerless containment of liquid by surface tension has broad importance in low gravity. For space vehicles, the behavior of liquid/gas interfaces is crucial to successful liquid management systems. In microgravity science, free interfaces are exploited in various applications. Examples include float-zone crystal growth, phase separation near the critical point of liquid mixtures (spinoidal decomposition) and quenching of miscibility gap molten metal alloys. In some cases, it is desired to stabilize the capillary instability while in others it is desired to induce capillary breakup. In all cases, understanding the stability of interface shape in the presence of liquid motion is central.

  2. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  3. Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment offers advantages to investigations concerned with soot growth or flame radiation by eliminating of buoyancy-induced convection. Basic to each type of study is knowledge of spatially resolved soot volume fraction, (f(sub v). Laser-induced incandescence (LII) has emerged as a diagnostic for soot volume fraction determination because it possesses high temporal and spatial resolution, geometric versatility and high sensitivity. Implementation and system characterization of LII in a drop tower that provides 2.2 sec of low-gravity (micro)g) at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described here. Validation of LII for soot volume fraction determination in (micro)g is performed by comparison between soot volume fraction measurements obtained by light extinction [20] and LII in low-gravity for a 50/50 mixture (by volume) of 0 acetylene/nitrogen issuing into quiescent air. Quantitative soot volume fraction measurements within other laminar flames of ethane and propane and a turbulent diffusion flame in (micro)g via LII are also demonstrated. An analysis of LII images of a turbulent acetylene diffusion flame in 1-g and (micro)g is presented.

  4. Spectrally efficient optical transmission based on Stokes vector direct detection.

    PubMed

    Li, An; Che, Di; Chen, Vivian; Shieh, William

    2014-06-30

    We propose a novel detection scheme called Stokes vector direct detection (SV-DD) to realize high electrical spectral efficiency and cost-effective optical communication for short and medium reach. With SV-DD, the signal is modulated in only one polarization and combined with the carrier in the orthogonal polarization for fiber transmission. At reception, the combined signal is detected in Stokes space by three or four photo-detectors. Compared with conventional DD technique, SV-DD is resilient to both chromatic dispersion and signal-to-signal beat noise. Furthermore, SV-DD does not require polarization tracking or narrow band optical filtering for carrier extraction. In this paper, we present for the first time the numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of single-carrier SV-DD. We report 62.5-Gb/s data rate single-carrier SV-DD transmission over 160-km SSMF using 12.5-Gbaud 32-QAM modulation. PMID:24977825

  5. Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueli; de Bruin, Daniel M; Kerbage, Charles; de Boer, Johannes F

    2007-12-10

    In optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) or swept-source optical coherence tomography, balanced detection is required to suppress relative intensity noise (RIN). A regular implementation of balanced detection by combining reference and sample arm signal in a 50/50 coupler and detecting the differential output with a balanced receiver is however, not perfect. Since the splitting ratio of the 50/50 coupler is wavelength dependent, RIN is not optimally canceled at the edges of the wavelength sweep. The splitting ratio has a nearly linear shift of 0.4% per nanometer. This brings as much as +/-12% deviation at the margins of wavelength-swept range centered at 1060nm. We demonstrate a RIN suppression of 33dB by spectrally corrected balanced detection, 11dB more that regular balanced detection. PMID:19550929

  6. Tunable acousto-optic spectral imager for atmospheric composition measurements in the visible spectral domain.

    PubMed

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Loodts, Nicolas; Van Opstal, Bert; Maes, Jeroen; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Franssens, Ghislain; Pieroux, Didier; Bingen, Christine; Robert, Charles; De Vos, Lieve; Aballea, Ludovic; Fussen, Didier

    2012-09-01

    We describe a new spectral imaging instrument using a TeO(2) acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) operating in the visible domain (450-900 nm). It allows for fast (~1 second), monochromatic (FWHM ranges from 0.6 nm at 450 nm to 3.5 nm at 800 nm) picture acquisition with good spatial resolution. This instrument was designed as a breadboard of the visible channel of a new satellite-borne atmospheric limb spectral imager, named the Atmospheric Limb Tracker for the Investigation of the Upcoming Stratosphere (ALTIUS), that is currently being developed. We tested its remote sensing capabilities by observing the dense, turbulent plume exhausted by a waste incinerator stack at two wavelengths sensitive to NO(2). An average value of 6.0±0.4×10(17) molecules cm(-2) has been obtained for the NO(2) slant column density within the plume, close to the stack outlet. Although this result was obtained with a rather low accuracy, it demonstrates the potential of spectral imaging by using AOTFs in remote sensing. PMID:22945175

  7. Power Spectral Density Specification and Analysis of Large Optical Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2009-01-01

    The 2-dimensional Power Spectral Density (PSD) can be used to characterize the mid- and the high-spatial frequency components of the surface height errors of an optical surface. We found it necessary to have a complete, easy-to-use approach for specifying and evaluating the PSD characteristics of large optical surfaces, an approach that allows one to specify the surface quality of a large optical surface based on simulated results using a PSD function and to evaluate the measured surface profile data of the same optic in comparison with those predicted by the simulations during the specification-derivation process. This paper provides a complete mathematical description of PSD error, and proposes a new approach in which a 2-dimentional (2D) PSD is converted into a 1-dimentional (1D) one by azimuthally averaging the 2D-PSD. The 1D-PSD calculated this way has the same unit and the same profile as the original PSD function, thus allows one to compare the two with each other directly.

  8. Autofocus by Bayes Spectral Entropy Applied to Optical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Podlech, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    This study introduces a passive autofocus method based on image analysis calculating the Bayes spectral entropy (BSE). The method is applied to optical microscopy and together with the specific construction of the opto-mechanical unit, it allows the analysis of large samples with complicated surfaces without subsampling. This paper will provide a short overview of the relevant theory of calculating the normalized discrete cosine transform when analyzing obtained images, in order to find the BSE measure. Furthermore, it will be shown that the BSE measure is a strong indicator, helping to determine the focal position of the optical microscope. To demonstrate the strength and robustness of the microscope system, tests have been performed using a 1951 USAF test pattern resolution chart determining the in focus position of the microscope. Finally, this method and the optical microscope system is applied to analyze an optical grating (100 lines/mm) demonstrating the detection of the focal position. The paper concludes with an outlook of potential applications of the presented system within quality control and surface analysis. PMID:26758956

  9. Adaptive compressed sensing for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Ting; Li, Hongxiao; Yu, Daoyin

    2014-03-01

    Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-contact and non-invasive method for measuring the change of biological tissues caused by pathological changes of body. CCD with huge number of pixels is usually used in SD-OCT to increase the detecting depth, thus enhancing the hardness of data transmission and storage. The usage of compressed sensing (CS) in SD-OCT is able to reduce the trouble of large data transfer and storage, thus eliminating the complexity of processing system. The traditional CS uses the same sampling model for SD-OCT images of different tissue, leading to reconstruction images with different quality. We proposed a CS with adaptive sampling model. The new model is based on uniform sampling model, and the interference spectral of SD-OCT is considered to adjust the local sampling ratio. Compared with traditional CS, adaptive CS can modify the sampling model for images of different tissue according to different interference spectral, getting reconstruction images with high quality without changing sampling model.

  10. Optical Communications in the mid-wave IR spectral band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    The mid-wave IR (MWIR) spectral band extending from 3 to 5 microns is considered to be a low loss atmospheric window. The MWIR wavelengths are eye safe and are attractive for several free-space applications including remote sensing of chemical and biological species, hard target imaging, range finding, target illumination, and free-space Communications. Due to the nature of light-matter interaction characteristics, MWIR wavelength based Systems can provide unique advantages over other spectral bands for these applications, The MWIR wavelengths are found to effectively penetrate natural and anthropogenic obscurants. Consequently, MWIR Systems offer increased range Performance at reduced power levels. Free-space, line-of-sight optical communication links for terrestrial as well as space based platforms using MWIR wavelengths can be designed to operate under low visibility conditions. Combined with high-bandwidth, eye-safe, covert and jam proof features, a MWIR wavelength based optical communication link could play a vital role in hostile environments.

  11. Optimization of spectral band utilization in gridless WDM optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Indayara B.; Aldaya, Ivan; Perez-Sanchez, G.; Gallion, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of gridless spectrum allocation in Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) optical networks are examined. The advanced modulation formats and multi-rate transmissions of the signals, which are key parameters in the optical system project, are taken into account. The consumed spectrum, as well as the impact of linear and nonlinear impairments on the signal transmission, are compared to WDM network adopting standard grid and gridless ITU. To analyze the influence of these physical effects, some key network design parameters are monitored and evaluated, such as the guard band size, the signal occupied bandwidth, the laser power and the quality of channels. The applied signal modulation formats were On/Off Keying (OOK), Quadrature Phase Shift keying (QPSK), and Dual Polarization State Phase Modulation (DP-QPSK), whereas the transmission rate per wavelength was varied from 10 Gb/s to 100Ghz. The guard band, signal band, and laser power were swept and the resulted Bit Error Rate (BER) was estimated from the eye-diagram. Analytical calculations and simulations are conducted in order to evaluate the impact of the gridless spectrum allocation on both the spectral consumption and the signal quality of transmission (QoT). Results reveal that a gridless transmission system reduces the spectral consumption while offering an acceptable QoT. This work was carried out with both analytical modeling and numerical calculation using the Optisystem as well as Matlab.

  12. Optical Polarization and Spectral Variability in the M87 Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Adams, Steven C.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Harris, D. E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Simons, Raymond C.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.

    2011-12-01

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability has also been seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST-1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from ~20% at minimum to >40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-1's optical-UV spectrum is very hard (αUV-O ~ 0.5, F νvpropν-α), and displays "hard lags" during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2σ upper limits of 0.5δ pc and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet position angle (P.A.) makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and "looping" in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum (αUV-O ~ 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  13. Optical Polarization and Spectral Variability in the M87 Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Adams, Steven C.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Harris, D. E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Simons, Raymond C.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability was also seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST -1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from approx 20% at minimum to > 40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-l's optical-UV spectrum is very hard (alpha(sub uv-0) approx. 0.5, F(sub v) varies as (v(exp -alpha)), and displays "hard lags" during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2alpha upper limits of 0.5 delta parsecs and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet PA, makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and 'looping' in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum ((alpha(sub uv-0) approx. 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  14. Nonlinear optical signal processing for high-speed, spectrally efficient fiber optic systems and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    The past decade has witnessed astounding boom in telecommunication network traffic. With the emergence of multimedia over Internet, the high-capacity optical transport systems have started to shift focus from the core network towards the end users. This trend leads to diverse optical networks with transparency and reconfigurability requirement. As single channel data rate continues to increase and channel spacing continues to shrink for high capacity, high spectral efficiency, the workload on conventional electronic signal processing elements in the router nodes continues to build up. Performing signal processing functions in the optical domain can potentially alleviate the speed bottleneck if the unique optical properties are efficiently leveraged to assist electronic processing methodologies. Ultra-high bandwidth capability along with the promise for multi-channel and format-transparent operation make optical signal processing an attractive technology which is expected to have great impact on future optical networks. For optical signal processing applications in fiber-optic network and systems, a laudable goal would be to explore the unique nonlinear optical processes in novel photonic devices. This dissertation investigates novel optical signal processing techniques through simulations and experimental demonstrations, analyzes limitations of these nonlinear processing elements and proposes techniques to enhance the system performance or designs for functional photonic modules. Two key signal-processing building blocks for future optical networks, namely slow-light-based tunable optical delay lines and SOA-based high-speed wavelength converters, are presented in the first part of the dissertation. Phase preserving and spectrally efficient slow light are experimentally demonstrated using advanced modulation formats. Functional and novel photonic modules, such as multi-channel synchronizer and variable-bit-rate optical time division multiplexer are designed and

  15. Properties of Smoke from Overheated Materials in Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Sheredy, William; Cleary, Thomas; Yang, Jiann; Mulholland, George; Yuan, Zeng-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Smoke particle size measurements were obtained under low-gravity conditions by overheating several materials typical of those found in spacecraft. The measurements included integral measurements of the smoke particles and physical sample of the particles for Transmission Electron Microscope analysis. The integral moments were combined to obtain geometric mean particle sizes and geometric standard deviations. These results are presented with the details of the instrument calibrations. The experimental results show that, for the materials tested, a substantial portion of the smoke particles are below 500 nm in diameter.

  16. Fire Safety in the Low-Gravity Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Research in microgravity (low-gravity) combustion promises innovations and improvements in fire prevention and response for human-crew spacecraft. Findings indicate that material flammability and fire spread in microgravity are significantly affected by atmospheric flow rate, oxygen concentration, and diluent composition. This information can lead to modifications and correlations to standard material-assessment tests for prediction of fire resistance in space. Research on smoke-particle changes in microgravity promises future improvements and increased sensitivity of smoke detectors in spacecraft. Research on fire suppression by extinguishing agents and venting can yield new information on effective control of the rare, but serious fire events in spacecraft.

  17. Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, DongKyun; Carruth, Robert W.; Kim, Minkyu; Schlachter, Simon C.; Shishkov, Milen; Woods, Kevin; Tabatabaei, Nima; Wu, Tao; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a form of reflectance confocal microscopy that can achieve high imaging speeds using relatively simple probe optics. Previously, the feasibility of conducting large-area SECM imaging of the esophagus in bench top setups has been demonstrated. Challenges remain, however, in translating SECM into a clinically-useable device; the tissue imaging performance should be improved, and the probe size needs to be significantly reduced so that it can fit into luminal organs of interest. In this paper, we report the development of new SECM endoscopic probe optics that addresses these challenges. A custom water-immersion aspheric singlet (NA = 0.5) was developed and used as the objective lens. The water-immersion condition was used to reduce the spherical aberrations and specular reflection from the tissue surface, which enables cellular imaging of the tissue deep below the surface. A custom collimation lens and a small-size grating were used along with the custom aspheric singlet to reduce the probe size. A dual-clad fiber was used to provide both the single- and multi- mode detection modes. The SECM probe optics was made to be 5.85 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, which is small enough for safe and comfortable endoscopic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. The lateral resolution was 1.8 and 2.3 µm for the single- and multi- mode detection modes, respectively, and the axial resolution 11 and 17 µm. SECM images of the swine esophageal tissue demonstrated the capability of this device to enable the visualization of characteristic cellular structural features, including basal cell nuclei and papillae, down to the imaging depth of 260 µm. These results suggest that the new SECM endoscopic probe optics will be useful for imaging large areas of the esophagus at the cellular scale in vivo. PMID:24156054

  18. Suppressing spectral diffusion of emitted photons with optical pulses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fotso, H. F.; Feiguin, A. E.; Awschalom, D. D.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2016-01-22

    In many quantum architectures the solid-state qubits, such as quantum dots or color centers, are interfaced via emitted photons. However, the frequency of photons emitted by solid-state systems exhibits slow uncontrollable fluctuations over time (spectral diffusion), creating a serious problem for implementation of the photon-mediated protocols. Here we show that a sequence of optical pulses applied to the solid-state emitter can stabilize the emission line at the desired frequency. We demonstrate efficiency, robustness, and feasibility of the method analytically and numerically. Taking nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as an example, we show that only several pulses, with the width of 1more » ns, separated by few ns (which is not difficult to achieve) can suppress spectral diffusion. As a result, our method provides a simple and robust way to greatly improve the efficiency of photon-mediated entanglement and/or coupling to photonic cavities for solid-state qubits.« less

  19. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the spectral complex index of refraction of biofuel producing photosynthetic microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. They were retrieved from their experimentally measured average absorption and scattering cross-sections. The microalgae were treated as homogeneous polydisperse spheres with equivalent diameter such that their surface area was identical to that of their actual spheroidal shape. An inverse method was developed combining Lorentz-Mie theory as the forward method and genetic algorithm. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125 and its truncated chlorophyll antenna transformants tla1, tlaX, and tla1-CW+ as well as Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale were investigated. These species were selected for their ability to produce either hydrogen gas or lipids for liquid fuel production. Their retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction were continuous functions of wavelength with absorption peaks corresponding to those of in vivo Chlorophylls a and b. The T-matrix method was also found to accurately predict the experimental measurements by treating the microalgae as axisymmetric spheroids with the experimentally measured major and minor diameter distributions and the retrieved spectral complex index of refraction. Finally, pigment mass fractions were also estimated from the retrieved absorption index. The method and/or the reported optical properties can be used in various applications from ocean remote sensing, carbon cycle study, as well as photobiological carbon dioxide mitigation and biofuel production.

  20. Shift-multiplexing complex spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haochong; Jiang, Zhuqing; Wang, Dayong; Cai, Wenyuan; Man, Tianlong; Wang, Zhe; Panezai, Spozmai

    2014-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a shift-multiplexing complex spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (shift-multiplexing CSD-OCT) method, in which the maximum detection depth of SD-OCT can be greatly extended by incorporating the shift-multiplexing of detection positions with CSD-OCT. The tomographic imaging with twofold or threefold microscopic slides as the target sample is performed. The experimental results show that the tomographic imaging with more uniform brightness and clarity for the different depth regions in a thick sample can be achieved by the shift-multiplexing CSD-OCT system. In particular, even while the sample's depth is beyond the maximum imaging depth of CSD-OCT system, the tomographic imaging of this sample can still be realized by using the shift-multiplexing CSD-OCT method without the need for any replacement of the equipment, such as high spectral capacity grating or high resolution of CCD. The shift-multiplexing CSD-OCT system can perform the imaging with the optimization and less reduction of sensitivity for the deeper detection position in the sample.

  1. Low-gravity fluid physics: A program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the microgravity fluid physics program at Lewis Research Center. One of the main reasons for conducting low gravity research in fluid physics is to study phenomena such as surface tension, interfacial contact angles, and diffusion independent of such gravitationally induced effects as buoyant convection. Fluid physics is at the heart of many space-based technologies including power systems, thermal control systems, and life support systems. Fundamental understanding of fluid physics is a key ingredient to successful space systems design. In addition to describing ground-based and space-based low-gravity facilities, selected experiments are presented which highlight Lewis work in fluid physics. These experiments can be categorized into five theme areas which summarize the work being conducted at Lewis for OSSA: (1) isothermal/iso-solutal capillary phenomena; (2) capillary phenomena with thermal/solutal gradients; (3) thermal-solutal convection; (4) first- and second-order phase transitions in a static fluid; and (5) multiphase flow.

  2. Ceiling Fires Studied to Simulate Low-Gravity Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    A unique new way to study low-gravity flames in normal gravity has been developed. To study flame structure and extinction characteristics in low-stretch environments, a normal gravity low-stretch diffusion flame was generated using a cylindrical PMMA sample of varying large radii, as shown in the photograph. These experiments have demonstrated that low-gravity flame characteristics can be generated in normal gravity through the proper use of scaling. On the basis of this work, it is feasible to apply this concept toward the development of an Earth-bound method of evaluating material flammability in various gravitational environments from normal gravity to microgravity, including the effects of partial gravity low-stretch rates such as those found on the Moon (1/6g) or Mars (1/3g). During these experiments, the surface regression rates for PMMA were measured for the first time over the full range of flammability in air, from blowoff at high stretch, to quenching at low stretch, as plotted in the graph. The solid line drawn through the central portion of the data (3

  3. Electron Bunch Shape Measurements Using Electro-optical Spectral Decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysenko, A.; Hiller, N.; Müller, A.-S.; Steffen, B.; Peier, P.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Ischebeck, R.; Schlott, V.

    Longitudinal diagnostics of the electron bunch shapes play a crucial role in the operation of linac-based light sources. Electro-optical techniques allow us to measure the longitudinal electron bunch profiles non-destructively on a shot-by-shot basis. Here we present results from measurements of electron bunches with a length of 200-900 fs rms at the Swiss FEL Injector Test Facility. All the measurements were done using an Yb-doped fibre laser system (with a central wavelength of a 1050 nm) and a GaP crystal. The technique of electro-optical spectral decoding (EOSD) was applied and showed great capabilities to measure bunch shapes down to around 370 fs rms. Measurements were performed for different electron energies to study the expected distortions of the measured bunch profile due to the energy-dependent widening of the electric field, which plays a role for low beam energies below and around 40 MeV. The studies provide valuable input for the design of the EOSD monitors for the compact linear accelerator FLUTE that is currently under commissioning at the Karslruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).

  4. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  5. Achromatic registration of quadrature components of the optical spectrum in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Shilyagin, P A; Gelikonov, G V; Gelikonov, V M; Moiseev, A A; Terpelov, D A

    2014-07-31

    We have thoroughly investigated the method of simultaneous reception of spectral components with the achromatised quadrature phase shift between two portions of a reference wave, designed for the effective suppression of the 'mirror' artefact in the resulting image obtained by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). We have developed and experimentally tested a phase-shifting element consisting of a beam divider, which splits the reference optical beam into the two beams, and of delay lines being individual for each beam, which create a mutual phase difference of π/2 in the double pass of the reference beam. The phase shift achromatism over a wide spectral range is achieved by using in the delay lines the individual elements with different dispersion characteristics. The ranges of admissible adjustment parameters of the achromatised delay line are estimated for exact and inexact conformity of the geometric characteristics of its components to those calculated. A possibility of simultaneous recording of the close-to-quadrature spectral components with a single linear photodetector element is experimentally confirmed. The suppression of the artefact mirror peak in the OCT-signal by an additional 9 dB relative to the level of its suppression is experimentally achieved when the air delay line is used. Two-dimensional images of the surface positioned at an angle to the axis of the probe beam are obtained with the correction of the 'mirror' artefact while maintaining the dynamic range of the image. (laser biophotonics)

  6. Optical design of multi-spectral optical system for infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tianjin

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies about the multi-spectral imaging system and describes the design of dual-channel mirror-lens optical system with wide-field for multi-spectral sensor. Combined with the secondary imaging technology, it achieves the one hundred percent cold stop efficiency. Off-axis three-mirror reflective optics is adopted to provide an obstructive field of view and high spatial resolution over the wide-field, which is also shared by two channels. Independent relay lens are employed not only to extract the real exit-pupil matched with the cold shield, but also adjust the multiplication factors for infrared. The dichroic mirror and filters subdivide the wide spectral range into four bands, including mid-wavelength band and long-wavelength band. Each corresponds to respective field. The result shows that the Modulation Transfer Function of each band at respective fields is near the diffraction limit, which satisfies the needs of practical applications. The wavefront of the off-axis three-mirror reflective optics is also satisfactory, which is beneficial to the later alignment and measurement.

  7. High resolution atomic coherent control via spectral phase manipulation of an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Matthew C; Cruz, Flavio C; Marian, Adela; Ye, Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution. PMID:16712153

  8. High Resolution Atomic Coherent Control via Spectral Phase Manipulation of an Optical Frequency Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Matthew C.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Marian, Adela; Ye Jun

    2006-04-21

    We demonstrate high resolution coherent control of cold atomic rubidium utilizing spectral phase manipulation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb. Transient coherent accumulation is directly manifested by the enhancement of signal amplitude and spectral resolution via the pulse number. The combination of frequency comb technology and spectral phase manipulation enables coherent control techniques to enter a new regime with natural linewidth resolution.

  9. Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David J.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under a contract entitled 'Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low Gravity'. This project performed verification tests, over a wide range of accelerations of two Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes of which one incorporates the two-fluid model of superfluid helium (SFHe). Helium was first liquefied in 1908 and not until the 1930s were the properties of helium below 2.2 K observed sufficiently to realize that it did not obey the ordinary physical laws of physics as applied to ordinary liquids. The term superfluidity became associated with these unique observations. The low temperature of SFHe and it's temperature unifonrmity have made it a significant cryogenic coolant for use in space applications in astronomical observations with infrared sensors and in low temperature physics. Superfluid helium has been used in instruments such as the Shuttle Infrared Astronomy Telescope (IRT), the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), the Cosmic Background Observatory (COBE), and the Infrared Satellite Observatory (ISO). It is also used in the Space Infrared Telescope (SIRTF), Relativity Mission Satellite formally called Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), and the Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) presently under development. For GP-B and STEP, the use of SFHE is used to cool Superconducting Quantum Interference Detectors (SQUIDS) among other parts of the instruments. The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment flown in the Shuttle studied the behavior of SFHE. This experiment attempted to get low-gravity slosh data, however, the main emphasis was to study the low-gravity transfer of SFHE from tank to tank. These instruments carried tanks of SFHE of a few hundred liters to 2500 liters. The capability of modeling the behavior of SFHE is important to spacecraft control engineers who must design systems that can overcome disturbances created by the movement of the fluid. In addition instruments such as GP-B and STEP are very

  10. MTF formalism for measurement of spectral resolution of acousto-optical devices with synthesized transmission function.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, Konstantin B; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate use of the modulation transfer function method in the spectral domain for dynamic measurement of the spectral resolution and modulation contrast of acousto-optic light dispersive delay lines and programmable filters with synthesized transmission. The method is useful for performance characterization of acousto-optic devices for ultrafast pulse shaping and adaptive spectroscopy. PMID:24104818

  11. Containerless low gravity processing of glass forming and immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Briggs, Craig; Robinson, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedimentation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the 100 meter drop tube under low gravity, containerless conditions to determine the feasibility of producing dispersed structures. Three alloy compositions were utilized. Alloys containing 10 percent by volume of the gold-rich hypermonotectic phase exhibited a tendency for the gold-rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the samples. This wetting tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. Alloys containing 80 and 90 percent by volume of the gold-rich phase possessed completely different microstructures from the 10 percent samples when processed under low-g, containerless conditions. Several samples exhibited microstructures consisting of well dispersed 2 to 3 microns diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix.

  12. Further studies of propellant sloshing under low-gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    A variational integral is formulated from Hamilton's Principle and is proved to be equivalent to the usual differential equations of low-gravity sloshing in ellipsoidal tanks. It is shown that for a zero-degree contact angle the contact line boundary condition corresponds to the stuck condition, a result that is due to the linearization of the equations and the ambiguity in the definition of the wave height at the wall. The variational integral is solved by a Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Results for slosh frequency when the free surface is not bent-over compare well with previous numerical solutions. When the free surface is bent over, however, the results for slosh frequency are considerably larger than those predicted by previous finite-difference, numerical approaches: the difference may be caused by the use of a zero degree contact angle in the present theory in contrast to the nonzero contact angle used in the numerical approaches.

  13. Crystal growth of enzymes in low gravity (L-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, Yuhei

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in protein engineering have expanded the possibilities of studies of enzymes and other proteins. Now such studies are not limited to the elucidation of the relationship between the structure and function of the protein. They also aim at the production of proteins with new and practical functions, based on results obtained during investigation of structure and function. For continuing research in this field, investigation of the tertiary structure of proteins is important. X-ray diffraction of single crystals of protein is usually used for this purpose. The main difficulty is the preparation of the crystals. The theme of the research is to prepare such crystals at very low gravity, with the main purpose being to obtain large single crystals of proteins suitable for x-ray diffraction studies.

  14. Low gravity thermal stratification of liquid helium on SHOOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, P. J.; Dipirro, M. J.

    Estimates of the extent and impact of thermal stratification are presented as well as predictions of the behavior of the HeI/HeII boundary. Although thermal stratification of cryogens can be problematic and lead to their inefficient use in low gravity, for SHOOT the occurrence is beneficial both during ground hold and in orbit and presents no hazards. On the ground the parasitic heat load is both reduced and more efficiently removed. In orbit the pumpdown proceeds at a much more rapid rate, allowing orbital operations to begin earlier. The thermal conductivity of the aluminum tank and the normal liquid plus cooling at the liquid/vapor interface as the vapor bubble grows are sufficient to prevent undesirably high vapor pressures in the tank.

  15. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  16. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  17. Apparatus for mixing solutions in low gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Broom, Mary B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for allowing mixing of solutions in low gravity environments so as to carry out crystallization of proteins and other small molecules or other chemical syntheses, under conditions that maximize crystal growth and minimize disruptive turbulent effects. The apparatus is comprised of a housing, a plurality of chambers, and a cylindrical rotatable valve disposed between at least two of the chambers, said valve having an internal passageway so as to allow fluid movement between the chambers by rotation of the valve. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a valve is provided having an additional internal passage way so that fluid from a third chamber can be mixed with the fluids of the first two chambers. This alternate embodiment of the invention is particularly desirable when it is necessary to provide a termination step to the crystal growth, or if a second synthetic step is required.

  18. Low-gravity impact experiments: Progress toward a facility definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Innumerable efforts were made to understand the cratering process and its ramifications in terms of planetary observations, during which the role of gravity has often come into question. Well known facilities and experiments both were devoted in many cases to unraveling the contribution of gravitational acceleration to cratering mechanisms. Included among these are the explosion experiments in low gravity aircraft, the drop platform experiments, and the high gravity centrifuge experiments. Considerable insight into the effects of gravity was gained. Most investigations were confined to terrestrial laboratories. It is in this light that the Space Station is being examined as a vehicle with the potential to support otherwise impractical impact experiments. The results of studies performed by members of the planetary cratering community are summarized.

  19. Low-gravity impact experiments: Progress toward a facility definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Innumerable efforts were made to understand the cratering process and its ramifications in terms of planetary observations, during which the experiments both were devoted in many cases to unraveling the contribution of gravitational acceleration to cratering mechanisms. Included among these are the explosion experiments in low-gravity aircraft, the drop-platform experiments, and the high-g centrifuge experiments. Considerable insight into the effects of gravity, among other factors, was gained. Even so, other avenues of investigation were out of reach to workers confined to the terrestrial laboratory. It is in this light that the Space Station is being examined as a vehicle with the potential to support otherwise impractical impact experiments. The results of studies performed by members of the planetary cratering community are summarized; their names and affiliations are listed.

  20. SWIRL as a means of liquid management in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1993-01-01

    Swirling of a liquid in a container may prove to be a more desirable method of managing liquids in low gravity (space) environments than by rotating the entire container. By injecting a relatively high velocity liquid tangentially into the body of the fluid, swirl can best be started rapidly, however an estimate of the quantity and velocity of jetflow, or mechanical power of a pump impeller required to maintain a given radial acceleration (G force) is needed to assess the feasibility of such a method. While the key aspect of the problem is determining the rate of rotational energy dissipation by wall friction in the container, there are other considerations, and the present study investigates the possible additional effects of axial variation of tangential velocity and secondary (radial and axial) flow components within the rotating fluid.

  1. Modeling aggregation of dust monomers in low gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Julien; Rioux, Claude

    The modeling of aggregation phenomena in microgravity is of paramount relevance to the understanding of the formation of planets. Relevant experiments have been carried out at a ground based laboratory and on aircraft providing low gravity during parabolic flight.1 Other possible environments are rockets, shuttles and the international space station. Numerical simulation of aggregation can provide us a tool to understand the formal and the-oretical background of the phenomena. The comparison between low gravity experiment and modeling prediction may confirm a theory. Also, experiments that are hard to perform can be simulated on computers allowing a vast choice of physical properties. Simulations to date have been constrained to ensembles of 100 to 1000 monomers.2 We have been able to extend such numbers to 10 000 monomers and the final goal is about 100 000 monomers, where gravitational effects become relevant yielding spheroidal systems of particles (planetesimals and planetoids). Simulations made are assumed to be diffusion processes where colliding particles will stick together with a certain probability. Future work shall include other interactions like electrostatic or magnetic forces. Recent results are to be shown at the meeting. I acknowledge the support from the ELIPS program (jointly between Canadian and European space agencies). The guidance of Prof. Slobodrian is warmly thanked. References. 1. R.J. Slobodrian, C. Rioux and J.-C. Leclerc, Microgravity Research and Aplications in Phys-ical Sciences and Biotechnology, Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Sorrento, Italy (2000) ESA SP-454, p.779-786. and Refs. therein. 2. P. Deladurantaye, C Rioux and R.J Slobodrian, Chaos, Solitons Fractals , (1997), pp. 1693-1708. Carl Robert and Eric Litvak, Software " Fractal", private communication.

  2. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  3. Analysis of spectral response of optical switching devices based on chalcogenide bistable fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Lubomír.; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are novel and promising devices for all-optical switching, ADD/DROP multiplexers, AND gates, switches, all-optical memory elements. Optical switching based on optical Kerr effects induced with high pump laser light incident on the FBGs cause the change of spectral characteristics of grating depending on the incident power. In this paper numerical studies of the nonlinear FBGs are presented. Optical switching based on the optical bistability in nonlinear chalcogenide FBGs is investigated. The spectral response of nonlinear FBGs is discussed from theoretical viewpoint. The simulations are based on the nonlinear coupled mode theory.

  4. Hybrid optical spectral and time division multiplexing for passive interferometric fibre optic sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Raweshidy, H. S.; Edwards, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A new technique called hybrid optical spectral and time division multiplexing for passive interferometric fibre optic sensor networks has been developed. The idea of this technique is initially to modulate the optical spectrum with different sub-carrier frequencies at different time interval lasting for a period T. A proper selection for the sub-carrier values could minimise the crosstalk between sensors. The use of a synchronised gating signal at the detector output enables the simultaneous interrogation of signals from different sensors. A two-interferometric sensor network has been demonstrated and a 42 dB crosstalk has been achieved. The salient features of this technique are the simplicity, low crosstalk and high number of permissible sensors.

  5. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  6. Improved optical profiling using the spectral phase in spectrally resolved white-light interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, Sanjit Kumar; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2006-09-20

    In spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI), the white-light interferogram is decomposed into its monochromatic constituent. The phase of the monochromatic constituents can be determined using a phase-shifting technique over a range of wavelengths. These phase value shave fringe order ambiguity. However, the variation of the phase with respect to the wavenumber is linear and its slope gives the absolute value of the optical-path difference. Since the path difference is related to the height of the test object at a point, a line profile can be determined without ambiguity. The slope value, though less precise helps us determine the fringe order. The fringe order combined with the monochromatic phase value gives the absolute profile, which has the precision of phase-shifting interferometry. The presence of noise in the phase may lead to the misidentification of fringe order, which in turn gives unnecessary jumps in the precise profile. The experimental details of measurement on standard samples with SRWLI are discussed in this paper.

  7. Quality assessment for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Paranjape, Amit S.; Elmaanaoui, Badr; Dewelle, Jordan; Rylander, H. Grady, III; Markey, Mia K.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, a measure of glaucoma progression, can be measured in images acquired by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The accuracy of RNFL thickness estimation, however, is affected by the quality of the OCT images. In this paper, a new parameter, signal deviation (SD), which is based on the standard deviation of the intensities in OCT images, is introduced for objective assessment of OCT image quality. Two other objective assessment parameters, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and signal strength (SS), are also calculated for each OCT image. The results of the objective assessment are compared with subjective assessment. In the subjective assessment, one OCT expert graded the image quality according to a three-level scale (good, fair, and poor). The OCT B-scan images of the retina from six subjects are evaluated by both objective and subjective assessment. From the comparison, we demonstrate that the objective assessment successfully differentiates between the acceptable quality images (good and fair images) and poor quality OCT images as graded by OCT experts. We evaluate the performance of the objective assessment under different quality assessment parameters and demonstrate that SD is the best at distinguishing between fair and good quality images. The accuracy of RNFL thickness estimation is improved significantly after poor quality OCT images are rejected by automated objective assessment using the SD, SNR, and SS.

  8. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography with dual-balanced detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, En; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Si; Luo, Yuemei; Wang, Nanshuo; Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Linbo

    2016-03-01

    We developed a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system employing dual-balanced detection (DBD) for direct current term suppression and SNR enhancement, especially for auto-autocorrelation artifacts reduction. The DBD was achieved by using a beam splitter to building a free-space Michelson interferometer, which generated two interferometric spectra with a phase difference of π. These two phase-opposed spectra were guided to the spectrometer through two single mode fibers of the 8 fiber v-groove array and acquired by ultizing the upper two lines of a three-line CCD camera. We rotated this fiber v-groove array by 1.35 degrees to focus two spectra onto the first and second line of the CCD camera. Two spectra were aligned by optimum spectrum matching algorithm. By subtracting one spectrum from the other, this dual-balanced detection system achieved a direct current term suppression of ~30 dB, SNR enhancement of ~3 dB, and auto-autocorrelation artifacts reduction of ~10 dB experimentally. Finally we respectively validated the feasibility and performance of dual-balanced detection by imaging a glass plate and swine corneal tissue ex vivo. The quality of images obtained using dual-balanced detection was significantly improved with regard to the conventional single-detection (SD) images.

  9. Characterization of PET preforms using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Hamid; Ferreira, Manuel João.; Martins, Teresa; Carmelo Rosa, Carla

    2013-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) preforms are massively produced nowadays with the purpose of producing food and beverages packaging and liquid containers. Some varieties of these preforms are produced as multilayer structures, where very thin inner film(s) act as a barrier for nutrients leakage. The knowledge of the thickness of this thin inner layer is important in the production line. The quality control of preforms production requires a fast approach and normally the thickness control is performed by destructive means out of the production line. A spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) method was proposed to examine the thin layers in real time. This paper describes a nondestructive approach and all required signal processing steps to characterize the thin inner layers and also to improve the imaging speed and the signal to noise ratio. The algorithm was developed by using graphics processing unit (GPU) with computer unified device architecture (CUDA). This GPU-accelerated white light interferometry technique nondestructively assesses the samples and has high imaging speed advantage, overcoming the bottlenecks in PET performs quality control.

  10. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Lipemia Retinalis.

    PubMed

    Özturk, Banu Turgut; Bozkurt, Banu; Meşen, Ali; Gonul, Saban; İpekci, Süleyman Hilmi

    2016-06-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia can give rise to a fundus appearance with whitish-colored retinal vessels called lipemia retinalis. A 52-year-old man with hypertriglyceridemia presented with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes and creamy-white retinal vessels on fundus. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed hyperreflective and engorged retinal vessels and white dots mainly accumulated in the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layer. Follow-up fundus examination after plasmapheresis sessions revealed normal retinal vessels. The hyperreflective appearance of the retinal vessels in OCT reversed rapidly 5 days after the treatment, whereas hyperreflective dots in retina disappeared slowly in 3 months. OCT is useful in demonstrating inner retinal changes associated with lipemia retinalis at histopathological level. The hyperreflective dots in inner retina associated with leakage from superficial retinal capillaries attested the correlation of their location with their origin. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:589-592.]. PMID:27327291

  11. Corneal topography from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Sergio; Siedlecki, Damian; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Chia, Noelia; de Castro, Alberto; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain accurate corneal topography from a spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT) system. The method includes calibration of the device, compensation of the fan (or field) distortion introduced by the scanning architecture, and image processing analysis for volumetric data extraction, segmentation and fitting. We present examples of three-dimensional (3-D) surface topography measurements on spherical and aspheric lenses, as well as on 10 human corneas in vivo. Results of sOCT surface topography (with and without fan-distortion correction) were compared with non-contact profilometry (taken as reference) on a spherical lens, and with non-contact profilometry and state-of-the art commercial corneal topography instruments on aspheric lenses and on subjects. Corneal elevation maps from all instruments were fitted by quadric surfaces (as well as by tenth-order Zernike polynomials) using custom routines. We found that the discrepancy in the estimated radius of curvature from nominal values in artificial corneas decreased from 4.6% (without fan distortion correction) to 1.6% (after fan distortion correction), and the difference in the asphericity decreased from 130% to 5%. In human corneas, the estimated corneal radius of curvature was not statistically significantly different across instruments. However, a Bland-Altman analysis showed consistent differences in the estimated asphericity and corneal shape between sOCT topographies without fan distortion correction and the rest of the measurements. PMID:22162814

  12. Retinal Imaging of Infants on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Vinekar, Anand; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Jayadev, Chaitra; Maldonado, Ramiro S.; Bauer, Noel; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral domain coherence tomography (SD OCT) has become an important tool in the management of pediatric retinal diseases. It is a noncontact imaging device that provides detailed assessment of the microanatomy and pathology of the infant retina with a short acquisition time allowing office examination without the requirement of anesthesia. Our understanding of the development and maturation of the infant fovea has been enhanced by SD OCT allowing an in vivo assessment that correlates with histopathology. This has helped us understand the critical correlation of foveal development with visual potential in the first year of life and beyond. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the clinical applications of SD OCT in studying the pathoanatomy of the infant macula, its ability to detect subclinical features, and its correlation with disease and vision. Retinopathy of prematurity and macular edema have been discussed in detail. The review also summarizes the current status of SD OCT in other infant retinal conditions, imaging the optic nerve, the choroid, and the retinal nerve fibre in infants and children, and suggests future areas of research. PMID:26221606

  13. Materials processing threshold report: 2. Use of low gravity for cast iron process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankhouser, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Potential applications of a low gravity environment of interest to the commercial producers of cast iron were assessed to determine whether low gravity conditions offer potential opportunities to producers for improving cast iron properties and expanding the use of cast irons. The assessment is limited to the gray and nodular types of iron, however, the findings are applicable to all cast irons. The potential advantages accrued through low gravity experiments with cast irons are described.

  14. Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks.

    PubMed

    Mehedy, Lenin; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai

    2010-10-25

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze and demonstrate that spectral efficiency of a conventional direct detection based optical OFDM system (DDO-OFDM) can be improved significantly using frequency interleaving of adjacent DDO-OFDM channels where OFDM signal band of one channel occupies the spectral gap of other channel and vice versa. We show that, at optimum operating condition, the proposed technique can effectively improve the spectral efficiency of the conventional DDO-OFDM system as much as 50%. We also show that such a frequency interleaved DDO-OFDM system, with a bit rate of 48 Gb/s within 25 GHz bandwidth, achieves sufficient power budget after transmission over 25 km single mode fiber to be used in next-generation time-division-multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM-PON). Moreover, by applying 64- quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the system can be further scaled up to 96 Gb/s with a power budget sufficient for 1:16 split TDM-PON. PMID:21164657

  15. Experimental measurements of the spectral absorption coefficient of pure fused silica optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Travis J; Jones, Matthew R

    2015-02-20

    Knowledge of the spectral absorption coefficient of fused silica optical fibers is important in modeling heat transfer in the processes and applications in which these fibers are used. An experimental method used to measure the spectral absorption coefficient of optical fibers is presented. Radiative energy from a blackbody radiator set at different temperatures is directed through the optical fibers and into an FTIR spectrometer. Spectral instrument response functions are calculated for different fiber lengths. The ratios of the slopes of the instrument response functions for the different lengths of fibers are used to solve for the spectral absorption coefficient of the fibers. The spectral absorption coefficient of low OH pure fused silica optical fibers is measured between the wavelengths 1.5 and 2.5 μm. PMID:25968202

  16. Impact of High-Frequency Spectral Phase Modulation on the Temporal Profile of Short Optical Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.; Bromage, J.

    2008-03-18

    The impact of high-frequency spectral phase modulation on the temporal intensity of optical pulses is derived analytically and simulated in two different regimes. The temporal contrast of an optical pulse close to the Fourier-transform limit is degraded by a pedestal related to the power spectral density of the spectral phase modulation. When the optical pulse is highly chirped, its intensity modulation is directly related to the spectral phase variations with a transfer function depending on the second-order dispersion of the chirped pulse. The metrology of the spectral phase of an optical pulse using temporal-intensity measurements performed after chirping the pulse is studied. The effect of spatial averaging is also discussed.

  17. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Glaucoma (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly evolving, robust technology that has profoundly changed the practice of ophthalmology. Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) increases axial resolution 2- to 3-fold and scan speed 60- to 110-fold vs time domain OCT (TD-OCT). SD-OCT enables novel scanning, denser sampling, and 3-dimensional imaging. This thesis tests my hypothesis that SD-OCT improves reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity for glaucoma detection. Methods OCT progress is reviewed from invention onward, and future development is discussed. To test the hypothesis, TD-OCT and SD-OCT reproducibility and glaucoma discrimination are evaluated. Forty-one eyes of 21 subjects (SD-OCT) and 21 eyes of 21 subjects (TD-OCT) are studied to test retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement reproducibility. Forty eyes of 20 subjects (SD-OCT) and 21 eyes of 21 subjects (TD-OCT) are investigated to test macular parameter reproducibility. For both TD-OCT and SD-OCT, 83 eyes of 83 subjects are assessed to evaluate RNFL thickness and 74 eyes of 74 subjects to evaluate macular glaucoma discrimination. Results Compared to conventional TD-OCT, SD-OCT had statistically significantly better reproducibility in most sectoral macular thickness and peripapillary RNFL sectoral measurements. There was no statistically significant difference in overall mean macular or RNFL reproducibility, or between TD-OCT and SD-OCT glaucoma discrimination. Surprisingly, TD-OCT macular RNFL thickness showed glaucoma discrimination superior to SD-OCT. Conclusions At its current development state, SD-OCT shows better reproducibility than TD-OCT, but glaucoma discrimination is similar for TD-OCT and SD-OCT. Technological improvements are likely to enhance SD-OCT reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and utility, but these will require additional development. PMID:19277249

  18. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of macula in myopia.

    PubMed

    Choovuthayakorn, Janejit; Laowong, Taksaorn; Watanachai, Nawat; Patikulsila, Direk; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the associations between regional macular thickness and gender, age, axial length, and degree of myopia in young and middle-aged healthy myopic eyes. One hundred and seventy-one subjects with -0.5 diopters of myopia or worse underwent prospective macular thickness measurement by Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Subjects' mean age was 32.40 ± 8.25 years (range 18 to 49 years), with 45 % being male. The mean degree of myopia was -4.57 ± 3.52 diopters, with a mean axial length of 25.09 ± 1.67 mm. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significantly thicker central (mean 9.13 µm thicker) and inner subfields (mean 8.55 µm thicker) in males (P values were <0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In addition, in both genders, for each millimeter of increased axial length, the central subfield thickness increased by 2.11 µm, the inner subfield decreased by 2.25 µm, and the outer subfield decreased by 3.62 µm (P values were 0.010, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Factors including gender and axial length affect baseline regional macular thickness in young and middle-age myopic subjects. The central subfield and inner subfield were affected by both gender and axial length, while the outer subfield was affected only by axial length. The macular thickness of myopic subjects with macular disease should be interpreted in light of these factors. PMID:26290135

  19. Spectral singularity in confined PT symmetric optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, R.

    2013-11-15

    We present an analytical study for the scattering amplitudes (Reflection ‖R‖ and Transmission ‖T‖), of the periodic PT symmetric optical potential V(x)=W{sub 0}cos{sup 2}x+iV{sub 0}sin2x confined within the region 0 ⩽x⩽L, embedded in a homogeneous medium having uniform potential W{sub 0}. The confining length L is considered to be some integral multiple of the period π. We give some new and interesting results. Scattering is observed to be normal (‖T‖{sup 2}⩽ 1, ‖R‖{sup 2}⩽ 1) for V{sub 0}⩽ 0.5, when the above potential can be mapped to a Hermitian potential by a similarity transformation. Beyond this point (V{sub 0} > 0.5) scattering is found to be anomalous (‖T‖{sup 2}, ‖R‖{sup 2} not necessarily ⩽1). Additionally, in this parameter regime of V{sub 0}, one observes infinite number of spectral singularities E{sub SS} at different values of V{sub 0}. Furthermore, for L= 2nπ, the transition point V{sub 0}= 0.5 shows unidirectional invisibility with zero reflection when the beam is incident from the absorptive side (Im[V(x)] < 0) but with finite reflection when the beam is incident from the emissive side (Im[V(x)] > 0), transmission being identically unity in both cases. Finally, the scattering coefficients ‖R‖{sup 2} and ‖T‖{sup 2} always obey the generalized unitarity relation : ‖T|{sup 2}−1|=√(|R{sub R}|{sup 2}|R{sub L}|{sup 2}), where subscripts R and L stand for right and left incidence, respectively.

  20. Macular Surgery Using Intraoperative Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Mazloumi, Mehdi; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Riazi-Esfahani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the use of intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for detecting anatomical changes during macular surgery. Methods: In a consecutive case series, 32 eyes of 32 patients undergoing concurrent pars plana vitrectomy and intraoperative SD-OCT for macular hole (MH), epiretinal membrane (ERM) and vitreomacular traction (VMT) were enrolled. Intraoperative changes in retinal thickness and dimensions of the macular hole were measured in patients with ERM and VMT following surgical manipulation using a hand-held SD-OCT device (iVue, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). Results: SD-OCT images of sixteen eyes with macular hole were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. All MH dimensions remained stable during consecutive stages of surgery except for MH apex diameter, which showed a significant decrease after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling (P=0.025). Quantitative analysis of ten patients with ERM showed a significant decrease in retinal thickness after membrane removal (P=0.018) which did not remain significant until the end of the procedure (P=0.8). In three cases, subretinal fluid was formed after ILM peeling. Quantitative analysis of five patients with VMT showed a decrease in retinal thickness during consecutive steps of the surgery, although these changes were not significant. In two cases, subretinal fluid was formed after ILM peeling. Conclusion: Intraoperative SD-OCT is a useful imaging technique which provides vitreoretinal surgeons with rapid awareness of changes in macular anatomy during surgery and may therefore result in better anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:26730318

  1. Three-dimensional tracker for spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Bloom, Benjamin; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Milner, Thomas E.

    2007-02-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) is a relatively new imaging technique that allows high-speed cross-sectional scanning of retinal structures with little motion artifact. However, instrumentation for these systems is not yet fast enough to collect high-density three-dimensional retinal maps free of the adverse effects of lateral eye movements. Low coherence interferometry instruments must also contend with axial motion primarily from head movements that shift the target tissue out of the coherence detection range. Traditional SDOCT instruments suffer from inherent deficiencies that exacerbate the effect of depth motion, including limited range, depth-dependent signal attenuation, and complex conjugate overlap. We present initial results on extension of our transverse retinal tracking system to three-dimensions especially for SDOCT imagers. The design and principle of operation of two depth tracking techniques, adaptive ranging (AR) and Doppler velocity (DV) tracking, are presented. We have integrated the threedimensional tracking hardware into a hybrid line scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)/SDOCT imaging system. Imaging and tracking performance was characterized by tests involving a limited number of human subjects. The hybrid imager could switch between wide-field en-face confocal LSLO images, high-resolution cross-sectional OCT images, and an interleaved mode of sequential LSLO and OCT images. With 3-D tracking, the RMS error for axial motion decreased to <50 µm and for lateral motion decreased to <10 µm. The development of real-time tracking and SDOCT image processing hardware is also discussed. Future implementation of 3-D tracking should increase the yield of usable images and decrease the patient measurement time for clinical SDOCT systems.

  2. Use of Multiband Acousto-optic Filters for Spectrally Encoded Signals Generation in Incoherent Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Proklov, V. V.; Filatov, A. L.; Lugovskoi, A. V.; Korablev, E. M.

    New acousto-optical (AO) coder of spectrally optical signals for optical code division multiple access systems (O-CDMA) was proposed and investigated. The coder was developed on a base of multi-frequency acousto-optical filter (MAOF). Control RF signals for MAOF were synthesized taking into account intermodulation distortions and interferences between different carrier frequencies incoming to MAOF. An industrial LED was used under system investigation.

  3. Precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses using a coherent photon echo memory.

    PubMed

    Buchler, B C; Hosseini, M; Hétet, G; Sparkes, B M; Lam, P K

    2010-04-01

    Photon echo schemes are excellent candidates for high efficiency coherent optical memory. They are capable of high-bandwidth multipulse storage, pulse resequencing and have been shown theoretically to be compatible with quantum information applications. One particular photon echo scheme is the gradient echo memory (GEM). In this system, an atomic frequency gradient is induced in the direction of light propagation leading to a Fourier decomposition of the optical spectrum along the length of the storage medium. This Fourier encoding allows precision spectral manipulation of the stored light. In this Letter, we show frequency shifting, spectral compression, spectral splitting, and fine dispersion control of optical pulses using GEM. PMID:20364227

  4. Profile and Determinants of Retinal Optical Intensity in Normal Eyes with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoyu; Yang, Jianling; Shi, Fei; Zheng, Ce; Zhu, Weifang; Xiang, Dehui; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the profile and determinants of retinal optical intensity in normal subjects using 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Methods A total of 231 eyes from 231 healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 80 years were included and underwent a 3D OCT scan. Forty-four eyes were randomly chosen to be scanned by two operators for reproducibility analysis. Distribution of optical intensity of each layer and regions specified by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) were investigated by analyzing the OCT raw data with our automatic graph-based algorithm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed between retinal optical intensity and sex, age, height, weight, spherical equivalent (SE), axial length, image quality, disc area and rim/disc area ratio (R/D area ratio). Results For optical intensity measurements, the intraclass correlation coefficient of each layer ranged from 0.815 to 0.941, indicating good reproducibility. Optical intensity was lowest in the central area of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer and photoreceptor layer, except for the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Optical intensity was positively correlated with image quality in all retinal layers (0.553<β<0.851, p<0.01), and negatively correlated with age in most retinal layers (-0.362<β<-0.179, p<0.01), except for the RPE (β = 0.456, p<0.01), outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer (p>0.05). There was no relationship between retinal optical intensity and sex, height, weight, SE, axial length, disc area and R/D area ratio. Conclusions There was a specific pattern of distribution of retinal optical intensity in different regions. The optical intensity was affected by image quality and age. Image quality can be used as a reference for normalization. The effect of age needs to be taken into consideration when using OCT for diagnosis. PMID:26863010

  5. Imaging patients with glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auyeung, Kris; Auyeung, Kelsey; Kono, Rei; Chen, Chieh-Li; Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    In ophthalmology, a reliable means of diagnosing glaucoma in its early stages is still an open issue. Past efforts, including forays into fluorescent angiography (FA) and early optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, to develop a potential biomarker for the disease have been explored. However, this development has been hindered by the inability of the current techniques to provide useful depth and microvasculature information of the optic nerve head (ONH), which have been debated as possible hallmarks of glaucoma progression. We reasoned that a system incorporating a spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) based Optical Microangiography (OMAG) system, could allow an effective, non-invasive methodology to evaluate effects on microvasculature by glaucoma. SD-OCT follows the principle of light reflection and interference to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye. OMAG produces imaging contrasts via endogenous light scattering from moving particles, allowing for 3D image productions of dynamic blood perfusion at capillary-level resolution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optic cup perfusion (flow) differences in glaucomatous and normal eyes. Images from three normal and five glaucomatous subjects were analyzed our OCT based OMAG system for blood perfusion and structural images, allowing for comparisons. Preliminary results from blood flow analysis revealed reduced blood perfusion within the whole-depth region encompassing the Lamina Cribrosa in glaucomatous cases as compared to normal ones. We conclude that our OCT-OMAG system may provide promise and viability for glaucoma screening.

  6. Low gravity quenching of hot tubes with cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Collins, Frank G.; Kawaji, M.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental proceedure for examining flow boiling in low gravity environment is presented. The proceedure involves both ground based and KC-135 flight experiments. Two experimental apparati were employed, one for studying subcooled liquid boiling and another for examining saturated liquid boiling. For the saturated flow experiments, liquid nitrogen was used while freon 113 was used for the subcooled flow experiments. The boiling phenomenon was investigated in both cases using flow visualization techniques as well as tube wall temperature measurements. The flow field in both cases was established by injecting cold liquid in a heated tube whose temperature was set above the saturation values. The tubes were both vertically and horizontally supported with the liquid injected from the lower end of the tube. The results indicate substantial differences in the flow patterns established during boiling between the ground based, (1-g), experiments and the flight experiments, (low-g). These differences in the flow patterns will be discussed and some explanations will be offered.

  7. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  8. Liquid-Vapor Interface Configurations Investigated in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) is part of a multifaceted study that is exploring the often striking behavior of liquid-vapor interfaces in low-gravity environments. Although the experiment was posed largely as a test of current mathematical theory, applications of the results should be manifold. In space almost every fluid system is affected, if not dominated, by capillarity (the effects of surface tension). As a result, knowledge of fluid interface behavior, in particular an equilibrium interface shape from which any analysis must begin, is fundamental--from the control of liquid fuels and oxygen in storage tanks to the design and development of inspace thermal systems, such as heat pipes and capillary pumped loops. ICE has increased, and should continue to increase, such knowledge as it probes the specific peculiarities of current theory upon which our present understanding rests. Several versions of ICE have been conducted in the drop towers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, on the space shuttles during the first and second United States Microgravity Laboratory missions (USML-1 and USML-2), and most recently aboard the Russian Mir space station. These studies focused on interfacial problems concerning the existence, uniqueness, configuration, stability, and flow characteristics of liquid-vapor interfaces. Results to date have clearly demonstrated the value of the present theory and the extent to which it can predict the behavior of capillary systems.

  9. Tank pressure control in low gravity by jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) is a space experiment developed to help meet the need for a critical aspect of cryogenic fluid management technology: control of storage tank pressures in the absence of gravity by forced convective mixing. The experiment used a 13.7-liter tank filled to a constant 83 percent level with refrigerant 113 at near saturation conditions to simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of cryogenic fluids in space applications. The objectives of TPCE were to characterize the fluid dynamics of axial jet-induced mixing in low gravity, to evaluate the validity of empirical mixing models, and to provide data for use in developing and validating computational fluid dynamic models of mixing processes. TPCE accomplished all of its objectives in flight on Space Shuttle Mission STS-3 in August of 1991. The range of flow patterns photographed generally confirmed a prior correlation based on drop tower tests. A closed-form equation derived from a simple thermodynamic model was found to provide a first-order prediction of the pressure reduction time as a function of mixer parameters, tank size, and fluid thermophysical properties. Low energy mixing jets were found to be effective and reliable at reducing thermal non-uniformities, promoting heat and mass transfer between the phases, and reducing tank pressure.

  10. Numerical Study of Mixing of Two Fluids Under Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    1992-01-01

    The mixing characteristics of two fluids inside a cavity due to buoyancy driven flow fields for low gravity conditions is investigated via numerical experiments. The buoyancy driven flow, depending on the parametric region, stretches and deforms the material interface into a wave morphological pattern. The morphological pattern affects the resulting stratification thickness of the mixed region. Three basic mixing regimes occur: convective, diffusive, and chaotic. In the convective regime, an overturning motion occurs which gives rise to a stable wave formation. This wave oscillates and its decay leads to a stable stratification. Whereas, in the diffusive regime, the length of the interface remains constant while mixing occurs. This limiting behavior is very important to materials processing in space, and it admits a closed form solution corresponding to vanishing convective terms which agrees with computational results. Finally, in the chaotic regime, the material interface continuously stretches and folds on itself similar to a horseshoe map. The length of stretch of the interface increases exponentially. Internal wavebreaking occurs for this case. This wavebreaking generates local turbulence, and provides an effective mechanism for mixing.

  11. Liquid propellant reorientation in a low-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.

    1978-01-01

    An existing empirical analysis relating to the reorientation of liquids in cylindrical tanks due to propulsive settling in a low gravity environment was extended to include the effects of geyser formation in the Weber number range from 4 to 10. Estimates of the minimum velocity increment required to be imposed on the propellant tank to achieve liquid reorientation were made. The resulting Bond numbers, based on tank radius, were found to be in the range from 3 to 5, depending upon the initial liquid fill level, with higher Bond number required for high initial fill levels. The resulting Weber numbers, based on tank radius and the velocity of the liquid leading edge, were calculated to be in the range from 6.5 to 8.5 for cylindrical tanks having a fineness ratio of 2.0, with Weber numbers of somewhat greater values for longer cylindrical tanks. It, therefore, appeared to be advantageous to allow small geysers to form and then dissipate into the surface of the collected liquid in order to achieve the minimum velocity increment. The Bond numbers which defined the separation between regions in which geyser formation did and did not occur due to propulsive settling in a spherical tank configuration ranged from 2 to 9 depending upon the liquid fill level.

  12. Stem sap flow in plants under low gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Ayako; Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to obtain a fundamental knowledge for plant functions in bio-regenerative life support systems in space. Stem sap flow in plants is important indicators for water transport from roots to atmosphere through leaves. In this study, stem sap flow in sweetpotato was assessed at gravity levels from 0.01 to 2 g for about 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. Stem sap flow was monitored with a heat balance method in which heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by convection with the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. Thermal images of stem surfaces near heated points were captured using infrared thermography and the internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed. In results, the sap flow in stems was suppressed more at lower gravity levels without forced air circulation. No suppression of the stem sap flow was observed with forced air circulation. Suppressed sap flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under low gravity conditions in space.

  13. Hydrodynamics of Packed Bed Reactor in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian J.; Nahra, Henry K.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2005-01-01

    Packed bed reactors are well known for their vast and diverse applications in the chemical industry; from gas absorption, to stripping, to catalytic conversion. Use of this type of reactor in terrestrial applications has been rather extensive because of its simplicity and relative ease of operation. Developing similar reactors for use in microgravity is critical to many space-based advanced life support systems. However, the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow packed bed reactors in this new environment and the effects of one physiochemical process on another has not been adequately assessed. Surface tension or capillary forces play a much greater role which results in a shifting in flow regime transitions and pressure drop. Results from low gravity experiments related to flow regimes and two-phase pressure drop models are presented in this paper along with a description of plans for a flight experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Understanding the packed bed hydrodynamics and its effects on mass transfer processes in microgravity is crucial for the design of packed bed chemical or biological reactors to be used for water reclamation and other life support processes involving water purification.

  14. High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I - Theory and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Tracy, D. H.; Eloranta, E. W.; Roesler, F. L.; Weinman, J. A.; Trauger, J. T.; Sroga, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A high spectral resolution lidar technique to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols is described. Light backscattered by the atmosphere from a narrowband optically pumped oscillator-amplifier dye laser is separated into its Doppler broadened molecular and elastically scattered aerosol components by a two-channel Fabry-Perot polyetalon interferometer. Aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter ratio, optical depth, extinction cross section, scattering cross section, and the backscatter phase function, are derived from the two-channel measurements.

  15. Spectrally narrow mid-infrared optically pumped lasers with partial surface DBR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Kaspi, Ron; Tilton, Michael L; Chavez, Joseph R; Ongstad, Andrew P; Dente, Gregory C

    2012-05-01

    An optically pumped mid-infrared edge-emitting laser is described, in which a Distributed Bragg Reflector grating partially occupies the surface, and provides spectral narrowing in a high power device. A quasi-continuous-wave power of 3 Watts is obtained at 3.6 µm that is contained within a spectral width of 7 nm. PMID:22565707

  16. Spectral separation of Cr3+ optical centers in stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galutskii, V. V.; Stroganova, E. V.; Yakovenko, N. A.

    2011-03-01

    The broadband luminescence of chromium optical centers with strongly overlapping spectral lines and similar emission probabilities from excited 4 T 2 states of red and green Cr3+ centers in stoichiometric magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals has been separated for the first time. The spectral-luminescence characteristics and parameters of intracenter interaction between red and green optical Cr3+ centers in stoichiometric lithium niobate have been calculated. The luminescence quantum efficiencies of red and green chromium centers are determined.

  17. Tunable all-optical single-bandpass photonic microwave filter based on spectrally sliced broad optical source and phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Yan, Lianshan; Liu, Xinkai

    2013-01-10

    A tunable all-optical single-bandpass photonic microwave filter (PMF) based on spectrally sliced broadband optical source and phase modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A broadband optical source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) are used to generate continuous optical spectral samples, which are employed to form a finite impulse response filter with a single-bandpass response with the help of a single-mode fiber. A phase modulator is then adopted to eliminate the baseband components in the filtering response. The center frequency of the PMF can be tuned by changing the free spectral range of the MZI. An experiment is performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed PMF has a single-bandpass without baseband components and a tuning range of 5-15 GHz. PMID:23314649

  18. Generation of spectral-encoded signals in noncoherent optical communication systems based on acousto-optic multiwavelength filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proklov, V. V.; Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Filatov, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    New acousto-optical (AO) methods and devices necessary for the creation of noncoherent optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems are considered. Based on an AO multiwavelength filter, an original device generating spectral-encoded signals for O-CDMA systems with optimum WDM has been created and studied. It is shown that modern AO technology is capable of surmounting difficulties that previously hindered the transition of optical communication systems to CDMA data transmission.

  19. Retrieval of the atmospheric compounds using a spectral optical thickness information

    SciTech Connect

    Ioltukhovski, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    A spectral inversion technique for retrieval of the atmospheric gases and aerosols contents is proposed. This technique based upon the preliminary measurement or retrieval of the spectral optical thickness. The existence of a priori information about the spectral cross sections for some of the atmospheric components allows to retrieve the relative contents of these components in the atmosphere. Method of smooth filtration makes possible to estimate contents of atmospheric aerosols with known cross sections and to filter out other aerosols; this is done independently from their relative contribution to the optical thickness.

  20. Optic Disc Vascularization in Glaucoma: Value of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lévêque, Pierre-Maxime; Zéboulon, Pierre; Brasnu, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To detect changes in optic nerve head (ONH) vascularization in glaucoma patients using spectral-domain OCT angiography (OCT-A). Material and Method. Fifty glaucoma patients and 30 normal subjects were evaluated with OCT-A (AngioVue®, Optovue). The total ONH vessel density and temporal disc vessel density were measured. Clinical data, visual field (VF) parameters, and spectral-domain OCT evaluation (RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, GCC: ganglion cell complex thickness, and rim area) were recorded for glaucoma patients. Correlations among total and temporal ONH vessel density and structural and VF parameters were analyzed. Results. In the glaucoma group, total and temporal ONH vessel density were reduced by 24.7% (0.412 versus 0.547; p < 0.0001) and 22.88% (0.364 versus 0.472; p = 0.001), respectively, as compared with the control group. Univariate analysis showed significant correlation between rim area (mm2) and temporal ONH vessel density (r = 0.623; p < 0.0001) and total ONH vessel density (r = 0.609; p < 0.0001). Significant correlations were found between temporal and total ONH vessel density and RNFL, GCC, VF mean deviation, and visual field index. Conclusion. In glaucoma patients OCT-A might detect reduced ONH blood vessel density that is associated with structural and functional glaucomatous damage. OCT-A might become a useful tool for the evaluation of ONH microcirculation changes in glaucoma. PMID:26998352

  1. Spectral properties of strongly correlated bosons in two-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, Michael; Arrigoni, Enrico; Linden, Wolfgang von der

    2010-01-01

    Spectral properties of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, which emulates ultracold gases of atoms confined in optical lattices, are investigated by means of the variational cluster approach. The phase boundary of the quantum phase transition from Mott phase to superfluid phase is calculated and compared to recent work. Moreover the single-particle spectral functions in both the first and the second Mott lobe are presented and the corresponding densities of states and momentum distributions are evaluated. A qualitatively similar intensity distribution of the spectral weight can be observed for spectral functions in the first and the second Mott lobe.

  2. Experimental realization of spectral shaping using nonlinear optical holograms.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Anat; Shiloh, Roy; Arie, Ady

    2014-09-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the spectral shaping of a signal generated by a three-wave mixing process using a nonlinear spectral hologram. These holograms are based on binary spatial modulation of the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Here we present the first experimental realization, to the best of our knowledge, of this concept, encoding a nonlinear hologram in a KTiOPO(4) crystal by electric field poling. Two different spectra in the form of the second-order Hermite-Gauss function and the Airy function are shown using the sum-frequency generation process. PMID:26466274

  3. Deep optical imaging of tissue using the second and third near-infrared spectral windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Pu, Yang; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Budansky, Yury; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-05-01

    Light at wavelengths in the near-infrared (NIR) region allows for deep penetration and minimal absorption through high scattering tissue media. NIR light has been conventionally used through the first NIR optical tissue window with wavelengths from 650 to 950 nm. Longer NIR wavelengths had been overlooked due to major water absorption peaks and a lack of NIR-CCD detectors. The second NIR spectral window from 1100 to 1350 nm and a new spectral window from 1600 to 1870 nm, known as the third NIR optical window, were investigated. Optical attenuation measurements from thin tissue slices of normal and malignant breast and prostate tissues, pig brain, and chicken tissue were obtained in the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. Optical images of chicken tissue overlying three black wires were also obtained using the second and third spectral windows. Due to a reduction in scattering and minimal absorption, longer attenuation lengths and clearer optical images could be seen in the second and third NIR optical windows compared to the conventional first NIR optical window. A possible fourth optical window centered at 2200 nm was noted.

  4. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  5. F-104 low-gravity calibration tests for materials processing in space precursory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A precursory low-gravity flight experiment in an F-104 aircraft was conducted to check out the vehicle as a suitable flight test carrier for microgravity experiments. Calibration experiment verification tests in the F-104 were completed. Three flight parabolas were flown. The test data shows all the test parameters recorded by telemetry to have reasonable values. Photographic records are clear and distinct.Solidification modes were the same as those observed in other low gravity environments. The F-104 has been proven to be a useful test bed for low gravity experiments which require less than 60 seconds of low g time.

  6. Spectrally resolved detection in transient-reflectivity measurements of coherent optical phonons in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Ohya, Kazuma; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Hiroya; Uozumi, Shin-ichi; Norimatsu, Katsura; Kitajima, Masahiro; Shikano, Yutaka; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2016-07-01

    Coherent optical phonons in bulk solid systems play a crucial role in understanding and designing light-matter interactions and can be detected by the transient-reflectivity measurement. In this paper, we demonstrate spectrally resolved detection of coherent optical phonons in diamond from ultrashort infrared pump-probe measurements using optical bandpass filters. We show that this enhances the sensitivity approximately 35 times in measuring the coherent oscillations in the transient reflectivity compared with the commonly used spectrally integrated measurement. To explain this observation, we discuss its mechanism.

  7. Crystal growth, spectral, optical and thermal properties of semiorganic nonlinear optical material: Picolinic acid hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowri, S.; Uma Devi, T.; Sajan, D.; Surendra Dilip, C.; Chandramohan, A.; Lawrence, N.

    2013-06-01

    The bulk single crystal of 2-picolinic acid hydrochloride (PHCL) (a semi-organic nonlinear optical material of dimensions 25 × 15 × 10 mm3) was successfully grown by slow solvent evaporation technique. The XRD results revealed the cell parameters and the centrosymmetric nature of the crystal structure. FT-IR spectral study identified the functional groups, nature of bonding and their bond strength. The UV-Vis-NIR studies recognized the optical transmittance window and the lower cut off wavelength of the PHCL crystal and thus it could be performed as a NLO material. 1H NMR and 13CNMR spectra were correlated with the XRD standard for the molecular structure reveals harmony of the materials. Thermal properties of the crystal were studied by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA); the derived kinetic parameter values support the intuitive association of picolinicacid and HCl leads to the spontaneous formation of PHCL with a first order reaction. The presence of a proton and a proton acceptor groups provide the necessary stability to induce charge asymmetry in the PHCL structure. The load dependent hardness values of the crystal were measured by microhardness testing.

  8. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics: Imaging Photoreceptor Layer Morphology to Interpret Preclinical Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Jungtae; Dubis, Adam M.; Wagner-Schuman, Melissa; Tait, Diane M.; Godara, Pooja; Schroeder, Brett; Stepien, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of advances in imaging technology that enable in vivo evaluation of the living retina. Two of the more promising techniques, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) fundus imaging provide complementary views of the retinal tissue. SD-OCT devices have high axial resolution, allowing assessment of retinal lamination, while the high lateral resolution of AO allows visualization of individual cells. The potential exists to use one modality to interpret results from the other. As a proof of concept, we examined the retina of a 32 year-old male, previously diagnosed with a red-green color vision defect. Previous AO imaging revealed numerous gaps throughout his cone mosaic, indicating that the structure of a subset of cones had been compromised. Whether the affected cells had completely degenerated or were simply morphologically deviant was not clear. Here an AO fundus camera was used to re-examine the retina (~6 years after initial exam) and SD-OCT to examine retinal lamination. The static nature of the cone mosaic disruption combined with the normal lamination on SD-OCT suggests that the affected cones are likely still present. PMID:20238030

  9. Spatial routing of optical beams through time-domain spatial-spectral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbitt, W. R.; Mossberg, T. W.

    1995-04-01

    We propose a novel new method of temporal-waveform-controlled high-speed passive spatial routing of optical beams. The method provides for the redirection of optical signals contained within a single input beam into output directions that are specified entirely by temporal information encoded on the waveform of each incident signal. The routing is effected by means of deflection from spectrally structured spatial gratings that may be optically programmed into materials with or without intrinsic frequency selectivity.

  10. Passive and Active Stabilization of Liquid Bridges in Low Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, David B.; Wei, Wei; Marston, Philip L.

    2002-11-01

    The cylindrical liquid bridge of arbitrary size surrounded by air or vacuum is a fluid configuration that is essentially unique to the zero-gravity environment. An associated technology, which is enhanced in zero gravity, is the float-zone process of crystal growth, which involves a molten liquid bridge between a feed rod and the growing cylindrical crystal. There are several advantages to the crystal growth process in using long molten zones. Unfortunately, long liquid bridges are more susceptible to g-jitter. Also, a cylindrical liquid bridge in zero gravity is unstable if its length exceeds its circumference, or stated in another way, when the slenderness, defined as the length to diameter ratio, exceeds pi. This is the well-known Rayleigh-Plateau (RP) instability involving the growth of a varicose mode leading to breaking of the bridge. Stabilization of liquid bridges in air in the low-gravity environment of NASA's KC-135 aircraft has been demonstrated for slenderness values in excess of 4.0 using two techniques, passive acoustic stabilization (PAS) and active electrostatic stabilization (AES). The PAS method is theoretically capable of stabilizing a bridge of any length, provided a sound field of appropriate dimension is available. The AES method in its current form controls only the (2,0) mode of the bridge, which is the varicose mode that becomes unstable when the slenderness (S) exceeds pi. By controlling only the (2,0) mode, the current form of the AES method cannot stabilize cylindrical bridges beyond S=4.493 at which point the (3,0) mode becomes unstable. At present, the longest bridge stabilized on the KC-135 by the AES method had a slenderness of 4.4 3. The AES method has the advantage that it can be used to control both the frequency and damping of the (2,0) mode of the bridge. This would be useful in reducing the susceptibility of a long molten zone to g-jitter in that the (2,0) mode frequency could be shifted away from a particularly noisy vibration

  11. Effects of spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar on the retrieval errors for atmospheric aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming; Huang, Hanlu; Shen, Yibing

    2014-07-10

    This paper presents detailed analysis about the effects of spectral discrimination on the retrieval errors for atmospheric aerosol optical properties in high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on this topic comprehensively, and our goal is to provide some heuristic guidelines for the design of the spectral discrimination filter in HSRL. We first introduce a theoretical model for retrieval error evaluation of an HSRL instrument with a general three-channel configuration. The model only takes the error sources related to the spectral discrimination parameters into account, while other error sources not associated with these focused parameters are excluded on purpose. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are performed to validate the correctness of the theoretical model. Results from both the model and MC simulations agree very well, and they illustrate one important, although not well realized, fact: a large molecular transmittance and a large spectral discrimination ratio (SDR, i.e., ratio of the molecular transmittance to the aerosol transmittance) are beneficial to promote the retrieval accuracy. More specifically, we find that a large SDR can reduce retrieval errors conspicuously for atmosphere at low altitudes, while its effect on the retrieval for high altitudes is very limited. A large molecular transmittance contributes to good retrieval accuracy everywhere, particularly at high altitudes, where the signal-to-noise ratio is small. Since the molecular transmittance and SDR are often trade-offs, we suggest considering a suitable SDR for higher molecular transmittance instead of using unnecessarily high SDR when designing the spectral discrimination filter. These conclusions are expected to be applicable to most of the HSRL instruments, which have similar configurations as the one discussed here. PMID:25090057

  12. Comparisons of spectrally-enhanced asymmetrically-clipped optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2016-02-22

    Asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) is a technique that sacrifices spectral efficiency in order to transmit an orthogonally frequency-division multiplexed signal over a unipolar channel, such as a directly modulated direct-detection fiber or free-space channel. Several methods have been proposed to regain this spectral efficiency, including: asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM), enhanced U-OFDM (EU-OFDM), spectral and energy efficient OFDM (SEE-OFDM), Hybrid-ACO-OFDM and Layered-ACO-OFDM. This paper presents simulations up to high-order constellation sizes to show that Layered-ACO-OFDM offers the highest receiver sensitivity for a given optical power at spectral efficiencies above 3 bit/s/Hz. For comparison purposes, white Gaussian noise is added at the receiver, component nonlinearities are not considered, and the fiber is considered to be linear and dispersion-less. The simulations show that LACO-OFDM has a 7-dB sensitivity advantage over DC-biased OFDM (DCO-OFDM) for 1024-QAM at 87.5% of DCO-OFDM's spectral efficiency, at the same bit rate and optical power. This is approximately equivalent to a 4.4-dB advantage at the same spectral efficiency of 87.7% if 896-QAM were to be used for DCO-OFDM. PMID:26907048

  13. Compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography with dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel CS method that incorporates dispersion compensation into the CS reconstruction of spectral domain OCT (SD OCT) signal. We show that A-scans with dispersion compensation can be obtained by multiplying the dispersion correcting term to the undersampled linear-in-wavenumber spectral data before the CS reconstruction. We also implemented fast CS reconstruction by taking the advantage of fast Fourier transform (FFT). The matrix-vector multiplication commonly used in the CS reconstruction is implemented by a two-step procedure. Compared to the CS reconstruction with matrix multiplication, our method can obtain dispersion compensated A-scan at least 5 times faster. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve high quality image with dispersion compensation.

  14. Observation of the optical and spectral characteristics of ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Cen, Jianyong; Yuan, Ping; Xue, Simin

    2014-01-24

    Ball lightning (BL) has been observed with two slitless spectrographs at a distance of 0.9 km. The BL is generated by a cloud-to-ground lightning strike. It moves horizontally during the luminous duration. The evolution of size, color, and light intensity is reported in detail. The spectral analysis indicates that the radiation from soil elements is present for the entire lifetime of the BL. PMID:24484145

  15. Observation of the Optical and Spectral Characteristics of Ball Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Jianyong; Yuan, Ping; Xue, Simin

    2014-01-01

    Ball lightning (BL) has been observed with two slitless spectrographs at a distance of 0.9 km. The BL is generated by a cloud-to-ground lightning strike. It moves horizontally during the luminous duration. The evolution of size, color, and light intensity is reported in detail. The spectral analysis indicates that the radiation from soil elements is present for the entire lifetime of the BL.

  16. A summary of existing and planned experiment hardware for low-gravity fluids research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Myron E.; Omalley, Terence F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of (1) existing ground-based, low gravity research facilities, with examples of hardware capabilities, and (2) existing and planned space-based research facilities, with examples of current and past flight hardware. Low-gravity, ground-based facilities, such as drop towers and aircraft, provide the experimenter with quick turnaround time, easy access to equipment, gravity levels ranging from 10(exp -2) to 10(exp -6) G, and low-gravity durations ranging from 2 to 30 sec. Currently, the only operational space-based facility is the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's payload bay and middeck facilities are described. Existing and planned low-gravity fluids research facilities are also described with examples of experiments and hardware capabilities.

  17. A method to correct for spectral artifacts in optical-CT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Pierquet, Michael; Jordan, Kevin; Oldham, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The recent emergence of radiochromic dosimeters with low inherent light-scattering presents the possibility of fast 3D dosimetry using broad-beam optical computed tomography (optical-CT). Current broad beam scanners typically employ either a single or a planar array of light-emitting diodes (LED) for the light source. The spectrum of light from LED sources is polychromatic and this, in combination with the non-uniform spectral absorption of the dosimeter, can introduce spectral artifacts arising from preferential absorption of photons at the peak absorption wavelengths in the dosimeter. Spectral artifacts can lead to large errors in the reconstructed attenuation coefficients, and hence dose measurement. This work presents an analytic method for correcting for spectral artifacts which can be applied if the spectral characteristics of the light source, absorbing dosimeter, and imaging detector are known or can be measured. The method is implemented here for a PRESAGE® dosimeter scanned with the DLOS telecentric scanner (Duke Large field-of-view Optical-CT Scanner). Emission and absorption profiles were measured with a commercial spectrometer and spectrophotometer, respectively. Simulations are presented that show spectral changes can introduce errors of 8% for moderately attenuating samples where spectral artifacts are less pronounced. The correction is evaluated by application to a 16 cm diameter PRESAGE® cylindrical dosimeter irradiated along the axis with two partially overlapping 6 × 6 cm fields of different doses. The resulting stepped dose distribution facilitates evaluation of the correction as each step had different spectral contributions. The spectral artifact correction was found to accurately correct the reconstructed coefficients to within ~1.5%, improved from ~7.5%, for normalized dose distributions. In conclusion, for situations where spectral artifacts cannot be removed by physical filters, the method shown here is an effective correction. Physical

  18. Near-infrared spectral imaging of the female breast for quantitative oximetry in optical mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yang; Liu Ning; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    We present a hybrid continuous-wave, frequency-domain instrument for near-infrared spectral imaging of the female breast based on a tandem, planar scanning of one illumination optical fiber and one collection optical fiber configured in a transmission geometry. The spatial sampling rate of 25 points/cm{sup 2} is increased to 400 points/cm{sup 2} by postprocessing the data with a 2D cubic spline interpolation. We then apply a previously developed spatial second-derivative algorithm to an edge-corrected intensity image (N-image) to enhance the visibility and resolution of optical inhomogeneities in breast tissue such as blood vessels and tumors. The spectral data at each image pixel consist of 515-point spectra over the 650-900 nm wavelength range, thus featuring a spectral density of two data points per nanometer. We process the measured spectra with a paired-wavelength spectral analysis method to quantify the oxygen saturation of detected optical inhomogeneities, under the assumption that they feature a locally higher hemoglobin concentration. Our initial measurements on two healthy human subjects have generated high-resolution optical mammograms displaying a network of blood vessels with values of hemoglobin saturation typically falling within the 60%-95% range, which is physiologically reasonable. This approach to spectral imaging and oximetry of the breast has the potential to efficiently exploit the high intrinsic contrast provided by hemoglobin in breast tissue and to contribute a useful tool in the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of breast pathologies.

  19. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  20. Small-scale impacts as a trigger for an avalanche in a low-gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Sierks, H.; Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft was launched in 2004 and will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. On its route towards the comet, it flew by asteroid (21) Lutetia on 10 July 2010, with a closest approach distance of 3170 km. OSIRIS --- the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta [1] --- took 462 images of Lutetia, using 21 broad- and narrow-band filters covering a wavelength range from 240 to 1000 nm [2]. The surface of Lutetia is covered with a thick layer of regolith. On the slopes of several craters, this regolith layer collapsed in landslide-like events. A possible trigger mechanism for these low-gravity avalanches is the impact of a small mm to cm-sized body. We conducted an experiment, where samples of different granular materials were tilted at different angles with respect to the vector of gravity. We accelerated a small mm-sized metal sphere to velocities up to 1.5 m/s and shot it into the sloped granular material. The impacts and any events triggered by the impact were recorded using a high-speed high-resolution camera. The experiment was implemented at the center of applied space technology and microgravity (ZARM) vacuum drop tower in Bremen in August 2012. The experiment was placed in an evacuated cylinder and mounted on a centrifuge that was spun with varying rotation rates to accommodate the vacuum and low gravity present on the surfaces of asteroids. A total of 20 experiments, as described above, were realized during 10 drops. The tilt angle and the magnitude of artificial gravity were varied for two different materials, a ground HED meteorite and the JSC MARS-1 Martian soil simulant. Additional ground-based experiments in 1g environment were conducted at a later time. We analyzed the images using an image subtraction algorithm to track movement from one frame to the next. In subsequent steps, we observed the behavior of the material on the surface as well as in deeper layers to

  1. Small scale impacts as trigger for an avalanche in a low gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Sierks, H.; Blum, J.

    2013-09-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft was launched in 2004 and will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. On its route towards the comet, it flew by asteroid (21) Lutetia on 10 July 2010, with a closest approach distance of 3170 km. OSIRIS - the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System on board Rosetta [1] - took 462 images of Lutetia, using 21 broad- and narrowband filters covering a wavelength range from 240 to 1000 nm [2]. The surface of Lutetia is covered with a thick layer of regolith. On slopes of several craters this regolith layer collapsed in landslide like events. A possible trigger mechanism for these low-gravity avalanches is the impact of a small mm to cm-sized body. We conducted an experiment where samples of different granular materials were tilted at different angles with respect to the vector of gravity. We accelerated a small mm-sized metal sphere to velocities up to 1.5 m/s and shot it into the sloped granular material. The impacts and any events triggered by the impact were recorded using a high-speed high-resolution camera. The experiment was implemented at the center of applied space technology and microgravity (ZARM) vacuum drop tower in Bremen in August 2012. The experiment was placed in an evacuated cylinder and mounted on a centrifuge that was spun with varying rotation rates to accommodate the vacuum and low gravity present on the surfaces of asteroids. A total of 20 experiments as described above were realized during 10 drops. The tilt angle and the magnitude of artificial gravity were varied for two different materials, a ground HED meteorite and the JSC MARS-1 Martian soil simulant. Additional groundbased experiments in 1g environment were conducted at a later time. We analyzed the images using an image subtraction algorithm to track movement from one frame to the next. In subsequent steps we observed the behavior of the material on the surface as well as in deeper layers to characterize

  2. Measurement of the Soret coefficients for a ternary hydrocarbon mixture in low gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Van Varenbergh, S.; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2013-05-01

    While the Soret coefficients of binary mixtures have been widely measured in the past, here we report the first measurement of the Soret coefficient of a ternary mixture in a low gravity environment on board the International Space Station. The sample was contained in a 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm (w, l, h) cell and was monitored by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at two wavelengths. The analyzed sample was a mixture of tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane at the weight fraction of 0.1/0.8/0.1. While the lateral walls of the cell did not possess complete thermal isolation, the separation of the components in the central region of the cavity was comparable to purely diffusive behavior. The same experimental parameters have been monitored in Run7 and Run12 of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion and Soret Coefficient experiment in order to verify the accuracy of the setup. The similarity of the results demonstrates the repeatability of thermodiffusion experiments in a microgravity environment. There was nearly equal separation of the tetrahydronaphthalene and isobutylbenzene components in opposite directions, while dodecane experienced a weak separation in the same direction as isobutylbenzene. Finally, Fourier image processing and calculations of the transient separation of the components were used to analyze the heat transfer in the system and to measure the Soret coefficients for this ternary mixture. The successful measurements shown in this work can serve as the standard for ground experiments and for numerical modeling of hydrocarbon mixtures.

  3. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  4. Spectral emissivities and optical constants of electromagnetically levitated liquid metals as functions of temperature and wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, S.; Hauge, R. H.; Margrave, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a noncontact temperature measurement device utilizing rotating analyzer ellipsometry is described. The technique circumvents the necessity of spectral emissivity estimation by direct measurement concomittant with radiance brightness. Using this approach, the optical properties of electromagnetically levitated liquid metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, and Zr were measured in situ at four wavelengths and up to 600 K superheat in the liquid. The data suggest an increase in the emissivity of the liquid compared with the incandescent solid. The data also show moderate temperature dependence of the spectral emissivity. A few measurements of the optical properties of undercooled liquid metals were also conducted. The data for both solids and liquids show excellent agreement with available values in the literature for the spectral emissivities as well as the optical constants.

  5. Real-time characterization of spectral coherence of ultrafast laser based on optical time-stretch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhibo; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinearly generated broadband ultrafast laser have been increasingly utilized in many applications. However, traditional techniques of characterizing these sources lack the ability to observe the instantaneous features and transitory behaviours of both amplitude and phase. With the advent of the optical time stretch techniques, the instantaneous shotto- shot spectral intensity can be directly measured continuously at an unprecedentedly high speed. Meanwhile, the information of the real-time phase variation, which is carried by the frequency-time mapped spectral signal has yet been fully explored. We present a technique of experimentally measuring the spectral coherence dynamics of broadband pulsed sources. Our method relies on a delayed Young's type interferometer combined with optical time-stretch. We perform the proof-of-principle demonstrations of spectral coherence dynamics measurement on two sources: a supercontinuum source and a fiber ring buffered cavity source, both with a repetition rate of MHz. By employing the optical time stretch with a dispersive fiber, we directly map the spectral interference fringes of the delayed neighbouring pulses and obtain a sufficiently large ensemble of spectral interferograms with a real-time oscilloscope (80Gb/s sampling rate). This enables us to directly quantify the spectral coherence dynamics of the ultrafast sources with a temporal resolution down to microseconds. Having the ensemble of single-shot interferograms, we also further calculate the cross spectral coherence correlation matrices of these ultrafast sources. We anticipate that our technique provides a general approach for experimentally evaluating the spectral coherence dynamics of ultrafast laser generated by the nonlinear processes e.g. modulation instability, supercontinuum generation, and Kerr resonator.

  6. A study of the fundamental operations of a capillary driven heat transfer device in both normal and low gravity Part 1. Liquid slug formation in low gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jeffrey S.; Hallinan, Kevin; Lekan, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Research has been conducted to observe the operation of a capillary pumped loop (CPL) in both normal and low gravity environments in order to ascertain the causes of device failure. The failures of capillary pumped heat transport devices in low gravity; specifically; evaporator dryout, are not understood and the available data for analyzing the failures is incomplete. To observe failure in these devices an idealized experimental CPL was configured for testing in both a normal-gravity and a low-gravity environment. The experimental test loop was constructed completely of Pyrex tubing to allow for visualization of system operations. Heat was added to the liquid on the evaporator side of the loop using resistance heaters and removed on the condenser side via forced convection of ambient air. A video camera was used to record the behavior of both the condenser and the evaporator menisci simultaneously. Low-gravity experiments were performed during the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission performed onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in July of 1997. During the MSL-1 mission, a failure mechanism, heretofore unreported, was observed. In every experiment performed a slug of liquid would form at the transition from a bend to a straight run in the vapor line. Ultimately, this liquid slug prevents the flow of vapor to the condenser causing the condenser to eventually dryout. After condenser dryout, liquid is no longer fed into the evaporator and it, too, will dry out resulting in device failure. An analysis is presented to illustrate the inevitable formation of such liquid slugs in CPL devices in low gravity.

  7. Sparse OCT: optimizing compressed sensing in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    We applied compressed sensing (CS) to spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Namely, CS was applied to the spectral data in reconstructing A-mode images. This would eliminate the need for a large amount of spectral data for image reconstruction and processing. We tested the CS method by randomly undersampling k-space SD-OCT signal. OCT images are reconstructed by solving an optimization problem that minimizes the l1 norm to enforce sparsity, subject to data consistency constraints. Variable density random sampling and uniform density random sampling were studied and compared, which shows the former undersampling scheme can achieve accurate signal recovery using less data.

  8. Half-spectral unidirectional invisibility in non-Hermitian periodic optical structures.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of half-spectral unidirectional invisibility is introduced for one-dimensional periodic optical structures with tailored real and imaginary refractive index distributions in a non PT-symmetric configuration. The effect refers to the property in which the optical medium appears to be invisible, both in reflection and transmission, below the Bragg frequency when probed from one side and above the Bragg frequency when probed from the opposite side. Half-spectral invisibility is obtained by a combination of in-phase index and gain gratings whose spatial envelopes are related to each other by a Hilbert transform. PMID:26625084

  9. Cyclic additional optical true time delay for microwave beam steering with spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Lu, R; Wang, Q; Tessema, N; Jiao, Y; van den Boom, H P A; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-06-15

    Optical true time delay (OTTD) is an attractive way to realize microwave beam steering (MBS) due to its inherent features of broadband, low-loss, and compactness. In this Letter, we propose a novel OTTD approach named cyclic additional optical true time delay (CAO-TTD). It applies additional integer delays of the microwave carrier frequency to achieve spectral filtering but without disturbing the spatial filtering (beam steering). Based on such concept, a broadband MBS scheme for high-capacity wireless communication is proposed, which allows the tuning of both spectral filtering and spatial filtering. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis. PMID:24978496

  10. Absolute velocity measurement using three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Verma, Y.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, P. K.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography setup that allows single interferometer-based measurement of absolute flow velocity. The setup makes use of galvo-based phase shifting to remove complex conjugate mirror artifact and a beam displacer in the sample arm to avoid cross talk image. The results show that the developed approach allows efficient utilization of the imaging range of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography setup for three-beam-based velocity measurement.

  11. Combined optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging using a double clad fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay-Lord, Robin; Lurie, Kristen L.; Attendu, Xavier; Mageau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Ellerbee Bowden, Audrey K.; Strupler, Mathias; Boudoux, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    This proceedings shows the combination of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Hyper-Spectral Imaging (HSI) using a double-clad optical fiber. The single mode core of the fiber is used to transmit OCT signals, while the cladding, with its large collection area, provides an efficient way to capture the reflectance spectrum of the sample. The combination of both methods enables three-dimensional acquisition of sample morphology with OCT, enhanced by the molecular information contained in its hyper-spectral image. We believe that the combination of these techniques could result in endoscopes with enhanced tissue identification capability.

  12. Spectral dependence of the efficiency of direct optical excitation of molecular oxygen in tetrachloromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Bagrov, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral dependence of the efficiency of direct optical excitation of an oxygen molecule in tetrachloromethane using cw LED sources with different wavelengths and an optical parametric oscillator with single-shot output radiation (tuning range of 415-670 nm) has been studied by recording the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen at the O2(1Δg)-O2(3Σg) transition (λ = 1270 nm). The results show that single-shot irradiation of tetrachloromethane in the short-wavelength spectral range leads to efficient quenching of singlet- oxygen phosphorescence by the products of photolytic decomposition of solvent.

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectral studies on chalcocite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md.; Frost, Ray L.; Endo, Tamio

    2007-11-01

    A chalcocite mineral sample of Shaha, Congo is used in the present study. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on powdered sample confirms the presence of Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(III) impurity is present in octahedral structure whereas Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. Mid-infrared results are due to water and sulphate fundamentals.

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectral studies on chalcocite.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md; Frost, Ray L; Endo, Tamio

    2007-11-01

    A chalcocite mineral sample of Shaha, Congo is used in the present study. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on powdered sample confirms the presence of Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(III) impurity is present in octahedral structure whereas Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. Mid-infrared results are due to water and sulphate fundamentals. PMID:17324611

  15. The modification of spectral characteristics of cytostatics by optical beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Brezeanu, Mihail; Carstocea, Benone D.; Voicu, Letitia; Gazdaru, Doina M.; Smarandache, Adriana A.

    2004-10-01

    Besides the biochemical action of methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (FU) their effect in destroying cancer tumours could be enhanced by exposure to light at different doses. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of 10-4M - 10-5M MTX solutions in natural saline and sodium hydroxide at pH = 8.4 were measured, while their exposure to coherent and uncoherent light in the visible and near ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges was made (Hg lamps and Nitrogen pulsed laser radiation were used). Absorption spectra exhibit spectral bands in the range 200 nm - 450 nm. The 200 - 450 nm excitation spectra were measured with emission centered on 470 nm; MTX fluorescence excitation was measured at 390 nm and the emission was detected between 400 nm and 600 nm showing a maximum at 470 nm. Spectra modifications, nonlinearly depending on exposure time (varying from 1 min to 20 min), evidenced MTX photo-dissociation to the fluorescent compound 2,4 diamino-formylpteridine. In the 5-FU case the absorption spectra exhibit bands between 200 nm and 450 nm. The emission fluorescence spectra were measured between 400 nm and 600 nm, with λex = 350 nm for UV Hg lamp and with λex = 360 nm for laser irradiated samples; at irradiation with N2 laser emitted radiation the excitation spectra were measured in the range of 200 nm - 400 nm, with λem = 440 nm. New vascularity rapid destruction was observed for conjunctive impregnated with 5-FU solution whilst exposed to incoherent UV and visible light.

  16. Optical turbulence and spectral condensate in long fibre lasers

    PubMed Central

    Turitsyna, E. G.; Falkovich, Gregory; El-Taher, Atalla; Shu, Xuewen; Harper, Paul; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2012-01-01

    We study numerically optical turbulence using the particular example of a recently created, ultra-long fibre laser. For normal fibre dispersion, we observed an intermediate state with an extremely narrow spectrum (condensate), which experiences instability and a sharp transition to a fluctuating regime with a wider spectrum. We demonstrate that the number of modes has an impact on the condensate's lifetime. The smaller the number of modes, the more resistant is the condensate to perturbations. Experimental results show a good agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:22870062

  17. Research on the principle and experimentation of optical compressive spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2013-12-01

    The optical compressive spectral imaging method is a novel spectral imaging technique that draws in the inspiration of compressed sensing, which takes on the advantages such as reducing acquisition data amount, realizing snapshot imaging, increasing signal to noise ratio and so on. Considering the influence of the sampling quality on the ultimate imaging quality, researchers match the sampling interval with the modulation interval in former reported imaging system, while the depressed sampling rate leads to the loss on the original spectral resolution. To overcome that technical defect, the demand for the matching between the sampling interval and the modulation interval is disposed of and the spectral channel number of the designed experimental device increases more than threefold comparing to that of the previous method. Imaging experiment is carried out by use of the experiment installation and the spectral data cube of the shooting target is reconstructed with the acquired compressed image by use of the two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms. The experimental result indicates that the spectral channel number increases effectively and the reconstructed data stays high-fidelity. The images and spectral curves are able to accurately reflect the spatial and spectral character of the target.

  18. Etalon of optical frequency for the telecommunication spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Josef; Ruzicka, Bohdan; Cip, Ondrej

    2004-09-01

    We present a design of a stabilized laser system, an etalon of the optical frequency at the 1.5 μm band following the demands of the telecommunication industry in the Czech Republic. Our laser system employs a DFB laser diode in a two stage fully digital stabilizing scheme. The linear absorption arrangement with an acetylene filled absorption cell of a pressure about 1 kPa is used to lock the laser to the Doppler-broadened lines. To achieve a reliable and robust stabilization of the laser frequency we arranged a two-loop digital servo-system overcoming the problem of a narrow locking range of the detected transition. The wavelength of the laser is modulated by current and the servo-control and tuning is performed by a fast and precise thermal control. To achieve the resolution of the weak sub-Doppler transitions we assembled a locking scheme via frequency-modulation spectroscopy to the high finesse cavity. The system is assembled using predominantly fibre-optic components. A technology of acetylene absorption cells with AR coated windows is presented as well.

  19. Two-axes spectral splitting optical concentrator based on single plastic element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefancich, M.; Maragliano, C.; Apostoleris, Harry; Chiesa, Matteo

    2014-10-01

    High efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems are currently based on costly III/V cells and, to offset the high cell capital cost, elevated optical concentrations are used, with consequent reduction in acceptance angles and tight tolerance optics. While this allows for spectacular conversion efficiencies, it does not provide cost effectiveness in a market dominated by low efficiency/low cost technologies. An alternative approach, well known in literature, is based on the combined use of an optical concentrator and a spectral splitting element allowing for the use of separate cells with different spectral responses and, thus, opening the way to a much wider range of possible materials and technologies. While many configurations have been presented during the years, optical efficiency has often been an issue due to the separate action of the concentrating and splitting element. We propose here, as substantial evolution of a previous design [1], a single injection molded plastic non-imaging optical element embodying both two axes concentration and spectral splitting functions. Based on the specific dispersion characteristics of polycarbonate and on a constructive analytical design procedure, this element allows for optical efficiencies exceeding 80%. Theory, simulations and preliminary experimental results will be presented.

  20. Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    An improved spectral optical coherence tomography technique is used to obtain cross-sectional ophthalmic images at an exposure time of 64 micros per A-scan. This method allows real-time images as well as static tomograms to be recorded in vivo. PMID:14514087

  1. Studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, M.; Kowalczyk, A.

    2007-02-01

    This contribution demonstrates potential of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) for studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine occurring at various time scales. Several examples from ophthalmology, optometry, surgery, neurology are given to illustrate the extension of SOCT beyond pure morphological investigations.

  2. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of subretinal bands associated with chronic retinal detachments

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nikisha; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    We report three patients with subretinal bands associated with retinal detachment in chronic retinal detachments who underwent successful retinal reattachment. Subretinal bands before and after surgery can be identified on clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Removal of subretinal bands is not mandatory to achieve retinal reattachment. PMID:27099457

  3. Optical properties of human colon tissues in the 350 - 2500 nm spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Kochubey, V. I.; Rubtsov, V. S.; Kolesnikova, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    We present the optical characteristics of the mucosa and submucosa of human colon tissue. The experiments are performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 spectrophotometer in the 350 - 2500 nm spectral range. The absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor are calculated based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total and collimated transmittance spectra using the inverse Monte Carlo method.

  4. Optical properties of mucous membrane in the spectral range 350-2000 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, É. A.; Kochubey, V. I.; Tuchin, V. V.; Chikina, E. É.; Knyazev, A. B.; Mareev, O. V.

    2004-12-01

    The optical characteristics of the mucous membrane from the human maxillary sinus are studied experimentally. The experiments were carried out in vitro in the spectral range 350-2000 nm. On the basis of the measured total transmittance and diffuse reflectance spectra, the absorption and transport scattering coefficients are calculated in the entire range in terms of the inverse adding-doubling method.

  5. Bone Remodeling in Choroidal Osteoma Monitored by Fundus Photography and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamalden, Tengku Ain; Lingam, Gopal; Sundar, Gangadhara

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a benign ossifying tumor of the choroid, consisting of mature bone tissue. It has been described to enlarge and evolve at varying rates over time. Here, we report and quantify the progression of a unilateral choroidal osteoma in a 7-year-old boy by fundus photography, and document tumor remodeling by spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. PMID:27175357

  6. Interferometry and holography in a low-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    The groundwork for the use of advanced optical measurement techniques in Space Shuttle materials processing in space (MPS) experiments is being laid in tests, conducted aboard a NASA KC-135 aircraft flying a parabolic trajectory, involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a sideband holographic unit. The two experiments described are (1) the observation of flow during solidification, in which fluid concentration and temperature profiles were measured during unidirectional solidification of a saturated NH4Cl-H2O solution, and (2) the observation of electrodeposition flow, in which interferometry is used to provide quantitative data required in the understanding of electrochemical process transport properties. The free-floating holographic unit was operated in the microgravity environment to both test the practicality of optical systems in such conditions and test the shock and vibration characteristics of the package.

  7. Full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with Gaussian spectral shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Satish Kumar; Sheoran, Gyanendra; Anna, Tulsi; Anand, Arun; Mehta, Dalip Singh; Shakher, Chandra

    2008-09-01

    A swept source system was realized in the wavelength range of 810-875 nm with the combination of a broad-band superluminescent diode (SLD) and an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as a frequency-tuning device. SLD has two spectral centers at 820 nm and 845 nm with spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of around 40 nm. Gaussian spectral shaping was performed onto the original SLD spectrum while reconstructing OCT images for various test samples such as onion slice and fingerprint impression taken on a glass substrate. As a pulse can be considered a Gaussian distribution of frequencies, spectral shaping yields sharper Fourier peaks. Application of Gaussian spectrum facilitates in precisely locating the reflective boundaries within the sample that results in improved OCT images.

  8. Calibration and characterization protocol for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Eom, Tae Joong; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-03-01

    We present a calibration protocol to obtain the alignment factors of a custom-made spectrometer and the nonlinear fitting function between the measured CCD pixel domain and the wavelength domain to apply to the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using fiber Bragg gratings. We have used five gratings with different center wavelengths covering the broadband source spectral range. All have a narrow spectral bandwidth (0.05 nm) and the same reflectivity (92%) to calibrate and align the custom-made spectrometer. The implemented SD-OCT system following the proposed protocol showed the alignment factors as 44.37 deg incident angle, 53.11 deg diffraction angle, and 70.0-mm focal length. The spectral resolution of 0.187 nm was recalculated from the alignment factors. PMID:21456856

  9. Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient signal transmission over DWDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José

    2016-07-01

    A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM transmission system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM signals using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber transmission link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s signal transmission rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.

  10. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Carlos Alexandre de A.; Soares, Ana Claudia Medeiros de A. G.; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the SD-OCT findings in patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) and evaluate CRT and RNFL thickness. Methods. Patients with clinical diagnosis of DUSN who were submitted to SD-OCT were included in the study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and SD-OCT were performed. Cirrus scan strategy protocols used were 200 × 200 macular cube, optic nerve head cube, and HD-5 line raster. Results. Eight patients with DUSN were included. Mean RNFL thickness was 80.25 μm and 104.75 μm for affected and normal eyes, respectively. Late stage had mean RNFL thickness of 74.83 μm compared to 96.5 μm in early stage. Mean CMT was 205.5 μm for affected eyes and 255.13 μm for normal fellow eyes. Conclusion. RNFL and CMT were thinner in DUSN eyes compared to normal eyes. Late-stage disease had more pronounced thinning compared to early-stage patients. This thinning in RNFL and CMT may reflect the low visual acuity in patients with DUSN. PMID:21860780

  11. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the "probe") and a material surface (the "sample") is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  12. Use of spectral analogy to evaluate canopy reflectance sensitivity to leaf optical property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baret, Frederic; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Steven, Michael D.; Jacquemoud, Stephane

    1993-01-01

    The spectral variation of canopy reflectance is mostly governed by the absorption properties of the elements, hence the leaves, since their intrinsic scattering properties show very little spectral variation. The relationship between canopy reflectance and leaf reflectance measured at the red edge over sugar beet canopies was used to simulate canopy reflectance from leaf reflectance spectra measured over the whole spectral domain. The results show that the spectral analogies found allows accurate reconstruction of canopy reflectance spectra. Explicit assumptions about the very low spectral variation of leaf intrinsic scattering properties are thus indirectly justified. The sensitivity of canopy reflectance (rho(sub c)) to leaf optical properties can then be investigated from concurrent spectral variations of canopy (delta rho(sub c)/delta lambda) and leaf reflectance (delta rho(sub l)/delta lambda): (delta rho(sub c))/(delta rho(sub l)) = ((delta rho(sub c))/(delta lambda) ((delta rho( sub l))/(delta lambda))(sup -1)). This expression is strictly valid only when the optical properties of the soil background or the other vegetation elements such as bark are either spectrally flat or do not contribute significantly to canopy reflectance. Simulations using the SAIL and PROSPECT models demonstrate that the sensitivity of canopy reflectance to leaf reflectance is significant for large vegetation cover fractions in spectral domains where absorption is low. In these conditions, multiple, scattering enhances the leaf absorption features by a factor that can be greater than 2.0. To override the limitations of the SAIL model for the description of the canopy architecture, we tested the previous findings on experimental data. Concurrent canopy and leaf reflectance spectra were measured for a range of sugar beet canopies. The results show good agreement with the theoretical findings. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of these findings, with particular attention to

  13. Constraints on the temperature inhomogeneity in quasar accretion discs from the ultraviolet-optical spectral variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2015-05-01

    The physical mechanisms of the quasar ultraviolet (UV)-optical variability are not well understood despite the long history of observations. Recently, Dexter & Agol presented a model of quasar UV-optical variability, which assumes large local temperature fluctuations in the quasar accretion discs. This inhomogeneous accretion disc model is claimed to describe not only the single-band variability amplitude, but also microlensing size constraints and the quasar composite spectral shape. In this work, we examine the validity of the inhomogeneous accretion disc model in the light of quasar UV-optical spectral variability by using five-band multi-epoch light curves for nearly 9 000 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region. By comparing the values of the intrinsic scatter σint of the two-band magnitude-magnitude plots for the SDSS quasar light curves and for the simulated light curves, we show that Dexter & Agol's inhomogeneous accretion disc model cannot explain the tight inter-band correlation often observed in the SDSS quasar light curves. This result leads us to conclude that the local temperature fluctuations in the accretion discs are not the main driver of the several years' UV-optical variability of quasars, and consequently, that the assumption that the quasar accretion discs have large localized temperature fluctuations is not preferred from the viewpoint of the UV-optical spectral variability.

  14. Near-infrared optical mammography with broadband spectral imaging for spatially resolved oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Sassaroli, Angelo; Homer, Marc J.; Graham, Roger A.; Fantini, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    We report the development of an instrument for diffuse spectral imaging of the human breast operating over the wavelength range 650-900 nm. This instrument images the slightly compressed human breast in a planar geometry by performing a tandem scan, over the x-y plane, of a 3 mm illumination optical fiber and a 5 mm collection optical fiber that are collinear and located on opposite sides of the breast. An edge-correction algorithm accounts for breast thickness variability over the x-y plane, a second-derivative imaging algorithm enhances the display of optical inhomogeneities, and a paired-wavelength spectral method yields oxygenation maps. We report our results of oxygenation mapping in eighteen human subjects, two of which are breast cancer patients, one with a ductal carcinoma in situ, the other with an invasive ductal carcinoma.

  15. Design and optimization of a spectrometer for spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Hamid; Carmelo Rosa, Carla

    2014-08-01

    There are several factors such as the chosen optical source, central wavelength, spectral bandwidth, spectrometer optical components and the detector specifications that affect the overall performance of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging system. Among these factors a good design and implementation of the spectrometer is of paramount importance as it directly affects the system resolution, sensitivity fall-off, maximum imaging depth, SNR and in general the system performance. This study demonstrates the design steps and some considerations during the design of a spectrometer. The imaging performance of this design is assessed. The obtained experimental results prove an improvement of the overall performance of the common path SD-OCT imaging system and agree with the expected outcome from the design stage.

  16. Short-duration low-gravity experiments - Time scales, challenges and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    Short-duration low-gravity experiments can be conducted either in drop tubes and drop towers, or on sounding rockets and aircraft on ballistic trajectories. While these facilities offer more frequent flight opportunities and higher cost effectiveness than orbiting spacecraft, their relatively short low-gravity times are often perceived as limiting their utility to only a narrow range of applications and research areas. In this review it is shown, based on scaling laws for diffusive transport of momentum, species and heat, radiative heat transfer and capillarity-driven motion, that with proper consideration of the characteristic length scales, a host of phenomena can be meaningfully investigated during a few seconds. This usefulness of short-duration low-gravity facilities is illustrated with numerous results of recent studies of solidification, combustion, transport in multiphase systems, statics and dynamics of liquid surfaces, magnetic Benard convection, fluid management, transport properties and the graviperception in cells.

  17. Measurement of the Soret coefficients for a ternary hydrocarbon mixture in low gravity environment.

    PubMed

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Varenbergh, S Van; Saghir, M Ziad

    2013-05-28

    While the Soret coefficients of binary mixtures have been widely measured in the past, here we report the first measurement of the Soret coefficient of a ternary mixture in a low gravity environment on board the International Space Station. The sample was contained in a 10 mm × 10 mm × 5 mm (w, l, h) cell and was monitored by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at two wavelengths. The analyzed sample was a mixture of tetrahydronaphthalene, isobutylbenzene, and dodecane at the weight fraction of 0.1∕0.8∕0.1. While the lateral walls of the cell did not possess complete thermal isolation, the separation of the components in the central region of the cavity was comparable to purely diffusive behavior. The same experimental parameters have been monitored in Run7 and Run12 of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion and Soret Coefficient experiment in order to verify the accuracy of the setup. The similarity of the results demonstrates the repeatability of thermodiffusion experiments in a microgravity environment. There was nearly equal separation of the tetrahydronaphthalene and isobutylbenzene components in opposite directions, while dodecane experienced a weak separation in the same direction as isobutylbenzene. Finally, Fourier image processing and calculations of the transient separation of the components were used to analyze the heat transfer in the system and to measure the Soret coefficients for this ternary mixture. The successful measurements shown in this work can serve as the standard for ground experiments and for numerical modeling of hydrocarbon mixtures. PMID:23742467

  18. Spectral and temporal properties of optical signals with multiple sinusoidal phase modulations.

    PubMed

    Dorrer, C

    2014-02-10

    Optical signals generated by multiple sinusoidal temporal phase modulations (multi-FMs) applied to a monochromatic field are studied from the viewpoint of their optical spectrum and temporal modulations arising from spectral impairments. Statistical analysis based on the central limit theorem shows that the signals' optical spectrum converges to a normal distribution as the number of modulations increases, allowing one to predict the frequency range containing a given fraction of the total energy with the associated cumulative density function. The conversion of frequency modulation to amplitude modulation is analyzed and simulated for arbitrary multi-FM signals. These developments are of theoretical and practical importance for high-energy laser systems, where optical pulses are phase modulated in the front end to smooth out the on-target beam profile and prevent potentially catastrophic damage to optical components. PMID:24663283

  19. A numerical solution for thermoacoustic convection of fluids in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Bourgeois, S. V., Jr.; Fan, C.; Grodzka, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    A finite difference numerical technique for solving the differential equations which describe thermal convection of compressible fluids in low gravity are reported. Results of one-dimensional calculations are presented, and comparisons are made to previous solutions. The primary result presented is a one-dimensional radial model of the Apollo 14 heat flow and convection demonstration flight experiment. The numerical calculations show that thermally induced convective motion in a confined fluid can have significant effects on heat transfer in a low gravity environment.

  20. Low-gravity solidification of cast iron and space technology applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of analyses relating to cast iron solidification were conducted. A theoretical analysis using a computer to predict the cooling versus time relationship throughout the test specimen was performed. Tests were also conducted in a ground-based laboratory to generate a cooling time curve for cast iron. In addition, cast iron was cooled through the solidification period on a KC-135 and an F-104 aircraft while these aircraft were going through a period of low gravity. Future subjects for low gravity tests are enumerated.

  1. Spectral-Reflectance Linear Models for Optical Color-Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, Juan L.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Valero, Eva; Romero, Javier

    2004-03-01

    We propose a new method of color-pattern recognition by optical correlation that uses a linear description of spectral reflectance functions and the spectral power distribution of illuminants that contains few parameters. We report on a method of preprocessing color input scenes in which the spectral functions are derived from linear models based on principal-component analysis. This multichannel algorithm transforms the red-green-blue (RGB) components into a new set of components that permit a generalization of the matched filter operations that are usually applied in optical pattern recognition with more-stable results under changes in illumination in the source images. The correlation is made in the subspace spanned by the coefficients that describe all reflectances according to a suitable basis for linear representation. First we illustrate the method in a control experiment in which the scenes are captured under known conditions of illumination. The discrimination capability of the algorithm improves upon the conventional RGB multichannel decomposition used in optical correlators when scenes are captured under different illuminant conditions and is slightly better than color recognition based on uniform color spaces (e.g., the CIELab system). Then we test the coefficient method in situations in which the target is captured under a reference illuminant and the scene that contains the target under an unknown spectrally different illuminant. We show that the method prevents false alarms caused by changes in the illuminant and that only two coefficients suffice to discriminate polychromatic objects.

  2. A Simple Optical Model Well Explains Plasmonic-Nanoparticle-Enhanced Spectral Photocurrent in Optically Thin Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-12-01

    A simple optical model for photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic metal nanoparticles atop solar cells has been developed. Our model deals with the absorption, reflection, and scattering of incident sunlight as well as radiation efficiencies on metallic nanoparticles. Our calculation results satisfactorily reproduce a series of experimental spectral data for optically thin GaAs solar cells with Ag and Al nanoparticles of various dimensions, demonstrating the validity of our modeling approach. Our model is likely to be a powerful tool for investigations of surface plasmon-enhanced thin-film solar cells. PMID:27142874

  3. A Simple Optical Model Well Explains Plasmonic-Nanoparticle-Enhanced Spectral Photocurrent in Optically Thin Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-05-01

    A simple optical model for photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic metal nanoparticles atop solar cells has been developed. Our model deals with the absorption, reflection, and scattering of incident sunlight as well as radiation efficiencies on metallic nanoparticles. Our calculation results satisfactorily reproduce a series of experimental spectral data for optically thin GaAs solar cells with Ag and Al nanoparticles of various dimensions, demonstrating the validity of our modeling approach. Our model is likely to be a powerful tool for investigations of surface plasmon-enhanced thin-film solar cells.

  4. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Joseph D.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Tye, Logan A.; Majeau, Lucas; Godbout, Nicolas; Rollins, Andrew M.; Boudoux, Caroline; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) benefit clinical diagnostic imaging in ophthalmology by enabling in vivo noninvasive en face and volumetric visualization of retinal structures, respectively. Spectrally encoding methods enable confocal imaging through fiber optics and reduces system complexity. Previous applications in ophthalmic imaging include spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SECSLO) and a combined SECSLO-OCT system for image guidance, tracking, and registration. However, spectrally encoded imaging suffers from speckle noise because each spectrally encoded channel is effectively monochromatic. Here, we demonstrate in vivo human retinal imaging using a swept source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscope and OCT (SSSESLO- OCT) at 1060 nm. SS-SESLO-OCT uses a shared 100 kHz Axsun swept source, shared scanner and imaging optics, and are detected simultaneously on a shared, dual channel high-speed digitizer. SESLO illumination and detection was performed using the single mode core and multimode inner cladding of a double clad fiber coupler, respectively, to preserve lateral resolution while improving collection efficiency and reducing speckle contrast at the expense of confocality. Concurrent en face SESLO and cross-sectional OCT images were acquired with 1376 x 500 pixels at 200 frames-per-second. Our system design is compact and uses a shared light source, imaging optics, and digitizer, which reduces overall system complexity and ensures inherent co-registration between SESLO and OCT FOVs. En face SESLO images acquired concurrent with OCT cross-sections enables lateral motion tracking and three-dimensional volume registration with broad applications in multivolume OCT averaging, image mosaicking, and intraoperative instrument tracking.

  5. Study on spectrally agile staring sensor using acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Zhang, Minghui

    1992-08-01

    The spectrally agile staring sensor (SASS) is an instrument system that is able to get image and spectrum information. This paper analyzes the expression of signal-to-noise ratio and overall performance of the SASS system that uses an acousto-optic tunable filter as its spectral filter, and points out improving methods and limiting factors of the system performance. The complete SASS system experimental set-up is constructed. Using this set-up, the theory is verified, and the image and spectrum information of the simulated target is acquired.

  6. Remote Fourier transform-infrared spectral imaging system with hollow-optical fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhui; Kino, Saiko; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2012-10-10

    A spectral imaging system consisting of a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer, a high-speed infrared camera, and a bundle of hollow-optical fibers transmitting infrared radiation images was constructed. Infrared transmission spectra were obtained by carefully processing multiple interferograms taken by high-speed photography. Infrared spectral images of a variety of samples captured by the system were measured. We successfully detected existence maps of the oil and fat of biological samples by mapping the transmission of specific wavelengths in the spectrum. PMID:23052066

  7. 10 Gbit/s optical wavelength converter with a Brillouin scattering-based spectral filter.

    PubMed

    Granot, Er'el; Sternklar, Shmuel; Chayet, Haim; Ben-Ezra, Shalva; Narkiss, Niv; Shahar, Nir; Sher, Arieh; Tsadka, Sagie

    2005-08-10

    For the first time, to our knowledge, a highly robust, high-bit-rate (10 Gbit/s) wavelength converter that is based on a narrow Brillouin filter is reported. The conversion takes place in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in a cross-gain-phase process. The SOA operates in a weak-modulation mode, and the exiting signal undergoes a dc reduction with a narrow spectral filter. In our system we perform spectrally narrow filtering by using a long Brillouin grating. PMID:16114535

  8. The optical properties of mouse skin in the visible and near infrared spectral regions.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Caetano P; Deana, Alessandro M; Yoshimura, Tania M; da Silva, Daniela F T; França, Cristiane M; Hamblin, Michael R; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2016-07-01

    Visible and near-infrared radiation is now widely employed in health science and technology. Pre-clinical trials are still essential to allow appropriate translation of optical methods into clinical practice. Our results stress the importance of considering the mouse strain and gender when planning pre-clinical experiments that depend on light-skin interactions. Here, we evaluated the optical properties of depilated albino and pigmented mouse skin using reproducible methods to determine parameters that have wide applicability in biomedical optics. Light penetration depth (δ), absorption (μa), reduced scattering (μ's) and reduced attenuation (μ't) coefficients were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model of photon transport and spectrophotometric measurements. Within a broad wavelength coverage (400-1400nm), the main optical tissue interactions of visible and near infrared radiation could be inferred. Histological analysis was performed to correlate the findings with tissue composition and structure. Disperse melanin granules present in depilated pigmented mouse skin were shown to be irrelevant for light absorption. Gender mostly affected optical properties in the visible range due to variations in blood and abundance of dense connective tissue. On the other hand, mouse strains could produce more variations in the hydration level of skin, leading to changes in absorption in the infrared spectral region. A spectral region of minimal light attenuation, commonly referred as the "optical window", was observed between 600 and 1350nm. PMID:27101274

  9. Spectral and temporal phase measurement by optical frequency-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robillart, Bruno; Calò, Cosimo; Fall, Abdoulaye; Lamare, François; Gottesman, Yaneck; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine

    2014-03-01

    The capability of measuring the spectral and temporal phase of an optical signal is of fundamental importance for the advanced characterization of photonic and optoelectronic components, biochemical sensors, structural monitoring sensors and distributed sensor networks. To address this problem, several techniques have been developed (frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER), stepped-heterodyne technique, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) and Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT)). However, such techniques often lack of versatility for the mentioned applications. Swept-wavelength interferometric techniques and, among these, optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) are flexible and highly sensitive tools for complete characterization of amplitude and phase of target devices. In this work, we investigate the spectral and temporal phase measurement capabilities of OFDR. Precise characterization of spectral phase information is demonstrated by retrieving the phase response of a commercial optical filter, the Finisar Waveshaper 1000 S/X, programmable in attenuation and phase over C+L band (1530- 1625 nm). The presented results show accurate retrieval of group delay dispersion (GDD) and discrete phase shift as well as filter attenuation profile. Although some intrinsic accuracy limitations of OFDR phase measurements may be encountered (and herein specified), we show that information encoded in OFDR reflectogram data is very rich when adequately exploited. In addition to previously published results, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of the technique to Doppler effects. From practical point of view, such sensitivity can be beneficially exploited for the characterisation of dynamical aspects of samples under test. Unlike LDV, OFDR allows the simultaneous retrieval of the temporal position of several localised reflecting target along the beam path. All these aspects make OFDR a highly

  10. Retrieval and analysis of a polarized high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Huang, Hanlu; Zhang, Bo; Ling, Tong; Shen, Yibing

    2013-06-01

    Taking advantage of the broad spectrum of the Cabannes-Brillouin scatter from atmospheric molecules, the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique employs a narrow spectral filter to separate the aerosol and molecular scattering components in the lidar return signals and therefore can obtain the aerosol optical properties as well as the lidar ratio (i.e., the extinction-to-backscatter ratio) which is normally selected or modeled in traditional backscatter lidars. A polarized HSRL instrument, which employs an interferometric spectral filter, is under development at the Zhejiang University (ZJU), China. In this paper, the theoretical basis to retrieve the aerosol lidar ratio, depolarization ratio and extinction and backscatter coefficients, is presented. Error analyses and sensitivity studies have been carried out on the spectral transmittance characteristics of the spectral filter. The result shows that a filter that has as small aerosol transmittance (i.e., large aerosol rejection rate) and large molecular transmittance as possible is desirable. To achieve accurate retrieval, the transmittance of the spectral filter for molecular and aerosol scattering signals should be well characterized. PMID:23736562

  11. Small Scale Impacts as trigger for an avalanche in a low gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Marc; Sierks, Holger; Blum, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft was launched in 2004 and will rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. On its route towards the comet, it flew by asteroid (21) Lutetia on 10 July 2010, with a closest approach distance of 3170 km. OSIRIS - the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System on board Rosetta [1] - took 462 images of Lutetia, using 21 broad- and narrowband filters covering a wavelength range from 240 to 1000 nm [2]. The surface of Lutetia is covered with a thick layer of regolith. On slopes of several craters this regolith layer collapsed in landslide like events. A possible trigger mechanism for these low-gravity avalanches is the impact of a small mm to cm-sized body. We conducted an experiment where samples of different granular materials were tilted at different angles with respect to the vector of gravity. We accelerated a small mm-sized metal sphere to velocities up to 1.5 m/s and shot it into the sloped granular material. The impacts and any events triggered by the impact were recorded using a high-speed high-resolution camera. The experiment was implemented at the center of applied space technology and microgravity (ZARM) vacuum drop tower in Bremen in August 2012. The experiment was placed in an evacuated cylinder and mounted on a centrifuge that was spun with varying rotation rates to accommodate the vacuum and low gravity present on the surfaces of asteroids. A total of 20 experiments as described above were realized during 10 drops. The tilt angle and the magnitude of artificial gravity were varied for two different materials, a ground HED meteorite and the JSC MARS-1 Martian soil simulant. Additional ground-based experiments in 1g environment were conducted at a later time. We analyzed the images using an image subtraction algorithm to track movement from one frame to the next. In subsequent steps we observed the behavior of the material on the surface as well as in deeper layers to characterize

  12. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images

    PubMed Central

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the “non-progressing” and “progressing” glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection. PMID:25606299

  13. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.

  14. Real-time and static in vivo ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2004-07-01

    Fast Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) technique is used to perform cross sectional and three-dimensional ophthalmic images. Static, real-time and 3-D in vivo images of the human cornea, lens, iris, corneo-scleral junction, retinal layers, optic disc and macula lutea are presented. The ophthalmic application of SOCT is promising because this technique ensures fast acquisition with relatively low optical power of incident light. All demonstrated images are obtained with the aid of SOCT instrument, which was constructed in the optical laboratory of medical physics group at Nicolaus Copernicus University (Torun, Poland). What is to our knowledge there are the first good quality (>90dB sensitivity) ophthalmic OCT images obtained by technique, which is different than time domain OCT.

  15. Spectroscopic OCT by Grating-Based Temporal Correlation Coupled to Optical Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Froehly, L.; Ouadour, M.; Furfaro, L.; Sandoz, P.; Leproux, P.; Huss, G.; Couderc, V.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (spectroscopic OCT) is an echographic-like optical method for biomedical functional imaging. Current spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods rely on a posteriori numerical calculation. We present an alternative for optically accessing the spectroscopic information in OCT, that is, without postprocessing, by using a grating-based correlation and a wavelength demultiplexing system. Spectrally resolved A-scan is directly recorded on the image sensor. Due to the grating-based system, no correlation scan is necessary. The signal is registered in the wavelength-depth plane on a 2D camera that provides a large number of resolved points. In the frame of this paper, we present the principle of the system as well as demonstration results. Advantages and drawback of this system compared to others are discussed. PMID:18385813

  16. Improving image quality in intensity-interferometric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Intensity-interferometric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (I-SD-OCT), devised recently as a classical analog of quantum OCT, enables axially scanless cross-sectional imaging with an immunity to group-velocity dispersion and a factor-of-\\sqrt{2} resolution improvement. However, unwanted artifacts inevitably emerge in the resultant image. In this paper, it is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that such artifacts can be reduced without any difficulty by means of either a mechanical displacement of the detector for capturing spectral intensity patterns or a numerical displacement of the spectral intensity patterns stored in a computer. Furthermore, it is proved that the I-SD-OCT signal can be extracted from the conventional SD-OCT setup under a certain condition. These two features serve to improve the image quality in I-SD-OCT.

  17. In-vivo full depth of eye imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Cuixia; Zhou, Chuanqing; Jiao, Shuliang; Xi, Peng; Ren, Qiushi

    2011-09-01

    It is necessary to apply the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to image the whole eye segment for practically iatrical application, but the imaging depth of SD-OCT is limited by the spectral resolution of the spectrometer. By now, no result about this research has been reported. In our study, a new dual channel dual focus OCT system is adopted to image the whole eye segment. The cornea and the crystalline lens are simultaneously imaged by using full range complex spectral-domain OCT in one channel, the retina is detected by the other. The new system was successfully tested in imaging of the volunteer' eye in vivo. The preliminary results presented in this paper demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  18. Predictive simulation of gait at low gravity reveals skipping as the preferred locomotion strategy.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Marko; van den Bogert, Antonie J

    2012-04-30

    The investigation of gait strategies at low gravity environments gained momentum recently as manned missions to the Moon and to Mars are reconsidered. Although reports by astronauts of the Apollo missions indicate alternative gait strategies might be favored on the Moon, computational simulations and experimental investigations have been almost exclusively limited to the study of either walking or running, the locomotion modes preferred under Earth's gravity. In order to investigate the gait strategies likely to be favored at low gravity a series of predictive, computational simulations of gait are performed using a physiological model of the musculoskeletal system, without assuming any particular type of gait. A computationally efficient optimization strategy is utilized allowing for multiple simulations. The results reveal skipping as more efficient and less fatiguing than walking or running and suggest the existence of a walk-skip rather than a walk-run transition at low gravity. The results are expected to serve as a background to the design of experimental investigations of gait under simulated low gravity. PMID:22365845

  19. (sup 4)He Experiments Near T(sub lambda) in a Low-Gravity Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Larson, M.; Israelsson, U.

    1998-01-01

    We report on our latest measurements of gravity reduction in the low-gravity simulator. We made these measurements using a new thermal conductivity cell design that is 0.5cm in diameter and 0.5cm in height.

  20. Predictive simulation of gait at low gravity reveals skipping as the preferred locomotion strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Marko; van den Bogert, Antonie J.

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of gait strategies at low gravity environments gained momentum recently as manned missions to the Moon and to Mars are reconsidered. Although reports by astronauts of the Apollo missions indicate alternative gait strategies might be favored on the Moon, computational simulations and experimental investigations have been almost exclusively limited to the study of either walking or running, the locomotion modes preferred under Earth's gravity. In order to investigate the gait strategies likely to be favored at low gravity a series of predictive, computational simulations of gait are performed using a physiological model of the musculoskeletal system, without assuming any particular type of gait. A computationally efficient optimization strategy is utilized allowing for multiple simulations. The results reveal skipping as more efficient and less fatiguing than walking or running and suggest the existence of a walk-skip rather than a walk-run transition at low gravity. The results are expected to serve as a background to the design of experimental investigations of gait under simulated low gravity. PMID:22365845

  1. Effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation (L-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suda, Tatsuo

    1993-01-01

    Recently, attention has been focused on the disorders of bone and calcium metabolism during space flight. The skeletal system has evolved on the Earth under 1-g. Space flights under low gravity appear to cause substantial changes in bone and calcium homeostasis of the animals adapted to 1-g. A space experiment for the First Materials Processing Test (FMPT) was proposed to examine the effects of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation using chick embryos loaded in a space shuttle. This space experiment was proposed based on the following two experimental findings. First, it has been reported that bone density decreases significantly during prolonged space flight. The data obtained from the US Skylab and the U.S.S.R. Salyut-6 cosmonauts have also documented that the degree of bone loss is related to the duration of space flight. Second, the US-Soviet joints space experiment demonstrated that the decrease in bone density under low gravity appears to be due to the decrease in bone formation rather than the increase in bone resorption. The purpose of our space experiment is, therefore, to investigate further the mechanisms of bone growth under low gravity using fertilized chick embryos.

  2. Secondary arm coarsening and microsegregation in superalloy PWA-1480 single crystals: Effect of low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Lee, J. E.; Curreri, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Single crystal specimens of nickel base superalloy PWA-1480 were directionally solidified on ground and during low gravity (20 sec) and high gravity (90 sec) parabolic maneuver of KC-135 aircraft. Thermal profiles were measured during solidification by two in-situ thermocouples positioned along the sample length. The samples were quenched during either high or low gravity cycles so as to freeze the structures of the mushy zone developing under different gravity levels. Microsegregation was measured by examining the solutal profiles on several transverse cross-sections across primary dendrites along their length in the quenched mushy zone. Effect of gravity level on secondary arm coarsening kinetics and microsegregation have been investigated. The results indicate that there is no appreciable difference in the microsegregation and coarsening kinetics behavior in the specimens grown under high or low gravity. This suggests that short duration changes in gravity/levels (0.02 to 1.7 g) do not influence convection in the interdendritic region. Examination of the role of natural convection, in the melt near the primary dendrite tips, on secondary arm spacings requires low gravity periods longer than presently available on KC-135. Secondary arm coarsening kinetics show a reasonable fit with the predictions from a simple analytical model proposed by Kirkwood for a binary alloy.

  3. Advantages of ice crystal growth experiments in a low gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.; Hallett, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of convective fluid motions and mechanical supports on ice crystal growth in experiments conducted on earth can be inferred from studies conducted in their absence in a low-gravity environment. Current experimental results indicate the effects may be significant.

  4. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Jamison, S. P.; Lefevre, T.; Gillespie, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding (EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  5. Leaf Optical Properties in Higher Plants: Linking Spectral Characteristics with Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Knapp, Alan K.

    1999-01-01

    A number of studies have addressed responses of leaf spectral reflectance, transmittance, or absorptance to physiological stress. Stressors included dehydration, ozone, herbicides, disease, insufficient mycorrhizae and N fertilization, flooding and insects. Species included conifers, grasses, and broadleaved trees. Increased reflectance with maximum responses near 700 nm wavelength occurred in all cases. Varying the chlorophyll content in leaves or pigment extracts can simulate this effect. Thus, common optical responses to stress result from decreases in leaf chlorophyll contents or the capacity of chloroplasts to absorb light. Leaf optic can be quite sensitive to any stressor that alters soil-plant-atmosphere processes.

  6. 80 GHz waveform generated by the optical Fourier synthesis of four spectral sidebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatome, Julien; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Using the linear phase shaping of a simple four-line optical frequency comb, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of various optical waveforms such as parabolic, triangular or flat-top pulse trains at a repetition rate of 80 GHz. The initial 80 GHz comb is obtained through the nonlinear spectral broadening of a 40 GHz carrier-suppressed sinusoidal beating in a highly nonlinear fiber. Proof-of-principle experiments are reported for two distinct configurations of the waveform generated: continuous trains and bunches of shaped pulses.

  7. Direct optical imaging of graphene in vitro by nonlinear femtosecond laser spectral reshaping.

    PubMed

    Li, Baolei; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Yi, Congwen; Brown, April S; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S

    2012-11-14

    Nonlinear optical microscopy, based on femtosecond laser spectral reshaping, characterized and imaged graphene samples made from different methods, both on slides and in a biological environment. This technique clearly discriminates between graphene flakes with different numbers of layers and reveals the distinct nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide as compared to mechanically exfoliated or chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The nonlinearity makes it applicable to scattering samples (such as tissue) as opposed to previous methods, such as transmission. This was demonstrated by high-resolution imaging of breast cancer cells incubated with graphene flakes. PMID:23101475

  8. Spectrally-efficient all-optical OFDM by WSS and AWG.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, J; Morosi, J; Shimizu, S; Martelli, P; Boffi, P; Wada, N; Cincotti, G

    2015-05-01

    We report on the transmission experiment of seven 12.5-GHz spaced all optical-orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (AO-OFDM) subcarriers over a 35-km fiber link, using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) modulation and direct detection. The system does not require chromatic dispersion compensation, optical time gating at the receiver (RX) or cyclic prefix (CP), achieving the maximum spectral efficiency. We use a wavelength selective switch (WSS) at the transmitter (TX) to allow subcarrier assignment flexibility and optimal filter shaping; an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) AO-OFDM demultiplexer is used at the RX, to reduce the system cost and complexity. PMID:25969193

  9. Optical coherence tomography contrast enhancement using spectroscopic analysis with spectral autocorrelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Desmond C.; Ko, Tony H.; Herz, Paul R.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2004-11-01

    Enhanced tissue contrast in developmental biology specimens is demonstrated in vivo using a new type of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography analysis that is insensitive to spectroscopic noise sources. The technique is based on a statistical analysis of spectral modulation at each image pixel, and provides contrast based on both the intensity of the backscattered light and the distribution of scattering particle sizes. Since the technique does not analyze optical power at absolute wavelengths, it is insensitive to all spectroscopic noise that appears as local Doppler shifts. No exogenous contrast agents or dyes are required, and no additional components are needed to correct for reference arm motion.

  10. Intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions in the electron-boson spectral density obtained from optical data

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-01-01

    We investigate temperature smearing effects on the electron-boson spectral density function (I2χ(ω)) obtained from optical data using a maximum entropy inversion method. We start with two simple model input I2χ(ω), calculate the optical scattering rates at selected temperatures using the model input spectral density functions and a generalized Allen’s formula, then extract back I2χ(ω) at each temperature from the calculated optical scattering rate using the maximum entropy method (MEM) which has been used for analysis of optical data of high-temperature superconductors including cuprates, and finally compare the resulting I2χ(ω) with the input ones. From this approach we find that the inversion process can recover the input I2χ(ω) almost perfectly when the quality of fits is good enough and also temperature smearing (or thermal broadening) effects appear in the I2χ(ω) when the quality of fits is not good enough. We found that the coupling constant and the logarithmically averaged frequency are robust to the temperature smearing effects and/or the quality of fits. We use these robust properties of the two quantities as criterions to check whether experimental data have intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions or not. We carefully apply the MEM to two material systems (one optimally doped and the other underdoped cuprates) and conclude that the I2χ(ω) extracted from the optical data contain intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions. PMID:27029840

  11. Simple, monolithic optical element for forward-viewing spectrally encoded endoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Dukho; Kang, Dongkyun; Ikuta, Mitsuhiro; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a miniature endoscopic technology that can acquire images of internal organs through a hair-thin probe. While most previously described SEE probes have been side viewing, forward-view (FV)-SEE is advantageous in certain clinical applications as it provides more natural navigation of the probe and has the potential to provide a wider field of view. Prior implementations of FV-SEE used multiple optical elements that increase fabrication complexity and may diminish the robustness of the device. In this paper, we present a new design that uses a monolithic optical element to realize FV-SEE imaging. The optical element is specially designed spacer, fabricated from a 500-μm-glass rod that has a mirror surface on one side and a grating stamped on its distal end. The mirror surface is used to change the incident angle on the grating to diffract the shortest wavelength of the spectrum so that it is parallel to the optical axis. Rotating the SEE optics creates a circular FV-SEE image. Custom-designed software processes FV-SEE images into circular images, which are displayed in real-time. In order to demonstrate this new design, we have constructed the FV-SEE optical element using a 1379 lines/mm diffraction grating. When illuminated with a source with a spectral bandwidth of 420-820 nm, the FV-SEE optical element provides 678 resolvable points per line. The imaging performance of the FV-SEE device was tested by imaging a USAF resolution target. SEE images showed that this new approach generates high quality images in the forward field with a field of view of 58°. Results from this preliminary study demonstrate that we can realize FV-SEE imaging with simple, monolithic, miniature optical element. The characteristics of this FV-SEE configuration will facilitate the development of robust miniature endoscopes for a variety of medical imaging applications.

  12. Optimisation of the diffractive optical element for snapshot spectral imaging used in fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, R.; Arnold, T.; De Biasio, M.; McGunnigle, G.; Rogojanu, R.; Steiner, G. E.; Hermerschmidt, A.

    2012-03-01

    Snapshot approaches address various possibilities to acquire the spectral and spatial information of a scene within a single camera frame. One advantage over the classical push broom or staring imager approaches is that the temporal inconsistency between consecutive scan lines in first case or between the acquired monochromatic images in the second case is avoided. However, this has to be paid by some effort to rearrange or reconstruct the explicit spectral cube from the entangled raw data in the single camera frame. Besides others, the utilization of a diffractive optical element (DOE) is one such snapshot approach (CTIS - computed tomography imaging spectrometer). The DOE is used to create an optical transfer function that projects both the spectral and spatial information of a scene onto a sensor array and a reconstruction algorithm is used that recovers the spectral cube from the dispersed image pattern. The design of the DOE is crucial for the overall system performance as the absolute transmission efficiency of the zeroth and first order versus the relative efficiency between the two over the required wavelength range are difficult to optimize if the limited dynamic range of a real camera is considered. We describe the optimization of such a DOE for the wavelength range from 400 to 780nm and the required reconstruction algorithm to recover the spectral cube from the entangled snapshot image. The described snapshot approach has been evaluated using experiments to assess the spatial and spectral resolution using diffuse reflectance standards. Additionally the results achieved using the described setup for multi-color in-situ fluorescence hybridized preparations (M-FISH) are discussed.

  13. Sufficient conditions for the avoidance of spectral dispersion in optical prisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2016-07-01

    Prisms are common optical elements consisting of only flat boundary surfaces. Two conditions need to be fulfilled to avoid chromatic aberration for a prism, namely, no mutual image tilt and no mutual image shift for different wavelengths. Mutual image tilt occurs when the unit directional vector of the exit ray varies as a function of the prism's refractive index, resulting in spectral dispersion. In a previous study by the present group [Appl. Opt.45, 3951 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.003951], it was shown that when the rays enter and exit a prism perpendicularly, image reorientation is achieved without spectral dispersion. The present study derives a further sufficient condition to avoid spectral dispersion caused by refraction. The condition explains the ability of Dove prisms and solid glass corner cubes to produce the required image orientation even when the entrance and exit rays are not normal to the respective boundary surfaces. In general, the proposed condition provides a useful analytical guideline for avoiding spectral dispersion in a wide variety of optical systems. PMID:27409681

  14. Ultrafast measurements of optical spectral coherence by single-shot time-stretch interferometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhibo; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    The palette of laser technology has significantly been enriched by the innovations in ultrafast optical pulse generation. Our knowledge of the complex pulse dynamics, which is often highly nonlinear and stochastic in nature, is however limited by the scarcity of technologies that can measure fast variation/fluctuation of the spectral phase (or coherence) and amplitude in real-time, continuously. To achieve this goal, we demonstrate ultrafast interferometry enabled by optical time-stretch for real- time spectral coherence characterization with microsecond-resolution. Accessing the single-shot interferograms continuously, it further reveals the degree of second-order coherence, defined by the cross-spectral density function, at high speed-a capability absent in any existing spectroscopic measurement tools. As the technique can simultaneously measure both the high-speed variations of spectrally resolved coherence and intensity, time-stretch interferometry could create a new arena for ultrafast pulse characterization, especially favorable for probing and understanding the non-repetitive or stochastic dynamics in real-time. PMID:27295560

  15. Spread function of acousto-optic filter with high-speed spectral image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorin, Anatoly S.; Nemtchenko, Andrei S.

    1998-08-01

    The contradictory requirements are presented to acousto- optic tunable filters (AOF) of spectral image analysis. On the one hand AOF should have high speed. On the other hand it should have good spectral resolution and wide angular aperture. Thus when AOF is fastly tuned with chirp transients, the diffracted wave intensity at different moments of transient process can considerably diverge form its quasistatic level. It means that spread function (SF) depends on the velocity of frequency tuning, i.e., it is described by 2D function with variables - wave length and velocity of frequency tuning. In Cartesian frame this dependence is presented by some surface being dynamic SF (DSF). It characterizes speed and selectivity properties of AOF. In this work DCF mathematical model was constructed and basic properties of spectral image analysis AOF were investigated. It has been established that the greatest distortions of DSF occur if velocity of frequency tuning has exceeded some critical value connected with acousto-optic interaction geometry and aperture sizes of beams. In this case the side lobes of SF will make 'false' maxima which begin to prevail over the basic. In addition under the conditions of phase mismatch DSF loses the symmetry to position of the main maximum. These effects reduce the accuracy of spectral measurements when tuning velocity is high.

  16. Ultrafast measurements of optical spectral coherence by single-shot time-stretch interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhibo; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    The palette of laser technology has significantly been enriched by the innovations in ultrafast optical pulse generation. Our knowledge of the complex pulse dynamics, which is often highly nonlinear and stochastic in nature, is however limited by the scarcity of technologies that can measure fast variation/fluctuation of the spectral phase (or coherence) and amplitude in real-time, continuously. To achieve this goal, we demonstrate ultrafast interferometry enabled by optical time-stretch for real- time spectral coherence characterization with microsecond-resolution. Accessing the single-shot interferograms continuously, it further reveals the degree of second-order coherence, defined by the cross-spectral density function, at high speed-a capability absent in any existing spectroscopic measurement tools. As the technique can simultaneously measure both the high-speed variations of spectrally resolved coherence and intensity, time-stretch interferometry could create a new arena for ultrafast pulse characterization, especially favorable for probing and understanding the non-repetitive or stochastic dynamics in real-time. PMID:27295560

  17. Ultrafast measurements of optical spectral coherence by single-shot time-stretch interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhibo; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-06-01

    The palette of laser technology has significantly been enriched by the innovations in ultrafast optical pulse generation. Our knowledge of the complex pulse dynamics, which is often highly nonlinear and stochastic in nature, is however limited by the scarcity of technologies that can measure fast variation/fluctuation of the spectral phase (or coherence) and amplitude in real-time, continuously. To achieve this goal, we demonstrate ultrafast interferometry enabled by optical time-stretch for real- time spectral coherence characterization with microsecond-resolution. Accessing the single-shot interferograms continuously, it further reveals the degree of second-order coherence, defined by the cross-spectral density function, at high speed-a capability absent in any existing spectroscopic measurement tools. As the technique can simultaneously measure both the high-speed variations of spectrally resolved coherence and intensity, time-stretch interferometry could create a new arena for ultrafast pulse characterization, especially favorable for probing and understanding the non-repetitive or stochastic dynamics in real-time.

  18. Features of aerosol spectral optical depth at a tropical urban environment at Pune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aher, G. R.; Shantikumar Singh, N.; Agashe, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The authors used a sun-tracking multiple wavelength radiometer to study characteristics of atmospheric aerosols from Pune University campus. The study shows that there is a strong influence of weather parameters like relative humidity and surface wind and atmospheric boundary layer processes such as capped inversion and upper air circulation on the temporal variation of the aerosol spectral optical depth. These are described in the paper.

  19. SPECTRAL OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Ark 564

    SciTech Connect

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N.; Popovic, L. C.; Kovacevic, J.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ilic, D.; Kovacevic, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Mercado, A.; Benitez, E.; Dultzin, D.; De la Fuente, E.

    2012-09-15

    We present the results of a long-term (1999-2010) spectral optical monitoring campaign of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) Ark 564, which shows a strong Fe II line emission in the optical. This AGN is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy, a group of AGNs with specific spectral characteristics. We analyze the light curves of the permitted H{alpha}, H{beta}, optical Fe II line fluxes, and the continuum flux in order to search for a time lag between them. Additionally, in order to estimate the contribution of iron lines from different multiplets, we fit the H{beta} and Fe II lines with a sum of Gaussian components. We find that during the monitoring period the spectral variation (F{sub max}/F{sub min}) of Ark 564 is between 1.5 for H{alpha} and 1.8 for the Fe II lines. The correlation between the Fe II and H{beta} flux variations is of higher significance than that of H{alpha} and H{beta} (whose correlation is almost absent). The permitted-line profiles are Lorentzian-like and do not change shape during the monitoring period. We investigate, in detail, the optical Fe II emission and find different degrees of correlation between the Fe II emission arising from different spectral multiplets and the continuum flux. The relatively weak and different degrees of correlations between permitted lines and continuum fluxes indicate a rather complex source of ionization of the broad-line emission region.

  20. Analysis of multimode fiber bundles for endoscopic spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Risi, Matthew D.; Makhlouf, Houssine; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the use of a fiber bundle in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems is presented. The fiber bundle enables a flexible endoscopic design and provides fast, parallelized acquisition of the OCT data. However, the multimode characteristic of the fibers in the fiber bundle affects the depth sensitivity of the imaging system. A description of light interference in a multimode fiber is presented along with numerical simulations and experimental studies to illustrate the theoretical analysis. PMID:25967012

  1. Optical Sensing of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes Combining Spectral Reflectance Indices with Solar Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. K.; Kustas, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Optical sampling of spectral reflectance and solar induced fluorescence provide information on the physiological status of vegetation that can be used to infer stress responses and estimates of production. Multiple repeated observations are required to observe the effects of changing environmental conditions on vegetation. This study examines the use of optical signals to determine inputs to a light use efficiency (LUE) model describing productivity of a cornfield where repeated observations of carbon flux, spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected. Data were collected at the Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE3) fields (39.03°N, 76.85°W) at USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Agricultural Research Service researchers measured CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance methods throughout the growing season. Optical measurements were made from the nearby tower supporting the NASA FUSION sensors. The sensor system consists of two dual channel, upward and downward looking, spectrometers used to simultaneously collect high spectral resolution measurements of reflected and fluoresced light from vegetation canopies. Estimates of chlorophyll fluorescence, combined with measures of vegetation pigment content and the Photosynthetic Reflectance Index (PRI) derived from the spectral reflectance are compared with CO2 fluxes over diurnal periods for multiple days. PRI detects changes in Xanthophyll cycle pigments using reflectance at 531 nm compared to a reference band at 570 nm. The relationships among the different optical measurements indicate that they are providing different types of information on the vegetation and that combinations of these measurements provide improved retrievals of CO2 fluxes than any index alone.

  2. Towards using spectral domain optical coherence tomography for dental wear monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎrcǎuteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topalǎ, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that fast spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging systems have the potential to monitor the evolution of pathological dental wear. On 10 caries free teeth, four levels of artificially defects similar to those observed in the clinic were created. After every level of induced defect, OCT scanning was performed. B-scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated.

  3. Spectrally resolved optical probing of laser induced magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Benny; Deb, Marwan; Popova, Elena; Keller, Niels; Rasing, Theo; Kirilyuk, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The spectrally resolved magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet shows a fluence dependent light induced modification of the magneto-optical Faraday spectrum. It is demonstrated that the relative contributions from the tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites to the Faraday spectrum change due to the impact of the pump pulse. This change explains the observed deviation from a linear dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations on the fluence, as expected for the inverse Faraday effect.

  4. Ultraviolet to optical spectral distributions of northern star-forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquade, Kerry; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    We report spectral energy distribution from the UV to the optical for a sample of 31 northern star-forming galaxies. We also present measurements for emission-line fluxes, continuum levels, and equivalent widths of absorption features for each individual spectrum as well as averages for the eight galactic activity classes, including normal, starburst, Seyfert 2, blue compact dwarf, blue compact, Low-Inonization Nuclear Emission Regions (LINER), H II, and combination LINER-H II galaxies.

  5. Spectrally resolved optical probing of laser induced magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet.

    PubMed

    Koene, Benny; Deb, Marwan; Popova, Elena; Keller, Niels; Rasing, Theo; Kirilyuk, Andrei

    2016-07-13

    The spectrally resolved magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet shows a fluence dependent light induced modification of the magneto-optical Faraday spectrum. It is demonstrated that the relative contributions from the tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites to the Faraday spectrum change due to the impact of the pump pulse. This change explains the observed deviation from a linear dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations on the fluence, as expected for the inverse Faraday effect. PMID:27213266

  6. Optical properties of human colon tissues in the 350 – 2500 nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkatov, A N; Genina, E A; Kochubey, V I; Kolesnikova, E A; Tuchin, V V; Rubtsov, V S

    2014-08-31

    We present the optical characteristics of the mucosa and submucosa of human colon tissue. The experiments are performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 spectrophotometer in the 350 – 2500 nm spectral range. The absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor are calculated based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total and collimated transmittance spectra using the inverse Monte Carlo method. (laser biophotonics)

  7. Simulation of broad spectral bandwidth emitters at 1060 nm for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooley, I. G.; Childs, D. T. D.; Stevens, B. J.; Groom, K. M.; Hogg, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    The simulation of broad spectral bandwidth light sources (semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and superluminescent diodes (SLD)) for application in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography is reported. The device requirements and origin of key device parameters are outlined, and a range of single and double InGaAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) active elements are simulated with a view to application in different OCT embodiments. We confirm that utilising higher order optical transitions is beneficial for single QW SOAs, but may introduce deleterious spectral modulation in SLDs. We show how an addition QW may be introduced to eliminate this spectral modulation, but that this results in a reduction of the gain spectrum width. We go on to explore double QW structures where the roles of the two QWs are reversed, with the narrow QW providing long wavelength emission and gain. We show how this modification in the density of states results in a significant increase in gain-spectrum width for a given current.

  8. Retrieval of high-spectral-resolution lidar for atmospheric aerosol optical properties profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Zhang, Yupeng; Zhou, Yudi; Duan, Lulin; Su, Lin

    2015-10-01

    High-spectral-resolution lidars (HSRLs) are increasingly being developed for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing applications due to the straightforward and independent retrieval of aerosol optical properties without reliance on assumptions about lidar ratio. In HSRL technique, spectral discrimination between scattering from molecules and aerosol particles is one of the most critical processes, which needs to be accomplished by means of a narrowband spectroscopic filter. To ensure a high retrieval accuracy of an HSRL system, the high-quality design of its spectral discrimination filter should be made. This paper reviews the available algorithms that were proposed for HSRLs and makes a general accuracy analysis of the HSRL technique focused on the spectral discrimination, in order to provide heuristic guidelines for the reasonable design of the spectral discrimination filter. We introduce a theoretical model for retrieval error evaluation of an HSRL instrument with general three-channel configuration. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are performed to validate the correctness of the theoretical model. Results from both the model and MC simulations agree very well, and they illustrate one important, although not well realized fact: a large molecular transmittance and a large spectral discrimination ratio (SDR, i.e., ratio of the molecular transmittance to the aerosol transmittance) are beneficial t o promote the retrieval accuracy. The application of the conclusions obtained in this paper in the designing of a new type of spectroscopic filter, that is, the field-widened Michelson interferometer, is illustrated in detail. These works are with certain universality and expected to be useful guidelines for HSRL community, especially when choosing or designing the spectral discrimination filter.

  9. The advanced characterization of aerosol properties from measurements of spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Benjamin; Toledano, Carlos; Dubovik, Oleg; Litvinov, Pavel; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Fuertes, David; Tanre, Didier; Goloub, Phillipe

    The main purpose of the work is to assess the potential of using spectral optical thickness measurement for characterizing aerosol properties. While the use of these measurements is limited to the characterization of aerosol loading in the atmosphere, several studies demonstrated that these observations could be used for deriving more detailed information about aerosol, such as size distribution (King et al. 1978) and for discriminating between the extinction of fine and coarse modes of aerosol (O’Neill 2003). In this study, we test the possibilities of using AERONET inversion (Dubovik and King 2000) for improving the interpretation of measurements of optical thickness. In addition, we study the potential of synergetic scenarios for inverting optical thickness using GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm (Dubovik et al., 2011). This algorithm uses new multi-pixel retrieval approach. According to this approach, the accuracy of aerosol retrieval can be improved if several sets of observations (e.g. observations of satellite over several pixels) are inverted together under additional a priori constraints on time and spatial variability of the retrieved parameters. The application of this approach appears to be promising for the present study. First, the retrieval stability can be improved by inverting more than a single set of spectral aerosol optical depth at once. Second, the set of spectral aerosol optical depth can be inverted together with the radiances observed in the same day. The preliminary results of using simulated data (for different scenarios and aerosol models), as well as, the applications to real data from several AERONET sites will be presented.

  10. Investigation on electro-optic optical comb generation with higher spectral resolution and bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takahide; Morohashi, Isao

    2016-03-01

    With a use of electro-optic modulator based comb generator, ultra-wideband optical comb is stably and flexibly synthesized from a continuous-wave light. Larger modulation depth at a higher repetition rate would proportionally enhance bandwidth of the generated comb. Practically, however, achievable modulation depth is limited by available output power of microwave amplifiers. In addition, the repetition rate, i.e. comb spacing, is determined by system-side requirements. For example, frequency spacing of the generated comb should fit to the wavelength grid of optical fiber networks. Narrower frequency spacing is requested for photonic measurements assisted by advanced electrical signal processing based on low-speed electronics. In this paper, through numerical analysis, we propose and discuss configurations of serially cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulator-based flat comb generators, aiming for optical comb generation satisfying both higher bandwidth and narrower frequency spacing.

  11. The Results of CYG X-1 High-Resolution Optical Spectral Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karitskaya, Eugenia A.

    2007-08-01

    Selected results of optical high-resolution spectral observations 2002-2004 are briefly reviewed. Optical line profile variations were detected during X-ray flare. The comparison of observed and non-LTE model profiles for HI, HeI and MgII is given taking into account tidal distortion of Cyg X-1 optical component and its illumination by X-ray emission of secondary one. We set limits on the optical component main characteristics Teff = 30400±500K, log g = 3.31±0.07 and overabundance of He and C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S, Fe and Zn by using spectra of 2003-2004. The Doppler images were reconstructed by an improved Doppler tomography method on the base of HeII4686A profiles of 2003 (“soft” X-ray state) and 2004 (“hard” X-ray state). It allowed putting a limitation on the black hole to supergiant mass ratio 1/4 < M/MO < 1/3. The photometric and spectral variations point to the supergiant parameters changes on the time scale of tens of years. Line profile non-LTE simulations lead to the conclusion that the star radius has grown about 1-4% from 1997 to 2003-2004 and the temperature decreased by 1300-2400K.

  12. Field Studies of Broadband Aerosol Optical Extinction in the Ultraviolet Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. In the case of brown carbon, its wavelength-dependent absorption in the ultraviolet spectral region has been suggested as an important component of aerosol radiative forcing. We describe a new field instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We deployed this instrument during the Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment during Fall 2012 to measure biomass burning aerosol, and again during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study in summer 2013 to measure organic aerosol in the Southeastern U.S. In both field experiments, we determined aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength and can interpret this together with size distribution and composition measurements to characterize the aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing.

  13. Spectral optical layer properties of cirrus from collocated airborne measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Fanny; Werner, Frank; Klingebiel, Marcus; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Voigt, Matthias; Borrmann, Stephan; Spichtinger, Peter; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Spectral upward and downward solar irradiances from vertically collocated measurements above and below a cirrus layer are used to derive cirrus optical layer properties such as spectral transmissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity, and cloud top albedo. The radiation measurements are complemented by in situ cirrus crystal size distribution measurements and radiative transfer simulations based on the microphysical data. The close collocation of the radiative and microphysical measurements, above, beneath, and inside the cirrus, is accomplished by using a research aircraft (Learjet 35A) in tandem with the towed sensor platform AIRTOSS (AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle). AIRTOSS can be released from and retracted back to the research aircraft by means of a cable up to a distance of 4 km. Data were collected from two field campaigns over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in spring and late summer 2013. One measurement flight over the North Sea proved to be exemplary, and as such the results are used to illustrate the benefits of collocated sampling. The radiative transfer simulations were applied to quantify the impact of cloud particle properties such as crystal shape, effective radius reff, and optical thickness τ on cirrus spectral optical layer properties. Furthermore, the radiative effects of low-level, liquid water (warm) clouds as frequently observed beneath the cirrus are evaluated. They may cause changes in the radiative forcing of the cirrus by a factor of 2. When low-level clouds below the cirrus are not taken into account, the radiative cooling effect (caused by reflection of solar radiation) due to the cirrus in the solar (shortwave) spectral range is significantly overestimated.

  14. Comprehensive Optical Coverage of Jupiter for Spectral Comparison with NH4SH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander E.; Chanover, Nancy; Loeffler, Mark; Hudson, Reggie; Simon, Amy

    2015-11-01

    The distinct regions in Jupiter's atmosphere - comprised of belts, zones, storms, and the Great Red Spot - are thought to be colored by unidentified chemical compounds called chromophores. These molecules, created through Jupiter's complex atmospheric chemistry, may be responsible for the spectral slope and lack of features in the blue (shortwards of 500 nm) portion of Jupiter's optical spectrum. Though many candidate compounds have been proposed - such as ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) - the identity of the coloring agent (or agents) remains elusive due to the sparse history of laboratory experiments conducted at appropriate temperatures and pressures for Jovian conditions. To build on previous ground-based observations of Jupiter in the optical, we have obtained spectra with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph - mounted on the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory - over a wide portion of the visible spectrum (~380-880 nm) by utilizing multiple central wavelength settings. These observations, taken during February, 2013 and April, 2015, cover multiple latitudinal regions on Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot. In this study, we present the spectral comparison of various regions in the Jovian atmosphere with data taken at the Cosmic Ice Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. By exposing thin films of NH4SH to varying amounts of ionizing radiation at Jovian temperature conditions, we can analyze the color and spectral changes of the ice. This enables us to evaluate NH4SH as a candidate chromophore through comparisons of spectral slope and features found in ground-based optical spectra of Jupiter. This work was supported by NASA’s Outer Planets Research Program through grant number NNX12AJ14G.

  15. Longterm optical monitoring of bright BL Lacertae objects with ATOM: Spectral variability and multiwavelength correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzcholska, Alicja; Ostrowski, Michał; Stawarz, Łukasz; Wagner, Stefan; Hauser, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Context. Blazars are the established sources of an intense and variable non-thermal radiation extending from radio wavelengths up to high and very high-energy γ-rays. Understanding the spectral evolution of blazars in selected frequency ranges, as well as multifrequency correlations in various types of blazar sources, is of a primary importance for constraining blazar physics. Aims: We present the results of a long-term optical monitoring of a sample of 30 blazars of the BL Lac type, most of which are the confirmed TeV emitters. We study the optical color-magnitude correlation patterns emerging in the analyzed sample and compare the optical properties of the targets with the high-energy γ-ray and high-frequency radio data. Methods: The optical observations were carried out in R and B filters using the Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM) located at the site of the H.E.S.S. Array. Each object in the sample was observed during at least 20 nights in the period 2007 to 2012. Results: We find significant overall color-magnitude correlations (meaning bluer-when-brighter spectral evolution) in 40% of the sample. The sources that do not display any clear chromatism in the full datasets often do exhibit bluer-when-brighter behavior but only in isolated shorter time intervals. We also discovered spectral state transitions at optical wavelengths in several of the analyzed sources. Finally, we find that the radio, optical, and γ-ray luminosities of the sources in the sample obey almost linear correlations, which seem induced, at least partly, by the redshift dependence and may also be affected by the non-simultaneity of the analyzed multifrequency dataset. Conclusions: We argue that the observed bluer-when-brighter behavior is intrinsic to the jet-emission regions, at least for some of these blazars, rather than resulting from the contamination of the measured flux by the starlight of host galaxies. We also conclude that the significance of color

  16. Generation and spectral manipulation of coherent terahertz radiation with two-stage optical rectification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Lin, Yu-Shian; Huang, Jung Y; Chang, Chen-Shiung; Pan, Ci-Ling; Yan, Li; Lee, Chao-Kuei

    2008-09-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the generation of single-cycle terahertz radiation with two-stage optical rectification in GaSe crystals. By adjusting the time delay between the pump pulses employed to excite the two stages, the terahertz radiation from the second GaSe crystal can constructively superpose with the terahertz field injected from the first stage. The high mutual coherence between the two terahertz radiation fields is ensured with the coherent optical rectification process and can be further used to synthesize a desired spectral profile of coherent THz radiation. The technique is also potentially useful for generating high-power single-cycle terahertz pulses, usually limited by the pulse walk-off effect of the nonlinear optical crystal used. PMID:18773040

  17. Growth, structure, spectral and optical properties of semiorganic crystal: Pyridine-1-ium-2-carboxylatehydrogenbromide.

    PubMed

    Gowri, S; Devi, T Uma; Priya, S; Dilip, C Surendra; Selvanayagam, S; Lawrence, N

    2015-05-15

    Pyridine-1-ium-2-carboxylatehydrogenbromide (PHBr) crystal was grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The calculated lattice parameters of single crystal X-ray diffraction have shown the triclinic crystal system with centrosymmetric space group of Pī. The interaction of functional groups and their importance in their application was identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The material is optically transparent and the grown crystal is having lower cut off wavelength as 294nm, thereby confirming the enhancement of non-linear optical (NLO) property and optical band gap of the PHBr have been determined as 2.49eV by UV-Vis-NIR studies. The (1)H NMR spectrum confirms the molecular structure and the presence of different kinds of protons. PMID:25727296

  18. Polarization-based balanced detection for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Black, Adam J; Akkin, Taner

    2015-08-20

    We present a new design for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography that allows balanced detection using a single camera. The design uses polarization optics to encode the light in reference and sample arms. Two parallel and highly aligned spectra, which carry out-of-phase interference signals, in-phase common noise, and auto-interference terms, are focused on the camera, which performs the digital balanced detection for each wavelength. The optical system is characterized and tested for tissue imaging. Results demonstrate consistent signal gains in depth and suppression of DC and sample auto-interference. The design could be further amended for polarization-sensitive imaging and might demonstrate a market for manufacturing dual-line cameras with analog-balanced detection capability. PMID:26368760

  19. Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2007-06-11

    We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder. PMID:19547055

  20. Optical fiber spectral attenuation measurement by using tunable laser sources to improve accuracy and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seah, Chee Hwee; Zhang, Jing; Xiang, Ning

    2015-07-01

    With reference to the IEC 60793-1-140 international standard of optical fibre measurement methods and test procedures in attenuation, we studied the optical fibre attenuation measurement by cut-back method using tuneable lasers source. By using a power stabilised laser source, we measured the fibre attenuation in the wavelength range from 1270 nm to 1350nm and from 1520 nm to 1620 nm using `cut-back' technique. The power measurement before and after cut-back have better repeatability. Besides, the evaluation of the splicing losses before and after cut-back as well as the evaluation of effective refractive index (Neff) will improve the accuracy in calculating the fibre attenuation. Our method will improve accuracy and reduce uncertainties in the measurement and thus enable us to establish our own optical fibre spectral attenuation standard.

  1. Depth enhancement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using bidirectional imaging modality with a single spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-07-01

    A method for depth enhancement is presented using a bidirectional imaging modality for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Two precisely aligned sample arms along with two reference arms were utilized in the optical configuration to scan the samples. Using exemplary images of the optical resolution target, Scotch tape, a silicon sheet with two needles, and a leaf, we demonstrated how the developed bidirectional SD-OCT imaging method increases the ability to characterize depth-enhanced images. The results of the developed system were validated by comparing the images with the standard OCT configuration (single-sample arm setup). Given the advantages of higher resolution and the ability to visualize deep morphological structures, this method can be utilized to increase the depth dependent fall-off in samples with limited thickness. Thus, the proposed bidirectional imaging modality is apt for cross-sectional imaging of entire samples, which has the potential capability to improve the diagnostic ability.

  2. A spectral analysis of HDE 269445 from optical and infrared observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, A.; Schmutz, W.; Nota, A.; Origlia, L.

    1997-11-01

    We present new, near-IR spectroscopic observations of HDE 269445, which we combine with published HST and IUE ultraviolet data and optical high resolution spectra. We discuss the spectral morphology of the star from UV to near-IR wavelengths, concentrating on profile variations in the UV and optical H and He lines. From a spectroscopic analysis with non-LTE model atmospheres, we derive for HDE 269445: T_*_=34000K, R_*_=43Rsun_, log˙(M)(Msun_/yr)=-4.5 and He/H=0.4/0.6 by number. These parameters are in good agreement with those previously derived by Pasquali et al. (1997ApJ...478..340P) who used only ultraviolet and optical lines. Therefore, our analysis confirms that a combination of optical and infrared lines can be fruitfully used to determine stellar and wind properties when ultraviolet data are not available. Our model calculations only fit the broad component underneath a strong core emission. We interpret the discrepancy between the observed and the model line profiles as the effect of a non-spherical wind which has a hot, fast polar component and a cold, slow equatorial component. The time-variability detected in some H and He lines indicates that the wind geometry may be variable and the star has undergone changes in T_eff_ and ˙(M). These properties are similar to those observed for the galactic LBV AG Carinae by Leitherer et al. (1994ApJ...428..292L) and we may suspect that HDE 269445 is also a Luminous Blue Variable. This could explain why HDE 269445 has defied easy spectral classification, and, although originally classified as a Ofpe/WN9, it has always represented a peculiarity for this spectral type.

  3. Optical design of 400-1000nm spectral imaging system based on a single freeform mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jia; He, Zhiping; Shu, Rong

    2015-10-01

    The imaging spectrometer supplies spectral images in one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions simultaneously. The Offner spectral imaging system was outstanding because of its small volume, light weight, free spectral smile and little keystone. However, the manufacture of the convex grating is a challenge and the cost is high. Here, an optical design of a compact 400-1000nm spectral imaging system using a planar grating based on a single freeform mirror was proposed. The spectrograph was similar with the Offner structure, only the grating is planar. The multi-spectra was split by the planar diffraction grating, and the collimating mirror and the focusing mirror were the same freeform surface by using it twice. The freeform surface was non-rotational symmetry. Its large degree of freedom can correct kinds of aberration, such as astigmatism, smile and keystone. The system has a compact volume as 120×100×100mm3. The entrance slit was 6mm, and the object NA(numerical aperture) was 0.12. The pixel size of the detector was 16μm×16μm, and its resolution was 375(spatial)×400(spectral). The design result showed that image quality close to the diffraction limit has been obtained. The maximums of the keystone and the smile at all working wavelengths in all fields were respectively 1.6μm and 7.5μm, which were both less than half of the pixel size. At last, the tolerance analysis considering manufacture and alignment of the system was done, the result showed that the manufacturability of the existing diamond turning machining technology can satisfy the accuracy need of the freeform mirror.

  4. Prediction of meat spectral patterns based on optical properties and concentrations of the major constituents.

    PubMed

    ElMasry, Gamal; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2016-03-01

    A simulation method for approximating spectral signatures of minced meat samples was developed depending on concentrations and optical properties of the major chemical constituents. Minced beef samples of different compositions scanned on a near-infrared spectroscopy and on a hyperspectral imaging system were examined. Chemical composition determined heuristically and optical properties collected from authenticated references were simulated to approximate samples' spectral signatures. In short-wave infrared range, the resulting spectrum equals the sum of the absorption of three individual absorbers, that is, water, protein, and fat. By assuming homogeneous distributions of the main chromophores in the mince samples, the obtained absorption spectra are found to be a linear combination of the absorption spectra of the major chromophores present in the sample. Results revealed that developed models were good enough to derive spectral signatures of minced meat samples with a reasonable level of robustness of a high agreement index value more than 0.90 and ratio of performance to deviation more than 1.4. PMID:27004116

  5. Multi-spectral optical simulation system applied in hardware-in-the-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Lei, Jie; Gao, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    The Multi-spectral simulation system has been constructed at Beijing Simulation Center (BSC) for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of optical and infrared seekers, in single-band and dual-band, or even multi-band. This multi-spectral simulation facility consists primarily of several projectors and a wide-angular simulation mechanism, the projector technologies utilized at BSC include a broadband point source collimator, a laser echo simulator and a visible scene projection system. These projectors can be used individually with the wide-angular simulation mechanism, or any combination of both or all of three can be used according to different needs. The configuration and performance of each technology are reviewed in the paper. Future plans include two IR imaging projectors which run at high frame frequency. The multi-spectral optical simulation system has been successfully applied for visible and IR imaging seekers testing in HWIL simulation. The laser echo simulator hardware will be applied soon.

  6. The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K. [spectral reflectance measurement of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the IR spectral reflectance at near-normal incidence of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of 75% and 95.6% by weight. Kramers-Kronig analyses of the reflectance data are employed to obtain values of the optical constants n(nu) and k(nu) in the spectral range from 400 to 6000 cm to the -1 power. The optical constants of these solutions at 250 K and 300 K are compared. It is found that in spectral regions remote from strong absorption bands, the values of the n(nu) indices obtained at 250 K agree with the values given by Lorentz-Lorenz correction of the same indices at 300 K. All absorption bands observed at 300 K are found to be present at 250 K with slight shifts in frequency and with significant differences in the k(nu) indices at the band maxima. Based on these results, it is concluded that the clouds of Venus probably consist of droplets of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of about 75% by weight.

  7. Spectroradiometer with wedge interference filters (SWIF): measurements of the spectral optical depths at Mauna Loa Observatory.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, O B; Leyva, A; Muhila, A; Valdes, M; Peralta, R; Kovalenko, A P; Welch, R M; Berendes, T A; Isakov, V Y; Kulikovskiy, Y P; Sokolov, S S; Strepanov, N N; Gulidov, S S; von Hoyningen-Huene, W

    1995-07-20

    A spectroradiometer with wedge interference filters (SWIF) (the filters were produced by Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) and a CCD matrix (which was of Russian production) that functions as the sensor has been designed and built for use in ground-based optical sensing of the atmosphere and the Earth's surface in the spectral range of 0.35-1.15 µm. Absolute calibration of this instrument was performed through a series of observations of direct solar radiation at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii in May and June 1993. Spectral optical depth (SOD) measurements that were made during these field experiments provided detailed spectral information about both aerosol extinction (scattering plus absorption) and molecular absorption in the atmosphere above the site at MLO. The aerosol-SOD measurements were compared with narrow-band radiometer measurements at wavelengths of 380, 500, and 778 nm The SWIF and narrow-band radiometer measurements are in agreement to within the experimental error. At a wavelength of 500 nm, the aerosol SOD was found to be approximately 0.045. Adescription of the SWIF instrument, its absolute calibration, and the determination of atmospheric SOD's at MLO are presented. PMID:21052277

  8. Discrimination of weeds in brassica crops using optical spectral reflectance and leaf texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, John F.; Ross, David W.; Tsheko, R.; Kennedy, Duncan D.; Muir, Andrew Y.; Fleming, John

    1999-01-01

    Optical spectral reflectance and image analysis techniques were investigated as possible solutions to discriminate crop and weed plants. The range of pants included two brassica crop species, a cereal crop and eight weed species. Spectral signatures were obtained form optical reflectance measurement taken with a spectrophotometer in reflectance mode in the region between 700 and 1350 nm. Algorithms were developed based on multivariate statistical analysis of the plant reflectance spectra. By minimizing wavebands of interest for certain crop/weed combinations, better than 95 percent discrimination accuracy was obtained for only two or three waveband measures. Using filters at these wavebands it was possible to easily segregate corp from weed plants in images. Discrimination on the basis of leaf texture was investigated using textural signatures for whole leaves derived from a gray level co-occurrence matrix of nearest- neighbor pixel intensity. Textural features of leaves were expressed in the form of feature vectors comprising nine textural parameters extracted from the co-occurrence matrix. A numerical Bayesian classifier was used to classify leaves based on minimum distance between a mean feature vector determined form a training set and the test feature vector. A mean discrimination accuracy of 90 percent was achieved between al plant species and almost 100 percent separation was achieved between the crop and weeds. The results show that a combination of spectral imaging and texture analysis may provide a robust method of discrimination with potential for real time application.

  9. Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    The generation of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffers from an inherent trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method that uses two Gaussian windows to simultaneously obtain high spectral and spatial resolution. We show that the DW method probes the Winger time-frequency distribution (TFD) with two orthogonal windows set by the standard deviation of the Gaussian windows used for processing. We also show that in the limit of an infinitesimally narrow window, combined with a large window, this method is equivalent to the Kirkwood & Richaczek TFD and, if the real part is taken, it is equivalent to the Margenau & Hill (MH) TFD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by simulating a signal with four components separated in depth or center frequency. Six TFD are compared: the ideal, the Wigner, the MH, narrow window short time Fourier transform (STFT), wide window STFT, and the DW. The results show that the DW method contains features of the Wigner TFD, and that it contains the highest spatial and spectral resolution that is free of artifacts. This method can enable powerful applications, including accurate acquisition of the spectral information for cancer diagnosis.

  10. Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guoqing; Li, Chih-Hao; Phillips, David F; Walsworth, Ronald L; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-06-01

    We propose and analyze a new approach to generate a broadband astro-comb by spectral broadening of a narrowband astro-comb inside a highly nonlinear optical fiber. Numerical modeling shows that cascaded four-wave-mixing dramatically degrades the input comb's side-mode suppression and causes side-mode amplitude asymmetry. These two detrimental effects can systematically shift the center-of-gravity of astro-comb spectral lines as measured by an astrophysical spectrograph with resolution approximately 100,000; and thus lead to wavelength calibration inaccuracy and instability. Our simulations indicate that this performance penalty, as a result of nonlinear spectral broadening, can be compensated by using a filtering cavity configured for double-pass. As an explicit example, we present a design based on an Yb-fiber source comb (with 1 GHz repetition rate) that is filtered by double-passing through a low finesse cavity (finesse = 208), and subsequent spectrally broadened in a 2-cm, SF6-glass photonic crystal fiber. Spanning more than 300 nm with 16 GHz line spacing, the resulting astro-comb is predicted to provide 1 cm/s (approximately 10 kHz) radial velocity calibration accuracy for an astrophysical spectrograph. Such extreme performance will be necessary for the search for and characterization of Earth-like extra-solar planets, and in direct measurements of the change of the rate of cosmological expansion. PMID:20588402

  11. Spectral characterization of tracheal and esophageal tissues using a hyperspectral camera and fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawn, Corinne D.; Souhan, Brian E.; Carter, Robert; Kneapler, Caitlin; Fell, Nicholas; Ye, Jing Yong

    2016-03-01

    During emergency medical situations where the patient has an obstructed airway or necessitates respiratory support, endotracheal intubation (ETI) is the medical technique of placing a tube into the trachea in order to facilitate adequate ventilation of the lungs. In particular, the anatomical, visual and time-sensitive challenges presented in these scenarios, such as in trauma, require a skilled provider in order to successfully place the tube into the trachea. Complications during ETI such as repeated attempts, failed intubation or accidental intubation of the esophagus can lead to severe consequences or ultimately death. Consequently, a need exists for a feedback mechanism to aid providers in performing successful ETI. To investigate potential characteristics to exploit as a feedback mechanism, our study examined the spectral properties of the trachea tissue to determine whether a unique spectral profile exists. In this work, hyperspectral cameras and fiber optic sensors were used to capture and analyze the reflectance profiles of tracheal and esophageal tissues illuminated with UV and white light. Our results show consistent and specific spectral characteristics of the trachea, providing foundational support for using spectral properties to detect features of the trachea.

  12. All-optical devices based on carrier nonlinearities for optical filtering and spectral equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Johan Petrus

    InGaAsP-based quantum wells can display nonlinear refractive index changes of ~0.1 near the band-edge for intrawell carrier density changes of 1 × 1018cm-3, due to effects like bandfilling and the plasma effect, which make these materials promising for the realization of all-optical signal processing devices, as demonstrated here. A novel single passband filter with sub-gigahertz bandwidth and greater than 40nm of tunability was experimentally demonstrated. The filter uses the detuning characteristics of nearly degenerate four-wave mixing in a broad area semiconductor optical amplifier to obtain frequency selectivity. The key to this demonstration was the spatial separation of the filtered signal from the input signal, based on their different propagation directions. An analysis of an analogous integrated optic dual-order mode nonlinear mode-converter, with integrated mode sorters which separate the signal from the interacting modes, was also undertaken. This device is promising as a filter, a wavelength converter, notch filter, and a wavelength recognizing switch. Novel ways to prevent carrier diffusion, which washes out the nonlinear grating, were suggested. It is important to have a large mutual overlap to modal overlap ratio of the two interacting modes on the nonlinear medium, because the mixing efficiency scales as the fourth power of this number. Three types of integrated optic limiters (based on Kerr- like nonlinearities) namely an all-optical cutoff modulator, a nonlinear Y-branch and an interferometer with an internal Kerr element, were theoretically investigated. A beam propagation program, which can solve the propagation of an optical field in a semiconductor in the presence of carrier diffusion, was developed for the numerical analysis of these structures. A negative feedback mechanism was identified in the Y-branch devices and a new limiting configuration was discovered in a Y- branch with a selectively placed defocusing nonlinearity. Dichroic

  13. Liquid-vapor interface locations in a spheroidal container under low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    As a part of the general study of liquid behavior in low gravity environments, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine if there are equilibrium liquid-vapor interface configurations that can exist at more than one location in oblate spheroidal containers under reduced gravity conditions. Static contact angles of the test liquids on the spheroid surface were restricted to near 0 deg. The experiments were conducted in a low gravity environment. An oblate spheroidal tank was tested with an eccentricity of 0.68 and a semimajor axis of 2.0 cm. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained on the liquid-vapor interface configuration and position inside the container. The results of these data, and their impat on previous work in this area, are discussed. Of particular interest are those equilibrium interface configurations that can exist at multiple locations in the container.

  14. The vibro-acoustic mapping of low gravity trajectories on a Learjet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, C. M.; Sutliff, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Terrestrial low gravity research techniques have been employed to gain a more thorough understanding of basic science and technology concepts. One technique frequently used involves flying parabolic trajectories aboard the NASA Lewis Research Center Learjet aircraft. A measurement program was developed to support an isolation system conceptual design. This program primarily was intended to measure time correlated high frequency accelerations (up to 100 Hz) present at various locations throughout the Learjet during a series of trajectories and flights. As suspected, the measurements obtained revealed that the environment aboard such an aircraft can not simply be described in terms of the static level low gravity g vector obtained, but that it also must account for both rigid body and high frequency vibro-acoustic dynamics.

  15. An Experimental Study of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames in Crossflow Under Low-Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxx, Isaac G.; Idicheria, Cherian A.; Clemens, Noel T.

    2002-11-01

    We will present results of a study of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames in crossflow under normal and low gravity conditions. This enables us to experimentally separate the competing influences of initial jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio and buoyancy effects on the flame structure. The low gravity conditions (10-30 milli-g) are achieved by dropping a self-contained jet flame rig in the University of Texas 1.25-second drop tower facility. This rig uses a small blow-through wind tunnel to create the crossflow. The jet flames issue from an orifice that is flush with the wall. High-speed CCD imaging of jet flame luminosity is the primary diagnostic. We present results for hydrocarbon jet flames with initial jet-to-crossflow momentum ratios of 10-20. Results such as flame trajectory, flame length, large scale structure and flame tip dynamics will be presented.

  16. Potential of optical spectral transmission measurements for joint inflammation measurements in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, A. J. Louise; Rensen, Wouter H. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; de Nijs, Ron N. J.

    2012-08-01

    Frequent monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients enables timely treatment adjustments and improved outcomes. Currently this is not feasible due to a shortage of rheumatologists. An optical spectral transmission device is presented for objective assessment of joint inflammation in RA patients, while improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical workflow. A cross-sectional, nonrandomized observational study was performed with this device. In the study, 77 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 67 patients have been analyzed. Inflammation of these PIP joints was also assessed by a rheumatologist with a score varying from 1 (not inflamed) to 5 (severely inflamed). Out of 77 measurements, 27 were performed in moderate to strongly inflamed PIP joints. Comparison between the clinical assessment and an optical measurement showed a correlation coefficient r=0.63, p<0.001, 95% CI [0.47, 0.75], and a ROC curve (AUC=0.88) that shows a relative good specificity and sensitivity. Optical spectral transmission measurements in a single joint correlate with clinical assessment of joint inflammation, and therefore might be useful in monitoring joint inflammation in RA patients.

  17. The spectral shift between near- and far-field resonances of optical nano-antennas.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Christoph; Hebestreit, Erik; Mühlig, Stefan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Burger, Sven; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

    2014-04-21

    Within the past several years a tremendous progress regarding optical nano-antennas could be witnessed. It is one purpose of optical nano-antennas to resonantly enhance light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, e.g. the interaction of an external illumination with molecules. In this specific, but in almost all schemes that take advantage of resonantly enhanced electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nano-antennas, the precise knowledge of the spectral position of resonances is of paramount importance to fully exploit their beneficial effects. Thus far, however, many nano-antennas were only optimized with respect to their far-field characteristics, i.e. in terms of their scattering or extinction cross sections. Although being an emerging feature in many numerical simulations, it was only recently fully appreciated that there exists a subtle but very important difference in the spectral position of resonances in the near-and the far-field. With the purpose to quantify this shift, Zuloaga et al. suggested a Lorentzian model to estimate the resonance shift. Here, we devise on fully analytical grounds a strategy to predict the resonance in the near-field directly from that in the far-field and disclose that the issue is involved and multifaceted, in general. We outline the limitations of our theory if more sophisticated optical nano-antennas are considered where higher order multipolar contributions and higher order antenna resonances become increasingly important. Both aspects are highlighted by numerically studying relevant nano-antennas. PMID:24787879

  18. Spectral interferometric microscopy reveals absorption by individual optical nanoantennas from extinction phase.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Sylvain D; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Verellen, Niels; Van Dorpe, Pol; Moshchalkov, Victor V; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2014-01-01

    Optical antennas transform light from freely propagating waves into highly localized excitations that interact strongly with matter. Unlike their radio frequency counterparts, optical antennas are nanoscopic and high frequency, making amplitude and phase measurements challenging and leaving some information hidden. Here we report a novel spectral interferometric microscopy technique to expose the amplitude and phase response of individual optical antennas across an octave of the visible to near-infrared spectrum. Although it is a far-field technique, we show that knowledge of the extinction phase allows quantitative estimation of nanoantenna absorption, which is a near-field quantity. To verify our method we characterize gold ring-disk dimers exhibiting Fano interference. Our results reveal that Fano interference only cancels a bright mode's scattering, leaving residual extinction dominated by absorption. Spectral interference microscopy has the potential for real-time and single-shot phase and amplitude investigations of isolated quantum and classical antennas with applications across the physical and life sciences. PMID:24781663

  19. Linear Spectral Analysis of Plume Emissions Using an Optical Matrix Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    Plume spectrometry provides a means to monitor the health of a burning rocket engine, and optical matrix processors provide a means to analyze the plume spectra in real time. By observing the spectrum of the exhaust plume of a rocket engine, researchers have detected anomalous behavior of the engine and have even determined the failure of some equipment before it would normally have been noticed. The spectrum of the plume is analyzed by isolating information in the spectrum about the various materials present to estimate what materials are being burned in the engine. Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have implemented a high resolution spectrometer to discriminate the spectral peaks of the many species present in the plume. Researchers at the Stennis Space Center Demonstration Testbed Facility (DTF) have implemented a high resolution spectrometer observing a 1200-lb. thrust engine. At this facility, known concentrations of contaminants can be introduced into the burn, allowing for the confirmation of diagnostic algorithms. While the high resolution of the measured spectra has allowed greatly increased insight into the functioning of the engine, the large data flows generated limit the ability to perform real-time processing. The use of an optical matrix processor and the linear analysis technique described below may allow for the detailed real-time analysis of the engine's health. A small optical matrix processor can perform the required mathematical analysis both quicker and with less energy than a large electronic computer dedicated to the same spectral analysis routine.

  20. RETINOCHOROIDAL MORPHOLOGY DESCRIBED BY WIDE-FIELD MONTAGE IMAGING OF SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Keisuke; Kanno, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To present baseline images of the vitreous, retina, and choroid from the macula to the periphery in normal patients using a novel montaging technique of spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Twenty-six normal eyes of 22 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Montaged images of four radial optical coherence tomography scans through the fovea were obtained from each subject. Results: In the macula, there were six identifiable retinal layers as well as four bands in the outer retina. In the periphery, the ganglion cell layer was not identifiable. The external limiting membrane, the second band, and the retinal pigment epithelium were continuously delineated from the macula to the periphery. The third band was not visible in the periphery. Conclusion: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography montaged images provide wide-angle images of the vitreous, retina, and choroid, allowing for evaluation of peripheral findings and examination of relationships between peripheral and posterior disease. The maximum scan length achieved here was 36 mm. The scan length is approximately three times than that provided by conventional posterior scanning and is consistent with known dimensions of the eye. This method is achievable with current commercially available devices and may contribute to decision making in clinical practice. PMID:26241154

  1. Solid optical ring interferometer for high-throughput feedback-free spectral analysis and filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Petrak, B.; Peiris, M.; Muller, A.

    2015-02-15

    We describe a simple and inexpensive optical ring interferometer for use in high-resolution spectral analysis and filtering. It consists of a solid cuboid, reflection-coated on two opposite sides, in which constructive interference occurs for waves in a rhombic trajectory. Due to its monolithic design, the interferometer’s resonance frequencies are insensitive to environmental disturbances over time. Additional advantages are its simplicity of alignment, high-throughput, and feedback-free operation. If desired, it can be stabilized with a secondary laser without disturbance of the primary signal. We illustrate the use of the interferometer for the measurement of the spectral Mollow triplet from a quantum dot and characterize its long-term stability for filtering applications.

  2. Investigation of Spectral Characteristics for Microstructured Quasi-Optical Bandpass Subteraherz Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. A.; Gelfand, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The electrodynamic features of quasi-optical bandpass filters based on multilayer microstructured frequency selective surfaces intended for effective spectral selection of subteraherz electromagnetic radiation are considered. As an optimal solution, the multiplex filters are highlighted wherein tripole-slot self-bearing copper microstructures free from dielectric substrates are employed. The results of the experimental development for such filters are presented by the example of structures with resonant transmission at the frequencies of 0.6 and 1 THz, and the details of testing their spectral performance in the range of 0.1-1.5 THz using a BWO spectroscopy technique are described. Good agreement between the experimental data and the results of theoretical predictions is demonstrated.

  3. Analysis of graded-index optical fibers by the spectral parameter power series method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Pérez, Raúl; Kravchenko, Vladislav V.; Torba, Sergii M.

    2015-02-01

    The spectral parameter power series (SPPS) method is a recently introduced technique (Kravchenko 2008 Complex Var. Elliptic Equ. 53 775-89, Kravchenko and Porter 2010 Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 33 459-68) for solving linear differential equations and related spectral problems. In this work we develop an approach based on the SPPS for analysis of graded-index optical fibers. The characteristic equation of the eigenvalue problem for calculation of guided modes is obtained in an analytical form in terms of SPPS. Truncation of the series and consideration in this way of the approximate characteristic equation gives us a simple and efficient numerical method for solving the problem. Comparison with the results obtained by other available techniques reveals clear advantages for the SPPS approach, in particular, with regards to accuracy. Based on the solution of the eigenvalue problem, parameters describing the dispersion are analyzed as well.

  4. Spectral properties of optical anisotropy induced by laser radiation in dye solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulik, L G; Chernyavskii, V A; Grib, A F

    2000-06-30

    Spectral studies of induced quasi-crystal properties (which can be quantitatively characterised by the difference in the refractive indices of ordinary and extraordinary waves, {Delta}n=n{sub o}-n{sub e}) in Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine 4C solutions in glycerine excited in the visible and UV ranges of the absorption spectrum are presented. It is demonstrated that the observed spectral dependences of {Delta}n of these dye solutions excited in the visible (long-wavelength) and UV (short-wavelength) ranges of the absorption spectrum can be interpreted in terms of an oscillator model of a molecule. The proposed method for the analysis of induced optical anisotropy in solutions of organic compounds allows the relative orientation of oscillators in a molecule and, thus, the relative orientation of electronic transitions in a molecule to be determined in a reliable way. (iv international conference on atom and molecular pulsed lasers (ampl'99))

  5. Electro-optical parameters in excited states of some spectrally active molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchea, Andreea Celia; Closca, Valentina; Rusu, Cristina Marcela; Morosanu, Cezarina; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-08-01

    The spectral shifts measured in different solvents are expressed as functions of the solvent macroscopic parameters. The value of the correlation coefficient multiplying the functions of electric permittivity was determined by statistical means. The correlation coefficient depends on the electric dipole moment of the spectrally active molecules. The electro-optical parameters in the ground state of the solute molecules can be approximated by molecular modeling. The excited state parameters are usually estimated using the results obtained both by HyperChem Programme and solvatochromic study. The importance of this approximate method is that it offers information about of the excited state of solute molecule for which our measuring possibilities are very restrictive. The information about the excited electronic state is affected by the limits in which the theories of liquid solutions are developed. Our results refer to two molecules of vitamins from B class, namely B3 and B6.

  6. Solid optical ring interferometer for high-throughput feedback-free spectral analysis and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrak, B.; Peiris, M.; Muller, A.

    2015-02-01

    We describe a simple and inexpensive optical ring interferometer for use in high-resolution spectral analysis and filtering. It consists of a solid cuboid, reflection-coated on two opposite sides, in which constructive interference occurs for waves in a rhombic trajectory. Due to its monolithic design, the interferometer's resonance frequencies are insensitive to environmental disturbances over time. Additional advantages are its simplicity of alignment, high-throughput, and feedback-free operation. If desired, it can be stabilized with a secondary laser without disturbance of the primary signal. We illustrate the use of the interferometer for the measurement of the spectral Mollow triplet from a quantum dot and characterize its long-term stability for filtering applications.

  7. Infrared autofluorescence, short-wave autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of optic disk melanocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Hui, Yan-Nian; Xu, Wen-Qin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Wang, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dong-Jie; Wang, Yu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the findings of infrared fundus autofluorescence (IR-AF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with optic disc melanocytoma (ODM). METHODS IR-AF findings and those of other ophthalmologic imaging examinations, including short-wave autofluorescence (SW-AF), fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus color photography, and SD-OCT of 8 eyes of 8 consecutive cases with ODM were assessed. RESULTS The ODMs in all cases (100%) presented similar IR-AF, SW-AF, and FA findings. On IR-AF images, ODMs showed outstanding hyper-AF with well-defined outline. On SW-AF images, the area of ODMs presented as hypo-AF. FA images revealed the leaking retinal telangiectasia on the surface of the ODMs. On SD-OCT images in 8 cases (100%), the ODMs were sloped with highly reflective surface, which were disorganized retina and optic nerve layers. In 7 cases (87.5%), peripapillary choroids were involved. The melanocytomas of 8 cases (100%) presented as optically empty spaces. Vitreous seeds were found in one case (12.5%). CONCLUSION IR-AF imaging may provide a new modality to evaluate the pathologic features of ODMs, and together with SW-AF imaging, offers a new tool to study biological characteristics associated with ODMs. SD-OCT is a valuable tool in delimitating the tumor extension and providing morphological information about the adjacent retinal tissue. PMID:27275427

  8. Measurements of spectral responses for developing fiber-optic pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon; Jang, Kyoung Won; Seo, Jeong Ki; Moon, Jin Soo; Park, Jang-Yeon; Park, Byung Gi; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated a fiber-optic pH sensor, which is composed of a light source, a pH-sensing probe, plastic optical fibers and a spectrometer, for determining the degree of infection by Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. As pH indicators, phenol red and m-cresol purple are used, and pH liquid solutions are prepared by mixing phenol red or m-cresol purple solutions and various kinds of pH buffer solutions. The light emitted by a light source is guided by plastic optical fibers to the pH liquid solution, and the optical characteristic of a reflected light is changed according to the color variations of the pH indicator in the pH-sensing probe. Therefore, we have measured the intensities and wavelength shifts of the reflected lights, which change according to the color variations of indicators at different pH values, by using a spectrometer for spectral analysis. Also, the relationships between the pH values of liquid solutions and the optical properties of the modulated lights are obtained on the basis of the changes of the colors of indicators.

  9. Analysis of low gravity tolerance of model experiments for space station: Preliminary results for directional solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Ouazzani, Jalil

    1988-01-01

    It has become clear from measurements of the acceleration environment in the Spacelab that the residual gravity levels on board a spacecraft in low Earth orbit can be significant and should be of concern to experimenters who wish to take advantage of the low gravity conditions on future Spacelab missions and on board the Space Station. The basic goals are to better understand the low gravity tolerance of three classes of materials science experiments: crystal growth from a melt, a vapor, and a solution. The results of the research will provide guidance toward the determination of the sensitivity of the low gravity environment, the design of the laboratory facilites, and the timelining of materials science experiments. To data, analyses of the effects of microgravity environment were, with a few exceptions, restricted to order of magnitude estimates. Preliminary results obtained from numerical models of the effects of residual steady and time dependent acceleration are reported on: heat, mass, and momentum transport during the growth of a dilute alloy by the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, and the response of a simple fluid physics experiment involving buoyant convection in a square cavity.

  10. Experimental And Numerical Evaluation Of Gaseous Agents For Suppressing Cup-Burner Flames In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2003-01-01

    Longer duration missions to the moon, to Mars, and on the International Space Station (ISS) increase the likelihood of accidental fires. NASA's fire safety program for human-crewed space flight is based largely on removing ignition sources and controlling the flammability of the material on-board. There is ongoing research to improve the flammability characterization of materials in low gravity; however, very little research has been conducted on fire suppression in the low-gravity environment. Although the existing suppression systems aboard the Space Shuttle (halon 1301, CF3Br) and the ISS (CO2 or water-based form) may continue to be used, alternative effective agents or techniques are desirable for long-duration missions. The goal of the present investigation is to: (1) understand the physical and chemical processes of fire suppression in various gravity and O2 levels simulating spacecraft, Mars, and moon missions; (2) provide rigorous testing of analytical models, which include detailed combustion-suppression chemistry and radiation sub-models, so that the model can be used to interpret (and predict) the suppression behavior in low gravity; and (3) provide basic research results useful for advances in space fire safety technology, including new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches.

  11. Optical and Near-IR Spectral Comparison with Chromophore Candidates in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander; Chanover, Nancy; Miller, Charles; Loeffler, Mark; Hudson, Reggie; Simon, Amy

    2014-11-01

    Large atmospheric features, such as the belts, zones, and storms that make up Jupiter’s atmosphere remain colored by an unidentified chemical compound (or set of compounds). Optical reflectance spectra of Jupiter’s atmosphere in the literature show few spectral features in the blue (shortwards of 500 nm), unlike the red portion of the spectrum which is dominated by the methane absorption spectrum. The prevailing spectral slope and dearth of molecular absorption features in the blue are attributed to absorption by coloring compounds, or chromophores, in the upper Jovian atmosphere. While both organic and inorganic candidate compounds have been proposed, few laboratory studies have been conducted at temperatures and pressures appropriate for local Jupiter conditions to determine the identity of the chromophores responsible for coloring these large atmospheric features such as Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. In this study, we analyzed ground-based optical spectra and near-IR spectral image cubes of Jupiter for comparison with laboratory data of a potential chromophore compound. Optical spectra 330-450 nm in the blue, ~570-690 nm in the red) were obtained between December 2013 and February 2014 with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph, mounted on the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. Near-infrared (1.25-2.5 μm) spectra of various locations in Jupiter’s atmosphere were obtained from spectral image cubes taken with the New Horizons Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array during the early 2007 Jupiter flyby. The combination of these two data sets allowed us to identify specific regions in the Jovian atmosphere with distinct coloration. We compare these ground- and space-based observations to laboratory spectra from the Cosmic Ice Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Thin films of NH4SH were exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation at Jovian temperature conditions, thereby enabling us to evaluate NH4SH as a

  12. Comparative analysis of combined spectral and optical tomography methods for detection of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Moryatov, Alexander A.

    2015-02-01

    Malignant skin tumors of different types were studied in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT), backscattering (BS), and Raman spectroscopy (RS). A multimodal method is proposed for early cancer detection based on complex analysis of OCT images by their relative alteration of scattered-radiation spectral intensities between malignant and healthy tissues. An increase in average accuracy of diagnosis was observed for a variety of cancer types (9% sensitivity, 8% specificity) by a multimodal RS-BS-OCT system in comparison with any of the three methods used separately. The proposed approach equalizes the processing rates for all methods and allows for simultaneous imaging and classification of tumors.

  13. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Documentation of Transsynaptic Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Pasol, Joshua; Lam, Byron L; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-08-01

    Patients with post-geniculate neurologic disease and corresponding visual field loss may have ophthalmologic abnormalities detectable by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), presumably by transsynaptic retrograde retinal degeneration. Here, three such patients (ages 13 years through 75 years) illustrate thinning of the macula and ganglion cell complex corresponding to zones of visual field loss. Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer is not notable in these patients. SD-OCT may be a useful technique in diagnosing and following patients with post-geniculate neurologic disease. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:768-772.]. PMID:27548455

  14. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster. PMID:21747509

  15. Time and wavelength interleaved pulse trains generation based on pure phase processing of optical spectral comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongbiao; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Xie, Shizhong

    2014-02-01

    By applying linear phase to optical spectral comb, we experimentally demonstrate that the time interval of the compressed pulse trains with different wavelength can be precisely controlled for the generation of time and wavelength interleaved pulse train. The time and wavelength interleaved pulse train with the repetition rate of 40 GHz and 80 GHz are generated based on this and the possibility to improve the performance of the generated pulse train is also discussed. We also measure the precision of time delay obtained by applying linear phase to the comb.

  16. Spectral engineering by flexible tunings of optical Tamm states and Fabry-Perot cavity resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Lin; Song, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jing; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2013-11-01

    We present a design for spectral engineering in a metal dual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based structure. Optical Tamm states and Fabry-Perot cavity mode, dual windows for light-matter interaction enhancement, can be excited simultaneously and tuned flexibly, including their respective bandwidth and resonant wavelength, due to the variable reflection phase from the outer DBR's internal surface. The design can find applications in solar cells for light trappings. Via calculations of overall absorptivity, the proposed simpler dual-states-based scheme is demonstrated to be almost as effective as the coherent-light-trapping scheme, owing to the dual-states-induced broader-band absorption enhancement. PMID:24177099

  17. Optical properties of peritoneal biological tissues in the spectral range of 350-2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Kochubei, V. I.; Gorodkov, S. Yu.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The optical characteristics of biological tissues sampled from the anterior abdominal wall of laboratory rats are for the first time experimentally studied in a wide wavelength range (350-2500 nm). The experiments have been performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 (PerkinElmer, United States) spectrophotometer. Inverse Monte Carlo simulation is used to restore the spectral dependences for scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the scattering anisotropy factor for biological tissue based on the recorded spectra of diffuse reflection and total and collimated transmissions.

  18. Conversion Efficiency, Spectral And Mode Purities Of A Single Sideband Electro-Optic Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, R. S.; Parker, J. K.; Bunis, J. L.; Grimm, J. G.; Harris, N. W.; Wong, D. M.

    The measured single sideband conversion efficiency of a 10.6 μm bulk-type CdTe electro-optic modulator over the 14-18 GHz modulation frequency range is shown to be in close agreement with the coupled-mode and segmented modulator theories. The paper addresses the effects of the rotational orientations of segmented crystals and indirectly proves that a broadband multisection modulator is feasible; it further shows that a modulator with crystals in rotatable segmented circular waveguides is spectrally widely tunable. The effects of mechanical pressure and off-axis beam propagation on conver-sion, mode purity, and beam quality are also discussed.

  19. Suppression of image autocorrelation artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and multiwave digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelikonov, V. M.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Terpelov, D. A.; Shabanov, D. V.; Shilyagin, P. A.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method for suppressing image artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and multiwave digital holography, caused by the influence of coherent noise in the course of successive registration of an autocorrelation component and informative signal is reported. The method allows complete suppression of all types of coherent noises, provided that the sample of values used to record the autocorrelation component satisfies the conditions of Kotelnikov's theorem: in SD OCT — for the transverse structure of the studied medium, in multiwave digital holography — for the envelop function of the radiation source frequency tuning spectrum.

  20. Optical properties of narrow-band spectral filter coatings related to layer structure and preparation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D; Lissberger, P H

    1983-01-15

    The optical properties of thirty-five all-dielectric spectral filter coatings for the visible spectrum have been investigated and correlated with the deposition conditions of the constituent layers of cryolite and zinc sulfide and with the processes which occur when the coatings are exposed to atmosphere. It will be shown that the results of measurements of transmittance and reflectance over the passband wavelengths can be predicted theoretically only if account is taken of absorption in the layers and scattering at the rough boundaries and of changes in the refractive indices of the layers due to water penetration. PMID:18195779

  1. Suppression of image autocorrelation artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and multiwave digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Gelikonov, V M; Gelikonov, G V; Terpelov, D A; Shabanov, D V; Shilyagin, P A

    2012-05-31

    An improved method for suppressing image artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and multiwave digital holography, caused by the influence of coherent noise in the course of successive registration of an autocorrelation component and informative signal is reported. The method allows complete suppression of all types of coherent noises, provided that the sample of values used to record the autocorrelation component satisfies the conditions of Kotelnikov's theorem: in SD OCT - for the transverse structure of the studied medium, in multiwave digital holography - for the envelop function of the radiation source frequency tuning spectrum.

  2. Modifications of intensity-interferometric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with dispersion cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomohiro

    2015-04-01

    Intensity-interferometric spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) developed recently enables axial-scan-free cross-sectional imaging with group-velocity dispersion cancellation and a factor-of-\\sqrt{2} resolution improvement. This paper is concerned with a simple and practical method of realizing OCT of this kind. Specifically, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that intensity-interferometric SD-OCT can be realized in a simple way by means of a slightly modified conventional SD-OCT setup.

  3. Spectral dependence of third-order nonlinear optical properties in InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H.; Lee, M.-T.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of InN measured in a wide near-infrared spectral range with the femtosecond Z-scan technique. The above-bandgap nonlinear absorption in InN is found to originate from the saturation of absorption by the band-state-filling and its cross-section increases drastically near the bandgap energy. With below-bandgap excitation, the nonlinear absorption undergoes a transition from saturation absorption (SA) to reverse-SA (RSA), attributed to the competition between SA of band-tail states and two-photon-related RSA. The measured large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10-10 cm2/W indicates InN as a potential material for all-optical switching and related applications.

  4. Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Baumann, Bernhard; Schmoll, Tilman; Sattmann, Harald; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2011-07-01

    We present a high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system based on polarization maintaining fibers and two high speed CMOS line scan cameras capable of retinal imaging with up to 128 k A-lines/s. This high imaging speed strongly reduces motion artifacts and therefore averaging of several B-scans is possible, which strongly reduces speckle noise and improves image quality. We present several methods for averaging retardation and optic axis orientation, the best one providing a 5 fold noise reduction. Furthermore, a novel scheme of calculating images of degree of polarization uniformity is presented. We quantitatively compare the noise reduction depending on the number of averaged frames and discuss the limits of frame numbers that can usefully be averaged.

  5. Spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Nguyen, Elaine; Liu, Gangjun; Choi, Bernard; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-11-01

    We report the use of spectral Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging (SDOCTI) for quantitative evaluation of dynamic blood circulation before and after a localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model. Rose Bengal photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used as a noninvasive means for inducing localized ischemia in cortical microvasculature of the mouse. Fast, repeated Doppler optical coherence tomography scans across vessels of interest are performed to record flow dynamic information with high temporal resolution. Doppler-angle-independent flow indices are used to quantify vascular conditions before and after the induced ischemia by the photocoagulation of PDT. The higher (or lower) flow resistive indices are associated with higher (or lower) resistance states that are confirmed by laser speckle flow index maps (of laser speckle imaging). Our in vivo experiments shows that SDOCTI can provide complementary quantified flow information that is an alternative to blood volume measurement, and can be used as a means for cortical microvasculature imaging well suited for small animal studies.

  6. Synthesis and spectral characterization of acetophenone thiosemicarbazone—A nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhakumari, R.; Ramamurthi, K.; Vasuki, G.; Yamin, Bohari M.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2010-08-01

    Acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (APTSC) was synthesized. Solubility of APTSC was determined in ethanol and methanol at different temperatures. Single crystals were grown from ethanol by slow evaporation at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to FTIR, Laser-Raman and 1H NMR spectral analyses to confirm the synthesized compound. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) was employed to evaluate the perfection of the grown crystal. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV-vis-NIR spectrum. The third order nonlinear optical parameters (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient) were derived by the Z-scan technique.

  7. Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for label-free multiplexed protein microarray assay

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Chulmin; Özkumur, Emre; Ünlü, M. Selim; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of affinities and kinetics of various biomolecular interactions such as protein-protein, protein-DNA and receptor-ligand is central to our understanding of basic molecular and cellular functions and is useful for therapeutic evaluation. Here, we describe a laser-scanning quantitative imaging method, referred to as spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy, as an optical platform for label-free detection of biomolecular interactions. The instrument is based on a confocal interferometric microscope that enables depth-resolved quantitative phase measurements on sensor surface with high spatial resolution and phase stability. We demonstrate picogram per square millimeter surface mass sensitivity, and show its sensing capability by presenting static and dynamic detection of multiplexed protein microarray as immobilized antigens capture their corresponding antibodies. PMID:19674885

  8. Theoretical prediction of spectral and optical properties of bacteriochlorophylls in thermally disordered LH2 antenna complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janosi, Lorant; Kosztin, Ioan; Damjanović, Ana

    2006-07-01

    A general approach for calculating spectral and optical properties of pigment-protein complexes of known atomic structure is presented. The method, that combines molecular dynamics simulations, quantum chemistry calculations, and statistical mechanical modeling, is demonstrated by calculating the absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the B800-B850 bacteriochlorophylls of the LH2 antenna complex from Rs. molischianum at room temperature. The calculated spectra are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results. The calculations reveal that the broadening of the B800 band is mainly caused by the interactions with the polar protein environment, while the broadening of the B850 band is due to the excitonic interactions. Since it contains no fitting parameters, in principle, the proposed method can be used to predict optical spectra of arbitrary pigment-protein complexes of known structure.

  9. Optical properties and spectral emissivities at 632.8 nm in the titanium-aluminum system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, S.; Anderson, C. D.; Weber, J. K. R.; Nordine, P. C.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical properties (including spectral emissivity, refractive index, and extinction coefficient) of liquid Ti-Al alloys were measured as functions of temperature (including temperatures up to 350 K below the equilibrium liquidus temperatures), using laser ellipsometry at 632.8 nm. The experiments were conducted under containerless conditions, using electromagnetic levitation and heating supplemented by CO2 laser beam heating. It is shown that the emissivities of liquid Ti-Al alloy vary with temperature in a manner that can be understood by the same theories which are applicable to solid metals, for regions near to and above the liquidus temperature. At temperatures below the liquidus temperature, the optical properties of highly undercooled liquid Ti-Al alloys are not dependent on temperature.

  10. Spectral dependence of third-order nonlinear optical properties in InN

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H. Lee, M.-T.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2014-05-19

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of InN measured in a wide near-infrared spectral range with the femtosecond Z-scan technique. The above-bandgap nonlinear absorption in InN is found to originate from the saturation of absorption by the band-state-filling and its cross-section increases drastically near the bandgap energy. With below-bandgap excitation, the nonlinear absorption undergoes a transition from saturation absorption (SA) to reverse-SA (RSA), attributed to the competition between SA of band-tail states and two-photon-related RSA. The measured large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup −10} cm{sup 2}/W indicates InN as a potential material for all-optical switching and related applications.

  11. Multi-spectral optical absorption in substrate-free nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junpeng; Chia, Andrew; Boulanger, Jonathan; LaPierre, Ray; Dhindsa, Navneet; Khodadad, Iman; Saini, Simarjeet

    2014-09-22

    A method is presented of fabricating gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire arrays of controlled diameter and period by reactive ion etching of a GaAs substrate containing an indium gallium arsenide (InGaP) etch stop layer, allowing the precise nanowire length to be controlled. The substrate is subsequently removed by selective etching, using the same InGaP etch stop layer, to create a substrate-free GaAs nanowire array. The optical absorptance of the nanowire array was then directly measured without absorption from a substrate. We directly observe absorptance spectra that can be tuned by the nanowire diameter, as explained with rigorous coupled wave analysis. These results illustrate strong optical absorption suitable for nanowire-based solar cells and multi-spectral absorption for wavelength discriminating photodetectors. The solar-weighted absorptance above the bandgap of GaAs was 94% for a nanowire surface coverage of only 15%.

  12. Synthesis and spectral characterization of acetophenone thiosemicarbazone--a nonlinear optical material.

    PubMed

    Santhakumari, R; Ramamurthi, K; Vasuki, G; Yamin, Bohari M; Bhagavannarayana, G

    2010-08-01

    Acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (APTSC) was synthesized. Solubility of APTSC was determined in ethanol and methanol at different temperatures. Single crystals were grown from ethanol by slow evaporation at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to FTIR, Laser-Raman and (1)H NMR spectral analyses to confirm the synthesized compound. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) was employed to evaluate the perfection of the grown crystal. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV-vis-NIR spectrum. The third order nonlinear optical parameters (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient) were derived by the Z-scan technique. PMID:20434945

  13. Leaf Optical Properties in Higher Plants: Linking Spectral Characteristics to Stress and Chlorophyll Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have linked responses in leaf spectral reflectance, transmittance or absorptance to physiological stress. A variety of stressors including dehydration, flooding,freezing, ozone, herbicides, competition, disease, insects and deficiencies in ectomycorrhizal development and N fertilization have been imposed on species ranging from grasses to conifers and deciduous trees. In this cases, the maximum difference in reflectance within the 400 - 850 nm wavelength range between control and stressed states occurred as a reflectance increase at wavelength near 700 nm. In studies that included transmittance and absorptance as well as reflectance, maximum differences occurred as increases and decreases, respectively, near 700 nm. This common optical response to stress could be simulated closely by varying the chlorophyll concentrations in senescent leaves of five species. The optical response to stress near 700 nm, as well as corresponding changes in reflectance that occur in the green-yellow spectrum, can be explained by the general tendency of stress to reduce leaf chlorophyll concentration.

  14. Sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP) utilizing spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takakazu; Isa, Fumihiro; Fujii, Leo; Hirosawa, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Goda, Keisuke; Sakuma, Ichiro; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-11-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method called SF-STAMP for sequentially timed all-optical mapping photography (STAMP) that utilizes spectral filtering. SF-STAMP is composed of a diffractive optical element (DOE), a band-pass filter, and two Fourier transform lenses. Using a linearly frequency-chirped pulse and converting the wavelength to the time axis, we realize single-shot ultrafast burst imaging. As an experimental demonstration of SF-STAMP, we monitor the dynamics of a laser ablation using a linearly frequency-chirped broadband pulse (>100 nm) that is temporally stretched up to ~40 ps. This imaging method is expected to be effective for investigating ultrafast dynamics in a diverse range of fields, such as photochemistry, plasma physics, and fluidics. PMID:26698529

  15. Characterization of ink-jet printed RGB color filters with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, J.; Vilmi, P.; Lauri, J.; Sliz, R.; Fabritius, T.; Myllylä, R.

    2012-09-01

    We present the use of sub-micron resolution optical coherence tomography (SMR SD-OCT) in volumetric characterization of ink- jet printed color filters, aimed for electronic paper display (EPD). The device used in the study is based on supercontinuum light source, Michelson interferometer centered at 600 nm and employs 400-800 nm spectral region. Spectra are acquired at a continuous rate of 140,000 per second. Color filter array of 143 μm x 141 μm sized and 6 rtm deep ink pools was studied. The volumetric OCT reconstruction was done using the experimental SMR SD-OCT device and a commercial SD-OCT imaging system. The ink layer in the pools was estimated to be 2μm thin. The optical profilometer was used for reference measurements.

  16. Discerning Spectral Features in L Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Alejandro; Cruz, K.; Burgasser, A. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Reid, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are star-like objects that, due to their very low masses (less than 75 Jupiter masses,) never reach the main sequence, and instead cool with time. This cooling leads to a breakdown of the relationship between temperature and mass that exists for stars. Therefore, brown dwarfs with similar temperatures (as indicated by spectral type) could have very different masses and ages. We are investigating the near-infrared spectra of L dwarfs with the same optically derived spectral types (implying similar effective temperatures) with the goal of distinguishing subtle differences, patterns, and/or correlations among absorption features that could reveal information about their ages and masses. Our sample consists of 43 L0-L8 dwarfs with both optical and near-infrared spectra, thus covering the 0.65 to 2.4-micron range. Our analysis included objects with either "typical” or peculiar spectra. Some of the objects with peculiar spectra are suspected low-gravity/young and blue/low-metallicity dwarfs. For each optical type, we normalized and overplotted the spectra in four bands separately: Optical, J, H, and K band. Each resulting plot was examined by eye to look for subtle differences in spectral absorption features, likely due to age and mass. We present the preliminary results from this detailed spectral analysis. In particular, our analysis reveals the major spectral differences in the near infrared of both "red” and "blue” L dwarfs. This work was funded by the RISE Grant GM R25 6066, and we acknowledge the hospitality of the American Museum of Natural History.

  17. On the possibility of developing incoherent fibre-optic data transmission systems based on signal spectral coding with matched acousto-optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proklov, Valerii V.; Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Grigorievski, V. I.

    2013-06-01

    The scheme is suggested for developing the optical communication line based on the principle of code division of multiple access with matched acousto-optical filters and a 16-bit long Walsh sequence. Results of modelling show that such a line can operate if adjacent spectral lines are separated by at least double the Rayleigh criterion.

  18. XOP: A multiplatform graphical user interface for synchrotron radiation spectral and optics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Dejus, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities) is a graphical user interface (GUI) created to execute several computer programs that calculate the basic information needed by a synchrotron beamline scientist (designer or experimentalist). Typical examples of such calculations are: insertion device (undulator or wiggler) spectral and angular distributions, mirror and multilayer reflectivities, and crystal diffraction profiles. All programs are provided to the user under a unified GUI, which greatly simplifies their execution. The XOP optics applications (especially mirror calculations) take their basic input (optical constants, compound and mixture tables) from a flexible file-oriented database, which allows the users to select data from a large number of choices and also to customize their own data sets. XOP includes many mathematical and visualization capabilities. It also permits the combination of reflectivities from several mirrors and filters, and their effect, onto a source spectrum. This feature is very useful when calculating thermal load on a series of optical elements. The XOP interface is written in the IDL (Interactive Data Language). An embedded version of XOP, which freely runs under most Unix platforms (HP, Sun, Dec, Linux, etc) and under Windows95 and NT, is available upon request.

  19. [The Research on Optic Fiber FBG Corrosion Sensor Based on the Analysis of the Spectral Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Jie; Wang, Bo; Wang, Wen-juan; Liang, Da-kai; Liu, Xiao-ying

    2016-03-01

    Aiming at meeting the need of aluminum corrosion monitoring in aerospace field, a pre-load type fiber grating corrosion sensor based on an aluminum thin tube structure is proposed. The corrosion sensor of aluminum alloy structure in-service monitoring mechanism is studied, a theoretical model about the relation of FBG reflection spectral characteristics and aluminum thickness variation is also obtained. Optical fiber grating corrosion monitoring test system based on the capillary structure of aluminum alloy is constructed by acid-base environment. The problem of cross sensitivity of temperature and strain is solved by configuring an optical fiber grating which is not affected by strain and only sensitive to temperature inside the aluminum alloy tube. The results shows that he aluminum tube packaging design not only can sense the effects of corrosion on the mechanical properties, but also can interference shielding effect of corrosion on the tube optical fiber sensing device. With the deepening of the metal tube corrosion and aluminum alloy tube thickness gradually thinning, fiber grating reflective spectrum gradually shift to the short wavelength and the wall thickness and the grating center wavelength offset has a good monotonic relation. These characteristics can provide useful help to further research corrosion online monitoring based on optic fiber sensor. PMID:27400537

  20. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  1. Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code for spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Hassan Yousif; Nisar, K. S.

    2013-08-01

    Code with ideal in-phase cross correlation (CC) and practical code length to support high number of users are required in spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. SAC systems are getting more attractive in the field of OCDMA because of its ability to eliminate the influence of multiple access interference (MAI) and also suppress the effect of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN). In this paper, we have proposed new Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code families with ideal in-phase CC based on Jordan block matrix with simple algebraic ways. Four sets of DEU code families based on the code weight W and number of users N for the combination (even, even), (even, odd), (odd, odd) and (odd, even) are constructed. This combination gives DEU code more flexibility in selection of code weight and number of users. These features made this code a compelling candidate for future optical communication systems. Numerical results show that the proposed DEU system outperforms reported codes. In addition, simulation results taken from a commercial optical systems simulator, Virtual Photonic Instrument (VPI™) shown that, using point to multipoint transmission in passive optical network (PON), DEU has better performance and could support long span with high data rate.

  2. Aortic endothelium detection using spectral estimation optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Si; Luo, Yuemei; Bo, En; Wang, Nanshuo; Yu, Xiaojun; Liu, Linbo

    2016-02-01

    The evaluation of the endothelium coverage on the vessel wall is most wanted by cardiologists. Arterial endothelial cells play a crucial role in keeping low-density lipoprotein and leukocytes from entering into the intima. The damage of endothelial cells is considered as the first step of atherosclerosis development and the presence of endothelial cells is an indicator of arterial healing after stent implantation. Intravascular OCT (IVOCT) is the highest-resolution coronary imaging modality, but it is still limited by an axial resolution of 10-15 µm. This limitation in axial resolution hinders our ability to visualize cellular level details associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Spectral estimation optical coherence tomography (SE-OCT) uses modern spectral estimation techniques and may help reveal the microstructures underlying the resolution limit. In this presentation, we conduct an ex vivo study using SE-OCT to image the endothelium cells on the fresh swine aorta. We find that in OCT images with an axial resolution of 10 µm, we may gain the visibility of individual endothelium cells by applying the autoregressive spectral estimation techniques to enhance the axial resolution. We believe the SE-OCT can provide a potential to evaluate the coverage of endothelium cells using current IVOCT with a 10-µm axial resolution.

  3. Spectral interferometric sensors for gases and liquids using integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingenhoff, Jan; Gauglitz, Guenter; Fabricius, Norbert

    1993-04-01

    Investigations for a sensor application with an integrated optical (IO) interferometric arrangement are presented. One of the two waveguide arms of an IO-Mach-Zehnder- interferometer is covered with a thin layer of polysiloxane (superstrate), which is sensitive to hydrocarbons. The dielectric IO-devices are fabricated by IOT. Gases of organic compounds including halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons cause a change of the polysiloxan's refractive index followed by an increase or decrease of the effective refractive index of the covered waveguide arm. The resulting phase shift between the guided light in the measuring and the reference arm depends on the detection wavelength and the concentration of gas. Using an LED as the light source the spectral interferogram becomes observable and so order and phase of the signal can be determined. The aim of this work is the development of a reversibly working, miniaturized sensor with a short response time. The advantages of spectral observation of the interference are discussed. A comparison between measured and calculated spectral interference signals is given.

  4. Likelihood Ratios for Glaucoma Diagnosis Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Renato; Mansouri, Kaweh; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present a methodology for calculating likelihood ratios for glaucoma diagnosis for continuous retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (spectral-domain OCT). Design Observational cohort study. Methods 262 eyes of 187 patients with glaucoma and 190 eyes of 100 control subjects were included in the study. Subjects were recruited from the Diagnostic Innovations Glaucoma Study. Eyes with preperimetric and perimetric glaucomatous damage were included in the glaucoma group. The control group was composed of healthy eyes with normal visual fields from subjects recruited from the general population. All eyes underwent RNFL imaging with Spectralis spectral-domain OCT. Likelihood ratios for glaucoma diagnosis were estimated for specific global RNFL thickness measurements using a methodology based on estimating the tangents to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Likelihood ratios could be determined for continuous values of average RNFL thickness. Average RNFL thickness values lower than 86μm were associated with positive LRs, i.e., LRs greater than 1; whereas RNFL thickness values higher than 86μm were associated with negative LRs, i.e., LRs smaller than 1. A modified Fagan nomogram was provided to assist calculation of post-test probability of disease from the calculated likelihood ratios and pretest probability of disease. Conclusion The methodology allowed calculation of likelihood ratios for specific RNFL thickness values. By avoiding arbitrary categorization of test results, it potentially allows for an improved integration of test results into diagnostic clinical decision-making. PMID:23972303

  5. Ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography using supercontinuum light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yiheng; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2016-04-01

    An ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was developed using a cost-effective supercontinuum laser. A spectral filter consists of a dispersive prism, a cylindrical lens and a right-angle prism was built to transmit the wavelengths in range 680-940 nm to the OCT system. The SD-OCT has achieved 1.9 μm axial resolution and the sensitivity was estimated to be 91.5 dB. A zero-crossing fringes matching method which maps the wavelengths to the pixel indices of the spectrometer was proposed for the OCT spectral calibration. A double sided foam tape as a static sample and the tip of a middle finger as a biological sample were measured by the OCT. The adhesive and the internal structure of the foam of the tape were successfully visualized in three dimensions. Sweat ducts was clearly observed in the OCT images at very high resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ultra-high resolution visualization of sweat duct by OCT.

  6. All-optical cryptography of M-QAM formats by using two-dimensional spectrally sliced keys.

    PubMed

    Abbade, Marcelo L F; Cvijetic, Milorad; Messani, Carlos A; Alves, Cleiton J; Tenenbaum, Stefan

    2015-05-10

    There has been an increased interest in enhancing the security of optical communications systems and networks. All-optical cryptography methods have been considered as an alternative to electronic data encryption. In this paper we propose and verify the use of a novel all-optical scheme based on cryptographic keys applied on the spectral signal for encryption of the M-QAM modulated data with bit rates of up to 200 gigabits per second. PMID:25967489

  7. IUE and optical spectral scans of U Sagittae - An analysis and comparison with U Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobias, J. J.; Plavec, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent optical and ultraviolet observations of U Sge are presented, and the results are compared with observations of U Cephei. The observations were carried out with: the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite; with the ITS scanner of the Lick Observatory; and with a Varo image-tube camera attached to a coude spectrograph. Comparison with data for U Ceph showed that U Sge is of the B7.5 V spectral type with an effective temperature of 12,250 + or 250 K, and a surface gravity of 3.9 + or - 0.1 log g. The secondary component of U Sge appears to be of the G4 III-IV spectral type. The best estimate for the distance of U Sge was 295 + or - 20 pc. Emission lines of the W Serpentis type were found in the IUE spectrum for U Sge. Although the observed fluxes for the lines were low, the powers were half as strong as those observed in U Cep. Selected emission lines of Fe II, Si II, and Si III were also found assuming solar abundances. A complete summary of the IUE and optical data is provided in a series of graphs and tables.

  8. Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate a new full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography (FRC SD-OCT) method. Other than FRC SD-OCT systems reported in literature, which employed devices such as electro-/acousto optic modulators or piezo-driven mirrors providing the phase modulations necessary for retrieval of the complex-valued signal, the system presented works without any additional phase shifting device. The required phase shift is introduced by the galvanometer scanner used for transversally scanning the sample beam. By means of a slight displacement of the probe beam with respect to the scanning mirror's pivot axis, the sample arm length and thus the phase is continuously modulated as the beam is scanned in lateral direction. From such modulated spectral data, the complex-valued data yielding a twofold increase of accessible depth range can be calculated using an algorithm based on the Hilbert transform. To demonstrate the performance of our method quantitative measurements of the suppression of mirror images as a function of induced phase shift were performed. In order to validate the FRC SD-OCT technique for high-speed imaging of biological tissue, we present full-range images of the human anterior chamber in vivo. PMID:19550607

  9. Optical fibre long period grating spectral actuators utilizing ferrofluids as outclading overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaki, M.; Candiani, A.; Pissadakis, S.

    2011-03-01

    Results are presented on the spectral tuning of optical fibre long period gratings utilizing water and oil based ferrofluids as outclading overlayers, under static magnetic field stimulus. Two approaches are adopted for modifying the ambient refractive index at the position of the long period grating. In the first approach, a water based ferrofluid is controllably translated along the length of the grating via a magnetic field. Changes as high as 7.5nm and 6.5dB are monitored in the wavelength and strength, respectively, of the attenuation bands of the grating. The repeatable performance of this device for repetitive forward and backward translation verifies that no ferrofluidic residue is left on the fibre, due to silanization cladding functionalisation. In the second approach, the refractive index of an oil based ferrofluidic overlayer is modified through the magneto-optical effect. For an applied static magnetic field in the order of 400 Gauss the strength of the attenuation band of the grating is modified by more than 10% while its spectral position remains unaffected. Accordingly for the implementation of the last approach, the magnetically induced refractive index changes of ferrofluids of different solution concentrations are studied by employing diffraction efficiency measurements.

  10. Augmenting the spectral efficiency of enhanced PAM-DMT-based optical wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Haas, Harald

    2016-05-30

    The energy efficiency of pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation (PAM-DMT) decreases as the modulation order of M-PAM modulation increases. Enhanced PAM-DMT (ePAM-DMT) was proposed as a solution to the reduced energy efficiency of PAM-DMT. This was achieved by allowing multiple streams of PAM-DMT to be superimposed and successively demodulated at the receiver side. In order to maintain a distortion-free unipolar ePAM-DMT system, the multiple time-domain PAM-DMT streams are required to be aligned. However, aligning the antisymmetry in ePAM-DMT is complex and results in efficiency losses. In this paper, a novel simplified method to apply the superposition modulation on M-PAM modulated discrete multitone (DMT) is introduced. Contrary to ePAM-DMT, the signal generation of the proposed system, termed augmented spectral efficiency discrete multitone (ASE-DMT), occurs in the frequency domain. This results in an improved spectral and energy efficiency. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance bound of the proposed system is derived and compared with Monte-Carlo simulations. The system performance is shown to offer significant electrical and optical energy savings compared with ePAM-DMT and DC-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). PMID:27410116

  11. Optical imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using a small number of spectral images for endoscopic application.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Tissue hypoxia is associated with tumor and inflammatory diseases, and detection of hypoxia is potentially useful for their detailed diagnosis. An endoscope system that can optically observe hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) would enable minimally invasive, real-time detection of lesion hypoxia in vivo. Currently, point measurement of tissue StO2 via endoscopy is possible using the commercial fiber-optic oximeter T-Stat, which is based on visible light spectroscopy at many wavelengths. For clinical use, however, imaging of StO2 is desirable to assess the distribution of tissue oxygenation around a lesion. Here, we describe our StO2 imaging technique based on a small number of wavelength ranges in the visible range. By assuming a homogeneous tissue, we demonstrated that tissue StO2 can be obtained independently from the scattering property and blood concentration of tissue using four spectral bands. We developed a prototype endoscope system and used it to observe tissue-simulating phantoms. The StO2 (%) values obtained using our technique agreed with those from the T-Stat within 10%. We also showed that tissue StO2 can be derived using three spectral band if the scattering property is fixed at preliminarily measured values. PMID:26720878

  12. Optical imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using a small number of spectral images for endoscopic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Tissue hypoxia is associated with tumor and inflammatory diseases, and detection of hypoxia is potentially useful for their detailed diagnosis. An endoscope system that can optically observe hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) would enable minimally invasive, real-time detection of lesion hypoxia in vivo. Currently, point measurement of tissue StO2 via endoscopy is possible using the commercial fiber-optic oximeter T-Stat, which is based on visible light spectroscopy at many wavelengths. For clinical use, however, imaging of StO2 is desirable to assess the distribution of tissue oxygenation around a lesion. Here, we describe our StO2 imaging technique based on a small number of wavelength ranges in the visible range. By assuming a homogeneous tissue, we demonstrated that tissue StO2 can be obtained independently from the scattering property and blood concentration of tissue using four spectral bands. We developed a prototype endoscope system and used it to observe tissue-simulating phantoms. The StO2 (%) values obtained using our technique agreed with those from the T-Stat within 10%. We also showed that tissue StO2 can be derived using three spectral band if the scattering property is fixed at preliminarily measured values.

  13. Spectral and nonlinear optical studies of Propane-1, 3-diaminium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, R.; Lhoste, J.; Ngo, H. M.; Ledoux-Rak, I.; Mhiri, T.; Boujelbene, M.

    2016-08-01

    Propane-1, 3-diaminium nitrate [C3H12N2] (NO3)2 (PDAN), an hybrid organic-inorganic nonlinear optical material combining an acentric octupolar moiety (nitrate) with a centrosymmetric organic molecule (Propane-1, 3-diaminium) was prepared by slow evaporation technique at room temperature from its aqueous solution. Good quality and well-developed crystals of size 0.133 mm×0.092 mm×0.078 mm were harvested from the mother solution. The grown single crystals were characterized for their spectral, thermal, linear and second order nonlinear optical properties. Solid-state 13C and 1H MAS-NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The decomposition of the title compound is confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The UV-visible absorption spectrum, show that PDAN is suitable for frequency doubling applications in a wide spectral range in the visible and near IR. The NLO response of the crystal was evaluated using a SHG powder technique, indicating an effective quadratic nonlinear coefficient two times higher than that of KDP in spite of the low hyperpolarizability of the nitrate ion and of the centrosymmetric character of the diaminium derivative.

  14. The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 {mu}m and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 {mu}m, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 {mu}m to 0.74 at 8.45 {mu}m. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 {mu}m to 7.84 at 8.45 {mu}m. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range.

  15. Application of independent component analysis method in real-time spectral analysis of gaseous mixtures for acousto-optical spectrometers based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, A. V.; Pozhar, V. E.

    2012-10-01

    It is discussed the reliability problem of time-optimized method for remote optical spectral analysis of gas-polluted ambient air. The method based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) enables fragmentary spectrum registration (FSR) and is suitable for random-spectral-access (RSA) optical spectrometers like acousto-optical (AO) ones. Here, it is proposed the algorithm based on statistical method of independent component analysis (ICA) for estimation of a correctness of absorption spectral lines selection for FSR-method. Implementations of ICA method for RSA-based real-time adaptive systems are considered. Numerical simulations are presented with use of real spectra detected by the trace gas monitoring system GAOS based on AO spectrometer.

  16. Optical and morphological properties of Cirrus clouds determined by the high spectral resolution lidar during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, Christian John; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    1990-01-01

    Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation and trap outgoing terrestrial radiation; therefore, accurate estimation of the global energy balance depends upon knowledge of the optical and physical properties of these clouds. Scattering and absorption by cirrus clouds affect measurements made by many satellite-borne and ground based remote sensors. Scattering of ambient light by the cloud, and thermal emissions from the cloud can increase measurement background noise. Multiple scattering processes can adversely affect the divergence of optical beams propagating through these clouds. Determination of the optical thickness and the vertical and horizontal extent of cirrus clouds is necessary to the evaluation of all of these effects. Lidar can be an effective tool for investigating these properties. During the FIRE cirrus IFO in Oct. to Nov. 1986, the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was operated from a rooftop site on the campus of the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin. Approximately 124 hours of fall season data were acquired under a variety of cloud optical thickness conditions. Since the IFO, the HSRL data set was expanded by more than 63.5 hours of additional data acquired during all seasons. Measurements are presented for the range in optical thickness and backscattering phase function of the cirrus clouds, as well as contour maps of extinction corrected backscatter cross sections indicating cloud morphology. Color enhanced images of range-time indicator (RTI) displays a variety of cirrus clouds with approximately 30 sec time resolution are presented. The importance of extinction correction on the interpretation of cloud height and structure from lidar observations of optically thick cirrus are demonstrated.

  17. The relationship between variable and polarized optical spectral components of luminous type 1 non-blazar quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    Optical spectropolarimetry by Kishimoto et al. (2004, MNRAS, 354, 1065) has shown that several luminous type 1 quasars show a strong decrease of the polarized continuum flux in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of λ < 4000 Å. In the literature, this spectral feature is interpreted as evidence of the broadened hydrogen Balmer absorption edge imprinted on the accretion disk thermal emission due to the disk atmospheric opacity effect. On the other hand, quasar flux variability studies have shown that the variable continuum component in UV-optical spectra of quasars, which is considered to be a good indicator of the intrinsic spectral shape of the accretion disk emission, generally has a significantly flat spectral shape throughout the near-UV to optical spectral range. To examine whether the disk continuum spectral shapes revealed as the polarized flux and as the variable component spectra are consistent with each other, we carry out multi-band photometric monitoring observations for a sample of four polarization-decreasing quasars of Kishimoto et al.'s (4C 09.72, 3C 323.1, Ton 202, and B2 1208+32) to derive the variable component spectra and compare the spectral shape of them with that of the polarized flux spectra. Contrary to expectation, we confirm that the two spectral components of these quasars have totally different spectral shapes, in that the variable component spectra are significantly bluer compared to the polarized flux spectra. This discrepancy between two spectrals shape may imply either (1) the decrease of polarization degree in the rest-frame UV wavelengths is not indicating the Balmer absorption edge feature but is induced by some unknown (de)polarization mechanisms, or (2) the UV-optical flux variability is occurring preferentially at the hot inner radii of the accretion disk and thus the variable component spectra do not reflect the whole accretion disk emission.

  18. The relationship between variable and polarized optical spectral components of luminous type 1 non-blazar quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru

    2016-08-01

    Optical spectropolarimetry by Kishimoto et al. (2004, MNRAS, 354, 1065) has shown that several luminous type 1 quasars show a strong decrease of the polarized continuum flux in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of λ < 4000 Å. In the literature, this spectral feature is interpreted as evidence of the broadened hydrogen Balmer absorption edge imprinted on the accretion disk thermal emission due to the disk atmospheric opacity effect. On the other hand, quasar flux variability studies have shown that the variable continuum component in UV-optical spectra of quasars, which is considered to be a good indicator of the intrinsic spectral shape of the accretion disk emission, generally has a significantly flat spectral shape throughout the near-UV to optical spectral range. To examine whether the disk continuum spectral shapes revealed as the polarized flux and as the variable component spectra are consistent with each other, we carry out multi-band photometric monitoring observations for a sample of four polarization-decreasing quasars of Kishimoto et al.'s (4C 09.72, 3C 323.1, Ton 202, and B2 1208+32) to derive the variable component spectra and compare the spectral shape of them with that of the polarized flux spectra. Contrary to expectation, we confirm that the two spectral components of these quasars have totally different spectral shapes, in that the variable component spectra are significantly bluer compared to the polarized flux spectra. This discrepancy between two spectral shapes may imply either (1) the decrease of polarization degree in the rest-frame UV wavelengths is not indicating the Balmer absorption edge feature but is induced by some unknown (de)polarization mechanisms, or (2) the UV-optical flux variability is occurring preferentially at the hot inner radii of the accretion disk and thus the variable component spectra do not reflect the whole accretion disk emission.

  19. Optical Spectral Surveillance of Breast Tissue Landscapes for Detection of Residual Disease in Breast Tumor Margins

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Caldwell, Matthew L.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Junker, Marlee; Wilke, Lee G.; Barry, William T.; Geradts, Joseph; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a strategy to “sense” the micro-morphology of a breast tumor margin over a wide field of view by creating quantitative hyperspectral maps of the tissue optical properties (absorption and scattering), where each voxel can be deconstructed to provide information on the underlying histology. Information about the underlying tissue histology is encoded in the quantitative spectral information (in the visible wavelength range), and residual carcinoma is detected as a shift in the histological landscape to one with less fat and higher glandular content. To demonstrate this strategy, fully intact, fresh lumpectomy specimens (n = 88) from 70 patients were imaged intra-operatively. The ability of spectral imaging to sense changes in histology over large imaging areas was determined using inter-patient mammographic breast density (MBD) variation in cancer-free tissues as a model system. We discovered that increased MBD was associated with higher baseline β-carotene concentrations (p = 0.066) and higher scattering coefficients (p = 0.007) as measured by spectral imaging, and a trend toward decreased adipocyte size and increased adipocyte density as measured by histological examination in BMI-matched patients. The ability of spectral imaging to detect cancer intra-operatively was demonstrated when MBD-specific breast characteristics were considered. Specifically, the ratio of β-carotene concentration to the light scattering coefficient can report on the relative amount of fat to glandular density at the tissue surface to determine positive margin status, when baseline differences in these parameters between patients with low and high MBD are taken into account by the appropriate selection of threshold values. When MBD was included as a variable a priori, the device was estimated to have a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 86% in detecting close or positive margins, regardless of tumor type. Superior performance was demonstrated in high

  20. Spectral estimation optical coherence tomography for axial super-resolution (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinyu; Yu, Xiaojun; Wang, Nanshuo; Bo, En; Luo, Yuemei; Chen, Si; Cui, Dongyao; Liu, Linbo

    2016-03-01

    The sample depth reflectivity profile of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is estimated from the inverse Fourier transform of the spectral interference signals (interferograms). As a result, the axial resolution is fundamentally limited by the coherence length of the light source. We demonstrate an axial resolution improvement method by using the autoregressive spectral estimation technique to instead of the inverse Fourier transform to analyze the spectral interferograms, which is named as spectral estimation OCT (SE-OCT). SE-OCT improves the axial resolution by a factor of up to 4.7 compared with the corresponding FD-OCT. Furthermore, SE-OCT provides a complete sidelobe suppression in the point-spread function. Using phantoms such as an air wedge and micro particles, we prove the ability of resolution improvement. To test SE-OCT for real biological tissue, we image the rat cornea and demonstrate that SE-OCT enables clear identification of corneal endothelium anatomical details ex vivo. We also find that the performance of SE-OCT is depended on SNR of the feature object. To evaluate the potential usage and define the application scope of SE-OCT, we further investigate the property of SNR dependence and the artifacts that may be caused. We find SE-OCT may be uniquely suited for viewing high SNR layer structures, such as the epithelium and endothelium in cornea, retina and aorta. Given that SE-OCT can be implemented in the FD-OCT devices easily, the new capabilities provided by SE-OCT are likely to offer immediate improvements to the diagnosis and management of diseases based on OCT imaging.

  1. Spectral Clustering for Unsupervised Segmentation of Lower Extremity Wound Beds Using Optical Images.

    PubMed

    Dhane, Dhiraj Manohar; Krishna, Vishal; Achar, Arun; Bar, Chittaranjan; Sanyal, Kunal; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Chronic lower extremity wound is a complicated disease condition of localized injury to skin and its tissues which have plagued many elders worldwide. The ulcer assessment and management is expensive and is burden on health establishment. Currently accurate wound evaluation remains a tedious task as it rely on visual inspection. This paper propose a new method for wound-area detection, using images digitally captured by a hand-held, optical camera. The strategy proposed involves spectral approach for clustering, based on the affinity matrix. The spectral clustering (SC) involves construction of similarity matrix of Laplacian based on Ng-Jorden-Weiss algorithm. Starting with a quadratic method, wound photographs were pre-processed for color homogenization. The first-order statistics filter was then applied to extract spurious regions. The filter was selected based on the performance, evaluated on four quality metrics. Then, the spectral method was used on the filtered images for effective segmentation. The segmented regions were post-processed using morphological operators. The performance of spectral segmentation was confirmed by ground-truth pictures labeled by dermatologists. The SC results were additionally compared with the results of k-means and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithms. The SC approach on a set of 105 images, effectively delineated targeted wound beds yielding a segmentation accuracy of 86.73 %, positive predictive values of 91.80 %, and a sensitivity of 89.54 %. This approach shows the robustness of tool for ulcer perimeter measurement and healing progression. The article elucidates its potential to be incorporated in patient facing medical systems targeting a rapid clinical assistance. PMID:27520612

  2. Development of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for in vivo Functional Imaging of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lin

    Optical coherence tomography is a rapidly developing optical imaging modality capable of noninvasively providing depth resolved information of biological tissue at micrometer scale. In this thesis, we described several OCT technologies that can be used to double the imaging depth, realize functional vasculature imaging of biological tissue and increase the imaging speed of OCT system. Aim 1: Use of a scanner to introduce spatial frequency modulation to OCT spectral interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. A novel method was developed that could easily introduce a modulation frequency onto the X-direction (i.e., B-scan) of the FDOCT scanning system, enabling full-range Fourier-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (frFDOCT). Compared to the conventional FDOCT system, the newly developed frFDOCT system can provide increased system sensitivity and deeper imaging depth. The previous technology that can achieve frFDOCT either needed multiple steps for data capturing, which is time consuming, or required additional components which increased the system's complexity. The newly developed method generates a modulation spatial frequency in the spectral interferogram by simply offsetting the probe beam at the X-scanner. Aim 2: Using optical micro-angiography to achieve in vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids. Optical Micro-Angiography (OMAG) is a functional extension of FDOCT technology. It can achieve visualization of vasculature network of biological tissue. In order to apply the OMAG method to image vasculature map of human retina and choroid, a phase compensation algorithm was developed, which could minimize the motion artifacts generated by the movements of human eye and head. Aim 3: Developing ultrahigh sensitive optical micro-angiography to achieve micro vasculature imaging of biological tissue. To improve the vasculature image quality, we developed ultrahigh sensitive OMAG (UHS

  3. Optical characterization of SiO2 thin films using universal dispersion model over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan; Giglia, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Vacuum evaporated SiO2 thin films are very important in a design and manufacturing of optical devices produced in optics industry. In this contribution a reliable and precise optical characterization of such SiO2 thin films is performed using the combined method of spectrophotometry at normal incidence and variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry applied over spectral range from far IR to extreme UV (0.01-45 eV). This method uses the Universal Dispersion Model based on parametrization of the joint density of states and structural model comprising film defects such as nanometric boundary roughness, inhomogeneity and area non-uniformity. The optical characterization over the wide spectral range provides not only the spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the films within the wide range but, more significantly, it enables their correct and precise determination within the spectral range of interest, i.e. the range of their transparency. Furthermore, measurements in the ranges of film absorption, i. e. phonon excitations in IR and electron excitations in UV, reveal information about the material structure. The results of the optical characterization of the SiO2 thin films prepared on silicon single crystal substrates under various technological conditions are presented in detail for two selected samples. Beside film thicknesses and values of dispersion parameters and spectral dependencies of the optical constants of the SiO2 films, the characterization also enables quantification of film defects and their parameters are presented as well. The results concerning the optical constants of SiO2 films are compared with silica optical constants determined in our earlier studies.

  4. Ultra-wideband fiber optical parametric amplifier for spectrally-encoded microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoming; Tan, Sisi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) has gained its popularity in the telecommunication systems at the 1.5-um window for its gain, bandwidth etc. Unfortunately, its practical application at the bio-favorable window, i.e. 1.0 um, still requires substantial efforts. Thus, here we report a versatile all-fiber optical parametric amplifier for life-science (OPALS) at 1.0 um as an add-on module for optical imaging system. The parametric gain fiber (photonic-crystal fiber (PCF), 110 m in length) is specially designed to reduce the longitudinal dispersion fluctuation, which yields a superior figure of merit, i.e. a total insertion loss of ~2.5 dB and a nonlinear coefficient of 34 /(W•km). Our OPALS delivers a superior performance in terms of gain (~158,000), bandwidth (>100 nm) and gain flatness (< 3-dB ripple). Experimentally, we show that: 1) a wavelength-varying quasi-monochrome pump achieves a 52-dB gain and 160-nm bandwidth, but at the expense of a larger gain-spectrum ripple, i.e. a bell-shaped; 2) the birefringence of the parametric gain medium, i.e. PCF in this case, can be utilized to improve the gain-spectrum flatness of OPALS by 10.5 dB, meanwhile a 100-nm bandwidth can be guaranteed; 3) the gain-spectrum flatness of OPALS can be further flattened by using a high-speed wavelength-sweeping pump, which exhibits a 110-nm flat gain spectrum with ripple less than 3 dB. Finally, we employ this versatile all-fiber OPALS as an add-on module to enhance the sensitivity of a spectrally-encoded microscope by 47 dB over an ultra-wide spectral range.

  5. Optical spectral analysis of ultra-weak photon emission from tissue culture and yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerudová, Michaela; Červinková, Kateřina; Hašek, Jiří; Cifra, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical spectral analysis of the ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) could be utilized for non-invasive diagnostic of state of biological systems and for elucidation of underlying mechanisms of UPE generation. Optical spectra of UPE from differentiated HL-60 cells and yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were investigated. Induced photon emission of neutrophil-like cells and spontaneous photon emission of yeast cells were measured using highly sensitive photomultiplier module Hamamatsu H7360-01 in a thermally regulated light-tight chamber. The respiratory burst of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells was induced with the PMA (phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate). PMA activates an assembly of NADPH oxidase, which induces a rapid formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Long-pass edge filters (wavelength 350, from 400 to 600 with 25 nm resolution and 650 nm) were used for optical spectral analysis. Propagation of error of indirect measurements and standard deviation were used to assess reliability of the measured spectra. Results indicate that the photon emission from both cell cultures is detectable in the six from eight examined wavelength ranges with different percentage distribution of cell suspensions, particularly 450-475, 475-500, 500-525, 525-550, 550-575 and 575-600 nm. The wavelength range of spectra from 450 to 550 nm coincides with the range of photon emission from triplet excited carbonyls (350-550 nm). The both cells cultures emitted photons in wavelength range from 550 to 600 nm but this range does not correspond with any known emitter. To summarize, we have demonstrated a clear difference in the UPE spectra between two organisms using rigorous methodology and error analysis.

  6. Stellar parameters of early-M dwarfs from ratios of spectral features at optical wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Affer, L.; Micela, G.; Scandariato, G.; Damasso, M.; Stelzer, B.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Biazzo, K.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; Claudi, R. U.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, M.; Gratton, R.; González Hernández, J. I.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Perger, M.; Pillitteri, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Prisinzano, L.; Rebolo, R.; Ribas, I.; Shkolnik, E.; Southworth, J.; Sozzetti, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Low-mass stars have been recognised as promising targets in the search for rocky, small planets with the potential of supporting life. As a consequence, Doppler search programmes using high-resolution spectrographs like HARPS or HARPS-N are providing huge quantities of optical spectra of M dwarfs. However, determining the stellar parameters of M dwarfs using optical spectra has proven to be challenging. Aims: We aim to calibrate empirical relationships to determine accurate stellar parameters for early-M dwarfs (spectral types M0-M4.5) using the same spectra as those that are used for radial velocity determinations, without the necessity of acquiring IR spectra or relying on atmospheric models and/or photometric calibrations. Methods: Our methodology consists of using ratios of pseudo-equivalent widths of spectral features as a temperature diagnostic, a technique frequently used in solar-type stars. Stars with effective temperatures obtained from interferometric estimates of their radii are used as calibrators. Empirical calibrations for the spectral type are also provided. Combinations of features and ratios of features are used to derive calibrations for the stellar metallicity. Our methods are then applied to a large sample of M dwarfs that are currently being observed in the framework of the HARPS GTO search for extrasolar planets. The derived temperatures and metallicities are used together with photometric estimates of mass, radius, and surface gravity to calibrate empirical relationships for these parameters. Results: A long list of spectral features in the optical spectra of early-M dwarfs was identified. This list shows that the pseudo-equivalent width of roughly 43% of the features is strongly anticorrelated with the effective temperature. The correlation with the stellar metallicity is weaker. A total of 112 temperature sensitive ratios were identified and calibrated over the range 3100-3950 K, providing effective temperatures with typical

  7. Comments on the Operation of Capillary Pumped Loop Devices in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, K. P.; Allen, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  8. Coherent Combining of Optical Pulses in Spatial, Spectral and Time Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong

    Petawatt-level laser pulses have many potential applications in science and industry, but will require three orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition rate from existing solid-state laser technology. Fiber lasers can operate at such repetition rates, but are limited in pulse energy. To overcome the gap between current achievable fiber-laser pulse energies (˜mJ) and required pulse energies for high-energy applications (up to 10J), this dissertation work explores four novel techniques: (1) Coherent beam combining in the spatial domain; (2) Coherent spectral combining in spatial and spectral domains; (3) Coherent pulse stacking amplification in the time domain; (4) N-squared coherent combining in spatial and time domains. (1) We demonstrate coherent femtosecond pulse beam combining of up to four chirped-pulse fiber amplifier channels. Theoretical and experimental analysis of combining efficiency dependence on amplitude/phase noise shows the scalability to a large number of channels. (2) We demonstrate coherent femtosecond pulse spectral synthesis by combining three parallel fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers, each amplifying different pulse spectra. This technique simultaneously overcomes individual-amplifier energy/power limitations, and spectral gain narrowing in a single fiber amplifier. (3) We propose and demonstrate a new technique of coherent pulse stacking (CPS) amplification, which uses reflecting resonators to transform a sequence of phase/amplitude modulated optical pulses into a single output pulse. Experimental validation with a single resonator is demonstrated. We show theoretically that the extension to stacking a large number of equal-amplitude pulses can be achieved using multiple reflecting resonators, which enables the extraction of all stored energy in large-core fiber amplifiers. (4) We propose and demonstrate N-squared coherent combining using resonant optical cavities, a novel pulse combining technique based on both spatial combining and

  9. Spectral Measurements from the Optical Emission of the A.C. Plasma Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlis, Eric; Marshall, Curtis; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2015-11-01

    The optical emission properties of a new class of AC-driven flow sensors based on a glow discharge (plasma) is presented. These results extend the utility of the plasma sensor that has recently been developed for measurements in high-enthalpy flows. The plasma sensor utilizes a high frequency (1MHz) AC discharge between two electrodes as the main sensing element. The voltage drop across the discharge correlates to changes in the external flow which can be calibrated for mass-flux (ρU) or pressure depending on the design of the electrodes and orientation relative to the free-stream flow direction. Recent experiments examine the potential for spectral analysis of the optical emission of the discharge to provide additional insight to the flow field. These experiments compare the optical emission of the plasma to emission from breakdown due to an ND:YAG laser. The oxygen 777.3 nm band in particular is a focus of interest as a marker for the determination of gas density.

  10. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  11. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  12. Identification of surface defects on glass by parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyan; Shen, Yi; Bao, Wen; Li, Peng; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zhihua

    2015-09-01

    Defects can dramatically degrade glass quality, and automatic inspection is a trend of quality control in modern industry. One challenge in inspection in an uncontrolled environment is the misjudgment of fake defects (such as dust particles) as surface defects. Fortunately, optical changes within the periphery of a surface defect are usually introduced while those of a fake defect are not. The existence of changes within the defect peripheries can be adopted as a criterion for defect identification. However, modifications within defect peripheries can be too small to be noticeable in intensity based optical image of the glass surface, and misjudgments of modifications may occur due to the incorrectness in defect demarcation. Thus, a sensitive and reliable method for surface defect identification is demanded. To this end, a nondestructive method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed to precisely demarcate surface defects and sensitively measure surface deformations. Suspected surface defects are demarcated using the algorithm based on complex difference from expectation. Modifications within peripheries of suspected surface defects are mapped by phase information from complex interface signal. In this way, surface defects are discriminated from fake defects using a parallel spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) system. Both simulations and experiments are conducted, and these preliminary results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method to identify glass surface defects. PMID:26368461

  13. The Optical and X-ray Spectral Properties of the Swift BAT-detected AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, R.; Lewis, K.; Veilleux, S.; Koss, M.; Keeney, B.

    2010-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), while not focused on a Gamma-ray burst, conducts an all-sky survey in the 14 - 195 keV band. After the first 9 months, the BAT has detected a sample of 153 local (z 0.03) AGN at a flux limit of a few times 10-11 erg/s/cm-2 (Tueller et al. 2007). Since the AGN were detected at very high X-ray energies, they are an unbiased sample towards Compton thin AGN. We present the X-ray and optical spectral properties of a sample of the BAT AGN, including optical spectra obtained from the literature, SDSS, and our own KPNO 2.1-m observations. Among our results, we show that the optically identified Seyfert 1s and 2s have the same distribution of X-ray and [O III] luminosities. We also find that [O III] luminosity is not well-correlated with the hard X-rays and therefore not a good indicator of bolometric luminosity, supporting the results of Melendez et al. (2008).

  14. Double-way spectral tunability for the control of optical nanocavity resonance

    PubMed Central

    Baida, Fadi I.; Grosjean, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) has been successful in finely tuning the optical properties of photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities. The SNOM nanoprobes proposed so far allowed for either redshifting or blueshifting the resonance peak of the PC structures. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate the possibility of a redshifting (up to +0.65 nm) and a blueshifting (up to −5 nm) the PC cavity resonance wavelength with a single perturbation element. As an example, a fiber bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) engraved at the apex of a SNOM tip is proposed to play this role. The double-way tunability is the result of a competition between an induced electric dipole (BNA at resonance) leading to a redshift and an induced magnetic dipole (the tip metalcoating) giving rise to a blueshift of the resonance wavelength. We demonstrate that the sign of the spectral shift can be simply controlled through the tip-to-cavity distance. This study opens the way to the full postproduction control of the resonance wavelength of high quality-factor optical cavities. PMID:26642935

  15. Micro- and nanophotonic structures in the visible and near infrared spectral region for optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Cam Hoang, Thi Hong; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present some research results on the micro and nano-photonic structures in the visible and near infrared spectral region for optical devices that have been done within the framework of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program of Institute of Materials Science. In the first part, we report the design and fabrication of 1D photonic structure based on porous silicon layers fabricated by electrochemical etching method and some of their potential applications such as optical filters, microcavity and optical sensors for distinguishing the content of bio-gasoline. In addition, we demonstrate some results on preparation of the 2D and 3D nanophotonic structures based on silica opal layers prepared by sol-gel and self-assembled methods. In the second part, we demonstrate the results of lasing emissions of erbium ions in the visible and near infrared zone from microcavity. The observation of emission of single-mode green light at the wavelength of 537 nm from erbium ions in the microcavity is interesting for the study of atom-photon interaction phenomenon. In the last part, we will show some new results of design and fabrication of nanocomposite based on nanoscale TiO2 and/or ZnO and nanoparticles of semiconductors and metals, which are oriented to the fabrication of energy conversion and photo-reactor devices. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2012, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  16. Image slicing with a twist: spatial and spectral Nyquist sampling without anamorphic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecza, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Integral field spectrographs have become mainstream instruments at modern telescopes because of their efficient way of collecting data-cubes. Image slicer based integral field spectrographs achieve the highest fill-factor on the detector, but due to the need to Nyquist-sample the spectra, their spatial sampling on the sky is rectangular. Using anamorphic pre-optics before the image slicer overcomes this effect further maximising the fill-factor, but introduces optical aberrations, throughput losses, and additional alignment and calibration requirements, compromising overall instrument performance. In this paper I present a concept for an image-slicer that achieves both spatial and spectral Nyquist-sampling without anamorphic pre-optics. Rotating each slitlet by 45° with respect to the dispersion direction, and arranging them into a saw-tooth pseudo-slit, leads to a lozenge shaped sampling element on the sky, however, the centres of the lozenges lie on a regular and square grid, satisfying the Nyquist sampling criterion in both spatial directions.

  17. Optically sectioned spatial-spectral coded holographic fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Lin, Chen-Yen; Lin, Wei Tang; Luo, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Wide-field fluorescent imaging severely suffers low resolution and poor contrast from out-of-focus background to image biological samples. In order to enhance optical sectioning capability, Confocal approach has been developed to filter out-of-focus background using point-to-point detection through a spatial pinhole. Recently, active structured illumination in wide-field fashion has been developed to reduce the transversal scanning cost, but still requires scanning in axial direction. Here, we present a wide-field multi-focal fluorescence microscopy incorporating spatial-spectral volume holographic gratings (MVHGs) with 3D active structured illumination to obtain optically sectioned images without scanning is presented. In contrast to conventional holographic techniques, which in general can not obtain fluorescence images, our approach does not require the formation of a hologram during imaging and is compatible with fluorescence based methods of imaging. Our approach requires pair-wise multi-depth resolved images, one with 3D active illumination, and the other with standard uniform illumination. Our approach is configured such that 3D illuminated planes occur inside the specimen, and also serve as the structured modulation for multiple axial planes imaged by MVHGs and display laterally onto the camera. The system can also be combined with micro-objective and relay systems for endoscopic operation. We demonstrate the proposed system's ability to simultaneously obtain wide-field, optically sectioned, and multi-depth resolved images of fluorescently labeled tissue structures.

  18. Surface tension and bubble shapes in a partially filled rotating cylinder under low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Leslie, Fred W.; Hong, B. B.

    1988-01-01

    A computer algorithm is developed to simulate the profile of a free liquid surface for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry. The equilibrium shape of the free surface is governed by a balance of capillary, centrifugal, and gravity forces. The results can be used to determine the profile of a bubble at various rotating speeds under the gravity environments from low gravity, microgravity to zero-gravity. The present paper discusses the further extension of the study of the determination of bubble shape in a higher rotating speed container developed by Hung and Leslie.

  19. Growth experiment of organic metal crystal in low gravity (M-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzai, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to grow large, high-quality single crystals of the organic metal (TMTTF-TCNQ) by the diffusion method without thermal fluctuation due to convection and gravitational sedimentation, and to evaluate the difference in properties between such crystals grown in low gravity and the ones obtained on Earth. The expected results may fix several physical properties of TMTTF-TCNQ, lead to the discovery of new phenomena, and enable us to analyze diffusion processes in a precise way. The result will contribute to the development of research on organic metals and, generally, on crystal growth.

  20. Low-gravity homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [Apollo-Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    The III-V semiconducting compound AlSb shows promise as a highly efficient solar cell material, but it has not been commercially exploited because of difficulties in compound synthesis. Liquid state homogenization and solidification of AlSb were carried out in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Experiment MA-044 in the hope that compositional homogeneity would be improved by negating the large density difference between the two constituents. Post-flight analysis and comparative characterization of the space-processed and ground-processed samples indicate that there are major homogeneity improvements in the low-gravity solidified material.

  1. Development of Uniform Microstructures in Immiscible Alloys by Processing in a Low-Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Brush, L. N.

    1996-01-01

    Highly segregated macrostructures tend to develop during processing of hypermonotectic alloys because of the density difference existing between the two liquid phases. The approximately 4.6 seconds of low-gravity provided by Marshall Space Flight Center's 105 meter drop tube was utilized to minimize density-driven separation and promote uniform microstructures in hypermonotectic Ag-Ni and Ag-Mn alloys. For the Ag-Ni alloys a numerical model was developed to track heat flow and solidification of the bi-metal drop configuration. Results, potential applications, and future work are presented.

  2. Development of uniform microstructures in immiscible alloys by processing in a low-gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.

    1996-07-01

    Highly segregated macrostructures tend to develop during processing hypermonotectic alloys because of the density difference existing between the two liquid phases. The approximate 4-6 seconds of low-gravity provided by Marshall Space FLight Center's 105 meter drop tube was utilized to minimize density-driven separation and promote uniform microstructures in hypermonotectic Ag-Ni and Ag-Mn alloys. For the Ag-Ni alloys a numerical model was developed to track heat flow and solidification of the bi-metal drop configuration. Results, potential applications, and future work are presented.

  3. Imposed Radiation Effects on Flame Spread over Black PMMA in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Hegde, U.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of varying imposed radiation levels on the flame spread and burning characteristics of PMMA in low gravity. The NASA Learjet is used for these experiments; it provides an environment of 10(exp -2) g's for approximately 20 seconds. Flame spread rates are found to increase non-linearly with increased external radiant flux over the range studied. This range of imposed flux values is believed to be sufficient to compensate for the radiative loss from the flame and the surface.

  4. Retinal Thickness Measurement Obtained with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Assisted Optical Biopsy Accurately Correlates with Ex Vivo Histology

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lee R.; Grover, Sandeep; Dominguez II, James M.; Balaiya, Sankarathi; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study determines ‘correlation constants’ between the gold standard histological measurement of retinal thickness and the newer spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) technology in adult C57BL/6 mice. Methods Forty-eight eyes from adult mice underwent SD-OCT imaging and then were histologically prepared for frozen sectioning with H&E staining. Retinal thickness was measured via 10x light microscopy. SD-OCT images and histological sections were standardized to three anatomical sites relative to the optic nerve head (ONH) location. The ratios between SD-OCT to histological thickness for total retinal thickness (TRT) and six sublayers were defined as ‘correlation constants’. Results Mean (± SE) TRT for SD-OCT and histological sections was 210.95 µm (±1.09) and 219.58 µm (±2.67), respectively. The mean ‘correlation constant’ for TRT between the SD-OCT and histological sections was 0.96. The retinal thickness for all sublayers measured by SD-OCT vs. histology were also similar, the ‘correlation constant’ values ranged from 0.70 to 1.17. All SD-OCT and histological measurements demonstrated highly significant (p<0.01) strong positive correlations. Conclusion This study establishes conversion factors for the translation of ex vivo data into in vivo information; thus enhancing the applicability of SD-OCT in translational research. PMID:25360629

  5. High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Cense, Barry; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Gao, Weihua; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Jones, Steve; Olivier, Scot; Miller, Donald T.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first observations of the three-dimensional morphology of cone photoreceptors in the living human retina. Images were acquired with a high-speed adaptive optics (AO) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) camera. The AO system consisted of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and bimorph mirror (AOptix) that measured and corrected the ocular and system aberrations at a closed-loop rate of 12 Hz. The bimorph mirror was positioned between the XY mechanical scanners and the subject’s eye. The SD-OCT system consisted of a superluminescent diode and a 512 pixel line scan charge-coupled device (CCD) that acquired 75,000 A-scans/s. This rate is more than two times faster than that previously reported. Retinal motion artifacts were minimized by quickly acquiring small volume images of the retina with and without AO compensation. Camera sensitivity was sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. The regular distribution of bright spots observed within C-scans at the inner segment / outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and at the posterior tips of the OS were found to be highly correlated with one another and with the expected cone spacing. No correlation was found between the posterior tips of the OS and the other retinal layers examined, including the retinal pigment epithelium. PMID:19096730

  6. First observational Evidence of Rossby Wave Signatures in Spectral Aerosol Optical Depths over Central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devulapalli, P. V.; Kondapalli, N. K.; Krishna, S.; Ratnam, M.; Naja, M. K.; Kishore, R.

    2013-12-01

    It is now well known that the atmospheric aerosols (both natural and anthropogenic) exhibit large spatial, temporal and spectral uncertainties due to the short residence time and the diverse aerosol types. For example, aerosol loading varies not only from year to year but also on higher frequency intra-seasonal time scales producing strong variability on local and regional scales. Considering the advancements in the morphology of aerosol layers and their contribution to earth's radiation budget, recent studies tried to understand the role of atmospheric waves in variability of AODs from fast moving gravity waves to slow moving planetary-scale waves. It is also evident from earlier reports that the planetary-scale waves are intense in winter in both the hemispheres and play vital role in transporting not only energy and momentum but also atmospheric trace species. Very few reports till date showed modulations in the spectral AODs, from the equatorial and tropical latitudes by Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) which dominates the tropical variability on time scales of 30-70 days. However, there are no reports yet neither from mid- nor from high latitudes showing the effect of planetary scale waves on spectral AODs and their quantification of the aerosol radiative forcing due to long period modulations. Hence, it is very important to understand the variability of aerosols, and the spectral AODs in terms of atmospheric wave modulations. This could be an essential input to the global and regional aerosol models to assess the global and regional radiative forcing and subsequent climate impacts. For the first time, long period modulations in spectral Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) over extra-tropical region, Manora Peak, Nainital (29.4oN; 79.2oE; 1957m AMSL) in Central Himalayas are presented. Power spectrum analysis of AODs showed the existence of dominant 25-45 day oscillation, apart from quasi-6.5 and quasi-16 day waves. The 25-45 day oscillations are also seen in MODIS

  7. Picosecond optically reconfigurable filters exploiting full free spectral range tuning of single ring and Vernier effect resonators.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Roman; Mills, Ben; Thomson, David J; Troia, Benedetto; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Reed, Graham T; Muskens, Otto L

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that phase shifts larger than 2π can be induced by all-optical tuning in silicon waveguides of a few micrometers in length. By generating high concentrations of free carriers in the silicon employing absorption of ultrashort, ultraviolet laser pulses, the refractive index of silicon can be drastically reduced. As a result, the resonance wavelength of optical resonators can be freely tuned over the full free spectral range. This allows for active integrated optic devices that can be switched with GHz frequencies into any desired state by all-optical means. PMID:25969332

  8. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  9. Fast retinal layer segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianqiao; Song, Zhangjun; Wang, Xiaogang; Zheng, Huimin; Jia, Fucang; Wu, Jianhuang; Li, Guanglin; Hu, Qingmao

    2015-09-01

    An approach to segment macular layer thicknesses from spectral domain optical coherence tomography has been proposed. The main contribution is to decrease computational costs while maintaining high accuracy via exploring Kalman filtering, customized active contour, and curve smoothing. Validation on 21 normal volumes shows that 8 layer boundaries could be segmented within 5.8 s with an average layer boundary error <2.35 μm. It has been compared with state-of-the-art methods for both normal and age-related macular degeneration cases to yield similar or significantly better accuracy and is 37 times faster. The proposed method could be a potential tool to clinically quantify the retinal layer boundaries.

  10. Birefringence imaging of biological tissue by spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhijun; Fan, Chuanmao; Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiang; Ma, Zhenhe; Zhang, Fan; Yao, Jianquan; Wang, R. K.

    2007-02-01

    A spectral domain Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (SDPS-OCT) system has been developed to acquire depth images of biological tissues such as porcine tendon, rabbit eye. The Stocks vectors (I, Q, U, and V) of the backscattered light from the biological tissues have been reconstructed. Further, the phase retardation and polarization degree between the two orthogonal polarizing states have been computed. Reconstructed images, i.e. birefringence images, from Stokes parameters, retardation and polarization degree of biological tissues show significant local variations in the polarization state. And the birefringence contrast of biological tissue possibly changes by some outside force. In addition, the local thickness of the birefringence layer determined with our system is significant. The results presented show SDPS-OCT is a potentially powerful technique to investigate tissue structural properties on the basis of the fact that any fibrous structure with biological tissues can influence the polarization state of light.

  11. Two-level optical coherence tomography scheme for suppressing spectral saturation artifacts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiung-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lee, Cheng-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for reducing saturation artifacts in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems. This method is based on a two-level SD-OCT system with a dual-line charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We compensate the saturated signal detected by the first line using the unsaturated signal detected by the second line. The Fourier transform of the compensated spectrum shows effective suppression of saturation artifacts. This method was also successfully performed on phantom material and skin on a human finger. Our method causes neither back-scattering power loss nor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation. The only difference between the traditional system and our two-level system is our utilization of the dual-line CCD camera; no additional devices or complex designs are needed. PMID:25068864

  12. Achromatopsia: case presentation and literature review emphasising the value of spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao Xi; Rego, Robert E; Shechtman, Diana

    2014-11-01

    A literature review and case presentation are used to discuss the diagnostic value of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the assessment and management of congenital achromatopsia. A 24-year-old Hispanic man presented to the clinic with a longstanding history of decreased vision and associated possible recent progression. A comprehensive eye examination and a battery of tests including SD-OCT, fundus photography, electroretinogram (ERG) and Farnsworth D-15 were completed. SD-OCT and photopic ERG confirmed the clinical diagnosis of congenital achromatopsia. There was the classic subfoveal flattened hyporeflective 'punched out' zone, resulting from an absence of inner segment/outer segment junction. SD-OCT findings associated with congenital achromatopsia have been documented recently, helping in the diagnosis of the condition. The SD-OCT findings have further expanded our knowledge of congenital achromatopsia, while also aiding in the management of the disease. PMID:24995800

  13. 3D optical phase reconstruction within PMMA samples using a spectral OCT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones-R., Manuel d. J.; De La Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique has proved to be a useful method in biomedical areas such as ophthalmology, dentistry, dermatology, among many others. In all these applications the main target is to reconstruct the internal structure of the samples from which the physician's expertise may recognize and diagnose the existence of a disease. Nowadays OCT has been applied one step further and is used to study the mechanics of some particular type of materials, where the resulting information involves more than just their internal structure and the measurement of parameters such as displacements, stress and strain. Here we report on a spectral OCT system used to image the internal 3D microstructure and displacement maps from a PMMA (Poly-methyl-methacrylate) sample, subjected to a deformation by a controlled three point bending and tilting. The internal mechanical response of the polymer is shown as consecutive 2D images.

  14. Broadband semiconductor optical amplifiers of the spectral range 750 – 1100 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A; Yakubovich, S D

    2013-11-30

    A line of travelling-wave semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on heterostructures used for production of broadband superluminescent diodes is developed. The pure small-signal gains of the developed SOA modules are about 25 dB, while the gain bandwidths at a level of –10 dB reach 50 – 100 nm. As a whole, the SOA modules cover the IR spectral range from 750 to 1100 nm. The SOAs demonstrate a high reliability at a single-mode fibre-coupled cw output power up to 50 mW. Examples of application of two of the developed SOA modules as active elements of broadband fast-tunable lasers are presented. (lasers)

  15. UV-VIS-NIR spectral optical properties of silver iodide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Di Marco, G.; Torrisi, L.; Branca, C.; Carini, G.; Wanderlingh, U.; D'Angelo, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present a study of optical properties of a series of silver iodide borate glasses(AgI)x(Ag2O·B2O3)1-xby UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The results show an increased absorbance in the whole analysed spectral range when the AgI concentration is augmented. In particular, the enhanced intensity of the wavelength band at 400-500 nm with silver iodine content suggests that this band arises from plasmon-related absorption, describing the formation of silver nanoparticles. With respect to this study, our results could motivate novel target designs consisting of ternary silver boron based bulk glasses for generating resonant absorption of laser light by plasma.

  16. Three-dimensional spectral domain optical coherence tomography in chronic exposure to welding arc

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sandeep; Mishra, Nibha; Meyer, Carsten H

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed in a 26-year-old man with chronic exposure to welding arc. Advanced macular visualisation provided significant findings of inner segment-ellipsoid zone disruption with the presence of cystoid changes and hyper-reflective material in the area of disruption. The external limiting membrane was intact in both the eyes. C-scan retinal pigment epithelium fit map of the left eye revealed a well-delineated defect whereas the right eye showed a poorly delineated smaller defect. The hyper-reflective material can be hypothesised to originate from the disrupted photoreceptor layer. The hyper-reflective material was more evident in the left eye which could be correlated with more marked diminution of vision and a prominent yellow lesion at the fovea. PMID:24832707

  17. Fast retinal layer segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianqiao; Song, Zhangjun; Wang, Xiaogang; Zheng, Huimin; Jia, Fucang; Wu, Jianhuang; Li, Guanglin; Hu, Qingmao

    2015-01-01

    An approach to segment macular layer thicknesses from spectral domain optical coherence tomography has been proposed. The main contribution is to decrease computational costs while maintaining high accuracy via exploring Kalman filtering, customized active contour, and curve smoothing. Validation on 21 normal volumes shows that 8 layer boundaries could be segmented within 5.8 s with an average layer boundary error <2.35 μm. It has been compared with state-of-the-art methods for both normal and age-related macular degeneration cases to yield similar or significantly better accuracy and is 37 times faster. The proposed method could be a potential tool to clinically quantify the retinal layer boundaries. PMID:26385655

  18. Measurement of depth-resolved thermal deformation distribution using phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Dong, Bo; Bai, Yulei; Ye, Shuangli; Lei, Zhenkun; Zhou, Yanzhou

    2015-10-19

    An updated B-scan method is proposed for measuring the evolution of thermal deformation fields in polymers. In order to measure the distributions of out-of-plane deformation and normal strain field, phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography (PC-SOCT) was performed with the depth range and resolution of 4.3 mm and 10.7 μm, respectively, as thermal loads were applied to three different multilayer samples. The relation between temperature and material refractive index was predetermined before the measurement. After accounting for the refractive index, the thermal deformation fields in the polymer were obtained. The measured thermal expansion coefficient of silicone sealant was approximately equal to its reference value. This method allows correctly assessing the mechanical properties in semitransparent polymers. PMID:26480464

  19. Spectrally encoded optical fibre sensor systems and their application in process control, environmental and structural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Schwotzer, Gunter

    2005-09-01

    Different types of advanced optical fibre sensor systems using similar spectral interrogation principles and potential low-cost polychromator optoelectronic signal processing instrumentation will be presented, and examples of their industrial application are demonstrated. These are such sensors as multimode fibre based humidity, temperature, and pressure sensors with extrinsic microoptical Fabry-Perot transducers for process control in gas industry, UV absorption evanescent field sensors for organic pollution monitoring in groundwater, and single mode fibre Bragg grating (FBG) multiplexed strain & vibration and temperature sensor networks for structural health monitoring applications in electric power facilities, aerospace, railways, geotechnical and civil engineering. Recent results of current investigations applying FBGs and microstructured fibres for chemical sensing will be discussed.

  20. Spectral and angular characteristics of dielectric resonator metasurface at optical frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Longfang; López-García, Martin; Oulton, Ruth; Klemm, Maciej; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Fumeaux, Christophe; Shah, Charan M.; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath

    2014-11-10

    The capability of manipulating light at subwavelength scale has fostered the applications of flat metasurfaces in various fields. Compared to metallic structure, metasurfaces made of high permittivity low-loss dielectric resonators hold the promise of high efficiency by avoiding high conductive losses of metals at optical frequencies. This letter investigates the spectral and angular characteristics of a dielectric resonator metasurface composed of periodic sub-arrays of resonators with a linearly varying phase response. The far-field response of the metasurface can be decomposed into the response of a single grating element (sub-array) and the grating arrangement response. The analysis also reveals that coupling between resonators has a non-negligible impact on the angular response. Over a wide wavelength range, the simulated and measured angular characteristics of the metasurface provide a definite illustration of how different grating diffraction orders can be selectively suppressed or enhanced through antenna sub-array design.

  1. Advanced spectral fiber optic sensor systems and their application in energy facility monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Lindner, Eric; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-06-01

    Various spectral-encoded fiber optic sensor concepts and advanced system solutions for application in energy facility monitoring have been investigated. The technological maturity, high performance and reliability of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays and networks for the measurement of temperature, dynamic strain, air flow, and magnetic field distributions in electric power generators increasing their efficiency will be demonstrated by selected examples of field testing under harsh environmental conditions. For high-temperature combustion monitoring in gas turbines, beside silica FBGs with enhanced temperature stability also sapphire FBGs and Fabry-Perot sensors have been tested and evaluated as well as fiber-based black-body thermal radiation sensors. Finally, the potential of FBG sensors for application in cryo-energetic facilities such as super-conductive high-power motors and experimental nuclear fusion reactors will be discussed.

  2. Apparatus and method using a holographic optical element for converting a spectral distribution to image points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J. (Inventor); Scott, Vibart S. (Inventor); Marzouk, Marzouk (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A holographic optical element transforms a spectral distribution of light to image points. The element comprises areas, each of which acts as a separate lens to image the light incident in its area to an image point. Each area contains the recorded hologram of a point source object. The image points can be made to lie in a line in the same focal plane so as to align with a linear array detector. A version of the element has been developed that has concentric equal areas to match the circular fringe pattern of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The element has high transmission efficiency, and when coupled with high quantum efficiency solid state detectors, provides an efficient photon-collecting detection system. The element may be used as part of the detection system in a direct detection Doppler lidar system or multiple field of view lidar system.

  3. Optical fiber-based full-spectral monitoring system for weathering testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Yana Z.; Zhang, Jacob; Scott, Kurt P.; Hardcastle, Henry K.

    2013-05-01

    A full-spectral monitoring (FSM) system utilizing (charged coupled device) CCD array spectroradiometer and optical fiber has been developed and implemented for accelerated laboratory weathering instruments. The system provides in-situ, real-time irradiance monitoring and control. Compared to the conventional photo diode and fixed band pass interference filter radiometer used for irradiance measurement and control, FSM represents a revolutionary step forward for the weathering industry. Additionally a calibration process utilizing an identical xenon lamp used for testing has been developed for the FSM system. This calibration process greatly simplifies the traditional Mercury plus FEL lamps based calibration process. The total measurement uncertainty of this FSM is also analyzed and discussed in the paper.

  4. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features of mild and severe acute solar retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hossein, Mohammad; Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Jabbarpour; Soheilian, Rasam; Soheilian, Masoud; Peyman, Gholam A

    2011-01-01

    Photochemical/thermal retinal damage that results from unprotected solar eclipse viewing has vague presentations and sometimes misleading diagnosis, especially in cases with unclear history. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique useful in differential diagnosis that can reveal characteristic foveal alterations in solar retinopathy to an unprecedented quasi histologic level. The authors present high-resolution SD-OCT findings correlated with clinical findings in three eyes of two cases with acute solar retinopathy. SD-OCT can precisely define the site and extent of damage in acute solar retinopathy. In mild forms, damage may be limited to the outer retina with inner segment/outer segment disruption. In severe forms, full thickness macular damage may be seen. Advances in retinal imaging have improved our ability to provide precise correlation with clinical presentation and prognosis. PMID:21899248

  5. Numerical simulation validation of nonuniform, nonharmonic analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tetsuya; Inuzuka, Yuya; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Misawa, Tadanobu

    2015-03-01

    In spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the limited resolution of the spectrometer causes nonuniformity of the interference signal. The latter, in turn, causes the sensitivity of SD-OCT to decrease, thereby limiting the imaging range and decreasing the axial resolution. We addressed this problem by applying nonuniform, nonharmonic analysis (NUNHA) with software that features high-frequency resolution without interpolation. We demonstrate the application of NUNHA in SD-OCT and compare it with conventional frequency analysis methods by simulating nonuniform interference signals. The results suggest that application of NUNHA in SD-OCT can provide acquisition of a clearer tomographic image, accurate analysis of fine and complex structures, and preservation of resolution and sensitivity at regions deep within a sample. This is because it reduces the influence of nonuniformity caused by the spectrometer and is unaffected by distortion due to interpolation.

  6. Analysis of the signal fall-off in spectral domain optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Eggert, M.; Koch, P.; Hüttmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the individual spectrometer components on the depth dependent sensitivity fall-off (roll-off) in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is investigated. We present a method for the characterization of the roll-off in SD-OCT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. The MTF of different image sensors was measured in a newly developed setup, which uses the interference of two coherent light beams. Different contributions, i.e. diffraction, aberrations and sampling effects, to the MTF of a spectrometer of commercially available SD-OCT systems is calculated and is compared with roll-off measurements. The difference was below -2 dB at 90 % of the maximum measurement depth.

  7. Image reconstruction from nonuniformly spaced samples in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jun; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2012-01-01

    In spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), data samples are collected nonuniformly in the wavenumber domain, requiring a measurement re-sampling process before a conventional fast Fourier transform can be applied to reconstruct an image. This re-sampling necessitates extra computation and often introduces errors in the data. Instead, we develop an inverse imaging approach to reconstruct an SD-OCT image. We make use of total variation (TV) as a constraint to preserve the image edges, and estimate the two-dimensional cross-section of a sample directly from the SD-OCT measurements rather than processing for each A-line. Experimental results indicate that compared with the conventional method, our technique gives a smaller noise residual. The potential of using the TV constraint to suppress sensitivity falloff in SD-OCT is also demonstrated with experiment data. PMID:22574262

  8. Spectral Optical Properties of the Polluted Atmosphere of Mexico City (Spring-Summer 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, O. B.; Contreras, A. Leyva; Valazquez, A. Muhlia; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Ivlev, L. S.; Kovalenko, A. P.; Vasilyev, A. V.; Jukov, V. M.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1995-01-01

    A joint Mexican, Russian, and American research effort has been initiated to develop new methods to remotely sense atmospheric parameters using ground-based, aircraft, and satellite observations. As a first step in this program, ground-based spectrophotometric measurements of the direct solar radiation have been obtained for the extremely polluted Mexico City atmosphere for the period of April-June 1992. These observations were made at more than 1300 channels in the spectral range of 0.35-0.95 microns. In the UltraViolet (UV) portions of the spectrum (e.g., 0.35 microns), aerosol optical thicknesses were found to range between 0.6 and 1.2; in the visible portion of the spectrum (e. g., 0.5 microns) they ranged from 0.5 to 0.8; and in the Near-Infrared (NIR) spectra (e.g., 0.85 micron), values of 0.3 - 0.5 were found. Applying a Spectral Optical Depth (SOD) model of tau(lambda) = C + A(lambda(sup -varies as), values of 1.55 less than varies as less than 1.85 were obtained for polluted, cloudless days, with values of 1.25 less than varies as less than 1.60 on days with haze. The aerosol particles in the polluted Mexico City atmosphere were found to be strongly absorbing, with a single-scattering albedo of 0.7 - 0.9 in the UV, 0.6 - 0.8 in the visible portion of the spectrum, and 0.4 - 0.7 in the NIR. These values are possibly consistent with a high soot concentration, contributed both by vehicular traffic and heavy industry. Analysis of the measured aerosol SOD using the optical parameters of an urban aerosol model pemiits the concentration of aerosol particles to be estimated in the vertical column; a maximum value of 3 x 10(exp 9) 1/sq cm was found. This concentration of aerosol particles exceeds that found in most other regions of the globe by at least an order of magnitude. Near the ground the aerosol size distributions measured using an optical particle counter were found to be strongly multimodal.

  9. Optical Spectral Observations of a Flickering White-light Kernel in a C1 Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Cauzzi, Gianna; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-01

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long-duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 2011 August 18 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 Å to 4550 Å acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, <=0.''5 (1015 cm2) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of hydrogen recombination radiation from the upper flare chromosphere. However, we find no evidence of such a Balmer jump in the bluemost spectral region of the continuum excess. Just redward of the expected Balmer jump, we find evidence of a "blue continuum bump" in the excess emission which may be indicative of the merging of the higher order Balmer lines. The large number of observational constraints provides a springboard for modeling the blue/optical emission for this particular flare with radiative-hydrodynamic codes, which are necessary to understand the opacity effects for the continuum and emission line radiation at these wavelengths.

  10. OPTICAL SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF A FLICKERING WHITE-LIGHT KERNEL IN A C1 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Cauzzi, Gianna; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-10

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long-duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 2011 August 18 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 Å to 4550 Å acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, ≤0.''5 (10{sup 15} cm{sup 2}) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of hydrogen recombination radiation from the upper flare chromosphere. However, we find no evidence of such a Balmer jump in the bluemost spectral region of the continuum excess. Just redward of the expected Balmer jump, we find evidence of a ''blue continuum bump'' in the excess emission which may be indicative of the merging of the higher order Balmer lines. The large number of observational constraints provides a springboard for modeling the blue/optical emission for this particular flare with radiative-hydrodynamic codes, which are necessary to understand the opacity effects for the continuum and emission line radiation at these wavelengths.

  11. Spectral variability of the IR source IRAS 01005+7910 optical component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, V. G.; Chentsov, E. L.; Panchuk, V. E.; Sendzikas, E. G.; Yushkin, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution optical spectra of the IR source IRAS01005+7910 are used to determine the spectral type of its central star, B1.5±0.3, identify the spectral features, and analyze their profile and radial-velocity variations. The systemic velocity V sys = -50.5 km s-1 is determined from the positions of the symmetric and stable profiles of the forbidden [NI], [N II], [OI], [S II], and [Fe II] emission lines. The presence of the [NII] and [SII] forbidden emissions indicates the onset of the ionization of the circumstellar envelope and the fact that the star is very close to undergoing the planetary nebula stage. The broad range of radial velocity V r estimates based on the line cores, which amounts to about 34 km s-1, is partly due to the deformations of the profiles caused by variable emissions. The variations of the V r in the line wings are smaller, about 23 km s-1, and may be due to pulsations and/or hidden binarity of the star. The deformations of the profiles of absorption-emission lines may result from variations of their absorption components caused by the variations of the geometry and kinematics in the wind base. The H α lines exhibit PCyg III type wind profiles. Deviations of the wind from spherical symmetry are shown to be small. The relatively low wind velocity (27-74 km s-1 from different observations) and the strong intensity of the red emission (it exceeds the continuum level by up to a factor of seven) are typical for hypergiants rather than the classical supergiants. IRAS01005 is an example of spectral mimicry of a low-mass post-AGB star masquerading as a massive hypergiant.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Mouse Retinal Layers Using Automated Segmentation of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Dysli, Chantal; Enzmann, Volker; Sznitman, Raphael; Zinkernagel, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Quantification of retinal layers using automated segmentation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images allows for longitudinal studies of retinal and neurological disorders in mice. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of automated retinal layer segmentation algorithms with data from manual segmentation in mice using the Spectralis OCT. Methods Spectral domain OCT images from 55 mice from three different mouse strains were analyzed in total. The OCT scans from 22 C57Bl/6, 22 BALBc, and 11 C3A.Cg-Pde6b+Prph2Rd2/J mice were automatically segmented using three commercially available automated retinal segmentation algorithms and compared to manual segmentation. Results Fully automated segmentation performed well in mice and showed coefficients of variation (CV) of below 5% for the total retinal volume. However, all three automated segmentation algorithms yielded much thicker total retinal thickness values compared to manual segmentation data (P < 0.0001) due to segmentation errors in the basement membrane. Conclusions Whereas the automated retinal segmentation algorithms performed well for the inner layers, the retinal pigmentation epithelium (RPE) was delineated within the sclera, leading to consistently thicker measurements of the photoreceptor layer and the total retina. Translational Relevance The introduction of spectral domain OCT allows for accurate imaging of the mouse retina. Exact quantification of retinal layer thicknesses in mice is important to study layers of interest under various pathological conditions. PMID:26336634

  13. Optical coherence tomography spectral analysis for detecting apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Giles, Anoja; Kolios, Michael C.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death characterized by a series of predictable morphological changes at the subcellular level, which modify the light-scattering properties of cells. We present a spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to detect changes in subcellular morphology related to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. OCT data were acquired from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells treated with cisplatin over a 48-h period. The backscatter spectrum of the OCT signal acquired from the cell samples was characterized by calculating its in vitro integrated backscatter (IB) and spectral slope (SS). The IB increased with treatment duration, while the SS decreased, with the most significant changes occurring after 24 to 48 h of treatment. These changes coincided with striking morphological transformations in the cells and their nuclei. Similar trends in the spectral parameter values were observed in vivo in solid tumors grown from AML cells in mice, which were treated with chemotherapy and radiation. Our results provide a strong foundation from which future experiments may be designed to further understand the effect of cellular morphology and kinetics of apoptosis on the OCT signal and demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique in vivo.

  14. A spectral approach for the quantitative description of cardiac collagen network from nonlinear optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Masè, Michela; Cristoforetti, Alessandro; Avogaro, Laura; Tessarolo, Francesco; Piccoli, Federico; Caola, Iole; Pederzolli, Carlo; Graffigna, Angelo; Ravelli, Flavia

    2015-08-01

    The assessment of collagen structure in cardiac pathology, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), is essential for a complete understanding of the disease. This paper introduces a novel methodology for the quantitative description of collagen network properties, based on the combination of nonlinear optical microscopy with a spectral approach of image processing and analysis. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied to atrial tissue samples from cardiac surgery patients, providing label-free, selective visualization of the collagen structure. The spectral analysis framework, based on 2D-FFT, was applied to the SHG images, yielding a multiparametric description of collagen fiber orientation (angle and anisotropy indexes) and texture scale (dominant wavelength and peak dispersion indexes). The proof-of-concept application of the methodology showed the capability of our approach to detect and quantify differences in the structural properties of the collagen network in AF versus sinus rhythm patients. These results suggest the potential of our approach in the assessment of collagen properties in cardiac pathologies related to a fibrotic structural component. PMID:26737722

  15. Anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with anterior scleritis.

    PubMed

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Lowder, Careen Y; Baynes, Kimberly M; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the findings seen on anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with anterior scleritis and determine the feasibility of using SD-OCT to image and grade the degree of scleral inflammation and monitor response to treatment. All patients underwent slit lamp examination by a uveitis specialist, and the degree of scleral inflammation was recorded. Spectral domain OCT imaging was then performed of the conjunctiva and scleral tissue using a standardized acquisition protocol. The scans were graded and compared to clinical findings. Twenty-eight patients with anterior scleritis and ten patients without ocular disease were included in the study. Seventeen of the scleritis patients were followed longitudinally. Common findings on SD-OCT in patients with active scleritis included changes in hyporeflectivity within the sclera, nodules, and visible vessels within the sclera. There was significant variation in findings on SD-OCT within each clinical grade of active scleritis. These changes on SD-OCT improved with treatment and clinical improvement. SD-OCT imaging provided various objective measures that could be used in the future to grade inflammatory activity in patients with anterior scleritis. Longitudinal imaging of patients with active scleritis demonstrated that SD-OCT may have great utility in monitoring response to treatment. PMID:26597942

  16. Improving Calculation Accuracies of Accumulation-Mode Fractions Based on Spectral of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Zhang; Zhengqiang, Li; Yan, Wang

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are released into the atmosphere, which cause scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation, thus exerting a direct radiative forcing on the climate system. Anthropogenic Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) calculations are important in the research of climate changes. Accumulation-Mode Fractions (AMFs) as an anthropogenic aerosol parameter, which are the fractions of AODs between the particulates with diameters smaller than 1μm and total particulates, could be calculated by AOD spectral deconvolution algorithm, and then the anthropogenic AODs are obtained using AMFs. In this study, we present a parameterization method coupled with an AOD spectral deconvolution algorithm to calculate AMFs in Beijing over 2011. All of data are derived from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) website. The parameterization method is used to improve the accuracies of AMFs compared with constant truncation radius method. We find a good correlation using parameterization method with the square relation coefficient of 0.96, and mean deviation of AMFs is 0.028. The parameterization method could also effectively solve AMF underestimate in winter. It is suggested that the variations of Angstrom indexes in coarse mode have significant impacts on AMF inversions.

  17. Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cense, Barry; Nassif, Nader; Chen, Teresa; Pierce, Mark; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Park, B; Bouma, Brett; Tearney, Guillermo; de Boer, Johannes

    2004-05-31

    We present the first ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural intensity images and movies of the human retina in vivo at 29.3 frames per second with 500 A-lines per frame. Data was acquired at a continuous rate of 29,300 spectra per second with a 98% duty cycle. Two consecutive spectra were coherently summed to improve sensitivity, resulting in an effective rate of 14,600 A-lines per second at an effective integration time of 68 micros. The turn-key source was a combination of two super luminescent diodes with a combined spectral width of more than 150 nm providing 4.5 mW of power. The spectrometer of the spectraldomain OCT (SD-OCT) setup was centered around 885 nm with a bandwidth of 145 nm. The effective bandwidth in the eye was limited to approximately 100 nm due to increased absorption of wavelengths above 920 nm in the vitreous. Comparing the performance of our ultrahighresolution SD-OCT system with a conventional high-resolution time domain OCT system, the A-line rate of the spectral-domain OCT system was 59 times higher at a 5.4 dB lower sensitivity. With use of a software based dispersion compensation scheme, coherence length broadening due to dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arms was minimized. The coherence length measured from a mirror in air was equal to 4.0 microm (n= 1). The coherence length determined from the specular reflection of the foveal umbo in vivo in a healthy human eye was equal to 3.5 microm (n = 1.38). With this new system, two layers at the location of the retinal pigmented epithelium seem to be present, as well as small features in the inner and outer plexiform layers, which are believed to be small blood vessels. ?2004 Optical Society of America. PMID:19475080

  18. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC RETINOPATHY ANALYZED BY SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    REGATIERI, CAIO V.; BRANCHINI, LAUREN; CARMODY, JILL; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.; DUKER, JAY S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine choroidal thickness in patients with diabetes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Methods Forty-nine patients (49 eyes) with diabetes and 24 age-matched normal subjects underwent high-definition raster scanning using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with frame enhancement software. Patients with diabetes were classified into 3 groups: 11 patients with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and no macular edema, 18 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema, and 20 patients with treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy and no diabetic macular edema (treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy). Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-μm intervals up to 2,500 μm temporal and nasal to the fovea. Results Reliable measurements of choroidal thickness were obtainable in 75.3% of eyes examined. Mean choroidal thickness showed a pattern of thinnest choroid nasally, thickening in the subfoveal region, and thinning again temporally in normal subjects and patients with diabetes. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was thinner in patients with diabetic macular edema (63.3 μm, 27.2%, P < 0.05) or treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (69.6 μm, 30.0%, P < 0.01), compared with normal subjects. There was no difference between nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and normal subjects. Conclusion Choroidal thickness is altered in diabetes and may be related to the severity of retinopathy. Presence of diabetic macular edema is associated with a significant decrease in the choroidal thickness. PMID:22374157

  19. Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-04-01

    Real-time display of processed en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for diagnosis. However, due to many steps of data processing requirements, such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), data re-sampling, spectral shaping, apodization, zero padding, followed by software cut of the 3D volume acquired to produce an en-face slice, conventional high-speed SD-OCT cannot render an en-face OCT image in real time. Recently we demonstrated a Master/Slave (MS)-OCT method that is highly parallelizable, as it provides reflectivity values of points at depth within an A-scan in parallel. This allows direct production of en-face images. In addition, the MS-OCT method does not require data linearization, which further simplifies the processing. The computation in our previous paper was however time consuming. In this paper we present an optimized algorithm that can be used to provide en-face MS-OCT images much quicker. Using such an algorithm we demonstrate around 10 times faster production of sets of en-face OCT images than previously obtained as well as simultaneous real-time display of up to 4 en-face OCT images of 200 × 200 pixels(2) from the fovea and the optic nerve of a volunteer. We also demonstrate 3D and B-scan OCT images obtained from sets of MS-OCT C-scans, i.e. with no FFT and no intermediate step of generation of A-scans. PMID:24761303

  20. Growth of crystals from solutions in low gravity (A0139A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, M. D.; Nielsen, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the low gravity crystal growth experiments is to develop a novel solute diffusion method for growing single crystals. The experiments will utilize specially designed reactors with three or more compartments separated by valves to keep the reactant solutions and solvent separated until the apparatus reaches low gravity. There will be a mechanism for opening the valves automatically to initiate the diffusion and growth processes. The reactant reservoirs will be large enough to take advantage of the time provided by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight. An array of several reactors will be mounted in a 12-in.-deep end center tray located on the Earth-facing end of the LDEF. Several reactors operating simultaneously will allow experimentation with more than one crystal growth system and/or variations of conditions for each. The reactors will be enclosed in a vacuum tight container and will be surrounded by thermal insulation. The temperature (approximately 35 deg C) will be regulated and any departures from the desired temperature will be recorded. Power requirements will be provided by LiSO2 batteries.

  1. Microgravity: Molecular Dynamics Simulations at the NCCS Probe the Behavior of Liquids in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The life of the very small, whether in something as complicated as a human cell or as simple as a drop of water, is of fundamental scientific interest: By knowing how a tiny amount of material reacts to changes in its environment, scientists maybe able to answer questions about how a bulk of material would react to comparable changes. NASA is in the forefront of computational research into a broad range of basic scientific questions about fluid dynamics and the nature of liquid boundary instability. For example, one important issue for the space program is how drops of water and other materials will behave in the low-gravity environment of space and how the low gravity will affect the transport and containment of these materials. Accurate prediction of this behavior is among the aims of a set of molecular dynamics experiments carried out on the NCCSs Cray supercomputers. In conventional computational studies of materials, matter is treated as continuous - a macroscopic whole without regard to its molecular parts - and the behavior patterns of the matter in various physical environments are studied using well-established differential equations and mathematical parameters based on physical properties such as compressibility density, heat capacity, and vapor pressure of the bulk material.

  2. Observations of the liquid/solid interface in low-gravity melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G. H.; Lacy, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Time-lapsed photography of the liquid/solid interface of a melting ice cylinder was taken on Skylab 3 over a period of three hours. The same experiment was simulated on earth such that morphological and thermodynamic differences could be noted. A study of the returned color film clearly shows the dominance of surface tension effects in low-gravity melting. In the Skylab experiment, the ends of the ice cylinder melted first with the water being driven by surface tension onto the cylindrical surfaces. At any time, the principle of minimum surface area governs the overall appearance of the water-ice globule which changed from a cylindrical to a spherical shape. The latent heat of melting in low-gravity is supplied only by radiation (81%) and conduction (19%); whereas in one-g, the convective (55%) and radiative (38%) mode of heat transfer dominates over the conductive portion (7%). Information is also provided on containerless melting and heat transfer in space in the absence of convective air currents.

  3. Video Analysis of Granular Gases in a Low-Gravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewallen, Erin

    2004-10-01

    Granular Agglomeration in Non-Gravitating Systems is a research project undertaken by the University of Tulsa Granular Dynamics Group. The project investigates the effects of weightlessness on granular systems by studying the dynamics of a "gas" of 1-mm diameter brass ball bearings driven at various amplitudes and frequencies in low-gravity. Models predict that particles in systems subjected to these conditions should exhibit clustering behavior due to energy loss through multiple inelastic collisions. Observation and study of clustering in our experiment could shed light on this phenomenon as a possible mechanism by which particles in space coalesce to form stable objects such as planetesimals and planetary ring systems. Our experiment has flown on NASA's KC-135 low gravity aircraft. Data analysis techniques for video data collected during these flights include modification of images using Adobe Photoshop and development of ball identification and tracking programs written in Interactive Data Language. By tracking individual balls, we aim to establish speed distributions for granular gases and thereby obtain values for granular temperature.

  4. Low-gravity sensing of liquid/vapor interface and transient liquid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Saul A.; Korba, James M.; Lynnworth, Lawrence C.; Nguyen, Toan H.; Orton, George F.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here deals mainly with tests on internally vaned cylindrical shell acrylic containers capped by hemispherical acrylic or aluminum end domes. Three different ultrasonic sensor techniques and one nucleonic technique presently are evaluated as possible solutions to the low-gravity liquid gauging problem. The ultrasonic techniques are as follows: use of a torsional wave sensor in which transit time is proportional to the integral of wetted distance x liquid density; integration of the flow rate output signal of a fast-response ultrasonic flowmeter; and use of multiplexed externally mounted 'point-sensor' transducers that sense transit times to liquid-gas interfaces. Using two commercial flowmeters and a thickness gauge modified for this particular project, bench tests were conducted at 1 g on liquids such as water, freon, and solvent 140, including both steady flow and pulsating flow with 40, 80, and 120 ms flow pulses. Subsequently, flight tests were conducted in the NASA KC-135 aircraft in which nearly 0-g conditions are obtainable for up to about 5 s in each of a number of repetitive parabolic flight trajectories. In some of these brief low-gravity flight tests freon was replaced with a higher-viscosity fuel to reduce sloshing and thereby obtain settled surfaces more quickly.

  5. Effect of pressure on a burning solid in low-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey S.; Urban, David; Tien, James

    1995-01-01

    Venting, or depressurization, has been discussed as a possible technique for extinguishing fires on aircraft and spacecraft. Fire suppression plans for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) discuss the use of depressurization as a method for extinguishing fires. In the case of an uncontrollable fire, the affected compartment would be vented from an initial pressure of 1.0 atm (14.7 psia) to a final pressure 0.33 atm (4.8 psia) within 10 minutes. However, the lack of low pressure flammability data for solid materials in a low-gravity environment presents an uncertainty for the use of the venting technique. There are also transient effects that need to be considered. It is possible that the flows induced by the venting could intensify the fire. This occurred during flammability tests conducted on board Skylab. In addition, the extinction pressure could be a function of the depressurization rate. Studies conducted with solid propellants have shown that if the pressure is reduced quickly enough, the pressure at extinction will be greater than the steady-state extinction limit. This project, which was started in 1992, is examining both the quasi steady-state and transient effects of pressure reduction on a burning solid in low-gravity. This research will provide low-g extinguishment data upon which policies and practices can be formulated for fire safety in orbiting spacecraft.

  6. The interaction of water mists and premixed propane-air flames under low-gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Riedel, Edward P.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions has been conducted to define the scientific and technical objectives of the experiments to be performed on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station microgravity environments. The inhibiting characteristics of water mists in propagating flames of propane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios are studied. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the laminar flame speed are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. Flame speed and propagation behavior are monitored by a video camera. Reduced gravity is obtained with an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Measurements and qualitative observations from the low-gravity experiments clearly show the effect of water mist on flame speed abatement, flame shape, and radiant emission. For lean propane-air mixtures, the flame speed increases at first with low water-mist concentrations and then decreases below its dry value when higher water-mist volumes are introduced in the tube. This phenomenon may be due in part to the heating of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame as a result of radiation absorption by the water droplets. For rich propane-air mixtures, similar behavior of flame speed vs. water concentration is encountered but in this case is mostly due to the formation of cellular flames. At high water loads both lean and rich flames exhibit extinction before reaching the end of the tube.

  7. Spectral aerosol optical depth characterization of desert dust during SAMUM 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledano, C.; Wiegner, M.; Garhammer, M.; Seefeldner, M.; Gasteiger, J.; Müller, D.; Koepke, P.

    2009-02-01

    ABSTRACT The aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 340-1550nm was monitored at Ouarzazate (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) experiment in May-June 2006. Two different sun photometers were used for this purpose. The mean AOD at 500nm was 0.28, with a maximum of 0.83, and the mean Ångström exponent (AE) was 0.35. The aerosol content over the site changed alternatively from very low turbidity, associated to Atlantic air masses, to moderate dust load, associated to air masses arriving in the site from Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. The dusty conditions were predominant in the measurement period (78% of data), with AOD (500nm) above 0.15 and AE below 0.4. The spectral features of the AOD under dusty conditions are discussed. Air mass back trajectory analysis is carried out to investigate the origin and height patterns of the dust loaded air masses. The advection of dust occurred mainly at atmospheric heights below 3000m, where east flow is the predominant. At the 5000m level, the air masses originate mainly over the Atlantic Ocean. Finally the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model is used to perform a set of simulations with different aerosol mixtures to illustrate the measured AOD and AE values under varying dust concentrations, and a brief comparison with other measurement sites is presented.

  8. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Shahidul; Oliveira, Michael C.; Wang, Yan; Henry, Francis P.; Randolph, Mark A.; Park, B. Hyle; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2012-05-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT, were used to image sciatic nerve structure with clear delineation of the nerve boundaries to muscle and adipose tissues. A long-known optical effect, bands of Fontana, was also observed. Postprocessing analysis of these images provided significant quantitative information, such as epineurium thickness, estimates of extinction coefficient and birefringence of nerve and muscle tissue, frequency of bands of Fontana at different stretch levels of nerve, and change in average birefringence of nerve under stretched condition. We demonstrate that PS-OCT combined with regular-intensity OCT (compared with OCT alone) allows for a clearer determination of the inner and outer boundaries of the epineurium and distinction of nerve and muscle based on their birefringence pattern. PS-OCT measurements on normal nerves show that the technique is promising for studies on peripheral nerve injury.

  9. Polarization diversity scheme on spectral polarization coding optical code-division multiple-access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Huang, Jen-Fa; Chang, Yao-Tang; Chen, Bo-Hau

    2010-12-01

    We present an experiment demonstrating the spectral-polarization coding optical code-division multiple-access system introduced with a nonideal state of polarization (SOP) matching conditions. In the proposed system, the encoding and double balanced-detection processes are implemented using a polarization-diversity scheme. Because of the quasiorthogonality of Hadamard codes combining with array waveguide grating routers and a polarization beam splitter, the proposed codec pair can encode-decode multiple code words of Hadamard code while retaining the ability for multiple-access interference cancellation. The experimental results demonstrate that when the system is maintained with an orthogonal SOP for each user, an effective reduction in the phase-induced intensity noise is obtained. The analytical SNR values are found to overstate the experimental results by around 2 dB when the received effective power is large. This is mainly limited by insertion losses of components and a nonflattened optical light source. Furthermore, the matching conditions can be improved by decreasing nonideal influences.

  10. New bright optical spectrophotometric standards: A-type stars from the STIS Next Generation Spectral Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, C.; del Burgo, C.

    2016-02-01

    Exoplanets have sparked interest in extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of very bright stars, in a regime where flux calibrators, in particular DA white dwarfs, are not available. We argue that A-type stars offer a useful alternative and reliable space-based spectrophotometry is now available for a number of bright ones in the range 3 < V < 8 mag. By means of comparing observed spectrophotometry and model fluxes, we identify 18 new very bright trustworthy A-type flux standards for the optical range (400-800 nm), and provide scaled model fluxes for them. Our tests suggest that the absolute fluxes for these stars in the optical are reliable to within 3 per cent. We limit the spectral range to 400-800 nm, since our models have difficulties to reproduce the observed fluxes in the near-infrared and, especially, in the near-UV, where the discrepancies rise up to ˜10 per cent. Based on our model fits, we derive angular diameters with an estimated accuracy of about 1 per cent.

  11. Spectral areas and ratios classifier algorithm for pancreatic tissue classification using optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Malavika; Scheiman, James; Simeone, Diane; McKenna, Barbara; Purdy, Julianne; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer death, in part because of the inability of current diagnostic methods to reliably detect early-stage disease. We present the first assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms developed for pancreatic tissue classification using data from fiber optic probe-based bimodal optical spectroscopy, a real-time approach that would be compatible with minimally invasive diagnostic procedures for early cancer detection in the pancreas. A total of 96 fluorescence and 96 reflectance spectra are considered from 50 freshly excised tissue sites-including human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, chronic pancreatitis (inflammation), and normal tissues-on nine patients. Classification algorithms using linear discriminant analysis are developed to distinguish among tissues, and leave-one-out cross-validation is employed to assess the classifiers' performance. The spectral areas and ratios classifier (SpARC) algorithm employs a combination of reflectance and fluorescence data and has the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for correctly identifying adenocarcinoma being 85, 89, 92, and 80%, respectively.

  12. Signal Normalization Reduces Systematic Measurement Differences Between Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ling, Yun; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Xu, Juan; Fujimoto, James G.; Sigal, Ian A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the effect of a novel signal normalization method for reducing systematic optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement differences among multiple spectral-domain (SD) OCT devices. Methods. A total of 109 eyes from 59 subjects were scanned with two SD-OCT devices (Cirrus and RTVue) at the same visit. Optical coherence tomography image data were normalized to match their signal characteristics between the devices. To compensate signal strength differences, custom high dynamic range (HDR) processing was also applied only to images with substantially lower signal strength. Global mean peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were then measured automatically from all images using custom segmentation software and were compared to the original device outputs. Structural equation models were used to analyze the absolute RNFL thickness difference between original device outputs and our software outputs after signal normalization. Results. The device-measured RNFL thickness showed a statistically significant difference between the two devices (mean absolute difference 10.58 μm, P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference after normalization on eyes with 62.4-μm or thicker RNFL (mean absolute difference 2.95 μm, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The signal normalization method successfully reduces the systematic difference in RNFL thickness measurements between two SD-OCT devices. Enabling direct comparison of RNFL thickness obtained from multiple devices would broaden the use of OCT technology in both clinical and research applications. PMID:24114534

  13. Direct measurement of the spectral reflectance of OP-SDL gain elements under optical pumping.

    PubMed

    Borgentun, Carl; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Larsson, Anders

    2011-08-29

    We report on a direct measurement method for acquiring highly precise reflectance spectra of gain elements for semiconductor disk lasers under optical pumping. The gain element acts as an active mirror, and the active mirror reflectance (AMR) was measured with a weak and tunable probe beam coincident on the gain element with a high-power pump beam. In particular, we measured the spectral AMR of a gain element designed to have a broad and flat AMR spectrum by being anti-resonant at the center wavelength and employing a parametrically optimized anti-reflection structure. We were able to confirm that this sophisticated gain element performs according to design, with an almost constant AMR of ∼103% over a wavelength range of nearly 35 nm, very well matching the simulated behavior. Such gain characteristics are useful for optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers (OP-SDLs) designed for broadband tuning and short-pulse generation through mode-locking. The measurement technique was also applied to a conventional resonant periodic gain element designed for fixed wavelength OP-SDL operation; its AMR spectrum is markedly different with a narrow peak, again in good agreement with the simulations. PMID:21935050

  14. Design, implementation, and characterization of spectrometer-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palawong, Kunakorn; Pongchalee, Pornthep; Chuamchaitrakool, Porntip; Tachatraiphop, Sukanya; Widjaja, Joewono; Meemon, Panomsak

    2014-06-01

    We report the implementation of a high speed and high resolution spectrometer-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system. A high speed near-infrared spectrometer was designed and built, utilizing a high speed line-array CMOS detector and all off-the-shelf optical components. The acquisition speed of more than 100,000 spectra per second was achieved, enabling a high speed 3D imaging of the implemented SD-OCT system. Here, we report the performance characterization, i.e. resolution, imaging depth, and sensitivity of the implemented system. The penetration depth and depth resolution of the system are currently 2 mm and 14.1 μm, respectively. The lateral resolution of the system was quantified by the Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement to be about 15.5 μm. over the lateral field-of-view (x-y axes) of 30 mm × 30 mm. The acquisition speed of the system was 20 frames per second.

  15. INTRAOPERATIVE SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING AFTER INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IN IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE WITH CONNECTING STRANDS

    PubMed Central

    NAM, DONG HEUN; DESOUZA, PHILIP J.; HAHN, PAUL; TAI, VINCENT; SEVILLA, MONICA B.; TRAN-VIET, DU; CUNEFARE, DAVID; FARSIU, SINA; IZATT, JOSEPH A.; TOTH, CYNTHIA A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the intraoperative optical coherence tomography findings in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) with connecting strands and to describe the postoperative outcomes. Methods A retrospective, case series study within a prospective observational intraoperative optical coherence tomography imaging study was performed. Epiretinal membranes with connecting strands were characterized on preoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography images and assessed against corresponding intraoperative (after internal limiting membrane [ILM] peeling) and postoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Results Eleven locations of the connecting strands in 7 eyes were studied. The connecting strands had visible connections from the inner retinal surface to the ERM in all locations, and the reflectivity was moderate in 8 locations and high in 3 locations. After ERM and ILM peeling, disconnected strands were identified in all of the intraoperative optical coherence tomography images. The reflectivity of the remaining intraoperative strands was higher than that of the preoperative lesions and appeared as “finger-like” and branching projections. The remaining disconnected lesions were contiguous with the inner retinal layers. Postoperatively, the intraoperative lesions disappeared completely in all locations, and recurrent formation of ERM was not identified in any eyes. Conclusion In ERM eyes with connecting strands, intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging showed moderately to highly reflective sub-ILM finger-like lesions that persist immediately after membrane and ILM peeling. Postoperatively, the hyperreflective lesions disappeared spontaneously without localized nerve fiber layer loss. The sub-ILM connecting strands may represent glial retinal attachments. PMID:25829349

  16. Longitudinal Detection of Optic Nerve Head Changes by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Williams, Galen; Hardin, Christy; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We determined if the detection of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) optic nerve head (ONH) change precedes the detection of confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT) ONH surface, SDOCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), scanning laser perimetry (SLP), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) change in eight experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes. Methods. Both eyes from eight monkeys were tested at least three times at baseline, and then every 2 weeks following laser-induced chronic unilateral IOP elevation. Event and trend-based definitions of onset in the control and EG eyes for 11 SDOCT neural and connective tissue, CSLT surface, SDOCT RNFL, SLP, and mfERG parameters were explored. The frequency and timing of onset for each parameter were compared using a logrank test. Results. Maximum post-laser IOP was 18 to 42 mm Hg in the EG eyes and 12 to 20 mm Hg in the control eyes. For event- and trend-based analyses, onsets were achieved earliest and most frequently within the ONH neural and connective tissues using SDOCT, and at the ONH surface using CSLT. SDOCT ONH neural and connective tissue parameter change preceded or coincided with CSLT ONH surface change in most EG eyes. The SDOCT and SLP measures of RNFL thickness, and mfERG measures of visual function demonstrated similar onset rates, but occurred later than SDOCT ONH and CSLT surface change, and in fewer eyes. Conclusions. SDOCT ONH change detection commonly precedes or coincides with CSLT ONH surface change detection, and consistently precedes RNFLT, SLP, and mfERG change detection in monkey experimental glaucoma. PMID:24255047

  17. Longitudinal Change Detected by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Retina in Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Fortune, Brad; Yang, Hongli; Sigal, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether longitudinal changes deep within the optic nerve head (ONH) are detectable by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in experimental glaucoma (EG) and whether these changes are detectable at the onset of Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany)–defined surface topography depression. Methods. Longitudinal SDOCT imaging (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering) was performed in both eyes of nine rhesus macaques every 1 to 3 weeks. One eye of each underwent trabecular laser-induced IOP elevation. Four masked operators delineated internal limiting membrane (ILM), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), Bruch's membrane/retinal pigment epithelium (BM/RPE), neural canal opening (NCO), and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) by using custom software. Longitudinal changes were assessed and compared between the EG and control (nonlasered) eyes at the onset of HRT-detected surface depression (follow-up 1; [FU1]) and at the most recent image (follow-up 2; [FU2]). Results. Mean IOP in EG eyes was 7.1 to 24.6 mm Hg at FU1 and 13.5 to 31.9 mm Hg at FU2. In control eyes, the mean IOP was 7.2 to 12.6 mm Hg (FU1) and 8.9 to 16.0 mm Hg (FU2). At FU1, neuroretinal rim decreased and ALCS depth increased significantly (paired t-test, P < 0.01); no change in RNFL thickness was detected. At FU2, however, significant prelaminar tissue thinning, posterior displacement of NCO, and RNFL thinning were observed. Conclusions. Longitudinal SDOCT imaging can detect deep ONH changes in EG eyes, the earliest of which are present at the onset of HRT-detected ONH surface height depression. These parameters represent realistic targets for SDOCT detection of glaucomatous progression in human subjects. PMID:21217108

  18. Use of power spectral density (PSD) functions in specifying optics for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikens, David M.; Wolfe, C. Robert; Lawson, Janice K.

    1995-08-01

    In the second half of the 1990's, LLNL and others will be designing and beginning construction of the National Ignition Facility. This new laser will be capable of producing the worlds first controlled fusion ignition and burn, completing a vital milestone on the path of Fusion Energy. This facility will use more than 7,000 optical components, most of which have a rectangular aperture, which measure greater than 600 mm on the diagonal. In order to optimize the performance versus cost of the laser system, we have determined that specifications based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions are the most effective for controlling mid-spatial wavelength errors. The draft optics specifications based on a combination of PSD and conventional roughness and P-V requirements are presented, with a discussion of their origins. The emphasis is on the application of a PSD function for transmitted wavefront optical specifications, and the benefits thereof. The PSD function is the most appropriate way to characterize transmitted wavefront errors with spatial frequencies ranging from several centimeters to a few hundred nanometers, with amplitudes in the (lambda) /100 regime. Such errors are commonly generated by cost effective, deterministic finishing technologies, and can be damaging to the laser, as well as causing unnecessary energy loss and inability to focus, in a high energy laser application. In addition, periodic errors can occur as a result of errors at other steps in the fabrication process, such as machine vibration in a fixed abrasive step, or material homogeneity ripple. The control of such errors will be essential to the construction of future high energy lasers.

  19. Growth, spectral, optical, and dielectric studies on novel semiorganic NLO single crystal: d-phenylglycine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, B.; Sakthi Murugesan, K.; Jayavel, R.; Krishnan, S.; Boaz, B. Milton

    2014-05-01

    Good quality novel semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal of d-phenylglycine hydrochloride has been grown from the aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal crystallises into orthorhombic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P212121. Experimental parameters are evaluated based on single-crystal XRD and the calculated values of the polarisability were compared with the values of polarisability using Clausius-Mossotti equation. The functional groups present in the grown crystal were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The 1H and 13C FT-NMR has been recorded to elucidate the molecular structure. Ultraviolet-visible-near infra-red absorption studies on this crystal reveal that the minimum absorption region is around 228 nm. The optical band gap of the crystal was found to be 2.9 eV. The scanning electron microscope study has been carried out to determine the surface morphology of the grown crystal. Photoluminescence studies show that the material emits violet fluorescence. Thermal studies bring forth that the crystal is thermally stable up to 255 °C. Dielectric studies reveal that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with the increase in frequency as like the typical semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals such as bisthiourea zinc chloride, bisthiourea cadmium chloride and l-arginine dihydrogen phosphate. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out and the Arrhenius plot is used to determine the value of activation energy. The Kurtz powder analysis on the crystal confirms the existence of second harmonic generation properties. The SHG efficiency was found to be 1.15 times that of KDP crystal.

  20. THE PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE 2008 LUMINOUS OPTICAL TRANSIENT IN NGC 300

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Bond, Howard E.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Berto Monard, L. A. G.; Prieto, Jose L.; Walter, Frederick M. E-mail: kd@astro.umn.edu E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it

    2011-12-20

    The 2008 optical transient in NGC 300 is one of a growing class of intermediate-luminosity transients that brighten several orders of magnitude from a previously optically obscured state. The origin of their eruptions is not understood. Our multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from maximum light to more than a year later provide a record of its post-eruption behavior. We describe its changing spectral energy distribution, the evolution of its absorption- and emission-line spectrum, the development of a bipolar outflow, and the rapid transition from a dense wind to an optically thin ionized wind. In addition to strong, narrow hydrogen lines, the F-type absorption-line spectrum of the transient is characterized by strong Ca II and [Ca II] emission. The very broad wings of the Ca II triplet and the asymmetric [Ca II] emission lines are due to strong Thomson scattering in the expanding ejecta. Post-maximum, the hydrogen and Ca II lines developed double-peaked emission profiles that we attribute to a bipolar outflow. Between approximately 60 and 100 days after maximum, the F-type absorption spectrum, formed in its dense wind, weakened and the wind became transparent to ionizing radiation. We discuss the probable evolutionary state of the transient and similar objects such as SN 2008S and conclude that they were most likely post-red supergiants or post-asymptotic giant branch stars on a blue loop to warmer temperatures when the eruption occurred. These objects are not luminous blue variables.

  1. Three-dimensional choroidal segmentation in spectral OCT volumes using optic disc prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhihong; Girkin, Christopher A.; Hariri, Amirhossein; Sadda, SriniVas R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on determining the role of the peripapillary choroid - the layer between the outer retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruchs membrane (BM) and choroid-sclera (C-S) junction, whether primary or secondary in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. However, the automated choroidal segmentation in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of optic nerve head (ONH) has not been reported probably due to the fact that the presence of the BM opening (BMO, corresponding to the optic disc) can deflect the choroidal segmentation from its correct position. The purpose of this study is to develop a 3D graph-based approach to identify the 3D choroidal layer in ONH-centered SD-OCT images using the BMO prior information. More specifically, an initial 3D choroidal segmentation was first performed using the 3D graph search algorithm. Note that varying surface interaction constraints based on the choroidal morphological model were applied. To assist the choroidal segmentation, two other surfaces of internal limiting membrane and innerouter segment junction were also segmented. Based on the segmented layer between the RPE/BM and C-S junction, a 2D projection map was created. The BMO in the projection map was detected by a 2D graph search. The pre-defined BMO information was then incorporated into the surface interaction constraints of the 3D graph search to obtain more accurate choroidal segmentation. Twenty SD-OCT images from 20 healthy subjects were used. The mean differences of the choroidal borders between the algorithm and manual segmentation were at a sub-voxel level, indicating a high level segmentation accuracy.

  2. Analysis of Normal Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness via Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joseph; Branchini, Lauren; Regatieri, Caio; Krishnan, Chandrasekharan; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To analyze the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness utilizing a commercial spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) device and determine the inter-grader reproducibility of this method. DESIGN Retrospective, non-comparative, non-interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-six eyes of 36 normal patients seen at the New England Eye Center between April and September 2010. METHODS All patients underwent high-definition scanning with the Cirrus HD-OCT. Two raster scans were obtained per eye, a horizontal and a vertical scan, both of which were centered at the optic nerve. Two independent graders individually measured the choroidal thickness. Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid-scleral junction at 500 μm intervals away from the optic nerve in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare mean choroidal thicknesses. Inter-grader reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Average choroidal thickness in each quadrant was compared to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in their respective quadrants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Peripapillary choroidal thickness, intraclass coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient. RESULTS The peripapillary choroid in the inferior quadrant was significantly thinner compared to all other quadrants (p< 0.001). None of the other quadrants were significantly different from each other in terms of thickness. The inferior peripapillary choroid was significantly thinner compared to all other quadrants at all distances measured away from the optic nerve (p< 0.001). Generally, the peripapillary choroid increases in thickness the farther it was away from the optic nerve and eventually approaching a plateau. Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.62 to 0.93 and Pearson’s correlation coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.95 (p

  3. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and spectral shaping of a continuum generated in a photonic band gap fiber.

    PubMed

    Hugonnot, E; Somekh, M; Villate, D; Salin, F; Freysz, E

    2004-05-31

    A chirped pulse, spectrally broadened in a photonic bandgap optical fiber by 120 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulses, is parametrically amplified in a BBO crystal pumped by a frequency doubled nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulse. Without changing the frequency of the Ti:Sapphire, a spectral tunability of the amplified pulses is demonstrated. The possibility to achieve broader spectral range amplification is confirmed for a non-collinear pump-signal interaction geometry. For optimal non-collinear interaction geometry, the pulse duration of the original and amplified pulse are similar. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two BBO crystals makes it possible to spectrally shape the amplified pulses. PMID:19475076

  4. Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters, a mid infrared metamaterial absorber and a terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, James; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2016-02-22

    Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials and detectors in order to operate simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. Each distinct waveband must be detected at different spatial locations on a single chip or by separate chips optimised for each band. Here, we report on a single component that optically multiplexes visible, Mid Infrared (4.5 μm) and Terahertz (126 μm) radiation thereby maximising the spectral information density. We hybridise plasmonic and metamaterial structures to form a device capable of simultaneously filtering 15 visible wavelengths and absorbing Mid Infrared and Terahertz. Our synthetic multi-spectral component could be integrated with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology where Si photodiodes are available to detect the visible radiation and micro-bolometers available to detect the Infrared/Terahertz and render an inexpensive, mass-producible camera capable of forming coaxial visible, Infrared and Terahertz images. PMID:26907004

  5. Blood flow imaging at deep posterior human eye using 1 μm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Shuichi; Fabritius, Tapio; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2009-02-01

    Blood flow imaging of deep posterior eye has been demonstrated by using 1-μm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The high contrast imaging of deep posterior eye, such as the choroid and the sclera, enables blood flow imaging of choroidal vessels and short posterior ciliary arteries. Optical coherence angiography (OCA) images of outer part from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) reveal the vasculature of the choroid and the particular vasculature of short posterior ciliary arteries so-called the circle of Zinn-Haller. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration for flow imaging the circle of Zinn-Haller with optical coherence tomography.

  6. Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cense, Barry; Nassif, Nader A.; Chen, Teresa C.; Pierce, Mark C.; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Hyle Park, B.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2004-05-01

    We present the first ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural intensity images and movies of the human retina in vivo at 29.3 frames per second with 500 A-lines per frame. Data was acquired at a continuous rate of 29,300 spectra per second with a 98% duty cycle. Two consecutive spectra were coherently summed to improve sensitivity, resulting in an effective rate of 14,600 A-lines per second at an effective integration time of 68 μs. The turn-key source was a combination of two super luminescent diodes with a combined spectral width of more than 150 nm providing 4.5 mW of power. The spectrometer of the spectraldomain OCT (SD-OCT) setup was centered around 885 nm with a bandwidth of 145 nm. The effective bandwidth in the eye was limited to approximately 100 nm due to increased absorption of wavelengths above 920 nm in the vitreous. Comparing the performance of our ultrahighresolution SD-OCT system with a conventional high-resolution time domain OCT system, the A-line rate of the spectral-domain OCT system was 59 times higher at a 5.4 dB lower sensitivity. With use of a software based dispersion compensation scheme, coherence length broadening due to dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arms was minimized. The coherence length measured from a mirror in air was equal to 4.0 μm (n= 1). The coherence length determined from the specular reflection of the foveal umbo in vivo in a healthy human eye was equal to 3.5 μm (n = 1.38). With this new system, two layers at the location of the retinal pigmented epithelium seem to be present, as well as small features in the inner and outer plexiform layers, which are believed to be small blood vessels.

  7. High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmin; Raphael, Patrick D.; Oghalai, John S.; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Swept-laser sources offer a number of advantages for Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT). However, inter- and intra-sweep variability leads to calibration errors that adversely affect phase sensitivity. While there are several approaches to overcoming this problem, our preferred method is to simply calibrate every sweep of the laser. This approach offers high accuracy and phase stability at the expense of a substantial processing burden. In this approach, the Hilbert phase of the interferogram from a reference interferometer provides the instantaneous wavenumber of the laser, but is computationally expensive. Fortunately, the Hilbert transform may be approximated by a Finite Impulse-Response (FIR) filter. Here we explore the use of several FIR filter based Hilbert transforms for calibration, explicitly considering the impact of filter choice on phase sensitivity and OCT image quality. Our results indicate that the complex FIR filter approach is the most robust and accurate among those considered. It provides similar image quality and slightly better phase sensitivity than the traditional FFT-IFFT based Hilbert transform while consuming fewer resources in an FPGA implementation. We also explored utilizing the Hilbert magnitude of the reference interferogram to calculate an ideal window function for spectral amplitude calibration. The ideal window function is designed to carefully control sidelobes on the axial point spread function. We found that after a simple chromatic correction, calculating the window function using the complex FIR filter and the reference interferometer gave similar results to window functions calculated using a mirror sample and the FFT-IFFT Hilbert transform. Hence, the complex FIR filter can enable accurate and high-speed calibration of the magnitude and phase of spectral interferograms. PMID:27446666

  8. High-speed spectral calibration by complex FIR filter in phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Raphael, Patrick D; Oghalai, John S; Applegate, Brian E

    2016-04-01

    Swept-laser sources offer a number of advantages for Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT). However, inter- and intra-sweep variability leads to calibration errors that adversely affect phase sensitivity. While there are several approaches to overcoming this problem, our preferred method is to simply calibrate every sweep of the laser. This approach offers high accuracy and phase stability at the expense of a substantial processing burden. In this approach, the Hilbert phase of the interferogram from a reference interferometer provides the instantaneous wavenumber of the laser, but is computationally expensive. Fortunately, the Hilbert transform may be approximated by a Finite Impulse-Response (FIR) filter. Here we explore the use of several FIR filter based Hilbert transforms for calibration, explicitly considering the impact of filter choice on phase sensitivity and OCT image quality. Our results indicate that the complex FIR filter approach is the most robust and accurate among those considered. It provides similar image quality and slightly better phase sensitivity than the traditional FFT-IFFT based Hilbert transform while consuming fewer resources in an FPGA implementation. We also explored utilizing the Hilbert magnitude of the reference interferogram to calculate an ideal window function for spectral amplitude calibration. The ideal window function is designed to carefully control sidelobes on the axial point spread function. We found that after a simple chromatic correction, calculating the window function using the complex FIR filter and the reference interferometer gave similar results to window functions calculated using a mirror sample and the FFT-IFFT Hilbert transform. Hence, the complex FIR filter can enable accurate and high-speed calibration of the magnitude and phase of spectral interferograms. PMID:27446666

  9. Enhanced joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography for quantitative flow velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Julia; Koch, Edmund

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a new method called joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography (STdOCT) for flow velocity measurement in spectral domain OCT (SD OCT) was presented. This method analyzes the detected timeresolved interference fringe spectra by using a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation (2D FFT) to determine directly the Doppler frequency shift instead of calculating the phase difference at each depth position of adjacent A-scans. There, it was found that STdOCT is more robust for measurements with low signal to noise ratio than the classic phase-resolved Doppler OCT (DOCT) making it attractive first for imaging fast flow velocities at which a strong Doppler angle dependent signal damping occurs due to interference fringe washout and second for investigating large blood vessels with a big diameter and a highly damped signal of blood with increasing depth due to strong scattering and absorption in the near-infrared wavelength range. In the present study, we would like to introduce an enhanced algorithm for STdOCT permitting a more precise flow velocity measurement in comparison to the conventional STdOCT. The new method determines the amplitude of the broadened Doppler frequency shift by calculating the center of gravity via the complex analytical signal as a result of the second FFT instead of detecting the maximum intensity signal. Furthermore, the comparison with phase-resolved DOCT was done experimentally by using a flow phantom consisting of a 1% Intralipid emulsion and a 320 μm glass capillary. As a result, the enhanced STdOCT and DOCT processed data are completely equivalent.

  10. Parameters of Selected Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae from Consistent Optical and UV Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschinski, Cornelius Bernhard

    optical emission lines, from which the mass loss rate is determined in case of a purely optical based analysis, depends on the square of the density. A possible clumpiness in the winds would thus lead to an uncertainty in the determination of atmospheric mass loss rates from the strength of such optical recombination lines. Since the mass loss rate is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the other stellar parameters, this may lead to an uncertainty in the determination of the stellar parameters. We used the improved code to re-evaluate, with respect to the influence of clumping on the appearance of the UV spectra, the optical parameter set determined in an earlier study that employed clumping in its models to achieve fits to the observed optical lines. We found that, with and without clumping, wind strengths and terminal velocities in accordance to their stellar parameters from the optical analysis yield spectra which are incompatible with the optical and UV observations, whereas our self-consistent models achieve good fits to both observations. Moreover, moderate clumping factors are found to have the same order of influence on the optical recombination lines as the density (velocity field) has. During the same study we also derived shock temperatures and ratios of X-ray to bolometric luminosities so as to reproduce the highly ionized O VI line in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectral range. These values agree with those derived for O stars, again confirming the similarity of massive O type CSPN and massive O star atmospheres. Based on the derived shock structures of our sample of CSPNs we investigated the possible influence of shocks on emission line studies from HII regions. Here, tools for the inversion of line ratios into desired physical properties are required and come in the form of diagnostic ratios or diagrams which are based on grids of photoionization models. We calculated such a grid of shock influenced ionizing fluxes from a

  11. Convection measurement package for space processing sounding rocket flights. [low gravity manufacturing - fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects on heated fluids of nonconstant accelerations, rocket vibrations, and spin rates, was studied. A system is discussed which can determine the influence of the convective effects on fluid experiments. The general suitability of sounding rockets for performing these experiments is treated. An analytical investigation of convection in an enclosure which is heated in low gravity is examined. The gravitational body force was taken as a time-varying function using anticipated sounding rocket accelerations, since accelerometer flight data were not available. A computer program was used to calculate the flow rates and heat transfer in fluids with geometries and boundary conditions typical of space processing configurations. Results of the analytical investigation identify the configurations, fluids and boundary values which are most suitable for measuring the convective environment of sounding rockets. A short description of fabricated fluid cells and the convection measurement package is given. Photographs are included.

  12. On the facet-skeletal transition of snow crystals - Experiments in high and low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, T.; Hallett, J.; Saunders, C. P. R.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the influence of air velocity on the growth of columnar ice crystals from the vapor over the range -3 to -5 C shows that the linear growth velocity increases and that columns transform to sheath crystals or needles as air velocity increases from a few cm/s to 40 cm/s. Comparison with a similar transition of plates to dendrites shows that, macroscopically, in both cases the facets sprout rounded tips at a critical velocity which is lower for higher ambient supersaturation. Studies in low gravity show that chamber scale convection under normal gravity may have significant influence on growth even in the absence of an imposed air velocity. Falling snow crystals become more skeletal in shape as they grow and fall with increasing velocity. This development depends critically on temperature (+ or - 0.5 C) and demonstrates that the snow crystal shape is even more dependent on environmental growth conditions that previously thought.

  13. Transport phenomena in the crystallization of lysozyme by osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul; Sportiello, Michael G.; Gregory, Derek; Cassanto, John M.; Alvarado, Ulises A.; Ostroff, Robert; Korszun, Z. R.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of protein crystallization, osmotic dewatering and liquid-liquid diffusion, like the vapor diffusion (hanging-drop and sessile-drop) methods allow a gradual approach to supersaturation conditions. The crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme, an extensively characterized protein crystal, in the presence of sodium chloride was used as an experimental model with which to compare these two methods in low gravity and in the laboratory. Comparisons of crystal growth rates by the two methods under the two conditions have, to date, indicated that the rate of crystal growth by osmotic dewatering is nearly the same in low gravity and on the ground, while much faster crystal growth rates can be achieved by the liquid-liquid diffusion method in low gravity.

  14. SHELS: OPTICAL SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF WISE 22 {mu}m SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: dfabricant@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-10-10

    We use a dense, complete redshift survey, the Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS), covering a 4 deg{sup 2} region of a deep imaging survey, the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), to study the optical spectral properties of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 {mu}m selected galaxies. Among 507 WISE 22 {mu}m selected sources with (S/N){sub 22{mu}m} {>=} 3 ( Almost-Equal-To S{sub 22{mu}m} {approx}> 2.5 mJy), we identify the optical counterparts of 481 sources ({approx}98%) at R < 25.2 in the very deep, DLS R-band source catalog. Among them, 337 galaxies at R < 21 have SHELS spectroscopic data. Most of these objects are at z < 0.8. The infrared (IR) luminosities are in the range 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}(L{sub Sun }) {approx}< L{sub IR} {approx}< 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}(L{sub Sun }). Most 22 {mu}m selected galaxies are dusty star-forming galaxies with a small (<1.5) 4000 A break. The stacked spectra of the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies binned in IR luminosity show that the strength of the [O III] line relative to H{beta} grows with increasing IR luminosity. The optical spectra of the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies also show that there are some ({approx}2.8%) unusual galaxies with very strong [Ne III] {lambda}3869, 3968 emission lines that require hard ionizing radiation such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or extremely young massive stars. The specific star formation rates (sSFRs) derived from the 3.6 and 22 {mu}m flux densities are enhanced if the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies have close late-type neighbors. The sSFR distribution of the 22 {mu}m selected galaxies containing AGNs is similar to the distribution for star-forming galaxies without AGNs. We identify 48 dust-obscured galaxy candidates with large ({approx}> 1000) mid-IR to optical flux density ratio. The combination of deep photometric and spectroscopic data with WISE data suggests that WISE can probe the universe to z {approx} 2.

  15. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent

  16. A comparison of low-gravity measurements on-board Columbia during STS-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Baugher, C. R.; Blanchard, R. C.; Delombard, R.; Durgin, W. W.; Matthiesen, D. H.; Neupert, W.; Roussel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The first NASA Spacelab Life Sciences mission (SLS-1) flew 5 Jun. to 14 Jun. 1991 on the orbiter Columbia (STS-40). The purpose of the mission was to investigate the human body's adaptation to the low-gravity conditions of space flight and the body's readjustment after the mission to the 1 g environment of earth. In addition to the life sciences experiments manifested for the Spacelab module, a variety of experiments in other scientific disciplines flew in the Spacelab and in Get Away Special (GAS) Canisters on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Several principal investigators designed and flew specialized accelerometer systems to better assess the results of their experiments by means of a low-gravity environment characterization. This was also the first flight of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsored Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the first flight of the NASA Orbiter Experiments Office (OEX) sponsored Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment accelerometer (OARE). A brief introduction to seven STS-40 accelerometer systems are presented and the resulting data are discussed and compared. During crew sleep periods, acceleration magnitudes in the 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -5) g range were recorded in the Spacelab module and on the GAS Bridge Assembly. Magnitudes increased to the 10(exp -4) g level during periods of nominal crew activity. Vernier thruster firings caused acceleration shifts on the order of 10(exp -4) g and primary thruster firings caused accelerations as great as 10(exp -2) g. Frequency domain analysis revealed typical excitation of Orbiter and Spacelab structural modes at 3.5, 4.7, 5.2, 6.2, 7, and 17 Hz.

  17. Viscosity Measurement of Highly Viscous Liquids Using Drop Coalescence in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is being investigated for use as a method for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in this case to minimize the undesirable effects of body forces and liquid motion in levitated drops. Also, the low gravity environment will allow for investigating large liquid volumes which can lead to much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. In the analytical aspect of the method two liquid volumes are brought into contact which will coalesce under the action of surface tension alone. The free surface geometry development as well as its velocity during coalescence which are obtained from numerical computations are compared with an analogous experimental model. The viscosity in the numerical computations is then adjusted to bring into agreement of the experimental results with the calculations. The true liquid viscosity is the one which brings the experiment closest to the calculations. Results are presented for method validation experiments performed recently on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. The numerical solution for this validation case was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, in this case glycerine at room temperature, was determined to high degree of accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. These experiments gave very encouraging results which will be discussed together with plans for implementing the method in a shuttle flight experiment.

  18. The influence of simulated low-gravity environments on growth, development and metabolism of plants.

    PubMed

    Dedolph, R R

    1967-01-01

    Low-gravity environments may be simulated through appropriate horizontal clinostat rotation. This simulation is accomplished through a biological nullification of the directional component of gravitational force. Measuring biologically effective gravity force by organ response, it is readily demonstrated that biologically active gravitational force may be treated as a two-dimensional vector. Though the magnitude dimension of this vector remains virtually constant anywhere on earth, the biologically effective direction dimension may be quantitatively altered by clinostat rotation, provided appropriate angular velocities and angles of inclination of clinostat axes are employed. Using oat seedlings, a rotation rate of 2 rpm, and a horizontal axis clinostat, a 'zero g' environment may be simulated. This simulated 'zero g' condition is attested by the inability of plants to perceive unidirectional gravitational force of sufficient magnitude to elicit directional growth. Under such conditions, plants will grow in the direction imparted by the initial orientation of the plants in the system. Geotropic curvature responses to subsequent geostimulation are, however, greater in seedlings grown under these conditions, nullifying the direction dimension of gravitational force, than in seedlings grown with rotation but with normal unidirectional gravity loads. Root growth under simulated 'zero' gravity conditions is likewise enhanced as compared to plants grown with rotation but normal unidirectional gravity. These differences in magnitude of growth and response to subsequent geostimulation are inexplicable on bases of modified auxin economy or production. Respiration rates are, however, materially enhanced by the simulated 'zero g' environments. This enhancement of respiration, as well as growth, quantitatively diminishes as the unidirectional gravity load is increased. These results imply that the primary effect of low-gravity environments is likely that of modifying the

  19. FROM PLANETESIMALS TO DUST: LOW-GRAVITY EXPERIMENTS ON RECYCLING SOLIDS AT THE INNER EDGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    De Beule, Caroline; Kelling, Thorben; Wurm, Gerhard; Teiser, Jens; Jankowski, Tim

    2013-01-20

    Transporting solids of different sizes is an essential process in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and planet formation. Large solids are supposed to drift inward; high-temperature minerals found in comets are assumed to have been transported outward. From low-gravity experiments on parabolic flights, we studied the light-induced erosion of dusty bodies caused by a solid-state greenhouse effect and photophoresis within a dust bed's upper layers. The gravity levels studied were 0.16g, 0.38g, 1g, and 1.7g. The light flux during the experiments was 12 {+-} 2 kW m{sup -2} and the ambient pressure was 6 {+-} 0.9 mbar. Light-induced erosion is strongly gravity dependent, which is in agreement with a developed model. In particular for small dusty bodies ((sub)-planetesimals), efficient erosion is possible at the optically thin inner edges of protoplanetary disks. Light-induced erosion prevents significant parts of a larger body from moving too close to the host star and being subsequently accreted. The small dust produced continues to be subject to photophoresis and is partially transported upward and outward over the surface of the disk; the resulting small dust particles are observed over the disk's lifetime. The fraction of eroded dust participates in subsequent cycles of growth during planetesimal formation. Another fraction of dust might be collected by a body of planetary size if this body is already present close to the disk edge. Either way, light-induced erosion is an efficient recycling process in protoplanetary disks.

  20. Photonic generation of chirped microwave and millimeter wave pulses based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping in silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lawrence R.

    2016-08-01

    We provide an overview of photonic generation of chirped microwave and millimeter wave pulses based on optical spectral shaping followed by wavelength-to-time mapping. We summarize results obtained using bulk optic/benchtop and all-fiber spectral shapers, and discuss recent developments on integrated versions in silicon photonics. In particular, we describe devices based on microring resonators and present new results obtained using integrated spectral shapers incorporating chirped Bragg gratings.

  1. Detection and calculation of reflected spectral shifts in fiber-Bragg gratings (FBG) in polarization maintaining optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Joel; Gonzalez, Virgilio

    2014-04-01

    Fiber-Bragg Gratings (FBG) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have been studied extensively as they offer electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, and multiple multiplexing schemes, as compared to conventional electricity based strain sensors. FBG sensors written in Polarization Maintaining (PM) optical fiber offer an additional dimension of strain measurement simplifying sensor implementation within a structure. This simplification however, adds complexity to the detection of the sensor's optical response to its corresponding applied strain. We propose a method that calculates spectral shifts caused by axial and traversal strains for PM FBG sensors. The system isolates the orthogonal propagating optical waves incident to the optical interrogators. The post-processing algorithm determines the wavelength shifts, and compares to a predetermined baseline then correlates the shift magnitudes to a respective strain. This exercise validates the method of optical detection and shift calculation of multi-axis sensors as an automated, integrated system.

  2. Multimodal Retinal Vessel Segmentation from Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Fundus Photography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhihong; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2014-01-01

    Segmenting retinal vessels in optic nerve head (ONH) centered spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes is particularly challenging due to the projected neural canal opening (NCO) and relatively low visibility in the ONH center. Color fundus photographs provide a relatively high vessel contrast in the region inside the NCO, but have not been previously used to aid the SD-OCT vessel segmentation process. Thus, in this paper, we present two approaches for the segmentation of retinal vessels in SD-OCT volumes that each take advantage of complimentary information from fundus photographs. In the first approach (referred to as the registered-fundus vessel segmentation approach), vessels are first segmented on the fundus photograph directly (using a k-NN pixel classifier) and this vessel segmentation result is mapped to the SD-OCT volume through the registration of the fundus photograph to the SD-OCT volume. In the second approach (referred to as the multimodal vessel segmentation approach), after fundus-to-SD-OCT registration, vessels are simultaneously segmented with a k-NN classifier using features from both modalities. Three-dimensional structural information from the intraretinal layers and neural canal opening obtained through graph-theoretic segmentation approaches of the SD-OCT volume are used in combination with Gaussian filter banks and Gabor wavelets to generate the features. The approach is trained on 15 and tested on 19 randomly chosen independent image pairs of SD-OCT volumes and fundus images from 34 subjects with glaucoma. Based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the present registered-fundus and multimodal vessel segmentation approaches [area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively] both perform significantly better than the two previous OCT-based approaches (AUC of 0.78 and 0.83, p < 0.05). The multimodal approach overall performs significantly better than the other three approaches (p < 0

  3. Low gravity solidification structures in the tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Parr, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys have been solidified in the low-gravity environment provided by the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR), on the KC-135 airplane, and at high 'g' levels in a centrifuge furnace. In each case the resultant cast structure was significantly different from that obtained in ground based experiments. Earlier low-gravity studies with the metal-model system NH4Cl-H2O presaged these results. This paper presents and discusses the influence of changes in the gravity force on the grain structure of these materials.

  4. Modern collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter for optical spectroscopy: the exploration of efficiency and spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, A. S.; Arellanes, A. O.; Bertone, E.

    2016-02-01

    Our work is devoted to the collinear acousto-optical filter governed by the acoustic waves of finite amplitude. It represents a novel bulk-optical component, namely, the dispersive element for optical spectroscopy. This filter is based on specifically doped lithium niobate single crystal that unexpectedly works in the near ultraviolet range as well as this material usually works in the visible range. We examine the phenomena affecting the filter transmission efficiency and its resolution, i.e. the light-induced absorption and photorefraction. A new nonlinear approach is used to characterize performances of this collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter exploiting our revealed specific acousto-optical nonlinearity. We have carried out the experiments with the collinear filter based on the congruent LiNbO3 crystal of 6.3 cm length at λ = 405 and 440 nm to verify our analysis and estimations. We also explore an opportunity to trade an amount of the efficiency to improve the spectral resolution. The transmission efficiency steeply increases with increasing light wavelength and with decreasing length of the filter, nevertheless the efficiency still remains higher than 30% in the near ultraviolet, if the spectral resolution is limited by δλ = 0.28-0.29 Å. Moreover, we demonstrate the possibility to reach a resolution as high as δλ = 0.12-0.15 Å (R > 24600), preserving at the same time an efficiency higher than 10% over the spectral interval that we considered. It looks like our filter holds the best to our knowledge experimentally confirmed spectral resolution for any collinear acousto-optical spectrometers dedicated to space/airborne operations.

  5. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-03-21

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid-liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum. PMID:24466569

  6. Extension of the broadband single-mode integrated optical waveguide technique to the ultraviolet spectral region and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Mendes, Sergio B.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the fabrication, characterization, and application of a single-mode integrated optical waveguide (IOW) spectrometer capable of acquiring optical absorbance spectra of surface-immobilized molecules in the visible and ultraviolet spectral region down to 315 nm. The UV-extension of the single-mode IOW technique to shorter wavelengths was made possible by our development of a low-loss single-mode dielectric waveguide in the UV region based on an alumina film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a high quality fused silica substrate, and by our design/fabrication of a broadband waveguide coupler formed by an integrated diffraction grating combined with a highly anamorphic optical beam of large numerical aperture. As an application of the developed technology, we report here the surface adsorption process of bacteriochlorophyll a on different interfaces using its Soret absorption band centred at 370 nm. The effects of different chemical compositions at the solid/liquid interface on the adsorption and spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll a were determined from the polarized UV-Vis IOW spectra acquired with the developed instrumentation. The spectral extension of the single-mode IOW technique into the ultraviolet region is an important advance as it enables extremely sensitive studies in key characteristics of surface molecular processes (e.g., protein unfolding and solvation of aromatic amino-acid groups under surface binding) whose spectral features are mainly located at wavelengths below the visible spectrum. PMID:24466569

  7. Design and analysis of filter-based optical systems for spectral responsivity estimation of digital video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gao-Wei; Jian, Hong-Da; Yeh, Zong-Mu; Cheng, Chin-Pao

    2004-02-01

    For estimating spectral responsivities of digital video cameras, a filter-based optical system is designed with sophisticated filter selections, in this paper. The filter consideration in the presence of noise is central to the optical systems design, since the spectral filters primarily prescribe the structure of the perturbed system. A theoretical basis is presented to confirm that sophisticated filter selections can make this system as insensitive to noise as possible. Also, we propose a filter selection method based on the orthogonal-triangular (QR) decomposition with column pivoting (QRCP). To investigate the noise effects, we assess the estimation errors between the actual and estimated spectral responsivities, with the different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels of an eight-bit/channel camera. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method yields satisfactory estimation accuracy. That is, the filter-based optical system with the spectral filters selected from the QRCP-based method is much less sensitive to noise than those with other filters from different selections.

  8. Electro-optic spectral tuning in a fan-out double-prism domain periodically poled lithium niobate intracavity optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Chang, W K; Chung, H P; Lin, Y Y; Chen, Y H

    2016-08-15

    We report on the design and experimental demonstration of an electro-optically tunable, pulsed intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) based on a unique fan-out double-prism domain periodically poled lithium niobate (DPD PPLN) in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser. The PPLN device combines the functionalities of fan-out and ramped duty-cycle domain structured nonlinear crystals, working simultaneously as a continuous grating-period quasi-phase-matched optical parametric downconverter and an electro-optic beam deflector/Q switch in the laser system. When driving the fan-out DPD PPLN with a voltage pulse train and varying the DC offset of the pulse train, a pulsed IOPO was realized with its signal and idler being electro-optically tunable over the 1880 and 2453 nm bands at spectral tuning rates of 13.5 (measured) and 25.8 (calculated) nm/(kV/mm), respectively. PMID:27519119

  9. Standard resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography in clinical ophthalmic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkulmowska, Anna; Cyganek, Marta; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Kaluzny, Jakub J.; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-04-01

    In this study we show clinical application of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT), which enables operation with 40 times higher speed than commercial Stratus OCT instrument. Using high speed SOCT instrument it is possible to collect more information and increase the quality of reconstructed cross-sectional retinal images. Two generations of compact and portable clinical SOCT instruments were constructed in Medical Physics Group at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland. The first SOCT instrument is a low-cost system operating with standard, 12 micrometer axial resolution and the second is high resolution system using combined superluminescent diodes light source, which enables imaging with 4.8 micrometer axial resolution. Both instruments have worked in Ophthalmology Clinic of Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz. During the study we have examined 44 patients with different pathologies of the retina including: Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC), Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV), Pigment Epithelial Detachment (PED), Macular Hole, Epiretinal Membrane, Outer Retinal Infarction etc. All these pathologies were first diagnosed by classical methods (like fundus camera imaging and angiography) and then examined with the aid of SOCT system. In this contribution we present examples of SOCT cross-sectional retinal imaging of pathologic eyes measured with standard resolution. We also compare cross-sectional images of pathology obtained by standard and high resolution systems.

  10. Real-time Functional Analysis of Inertial Microfluidic Devices via Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Dong, Biqin; Chen, Siyu; Zhou, Fan; Chan, Christina H Y; Yi, Ji; Zhang, Hao F; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We report the application of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) technology that enables real-time functional analysis of sorting microparticles and cells in an inertial microfluidic device. We demonstrated high-speed, high-resolution acquisition of cross-sectional images at a frame rate of 350 Hz, with a lateral resolution of 3 μm and an axial resolution of 1 μm within the microfluidic channel filled with water. We analyzed the temporal sequence of cross-sectional SD-OCT images to determine the position and diameter of microspheres in a spiral microfluidic channel under various flow rates. We used microspheres with known diameters to validate the sub-micrometer precision of the particle size analysis based on a scattering model of spherical microparticles. An additional investigation of sorting live HT-29 cells in the spiral microfluidic channel indicated that the distribution of cells within in the microchannel has a close correspondence with the cells' size distribution. The label-free real-time imaging and analysis of microscale particles in flow offers robustness for practical applications with live cells and allows us to better understand the mechanisms of particle separations in microfluidic sorting systems. PMID:27619202

  11. An optical system for measuring nitric oxide using spectral separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Somesfalean, G.; Guo, W.; Wang, H. S.; Wu, S. H.; Qin, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2012-05-01

    An optical sensor based on differential absorption spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of industrial nitric oxide (NO) gas emission is described. The influence of gas absorption interference from sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the environment was considered and a spectral separation technique was developed in order to eliminate this interference effect. The absorption spectrum of SO2 around 226 nm was evaluated by the SO2 concentration obtained using the experimentally recorded absorption spectrum around 300 nm. The absorption spectrum of NO around 226 nm was obtained by subtracting the absorption of SO2 from the integral absorption spectrum of SO2 and NO. The concentration measurements were performed at atmospheric pressure. The technique was found to have a lower detection limit of 0.8 ppm for NO per meter path length (SNR=2) and be immune from the influence from SO2 on the NO measurement. The sensor based on this technique was successfully employed for in situ measurement of SO2 and NO concentrations in the flue gas emitted from an industrial coal-fired boiler.

  12. Visualization and measurement of capillary-driven blood flow using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cito, Salvatore; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Pallares, Jordi; Duarte, Rodrigo Martinez; Chen, Zhongping; Madou, Marc; Katakis, Ioanis

    2013-01-01

    Capillary-driven flow (CD-flow) in microchannels plays an important role in many microfluidic devices. These devices, the most popular being those based in lateral flow, are becoming increasingly used in health care and diagnostic applications. CD-flow can passively pump biological fluids as blood, serum or plasma, in microchannels and it can enhance the wall mass transfer by exploiting the convective effects of the flow behind the meniscus. The flow behind the meniscus has not been experimentally identified up to now because of the lack of high-resolution, non-invasive, cross-sectional imaging means. In this study, spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography is used to visualize and measure the flow behind the meniscus in CD-flows of water and blood. Microchannels of polydimethylsiloxane and glass with different cross-sections are considered. The predictions of the flow behind the meniscus of numerical simulations using the power-law model for non-Newtonian fluids are in reasonable agreement with the measurements using blood as working fluid. The extension of the Lucas–Washburn equation to non-Newtonian power-law fluids predicts well the velocity of the meniscus of the experiments using blood. PMID:23795150

  13. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for ex vivo brain tumor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Jaedicke, Volker; Stroop, Ralf; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2015-07-01

    Non-contact imaging methods to distinguish between healthy tissue and brain tumor tissue during surgery would be highly desirable but are not yet available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology with a resolution around 1-15 μm and a penetration depth of 1-2 mm that may satisfy the demands. To analyze its potential, we measured ex vivo human brain tumor tissue samples from 10 patients with a Spectral Domain OCT system (Thorlabs Callisto: center wavelength of 930 nm) and compared the results with standard histology. In detail, three different measurements were made for each sample. First the sample was measured directly after surgery. Then it was embedded in paraffin (also H and E staining) and examined for the second time. At last, the slices of each paraffin block cut by the pathology were measured. Each time a B-scan was created and for a better comparison with the histology a 3D image was generated, in order to get the corresponding en face images. In both, histopathological diagnosis and the analysis of the OCT images, different types of brain tumor showed difference in structure. This has been affirmed by two blinded investigators. Nevertheless the difference between two images of samples taken directly after surgery is less distinct. To enhance the contrast in the images further, we employ Spectroscopic OCT and pattern recognition algorithms and compare these results to the histopathological standard.

  14. Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suehira, Nobuhito; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Tomatsu, Nobuhiro; Yuasa, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2012-10-01

    A three-beam spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (OCT) whose center wavelength is 840 nm was developed. The three beams focus on fundus 3.1 mm apart from each other and are detected by a single line sensor. The distance between the beams is fixed and the beams scan a total area of 10×10 mm2 while keeping this separation during three-dimensional (3-D) measurement. The line rate of the sensor is 70 kHz, therefore the total speed is equivalent to 210k A-scans per second in this system. A 1000(x)×500(z)×250(y) voxel volumetric 3D OCT data set can be acquired within 2 s. Images of a model eye, a healthy human eye and a diseased eye taken by this system are shown and evaluated. The image quality of one B-Scan is as good as an image from a single-beam OCT. Adjustment among the beams is solved by additional signal processing using a model eye. A multi-beam OCT has the potential not only for high speed imaging but also functional imaging although problems such as compensation among the beams and motion artifacts must be solved.

  15. Fiber spectral domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo rat brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Bonin, T.; Loeffler, S.; Huettmann, G.; Tronnier, V.; Hofmann, U. G.

    2010-04-01

    A well established navigation method is one of the key conditions for successful brain surgery: It should be accurate, safe and online operable. Recent research shows that Optical Coherence Tomography is a potential solution for this application by providing a high resolution and small probe dimension. In this study a fiber Spectral-Domain OCT system with a super luminescent diode with the center wavelength of 840 nm providing 13.6 μm axial resolution was used. A single mode fiber (Ø 125 μm) was employed as the detecting probe. The information acquired by OCT was reconstructed into grayscale images by vertically aligning several A-scans from the same trajectory with different depth, i.e. forward scanning. For scans of typical white matter, the images showed a higher reflection of light intensity with lower penetration depth as well as a steeper attenuation rate compared to the scans typical for grey matter. Since the axial resolution of this OCT system is very high, some microstructures lying on the striatum, hippocampus and thalamic nucleus were visible in these images. The research explored the potential of OCT to be integrated into a stereotactic surgical robot as a multi-modal navigation method.

  16. Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Marboe, Charles C.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-06-01

    We present an ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in 800 nm with a low-noise supercontinuum source (SC) optimized for myocardial imaging. The system was demonstrated to have an axial resolution of 2.72 μm with a large imaging depth of 1.78 mm and a 6-dB falloff range of 0.89 mm. The lateral resolution (5.52 μm) was compromised to enhance the image penetration required for myocardial imaging. The noise of the SC source was analyzed extensively and an imaging protocol was proposed for SC-based OCT imaging with appreciable contrast. Three-dimensional datasets were acquired ex vivo on the endocardium side of tissue specimens from different chambers of fresh human and swine hearts. With the increased resolution and contrast, features such as elastic fibers, Purkinje fibers, and collagen fiber bundles were observed. The correlation between the structural information revealed in the OCT images and tissue pathology was discussed as well.

  17. Myopic Macular Retinoschisis in Teenagers: Clinical Characteristics and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuan-Bin; You, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Lin-Yan; Chen, Pei-Qing; Yao, Ke; Xue, An-Quan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the morphological characteristics of myopic macular retinoschisis (MRS) in teenagers with high myopia, six male (9 eyes) and 3 female (4 eyes) teenagers with typical MRS identified from chart review were evaluated. All cases underwent complete ophthalmic examinations including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), indirect ophthalmoscopy, colour fundus photography, B-type ultrasonography, axial length measurement, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The average age was 17.8 ± 1.5 years, average refractive error was -17.04 ± 3.04D, average BCVA was 0.43 ± 0.61, and average axial length was 30.42 ± 1.71 mm. Myopic macular degenerative changes (MDC) by colour fundus photographs revealed Ohno-Matsui Category 1 in 4 eyes, and Category 2 in 9 eyes. Posterior staphyloma was found in 9 eyes. SD-OCT showed outer MRS in all 13 eyes, internal limiting membrane detachment in 7 eyes, vascular microfolds in 2 eyes, and inner MRS in 1 eye. No premacular structures such as macular epiretinal membrane or partially detached posterior hyaloids were found. Our results showed that MRS rarely occurred in highly myopic teenagers, and was not accompanied by premacular structures, severe MDC, or even obvious posterior staphyloma. This finding indicates that posterior scleral expansion is probably the main cause of MRS. PMID:27294332

  18. Methodology for assessment of structural vibrations by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Simon S.; Raphael, Patrick; Xia, Anping; Park, Jesung; Carbajal, Esteban; Applegate, Brian E.; Oghalai, John S.

    2012-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of cochlear dysfunction typically remains incomplete due to a lack of proper diagnostic methods. Medical imaging modalities can only detect gross changes in the cochlea, and non-invasive in vivo cochlear measurements are scarce. As a result, extensive efforts have been made to adapt optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques to analyze and study the cochlea. Herein, we detail the methods for measuring vibration using OCT. We used spectral domain OCT with ~950 nm as the center wavelength and a bandwidth of ~80 nm. The custom spectrometer used was based on a high speed line scan camera which is capable of line rates up to 28 kHz. The signal-to- noise ratio of the system was ~90 dB. The data collection and processing software was written in LabVIEW and MATLAB. We tested whether streaming directly from the camera, writing the data to multiple hard drives in the RAID- 0 configuration, and processing using the GPU shortened experiment times. We then analyzed the A-line phase noise over several hundred milliseconds and growth curves from a piezoelectric element. We believe this is the first step towards a diagnostic device which generates vibration information of cochlear structures.

  19. Prediction of spontaneous closure of traumatic macular hole with spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Weiqi; Zheng, Kangken; Peng, Kun; Xia, Honghe; Zhu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that some traumatic macular holes can close spontaneously. However, knowledge about the types of macular hole that can close spontaneously is limited. In this retrospective study, we investigated patients with traumatic macular hole who were followed-up for at least 6 months without any surgical intervention. Clinical data and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images were compared between groups with and without macular hole closure. Overall, 27 eyes were included. Spontaneous closure of macular hole was observed in 10 (37.0%) eyes. The holes with spontaneous closure had smaller minimum diameter (244.9 ± 114.4 vs. 523.9 ± 320.0 μm, p = 0.007) and less intraretinal cysts (10% vs. 76.5%, p = 0.001) compared to the holes that did not close spontaneously. The area under the curve of receiver operative characteristic was 0.812 and 0.832 for minimum diameter of macular hole and presence of intraretinal cysts respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the presence of intraretinal cysts was an independent predictive factor for closure of macular holes. The group with spontaneous macular hole closure had a high chance of visual improvement. Our study suggests that the absence of intraretinal cysts on SD-OCT can predict spontaneous closure of traumatic macular hole. PMID:26196460

  20. Quantitative Diagnosis of Colorectal Polyps by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Qinqin; Wu, Xiaojing; Tang, Tao; Liu, Hong; Zhu, S. W.; Gao, Bruce Z.; Yuan, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to investigate the scattering coefficient of colorectal polyp tissues using an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. It combines the existing scattering coefficient model and spectral domain OCT to achieve method of early diagnosis of colorectal polyp in hospitals. Seventeen patients were studied, and a total of 1456 data points were extracted by curve-fitting the OCT signals into a confocal single-backscattering model. The results show that the mean scattering coefficient value for colorectal polyps is 1.91 mm−1 (std: ±0.54 mm−1), which is between the values for normal and malignant tissues. In addition, we studied the difference between adenomatous polyps (n = 15) and inflammatory polyps (n = 2) quantitatively and found that the adenomatous tissues had lower scattering coefficients than the inflammatory ones. The quantitative measurements confirmed that OCT can be used in primary diagnosis to compensate for the deficiencies in methods of pathological diagnosis, with a great potential for early diagnosis of tissues. PMID:24818145

  1. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Amrit; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Shrestha, Jyoti Baba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years) were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 μm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=−0.243, P=0.055) and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09) did not correlate with age. Conclusion Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. PMID:27041990

  2. Intraoperative Changes in Idiopathic Macular Holes by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Atsushi; Yagou, Takaaki; Nakamura, Tomoko; Fujita, Kazuya; Oka, Miyako; Fuchizawa, Chiharu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine anatomical changes in idiopathic macular holes during surgery using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Five eyes of 5 patients who underwent surgery for the repair of idiopathic macular holes were examined. The surgery included standard 25-gauge, 3-port pars plana vitrectomy, removal of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), fluid-air exchange, and 20% sulfur hexafluoride tamponade. Intraoperative SD-OCT images of the macular holes were obtained after ILM removal and under fluid-air exchange using a handheld SD-OCT. From SD-OCT images, the macular hole base diameter (MHBD) was measured and compared. Results All macular holes were successfully closed after the primary surgery. The mean MHBD under fluid-air exchange was significantly smaller than the mean MHBD after ILM removal and the preoperative mean MHBD. In 1 eye with a stage 3 macular hole, SD-OCT images revealed that the inner edges of the macular hole touched each other under fluid-air exchange. Conclusion Fluid-air exchange significantly reduced MHBD during surgery to repair macular holes. Fluid-air exchange may be an important step for macular hole closure as it reduces the base diameter of the macular hole. PMID:21677882

  3. Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

    2005-07-12

    The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

  4. In vivo imaging of raptor retina with ultra high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Major, James C., Jr.; McKeown, Craig; Wehbe, Hassan; Jiao, Shuliang; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2008-02-01

    Among birds, raptors are well known for their exceptional eyesight, which is partly due to the unique structure of their retina. Because the raptor retina is the most advanced of any animal species, in vivo examination of its structure would be remarkable. Furthermore, a noticeable percentage of traumatic ocular injuries are identified in birds of prey presented to rehabilitation facilities. Injuries affecting the posterior segment have been considered as a major impact on raptor vision. Hence, in vivo examination of the structure of the posterior segment of the raptors would be helpful for the diagnosis of traumatized birds. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of ultrahigh-resolution Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) for non contact in vivo imaging of the retina of birds of prey, which to the best of our knowledge has never been attempted. For the first time we present high quality OCT images of the retina of two species of bird of prey, one diurnal hawk and one nocturnal owl.

  5. Morphologic Changes in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Bin; Chung, Hyewon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate morphologic changes of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Methods This retrospective study included 63 eyes of 63 patients with unilateral acute CSC. All patients underwent simultaneous SD-OCT and fluorescein angiography examination using Spectralis HRA+OCT. Results The external limiting membrane could be seen on SD-OCT, although the junction between photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) was not detected in all eyes with retinal detachment (RD). However, IS/OS became visible after resolution of serous RD in 51 eyes (81.0%). SD-OCT images at the leakage sites showed a bump of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in in 47 cases (68.1%) and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in 22 of 69 leakage sites (31.9%). In 14 of 69 leakage sites (20.3%), highly reflective areas suggesting fibrinous exudate were observed in the subretinal space. In nine leakage sites (13.0%), sagging or dipping of the posterior retinal layer was seen. Abnormal RPE changes such as RPE bump and PED were observed in 12 of 22 fellow eyes (54.5%). Conclusions A variety of morphologic changes could be identified on SD-OCT, and those findings may contribute more information to our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSC. PMID:23060721

  6. Myocardial imaging using ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Marboe, Charles C; Hendon, Christine P

    2016-06-01

    We present an ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in 800 nm with a low-noise supercontinuum source (SC) optimized for myocardial imaging. The system was demonstrated to have an axial resolution of 2.72  μm with a large imaging depth of 1.78 mm and a 6-dB falloff range of 0.89 mm. The lateral resolution (5.52  μm) was compromised to enhance the image penetration required for myocardial imaging. The noise of the SC source was analyzed extensively and an imaging protocol was proposed for SC-based OCT imaging with appreciable contrast. Three-dimensional datasets were acquired ex vivo on the endocardium side of tissue specimens from different chambers of fresh human and swine hearts. With the increased resolution and contrast, features such as elastic fibers, Purkinje fibers, and collagen fiber bundles were observed. The correlation between the structural information revealed in the OCT images and tissue pathology was discussed as well. PMID:27001162

  7. Comparison of spectral-domain and time-domain optical coherence tomography in solar retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Joo; Yoo, Eun Seok; Kim, Chul Gu; Kim, Jong Woo

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare spectral-domain (SD) and time-domain (TD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in patients with solar retinopathy. Complete ocular examinations and OCT were performed in two patients presenting with acute solar retinopathy soon after observation of an eclipse. Both patients were evaluated with SD-OCT and TD-OCT at the same time. SD-OCT demonstrated characteristic defects at the level of the inner and outer segment junction of the photoreceptors in all the affected eyes and decreased reflectiveness of the retinal pigment epithelium layer. TD-OCT images showed unremarkable findings in two eyes with deteriorated visual acuity. SD-OCT improves diagnosis and assessment of the degree and nature of foveal damage in patients with solar retinopathy and may be an important tool for use in identifying foveal damage not detected by TD-OCT. SD-OCT may be preferable to TD-OCT for confirmation or assessment of the degree of foveal damage in patients with solar retinopathy. PMID:21860577

  8. Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Shidan; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Liu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    It is important to measure embryonic heart myocardial wall strain and strain rate for understanding the mechanisms of embryonic heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide depth resolved images with high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it have the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the early stage embryonic heart. We develop a novel method to measure strain in embryonic chick heart based on spectral domain OCT images and subsequent image processing. We perform 4D(x,y,z,t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in HH18 stage (~3 days of incubation). Only one image sequence acquired at the special position is selected based on the Doppler blood flow information where the probe beam penetrates through the OFT perpendicularly. For each image of the selected sequence, the cross-section of the myocardial wall can be approximated as an annulus. The OFT is segmented with a semi-automatic boundary detection algorithm, thus the area and mean circumference of the annular myocardial wall can be achieved. The myocardial wall thickness was calculated using the area divided by the mean circumference, and then the strain was obtained. The results demonstrate that OCT can be a useful tool to describe the biomechanical characteristics of the embryonic heart.

  9. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography documented rapid resolution of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema with topical difluprednate

    PubMed Central

    Chalam, KV; Khetpal, Vijay; Patel, Chirag J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema is a common cause of poor vision after cataract surgery, and topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for its treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of difluprednate (Durezol®, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) in the treatment of cystoid macular edema, assisted with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Case report A 63-year-old African-American woman presented 6 weeks after uneventful cataract surgery in her left eye with decreased vision and associated distortion of the central visual field. Fluorescein angiogram and SD-OCT confirmed pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Difluprednate was topically administered twice daily and monitored with serial imaging. Resolution was noted after 1 month of topical therapy, with improvement in visual acuity and resolution of distortion. Conclusion Difluprednate is an effective treatment for patients with severe pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. SD-OCT allows the physician to monitor resolution of the macular edema easily. PMID:22291458

  10. Ultra-fast displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography system using a Graphics Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyosang; Cho, Nam Hyun; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Changho; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Kim, Jeehyun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultrafast displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography system using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing. The calculation of FFT and the Doppler frequency shift is accelerated by the GPU. Our system can display processed OCT and ODT images simultaneously in real time at 120 fps for 1,024 pixels × 512 lateral A-scans. The computing time for the Doppler information was dependent on the size of the moving average window, but with a window size of 32 pixels the ODT computation time is only 8.3 ms, which is comparable to the data acquisition time. Also the phase noise decreases significantly with the window size. Since the performance of a real-time display for OCT/ODT is very important for clinical applications that need immediate diagnosis for screening or biopsy. Intraoperative surgery can take much benefit from the real-time display flow rate information from the technology. Moreover, the GPU is an attractive tool for clinical and commercial systems for functional OCT features as well. PMID:22969328

  11. Improvement of axial resolution of spectral domain optical coherence tomography with wide band PLC splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Joo Beom; Min, Eun Jung; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-06-01

    We report the development and performance of high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system based on 2×2 planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter that was designed as a single mode splitter at near infrared and used as the beam splitter for a SD-OCT system. The splitter has been made by coupling SMFs to a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter chip. The PLC splitter chip was fabricated to have a single mode property with 740 nm cutoff wavelength and the SMFs, which have 730 nm cutoff wavelength, were securely connected to the PLC chip through fiber block arrays having lithographically fabricated V grooves. With the implemented PLC splitter, we have obtained a low excess loss of 0.4 dB at 840 nm with wide band coupling property. With the proposed 2×2 PLC splitter and fabricated WDM coupler, SD-OCT images of samples successfully obtained by using combined source with 840 nm and 880 nm SLDs.

  12. Myopic Macular Retinoschisis in Teenagers: Clinical Characteristics and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuan-bin; You, Yong-sheng; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Lin-yan; Chen, Pei-qing; Yao, Ke; Xue, An-quan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the morphological characteristics of myopic macular retinoschisis (MRS) in teenagers with high myopia, six male (9 eyes) and 3 female (4 eyes) teenagers with typical MRS identified from chart review were evaluated. All cases underwent complete ophthalmic examinations including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), indirect ophthalmoscopy, colour fundus photography, B-type ultrasonography, axial length measurement, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The average age was 17.8 ± 1.5 years, average refractive error was −17.04 ± 3.04D, average BCVA was 0.43 ± 0.61, and average axial length was 30.42 ± 1.71 mm. Myopic macular degenerative changes (MDC) by colour fundus photographs revealed Ohno-Matsui Category 1 in 4 eyes, and Category 2 in 9 eyes. Posterior staphyloma was found in 9 eyes. SD-OCT showed outer MRS in all 13 eyes, internal limiting membrane detachment in 7 eyes, vascular microfolds in 2 eyes, and inner MRS in 1 eye. No premacular structures such as macular epiretinal membrane or partially detached posterior hyaloids were found. Our results showed that MRS rarely occurred in highly myopic teenagers, and was not accompanied by premacular structures, severe MDC, or even obvious posterior staphyloma. This finding indicates that posterior scleral expansion is probably the main cause of MRS. PMID:27294332

  13. Visible and near infrared wavelength photonic crystal fiber splitter for multiwavelength spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Joo Beom; Min, Eun Jung; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication and performance of the 2×2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) splitter that was designed as a single mode splitter at the visible and near infrared and used as the beam splitter for a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system. The PCF splitter has been made by coupling PCFs to a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter chip. The PLC splitter chip was fabricated to have a single mode property with 630 nm cutoff wavelength and the PCFs were securely connected to the PLC chip through PCF block arrays having lithographically fabricated V grooves. The core width of the splitter chip was about 4 μm×4 μm and the core-cladding index difference was about 0.15%. With the implemented PCF PLC splitter, we have obtained a low excess loss of 1.2 dB and a low polarization-dependent loss of 0.19 dB at 680 nm with wide band coupling property. With the proposed 2×2 PCF splitter, SD-OCT images of human finger, nail, and tooth successfully obtained by using 680 nm, 840 nm, and 930 nm SLD source. This PCF PLC splitter is expected to have high resolution OCT.

  14. Automated multilayer segmentation and characterization in 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaodong; Hariri, Amirhossein; Sadda, SriniVas R.

    2013-03-01

    Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a 3-D imaging technique, allowing direct visualization of retinal morphology and architecture. The various layers of the retina may be affected differentially by various diseases. In this study, an automated graph-based multilayer approach was developed to sequentially segment eleven retinal surfaces including the inner retinal bands to the outer retinal bands in normal SD-OCT volume scans at three different stages. For stage 1, the four most detectable and/or distinct surfaces were identified in the four-times-downsampled images and were used as a priori positional information to limit the graph search for other surfaces at stage 2. Eleven surfaces were then detected in the two-times-downsampled images at stage 2, and refined in the original image space at stage 3 using the graph search integrating the estimated morphological shape models. Twenty macular SD-OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis) volume scans from 20 normal subjects (one eye per subject) were used in this study. The overall mean and absolute mean differences in border positions between the automated and manual segmentation for all 11 segmented surfaces were -0.20 +/- 0.53 voxels (-0.76 +/- 2.06 μm) and 0.82 +/- 0.64 voxels (3.19 +/- 2.46 μm). Intensity and thickness properties in the resultant retinal layers were investigated. This investigation in normal subjects may provide a comparative reference for subsequent investigations in eyes with disease.

  15. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  16. The Photometric and Spectral Evolution of the 2008 Luminous Optical Transient in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Bond, Howard E.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Davidson, Kris; Berto Monard, L. A. G.; Prieto, José L.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2011-12-01

    The 2008 optical transient in NGC 300 is one of a growing class of intermediate-luminosity transients that brighten several orders of magnitude from a previously optically obscured state. The origin of their eruptions is not understood. Our multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from maximum light to more than a year later provide a record of its post-eruption behavior. We describe its changing spectral energy distribution, the evolution of its absorption- and emission-line spectrum, the development of a bipolar outflow, and the rapid transition from a dense wind to an optically thin ionized wind. In addition to strong, narrow hydrogen lines, the F-type absorption-line spectrum of the transient is characterized by strong Ca II and [Ca II] emission. The very broad wings of the Ca II triplet and the asymmetric [Ca II] emission lines are due to strong Thomson scattering in the expanding ejecta. Post-maximum, the hydrogen and Ca II lines developed double-peaked emission profiles that we attribute to a bipolar outflow. Between approximately 60 and 100 days after maximum, the F-type absorption spectrum, formed in its dense wind, weakened and the wind became transparent to ionizing radiation. We discuss the probable evolutionary state of the transient and similar objects such as SN 2008S and conclude that they were most likely post-red supergiants or post-asymptotic giant branch stars on a blue loop to warmer temperatures when the eruption occurred. These objects are not luminous blue variables. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555; in part on archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA; in part on

  17. [Research on Multi-Spectral Target Recognition System Based on the Magneto-Optical Modulation].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-yan; Qin, Jian-min; Qiao, Ji-pin

    2016-03-01

    The technology of target recognition based on characteristic multi-spectrum has many advantages, such as strong detection capability and discriminating capability of target species. But there are some problems, it requires that you obtain the background spectrum as a priori knowledge, and it requires that the change of background spectrum is small with time. Thereby its application of real-time object recognition is limited in the new environment, or the complex environment. Based on magneto-optical modulation and characteristic multi-spectrum the method is designed, and the target is identified without prior access to the background spectrum. In order to achieve the function of the target information in the one acquisition time for tested, compared to conventional methods in terms of target detection, it's adaptability is better than before on the battlefield, and it is of more practical significance. Meanwhile, the magneto-optical modulator is used to suppress the interference of stray light background, thereby improving the probability of target recognition. Since the magneto-optical modulation provides incremental iterative target spectral information, therefore, even if the unknown background spectrum or background spectrum change is large, it can significantly improve the recognition accuracy of information through an iterative target spectrum. Different test targets back shimmering light intensity and background intensity values were analyzed during experiments, results showed that three targets for linearly polarized reflectance modulation is significantly stronger than the background. And it was of great influence to visible imaging target identification when measured target used camouflage color, but the system of polarization modulation type can still recognize target well. On this basis, the target range within 0.5 km x 2 km multi-wavelength characteristics of the target species were identified. When using three characteristic wavelengths, the

  18. Spatial-spectral flexible optical networking: enabling switching solutions for a simplified and efficient SDM network platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkos, I.; Zakynthinos, P.; Klonidis, D.; Marom, D.; Sygletos, S.; Ellis, A.; Salvadori, E.; Siracusa, D.; Angelou, M.; Papastergiou, G.; Psaila, N.; Ferran, J. F.; Ben-Ezra, S.; Jimenez, F.; Fernández-Palacios, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The traffic carried by core optical networks grows at a steady but remarkable pace of 30-40% year-over-year. Optical transmissions and networking advancements continue to satisfy the traffic requirements by delivering the content over the network infrastructure in a cost and energy efficient manner. Such core optical networks serve the information traffic demands in a dynamic way, in response to requirements for shifting of traffics demands, both temporally (day/night) and spatially (business district/residential). However as we are approaching fundamental spectral efficiency limits of singlemode fibers, the scientific community is pursuing recently the development of an innovative, all-optical network architecture introducing the spatial degree of freedom when designing/operating future transport networks. Spacedivision- multiplexing through the use of bundled single mode fibers, and/or multi-core fibers and/or few-mode fibers can offer up to 100-fold capacity increase in future optical networks. The EU INSPACE project is working on the development of a complete spatial-spectral flexible optical networking solution, offering the network ultra-high capacity, flexibility and energy efficiency required to meet the challenges of delivering exponentially growing traffic demands in the internet over the next twenty years. In this paper we will present the motivation and main research activities of the INSPACE consortium towards the realization of the overall project solution.

  19. Development of stable, narrow spectral line-width, fiber delivered laser source for spin exchange optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bo; Tong, Xin; Jiang, Chenyang; Brown, Daniel R.; Robertson, Lee

    2015-06-05

    In this study, we developed a stable, narrow spectral line-width, fiber delivered laser source for spin exchange optical pumping. An optimized external cavity equipped with an off-the-shelf volume holographic grating narrowed the spectral line-width of a 100 W high-power diode laser and stabilized the laser spectrum. The laser spectrum showed a high side mode suppression ratio of >30 dB and good long-term stability (center wavelength drifting within ±0.002 nm during 220 h of operation). Finally, our laser is delivered by a multimode fiber with power ~70 W, center wavelength of 794.77 nm, and spectral bandwidth of ~0.12 nm.

  20. Growth, spectral, thermal, optical, mechanical and etching studies of L-lysine semi-maleate (L-LSM) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, V.; Renuka, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-02-01

    Organic nonlinear optical material, L-lysine semi-maleate (L-LSM) single crystals were grown by slow cooling solution growth technique. The crystal system of grown L-LSM was confirmed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyzes. Functional groups of the grown crystal have been identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectral analysis. The proton and carbon NMR spectral studies confirm the presence of hydrogen and carbon in the grown L-LSM. The melting and thermal decomposition temperatures of the crystal were determined using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Optical transparency, second harmonic generation efficiency, micro hardness, dielectric constant and loss, refractive index and birefringence have also been measured. Further, the growth patterns and dislocations present in the grown crystal are studied.