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Sample records for low-intensity ambulatory activity

  1. Patterns of global gene expression in rat skeletal muscle during unloading and low-intensity ambulatory activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Lionel; Akunuri, Nagabhavani; Zhao, Po; Hoffman, Eric P.; Hamilton, Deborah G.; Hamilton, Marc T.

    2003-01-01

    Physical inactivity and unloading lead to diverse skeletal muscle alterations. Our goal was to identify the genes in skeletal muscle whose expression is most sensitive to periods of unloading/reduced physical activity and that may be involved in triggering initial responses before phenotypic changes are evident. The ability of short periods of physical activity/loading as an effective countermeasure against changes in gene expression mediated by inactivity was also tested. Affymetrix microarrays were used to compare mRNA levels in the soleus muscle under three experimental treatments (n = 20-29 rats each): 12-h hindlimb unloading (HU), 12-h HU followed by 4 h of intermittent low-intensity ambulatory and postural activity (4-h reloading), and control (with ambulatory and postural activity). Using a combination of criteria, we identified a small set of genes (approximately 1% of 8,738 genes on the array or 4% of significant expressed genes) with the most reproducible and largest responses to altered activity. Analysis revealed a coordinated regulation of transcription for a large number of key signaling proteins and transcription factors involved in protein synthesis/degradation and energy metabolism. Most (21 of 25) of the gene expression changes that were downregulated during HU returned at least to control levels during the reloading. In surprising contrast, 27 of 38 of the genes upregulated during HU remained significantly above control, but most showed trends toward reversal. This introduces a new concept that, in general, genes that are upregulated during unloading/inactivity will be more resistant to periodic reloading than those genes that are downregulated. This study reveals genes that are the most sensitive to loading/activity in rat skeletal muscle and indicates new targets that may initiate muscle alterations during inactivity.

  2. Low-intensity walking activity is associated with better health.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Tan, Erwin J; Wang, Tao; Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda P; Seplaki, Christopher L; King, Abby C; Seeman, Teresa E; Rebok, George W; Carlson, Michelle C

    2014-10-01

    Recommended levels of physical activity may represent challenging targets for many older adults at risk for disability, leading to the importance of evaluating whether low-intensity activity is associated with health benefits. We examined the cross-sectional association between low-intensity walking activity (<100 steps/min) and health and physical function in a group of older adults. Participants (N = 187; age = 66.8; 91.4% African American; 76.5% female) wore a StepWatch Activity Monitor to measure components of low-intensity walking activity. Only 7% of participants met physical activity guidelines and moderate-intensity activity (≥100 steps/min) contributed only 10% of the total steps/day and 2% of the total min/day. Greater amount, frequency, and duration of low-intensity activity were associated with better self-report and performance-based measures of physical function, better quality of life, and fewer depressive symptoms (ps < .05). The cross-sectional relationship between low-intensity activity and health outcomes important to independent function suggests that we further explore the longitudinal benefits of low-intensity activity. PMID:24652915

  3. Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Yakymenko, Igor; Tsybulin, Olexandr; Sidorik, Evgeniy; Henshel, Diane; Kyrylenko, Olga; Kyrylenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of low-intensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation. PMID:26151230

  4. A standardized approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis during low-intensity physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Sarafian, Delphine; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.; Yepuri, Gayathri; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2013-01-01

    Limitations of current methods: The assessment of human variability in various compartments of daily energy expenditure (EE) under standardized conditions is well defined at rest [as basal metabolic rate (BMR) and thermic effect of feeding (TEF)], and currently under validation for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work. However, because physical activities of daily life consist of a combination of both dynamic and isometric work, there is also a need to develop standardized tests for assessing human variability in the energy cost of low-intensity isometric work. Experimental objectives: Development of an approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis by incorporating a protocol of intermittent leg press exercise of varying low-intensity isometric loads with measurements of EE by indirect calorimetry. Results: EE was measured in the seated position with the subject at rest or while intermittently pressing both legs against a press-platform at 5 low-intensity isometric loads (+5, +10, +15, +20, and +25 kg force), each consisting of a succession of 8 cycles of press (30 s) and rest (30 s). EE, integrated over each 8-min period of the intermittent leg press exercise, was found to increase linearly across the 5 isometric loads with a correlation coefficient (r) > 0.9 for each individual. The slope of this EE-Load relationship, which provides the energy cost of this standardized isometric exercise expressed per kg force applied intermittently (30 s in every min), was found to show good repeatability when assessed in subjects who repeated the same experimental protocol on 3 separate days: its low intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV) of ~ 10% contrasted with its much higher inter-individual CV of 35%; the latter being mass-independent but partly explained by height. Conclusion: This standardized approach to study isometric thermogenesis opens up a new avenue for research in EE phenotyping and metabolic predisposition to obesity

  5. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  6. Low-intensity cycling affects the muscle activation pattern of consequent countermovement jumps.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Gonzalo J; Mon, Javier; Acero, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jose A; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed countermovement jumps before and after a 15-minutes cycling bout at 35% of their maximal power output. Three sessions were tested for 3 different cadences of cycling: freely chosen cadence, 20% lower than freely chosen cadence (FCC-20%), and 20% higher than freely chosen cadence (FCC+20%). Jump height, kinematics, and electromyogram were recorded simultaneously during the countermovement jumps. The results showed a significant decreasing in the height of countermovement jump after cycling at freely chosen cadence and FCC-20% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively), but not for FCC+20% cadences. The electromyographic parameters suggest that changes in the countermovement jump after cycling can be attributed to alteration of the pattern of activation and may be modulated by the preceding cycling cadence. Our study indicates that to avoid a possible negative effect of the cycling in the subsequent explosive movements, a cadence 20% higher than the preferred cadence must be used. PMID:19620918

  7. Low-intensity contraction activates the alpha1-isoform of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Satsuki; Ebihara, Ken; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Kiminori; Sato, Kenji; Fushiki, Tohru; Nakao, Kazuwa; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle expresses two catalytic subunits, alpha1 and alpha2, of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which has been implicated in contraction-stimulated glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. Muscle contraction activates the alpha2-containing AMPK complex (AMPKalpha2), but this activation may occur with or without activation of the alpha1-containing AMPK complex (AMPKalpha1), suggesting that AMPKalpha2 is the major isoform responsible for contraction-induced metabolic events in skeletal muscle. We report for the first time that AMPKalpha1, but not AMPKalpha2, can be activated in contracting skeletal muscle. Rat epitrochlearis muscles were isolated and incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing pyruvate. In muscles stimulated to contract at a frequency of 1 and 2 Hz during the last 2 min of incubation, AMPKalpha1 activity increased twofold and AMPKalpha2 activity remained unchanged. Muscle stimulation did not change the muscle AMP concentration or the AMP-to-ATP ratio. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of Thr(172) of the alpha-subunit, the primary activation site. Muscle stimulation increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK, and the rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose transport. In contrast, increasing the frequency (>or=5 Hz) or duration (>or=5 min) of contraction activated AMPKalpha1 and AMPKalpha2 and increased AMP concentration and the AMP/ATP ratio. These results suggest that 1) AMPKalpha1 is the predominant isoform activated by AMP-independent phosphorylation in low-intensity contracting muscle, 2) AMPKalpha2 is activated by an AMP-dependent mechanism in high-intensity contracting muscle, and 3) activation of each isoform enhances glucose transport and ACC phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. PMID:16249251

  8. Low-intensity continuous ultrasound triggers effective bisphosphonate anticancer activity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tardoski, Sophie; Ngo, Jacqueline; Gineyts, Evelyne; Roux, Jean-Paul; Clézardin, Philippe; Melodelima, David

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a non-ionizing pressure wave that can produce mechanical and thermal effects. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated clinical utility in bone metastases treatment. Preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates have anticancer activity. However, bisphosphonates exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral, which reduces their bioavailibity for tumor cells. Ultrasound has been shown to be effective for drug delivery but in interaction with gas bubbles or encapsulated drugs. We examined the effects of a clinically relevant dose of bisphosphonate zoledronate (ZOL) in combination with US. In a bone metastasis model, mice treated with ZOL+US had osteolytic lesions that were 58% smaller than those of ZOL-treated animals as well as a reduced skeletal tumor burden. In a model of primary tumors, ZOL+US treatment reduced by 42% the tumor volume, compared with ZOL-treated animals. Using a fluorescent bisphosphonate, we demonstrated that US forced the release of bisphosphonate from the bone surface, enabling a continuous impregnation of the bone marrow. Additionally, US forced the penetration of ZOL within tumors, as demonstrated by the intratumoral accumulation of unprenylated Rap1A, a surrogate marker of ZOL antitumor activity. Our findings made US a promising modality to trigger bisphosphonate anticancer activity in bone metastases and in primary tumors. PMID:26578234

  9. Low-intensity continuous ultrasound triggers effective bisphosphonate anticancer activity in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardoski, Sophie; Ngo, Jacqueline; Gineyts, Evelyne; Roux, Jean-Paul; Clézardin, Philippe; Melodelima, David

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a non-ionizing pressure wave that can produce mechanical and thermal effects. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated clinical utility in bone metastases treatment. Preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates have anticancer activity. However, bisphosphonates exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral, which reduces their bioavailibity for tumor cells. Ultrasound has been shown to be effective for drug delivery but in interaction with gas bubbles or encapsulated drugs. We examined the effects of a clinically relevant dose of bisphosphonate zoledronate (ZOL) in combination with US. In a bone metastasis model, mice treated with ZOL+US had osteolytic lesions that were 58% smaller than those of ZOL-treated animals as well as a reduced skeletal tumor burden. In a model of primary tumors, ZOL+US treatment reduced by 42% the tumor volume, compared with ZOL-treated animals. Using a fluorescent bisphosphonate, we demonstrated that US forced the release of bisphosphonate from the bone surface, enabling a continuous impregnation of the bone marrow. Additionally, US forced the penetration of ZOL within tumors, as demonstrated by the intratumoral accumulation of unprenylated Rap1A, a surrogate marker of ZOL antitumor activity. Our findings made US a promising modality to trigger bisphosphonate anticancer activity in bone metastases and in primary tumors.

  10. Low-intensity continuous ultrasound triggers effective bisphosphonate anticancer activity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tardoski, Sophie; Ngo, Jacqueline; Gineyts, Evelyne; Roux, Jean-Paul; Clézardin, Philippe; Melodelima, David

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a non-ionizing pressure wave that can produce mechanical and thermal effects. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated clinical utility in bone metastases treatment. Preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates have anticancer activity. However, bisphosphonates exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral, which reduces their bioavailability for tumor cells. Ultrasound has been shown to be effective for drug delivery but in interaction with gas bubbles or encapsulated drugs. We examined the effects of a clinically relevant dose of bisphosphonate zoledronate (ZOL) in combination with US. In a bone metastasis model, mice treated with ZOL+US had osteolytic lesions that were 58% smaller than those of ZOL-treated animals as well as a reduced skeletal tumor burden. In a model of primary tumors, ZOL+US treatment reduced by 42% the tumor volume, compared with ZOL-treated animals. Using a fluorescent bisphosphonate, we demonstrated that US forced the release of bisphosphonate from the bone surface, enabling a continuous impregnation of the bone marrow. Additionally, US forced the penetration of ZOL within tumors, as demonstrated by the intratumoral accumulation of unprenylated Rap1A, a surrogate marker of ZOL antitumor activity. Our findings made US a promising modality to trigger bisphosphonate anticancer activity in bone metastases and in primary tumors. PMID:26578234

  11. Ambulatory physical activity in Swiss Army recruits.

    PubMed

    Wyss, T; Scheffler, J; Mäder, U

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess and compare the type, duration and intensity of physical activity during the basic training provided by each of 5 selected Swiss Army occupational specialties. The first objective was to develop and validate a method to assess distance covered on foot. The second objective was to describe and compare physical activity levels among occupational specialties. In the first part of the study, 30 male volunteers completed 6 laps of 290 m at different gait velocities. Data from 15 volunteers were used to develop linear regression equations for the relationship between step frequency and gait velocity, and data from the other 15 volunteers were used to verify the accuracy of these equations. In the second part of the study, 250 volunteers from 5 military schools (each training school for a different occupational specialty) wore heart-rate, acceleration and step-count monitors during workdays of weeks 2, 4, 8 and 10 of their basic training. Sensor data were used to identify physically demanding activities, estimate energy expenditure (based on already published algorithms) and estimate distance covered on foot (based on the algorithm developed in the first part of this study). A branched model using 2 regression equations (gait velocity=0.705∙step frequency for walking speeds below 1 m/s and gait velocity=1.675∙step frequency - 1.464 for faster gait velocities) was shown to be accurate for estimating distance covered on foot. In the training schools investigated, average physical activity energy expenditure was 10.5 ± 2.4 MJ per day, and trainees covered 12.9 ± 3.3 km per day on foot. Recruits spent 61.0 ± 23.3 min per day marching and 33.1 ± 19.5 min per day performing physically demanding materials-handling activities. Average physical activity energy expenditure decreased significantly from week 2 to week 8. The measurement system utilised in the present study yielded data comparable to those of prior studies that

  12. Changes in Cortical Oxyhaemoglobin Signal During Low-Intensity Cycle Ergometer Activity: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Takai, Haruna; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely used non-invasive method for measuring human brain activation based on the cerebral hemodynamic response during gross motor tasks. However, systemic changes can influence measured NIRS signals. We aimed to determine and compare time-dependent changes in NIRS signal, skin blood flow (SBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise. Nine healthy volunteers (22.1±1.7 years, 3 women) participated in this study. After a 4-min pre-exercise rest and a 4-min warm-up, they exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads corresponding to 30% VO2 peak for 20 min. An 8-min rest period followed the exercise. Cortical oxyhaemoglobin signals (O2Hb) were recorded while subjects performed the exercise, using an NIRS system. Changes in SBF and MAP were also measured during exercise. O2Hb increased to 0.019 mM cm over 6 min of exercise, decreased slightly from 13 min towards the end of the exercise. SBF continued to increase over 16 min of the exercise period and thereafter decreased till the end of measurement. MAP fluctuated from -1.0 to 7.1 mmHg during the exercise. Pearson's correlation coefficients between SBF and O2Hb, and MAP and O2Hb differed in each time phase, from -0.365 to 0.713. During low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise, the profile of changes in measurements of O2Hb, SBF, and MAP differed. These results suggested that it is necessary to confirm the relationship between O2Hb and systemic factors during motor tasks in order to detect cortical activation during gross motor tasks. PMID:26782198

  13. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  14. Autonomic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure in Ambulatory Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Jessica; Akingba, A. George; Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Tan, Alex Y.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Shen, Changyu; Patel, Jheel; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiac autonomic nerve activity and blood pressure (BP) changes in ambulatory dogs is unclear. Objective To test the hypotheses that simultaneous termination of stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) and vagal nerve activity (VNA) predisposes to spontaneous orthostatic hypotension and that specific β2 adrenoceptor blockade prevents the hypotensive episodes. Methods We used a radiotransmitter to record SGNA, VNA and blood pressure (BP) in 8 ambulatory dogs. Video imaging was used to document postural changes. Results Out of these 8 dogs, 5 showed simultaneous sympathovagal discharges in which the minute by minute integrated SGNA correlated with integrated VNA in a linear pattern (“Group 1”). In these dogs abrupt termination of simultaneous SGNA-VNA at the time of postural changes (as documented by video imaging) was followed by abrupt (>20 mmHg over 4 beats) drops in BP. Dogs without simultaneous on/off firing (“Group 2”) did not have drastic drops in pressure. ICI 118,551 (ICI, a specific β2-blocker) infused at 3.1 µg/kg/hr for 7 days significantly increased BP from 126 (95% confidence interval, CI: 118 to 133) mmHg to 133 (95% CI 125 to141) mmHg (p=0.0001). The duration of hypotension (mean systolic BP < 100 mmHg) during baseline accounted for 7.1% of the recording. The percentage was reduced by ICI to 1.3% (p = 0.01). Conclusions Abrupt simultaneous termination of SGNA-VNA was observed at the time of orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory dogs. Selective β2 adrenoceptor blockade increased BP and reduced the duration of hypotension in this model. PMID:24275433

  15. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning. PMID:20204088

  16. Motivators for Physical Activity among Ambulatory Nursing Home Older Residents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Li, Yueh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore self-identified motivators for regular physical activity among ambulatory nursing home older residents. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted. Purposive sampling was performed to recruit 18 older residents from two nursing homes in Taiwan. The interview transcripts were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Five motivators of physical activity emerged from the result of analysis: eagerness for returning home, fear of becoming totally dependent, improving mood state, filling empty time, and previously cultivated habit. Research on physical activity from the perspectives of nursing home older residents has been limited. An empirically grounded understanding from this study could provide clues for promoting and supporting lifelong engagement in physical activity among older residents. The motivators reported in this study should be considered when designing physical activity programs. These motivators can be used to encourage, guide, and provide feedback to support older residents in maintaining physical activity. PMID:25054175

  17. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism. PMID:26964348

  18. Worksite Physical Activity Intervention for Ambulatory Clinic Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. PMID:27143144

  19. 11. Bactericidal Activity of Photocatalytic TiO2 Excited by Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS): An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Chieko; Koseki, Hironobu

    2016-08-01

    Photocatalysis with anatase-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) under ultraviolet has a well-recognized bactericidal effect. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the photocatalytic bactericidal effects of TiO2 on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC35984) caused by Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) associated with bio-implant-related infections. The photocatalytic properties of the TiO2 films were confirmed by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue. The disks were seeded with cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis and irradiated by LIPUS. The bactericidal effect of the TiO2 films was evaluated by counting the surviving colonies. The viability of the bacteria on the photocatalytic TiO2 film coated titanium was suppressed significantly to 63% after 2 hours of LIPUS treatment (P < 0.05). The photocatalytic bactericidal effect of TiO2 under LIPUS is useful for sterilizing the contaminated and infected surfaces of metal bio-implants. PMID:27441772

  20. Promoting physical activity in low back pain patients: six months follow-up of a randomised controlled trial comparing a multicomponent intervention with a low intensity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andrea; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos; Icks, Andrea; Reibling, Nadine; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess a comprehensive multicomponent intervention against a low intensity intervention for promoting physical activity in chronic low back pain patients. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation and aftercare. Subjects: A total of 412 patients with chronic low back pain. Interventions: A multicomponent intervention (Movement Coaching) comprising of small group intervention (twice during inpatient rehabilitation), tailored telephone aftercare (twice after rehabilitation) and internet-based aftercare (web 2.0 platform) versus a low level intensity intervention (two general presentations on physical activity, download of the presentations). Main measures: Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Primary outcome was total physical activity; secondary outcomes were setting specific physical activity (transport, workplace, leisure time) and pain. Comparative group differences were evaluated six months after inpatient rehabilitation. Results: At six months follow-up, 92 participants in Movement Coaching (46 %) and 100 participants in the control group (47 %) completed the postal follow-up questionnaire. No significant differences between the two groups could be shown in total physical activity (P = 0.30). In addition to this, workplace (P = 0.53), transport (P = 0.68) and leisure time physical activity (P = 0.21) and pain (P = 0.43) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups, physical activity decreased during the six months follow-up. Conclusions: The multicomponent intervention was no more effective than the low intensity intervention in promoting physical activity at six months follow-up. The decrease in physical activity in both groups is an unexpected outcome of the study and indicates the need for further research. PMID:27496696

  1. Self-Selected Walking Speed is Predictive of Daily Ambulatory Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Addie; Fulk, George D; Beets, Michael W; Herter, Troy M; Fritz, Stacy L

    2016-04-01

    Daily ambulatory activity is associated with health and functional status in older adults; however, assessment requires multiple days of activity monitoring. The objective of this study was to determine the relative capabilities of self-selected walking speed (SSWS), maximal walking speed (MWS), and walking speed reserve (WSR) to provide insight into daily ambulatory activity (steps per day) in community-dwelling older adults. Sixty-seven older adults completed testing and activity monitoring (age 80.39 [6.73] years). SSWS (R2 = .51), MWS (R2 = .35), and WSR calculated as a ratio (R2 = .06) were significant predictors of daily ambulatory activity in unadjusted linear regression. Cutpoints for participants achieving < 8,000 steps/day were identified for SSWS (≤ 0.97 m/s, 44.2% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, 10.28 +LR, 0.58 -LR) and MWS (≤ 1.39 m/s, 60.5% sensitivity, 78.3% specificity, 2.79 +LR, 0.50 -LR). SSWS may be a feasible proxy for assessing and monitoring daily ambulatory activity in older adults. PMID:26371593

  2. Accelerometry: a feasible method to quantify physical activity in ambulatory and nonambulatory adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Noorduyn, Stephen G; Obeid, Joyce; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the feasibility of physical activity monitoring in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. A convenience sample of ambulatory and non-ambulatory adolescents (N = 23; 17 males, 6 females; mean age 13.5 y, SD 2.6 y; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) distribution: n = 9 Level I, n = 5 Level II, n = 5 Level III, n = 4 Level IV) was recruited. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed using the ActiGraph GT1M activity monitor. Discomfort or adverse effects of wearing the accelerometers were recorded by participants. Levels of physical activity were determined as total PA, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and vigorous PA (VPA) using cut-points recently validated for CP. Results. Most participants showed little reluctance. Mean daily MVPA for all participants was 30.7 minutes (SD 30.3), which corresponded to 2.7 (SD 2.4) minutes of MVPA per hour or 4.5% (SD 3.9) of the total monitoring time. Total PA and MVPA were greatest in ambulatory youth (GMFCS levels I and II) compared with youth who use a walking aid or wheelchair (GMFCS levels III and IV) (P < 0.05). Conclusion(s). The results support the use of the accelerometer as a feasible and useful measure of activity in ambulatory and nonambulatory adolescents with CP. PMID:22792119

  3. Ambulatory Activity of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Which Characteristics Are Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G.; Balemans, Astrid C. J.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess ambulatory activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 7 to 13 years, and identify associated characteristics. Method: Sixty-two children with spastic CP (39 males, 23 females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 1y 8mo; age range 7-13y), classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III, participated.…

  4. Low frequency and low intensity pulsed electromagnetic field exerts its antiinflammatory effect through restoration of plasma membrane calcium ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ramasamy; Ganesan, Kalaivani; Narayana Raju, K V S; Gangadharan, Akkalayi Chandrapuram; Manohar, Bhakthavatchalam Murali; Puvanakrishnan, Rengarajulu

    2007-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the population worldwide. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has a number of well-documented physiological effects on cells and tissues including antiinflammatory effect. This study aims to explore the antiinflammatory effect of PEMF and its possible mechanism of action in amelioration of adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a concentration of 500 microg in 0.1 ml of paraffin oil into the right hind paw of rats. The arthritic animals showed a biphasic response regarding changes in the paw edema volume. During the chronic phase of the disease, arthritic animals showed an elevated level of lipid peroxides and depletion of antioxidant enzymes with significant radiological and histological changes. Besides, plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) activity was inhibited while intracellular Ca(2+) level as well as prostaglandin E(2) levels was noticed to be elevated in blood lymphocytes of arthritic rats. Exposure of arthritic rats to PEMF at 5 Hzx4 microT x 90 min, produced significant antiexudative effect resulting in the restoration of the altered parameters. The antiinflammatory effect could be partially mediated through the stabilizing action of PEMF on membranes as reflected by the restoration of PMCA and intracellular Ca(2+) levels in blood lymphocytes subsequently inhibiting PGE(2) biosynthesis. The results of this study indicated that PEMF could be developed as a potential therapy for RA in human beings. PMID:17537462

  5. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolata, J. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mittig, W.; Ahn, T.; Bazin, D.; Becchetti, F. D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z.; Febbrarro, M.; Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W. G.; Roberts, A.; Shore, A.; Torres-Isea, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The total fusion excitation function for 10Be+40Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) 10Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  6. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, James; Alaiti, Amer; Goldvasser, Dov; Scarborough, Donna; Freiberg, Andrew; Rubash, Harry; Malchau, Henrik; Harris, William; Krebs, David

    2006-01-01

    Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML) "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°. PMID:16970818

  7. Effect alteration of methamphetamine by amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1983-02-01

    Effect alterations of methamphetamine by pretreatment of amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice were investigated to confirm a fact that certain amino acids, particularly monosodium L-glutamate, are added to methamphetamine by the street users, and that the amino acids augment the effect of methamphetamine. The ambulatory activity of mouse was measured by a tilting-type round activity cage of 25 cm in diameter. The amino acids or their salts tested were monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate, gamma-amino-butyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride. A single administration of each chemical at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg i.p. did not induce a marked change in the ambulatory activity in mice. Methamphetamine 2 mg/kg s.c. induced an increase in the ambulatory activity with a peak at 40 min after the administration, and the increased ambulatory activity persisted for 3 hr. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine was augmented by the pretreatment of monosodium L-glutamate and monosodium L-aspartate at 30 min before the methamphetamine administration, while attenuated by the pretreatment of L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not affect the effect of methamphetamine. Similar augmentation and attenuation in the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine were induced by the pretreatment of sodium bicarbonate 0.9 g/kg i.p. (urinary alkalizer) and ammonium chloride 0.07 g/kg i.p. (urinary acidifier), respectively. The urinary pH level was elevated by the administration of monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate and sodium bicarbonate, and decreased by L-lysine hydrochloride, L-arginine hydrochloride and ammonium chloride. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not elicit a marked change in the urinary pH level. The present experiment confirms the fact in human that monosodium L-glutamate augments the effect of

  8. Understanding the impact of deep brain stimulation on ambulatory activity in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rochester, Lynn; Chastin, Sebastien Francois Martin; Lord, Sue; Baker, Katherine; Burn, David John

    2012-06-01

    Whilst deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-STN) improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), its effect on daily activity is unknown. We aimed to quantify changes in ambulatory activity following DBS-STN in advanced PD using novel accelerometry based measures that describe changes to the volume and pattern of walking. Seventeen participants with advanced PD were measured over a 7-day period using an activPAL (™) activity monitor. Data were collected 6 weeks before and 6 months after surgery and included measures that describe the volume and pattern of ambulatory activity (number of steps per day, accumulation, diversity and variability of walking time), alongside standard measures for disease severity, freezing of gait, gait speed, and extended activities of daily living. Activity outcomes were compared pre- and 6 months post-surgery using linear mixed models and correlated with standard outcomes. The results of this study are despite significant improvements in motor symptoms after surgery, the volume of ambulatory activity (total number of steps per day) did not change (P = 0.468). However, significant increases in length and variability of walking bouts emerged, suggesting improvements in diversity and flexibility of walking patterns. Motor severity and extended activities of daily living scores were significantly correlated with walking bout variability but not with volume of walking. Thus, the conclusions are reduction in motor symptom severity after DBS-STN translated into selective improvements in daily activity. Novel measures derived from accelerometry provide a discrete measure of performance and allow closer interpretation of the impact of DBS-STN on real-world activity. PMID:22086738

  9. Clinical Interest of Ambulatory Assessment of Physical Activity and Walking Capacity in Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    de Müllenheim, P-Y; Chaudru, S; Mahé, G; Prioux, J; Le Faucheur, A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of the available studies that highlighted the clinical interest of the ambulatory assessment of either physical activity (PA) or walking capacity in patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). We identified 96 related articles published up to March 2015 through a computer-assisted search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Ambulatory-measured PA or related energy expenditure (EE) in PAD patients was performed in 87 of the 96 included studies. The main clinical interests of these measurements were (a) the assessment of PA/EE pattern; (b) the characterization of walking pattern; and (c) the control of training load during home-based walking programs. Ambulatory-measured walking capacity was performed in the remaining studies, using either Global Positioning System receivers or the Peripheral Arterial Disease Holter Control device. Highlighted clinical interests were (a) the assessment of community-based walking capacity; (b) the use of new outcomes to characterize walking capacity, besides the conventional absolute claudication distance; and (c) the association with the patient's self-perception of walking capacity. This review also provides for the clinicians step-by-step recommendations to specifically assess PA or walking capacity in PAD patients. PMID:26173488

  10. Ambulatory Physical Activity Performance in Youth With Cerebral Palsy and Youth Who Are Developing Typically

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Kristie F; Belza, Basia; Kartin, Deborah; Logsdon, Rebecca; McLaughlin, John F

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose Assessment of walking activity in youth with cerebral palsy (CP) has traditionally been “capacity-based.” The purpose of this study was to describe the day-to-day ambulatory activity “performance” of youth with CP compared with youth who were developing typically. Subjects Eighty-one youth with CP, aged 10 to 13 years, who were categorized as being in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III and 30 age-matched youth who were developing typically were recruited. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, participants wore the StepWatch monitor for 7 days while documenting average daily total step counts, percentage of all time active, ratio of medium to low activity levels, and percentage of time at high activity levels. Results The youth with CP demonstrated significantly lower levels of all outcomes than the comparison group. Discussion and Conclusion Daily walking activity and variability decreased as functional walking level (GMFCS level) decreased. Ambulatory activity performance within the context of the daily life for youth with CP appears valid and feasible as an outcome for mobility interventions in CP. PMID:17244693

  11. Comparing Team-Based and Mixed Active-Learning Methods in an Ambulatory Care Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Andrea S.; Guirguis, Alexander B.; George, Christa M.; Howard-Thompson, Amanda; Heidel, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess students' performance and perceptions of team-based and mixed active-learning methods in 2 ambulatory care elective courses, and to describe faculty members' perceptions of team-based learning. Methods Using the 2 teaching methods, students' grades were compared. Students' perceptions were assessed through 2 anonymous course evaluation instruments. Faculty members who taught courses using the team-based learning method were surveyed regarding their impressions of team-based learning. Results The ambulatory care course was offered to 64 students using team-based learning (n = 37) and mixed active learning (n = 27) formats. The mean quality points earned were 3.7 (team-based learning) and 3.3 (mixed active learning), p < 0.001. Course evaluations for both courses were favorable. All faculty members who used the team-based learning method reported that they would consider using team-based learning in another course. Conclusions Students were satisfied with both teaching methods; however, student grades were significantly higher in the team-based learning course. Faculty members recognized team-based learning as an effective teaching strategy for small-group active learning. PMID:21301594

  12. Impaired autonomic nervous system activity during sleep in family caregivers of ambulatory dementia patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Shihomi; Onishi, Joji; Hirai, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The number of dementia patients requiring care is rapidly increasing in Japan. Consequently, a large percentage of family members, including spouses and children of those with dementia, are assuming the role of primary caregiver. Many caregivers develop health problems including sleep disorders. Some report poor quality of sleep even when sleep duration is normal. In the present study, we used actigraphy and heart rate variability spectral analysis to assess autonomic nervous system activity and quality of sleep in family caregivers of people with ambulatory dementia. The 20 caregivers who participated in our study exhibited significantly higher levels of sympathetic nervous system activity during sleep than noncaregivers. This abnormal activity was most prominent during the first half of the sleep period and was not related to overall sleep duration. We propose that relaxation is inhibited during the first half of the sleep period in this caregiver population. This may be due to increased stress, as caregivers of people with ambulatory dementia may worry about their patients waking and wandering at night, potentially injuring themselves. Our findings indicate a need for increased support for caregivers of people with dementia, including the assessment and treatment of sleep disorders. PMID:25504947

  13. CO2 bubbling-based 'Nanobomb' System for Targetedly Suppressing Panc-1 Pancreatic Tumor via Low Intensity Ultrasound-activated Inertial Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Shuguang; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Ronghui; Mou, Juan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and targeted physical treatment is still desirable especially for those cancerous patients. Herein, we develop a new physical treatment protocol by employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system consisting of low-intensity ultrasound (1.0 W/cm2) and a well-constructed pH/temperature dual-responsive CO2 release system. Depending on the temperature elevation caused by exogenous low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound irradiation and the low pH caused by the endogenous acidic-environment around/within tumor, dual-responsive CO2 release system can quickly release CO2 bubbles, and afterwards, the generated CO2 bubbles waves will timely explode before dissolution due to triggering by therapeutic ultrasound waves. Related bio-effects (e.g., cavitation, mechanical, shock waves, etc) caused by CO2 bubbles' explosion effectively induce instant necrosis of panc-1 cells and blood vessel destruction within panc-1 tumor, and consequently inhibit the growth of panc-1 solid tumor, simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal organs. This new physiotherapy employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system promises significant potentials in targetedly suppressing tumors, especially for those highly deadly cancers. PMID:26379793

  14. CO2 bubbling-based 'Nanobomb' System for Targetedly Suppressing Panc-1 Pancreatic Tumor via Low Intensity Ultrasound-activated Inertial Cavitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Huixiong; Chen, Hangrong; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Shuguang; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Ronghui; Mou, Juan; Zheng, Yuanyi; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and targeted physical treatment is still desirable especially for those cancerous patients. Herein, we develop a new physical treatment protocol by employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system consisting of low-intensity ultrasound (1.0 W/cm(2)) and a well-constructed pH/temperature dual-responsive CO2 release system. Depending on the temperature elevation caused by exogenous low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound irradiation and the low pH caused by the endogenous acidic-environment around/within tumor, dual-responsive CO2 release system can quickly release CO2 bubbles, and afterwards, the generated CO2 bubbles waves will timely explode before dissolution due to triggering by therapeutic ultrasound waves. Related bio-effects (e.g., cavitation, mechanical, shock waves, etc) caused by CO2 bubbles' explosion effectively induce instant necrosis of panc-1 cells and blood vessel destruction within panc-1 tumor, and consequently inhibit the growth of panc-1 solid tumor, simultaneously minimizing the side effects to normal organs. This new physiotherapy employing CO2 bubbling-based 'nanobomb' system promises significant potentials in targetedly suppressing tumors, especially for those highly deadly cancers. PMID:26379793

  15. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  16. Current activities of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation in the ambulatory setting of the Lombardy Region.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, Marco; Pedretti, Roberto F E; Facchini, Mario; Malfatto, Gabriella; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Febo, Oreste; Diaco, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the current activities of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Prevention (CRP) in the ambulatory setting of the Lombardy Region (Italy) are described. Based on the 2012 Legislation, ambulatory CRP is delivered by means of three programme categories (MAC 6, 7, and 8) with different degrees of intensity. The patient evaluation of global cardiovascular/clinical risk, comorbidity, and disability is the cornerstone for MAC prescription. Following the organization of MAC activities, a survey on 327 patients was carried out by the regional network of the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation (GICR-IACPR). Globally, acute coronary syndromes (with or without coronary revascularization) constituted the main access group to CRP. More than 60% of patients displayed a condition of high risk, comorbidity, and disability. The outcome of ambulatory CRP by means of MAC 6 and 7 was satisfactory, while in the 'less intensive' MAC 8 patients with complete drug up-titration and achievement of secondary prevention targets were no more than 70%. RiassuntoLa Cardiologia Riabilitativa e Preventiva (CRP) storicamente riconosce nei percorsi ambulatoriali un importante setting per l'erogazione dell'intervento. In Regione Lombardia negli ultimi anni le attività di CRP sono state oggetto di una profonda riorganizzazione, con il contributo di esperti GICR-IACPR attivi presso lo specifico tavolo tecnico attivato presso la Direzione Generale Sanità. Dal 2012 sono attive le Macroattività Ambulatoriali Complesse e ad alta integrazione di risorse (MAC), che riguardano anche la sfera della CRP. Le MAC si sono poste come integrazione e alternativa al percorso degenziale e sono state classificate in tre livelli a complessità decrescente (MAC 6, MAC 7 e MAC 8 nel nuovo nomenclatore delle attività ambulatoriali). Il network GICR-IACPR ha quindi successivamente condotto una survey su 327 pazienti in tre Centri di CRP, di cui vengono esposti i risultati. Complessivamente

  17. The effects of the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor fostamatinib on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results of the OSKIRA-ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kitas, George D; Abreu, Gabriel; Jedrychowicz-Rosiak, Krystyna; Miller, Jeffrey L; Nakov, Roumen; Panfilov, Seva; Vencovsky, Jiri; Wang, Millie; Weinblatt, Michael E; White, William B

    2014-11-01

    Clinical trials of fostamatinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed blood pressure (BP) elevation using clinic measurements. The OSKIRA-ambulatory BP monitoring trial assessed the effect of fostamatinib on 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. One hundred thirty-five patients were randomized to fostamatinib 100 mg twice daily (bid; n = 68) or placebo bid (n = 67) for 28 days. Ambulatory, clinic, and home BPs were measured at baseline and after 28 days of therapy. Primary end point was change from baseline in 24-hour mean SBP. Fostamatinib increased 24-hour mean SBP by 2.9 mm Hg (P = .023) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 3.5 mm Hg (P < .001) versus placebo. Clinic/home-measured BPs were similar to those observed with ambulatory BP monitoring. After treatment discontinuation (1 week), clinic BP values returned to baseline levels. Fostamatinib induced elevations in 24-hour mean ambulatory SBP and DBP. BP elevations resolved with fostamatinib discontinuation. PMID:25455003

  18. Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

  19. Physical activities recognition from ambulatory ECG signals using neuro-fuzzy classifiers and support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Kher, Rahul; Pawar, Tanmay; Thakar, Vishvjit; Shah, Hitesh

    2015-02-01

    The use of wearable recorders for long-term monitoring of physiological parameters has increased in the last few years. The ambulatory electrocardiogram (A-ECG) signals of five healthy subjects with four body movements or physical activities (PA)-left arm up down, right arm up down, waist twisting and walking-have been recorded using a wearable ECG recorder. The classification of these four PAs has been performed using neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) and support vector machines (SVM). The PA classification is based on the distinct, time-frequency features of the extracted motion artifacts contained in recorded A-ECG signals. The motion artifacts in A-ECG signals have been separated first by the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the time-frequency features of these motion artifacts have then been extracted using the Gabor transform. The Gabor energy feature vectors have been fed to the NFC and SVM classifiers. Both the classifiers have achieved a PA classification accuracy of over 95% for all subjects. PMID:25641014

  20. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  1. Evaluation of silver-titanium implants activated by low intensity direct current for orthopedic infection control: An in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Daniel L; Tan, Zhuo George; Norris, James P; Hardee, Amelia; Weinhold, Paul S; Dahners, Laurence E; Orndorff, Paul E; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2016-07-01

    Silver is an alternative antimicrobial of interest for the prophylaxis of prosthetic infections and electrical activation is known to augment its oligodynamic efficacy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a silver (Ag)-titanium (Ti) implant activated by 30 µA direct current compared with three controls - passive Ag-Ti, active Ti-Ti, and passive Ti-Ti. We hypothesized that the experimental group would provide better resistance to pathogenic colonization on the implant. Modified Kirby-Bauer technique was used to evaluate in vitro efficacy of the four groups against five bacteria and one fungus. For in vivo evaluation, forty-eight rats were divided into four groups. The implant was secured in a wound cavity along the posterior margin of the femur. The wound was inoculated with 7.5 × 10(5) CFU of Staphylococcus aureus. Rats were euthanized 14 days postsurgery and quantitative cultures were performed on the implant segments and the wound cavity tissue. In vitro tests showed that the growth of all six pathogens was inhibited around the active Ag anodes of the experimental group. In vivo, none of the four groups were able to prevent wound infection, but the experimental group resulted in reduced colonization. The mean bacterial loads on Ti segments were significantly lower in the implants which also had an Ag segment (p = 0.0007), and this effect was more pronounced with electrical activation (p = 0.0377). The results demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of LIDC-activated Ag-Ti implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1023-1031, 2016. PMID:25996127

  2. Changes in muscle activation and force generation patterns during cycling movements because of low-intensity squat training with slow movement and tonic force generation.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Michiya; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2009-11-01

    Our previous studies showed that relatively low-load (approximately 50-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) significantly increased muscle size and strength. However, LST is a very specific movement that differs from natural movements associated with sport activities and activities of daily life, and therefore, it might have some unfavorable effects on dynamic sport movement. We investigated the effects of LST on muscle activity and force generation patterns during cycling movement as a representative dynamic sports movement. Twenty-four healthy young men who were not in the habit of bicycle riding and did not have a history of regular resistance training were randomly assigned to the LST (approximately 60% 1RM load, 3-second lifting, and 3-second lowering movement without a relaxing phase: n = 8), a high-intensity exercise at normal speed (HM) group (85% 1RM load, 1-second lifting, 1-second lowering, and 1-second relaxed movement: n = 8), or sedentary control (CON, n = 8) group. Subjects in the training groups performed vertical squats by the assigned method. Exercise sessions consisted of 3 sets and were performed twice a week for 13 weeks. Pre- and posttraining muscle activation and force generation patterns during the cycling movements were evaluated by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the rectified electromyographic (EMG) wave from the vastus lateralis and CV of pedaling force. Both the CV of the rectified EMG and of pedaling force decreased significantly in the LST group (-21 and -18%, p < 0.05, respectively), whereas there were no significant changes in either the HN or the CON group. This decrease in CV in the LST group could mean that muscle activity and force generation during cycling movement have become more tonic. This result following LST may have an unfavorable effect on cycling movement and other dynamic sports movements. PMID:19826286

  3. Effects of carvedilol on cardiac autonomic nerve activities during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation in ambulatory dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Shen, Mark J.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Oh, Seil

    2014-01-01

    Aims We hypothesized that carvedilol can effectively suppress autonomic nerve activity (ANA) in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation (AF), and that carvedilol withdrawal can lead to rebound elevation of ANA. Carvedilol is known to block pre-junctional β2-adrenoceptor responsible for norepinephrine release. Methods and results We implanted radiotransmitters to record stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA), and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) in 12 ambulatory dogs. Carvedilol (12.5 mg orally twice a day) was given for 7 days during sinus rhythm (n = 8). Four of the eight dogs and an additional four dogs were paced into persistent AF. Carvedilol reduced heart rate [from 103 b.p.m. (95% confidence interval (CI), 100–105) to 100 b.p.m. (95% CI, 98–102), P = 0.044], suppressed integrated nerve activities (Int-NAs, SGNA by 17%, VNA by 19%, and SLGPNA by 12%; all P < 0.05 vs. the baseline), and significantly reduced the incidence (from 8 ± 6 to 3 ± 3 episodes/day, P < 0.05) and total duration (from 68 ± 64 to 16 ± 21 s/day, P < 0.05) of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT). Following the development of persistent AF, carvedilol loading was associated with AF termination in three dogs. In the remaining five dogs, Int-NAs were not significantly suppressed by carvedilol, but SGNA significantly increased by 16% after carvedilol withdrawal (P < 0.001). Conclusion Carvedilol suppresses ANA and PAT in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm. PMID:24469435

  4. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ... 6620 | E-mail: info@sambahq.org Copyright | 2016 Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Home | Search | Terms | Privacy Policy | ...

  5. Haemodynamic response to myocardial ischaemia during unrestricted activity, exercise testing, and atrial pacing assessed by ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Levy, R D; Shapiro, L M; Wright, C; Mockus, L; Fox, K M

    1986-07-01

    Ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure monitoring by means of a transducer tipped catheter with a simultaneous frequency modulated electrocardiogram and a miniaturised tape recorder was used to study the haemodynamic implications of ST segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Nineteen male patients (mean (SD) age 58 (11) years) with clinical and angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease were studied together with six controls. Changes in the ST segment and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure during treadmill exercise, atrial pacing, and unrestricted ambulant activity were analysed. During exercise, pulmonary artery diastolic pressure rose significantly in patients with coronary artery disease but not in the controls. One patient with ST depression greater than 1 mm did not have a rise in pulmonary artery diastolic pressure on exercise; two had a rise in pulmonary artery diastolic pressure with no ST segment change despite severe angina. The pulmonary artery diastolic pressure tended to rise before or simultaneously with the onset of ST segment depression. The haemodynamic response to atrial pacing was similar in normal controls and patients with coronary artery disease. During ambulatory monitoring there were 29 episodes of ST segment depression all of which were associated with a rise in pulmonary artery diastolic pressure and chest pain. The onset of ST segment depression occurred before a rise in pulmonary artery diastolic pressure in 11 episodes, was simultaneous with it in 11, and followed it in seven episodes. During exercise and ambulatory monitoring there was a correlation between the magnitude of ST segment depression and the rise in pulmonary artery diastolic pressure. Pain was a late feature during exercise, atrial pacing, and anginal episodes. This technique for the first time allows the relation between ST segment changes and haemodynamic alterations in left ventricular function to be assessed in ambulant patients with coronary

  6. Ambulatory Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory assessment (AA) covers a wide range of assessment methods to study people in their natural environment, including self-report, observational, and biological/physiological/behavioral. AA methods minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data from patients’ everyday life in real time or near real time. Here, we report on the major characteristics of AA, and we provide examples of applications of AA in clinical psychology (a) to investigate mechanisms and dynamics of symptoms, (b) to predict the future recurrence or onset of symptoms, (c) to monitor treatment effects, (d) to predict treatment success, (e) to prevent relapse, and (f) as interventions. In addition, we present and discuss the most pressing and compelling future AA applications: technological developments (the smartphone), improved ecological validity of laboratory results by combined lab-field studies, and investigating gene-environment interactions. We conclude with a discussion of acceptability, compliance, privacy, and ethical issues. PMID:23157450

  7. Advances in endonasal low intensity laser irradiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jian-Ling; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Liu, Song-hao

    2005-07-01

    Endonasal low intensity laser therapy (ELILT) began in China in 1998. Now in China it is widely applied to treat hyperlipidemia and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, poststroke depression, intractable headache, ache in head or face, cerebral thrombosis, acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, migraine, brain lesion and mild cognitive impairment. There are four pathways mediating EILILT, Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells. Two unhealth acupoints of Yangming channal inside nose might mediate the one as is low intensity laser acupuncture. Unbalance autonomic nervous systems might be modulated. Blood cells might mediate the one as is intravascular low intensity laser therapy. These three pathways are integrated in ELILT so that serum amyloid β protein, malformation rate of erythrocyte, CCK-8, the level of viscosity at lower shear rates and hematocrit, or serum lipid might decrease, and melanin production/SOD activity or β endorphin might increase after ELILT treatment. These results indicate ELILT might work, but it need to be verified by randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  8. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mina; Hayden, Nicholas; Garcia, Brandon; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases. PMID:26693360

  9. Low intensity laser treatment of nerve injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Luo, Qing-Ming

    2007-05-01

    The neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injuries has long been an important field in neuroscience. Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of many injuries and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LIL irradiation in the treatment of peripheral and central nerve injuries. Some animal experiments and clinical investigations have shown beneficial effects of LIL irradiation on neural tissues, but its therapeutic value and efficacy are controversial. Reviewing the data of experimental and clinical studies by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation in specific parameters can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral and central nerves and LIL therapy is a safe and valuable treatment for superficial peripheral nerve injuries and spinal cord injury. The biological effects of LIL treatment depend largely on laser wavelength, power and dose per site and effective irradiation doses are location-specific.

  10. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  11. Low intensity laser therapy: the clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Recently, there has been significant improvement in the process of research and application of Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT). Despite this positive direction, a wide discrepancy between the research component and clinical understanding of the technology remains. In our efforts to achieve better clinical results and more fully comprehend the mechanisms of interaction between light and cells, further studies are required. The clinical results presented in this paper are extrapolated from a wide range of musculoskeletal problems including degenerative osteoarthritis, repetitive motion injuries, sports injuries, etc. The paper includes three separate clinical studies comprising 151, 286 and 576 consecutive patient discharges at our clinic. Each patient studied received a specific course of treatment that was designed for that individual and was modified on a continuing basis as the healing process advanced. On each visit, clinical status correlation with the duration, dosage and other parameters was carried out. The essentials of the treatment consisted of a three stage approach. This involved a photon stream emanating from a number of specified gallium-aluminum-arsenide diodes; stage one, red light array, stage two consisting of an array of infrared diodes and stage three consisting of the application of an infrared laser diode probe. On average, each of these groups required less than 10 treatments per patient and resulted in a significant improvement / cure rate greater than 90% in all conditions treated. This report clearly demonstrates the benefits of LILT, indicating that it should be more widely adapted in all medical therapeutic settings.

  12. Injury Patterns In Low Intensity Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, V

    2009-01-01

    Summary Injury patterns and their outcome has been the subject of interest in all kinds of military conflicts. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital (Level I trauma centre) to find out the trends in injuries in low intensity conflict, adequacy of pre hospital treatment, mortality patterns and adequacy of treatment after reaching tertiary care hospital. 418 patients were treated over a period of two years. All were male and 76% younger than 30 years of age. 61% patients reported directly from the site of incident and 39% were transferred from other trauma centre. Two-third of patients (73.9%) reported with at least one limb injury and 44.9% with extremity injury alone. Multiple injuries were most common injury (29%). Head and neck injuries were seen in 20% patients and Thoracic and abdominal injuries were seen in 2.6% and 3.4% patients only. Most common mode of injury was Gunshot wound (41.4%), followed by splinter injuries (39.2%) and Road traffic accident(RTA) (19.4%). Overall mortality was 3.8% and inpatient mortality of 1.4%. Head and neck injuries were leading cause of death followed by thoracic injuries. PMID:20640095

  13. A Randomized Crossover Trial of Dalfampridine Extended Release for Effect on Ambulatory Activity in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simnad, Virginia I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dalfampridine extended release (D-ER) is indicated to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) as demonstrated by an increase in walking speed. This study assessed the effects of D-ER on accelerometer-based measures in people with MS, including intensity of walking and total amount of walking during daily activities. Methods: In this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, people with MS-related walking difficulty were randomized (1:1) to receive 4 weeks of D-ER 10 mg twice daily and 4 weeks of placebo in either order separated by a 2-week washout. Participants wore accelerometers for 7 days at baseline and week 3 of each on-drug period. The primary outcome was the peak activity index (PAI), defined as the most intense 30 individual minutes of the day (strides per minute). Secondary outcomes included daily step count, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and patient-reported outcomes. A mixed-effects repeated-measures statistical model was used. Results: Forty-three participants were randomized (mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score, 5.17). Least squares mean (standard error) change from baseline on the PAI was 0.6 (0.54) strides/min on D-ER and 0.3 (0.55) strides/min on placebo and in daily step count was 148.7 (222.4) on D-ER and 128.0 (225.4) on placebo. Other accelerometer-based measures and the 6MWT showed no significant differences between D-ER and placebo. The TUG test (P = .042) favored D-ER. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: Dalfampridine did not show an effect on accelerometer-measured ambulatory activity in people with MS-related walking difficulty. More work is needed to confirm these results. PMID:27551241

  14. Activation of microbubbles by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances the cytotoxicity of curcumin involving apoptosis induction and cell motility inhibition in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiang; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xiyang; Hu, Jianmin; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound and microbubbles-mediated drug delivery has become a promising strategy to promote drug delivery and its therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of microbubbles (MBs)-combined low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LPUS) on the delivery and cytotoxicity of curcumin (Cur) to human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Under the experimental condition, MBs raised the level of acoustic cavitation and enhanced plasma membrane permeability; and cellular uptake of Cur was notably improved by LPUS-MBs treatment, aggravating Cur-induced MDA-MB-231 cells death. The combined treatment markedly caused more obvious changes of cell morphology, F-actin cytoskeleton damage and cell migration inhibition. Our results demonstrated that combination of MBs and LPUS may be an efficient strategy for improving anti-tumor effect of Cur, suggesting a potential effective method for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:27245953

  15. Effect of gait retraining for reducing ambulatory knee load on trunk biomechanics and trunk muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Nüesch, Corina; Laffer, Dominik; Netzer, Cordula; Pagenstert, Geert; Mündermann, Annegret

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that walking with increased medio-lateral trunk sway is associated with lower external knee adduction moment and lower extremity muscle activation, and higher external ipsilateral trunk moment and trunk muscle activity than walking with normal trunk sway in healthy participants. Fifteen participants performed walking trials with normal and increased medio-lateral trunk sway. Maximum trunk sway, first maximum knee adduction moment, lateral trunk bending moment, and bilateral vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae muscle activity were computed. Walking with increased trunk sway was associated with lower maximum knee adduction moment (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.62Nm/kg vs. 0.62-0.76Nm/kg; P<.001) and ipsilateral gluteus medius (-17%; P=.014) and erector spinae muscle activity (-24%; P=.004) and greater maximum lateral trunk bending moment (+34%; P<.001) and contralateral external oblique muscle activity (+60%; P=.009). In all participants, maximum knee adduction moment was negatively correlated and maximum trunk moment was positively correlated with maximum trunk sway. The results of this study suggest that walking with increased trunk sway not only reduces the external knee adduction moment but also alters and possibly increases the load on the trunk. Hence, load-altering biomechanical interventions should always be evaluated not only regarding their effects on the index joint but on other load-bearing joints such as the spine. PMID:27264398

  16. Change in daily ambulatory activity and cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Popp Switzer, Maryna; Elhanafi, Sherif; San Juan, Zinnia T

    2015-03-01

    Patients with pre-diabetes have a tenfold higher risk of developing Type 2 DM and a twofold higher risk of developing coronary heart disease compared to non-diabetics. Interventions targeted at those in an early stage of impaired glucose metabolism can delay or prevent diabetes. Effects of these interventions on cardiovascular outcome are unknown. This article aims to review current and available data on lifestyle intervention, specifically physical activity, on cardiovascular outcomes in populations at risk for diabetes. We searched PubMed database from 1990 to present with focus on more recent literature published over the last 2 years. Various permutations of keywords used included glucose intolerance, pre-diabetes, diabetes, lifestyle modifications, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease. Intensive glycemic control, specific medications, and lifestyle intervention including increase in physical activity have been evaluated in diabetes and pre-diabetes. Most studies we reviewed showed that these interventions prevented progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes and improved cardiovascular risk surrogate measures. Direct decrease in cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal stroke, and non-fatal myocardial infarctions was shown in one recent trial. Increase in physical activity has a positive effect on decreasing cardiovascular risk by modifying several important risk factors and may decrease risk of events in pre-diabetics. More randomized high power trials are needed to verify and characterize these effects. PMID:25638410

  17. Cervical Vagal Nerve Stimulation Activates the Stellate Ganglion in Ambulatory Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Hellyer, Jessica A.; Park, Hyung Wook; Lee, Young Soo; Garlie, Jason; Onkka, Patrick; Doytchinova, Anisiia T.; Garner, John B.; Patel, Jheel; Chen, Lan S.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Everett, Thomas; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Recent studies showed that, in addition to parasympathetic nerves, cervical vagal nerves contained significant sympathetic nerves. We hypothesized that cervical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) may capture the sympathetic nerves within the vagal nerve and activate the stellate ganglion. Materials and Methods We recorded left stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), left thoracic vagal nerve activity (VNA), and subcutaneous electrocardiogram in seven dogs during left cervical VNS with 30 seconds on-time and 30 seconds off time. We then compared the SGNA between VNS on and off times. Results Cervical VNS at moderate (0.75 mA) output induced large SGNA, elevated heart rate (HR), and reduced HR variability, suggesting sympathetic activation. Further increase of the VNS output to >1.5 mA increased SGNA but did not significantly increase the HR, suggesting simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activation. The differences of integrated SGNA and integrated VNA between VNS on and off times (ΔSGNA) increased progressively from 5.2 mV-s {95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-9.06, p=0.018, n=7} at 1.0 mA to 13.7 mV-s (CI: 5.97-21.43, p=0.005, n=7) at 1.5 mA. The difference in HR (ΔHR, bpm) between on and off times was 5.8 bpm (CI: 0.28-11.29, p=0.042, n=7) at 1.0 mA and 5.3 bpm (CI 1.92 to 12.61, p=0.122, n=7) at 1.5 mA. Conclusion Intermittent cervical VNS may selectively capture the sympathetic components of the vagal nerve and excite the stellate ganglion at moderate output. Increasing the output may result in simultaneously sympathetic and parasympathetic capture. PMID:25810737

  18. Low-intensity, stocker-based channel catfish culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-intensity Channel Catfish production is characterized by low stocking rates, low installed aeration capacity, and no automated dissolved oxygen monitoring. Two studies conducted in nine 0.25-acre ponds quantified production characteristics of stocker Channel Catfish stocked for low-intensity foo...

  19. A pilot study of ambulatory masticatory muscle activities in TMJD diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Gallo, LM; Nickel, JC

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in masticatory muscle usage between TMJD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Seventy-one informed and consented subjects (27 men; 44 women) participated at the University at Buffalo. Material and Methods Research Diagnostic Criteria and imaging data were used to categorize subjects according to presence/absence (+/−) of TMJ disc placement (DD) and chronic pain (P) (+DD+P, n=18; +DD-P, n =14; −DD-P, n=39). EMG/bite-force calibrations determined subject-specific masseter and temporalis muscle activities per 20 N bite-force (T20N, μV). Over 3 days and nights subjects collected EMG recordings. Duty factors (DFs, % of recording time) were determined based on threshold intervals (5–9, 10–24, 25–49, 50–79, ≥80%T20N). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc tests identified (i) diagnostic group differences in T20N, and (ii) effects of diagnostic group, gender, time, and interval, and on muscle DFs. Results Mean (±standard error) temporalis T20N in +DD+P subjects was significantly higher (71.4±8.8 μV) than masseter T20N in these subjects (19.6±8.8 μV; P=0.001) and in −DD-P subjects (25.3±6.0 μV, P=0.0007). Masseter DFs at 5–9%T20N were significantly higher in +DD-P women (3.48%) than +DD-P men (0.85%) and women and men in both other diagnostic groups (all P<0.03); and in +DD+P women (2.00%) compared to −DD-P men (0.83%; P=0.029). Night-time DFs at 5–9%T20N in +DD-P women (1.97%) were significantly higher than in −DD-P men (0.47%) and women (0.24%; all P<0.01). Conclusions Between-group differences were found in masticatory muscle activities in both laboratory and natural environmental settings. PMID:25865543

  20. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  1. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  2. Psychological effects of low intensity conflict (LIC) operations

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Suprakash; Goel, D.S.; Singh, Harcharan

    2006-01-01

    Background: A burgeoning clinical and empirical literature has provided incontrovertible evidence that combat operations exact a heavy toll in terms of human suffering not only on combatants but also military support personnel. Though the Indian army is engaged in low intensity conflict (LIC) operations for over five decades, the psychological effects of LIC deployment on soldiers have not been adequately studied. Aims: To evaluate the psychological effects of deployment in LIC operations on service personnel. Methods: Five hundred and sixty-eight servicemen engaged in LIC operations and equal number of age- and rank-matched personnel in adjoining peace areas were evaluated with a self-made questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Impact of Events Scale (IES), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Hindi PEN inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and Locus Of Control (LOC) scale. Results: Respondents from LIC area had significantly higher scores on CRSD, MAST, GHQ, IES, and general fatigue, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue subscale of the MFI in comparison to those located in other areas. Significantly higher number of respondents from highly active LIC and with more than one-year service in LIC scored above cut-off levels on CRSD, MAST and GHQ. Conclusions: The psychological status of troops was directly related both to the duration of stay and the nature of LIC area. PMID:20703341

  3. Degree of Ambulatory Disability: Effects on Rural Siblings' Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Theresa Nowak; Ross-Reynolds, Jane

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 22 mothers of children with ambulatory disability and 33 nondisabled siblings showed no differences in sibling's child care responsibilities, general home responsibilities, or independence related to severity of the ambulatory disability. A difference in the amount of social activity, reported by mothers, was not confirmed by…

  4. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  5. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  6. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  7. Low-Intensity channel catfish culture re-visited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farmers can use a variety of management strategies to produce the larger-sized fish that processing plants increasingly seek. A low-intensity production strategy based on low stocking and aeration rates can be used to produce larger channel catfish. Stocker catf...

  8. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, A.S.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhães, L.A.G.; Paoli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T4endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T4endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers:i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells,ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, andiv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. PMID:26445337

  9. Nucleotide excision repair pathway assessment in DNA exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Low-intensity lasers are used for prevention and management of oral mucositis induced by anticancer therapy, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the genetic characteristics of affected cells. This study evaluated the survival and induction of filamentation of Escherichia coli cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and the action of T4endonuclease V on plasmid DNA exposed to low-intensity red and near-infrared laser light. Cultures of wild-type (strain AB1157) E. coli and strain AB1886 (deficient in uvrA protein) were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers at various fluences, powers and emission modes to study bacterial survival and filamentation. Also, plasmid DNA was exposed to laser light to study DNA lesions produced in vitro by T4endonuclease V. Low-intensity lasers:i) had no effect on survival of wild-type E. coli but decreased the survival of uvrA protein-deficient cells,ii) induced bacterial filamentation, iii) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in agarose gels, andiv) did not alter the electrophoretic profile of plasmids incubated with T4 endonuclease V. These results increase our understanding of the effects of laser light on cells with various genetic characteristics, such as xeroderma pigmentosum cells deficient in nucleotide excision pathway activity in patients with mucositis treated by low-intensity lasers. PMID:26445337

  10. Randomised trial of ambulatory oxygen in oxygen-dependent COPD.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, Y; Lecours, R; Pelletier, C; Bégin, R; Maltais, F

    2005-06-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy may limit a patient's ability to remain active and may be detrimental to the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to determine the effect of ambulatory oxygen on quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease fulfilling the usual criteria of long-term oxygen therapy. In a 1-yr, randomised, three-period, crossover trial, 24 patients (mean age 68 yrs; mean arterial partial pressure of oxygen at rest 7.1 kPa (53 mmHg)) were allocated to one of the six possible sequences generated by three interventions: 1) standard therapy (home oxygen therapy with an oxygen concentrator only); 2) standard therapy plus as-needed ambulatory oxygen; and 3) standard therapy plus ambulatory compressed air. The comparison of ambulatory oxygen versus ambulatory compressed air was double blind. The main outcomes were quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire), exercise tolerance (6-min walk test) and daily duration of exposure to oxygen therapy. The trial was stopped prematurely after an interim analysis. On average, the patients used few ambulatory cylinders (7.5 oxygen cylinders versus 7.4 compressed air cylinders over a 3-month study period). Ambulatory oxygen had no effect on any of the outcomes. In conclusion, the current results do not support the widespread provision of ambulatory oxygen to patients with oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:15929958

  11. Clinical Assessment Applications of Ambulatory Biosensors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stephen N.; Yoshioka, Dawn T.

    2007-01-01

    Ambulatory biosensor assessment includes a diverse set of rapidly developing and increasingly technologically sophisticated strategies to acquire minimally disruptive measures of physiological and motor variables of persons in their natural environments. Numerous studies have measured cardiovascular variables, physical activity, and biochemicals…

  12. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for bone healing: an overview.

    PubMed

    Malizos, Konstantinos N; Hantes, Michael E; Protopappas, Vassilios; Papachristos, Athanasios

    2006-04-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound is a biophysical form of intervention in the fracture-repair process, which through several mechanisms accelerates healing of fresh fractures and enhances callus formation in delayed unions and nonunions. The goal of this review is to present the current knowledge obtained from basic science and animal studies, as well as existing evidence from clinical trials and case series with the different applications of ultrasound in the management of fractures, delayed unions, nonunions and distraction osteogenesis. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is currently applied transcutaneously, although recent experimental studies have proven the efficacy of a trans-osseous application for both enhancement and monitoring of the bone healing process with modern smart implant technologies. PMID:16581076

  13. The low intensity X-ray imaging scope /Lixiscope/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Trombka, J. I.; Seltzer, S. M.; Webber, R. L.; Farr, M. R.; Rennie, J.

    1978-01-01

    A fully portable, small-format X-ray imaging system, Lixiscope (low intensity X-ray imaging scope) is described. In the prototype, which has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the Lixiscope concept, only well-developed and available components have been used. Consideration is given to the principles of operation of the device, some of its performance characteristics as well as possible dental, medical and industrial applications.

  14. Ambulatory Feedback System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Herbert; Weeks, Bill

    1985-01-01

    This presentation discusses instrumentation that will be used for a specific event, which we hope will carry on to future events within the Space Shuttle program. The experiment is the Autogenic Feedback Training Experiment (AFTE) scheduled for Spacelab 3, currently scheduled to be launched in November, 1984. The objectives of the AFTE are to determine the effectiveness of autogenic feedback in preventing or reducing space adaptation syndrome (SAS), to monitor and record in-flight data from the crew, to determine if prediction criteria for SAS can be established, and, finally, to develop an ambulatory instrument package to mount the crew throughout the mission. The purpose of the Ambulatory Feedback System (AFS) is to record the responses of the subject during a provocative event in space and provide a real-time feedback display to reinforce the training.

  15. A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga to an active control on ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew; Consedine, Nathan S.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga to an active control (non-aerobic exercise) in individuals with pre- and Stage 1 hypertension. A randomized clinical trial was performed using two arms: 1) yoga and 2) active control. Primary outcomes were 24-hour, day and night ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Within-group and between-group analyses were performed using paired t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs (time x group), respectively. Eighty-four participants enrolled with 68 participants completing the trial. Within-group analyses found 24-hour diastolic, night diastolic, and mean arterial pressure all significantly reduced in the yoga group (−3.93, −4.7, −4.23 mmHg, respectively) but no significant within-group changes in the active control group. Direct comparisons of the yoga intervention to the control group found a single blood pressure variable (diastolic night) to be significantly different (p =.038). This study has demonstrated that a yoga intervention can lower blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Although this study was not adequately powered to show between-group differences, the size of the yoga-induced blood pressure reduction we observed appears to justify performing a definitive trial of this intervention to test whether it can provide meaningful therapeutic value for the management of hypertension. PMID:24387700

  16. A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga with an active control on ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew; Consedine, Nathan S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga with an active control (nonaerobic exercise) in individuals with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. A randomized clinical trial was performed using two arms: (1) yoga and (2) active control. Primary outcomes were 24-hour day and night ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Within-group and between-group analyses were performed using paired t tests and repeated-measures analysis of variance (time × group), respectively. Eighty-four participants enrolled, with 68 participants completing the trial. Within-group analyses found 24-hour diastolic, night diastolic, and mean arterial pressure all significantly reduced in the yoga group (-3.93, -4.7, -4.23 mm Hg, respectively) but no significant within-group changes in the active control group. Direct comparisons of the yoga intervention with the control group found a single blood pressure variable (diastolic night) to be significantly different (P=.038). This study has demonstrated that a yoga intervention can lower blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Although this study was not adequately powered to show between-group differences, the size of the yoga-induced blood pressure reduction appears to justify performing a definitive trial of this intervention to test whether it can provide meaningful therapeutic value for the management of hypertension. PMID:24387700

  17. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channels modulate skeletal muscle function under low-intensity workloads

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Burnett, Colin M.-L.; Chen, Biyi; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna; Gao, Zhan; Wu, Yuejin; Anderson, Mark E.; Song, Long-Sheng; Goldhamer, David J.; Coetzee, William A.; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels have the unique ability to adjust membrane excitability and functions in accordance with the metabolic status of the cell. Skeletal muscles are primary sites of activity-related energy consumption and have KATP channels expressed in very high density. Previously, we demonstrated that transgenic mice with skeletal muscle–specific disruption of KATP channel function consume more energy than wild-type littermates. However, how KATP channel activation modulates skeletal muscle resting and action potentials under physiological conditions, particularly low-intensity workloads, and how this can be translated to muscle energy expenditure are yet to be determined. Here, we developed a technique that allows evaluation of skeletal muscle excitability in situ, with minimal disruption of the physiological environment. Isometric twitching of the tibialis anterior muscle at 1 Hz was used as a model of low-intensity physical activity in mice with normal and genetically disrupted KATP channel function. This workload was sufficient to induce KATP channel opening, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization as well as reduction in action potential overshoot and duration. Loss of KATP channel function resulted in increased calcium release and aggravated activity-induced heat production. Thus, this study identifies low-intensity workload as a trigger for opening skeletal muscle KATP channels and establishes that this coupling is important for regulation of myocyte function and thermogenesis. These mechanisms may provide a foundation for novel strategies to combat metabolic derangements when energy conservation or dissipation is required. PMID:24344248

  18. A Review on Brain Stimulation Using Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rezayat, Ehsan; Toostani, Iman Ghodrati

    2016-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain. It can also be coupled with brain imaging assessments in future research. PMID:27563411

  19. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. PMID:24861267

  20. Basic studies on intravascular low-intensity laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Duan, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Jin, Hua; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Intravascular low intensity laser therapy (ILILT) was originally put forward in USA in 1982, but popularized in Russia in 1980s and in China in 1990s, respectively. A randomized placebo-controlled study has shown ILILT clinical efficacy in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. As Chinese therapeutic applications of ILILT were the most widely in the world, its basic research, such as intracellular signal transduction research, blood research in vitro, animal blood research in vivo, human blood research in vivo and traditional Chinese medicine research, was also very progressive in China. Its basic studies will be reviewed in terms of the biological information model of photobiomodulation in this paper. ILILT might work in view of its basic studies, but the further randomized placebo-controlled trial and the further safety research should be done.

  1. A REVIEW OF LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND FOR CANCER THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, ANDREW K. W.; SEHGAL, CHANDRA M.

    2015-01-01

    The literature describing the use of low-intensity ultrasound in four major areas of cancer therapy was reviewed - sonodynamic therapy, ultrasound mediated chemotherapy, ultrasound mediated gene delivery and antivascular ultrasound therapy. Each technique consistently resulted in the death of cancer cells and the bioeffects of ultrasound were primarily attributed to thermal actions and inertial cavitation. In each therapeutic modality, theranostic contrast agents composed of microbubbles played a role in both therapy and vascular imaging. The development of these agents is important as it establishes a therapeutic-diagnostic platform which can monitor the success of anti-cancer therapy. Little attention, however, has been given to either the direct assessment of the underlying mechanisms of the observed bioeffects or to the viability of these therapies in naturally occurring cancers in larger mammals; if such investigations provided encouraging data there could be a prompt application of a therapy technique in treating cancer patients. PMID:25728459

  2. Low intensity X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low intensity X-ray and gamma ray spectrometer for imaging, counting, and energy resolving of single invisible radiation particles is described. The spectrometer includes a converting device for converting single invisible radiation particles to visible light photons. Another converting device converts the visible light photons to photoelectrons. A fiber optics coupling device couples together the two converting devices. An intensifying device intensifies the photoelectrons by an average gain factor of between 10 to the 4th power and 10 to the 7th power. The tensifying device is an anti-ion feedback microchannel plate amplifier which is operated substantially below saturation. A displaying device displays the intensified photoelectrons. The displaying device 32 indicates the spatial position, number, and energy of the incoming single invisible radiation particles.

  3. Combined Low-Intensity Exercise and Ascorbic Acid Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jae; Song, Wook; Jin, Eun Hee; Kim, Jongkyu; Chun, Yoonseok; An, Eung Nam; Park, Sok

    2016-05-01

    Physical exercise and vitamins such as ascorbic acid (ASC) have been recognized as an effective strategy in neuroprotection and neurorehabilitatioin. However, there is a need to find an efficient treatment regimen that includes ASC and low-intensity exercise to diminish the risk of overtraining and nutritional treatment by attenuating oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effect of low-intensity physical exercise (EX) and ASC on kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure activity and oxidative stress in mice. The mice were randomly assigned into groups as follows: "KA only" (n = 11), "ASC + KA" (n = 11), "Ex + KA" (n = 11), "ASC + Ex + KA" (n = 11). In the present study, low intensity of swimming training period lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 30-min sessions daily (three times per week) without tail weighting. Although no preventive effect of low-intensity exercise or ASC on KA seizure occurrence was evident, there was a decrease of seizure activity, seizure development (latency to first seizures), and mortality in "ASC + Ex + KA" compared to "ASC + KA", "Ex + KA", and "KA only" group. In addition, a preventive synergistic coordination of low-intensity exercise and ASC was evident in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity compared to separate treatment. These results suggest that low-intensity exercise and ASC treatment have preventive effects on seizure activity and development with alternation of oxidative status. PMID:26646003

  4. Integrated Heterodyne MOEMS for detection of low intensity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elman, Noel M.; Krylov, Slava; Sternheim, Marek; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS-based modulation scheme is presented as a method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of silicon photodiodes adapted for the detection of light-emitting bio-reporter signals. Photodiodes are an attractive photodetector choice because they are VLSI compatible, easily miniaturized, highly scalable, and inexpensive. Silicon photodiodes exhibit a wide response range extending from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (IR) part of the spectrum, which in principle is appropriate for sensing low intensity optical signals. Silicon photodiodes, however, exhibit limited sensitivity to optical dc signals, as the magnitude of the low frequency noise is comparable to signal magnitude. Optical modulation prior to photodetection overcomes the inherent low frequency noise of photodetectors and system detection circuits. The enhancement scheme is based on a design of high frequency optical modulators that operate in the 1-2 kHz range in order to overcome the low frequency spectral noise. We have denominated this MEMS-based scheme Integrated Heterodyne Optical System (IHOS). The modulation efficiency of the proposed architecture can reach up to 50 percent. In order to implement the MOEMS optical modulators, a new two-mask fabrication process was developed that combines high-aspect ratio and low aspect ratio structures at the same device layer (aspect ratio is defined as a ratio between the structure height to its width). Long stroke electrostatic combdrive actuators integrated with folded flexures (high aspect-ratio) were fabricated together to drive large aperture shutters (low aspect ratio). We have denominated this process MASIS (Multiple Aspect Ratio Structural Integration). Under resonant excitation at approximately 1 kHz, MOEMS modulators demonstrated maximum displacement of about 40 microns at an actuation voltage of 15 V peak in air, and 3.5 V peak in vacuum (8 mTorr). Results of analytical solutions and finite element analysis (FEA) simulations are

  5. Sex difference in substrate oxidation during low-intensity isometric exercise in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Delphine; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Low-intensity physical activity is increasingly promoted as an alternative to sedentary behavior. However, much research to date has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, and in particular dynamic work, with the effect of low-intensity isometric exercise (<4 METs) on substrate utilization yet to be explored. Here we investigate the effects of such exercise on respiratory quotient (RQ) and determine the extent of intra- and inter-individual variability in response. Energy expenditure, RQ, and substrate oxidation were measured by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry at rest and in response to standardized, intermittent, low-level isometric leg-press exercises at 5 loads (+5, +10, +15, +20, +25 kg) in 26 healthy, young adults. Nine participants repeated the experiment on 3 separate days to assess within-subject, between-day variability. There was no significant difference in energy cost and heart rate responses to low-intensity isometric exercise (<2 METs) between men and women. However, a sex difference was apparent in terms of substrate oxidation - with men increasing both fat and carbohydrate oxidation, and women only increasing fat oxidation while maintaining carbohydrate oxidation at baseline, resting levels. This sex difference was repeatable and persisted when substrate oxidation was adjusted for differences in body weight or body composition. Individual variability in RQ was relatively low, with both intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation in the range of 3%-6% in both sexes. These results suggest that women preferentially increase fat oxidation during low-level isometric exercise. Whether such physical activity could be incorporated into treatment/prevention strategies aimed at optimizing fat oxidation in women warrants further investigation. PMID:27540628

  6. Using Commercial Activity Monitors to Measure Gait in Patients with Suspected iNPH: Implications for Ambulatory Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gaglani, Shiv; Haynes, M Ryan; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study seeks to validate the use of activity monitors to detect and record gait abnormalities, potentially identifying patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) prior to the onset of cognitive or urinary symptoms. Methods: This study compared the step counts of four common activity monitors (Omron Step Counter HJ-113, New Lifestyles 2000, Nike Fuelband, and Fitbit Ultra) to an observed step count in 17 patients with confirmed iNPH. Results: Of the four devices, the Fitbit Ultra (Fitbit, Inc., San Francisco, CA) provided the most accurate step count. The correlation with the observed step count was significantly higher (p<0.009) for the Fitbit Ultra than for any of the other three devices. Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that existing activity monitors have variable efficacy in the iNPH patient population and that the MEMS tri-axial accelerometer and algorithm of the Fitbit Ultra provides the most accurate gait measurements of the four devices tested. PMID:26719825

  7. Primary photophysical processes which define the biological and therapeutic effect of low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostovnikov, Vasili A.; Mostovnikova, Galina R.; Plavski, Vitali Y.; Plavskaja, Ljudmila G.; Morozova, Raisa P.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that reversible conformations (changes of spatial structure) of the cell components, responsible for the metabolic processes regulation, are the basis of biological activity and as a consequence therapeutic effect of low-intensity laser radiation. The physical mechanism of these changes is the reorientation of high regulated anisotropic parts-domains with the liquid- crystalline type of ordering due to the interaction between electric field of the laser lightwave and integral electric dipole of the domain (light induced analogue of Frederix's effect).

  8. Influence Of Low Intensity Laser Therapy On Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raoof, N. A.; Elnhas, N. G.; Elsayed, I. M.

    2011-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a consequence of diabetes-mediated impairment of blood flow, and resultant hypoxia of nerves that may develop within 10 years of the onset of diabetes in 40-50% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) has been advocated for the treatment of chronic pain disorders as blood flow is an important determinant for pain relief. Comparing the effect of Helium-Neon Laser therapy versus Infrared laser therapy on blood vessels diameter and flow as well as level of sensation for neuropathy. Twenty diabetic patients suffering from neuropathy were enrolled in the study with age 45-55 years. They were assigned randomly into two equal groups in number; Group A underwent an application of He-Neon laser while Group B underwent an application of Infrared laser. Both groups received laser for 2 months. Blood flow velocity, and blood vessel diameter were investigated by using duplex Doppler ultrasound and peripheral neuropathy parameters were investigated by Semmes-Weinstein monofilament assessment. The results revealed that He-Neon laser as well as Infrared laser groups showed significant improvement in blood flow velocity, blood vessel diameter & neuropathy tested parameters after treatment but there was no significance difference between the two types of LILT. LILT is a safe, non-invasive and drug free method for improving blood flow & sensation in patients suffering from diabetic polyneuropathy in addition to preventing one of the most threatening microvascular complications of diabetes.

  9. Low Intensity Laser Therapy Applied in the Healing of Wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Fred; Matthews, Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) on wound healing for patients presenting with pain, compromised neurological and physical function and tissue damage associated with vascular/diabetic ulcerations of the lower extremity. Methods: A retrospective case review of six patients treated with LILT (GaAlAs SLD, 660 nm, 750 mW, 3.6 J/cm2; GaAlAs SLD, 840 nm, 1,500 mW, 6.48 J/cm2; GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 75 mW, 270 J/cm2) was conducted of clinical features including pain, measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), motor function, measured by range of motion (ROM) and visual outcome, measured by wound dimensions for six patients (n = 6; 5 males, 1 female; age = 67.83 years). Results: Significant progress with regard to alleviation of pain (ΔVAS = -5), improvements in motor function (ΔROM = +40%), epithelialization (wound closure rate = 3%/week) and complete wound closure was achieved. No recurrence of pathology at least one month post cessation of therapy was evident (x¯% reduction in wound area = 100%). Conclusions: LILT achieved consistent, effective and clear endpoints, was cost effective, created no adverse effects and ultimately led to the salvage of extremities.

  10. Ultracold collision measurements in low intensity magneto-optical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesnidal, Renee Christine

    I have measured ultracold collision rates for 87Rb in weak magneto-optical traps. This work was motivated by an apparent three order of magnitude discrepancy between two measurements of the ground-state spin exchange collisional loss rate. Standard MOT measurements gave a value of 2 × 10-11 cm3/s, while a double Bose-condensate experiment gave a rate of 2.2(9) × 10-14 cm3/s. The low BEC result was explained by a destructive interference in the singlet and triplet phase shifts, however, the discrepancy between the two results has never been explained. The key result of this thesis is the discovery of an intensity dependence of the trap loss collision rates. At low intensity the collision rate depends linearly on the intensity as opposed to the previously believed intensity independence. A number of possible explanations are presented and analyzed. First, the delicate phase balance that suppressed the rate in the BEC could be disrupted by the presence of the light. Second, the collision could take place as an excited state process. Finally, a flux enhancement process could increase the collision rate.

  11. A review of low-intensity ultrasound for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew K W; Sehgal, Chandra M

    2015-04-01

    The literature describing the use of low-intensity ultrasound in four major areas of cancer therapy-sonodynamic therapy, ultrasound-mediated chemotherapy, ultrasound-mediated gene delivery and anti-vascular ultrasound therapy-was reviewed. Each technique consistently resulted in the death of cancer cells, and the bio-effects of ultrasound were attributed primarily to thermal actions and inertial cavitation. In each therapeutic modality, theranostic contrast agents composed of microbubbles played a role in both therapy and vascular imaging. The development of these agents is important as it establishes a therapeutic-diagnostic platform that can monitor the success of anti-cancer therapy. Little attention, however, has been given either to the direct assessment of the mechanisms underlying the observed bio-effects or to the viability of these therapies in naturally occurring cancers in larger mammals; if such investigations provided encouraging data, there could be prompt application of a therapy technique in the treatment of cancer patients. PMID:25728459

  12. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface. PMID:12159930

  13. Laser cooling at low intensity in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Straten, P.; Shang, S.-Q.; Sheehy, B.; Metcalf, H.; Nienhuis, G.

    1993-05-01

    We have studied theoretically and experimentally the effect of a relatively strong magnetic field on sub-Doppler laser cooling in a one-dimensional optical molasses. We used the operator description of laser cooling with the Larmor precession frequency ωZ being much higher than the optical pumping rate. We found velocity-selective resonances (VSR) in the force at velocities vr=nωZ, with n=0,+/-1,+/-2 for both the scattering and redistribution force operators. These depend on the relative direction of the magnetic field and the polarization vectors of the light beams. Analytical results for the force on the atom are obtained in two cases that illustrate the effect of the VSR on the force. These formulas are compared with numerical calculations of the force. We also discovered a redistribution mechanism that relies on the gradient of the eigenstates of the light-shift operator, with eigenvalues that are independent of position so that a ``Sisyphus cooling'' picture does not apply. The theory is compared with many experimental results and excellent agreement is found. We believe that all essential features of laser cooling at low intensity are well described by this operator theory.

  14. PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  15. (abstract) PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  16. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in dentofacial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Kuroda, Shingo; Horiuchi, Shinya; Tabata, Akira; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    Oral and maxillofacial diseases affect millions of people worldwide and hence tissue engineering can be considered an interesting and clinically relevant approach to regenerate orofacial tissues after being affected by different diseases. Among several innovations for tissue regeneration, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used extensively in medicine as a therapeutic, operative, and diagnostic tool. LIPUS is accepted to promote bone fracture repair and regeneration. Furthermore, the effect of LIPUS on soft tissues regeneration has been paid much attention, and many studies have performed to evaluate the potential use of LIPUS to tissue engineering soft tissues. The present article provides an overview about the status of LIPUS stimulation as a tool to be used to enhance regeneration/tissue engineering. This review consists of five parts. Part 1 is a brief introduction of the acoustic description of LIPUS and mechanical action. In Part 2, biological problems in dentofacial tissue engineering are proposed. Part 3 explores biologic mechanisms of LIPUS to cells and tissues in living body. In Part 4, the effectiveness of LIPUS on cell metabolism and tissue regeneration in dentistry are summarized. Finally, Part 5 relates the possibility of clinical application of LIPUS in orthodontics. The present review brings out better understanding of the bioeffect of LIPUS therapy on orofacial tissues which is essential to the successful integration of management remedies for tissue regeneration/engineering. To develop an evidence-based approach to clinical management and treatment of orofacial degenerative diseases using LIPUS, we would like to be in full pursuit of LIPUS biotherapy. Still, there are many challenges for this relatively new strategy, but the up to date achievements using it promises to go far beyond the present possibilities. PMID:25672801

  17. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  18. Assessing Low-Intensity Relationships in Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Andreas; Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten; Zweig, Katharina Anna; Horvát, Emőke-Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    Many large network data sets are noisy and contain links representing low-intensity relationships that are difficult to differentiate from random interactions. This is especially relevant for high-throughput data from systems biology, large-scale ecological data, but also for Web 2.0 data on human interactions. In these networks with missing and spurious links, it is possible to refine the data based on the principle of structural similarity, which assesses the shared neighborhood of two nodes. By using similarity measures to globally rank all possible links and choosing the top-ranked pairs, true links can be validated, missing links inferred, and spurious observations removed. While many similarity measures have been proposed to this end, there is no general consensus on which one to use. In this article, we first contribute a set of benchmarks for complex networks from three different settings (e-commerce, systems biology, and social networks) and thus enable a quantitative performance analysis of classic node similarity measures. Based on this, we then propose a new methodology for link assessment called z* that assesses the statistical significance of the number of their common neighbors by comparison with the expected value in a suitably chosen random graph model and which is a consistently top-performing algorithm for all benchmarks. In addition to a global ranking of links, we also use this method to identify the most similar neighbors of each single node in a local ranking, thereby showing the versatility of the method in two distinct scenarios and augmenting its applicability. Finally, we perform an exploratory analysis on an oceanographic plankton data set and find that the distribution of microbes follows similar biogeographic rules as those of macroorganisms, a result that rejects the global dispersal hypothesis for microbes. PMID:27096435

  19. Potentiation of Scutellarin on Human Tongue Carcinoma Xenograft by Low-Intensity Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haixia; Fan, Haixia; Wang, Zhu; Zheng, Jinhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Scutellarin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide (scutellarin) has shown great potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment, but only at high dosage. Here we investigate the possibility of using low intensity ultrasound to reduce the scutellarin dosage. Ultrasound intensities of 1.0 W/cm2 and 0.05 W/cm2 were used for in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively, and a very low dosage of scutellarin (15 nM) was used. Tumor-bearing Balb/c mice and SAS human-tongue squamous carcinoma cell suspensions were used for the in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively. Each kind of subjects was divided into control, ultrasound-alone, scutellarin-alone, and combined ultrasound-scutellarin treatment groups. Only the combined treatment showed strong anticancer effects. In the in vivo case, the combined treatment significantly delayed tumor growth, initiated cellular chromatin changes (including a decrease in the number of cytoplasmic organelles and fragmentation of condensed nuclear chromatin), inhibited tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, stopped cancer-cell proliferation, decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels and caused cancer-cell apoptosis. In the in vitro case, the combined treatment produced cancer cell-shape irregularity in a manner seriously fractured microvilli, inhibited cancer-cell migratory and invasion activities, and induced cancer-cell apoptosis. Because the combined treatment did not increase intracellular ROS production, scutellarin is not a sonosensitizer so that the anticancer effect is not through sonodynamic therapy. Low-intensity ultrasound is merely increasing the permeability of scutellarin into cancer cells. Based on our results, one may perform localized chemotherapy using much reduced dosage of the drug with the help of low intensity ultrasound, which will greatly minimize side effects. PMID:23536878

  20. Low intensity ultrasound increases the fermentation efficiency of Lactobacillus casei subsp.casei ATTC 39392.

    PubMed

    Dahroud, Behnaz Dahri; Mokarram, Reza Rezai; Khiabani, Mahmoud Sowti; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Yousefi, Mehdi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-05-01

    l-Lactic acid (L-LA) is one of the microbial products with several applications and its production efficiency is so important. In the present study, we have been exploring application of low intensity ultrasound technology to improve the metabolic activity for l-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei in different mediums. L-LA, biomass production and substrate (protein) consumption were measured as parameters of fermentation yield. L-LA and protein contents were determined using the titratable acidity and the biuret method respectively. Spectrophotometry (OD600nm) was used for measuring cell growths. L-LA, biomass production and protein consumption considered as dependent variables, but the amplitude of waves (20%, 40% and 60%), waves duration (15, 30, 45s) and add of peptone (2, 6 and 10g/l) as independent variables. The results showed that L-LA, biomass production and substrate consumption significantly increased (≈25%). Optimum conditions for biomass production was amplitude of 60%, 15s exposure time and 10g/l peptone, while for acid lactic production and substrate consumption was 40%, 30s and 6g/l peptone, respectively. Flowcytometry analysis also showed that sonication led to increasing cell membrane permeability. This observation shows low intensity ultrasound as a potential parameter in the improvement of metabolic activity of L. casei. PMID:26836618

  1. [Major ambulatory surgery: organizational models].

    PubMed

    Baldi, R; Lazzarato, M; Masiero, A; Mandini, A

    1992-09-01

    In this essay, the authors provide a definition for those medical care facilities representing a consolidated alternative to traditional hospitalization. These facilities can be basically ascribed to the following patterns: day case surgery; day-hospital activity; home-care. Day case surgery is a complex and, in most cases, interdisciplinary procedure; this type of activity necessitates a pre-hospitalization period and often also a "protected discharge" or even a home-care service. Some specific criteria regarding day surgery activity have been defined as follows: the main criteria have a clinical nature, but they interact with others belonging to a social and structural-organizational order. The Royal College of Surgeons of United Kingdom has officially recognized in 1985 this medical care typology as one of the constituents of surgical care, and has evaluated that at least 1/3 of the overall operations could be carried out as day care surgery. In the United States, besides hospital and ambulatory surgery activity, a new pattern known as "free-standing center" has been promoted; in 1993, 35% of the operations is expected to be carried out in day case surgery centers. As far as Italy is concerned, in 1988 only day-hospital practice has been adequately recognized as an alternative medical care facility to traditional hospitalization. The Emilia Romagna region, in order to increase day case surgery activity, has issued in 1991 a list of 53 DRGs, in which day bed units treatment was possible. Up to now, however, only a small part of these diseases is treated on a day case surgery basis. PMID:1306168

  2. Outcomes and Utilization of a Low Intensity Workplace Weight Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kelly M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Lange, Jane M.; Hapgood, Jenny E.; Zbikowski, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is related to high health care costs and lost productivity in the workplace. Employers are increasingly sponsoring weight loss and wellness programs to ameliorate these costs. We evaluated weight loss outcomes, treatment utilization, and health behavior change in a low intensity phone- and web-based, employer-sponsored weight loss program. The intervention included three proactive counseling phone calls with a registered dietician and a behavioral health coach as well as a comprehensive website. At six months, one third of those who responded to the follow-up survey had lost a clinically significant amount of weight (≥5% of body weight). Clinically significant weight loss was predicted by the use of both the counseling calls and the website. When examining specific features of the web site, the weight tracking tool was the most predictive of weight loss. Health behavior changes such as eating more fruits and vegetables, increasing physical activity, and reducing stress were all predictive of clinically significant weight loss. Although limited by the low follow-up rate, this evaluation suggests that even low intensity weight loss programs can lead to clinical weight loss for a significant number of participants. PMID:24688791

  3. Clinical applications of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and its potential role in urology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guiting; Lei, Hongen; Lue, Tom F.; Guo, Yinglu

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a form of ultrasound that delivered at a much lower intensity (<3 W/cm2) than traditional ultrasound energy and output in the mode of pulse wave, and it is typically used for therapeutic purpose in rehabilitation medicine. LIPUS has minimal thermal effects due to its low intensity and pulsed output mode, and its non-thermal effects which is normally claimed to induce therapeutic changes in tissues attract most researchers’ attentions. LIPUS have been demonstrated to have a rage of biological effects on tissues, including promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue regeneration, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. Recent studies showed that biological effects of LIPUS in healing morbid body tissues may be mainly associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation through activation of integrin receptors and Rho/ROCK/Src/ERK signaling pathway, and with promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines through ROCK-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Hopefully, LIPUS may become an effective clinical procedure for the treatment of urological diseases, such as chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in the field of urology. It still needs an intense effort for basic-science and clinical investigators to explore the biomedical applications of ultrasound. PMID:27141455

  4. AB101. Therapeutic effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bicheng; Lei, Hongen; Guan, Ruili; Li, Huixi; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stress urinary incontinence, a major type of urinary incontinence, increases with age and is often developed after partum injury. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been investigated in the treatment of many diseases showing its ability of restoring soft tissue injury. We investigated the therapeutic effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in stress urinary incontinence. Methods Thirty-two Sprague Dawley rats in SUI group underwent vaginal distension (VD) and bilateral ovariectomy mimicking partum injury. Eight rats served as mock operation control. Eight rats each in SUI group was treated with low-dosage LESW (0.03 mJ/mm2), medium-dosage LESW (0.06 mJ/mm2), or high-dosage LESW (0.09 mJ/mm2). The rest eight rats served as none-treatment group. For functional study, leak point pressure test (LPP) was performed 2 weeks after the last LESW. Masson trichrome staining was performed to validate the pathological changes. Results The LPP was restored in medium-dosage LESW and high-dosage LESW groups, but not in low-dosage LESW group. More robust striated muscle regeneration was found in these two groups comparing with the none-treatment group. Conclusions LIPUS ameliorate the symptom of SUI via activating striated muscle regeneration.

  5. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  6. Catching rudeness is like catching a cold: The contagion effects of low-intensity negative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Foulk, Trevor; Woolum, Andrew; Erez, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In this article we offer a new perspective to the study of negative behavioral contagion in organizations. In 3 studies, we investigate the contagion effect of rudeness and the cognitive mechanism that explains this effect. Study 1 results show that low-intensity negative behaviors like rudeness can be contagious, and that this contagion effect can occur based on single episodes, that anybody can be a carrier, and that this contagion effect has second-order consequences for future interaction partners. In Studies 2 and 3 we explore in the laboratory the cognitive mechanism that underlies the negative behavioral contagion effect observed in Study 1. Specifically, we show that rudeness activates a semantic network of related concepts in individuals' minds, and that this activation influences individual's hostile behaviors. In sum, in these 3 studies we show that just like the common cold, common negative behaviors can spread easily and have significant consequences for people in organizations. PMID:26121091

  7. NATIONAL SURVEY FOR AMBULATORY SURGERY (NSAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS), which was initiated by the National Center for Health Statistics in 1994, is a national survey designed to meet the need for information about the use of ambulatory surgery services in the United States. For NSAS, ambulatory surge...

  8. Educational Strategies in Ambulatory Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lee R.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an ambulatory practice was developed for the house staff in the Department of Medicine at Baltimore City Hospital and integrated into the traditional residency program, which is based upon block rotations in inpatient services, emergency service, and subspeciality electives. The goals and strategies of this program are described. (LB H)

  9. Comparing ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of educational planning.

    PubMed

    Qualters, D M; Regan, M B; O'Brien, M C; Stone, S L

    1999-03-01

    To compare ambulatory preceptors' and students' perceptions of the use of educational planning (setting goals, assessing needs, formulating objectives, choosing methods, and providing feedback and evaluation) in the office setting, we mailed a survey, which was returned by 127 longitudinal ambulatory preceptors and 168 first-year and second-year medical students. Faculty perceptions did not match student perceptions of what occurred in the longitudinal preceptor program teaching sessions in educational planning areas. Students perceived these activities were occurring with much less frequency than faculty perceived. Medical education needs to move beyond the usual faculty development workshop paradigm to a more comprehensive educational development model that includes training both faculty and students in core educational skills. This will enable the ambulatory setting to reach its full educational potential in training future physicians. PMID:10203628

  10. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, C.; Gimenes, R.; Rosa, C. M.; Xavier, N. P.; Campos, D. H. S.; Fernandes, A. A. H.; Cezar, M. D. M.; Guirado, G. N.; Cicogna, A. C.; Takamoto, A. H. R.; Okoshi, M. P.; Okoshi, K.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed), exercised control (C-Ex), sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed), and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73 ± 0.49; C-Ex: 5.67 ± 0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41 ± 0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81 ± 0.50 mm; P < 0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex). Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:26509175

  11. Method for Correction of Consequences of Radiation-Induced Heart Disease using Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Emission under Experimental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bavrina, A P; Monich, V A; Malinovskaya, S L; Yakovleva, E I; Bugrova, M L; Lazukin, V F

    2015-05-01

    Effects of successive exposure to ionizing irradiation and low-intensity broadband red light on electrical activity of the heart and myocardium microstructure were studied in rats. Lowintensity red light corrected some ECG parameters, in particular, it normalized QT and QTc intervals and voltage of R and T waves. Changes in ECG parameters were followed by alterations in microstructure of muscle fi laments in the myocardium of treatment group animals comparing to control group. PMID:26028233

  12. [The use of ozone and low-intensive laser irradiation in complex treatment of complicated duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Mamedov, R A; Agamirova, A N; Dadashev, A I; Gasymov, É M; Kurbanov, F S; Dobrovol'skiĭ, S R

    2011-01-01

    The study is based on the examination of 12 patients with perforative duodenal ulcer and 24 patients operated on recurrent bleeding duodenal ulcer. Some component of the immune system, such as T- and B-lymphocytes rates, immunoglobulin rate and macrophagal activity, were decreased prior the beginning of the complex treatment. Normalisation of humoral and cell immunity was registered on 10-12 days after the beginning of the ozone and low-intensive laser irradiation. PMID:21983535

  13. The influence of beta-adrenoceptor blockers with and without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity on heart rate, arrhythmias and ST-T segments, using ambulatory electrocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Northcote, R J; Ballantyne, D

    1988-01-01

    1. Ambulatory electrocardiography was used to compare the effects of propranolol and pindolol on symptoms, heart rate, arrhythmias and ST segments. Seventeen males (mean age 54 years) with a diagnosis of chronic stable angina pectoris (New York Heart Association Class II-III) were studied. Patients were treated on a double-blind cross-over basis with propranolol 80 mg three times daily or pindolol 5 mg three times daily for 14 days each. During the last 48 h of each treatment period ambulatory electrocardiography was performed. 2. Propranolol resulted in a significantly lower mean hourly, mean 24 h and minimum heart rate. Likewise propranolol caused a lower mean daytime and nocturnal heart rate. There was no significant difference in the frequency of angina between the treatments. The number of episodes of ST segment depression was not significantly different between the two drugs, although there was a trend in favour of propranolol. 3. Both the mean 24 h ST level and the maximum ST segment depression were lower during treatment with pindolol. Propranolol was associated with a total of 117 nocturnal pauses or episodes of asystole ranging in length from 1.5 to 2.8 s. During treatment with pindolol only one such period occurred. The number of premature ventricular contractions occurring during treatment with pindolol (1316 beats) was less than on propranolol (2010) and the mean hourly frequency of premature ventricular contractions was significantly lower during pindolol administration. 4. Pindolol is not significantly different from propranolol in the control of symptomatic and asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia and is associated with fewer premature ventricular contractions. However, there is no advantage in using pindolol in chronic stable angina. PMID:3358881

  14. Possible molecular effect related to the reception of low-intensity IR radiation: Role of Src-kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yachnev, I. L.; Shelykh, T. N.; Podzorova, S. A.; Rogachevskii, I. V.; Krylov, B. V.; Plakhova, V. B.

    2016-06-01

    The patch-clamp technique has been used to demonstrate that low-intensity IR irradiation affects the effective charge of the activation gating system of slow sodium channels in the nociceptive neuron membrane. IR photons are absorbed by ATP molecules bound to Na+,K+-ATPase at their hydrolysis site. Na+,K+-ATPase is a transducer of signal that is further delivered to slow sodium channels and cell genome. It is demonstrated that the irradiation does not modulate the response of a sensory neuron in the presence of PP2, an inhibitor of Src-kinase. The results show that Src-kinase is a series unit involved in the intracellular cascade processes triggered by low-intensity radiation of CO2 laser.

  15. Accelerometer-based Physical Activity Monitoring in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Objective and Ambulatory Assessment of Actual Physical Activity During Daily Life Circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Verlaan, L; Bolink, S.A.A.N; Van Laarhoven, S.N; Lipperts, M; Heyligers, I.C; Grimm, B; Senden, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is important to assess physical activity objectively during daily life circumstances, to understand the association between physical activity and diseases and to determine the effectiveness of interventions. Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring seems a promising method and could potentially capture all four FITT (i.e. Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type) components of physical activity considered by the World Health Organization (WHO). Aim: To assess the four FITT components of physical activity with an accelerometer during daily life circumstances and compare with self-reported levels of physical activity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and a healthy control group. Methods: Patients (n=30) with end-stage knee OA and age-matched healthy subjects (n=30) were measured. An ambulant tri-axial accelerometer was placed onto the lateral side of the upper leg. Physical activity was measured during four consecutive days. Using algorithm-based peak detection methods in Matlab, parameters covering the four FITT components were assessed. Self-reported physical activity was assessed using the Short questionnaire to assess health enhancing physical activity (SQUASH). Results: Knee OA patients demonstrated fewer walking bouts (154 ±79 versus 215 ±65 resp.; p=0.002), step counts (4402 ±2960 steps/day versus 6943 ±2581 steps/day; p=0.001) and sit-to-stand (STS) transfers (37 ±14 versus 44 ±12; p=0.031) compared to controls. Knee OA patients demonstrated more time sitting (65 ±15% versus 57 ±10% resp.; p=0.029), less time walking (8 ±4% versus 11 ±4% resp.; p=0.014) and lower walking cadence (87 ±11steps/min versus 99 ± 8steps/min resp.; p<0.001). Accelerometer-based parameters of physical activity were moderately-strong (Pearsons’s r= 0.28-0.49) correlated to self-reported SQUASH scores. Conclusion: A single ambulant accelerometer-based physical activity monitor feasibly captures the four FITT components of physical activity and

  16. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound promotes chondrogenic progenitor cell migration via focal adhesion kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kee W; Ding, Lei; Seol, Dongrim; Lim, Tae-Hong; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

    2014-06-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been studied frequently for its beneficial effects on the repair of injured articular cartilage. We hypothesized that these effects are due to stimulation of chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) migration toward injured areas of cartilage through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. CPC chemotaxis in bluntly injured osteochondral explants was examined by confocal microscopy, and migratory activity of cultured CPCs was measured in transwell and monolayer scratch assays. FAK activation by LIPUS was analyzed in cultured CPCs by Western blot. LIPUS effects were compared with the effects of two known chemotactic factors: N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. LIPUS significantly enhanced CPC migration on explants and in cell culture assays. Phosphorylation of FAK at the kinase domain (Tyr 576/577) was maximized by 5 min of exposure to LIPUS at a dose of 27.5 mW/cm(2) and frequency of 3.5 MHz. Treatment with fMLF, but not HMBG1, enhanced FAK activation to a degree similar to that of LIPUS, but neither fMLF nor HMGB1 enhanced the LIPUS effect. LIPUS-induced CPC migration was blocked by suppressing FAK phosphorylation with a Src family kinase inhibitor that blocks FAK phosphorylation. Our results imply that LIPUS might be used to promote cartilage healing by inducing the migration of CPCs to injured sites, which could delay or prevent the onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. PMID:24612644

  17. Slope stability improvement using low intensity field electrosmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armillotta, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    The electrosmosis technique has been introduced in the past for slope stabilization. However, its application to real cases has been scarce due to several drawbacks mostly related to the high intensity electric field needed (1.0 V/cm or higher): the rapid degradation of the electrodes, the high system management cost, the heating and cracking of the soil and the reduction of its colloidal fraction. Thanks to the introduction of new materials, the technique is currently applied to decrease the consolidation time of saturated clay soils (forcing the elimination of water), consequently improving its mechanical strength. In clay soils, the volume variation is influenced by the presence of smectites. The clay compressibility decreases with the increasing of electrolytes concentration. Soil containing smectites that have interacted with calcium showed a reduction or the absence of swelling during hydration with distilled water and a positive increase of their shear strength. The different values of pH between the anode (acid) and the cathode (basic), induced by the electrosmosis create the conditions for the precipitation of CaCO3 near the cathode. The injection of solutions containing calcium in soils and their diffusion induced by the electrosmosis, lead to calcium precipitation and consequential increase of the shear strength. The material technological advances and the laboratory experiences described in this paper, demonstrate that the use low electric field (0.1 V/cm or lower) intensity electrosmosis (LEFE in acronym) can be effective for soil dewatering and shear strength increase while reducing its adverse effect. The LEFE can be used to: reduce the potential for swelling of active clay minerals through the introduction of ions and the precipitation of hardening substances; induce the "dewatering" in cohesive soils. Several Lab activities were carried out, using custom made electrosmosis equipment. These activities can be divided in two phases: Phase 1

  18. Low Intensity Exercise Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Mancinelli, Rosa; Doria, Christian; Rotini, Alessio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l.) improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women. Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (mi)RNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12–67%), although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells. PMID:26733888

  19. A possible role of an anthocyanin filter in low-intensity light stress-induced flowering in Perilla frutescens var. crispa.

    PubMed

    Miki, Satomi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2015-03-01

    The red-leaved form of Perilla frutescens var. crispa was induced to flower by low-intensity light stress. The leaves of this form are normally red, but turned green under low-intensity light due to anthocyanin depletion in the epidermis. Flowering did not occur when plants were grown under light passed through a red-colored cellophane paper, which has an absorption spectrum similar to that of anthocyanins. High-concentration anthocyanins may play the role of a red-colored optical filter under normal light conditions, and this filter effect may be lost under low-intensity light, causing a change in the wavelength characteristics of the light with which the mesophyll cells are irradiated. This change may induce a photobiological effect leading to flowering. The gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, decreased under low-intensity light. L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), which is widely used as a PAL inhibitor, inhibited low-intensity light stress-induced flowering and increased PAL activity and anthocyanin content. The inhibition of flowering by AOPP in P. frutescens may be through different mechanisms than PAL inhibition. PMID:25544591

  20. Reaction of cells to local, regional, and general low-intensive laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibekov, Iskander M.; Kasymov, A. S.; Musaev, Erkin S.; Vorojeikin, V. M.; Artikov, S. N.

    1993-07-01

    Local influence of low intensive laser irradiation (LILI) of Helium-Neon (HNL), Copper vapor (CVL), Nitrogen (UVL) and Arsenic Gallium (AGL) lasers cause stimulation of processes of physiological and reparative regeneration in intact skin, and mucous membrane of stomach and duodenum, dermatome wounds and gastroduodenal ulcers. Structural bases of these effects are the acceleration of cell proliferation and differentiation and also the activation of intracellular structures and intensification of cell secretion. Regional influence of the pointed types of LILI on hepar in cirrhosis and hepatitis causes decreasing of the inflammatory and cirrhotic changes. After endo- and exo-vascular laser irradiations of blood the decreasing of the number of pathological forms of erythrocytes and the increasing of their catalase activity, are indicated. General (total) laser irradiation of the organism--laser shower, increases the bone marrow cells proliferation, especially myeloid series. It is accompanied with acceleration of their differentiation and migration in circulation. It was revealed, that HNL to a considerable extent influences the epithelial cells and CVL the connective tissue cells. UVL increases the amount of microorganisms on cell surfaces (membrane bound microorganisms). Regional irradiation of the LILI causes both direct and indirect influence of cells. Structural changes of bone marrow cells and gut mucous membrane cells indicate intersystemic interaction.

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-02-10

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE(2) and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE(2) and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE(2) from osteocytes may play a role in this effect. PMID:22266313

  2. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy: a potential strategy to stimulate tendon-bone junction healing.

    PubMed

    Ying, Zhi-min; Lin, Tiao; Yan, Shi-gui

    2012-12-01

    Incorporation of a tendon graft within the bone tunnel represents a challenging clinical problem. Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction requires solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Enhancement of graft healing to bone is important to facilitate early aggressive rehabilitation and a rapid return to pre-injury activity levels. No convenient, effective or inexpensive procedures exist to enhance tendon-bone (T-B) healing after surgery. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) improves local blood perfusion and angiogenesis, stimulates cartilage maturation, enhances differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts, and motivates osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and therefore, appears to be a potential non-invasive tool for T-B healing in early stage of rehabilitation of ACL reconstruction. It is conceivable that LIPUS could be used to stimulate T-B tunnel healing in the home, with the aim of accelerating rehabilitation and an earlier return to normal activities in the near future. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how LIPUS stimulates T-B healing at the cellular and molecular levels, describe studies in animal models, and provide a future direction for research. PMID:23225850

  3. [Redesigning Swiss ambulatory health care system].

    PubMed

    Bays, J-M; Ninane, F; Morin, D; Héritier, F; Cassis, I; Cornuz, J

    2012-11-28

    Primary care medicine is first in line to meet the necessary changes in our health care system. Innovations in this field pursue three types of objectives: accessibility, quality and continuity of care. The Department of ambulatory care and community medicine of the University of Lausanne (Policlinique médicale universitaire) is committed to this path, emphasizing interprofessional collaboration. The doctor, nurse and medical assistant coordinate their activities to contribute efficiently to meet the needs of patients today and tomorrow. This paper also addresses how our department, as a public and academic institution, might play a major role as a health care network actor. A master degree dissertation in health management has started to identify the critical success factors and the strategic core competencies needed to achieve this development. PMID:23240239

  4. Helping You Choose Quality Ambulatory Care

    MedlinePlus

    Helping you choose: Quality ambulatory care When you need ambulatory care, you should find out some information to help you choose the best ... the center follows rules for patient safety and quality. Go to Quality Check ® at www. qualitycheck. org ...

  5. The use of ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, James A; Tucker, Katherine L; Martin, Una; Beesley, Louise; McManus, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of ambulatory blood pressure is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension in the UK. This article describes the use of ambulatory devices, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of their use in clinical practice. PMID:26551492

  6. Low-intensity treadmill exercise-related changes in the rat stellate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Renato Albuquerque de Oliveira; da Pureza, Demilto Yamaguchi; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Tang, Helen; Loesch, Andrzej; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2009-05-01

    Stellate ganglion (SG) represents the main sympathetic input to the heart. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in the quantitative aspects of SG neurons in treadmill-exercised Wistar rats. By applying state-of-the-art design-based stereology, the SG volume, total number of SG neurons, mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons, and the total volume of neurons in the whole SG have been examined. Arterial pressure and heart rate were also measured at the end of the exercise period. The present study showed that a low-intensity exercise training program caused a 12% decrease in the heart rate of trained rats. In contrast, there were no effects on systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or mean arterial pressure. As to quantitative changes related to physical exercise, the main findings were a 21% increase in the fractional volume occupied by neurons in the SG, and an 83% increase in the mean perikaryal volume of SG neurons in treadmill-trained rats, which shows a remarkable neuron hypertrophy. It seems reasonable to infer that neuron hypertrophy may have been the result of a functional overload imposed on the SG neurons by initial posttraining sympathetic activation. From the novel stereological data we provide, further investigations are needed to shed light on the mechanistic aspect of neuron hypertrophy: what role does neuron hypertrophy play? Could neuron hypertrophy be assigned to the functional overload induced by physical exercise? PMID:19115406

  7. AB180. The characteristics and therapeutic applications of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongen; Xu, Yongde; Guan, Ruili; Li, Huixi; Tian, Wenjie; Wang, Lin; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy with its acoustic pressure wave at frequencies range from 20 to 20,000 Hz. To date, ultrasound waves are not only used in imaging medicine for diagnosis, but also are performed in physical therapy (PT) medicine for the purpose of preventing and curing disease due to its thermal and non-thermal effects, and the ultrasound frequencies used in PT are typically between 1.0 and 3.0 MHz. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) typically has an intensity at 30 mW/cm, pulse ratio 1:4 at 1,000 Hz, and frequency at 1.5 MHz, which has been demonstrated to have lots of beneficial effects in promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue healing, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. The underlying mechanisms of biological effects of therapeutic ultrasound in PT medicine may be associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation through activation of integrin receptors and Rho/ROCK/Src/ERK signaling pathway, and with promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines through ROCK-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. However, it still needs an intense effort for basic-science and clinical investigators to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications of LIPUS on human body in the future.

  8. Profiling of genes central to human mitochondrial energy metabolism following low intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houreld, Nicolette N.; Masha, Roland; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Background: Wound healing involves three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and tissue remodelling. If this process is disrupted, delayed wound healing ensues, a common complication seen in diabetic patients. Low intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been found to promote healing in such patients. However, the exact mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Purpose: This study aimed to profile the expression of key genes involved in mitochondrial respiration. Materials and Methods: Diabetic wounded fibroblast cells were exposed to a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 and incubated for 30 min. Total RNA was isolated and 1 μg reverse transcribed into cDNA which was used for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis. The array contained genes important for each of the mitochondrial complexes involved in the electron transport chain (ETC). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were also determined post-irradiation by ATP luminescence. Results: Genes involved in complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), COX6B2 and COX6C, and PPA1 which is involved in complex V (ATP synthase) were significantly up-regulated. There was a significant increase in ATP levels in diabetic wounded cells post-irradiation. Discussion and Conclusion: LILI stimulates the ETC at a transcriptional level, resulting in an increase in ATP. This study helps understand the mechanisms of LILI in diabetic wound healing, and gives information on activation of genes in response to LILI.

  9. AB142. The characteristics and therapeutic applications of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongen; Xu, Yongde; Guan, Ruili; Li, Huixi; Tian, Wenjie; Wang, Lin; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy with its acoustic pressure wave at frequencies range from 20 to 20,000 Hz. To date, ultrasound waves are not only used in imaging medicine for diagnosis, but also are performed in physical therapy (PT) medicine for the purpose of preventing and curing disease due to its thermal and non-thermal effects, and the ultrasound frequencies used in PT are typically between 1.0 and 3.0 MHz. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) typically has an intensity at 30 mW/cm, pulse ratio 1:4 at 1,000 Hz, and frequency at 1.5 MHz, which has been demonstrated to have lots of beneficial effects in promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue healing, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. The underlying mechanisms of biological effects of therapeutic ultrasound in PT medicine may be associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation through activation of integrin receptors and Rho/ROCK/Src/ERK signaling pathway, and with promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines through ROCK-Cot/Tpl2-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. However, it still needs an intense effort for basic-science and clinical investigators to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications of LIPUS on human body in the future.

  10. LOW-INTENSITY PULSED ULTRASOUND PROMOTES CHONDROGENIC PROGENITOR CELL MIGRATION VIA FOCAL ADHESION KINASE PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kee W.; Ding, Lei; Seol, Dongrim; Lim, Tae-hong; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Martin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been frequently studied for its beneficial effects on the repair of injured articular cartilage. Here, we hypothesized that these effects are due to stimulation of chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) migration toward injured areas in cartilage through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. CPC chemotaxis in bluntly impacted osteochondral explants was examined by confocal microscopy and migratory activity of cultured CPCs was measured in trans-well and monolayer scratch assays. FAK activation by LIPUS was analyzed in cultured CPCs by western blot. LIPUS effects were compared with the effects of two known chemotactic factors; formylated-methionine peptides (fMLF), and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. LIPUS significantly enhanced CPC migration on explants and in cell culture assays. Phosphorylation of FAK at the kinase domain (Tyr 576/577) was maximized by 5 minute exposure to LIPUS at a dose of 27.5 mW/cm2 and at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. Treatment with fMLF, but not HMBG1 enhanced FAK activation to a degree similar to LIPUS, but neither fMLF nor HMGB1 enhanced the LIPUS effect. LIPUS-induced CPC migration was blocked by suppressing FAK phosphorylation with a Src family kinases (SFKs) inhibitor that blocks FAK phosphorylation. Our results imply that LIPUS might be utilized to promote cartilage healing by inducing the migration of CPCs to injured sites, which could delay or prevent the onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). PMID:24612644

  11. Insurance incentives for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, M V; Erder, M H

    1993-01-01

    This study is an attempt to address both the extent to which surgical procedures on an outpatient basis substitute cost-effectively for inpatient procedures, and whether or not an insurance policy's financial incentives increase the volume of outpatient surgical procedures. In particular, given an insurance product of a given composition: What is the probability that the insured will have surgery? and if a surgery does take place, what is the probability that it will occur in an outpatient setting? Finally, the article assesses the implication of such products on the total cost of care by quantifying the insurance plans along two parameters, the relative user price for outpatient versus inpatient surgery and the absolute price for the inpatient surgery. The results indicate that insurance policies that offer relatively lower out-of-pocket payments for ambulatory surgery do not increase the probability that surgery will be done in the ambulatory setting. However, higher out-of-pocket payments for surgery, regardless of site, do reduce the surgery rate. There are other patient and market characteristics, especially the availability of freestanding surgery firms, that do influence the location of surgery. PMID:8428814

  12. Photoreceptor damage induced by low-intensity light: model of retinal degeneration in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Contín, Maria Ana; Arietti, Milagros M.; Benedetto, María M.; Bussi, Claudio; Guido, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retinal degeneration caused by a defect in the phototransduction cascade leads to the apoptosis of photoreceptor cells, although the precise molecular mechanism is still unknown. In addition, constant low light exposure produces photoreceptor cell death through the activation of downstream phototransduction. The authors investigated the time course and molecular mechanisms of death and the rhodopsin phosphorylation occurring during retinal degeneration after exposure to continuous low-intensity light. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to constant cool white 200 lx intensity LED light (LL) for one to ten days and compared with animals kept in the dark (DD) or controls exposed to a regular 12:12 h (LD) cycle. One eye from each rat was used for histological and quantitative outer nuclear layer (ONL) analysis and the other for biochemical assays. Results The histological analysis showed a significant reduction in the ONL of LL-exposed rats after seven days compared with LD- or DD-exposed rats. Retinal analysis by flow cytometer and the TUNEL assay revealed an increase in cell death in the ONL, the in vitro enzymatic activity assay and western blot analysis showing no caspase-3 activation. The rhodopsin analysis demonstrated more phosphorylation in serine 334 residues (Ser334) in LL-exposed than in LD- or DD-exposed rats. However, for all times studied, rhodopsin was completely dephosphorylated after four days of DD treatment. Conclusions Constant light exposure for seven days produces ONL reduction by photoreceptor cell death through a capase-3-independent mechanism. Increases in rhodopsin-phospho-Ser334 levels were observed, supporting the notion that changes in the regulation of the phototransduction cascade occur during retinal degeneration. PMID:23901245

  13. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient

    PubMed Central

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels. PMID:22700603

  14. Low intensity infrared laser effects on Escherichia coli cultures and plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Teixeira, A. F.; Presta, G. A.; Geller, M.; Valença, S. S.; Paoli, F.

    2012-10-01

    Biostimulative effect of low intensity laser in tissues has been described on a photobiological basis and clinical protocols are recommended for treatment of various diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate effects of laser exposure on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and plasmid topological forms. Escherichia coli cultures and plasmids were exposed to infrared laser to study bacterial survival and electrophoretic profile, respectively. Data indicate low intensity infrared laser: (i) had no effect on E. coli wild type, endonuclease IV, exonuclease III, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase/MutM protein and endonuclease III deficient cultures, but decreased the survival of E. coli UvrA protein deficient cultures; (ii) there was no alteration in the electrophoretic profile of plasmids. Exposure to low intensity infrared laser decreases survival of Escherichia coli cultures deficient in nucleotide excision repair of DNA and this effect could depend on fluences, wavelength and tissues conditions.

  15. Clinical application of a novel automatic algorithm for actigraphy-based activity and rest period identification to accurately determine awake and asleep ambulatory blood pressure parameters and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Cristina; Fernández, José R; Aboy, Mateo; Mojón, Artemio

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a study designed to determine whether there are statistically significant differences between the values of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters obtained using different methods-fixed schedule, diary, and automatic algorithm based on actigraphy-of defining the main activity and rest periods, and to determine the clinical relevance of such differences. We studied 233 patients (98 men/135 women), 61.29 ± .83 yrs of age (mean ± SD). Statistical methods were used to measure agreement in the diagnosis and classification of subjects within the context of ABPM and cardiovascular disease risk assessment. The results show that there are statistically significant differences both at the group and individual levels. Those at the individual level have clinically significant implications, as they can result in a different classification, and, therefore, different diagnosis and treatment for individual subjects. The use of an automatic algorithm based on actigraphy can lead to better individual treatment by correcting the accuracy problems associated with the fixed schedule on patients whose actual activity/rest routine differs from the fixed schedule assumed, and it also overcomes the limitations and reliability issues associated with the use of diaries. PMID:23130607

  16. Description of practice as an ambulatory care nurse: psychometric properties of a practice-analysis survey.

    PubMed

    Baghi, Heibatollah; Panniers, Teresa L; Smolenski, Mary C

    2007-01-01

    Changes within nursing demand that a specialty conduct periodic, appropriate practice analyses to continually validate itself against preset standards. This study explicates practice analysis methods using ambulatory care nursing as an exemplar. Data derived from a focus group technique were used to develop a survey that was completed by 499 ambulatory care nurses. The validity of the instrument was assessed using principal components analysis; reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The focus group with ambulatory care experts produced 34 knowledge and activity statements delineating ambulatory care nursing practice. The survey data produced five factors accounting for 71% of variance in the data. The factors were identified as initial patient assessment, professional nursing issues and standards, client care management skills, technical/clinical skills, and system administrative operations. It was concluded that practice analyses delineate a specialty and provide input for certification examinations aimed at measuring excellence in a field of nursing. PMID:17665821

  17. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE{sub 2} and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE{sub 2} and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE{sub 2} and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE{sub 2} from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  18. Making nursing-sensitive quality indicators real in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Swan, Beth Ann

    2008-01-01

    Pay-for-performance initiatives are changing the quality landscape. Gaps exist in quantifying and linking ambulatory care quality indicators to care provided by nurses in ambulatory care. Ambulatory care quality indicators that are sensitive to nursing care, standardized, and tested need to be identified and adopted by ambulatory care nurses, ambulatory care provider organizations, professional organizations, and endorsed by a consensus organization. PMID:18616060

  19. Novelty in hypertension in children and adolescents: focus on hypertension during the first year of life, use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, role of physical activity in prevention and treatment, simple carbohydrates and uric acid as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Strambi, Mirella; Giussani, Marco; Ambruzzi, Maria Amalia; Brambilla, Paolo; Corrado, Ciro; Giordano, Ugo; Maffeis, Claudio; Maringhin, Silvio; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Menghetti, Ettore; Salice, Patrizia; Schena, Federico; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Valerio, Giuliana; Viazzi, Francesca; Virdis, Raffaele; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    The present article intends to provide an update of the article "Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents" published in 2013 (Spagnolo et al., Ital J Pediatr 39:20, 2013) in this journal. This revision is justified by the fact that during the last years there have been several new scientific contributions to the problem of hypertension in pediatric age and during adolescence. Nevertheless, for what regards some aspects of the previous article, the newly acquired information did not require substantial changes to what was already published, both from a cultural and from a clinical point of view. We felt, however, the necessity to rewrite and/or to extend other parts in the light of the most recent scientific publications. More specifically, we updated and extended the chapters on the diagnosis and management of hypertension in newborns and unweaned babies, on the use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and on the usefulness of and indications for physical activity. Furthermore, we added an entirely new section on the role that simple carbohydrates (fructose in particular) and uric acid may play in the pathogenesis of hypertension in pediatric age. PMID:27423331

  20. Modification of Osteoarthritis in the Guinea Pig with Pulsed Low-Intensity Ultrasound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gurkan, Ilksen; Ranganathan, Archana; Yang, Xu; Horton, Walter E.; Todman, Martin; Huckle, James; Pleshko, Nancy; Spencer, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Hartley guinea pig develops articular cartilage degeneration similar to that seen in idiopathic human osteoarthritis. We investigated whether the application of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (PLIUS) to the Hartley guinea pig joint would prevent or attenuate the progression of this degenerative process. Methods Treatment of male Hartley guinea pigs was initiated at the onset of degeneration (8 weeks of age) to assess the ability of PLIUS to prevent osteoarthritis, or at a later age (12 months) to assess the degree to which PLIUS acted to attenuate the progression of established disease. PLIUS (30 mW/cm2) was applied to stifle joints for 20 minutes per day over periods ranging from three to ten months, with contralateral limbs serving as controls. Joint cartilage histology was graded according to a modified Mankin scale to evaluate treatment effect. Immunohistochemical staining for IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), MMP-3, MMP-13, and TGF-β1 was performed on the cartilage to evaluate patterns of expression of these proteins. Results PLIUS did not fully prevent cartilage degeneration in the prevention groups, but diminished the severity of the disease, with the treated joints showing markedly decreased surface irregularities and a much smaller degree of loss of matrix staining as compared to controls. PLIUS also attenuated disease progression in the groups with established disease, although to a somewhat lesser extent as compared to the prevention groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a markedly decreased degree of TGF-β1 production in the PLIUS-treated joints. This indicates less active endogenous repair, consistent with the marked reduction in cartilage degradation. Conclusions PLIUS exhibits the ability to attenuate the progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model of idiopathic human OA. The effect was greater in the treatment of early, rather than established, degeneration. PMID:20175971

  1. Formation of osteoclast-like cells is suppressed by low frequency, low intensity electric fields.

    PubMed

    Rubin, J; McLeod, K J; Titus, L; Nanes, M S; Catherwood, B D; Rubin, C T

    1996-01-01

    With use of a solenoid to generate uniform time-varying electric fields, the effect of extremely low frequency electric fields on osteoclast-like cell formation stimulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 was studied in primary murine marrow culture. Recruitment of osteoclast-like cells was assessed by counting multinuclear, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive cells on day 8 of culture. A solenoid was used to impose uniform time-varying electric fields on cells; sham exposures were performed with an identical solenoid with a null net electric field. During the experiments, both solenoids heated interiorly to approximately 1.5 degrees C above ambient incubator temperature. As a result of the heating, cultures in the sham solenoid formed more osteoclast-like cells than those on the incubator shelf (132 +/- 12%). For this reason, cells exposed to the sham solenoid were used for comparison with cultures exposed to the active coil. Marrow cells were plated at 1.4 x 10(6)/cm2 in square chamber dishes and exposed to 60 Hz electric fields at 9.6 muV/cm from days 1 to 8. Field exposure inhibited osteoclast-like cell recruitment by 17 +/- 3% as compared with sham exposure (p < 0.0001). Several variables, including initial cell plating density, addition of prostaglandin E2 to enhance osteoclast-like cell recruitment, and field parameters, were also assessed. In this secondary series, extremely low frequency fields inhibited osteoclast-like cell formation by 24 +/- 4% (p < 0.0001), with their inhibitory effect consistent throughout all variations in protocol. These experiments demonstrate that extremely low intensity, low frequency sinusoidal electric fields suppress the formation of osteoclast-like cells in marrow culture. The in vitro results support in vivo findings that demonstrate that electric fields inhibit the onset of osteopenia and the progression of osteonecrosis; this suggests that extremely low frequency fields may inhibit osteoclast recruitment in vivo. PMID:8618169

  2. Lateralization of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with chronic ambulatory electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    King-Stephens, David; Mirro, Emily; Weber, Peter B; Laxer, Kenneth D; Van Ness, Paul C; Salanova, Vicenta; Spencer, David C; Heck, Christianne N; Goldman, Alica; Jobst, Barbara; Shields, Donald C; Bergey, Gregory K; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Worrell, Gregory A; Rossi, Marvin A; Gross, Robert E; Cole, Andrew J; Sperling, Michael R; Nair, Dileep R; Gwinn, Ryder P; Park, Yong D; Rutecki, Paul A; Fountain, Nathan B; Wharen, Robert E; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Miller, Ian O; Barkley, Gregory L; Edwards, Jonathan C; Geller, Eric B; Berg, Michel J; Sadler, Toni L; Sun, Felice T; Morrell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with suspected mesial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy typically undergo inpatient video–electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring with scalp and/or intracranial electrodes for 1 to 2 weeks to localize and lateralize the seizure focus or foci. Chronic ambulatory electrocorticography (ECoG) in patients with MTL epilepsy may provide additional information about seizure lateralization. This analysis describes data obtained from chronic ambulatory ECoG in patients with suspected bilateral MTL epilepsy in order to assess the time required to determine the seizure lateralization and whether this information could influence treatment decisions. Methods Ambulatory ECoG was reviewed in patients with suspected bilateral MTL epilepsy who were among a larger cohort with intractable epilepsy participating in a randomized controlled trial of responsive neurostimulation. Subjects were implanted with bilateral MTL leads and a cranially implanted neurostimulator programmed to detect abnormal interictal and ictal ECoG activity. ECoG data stored by the neurostimulator were reviewed to determine the lateralization of electrographic seizures and the interval of time until independent bilateral MTL electrographic seizures were recorded. Results Eighty-two subjects were implanted with bilateral MTL leads and followed for 4.7 years on average (median 4.9 years). Independent bilateral MTL electrographic seizures were recorded in 84%. The average time to record bilateral electrographic seizures in the ambulatory setting was 41.6 days (median 13 days, range 0–376 days). Sixteen percent had only unilateral electrographic seizures after an average of 4.6 years of recording. Significance About one third of the subjects implanted with bilateral MTL electrodes required >1 month of chronic ambulatory ECoG before the first contralateral MTL electrographic seizure was recorded. Some patients with suspected bilateral MTL seizures had only unilateral electrographic seizures

  3. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhães, L.A.G.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm2) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. PMID:26445339

  4. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures.

    PubMed

    Barboza, L L; Campos, V M A; Magalhães, L A G; Paoli, F; Fonseca, A S

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm2) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. PMID:26445339

  5. Evaluation of a low-intensity ultraviolet-C radiation device for decontamination of computer keyboards.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aaron A; Ely, Dylan; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Koganti, Sreelatha; Alhmidi, Heba; Sankar C, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette L; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    Computer keyboards are a potential source for dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. We demonstrated that a low-intensity ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation device was effective in reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile spores on steel carriers and significantly reduced bacterial counts on in-use keyboards. PMID:26781219

  6. On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betskii, O. V.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.

  7. Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Accelerates Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Plant Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The work reported here is based on acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass substrate by introduction of low intensity, uniform ultrasound field into a reaction chamber (bio-reactor). This method may serve as an improvement of rates in the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to sugars, ...

  8. Developmental Change in Fetal Response to Repeated Low-Intensity Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokuma, Seiichi; Doria, Valentina; Ierullo, Antonio; Kinukawa, Naoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Nakano, Hitoo; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Papageorghiou, Aris T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental changes in heart rate response to repeated low-intensity (85 dB) sound stimulation in fetuses between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation. We measured amplitude changes in heart rate as our index of fetal response. At 35 to 37 weeks of gestation, the majority of fetuses showed a deceleratory response…

  9. A prototype stimulator system for noninvasive Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound delivery.

    PubMed

    Mulgaonkar, Amit P; Singh, Rahul S; Babakhanian, Meghedi; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Lacan, Goran; De Salles, Antonio A F; Bystritsky, Alexander; Melega, William P

    2012-01-01

    A prototype Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound (LIFU) stimulator system was developed to evaluate non-invasive neuromodulation in a large animal model. We conducted a feasibility study on a Göttingen minipig, demonstrating reversible, targeted transcranial neuromodulation. The hypothalamus of the minipig was repeatedly stimulated with LIFU which evoked temporally correlated increases in both heart rate and blood pressure. PMID:22357005

  10. Low-intensity infrared lasers alter actin gene expression in skin and muscle tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Mencalha, A. L.; Campos, V. M. A.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; Peregrino, A. A. F.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2013-02-01

    The biostimulative effect of low-intensity lasers is the basis for treatment of diseases in soft tissues. However, data about the influence of biostimulative lasers on gene expression are still scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity infrared lasers on the expression of actin mRNA in skin and muscle tissue. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats was exposed to low-intensity infrared laser radiation at different fluences and frequencies. One and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of actin mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency and time after exposure. The results could be useful for laser dosimetry, as well as to justify the therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases of skin and muscle tissues based on low-intensity infrared laser radiation.

  11. Study finds low-intensity therapy for Burkitt lymphoma highly effective

    Cancer.gov

    Adult patients with a type of cancer known as Burkitt lymphoma had excellent long-term survival rates—upwards of 90 percent—following treatment with low-intensity chemotherapy regimens, according to a new clinical trial finding. Burkitt lymphoma is the mo

  12. Setting up of ambulatory hysteroscopy service.

    PubMed

    Kolhe, Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    There is an obvious trend towards developing ambulatory procedures in gynaecology with ambulatory hysteroscopy as its mainstay. In the recent years, the fast pace of modern technological advances in gynaecologic endoscopy, and particularly in the field of hysteroscopy, have been both thrilling and spectacular. Despite this, the uptake of operative hysteroscopy in ambulatory settings has been relatively slow. There is some apprehension amongst gynaecologists to embark on therapeutic outpatient hysteroscopy, and an organisational change is required to alter the mindset. Although there are best practice guidelines for outpatient hysteroscopy, there are unresolved issues around adequate training and accreditation of future hysteroscopists. Virtual-reality simulation training for operative hysteroscopy has shown promising preliminary results, and it is being aggressively evaluated and validated. This review article is an attempt to provide a useful practical guide to all those who wish to implement ambulatory hysteroscopy services in their outpatient departments. PMID:25979350

  13. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation Facilitates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jing; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) possess stem cell properties, which play a key role in periodontal regeneration. Physical stimulation at appropriate intensities such as low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) enhances cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesechymal stem cells. However, the impacts of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in vitro and its molecular mechanism are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LIPUS on osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. HPDLCs were isolated from premolars of adolescents for orthodontic reasons, and exposed to LIPUS at different intensities to determine an optimal LIPUS treatment dosage. Dynamic changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the cultured cells and supernatants, and osteocalcin production in the supernatants after treatment were analyzed. Runx2 and integrin β1 mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis after LIPUS stimulation. Blocking antibody against integrinβ1 was used to assess the effects of integrinβ1 inhibitor on LIPUS-induced ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium deposition. Our data showed that LIPUS at the intensity of 90 mW/cm2 with 20 min/day was more effective. The ALP activities in lysates and supernatants of LIPUS-treated cells started to increase at days 3 and 7, respectively, and peaked at day 11. LIPUS treatment significantly augmented the production of osteocalcin after day 5. LIPUS caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of Runx2 and integrin β1, while a significant decline when the integrinβ1 inhibitor was used. Moreover, ALP activity, osteocalcin production as well as calcium nodules of cells treated with both daily LIPUS stimulation and integrinβ1 antibody were less than those in the LIPUS-treated group. In conclusion, LIPUS promotes osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which is associated with upregulation of Runx2 and integrin β1, which

  14. Ambulatory Spine Surgery: A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Evan O.; Brietzke, Sasha C.; Weinberg, Alan D.; McAnany, Steven J.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Cho, Samuel K.; Hecht, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective To assess the current practices of spine surgeons performing ambulatory surgery in the United States. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to members of the International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery. Data were initially examined in a univariate manner; variables with a p value < 0.25 were entered into a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS System software Version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, United States). Results Overall, 84.2% of respondents performed some manner of ambulatory spine surgery, and 49.1% were investors in an ambulatory surgery center. Surgeon investors in ambulatory surgery centers were more likely to perform procedures of increased complexity than noninvestors, though limited data precluded a statistical correlation. Surgeons in private practice were more likely to perform ambulatory surgery (94.3%; p = 0.0176), and nonacademic surgeons were both more likely to invest in ambulatory surgery centers (p = 0.0024) and perform surgery at least part of the time in a surgery center (p = 0.0039). Conclusions Though the numbers were too few to calculate statistical significance, there was a trend toward the performance of high-risk procedures on an ambulatory basis being undertaken by those with investment status in an ambulatory center. It is possible that this plays a role in the decision to perform these procedures in this setting versus that of a hospital, where a patient may have better access to care should a complication arise requiring emergent assessment and treatment by a physician. This decision should divest itself of financial incentives and focus entirely on patient safety. PMID:25083356

  15. Ambulatory spine surgery: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Baird, Evan O; Brietzke, Sasha C; Weinberg, Alan D; McAnany, Steven J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective To assess the current practices of spine surgeons performing ambulatory surgery in the United States. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to members of the International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery. Data were initially examined in a univariate manner; variables with a p value < 0.25 were entered into a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS System software Version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, United States). Results Overall, 84.2% of respondents performed some manner of ambulatory spine surgery, and 49.1% were investors in an ambulatory surgery center. Surgeon investors in ambulatory surgery centers were more likely to perform procedures of increased complexity than noninvestors, though limited data precluded a statistical correlation. Surgeons in private practice were more likely to perform ambulatory surgery (94.3%; p = 0.0176), and nonacademic surgeons were both more likely to invest in ambulatory surgery centers (p = 0.0024) and perform surgery at least part of the time in a surgery center (p = 0.0039). Conclusions Though the numbers were too few to calculate statistical significance, there was a trend toward the performance of high-risk procedures on an ambulatory basis being undertaken by those with investment status in an ambulatory center. It is possible that this plays a role in the decision to perform these procedures in this setting versus that of a hospital, where a patient may have better access to care should a complication arise requiring emergent assessment and treatment by a physician. This decision should divest itself of financial incentives and focus entirely on patient safety. PMID:25083356

  16. Ambulatory cleft lip surgery: A value analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arneja, Jugpal S; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Socialized health systems face fiscal constraints due to a limited supply of resources and few reliable ways to control patient demand. Some form of prioritization must occur as to what services to offer and which programs to fund. A data-driven approach to decision making that incorporates outcomes, including safety and quality, in the setting of fiscal prudence is required. A value model championed by Michael Porter encompasses these parameters, in which value is defined as outcomes divided by cost. OBJECTIVES: To assess ambulatory cleft lip surgery from a quality and safety perspective, and to assess the costs associated with ambulatory cleft lip surgery in North America. Conclusions will be drawn as to how the overall value of cleft lip surgery may be enhanced. METHODS: A value analysis of published articles related to ambulatory cleft lip repair over the past 30 years was performed to determine what percentage of patients would be candidates for ambulatory cleft lip repair from a quality and safety perspective. An economic model was constructed based on costs associated with the inpatient stay related to cleft lip repair. RESULTS: On analysis of the published reports in the literature, a minority (28%) of patients are currently discharged in an ambulatory fashion following cleft lip repair. Further analysis suggests that 88.9% of patients would be safe candidates for same-day discharge. From an economic perspective, the mean cost per patient for the overnight admission component of ambulatory cleft surgery to the health care system in the United States was USD$2,390 and $1,800 in Canada. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis reviewed germane publications over a 30-year period, ultimately suggesting that ambulatory cleft lip surgery results in preservation of quality and safety metrics for most patients. The financial model illustrates a potential cost saving through the adoption of such a practice change. For appropriately selected patients, ambulatory

  17. Virtual ambulatory care. Computer simulation applications.

    PubMed

    Zilm, Frank; Culp, Kristyna; Dorney, Beverley

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulation modeling has evolved during the past twenty years into an effective tool for analyzing and planning ambulatory care facilities. This article explains the use of this tool in three case-study, ambulatory care settings--a GI lab, holding beds for a cardiac catheterization laboratory, and in emergency services. These examples also illustrate the use of three software packages currently available: MedModel, Simul8, and WITNESS. PMID:12545512

  18. Trends and initiatives in hospital ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Burns, L A

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the financing and delivery of hospital ambulatory care are discussed. Ambulatory care encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical services provided to patients who are not confined overnight to an institutional bed as inpatients. There are a large and growing number of ways hospitals and physicians cooperate to provide ambulatory-care services. Technological advancements, which have spurred changes in other sectors of medicine, have also changed patterns of medical practice in ambulatory care. Some of the reasons why hospitals develop and expand ambulatory-care programs relate to the changing demand for health services, the shifting preferences of third-party payers and regulators, competitive influences, diversification of risk, and use of such programs as feeders for inpatient services and as teaching and research settings. Although outpatient revenues are a small portion of total hospital revenues, they are growing more rapidly than inpatient revenues. Changes in the health industry that offer opportunities to hospitals are described, such as the increasing physician supply and the formation of group practices, the climate of cost consciousness and price competition, and the trend toward new corporate structures for hospitals. These changes portend changes for hospital pharmacists and give them the opportunity to increase their clinical roles in providing ambulatory care. PMID:7081250

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sobrino, Javier; Coca, Antonio; Riera, Antoni; Pujol, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a sample of Spanish nonagenarians. We also analyzed the misdiagnosis of hypertension and investigated blood pressure (BP) control in treated hypertensive nonagenarians. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was undertaken in a group of 42 nonagenarians. The 24-h mean, daytime BP, nighttime BP and heart rate (HR) were extracted from the ABPM. Sociodemographic data, the ability to perform basic daily activities, measured by the Barthel index (BI) or instrumental activities revealed by the Lawton and Brody index (LI), cognition, and comorbidity were evaluated. Thirty-one subjects were receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. Twenty-four hour, daytime and sleeping pressures averaged 130/65, 131/68 and 128/63mmHg, respectively. Seventeen (40.5%) of the 42 patients had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. In terms of the BP pattern, 8 (19%) subjects were dippers, 19 (45%) non-dippers, and 15 (36%) were risers. Five (45.46%) out of 11 patients with no evidence of hypertension (normotensive patients) had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. The mean daytime BP was 135/85 or higher in 12 (38.7%) out of 31 nonagenarians who had previously received therapy for hypertension. In, conclusion a high prevalence of hypertension, misdiagnosis and inadequate BP control was found in nonagenarians treated for hypertension. PMID:18423650

  20. Salivary Cortisol Responses and Perceived Exertion during High Intensity and Low Intensity Bouts of Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Michael R.; Egan, Alison D.; Foster, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women) completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM) on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total). The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg’s CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05). There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05). The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9) (P<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of quantifying

  1. Ambulatory methods for recording cough.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Recording cough sounds to objectively quantify coughing was first performed using large reel-to-reel tape recorders more than 40 years ago. Coughs were counted manually, which is an extremely laborious and time-consuming process. Current technologies including digital recording techniques, data compression and improvements in digital storage capacity should make the process of recording and counting coughs suitable for automation; however, to date no accurate, objective cough monitoring device is available. Cough sounds are easily distinguishable from other vocalizations by the human ear and hence it is reasonable to assume that coughs sounds should have characteristic, identifying acoustic properties. However, the acoustic features of spontaneously occurring cough sounds are extremely variable. Furthermore, in even the worst cases of cough, the time spent speaking is an order of magnitude greater than the time spent coughing. It follows that even an algorithm that mistakes only a very small proportion of speech as cough will still have an unacceptable false positive rate. There is a clear need for an objective measure of cough for use in clinical practice, clinical research and trials of novel treatments. In the near future automated ambulatory systems with sufficient accuracy to be of clinical use should be available. PMID:17161969

  2. Ambulatory purchasing: harnessing supply costs.

    PubMed

    Jager, P A

    1997-04-01

    The healthcare system remains in a dynamic state of flux. We have all heard the story: the changing healthcare market brings reduced reimbursement for services, increased competition, and steadily increasing supply, maintenance, and equipment costs. Ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) must keep in sync with this change or fail to survive the current market forces. However, because they represent a small contract to various vendors, many ASCs pay premium prices for inventory while receiving less from Managed Care Plans (MCPs) and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs). This dilemma makes control of supply costs a top priority for ASCs. In reality, purchasing is becoming more strategically connected to the ASC balance sheet than ever before. Apart from personnel costs, supply and pharmaceutical purchasing represents the greatest expense category on our financial statement. Harnessing these costs directly relates to bottom line profitability. In addition, while performing cost savings magic, ASCs must maintain patient and surgeon satisfaction with the superior outcomes and state-of-the-art technology their reputations are based upon. Sound impossible? This article details how Surgery Center Plus, Inc. (SCP) implemented a cost containment project. PMID:10167012

  3. Sound Packing DNA: packing open circular DNA with low-intensity ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Donghee; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Gyudo; Park, Jingam; Shin, Unchul; Won, Jong Ho; Jo, Yong Jun; Chang, Jin Woo; Lee, Sangwoo; Yoon, Daesung; Seo, Jongbum; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Supercoiling DNA (folding DNA into a more compact molecule) from open circular forms requires significant bending energy. The double helix is coiled into a higher order helix form; thus it occupies a smaller footprint. Compact packing of DNA is essential to improve the efficiency of gene delivery, which has broad implications in biology and pharmaceutical research. Here we show that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound can pack open circular DNA into supercoil form. Plasmid DNA subjected to 5.4 mW/cm2 intensity ultrasound showed significant (p-values <0.001) supercoiling compared to DNA without exposure to ultrasound. Radiation force induced from ultrasound and dragging force from the fluid are believed to be the main factors that cause supercoiling. This study provides the first evidence to show that low-intensity ultrasound can directly alter DNA topology. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for improved non-viral gene delivery.

  4. Sound Packing DNA: packing open circular DNA with low-intensity ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Park, DongHee; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Gyudo; Park, Jingam; Shin, Unchul; Won, Jong Ho; Jo, Yong Jun; Chang, Jin Woo; Lee, Sangwoo; Yoon, Daesung; Seo, Jongbum; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Supercoiling DNA (folding DNA into a more compact molecule) from open circular forms requires significant bending energy. The double helix is coiled into a higher order helix form; thus it occupies a smaller footprint. Compact packing of DNA is essential to improve the efficiency of gene delivery, which has broad implications in biology and pharmaceutical research. Here we show that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound can pack open circular DNA into supercoil form. Plasmid DNA subjected to 5.4 mW/cm2 intensity ultrasound showed significant (p-values <0.001) supercoiling compared to DNA without exposure to ultrasound. Radiation force induced from ultrasound and dragging force from the fluid are believed to be the main factors that cause supercoiling. This study provides the first evidence to show that low-intensity ultrasound can directly alter DNA topology. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for improved non-viral gene delivery. PMID:25892035

  5. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  6. Low intensity red laser action on Escherichia coli cultures submitted to stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. N.; Roos, C.; Barboza, L. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Clinical applications of low intensity lasers are based on the biostimulation effect and considered to occur mainly at cells under stressful conditions. Also, although the cytochrome is a chromophore to red and near infrared radiations, there are doubts whether indirect effects of these radiations could occur on the DNA molecule by oxidative mechanisms. Thus, this work evaluated the survival, filamentation and morphology of Escherichia coli cultures proficient and deficient in oxidative DNA damage repair exposed to low intensity red laser under stress conditions. Wild type and endonuclease III deficient E. coli cells were exposed to laser (658 nm, 1 and 8 J cm-2) under hyposmotic stress and bacterial survival, filamentation and cell morphology were evaluated. Laser exposure: (i) does not alter the bacterial survival in 0.9% NaCl, but increases the survival of wild type and decreases the survival of endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress; (ii) increases filamentation in 0.9% NaCl but decreases in wild type and increases in endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress; (iii) decreases the area and perimeter of wild type, does not alter these parameters in endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress but increases the area of these in 0.9% NaCl. Low intensity red laser exposure has different effects on survival, filamentation phenotype and morphology of wild type and endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress. Thus, our results suggest that therapies based on low intensity red lasers could take into account physiologic conditions and genetic characteristics of cells.

  7. DNA fragmentation and nuclear phenotype in tendons exposed to low-intensity infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Flavia; Ramos Cerqueira, Larissa; Martins Ramos, Mayara; Campos, Vera M.; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Geller, Mauro; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols are recommended in device guidelines outlined for treating many diseases on empirical basis. However, effects of low-intensity infrared lasers at fluences used in clinical protocols on DNA are controversial. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in tissues and free radicals generation could be described as a consequence of laser used. DNA lesions induced by free radicals cause changes in DNA structure, chromatin organization, ploidy degrees and cell death. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could alter the fibroblasts nuclei characteristics and induce DNA fragmentation. Tendons of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), at different fluences (1, 5 and 10 J/cm2), in continuous wave (power output of 10mW, power density of 79.6 mW/cm2). Different frequencies were analyzed for the higher fluence (10 J/cm2), at pulsed emission mode (2.5, 250 and 2500 Hz), with the laser source at surface of skin. Geometric, densitometric and textural parameters obtained for Feulgen-stained nuclei by image analysis were used to define nuclear phenotypes. Significant differences were observed on the nuclear phenotype of tendons after exposure to laser, as well as, high cell death percentages was observed for all fluences and frequencies analyzed here, exception 1 J/cm2 fluence. Our results indicate that low-intensity infrared laser can alter geometric, densitometric and textural parameters in tendon fibroblasts nuclei. Laser can also induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin lost and consequently cell death, using fluences, frequencies and emission modes took out from clinical protocols.

  8. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers on XPA and XPC gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Mencalha, A. L.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2014-09-01

    Laser devices emit monochromatic, coherent, and highly collimated intense beams of light that are useful for a number of biomedical applications. However, for low-intensity lasers, possible adverse effects of laser light on DNA are still controversial. In this work, the expression of XPA and XPC genes in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at different fluences in continuous mode emission. Skin and muscle tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of XPA and XPC mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats, depending on physical (fluence and wavelength) and biological (tissue) parameters. Laser light could modify expression of genes related to the nucleotide excision repair pathway at fluences and wavelengths used in clinical protocols.

  9. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy over mini-implants success rate in pigs.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S; Suzuki, Selly Sayuri; Martinez, Elisabeth Ferreira; Iemini, Mylene Garcez; Suzuki, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    The success rate of miniscrews when used as temporary orthodontic anchorage is relatively high, but some factors could affect its clinical success such as inflammation around the miniscrew. Low-intensity laser therapy has been widely used for biostimulation of tissue and wound healing specially for its anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-intensity laser therapy over the miniscrew success rate. Five Landrace's pigs received 50 miniscrews on the buccal side of the mandible and on the palate of the maxilla. All the miniscrews were immediately loaded with 250 gf. The laser group were irradiated with a 780-nm diode laser with 70 mWs for 1 min (dose = 34 J/cm(2)); the contralateral side was used as the control group. The miniscrews were photographed and analyzed clinically every week to determine their stability and presence of local inflammation. After 3 weeks, histological analysis and fluorescent microscopy were performed to compare the laser and the control side. Clinical results showed a success rate of 60% for the control group and 80% for the laser-treated group. The histological analysis and fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the laser group had less inflammatory cells than the control group and the bone neoformation around the miniscrew was more intense. Low-intensity laser therapy increased the success rate of orthodontic miniscrews, probably due to anti-inflammatory effect and bone stimulation. PMID:23929562

  10. Low intensity infrared laser affects expression of oxidative DNA repair genes in mitochondria and nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Mencalha, A. L.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2014-11-01

    Practical properties and physical characteristics of low intensity lasers have made possible their application to treat soft tissue diseases. Excitation of intracellular chromophores by red and infrared radiation at low energy fluences with increase of mitochondrial metabolism is the basis of the biostimulation effect but free radicals can be produced. DNA lesions induced by free radicals are repaired by the base excision repair pathway. In this work, we evaluate the expression of POLγ and APEX2 genes related to repair of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats were exposed to low intensity infrared laser at different fluences. One hour and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA expression by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to laser radiation show different expression of POLγ and APEX2 mRNA depending of the fluence and time after exposure. Our study suggests that a low intensity infrared laser affects expression of genes involved in repair of oxidative lesions in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  11. The effects of a low-intensity red laser on bacterial growth, filamentation and plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, C.; Santos, J. N.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of nonphotosynthesizing microorganisms to light could increase cell division in cultures, a phenomenon denominated as biostimulation. However, data concerning the importance of the genetic characteristics of cells on this effect are as yet scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a low-intensity red laser on the growth, filamentation and plasmids in Escherichia coli cells proficient and deficient in DNA repair. E. coli cultures were exposed to a laser (658 nm, 10 mW, 1 and 8 J cm-2) to study bacterial growth and filamentation. Also, bacterial cultures hosting pBSK plasmids were exposed to the laser to study DNA topological forms from the electrophoretic profile in agarose gels. Data indicate the low-intensity red laser: (i) had no effect on the growth of E. coli wild type and exonuclease III deficient cells; (ii) induced bacterial filamentation, (iii) led to no alteration in the electrophoretic profile of plasmids from exonuclease III deficient cells, but plasmids from wild type cells were altered. A low-intensity red laser at the low fluences used in phototherapy has no effect on growth, but induces filamentation and alters the topological forms of plasmid DNA in E. coli cultures depending on the DNA repair mechanisms.

  12. Ambulatory device for surface EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, O; Airaksinen, K

    1998-01-01

    The principles of electromyographic (EMG) analysis can be divided into the following groups: signal or motor unit shape analysis, amplitude analysis, multi-channel or successive time difference analysis, signal frequency composition analysis, change of frequency time based analysis based on simultaneous amplitude or frequency based analysis or concentric and excentric work based shape and amplitude ratio analysis. The aim of this paper is to present an ambulatory portable device for surface EMG analysing both for integrated EMG and for spectral analysis. The reliability of surface EMG recordings have established. The recent new technology gets a possibility to measure by reliable way surface EMG on-line during exercise, rehabilitation or occupational conditions. Portable EMG measurement unit and analysing program seems to be suitable for documentation of the response of rehabilitation programs, effects of physiotherapy, analysing the muscle balance and activity of sportsman and for documentation of occupational health problems. Automatic interpretation and wide data base for patient data makes the system useful in daily practice. PMID:9607100

  13. Children, Learning and Chronic Natural Disasters: How Does the Government of Dominica Address Education during Low-Intensity Hurricanes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrant, Ted Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    By the time today's Grade K students graduate high school in the Commonwealth of Dominica, they will have experienced five major and many low-intensity hurricanes (LIH). Between August and November each year, each hurricane, major or low-intensity, represents a major threat to their safety and schooling. This mixed-method case study investigated…

  14. Correlations of plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration with ambulatory blood pressure responses to nebivolol and valsartan, alone and in combination, in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Giles, Thomas D; Bakris, George; Oparil, Suzanne; Weber, Michael A; Li, Huiling; Mallick, Madhuja; Bharucha, David B; Chen, ChunLin; Ferguson, William G

    2015-11-01

    After demonstration of the antihypertensive efficacy of the combination of the beta-blocker nebivolol and the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan in an 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N = 4161), we now report the effects of this treatment on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in a substudy (n = 805). Plasma renin activity increased with valsartan (54%-73%) and decreased with nebivolol (51%-65%) and the combination treatment (17%-39%). Plasma aldosterone decreased with individual treatments (valsartan, 11%-22%; nebivolol, 20%-26%), with the largest reduction (35%) observed with maximum combination dose (20 mg nebivolol/320 mg valsartan). Baseline ln(plasma renin activity) correlated with the 8-week reductions in 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP following treatments with the combination (all doses combined, P = .003 and P < .001) and nebivolol (both, P < .001), but not with valsartan. Baseline ln(aldosterone) correlated with 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP reductions following combination treatment only (P < .001 and P = .005). The implications of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system effects of this beta blocker-angiotensin receptor blocker combination should be explored further. PMID:26362831

  15. Testosterone Plus Low-Intensity Physical Training in Late Life Improves Functional Performance, Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and Mitochondrial Quality Control in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Li, Michelle; Liang, Wentao; Liesa, Marc; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.; Shirihai, Orian; Bhasin, Shalender

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT) on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT) for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality. Conclusion: Testosterone administered with low-intensity physical training improves grip strength, spontaneous movements, and respiratory activity. These functional improvements were associated with increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial quality control. PMID:23240002

  16. Diagnostic Errors in Ambulatory Care: Dimensions and Preventive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Hardeep; Weingart, Saul N.

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on patient safety in ambulatory care, progress in understanding and reducing diagnostic errors in this setting lag behind many other safety concerns such as medication errors. To explore the extent and nature of diagnostic errors in ambulatory care, we identified five dimensions of ambulatory care from which errors may…

  17. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet. PMID:26644274

  18. Effect of ground fire of low intensity on soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Zhuravleva, Anna; Myakshina, Tatyana; Blagodatsky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal grassland fires in Russia occupy the greater area and spread quicker than peat-bog or forest fire. During short-term grassland fire of low intensity the vegetation and plant litter are usually burned down, while soil is not affected by high temperatures. Thus, the pyrogenically transformed plant material is the main factor affecting the soil microbial community after the seasonal grassland fire. Input of pyrogenic substrates to soil can alter microbial activity resulting in accelerated turnover of native soil organic matter (SOM), and in carbon losses from soil. Our study aimed to estimate the effect of seasonal grassland fires on microbial communities of soils under forest and meadow using the eco-physiological profiling (Anderson, 2003). The following variables were determined under field and laboratory conditions: 1) dynamics of CO2 evolution (basal respiration); 2) microbial biomass C by glucose-induced respiration; 3) Cmic - to- Corg ratio, 4) metabolic quotient qCO2; 4) specific growth rates of microorganisms by the kinetics of substrate induced respiration. The indirect effect of short-term ground fire on mineralization activity of soil microorganisms was studied in incubation experiments after application of pyrogenically modified plant residues to the soil. Since the values of the variables studied differed from each other in a large scale, they were generalized by the mathematical indices allowing the comparison of different variables at the base of non-dimensional scale. The eco-physiological profiles combining the biological indicators mentioned above allowed the comparison of post-fire and undisturbed soils. The acceleration of basal respiration caused by the fire was observed in soils of both biocenoses at least during two months after the fire. Cumulative increase in CO2 efflux from 5cm soil layer amounted for 5 % (meadow) and for 10 % (forest) of annual CO2 emission. Post-fire effect resulted in total mineralization of grassland floor on

  19. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  20. The effects of low-intensity laser irradiation on the fatigue induced by dysfunction of mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Yang; Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Guang

    2003-12-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue has long been an important field in sports medicine. The electron leak of mitochondrial respiratory chain during the ATP synthesis integrated with proton leak and O-.2 can decrease the efficiency of ATP synthesis in mitochondria. And the exercise-induced fatigue occur followed by the decrease of performance. If the dysfunction of mitochondria can be avoided, the fatigue during the exercise may be delayed and the performance may be enhanced. Indeed there are some kind of materials can partially prevent the decrease of ATP synthesis efficiency in mitochondria. But the side effects and safety of these materials is still needed to be studied. Low intensity laser can improve the mitochondria function. It is reasonable to consider that low intensity laser therapy may become the new and more effective way to delay or elimination the fatigue induced by dysfunction of mitochondria. Because the effect of laser irradiation may not be controlled exactly when study in vivo, we use electrical stimulation of C2C12 muscle cells in culture to define the effect of low intensity laser on the dysfunction of mitochondria, and to define the optimal laser intensity to prevent the decrease of ATP synthesis efficiency. Our study use the C2C12 muscle cells in culture to define some of the mechanisms involved in the contractile-induced changes of mitochondrial function firstly in sports medicine and may suggest a useful study way to other researchers. We also give a new way to delay or eliminating the fatigue induced by dysfunction of mitochondria without side effect.

  1. [Effects of high- and low-intensity training on cardiorespiratory system and serum lipids].

    PubMed

    Yanagibori, R; Aoki, K; Suzuki, Y; Gunji, A

    1991-08-01

    The differences between the effects of high- and low-intensity exercise training on cardiorespiratory system and serum lipid levels were examined under conditions in which the total work load was same. Twenty-two healthy, untrained female students, aged 18 to 24 years, participated in the 8-week training experiment. Two training groups exercised on bicycle ergometers 4-5d/wk for 8 wk with high-intensity (H: 70% VO2 max 13 min/session; N = 8) or in low-intensity (L: 36% VO2 max 33 min/session; N = 8). The control group (C: N = 6) continued its sedentary life style. Data of 6 students (H: N = 2, L: N = 2, C: N = 2) were excluded from the analysis, because they did not carry out their duties. The results of this study were as follows; 1) Aerobic capacity increased in both training groups. 2) After training, both heart rates and oxygen uptake during submaximal work loads significantly decreased in group H, but only heart rates significantly decreased in group L. 3) Heart rates with a same oxygen-uptake load during submaximal work seemed to increase in group H, but significantly decreased in group L. 4) The mechanical efficiency during the submaximal work load significantly increased in group H, but not in group L. 5) DBP and MBP during the submaximal work load in group L significantly decreased compared with those before the training. SBP with a same oxygen-uptake load during submaximal work increased in group H, but decreased in group L. 6) Rate pressure products both at rest and during submaximal exercise decreased significantly in group L. 7) Serum lipid levels remained in all groups. These results suggested that when the amount of exercise is the same, low-intensity exercise training with 35% VO2 max was more effective to increase endurance capacity and was safer than high-intensity exercise training. PMID:1956126

  2. Untreated runoff quality from roof and road surfaces in a low intensity rainfall climate.

    PubMed

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2016-04-15

    Sediment and heavy metals in stormwater runoff are key pollutants of urban waterways, and their presence in stormwater is driven by climatic factors such as rainfall intensity. This study describes the total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metal concentrations found in runoff from four different urban surfaces within a residential/institutional catchment, in a climate where rainfall is typically of low intensity (<5.1mm·h(-1)). The results were compared to untreated runoff quality from a compilation of international studies. The road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper and galvanized roof runoff had the highest copper and zinc concentrations, respectively. Pollutant concentrations were found to be significantly different between surfaces; quantification and prediction of pollutant contributions from urban surfaces should thus take account of the different surface materials, instead of being aggregated into more generalized categories such as land use. The TSS and heavy metal concentrations were found to be at the low to medium end of ranges observed internationally, except for total copper and zinc concentrations generated by dissolution of copper and galvanized roofing material respectively; these concentrations were at least as high as those reported internationally. TSS wash-off from the roofs was seen to be a source-limited process, where all available TSS is washed off during the rain event despite the low intensity rainfall, whereas both road TSS and heavy metals wash-off from roof and road surfaces appeared to all be transport-limited and therefore some carryover of pollutants occurs between rain events. A first flush effect was seen from most surfaces for TSS, but not for heavy metals. This study demonstrates that in low intensity rainfall climates, quantification of untreated runoff quality from key individual surface types in a catchment are needed to enable development of targeted and appropriately sized stormwater treatment systems

  3. Prevention of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws by low-intensity ultrasound in the dog model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Lang, M; Fan, W; Dong, X; Zhu, L; Xiao, J; Wang, Y

    2016-09-01

    The prevention of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws (ORNJ) is very important because of the current absence of effective therapies for this disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether low-intensity ultrasound has a preventive effect on ORNJ. Sixty healthy adult dogs were divided randomly into three groups: group A (radiotherapy alone), group B (radiotherapy followed by low-intensity ultrasound treatment), and a control group. The development of ORNJ was assessed and the rate of occurrence of ORNJ was compared between groups A and B. Micro-computed tomography, haematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the microstructure of the mandible and changes in microvascular density in all groups. All animals in group A and group B (ultrasound applied for 30 days) developed ORNJ. Alveolar bone density was 609.48±53.77HU in group A and 829.65±81.46HU in group B (P=0.008). The trabecular bone volume fraction, bone surface area/bone volume ratio, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were all lower in group A than in group B (P=0.037, P=0.022, P=0.017, and P=0.034, respectively). Haematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the Haversian canals in the osteons had expanded significantly in group A, with collagen fibres losing their circular orientation; group B tended to show typical osteons. The microvascular density in group A was decreased. In conclusion, the use of low-intensity ultrasound in the dog appears not to prevent the incidence of ORNJ, however it does somewhat improve vascularity and bone quality at the microscopic level, which contribute to ORNJ healing. PMID:26917007

  4. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-05-08

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment.

  5. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on human blood microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.

    2000-05-01

    The paper investigated in vivo the influence of low- intensity laser radiation (He-Ne laser with wavelength 0.63 nm) on the relative value of perfusion (the product of the number of particles moving in the volume being investigated into the mean velocity of their movement) of human blood erythrocytes and the mean velocity of their movement. It is known that characteristic of cardiovascular diseases are microcirculation disturbances and disorder in rheological properties of blood. Therefore these investigations were carried out on cardiac ischemia patients.

  6. Results of using low-intensity laser radiation for plumbum intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the noninvasive effect of low-intensive laser impulse radiation in the infrared spectrum region on the liver projection site in experimental lead intoxication achieved by means of intragastric administration of Pb acetate to albino rats over a period of 30 days in a dose of 30 mg/kg. We determined a number of indices in laboratory animals which characterized the state of the nervous system, immune system, muscular performance efficiency. We have also investigated the hematologic indices and the blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid content as well as the plumbum levels in the blood, urine and the animals' inner organs.

  7. The Safety of Using High Frequency, Low Intensity Ultrasound to Enhance Thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Azita

    2006-05-01

    The EKOS Ultrasound Infusion Systems (EKOS Corporation, Bothell, WA) use high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to accelerate thrombolysis by enhancing clot permeability and lytic drug penetration into thrombus. These systems are designed to provide efficacious catheter-directed treatment for the management of stroke, peripheral arterial occlusion and deep vein thrombosis. The in vitro and in vivo results of investigating the stability of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds used in combination with EKOS devices, the potential for adverse biological effects and the clot fragmentation confirmed the safety of EKOS ultrasound infusion systems in thrombolysis treatment.

  8. [The physical mechanism of the effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on biological cells].

    PubMed

    Emets, B G

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved air and air in the free form (bubbles) was taken into account in the study of electromagnetic radiation on biological cells. It is shown that, upon movement in a temperature gradient field, some bubbles increase in size due to the dissolving of others and the coalescence of bubbles during collisions. As a result, the concentration of dissolved air decreases, which leads to cell responses. It is shown that the temperature gradient needed for substantial degassing can be generated by electromagnetic fields of low intensities. PMID:10439876

  9. Evaluation of a Peer-Led, Low-Intensity Physical Activity Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…

  10. Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Nasare, Namita; Megha, Kanu; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Singh, Digvijay; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-01-01

    The health hazard of microwave radiation (MWR) has become a recent subject of interest as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-intensity microwave exposure on cognitive function, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and DNA damage in rat brain. Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to MWR for 180 days at 3 different frequencies, namely, 900, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: group I: sham exposed; group II: exposed to MWR at 900 MHz, specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10(-4) W/kg; group III: exposed to 1800 MHz, SAR 5.835 × 10(-4) W/kg; and group IV: exposed to 2450 MHz, SAR 6.672 × 10(-4) W/kg. All the rats were tested for cognitive function at the end of the exposure period and were subsequently sacrificed to collect brain. Level of HSP70 was estimated by enzyme-linked immunotarget assay and DNA damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay in all the groups. The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain. PMID:25749756

  11. DNA repair gene expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity infrared laser.

    PubMed

    de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Araújo de Campos, Vera Maria; Ferreira Machado, Samara Cristina; de Freitas Peregrino, Antonio Augusto; Geller, Mauro; de Paoli, Flavia

    2013-07-01

    Special properties of laser light have led to its usefulness in many applications in therapy. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in biotissues and generation of free radicals could be involved in its biological effects. DNA lesions induced by free radicals are repaired by base excision repair pathway. In this work, we evaluated the expression of APE1 and OGG1 genes related to repair of DNA lesions induced by free radicals. Skin and muscle tissues of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser at different fluences and frequencies. After laser exposition of 1 and 24 h, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of APE1 and OGG1 gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of APE1 and OGG1 mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissues of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency, and time after exposure. Our study suggests that low-intensity infrared laser affects expression of genes involved in repair of DNA lesions by base excision repair pathway. PMID:22941447

  12. Low-intensity vibrations accelerate proliferation and alter macrophage phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pongkitwitoon, Suphannee; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Koh, Timothy J; Judex, Stefan

    2016-03-21

    Macrophages are essential for the efficient healing of various tissues. Although many biochemical signaling pathways have been well characterized in macrophages, their sensitivity to mechanical signals is largely unexplored. Here, we applied low-intensity vibrations (LIV) to macrophages to determine whether macrophages could directly transduce LIV signals into changes in the expression of genes and proteins involved in tissue repair. Two different LIV signal frequencies (30Hz or 100Hz) were combined with two acceleration magnitudes (0.15g or 1g) to generate four distinct LIV signals that were applied to cultured murine macrophages. All four LIV signals significantly increased macrophage number after 3 days of stimulation with the combination of the smallest acceleration and the highest frequency (0.15g at 100Hz) generating the largest response. Compared to non-LIV controls, gene expression of the pro-healing growth factors VEGF and TGF-β increased with all four LIV signals (Day 1). LIV also decreased protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α (Days 1 and 3). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of macrophages to high-frequency oscillations applied at low intensities and may suggest that the benefit of LIV for tissue repair may be based on reducing inflammation and promoting a pro-healing macrophage phenotype. PMID:26897645

  13. Comparative study of laser and LED systems of low intensity applied to tendon healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, J. L. N.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Parizotto, N. A.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Low-intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) and Light Emitting Diode Therapy (LEDT) of low intensity on the treatment of lesioned Achilles tendon of rats. The experimental model consisted of a partial mechanical lesion on the right Achilles tendon deep portion of 90 rats. One hour after the lesion, the injured animals received applications of laser/LED (685, 830/630, 880 nm), and the same procedure was repeated at 24-h intervals, for 10 days. The healing process and deposition of collagen were evaluated based on a polarization microscopy analysis of the alignment and organization of collagen bundles, through the birefringence (optical retardation-OR). The results showed a real efficiency of treatments based on LEDT and confirmed that LILT seems to be effective on healing process. Although absence of coherence of LED light, tendon healing treatment with this feature was satisfactory and can certainly replace treatments based on laser light applications. Applications of infrared laser at 830 nm and LED 880 nm were more efficient when the aim is a good organization, aggregation, and alignment of the collagen bundles on tendon healing. However, more research is needed for a safety and more efficient determination of a protocol with LED.

  14. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Dental Implant Osseointegration: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Yakup; Erdogan, Ozgur; Kurkcu, Mehmet; Akova, Tolga; Damlar, İbrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPU) on dental implant osseointegration in a rabbit model using mechanical-histomorphometric methods and resonance-frequency analysis (RFA). Methods Twelve skeletally mature, male New Zealand rabbits (3.4 kg±0.5) were included in the study. A total number of 24 implants were placed bilaterally into the tibiae of the subjects. The right tibia of each rabbit received LIPU application (20 min/day) while the left side received sham treatment. The study was carried on for six weeks and the rabbits were sacrificed in 7 days intervals (two rabbits for each week). The rabbits were categorized in the early or late osseointegration period according to their sacrification date. Comparisons between the groups were made using statistical analysis of histomorphometric analysis, resonance frequency analysis and mechanical tests. Results The histomorphometry parameters showed that the bone area and the bone volume values have significantly increased in the early osseointegration period and the bone-implant contact values have significantly increased in the late osseointegration period in the LIPU treated subjects when compared to the control group. RFA scores had mild increase in the LIPU group. However the difference was not statistically significant. Mechanical test results suggest an increased mechanical stability in the LIPU group as well. Conclusions Results of this pilot study indicate that low intensity pulsed ultrasound may have positive effects on osseointegration and stability of dental implants. PMID:19212531

  15. Blood Volume Changes Induced By Low-Intensity Intradialytic Exercise in Long-Term Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ookawara, Susumu; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Ito, Kiyonori; Ueda, Yuichiro; Kaku, Yoshio; Hirai, Keiji; Hoshino, Taro; Mori, Honami; Yoshida, Izumi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Tabei, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Intradialytic exercise-induced blood volume (BV) reduction may cause intradialytic hypotension in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, BV recovery time after intradialytic exercise remains unknown. Hemodialysis patients were recruited, and their relative BV change (%ΔBV) were measured with intradialytic exercise (n = 12). After confirming the linearity of %ΔBV for 30 min, patients exercised using a stationary cycle in the supine position. The target exercise intensity was a 10% increase in heart rate (HR), corresponding to relatively low-intensity exercise. Baseline %ΔBV (assumed baseline) were calculated for the 30 min before exercise using linear regression analysis. The mean intradialytic exercise start and end times after HD initiation were 93.0 ± 8.4 and 116.4 ± 8.3 min, respectively, a mean exercise duration of 23.5 ± 2.6 min. Percentage change in blood volume declined rapidly upon exercise initiation and gradually increased above the assumed baseline throughout HD. At the end of HD, %ΔBV in the exercise group was significantly higher than the assumed baseline (measured - assumed baseline %ΔBV: 2.17 ± 0.62%; p = 0.02). Intradialytic exercise with low intensity in the supine position attenuated ultrafiltration-induced BV reduction at the end of HD. Therefore, intradialytic exercise may prevent intradialytic hypotension during later HD, although its intensity was relatively low level. PMID:26720736

  16. Building the first step: a review of low-intensity interventions for stepped care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Within the last 30 years, a substantial number of interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have received empirical support. Nevertheless, fewer than 25% of individuals with alcohol-related problems access these interventions. If several intensive psychosocial treatments are relatively effective, but most individuals in need do not access them, it seems logical to place a priority on developing more engaging interventions. Accordingly, after briefly describing findings about barriers to help-seeking, we focus on identifying an array of innovative and effective low-intensity intervention strategies, including telephone, computer-based, and Internet-based interventions, that surmount these barriers and are suitable for use within a stepped-care model. We conclude that these interventions attract individuals who would otherwise not seek help, that they can benefit individuals who misuse alcohol and those with more severe AUDs, and that they can facilitate subsequent help-seeking when needed. We note that these types of low-intensity interventions are flexible and can be tailored to address many of the perceived barriers that hinder individuals with alcohol misuse or AUDs from obtaining timely help. We also describe key areas of further research, such as identifying the mechanisms that underlie stepped-care interventions and finding out how to structure these interventions to best initiate a program of stepped care. PMID:23227807

  17. Low-intensity laser therapy to treat dentin hypersensitivity: comparative clinical study using different light doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Mazzetto, Marcello O.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2001-04-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is the most common patient's complain related to pain. In fact, this is a challenge to treat specially if conventional techniques are used. The possibility to treat pain through a low intensity laser gives us an opportunity to solve this important clinical problem without promote a discomfort to patient. The main point here is not if this kind of treatment is anti- inflammatory to pulp and/or biostimulatory to production of irregular secondary dentin. The most important point here is to understand how much energy is necessary to reach conditions where to tooth become insensible to external stimulus. Our double-blinded study compared a group without laser (Placebo) with five other groups where different doses at 660 nm low intensity laser were employed. The final conclusion is that for 660 nm laser therapy, the doses from 0.13 to 2.0 J/cm2 were more efficiency than the others. The follow up care in this study was of 45 days.

  18. A constrained, total-variation minimization algorithm for low-intensity x-ray CT

    SciTech Connect

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Duchin, Yuval; Pan, Xiaochuan; Ullberg, Christer

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: The authors developed an iterative image-reconstruction algorithm for application to low-intensity computed tomography projection data, which is based on constrained, total-variation (TV) minimization. The algorithm design focuses on recovering structure on length scales comparable to a detector bin width. Methods: Recovering the resolution on the scale of a detector bin requires that pixel size be much smaller than the bin width. The resulting image array contains many more pixels than data, and this undersampling is overcome with a combination of Fourier upsampling of each projection and the use of constrained, TV minimization, as suggested by compressive sensing. The presented pseudocode for solving constrained, TV minimization is designed to yield an accurate solution to this optimization problem within 100 iterations. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to a low-intensity scan of a rabbit with a thin wire to test the resolution. The proposed algorithm is compared to filtered backprojection (FBP). Conclusions: The algorithm may have some advantage over FBP in that the resulting noise level is lowered at equivalent contrast levels of the wire.

  19. Faculty Development for Ambulatory Care Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.; Carline, Jan D.; Ambrozy, Donna M.; Irby, David M.

    1997-01-01

    A study documented the practices of 14 peer-nominated medical educators who conduct faculty development programs in ambulatory care settings. Results indicate the programs were delivered almost exclusively in workshop format, with great similarities in topics and strategies. Evaluation was generally limited to satisfaction ratings. Makes…

  20. Memo to: Ambulatory Health Care Planners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Planning for changing types of health professions and a changing clientele necessitates designing flexible facilities. Findings from a recently completed analysis of ambulatory care facilities are directed to planners in the form of 16 memos. Approaches to planning and design considerations are made that attempt to humanize these facilities.…

  1. [Ambulatory invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, K; Wortmann, A; Engels, G

    1989-08-01

    Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement has not changed substantially since its introduction by Riva-Rocci in 1986, Korotkoff in 1905 and Recklinghausen in 1906. Random measurements in the clinic or practice reflect only incompletely the dynamic nature of the blood pressure. Blood pressure recordings by patients themselves have provided more information through better temporal resolution, however, exact characterization of the pressure response throughout the entire day and, in particular, during physical exertion are not enabled; the latter are especially important with regard to diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In 1966, therefore, radiotelemetric transmission of direct, continuously-measured arterial blood pressure was developed which enabled beat-to-beat registration of blood pressure, outside the laboratory, during normal daily life and sport activities. The initial results showed a marked variability of the blood pressure during the course of the day (Figure 1). Excessive blood pressure increases were observed during exposure to cold, static and dynamic exercise and to a lesser degree during automobile driving and exposure to heat (Figure 3). Recording of the pressure curves via transmission by radiotelemetry shows a high degree of accuracy and temporal resolution, spatial and situational freedom but is invasive and costly in terms of personnel. The same holds true for direct continuous blood pressure registration and storage on a portable tape recorder. Portable, automatic blood pressure measuring units for ambulatory monitoring employ indirect auscultatory or oscillometric recording with a cuff. As compared with the radiotelemetric direct continuous blood pressure measuring method, the indirect method has subordinate temporal resolution, that is, the measurements are only intermittent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2676813

  2. Impact of a low intensity controlled-fire in some chemical soil properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Hueso-González, Paloma; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Some changes in chemical soil properties can be observed after fires of low intensities. pH and electric conductivity tend to increase, while C/N ratio decrease. In the case of organic matter, the content can increase due to the massive incorporation of necromass including, especially, plants and roots. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of low intensity and controlled fire in some soil properties in field conditions. El Pinarillo experimental area is located in South of Spain. Two set of closed plots were installed (24 m2: 12 m length x 2 m width). One of them was remained as control with the original vegetation cover (Mediterranean matorral: Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus clusii, Lavandula stoechas, Chamaeropos humilis, Thymus baetica), and the other one was burnt in a controlled-fire in 2011. Weather conditions and water content of vegetation influenced in the intensity of fire (low). After the controlled-fire, soil surface sample (0-5 cm) were taken in both set of plots (B, burnt soil samples; C, control soil samples). Some soil chemical properties were analysed: organic matter content (OM), C/N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Some changes were observed in B corroborating a controlled-fire of low intensity. pH remained equal after fire (B: pH=7.7±0.11; C: pH=7.7±0.04). An increment was obtained in the case of EC (B: EC=0.45 mScm-1±0.08 mScm-1; C: EC=0.35 mScm-1±0.07 mScm-1) and OM (B: OM=8.7%±3.8%; C: pH=7.3%±1.5%). Finally, C/N ratio decreased after fire respect to the control and initial conditions (B: C/N=39.0±14.6; C: C/N =46.5±10.2).

  3. Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound increases proliferation and extracelluar matrix production by human dermal fibroblasts in three-dimensional culture

    PubMed Central

    Bohari, Siti PM; Grover, Liam M; Hukins, David WL

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by human dermal fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content, dimethylmethylene blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content and scanning electron microscopy were performed on the encapsulated cells treated with pulsed low-intensity ultrasound and a control group that remained untreated. Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound showed a significant effect on cell proliferation and collagen deposition but no consistent pattern for glycosaminoglycan content. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both treated and control groups. These results suggest that pulsed low-intensity ultrasound alone shows a positive effect on cell proliferation and collagen deposition even without growth factor supplements. PMID:26668710

  4. Ultraviolet light attenuates vasospasm development: low-intensity 325-nm illumination in animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yuji; Nakai, Kanji; Arai, Tsunenori; Shima, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    We studied whether prophylactic low-intensity ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation reduces development of delayed cerebral vasospasm in rabbit model. Eleven rabbits had carotid angiography and placement of silicon sheaths around the right common carotid artery (CCA). Just before the placement, CCAs of 6 in the 11 animals were adventitiously exposed to UV (10 mJ/mm2) emitted from a helium-cadmium laser (wavelength equals 325 nm). Sheaths were filled with autologous blood in all of 11 animals. Vasospasm developed 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) later. The CCA luminal diameter without UV irradiation was 77% of the Day 0 state. The prophylactic laser treatment reduced the development of vasospasm, 90% of the Day 0 state. Histological examination of the treated CCA revealed extended smooth muscle cells. There was no endothelial damage. These results suggest that UV is effective for prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm.

  5. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on degree of oxygenation and speed microcirculation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.

    2000-11-01

    The paper investigated in vivo the influence of low-intensity laser radiation (he-Ne laser with wavelength 0,63 nm) on the mean velocity of their movement. It is known that characteristic of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are microcirculation disturbances and disorder in rheological properties of blood. Therefore these investigations were carried out on cardiac ischemia patients. The blood perfusion valve and the mean velocity were measured by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy with the use of fiber optic cables. As the radiation source, a semiconductor laser with wavelength 780 nm (0,8 mW) was used. It has been found that, between the erythrocytes and the mean velocity of their movement there is an inverse dependence on the time of irradiation of patients.

  6. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with mexidol and low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.

  7. Triple-Junction Solar Cell Design For Low Intensity Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorenko, V.; Strobl, G. F. X.; Hoheisel, R.; Dimroth, F.; Campesato, R.; Casale, M.; Baur, C.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present the results of the electrical characterisation of triple-junction solar cells especially designed for low intensity low temperature (LILT) operation conditions. We show that by applying an appropriate choice of the front contact metallisation, by an additional passivation of the cell mesa edges and without modifying the 3G28 InGaP/InGaAs/Ge epitaxial cell structure, the appearance of the flat spot effect at LILT conditions can be practically eliminated. Analysis of the temperature behaviour of the fill factor of solar cells with optimized design show that in absence of the flat spot effect, the electrical performance of solar cells at LILT conditions is nevertheless mostly limited by tunnelling assisted current flow. For these solar cells, an average fill factor above 0.9 and an average efficiency higher than 33.5 % (at 0.037xAM0 and -120°C) are demonstrated.

  8. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment improved the rate of autograft peripheral nerve regeneration in rat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenli; Wang, Yuexiang; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Guo, Quanyi; Guo, Zhiyuan; Li, Pan; Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been widely used in clinic for the treatment of repairing pseudarthrosis, bone fractures and of healing in various soft tissues. Some reports indicated that LIPUS accelerated peripheral nerve regeneration including Schwann cells (SCs) and injured nerves. But little is known about its appropriate intensities on autograft nerves. This study was to investigate which intensity of LIPUS improved the regeneration of gold standard postsurgical nerves in experimental rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were made into 10 mm right side sciatic nerve reversed autologous nerve transplantation and randomly treated with 250 mW/cm(2), 500 mW/cm(2) or 750 mW/cm(2) LIPUS for 2-12 weeks after operation. Functional and pathological results showed that LIPUS of 250 mW/cm(2) significantly induced faster rate of axonal regeneration. This suggested that autograft nerve regeneration was improved. PMID:27102358

  9. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio; Welsch, Carsten P

    2010-10-01

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed. PMID:21034082

  10. Ultrasound with low intensity assisted the synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 without calcination.

    PubMed

    Ghows, Narjes; Entezari, Mohamad H

    2010-06-01

    A novel method has been developed for the preparation of nano-sized TiO(2) with anatase phase. Nanoparticles with diameter about 6 nm were prepared at a relatively low temperature (75 degrees C) and short time. The synthesis was carried out by the hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of water, ethanol, and dispersant under ultrasonic irradiation (500 kHz) at low intensity. The results show that variables such as water/ethanol ratio, irradiation time, and temperature have a great influence on the particle size and crystalline phases of TiO(2) nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was carried out by different techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:20382553

  11. Solar cell design for avoiding LILT degradation. [low intensity, low temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.; Ctorry, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Growing concerns about radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) performance potential, cost, safety, and availability have renewed interest in utilizing photovoltaic energy conversion for future JPL interplanetary missions such as the Mariner Mark II set. Although lightweight solar array technology has advanced to the point where it would appear to provide an alternative power source, anomalous silicon cell curve shape degradation at conditions of low intensity and low temperature (LILT) severely restricts photovoltaic applications for missions beyond 3 AU solar distance. In order to extend photovoltaic applications to distances of 5 AU, ways to minimize the deleterious impact of LILT cell degradation were investigated. These investigations have ranged from consideration of individual cell selection for LILT behavior to the examination of methods for reducing or eliminating cell LILT degradation by modifying the cell processing. Use of a partial oxide barrier between the cell n+ contacts and the silicon has been shown to reduce significantly both the occurrence and magnitude of the LILT degradation.

  12. High-power and low-intensity noise laser at 1064  nm.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, Germain; Traynor, Nicholas; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a single-frequency, narrow-linewidth (Δν<50  kHz) laser operating at 1064 nm with a high output power (50 W). The laser is based on an ytterbium-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier architecture with an output beam at the diffraction limit. An output power of 50 W is obtained with two amplification stages using a 50 mW diode laser seeder. We have carefully studied the relative intensity noise at each amplification stage. The detrimental effect due to stimulated Brillouin scattering on residual amplitude noise has been observed on the high-power booster stage. After careful optimization, this laser exhibits low intensity noise with a RMS value equal to 0.012% (1 kHz/10 MHz) at 50 W. PMID:27607967

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment improved the rate of autograft peripheral nerve regeneration in rat

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenli; Wang, Yuexiang; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Guo, Quanyi; Guo, Zhiyuan; Li, Pan; Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been widely used in clinic for the treatment of repairing pseudarthrosis, bone fractures and of healing in various soft tissues. Some reports indicated that LIPUS accelerated peripheral nerve regeneration including Schwann cells (SCs) and injured nerves. But little is known about its appropriate intensities on autograft nerves. This study was to investigate which intensity of LIPUS improved the regeneration of gold standard postsurgical nerves in experimental rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were made into 10 mm right side sciatic nerve reversed autologous nerve transplantation and randomly treated with 250 mW/cm2, 500 mW/cm2 or 750 mW/cm2 LIPUS for 2–12 weeks after operation. Functional and pathological results showed that LIPUS of 250 mW/cm2 significantly induced faster rate of axonal regeneration. This suggested that autograft nerve regeneration was improved. PMID:27102358

  14. Dasatinib and low-intensity chemotherapy in elderly patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL.

    PubMed

    Rousselot, Philippe; Coudé, Marie Magdelaine; Gokbuget, Nicola; Gambacorti Passerini, Carlo; Hayette, Sandrine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Huguet, Françoise; Leguay, Thibaut; Chevallier, Patrice; Salanoubat, Celia; Bonmati, Caroline; Alexis, Magda; Hunault, Mathilde; Glaisner, Sylvie; Agape, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Jourdan, Eric; Fernandes, José; Sutton, Laurent; Banos, Anne; Reman, Oumedaly; Lioure, Bruno; Thomas, Xavier; Ifrah, Norbert; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Bornand, Anne; Morisset, Laure; Robin, Valérie; Pfeifer, Heike; Delannoy, Andre; Ribera, Josep; Bassan, Renato; Delord, Marc; Hoelzer, Dieter; Dombret, Herve; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2016-08-11

    Prognosis of Philadelphia-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the elderly has improved during the imatinib era. We investigated dasatinib, another potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with low-intensity chemotherapy. Patients older than age 55 years were included in the European Working Group on Adult ALL (EWALL) study number 01 for Ph(+) ALL (EWALL-PH-01 international study) and were treated with dasatinib 140 mg/day (100 mg/day over 70 years) with intrathecal chemotherapy, vincristine, and dexamethasone during induction. Patients in complete remission continued consolidation with dasatinib, sequentially with cytarabine, asparaginase, and methotrexate for 6 months. Maintenance therapy was dasatinib and vincristine/dexamethasone reinductions for 18 months followed by dasatinib until relapse or death. Seventy-one patients with a median age of 69 years were enrolled; 77% had a high comorbidity score. Complete remission rate was 96% and 65% of patients achieved a 3-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels during consolidation. Only 7 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At 5 years, overall survival was 36% and up to 45% taking into account deaths unrelated to disease or treatment as competitors. Thirty-six patients relapsed, 24 were tested for mutation by Sanger sequencing, and 75% were T315I-positive. BCR-ABL1(T315I) was tested by allele-specific oligonucleotide reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 43 patients and detection was associated with short-term relapses. Ten patients (23%) were positive before any therapy and 8 relapsed, all with this mutation. In conclusion, dasatinib combined with low-intensity chemotherapy was well-tolerated and gave long-term survival in 36% of elderly patients with Ph(+) ALL. Monitoring of BCR-ABL1(T315I) from diagnosis identified patients with at high risk of early relapse and may help to personalize therapy. PMID:27121472

  15. Final report on pilot comparison of low intensity shock APMP.AUV.V-P1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Hu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report for pilot comparison APMP.AUV.V-P1 in the area of low-intensity 'shock', which in this case means monopole and dipole shock acceleration. The aim of this comparison was to measure the shock voltage sensitivity of one Accelerometer Chain with primary means under monopole shock excitation in the acceleration range from 500 m/s2 to 5 000 m/s2, and under dipole shock excitation with the reference acceleration of 1000 m/s2 and pulse duration from 0.03 ms to 2.0 ms. Four laboratories with primary shock calibration capability have participated in the comparison with National Institute of Metrology, P R China as pilot lab. One standard accelerometer of back-to-back type with a charge amplifier (Accelerometer Chain) was circulated among the participants. The pilot comparison reference values have been calculated using the weighted mean value of the results. The degrees of equivalence calculated from the data submitted by the four laboratories, support the uncertainty of measurement reported by them for the calibration of the shock sensitivities of accelerometer. At the reference acceleration of 1 000 m/s2 and pulse duration of 2 ms (specified in ISO 16063-13:2001), the participating laboratories calibrated the Accelerometer Chain with their claimed relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2), the smallest of which equal to 0.5%, i.e. smaller than the limit specified by the ISO standard. The completion of APMP.AUV.V-P1 can serve as part of the basis for a planned key comparison targeted at low intensity shock range at CC level. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV.

  16. Protective effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on aluminum-induced cerebral damage in Alzheimer's disease rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Ran-Chou; Lu, Wen-Wei; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yang, Feng-Yi

    2015-04-01

    The protein expressions of neurotrophic factors can be enhanced by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation in the brain. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the protective effect of LIPUS stimulation against aluminum-induced cerebral damage in Alzheimer's disease rat model. LIPUS was administered 7 days before each aluminum chloride (AlCl3) administration, and concomitantly given with AlCl3 daily for a period of 6 weeks. Neurotrophic factors in hippocampus were measured by western blot analysis. Behavioral changes in the Morris water maze and elevated plus maze were examined in rats after administration of AlCl3. Various biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the extent of brain damages. LIPUS is capable of prompting levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat brain. AlCl3 administration resulted in a significant increase in the aluminum concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity and beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in AlCl3 treated rats. LIPUS stimulation significantly attenuated aluminum concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity, Aβ deposition and karyopyknosis in AlCl3 treated rats. Furthermore, LIPUS significantly improved memory retention in AlCl3-induced memory impairment. These experimental results indicate that LIPUS has neuroprotective effects against AlCl3-induced cerebral damages and cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Protective effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on aluminum-induced cerebral damage in Alzheimer's disease rat model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Ran-Chou; Lu, Wen-Wei; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yang, Feng-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The protein expressions of neurotrophic factors can be enhanced by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation in the brain. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the protective effect of LIPUS stimulation against aluminum-induced cerebral damage in Alzheimer's disease rat model. LIPUS was administered 7 days before each aluminum chloride (AlCl3) administration, and concomitantly given with AlCl3 daily for a period of 6 weeks. Neurotrophic factors in hippocampus were measured by western blot analysis. Behavioral changes in the Morris water maze and elevated plus maze were examined in rats after administration of AlCl3. Various biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the extent of brain damages. LIPUS is capable of prompting levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat brain. AlCl3 administration resulted in a significant increase in the aluminum concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity and beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in AlCl3 treated rats. LIPUS stimulation significantly attenuated aluminum concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity, Aβ deposition and karyopyknosis in AlCl3 treated rats. Furthermore, LIPUS significantly improved memory retention in AlCl3-induced memory impairment. These experimental results indicate that LIPUS has neuroprotective effects against AlCl3-induced cerebral damages and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25873429

  18. Advances in ambulatory monitoring: regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Buckles, David; Aguel, Felipe; Brockman, Randall; Cheng, James; Demian, Cindy; Ho, Charles; Jensen, Donald; Mallis, Elias

    2004-01-01

    Conventional ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) (Holter) monitoring involves 2 or 3 surface leads recorded with electrode positions and signal characteristics that are different from diagnostic quality 12-lead ECGs due to the limitations imposed by technology on the ambulatory recorders. The rapid pace of technological development for medical devices, particularly electrocardiography, has now enabled the recording of diagnostic quality 12-lead ECG waveforms for extended time periods. This capability allows Holter recording to become another source for diagnostic 12-lead ECG records on a par with other modalities such as resting ECG and exercise stress testing. Additionally, other diagnostic techniques such as S-T segment analysis and Q-T interval analysis that rely on diagnostic quality waveforms can now be applied. All of these enhancements to the traditional Holter modality have altered the regulatory perspective of these devices, since the enhancements may represent a new intended use for the device. PMID:15534803

  19. Equine ambulatory practice: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ramey, David W

    2012-04-01

    Current economic conditions make the practice of equine medicine challenging, to say the least. The downward trend in the US economy has had a huge impact on horse owners and equine veterinarians alike. Horses are expensive to keep; as such, economics are the driving factor in the problem of the unwanted horse. Under these conditions, efficient equine ambulatory practices are well-suited to weather the economic storm. As contributors to this issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America note, one can practice high-quality medicine and surgery without the overhead and expense of a large clinic. Ambulatory practitioners certainly face formidable challenges, but they also have opportunities to establish and secure a good future. PMID:22640575

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fixler, D E; Wallace, J M; Thornton, W E; Dimmitt, P

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to identify youths with chronic blood pressure elevation. Nineteen adolescent boys were studied, ten had 5-year average systolic or diastolic pressures above the 95th percentile, nine had normal pressure. A Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer III system recorded an average of 121 readings on each subject. The coefficients of variation for pressure were similar for hypertensive and normotensive individuals. During classes, eight of the ten hypertensive youths had elevated pressures in over half of the measurements. Also during these classes eight of ten hypertensive boys had average systolic or diastolic pressure above the 95th percentile, whereas only one of nine normotensive boys had average pressures above this level. We suggest that schooltime ambulatory pressures may be most useful in classifying the blood pressure trend in a youth. PMID:2346634

  1. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  2. Psychophysiological ambulatory assessment of affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Welch, Stacy S; Grossman, Paul; Reisch, Thomas; Linehan, Marsha M; Bohus, Martin

    2007-04-15

    Many experts now believe that pervasive problems in affect regulation constitute the central area of dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, data is sparse and inconclusive. We hypothesized that patients with BPD, in contrast to healthy gender and nationality-matched controls, show a higher frequency and intensity of self-reported emotions, altered physiological indices of emotions, more complex emotions and greater problems in identifying specific emotions. We took a 24-hour psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring approach to investigate affect regulation during everyday life in 50 patients with BPD and in 50 healthy controls. To provide a typical and unmanipulated sample, we included only patients who were currently in treatment and did not alter their medication schedule. BPD patients reported more negative emotions, fewer positive emotions, and a greater intensity of negative emotions. A subgroup of non-medicated BPD patients manifested higher values of additional heart rate. Additional heart rate is that part of a heart rate increase that does not directly result from metabolic activity, and is used as an indicator of emotional reactivity. Borderline participants were more likely to report the concurrent presence of more than one emotion, and those patients who just started treatment in particular had greater problems in identifying specific emotions. Our findings during naturalistic ambulatory assessment support emotional dysregulation in BPD as defined by the biosocial theory of [Linehan, M.M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guildford Press, New York.] and suggest the potential utility for evaluating treatment outcome. PMID:17321599

  3. [25 years of organized ambulatory heart sport in Luxembourg. The development of a sustained rehabilitation model].

    PubMed

    Delagardelle, Charles; Feiereisen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    After Second World War cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially coronary artery disease (CAD), turned out to be an epidemic in the western countries including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, and accounted for nearly half of all deaths. A lot of strategies, among them treatment by physical activity, were developed to fight this challenge and, fortunately, a mortality regression of about 50 % could be achieved. Nowadays, eastern European countries and, more recently, China and India face an increasing CVD mortality. During the seventies ambulatory heart sport clubs, then labeled as, "coronary clubs" became very popular in Europe especially in West-Germany. Around 2000 there were more than 6000 heart sports groups in Germany. In 1984 a first group was founded in Luxembourg City (Centre) a, 1991 a second group started in Esch/Alzette (South) and in 2002 a third regional group in Ettelbruck (North) so that, by now, the 3 main public health districts of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg can offer regular ambulatory sports activities to almost all concerned cardiac patients in the country. The ambulatory heart sport groups of Luxembourg cooperate in a federated association allowing an integrated logistic organization. Since the beginning nineties cardiac rehabilitation became a field of interest to the university faculties and later of scientific societies, like the American Heart Association (AHA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). New subgroups were founded and guidelines were published and renewed. The movement of ambulatory heart sport groups was more or less neglected in the prevention and rehabilitation activities of the scientific societies. Recently the ESC proposed a new definition of comprehensive CVD prevention and rehabilitation programmes as "coordinated, multifaceted interventions designed to optimize a cardiac patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning, in addition to stabilizing, slowing, or even reversing the progression of the

  4. Effects of low intensity noise from aircraft or from neighbourhood on cognitive learning and electrophysiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Michael; Atzlsdorfer, Jürgen; Tupy, Nina; Trimmel, Karin

    2012-11-01

    The effects of low intensity noise on cognitive learning and autonomous physiological processes are of high practical relevance but are rarely addressed in empirical investigations. This study investigated the impact of neighbourhood noise (of 45 dB[A], n=20) and of noise coming from passing aircraft (of 48 dB[A] peak amplitude presented once per minute; n=19) during computer based learning of different texts (with three types of text structure, i.e. linear text, hierarchic hypertext, and network hypertext) in relation to a control group (35 dB[A], n=20). Using a between subjects design, reproduction scores, heart rate, and spontaneous skin conductance fluctuations were compared. Results showed impairments of reproduction in both noise conditions. Additionally, whereas in the control group and the neighbourhood noise group scores were better for network hypertext structure than for hierarchic hypertext, no effect of text structure on reproduction appeared in the aircraft noise group. Compared to the control group, for most of the learning period the number of spontaneous skin conductance fluctuations was higher for the aircraft noise group. For the neighbourhood noise group, fluctuations were higher during pre- and post task periods when noise stimulation was still present. Additionally, during the last 5 min of the 15 min learning period, an increased heart rate was found in the aircraft noise group. Data indicate remarkable cognitive and physiological effects of low intensity background noise. Some aspects of reproduction were impaired in the two noise groups. Cognitive learning, as indicated by reproduction scores, was changed structurally in the aircraft noise group and was accompanied by higher sympathetic activity. An additional cardiovascular load appeared for aircraft noise when combined with time pressure as indicated by heart rate for the announced last 5 min of the learning period during aircraft noise with a peak SPL of even 48 dB(A). Attentional

  5. The evolution of ambulatory ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Harold L

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has undergone continuous technological evolution since its invention and development in the 1950s era. With commercial introduction in 1963, there has been an evolution of Holter recorders from 1 channel to 12 channel recorders with increasingly smaller storage media, and there has evolved Holter analysis systems employing increasingly technologically advanced electronics providing a myriad of data displays. This evolution of smaller physical instruments with increasing technological capacity has characterized the development of electronics over the past 50 years. Currently the technology has been focused upon the conventional continuous 24 to 48 hour ambulatory ECG examination, and conventional extended ambulatory monitoring strategies for infrequent to rare arrhythmic events. However, the emergence of the Internet, Wi-Fi, cellular networks, and broad-band transmission has positioned these modalities at the doorway of the digital world. This has led to an adoption of more cost-effective strategies to these conventional methods of performing the examination. As a result, the emergence of the mobile smartphone coupled with this digital capacity is leading to the recent development of Holter smartphone applications. The potential of point-of-care applications utilizing the Holter smartphone and a vast array of new non-invasive sensors is evident in the not too distant future. The Holter smartphone is anticipated to contribute significantly in the future to the field of global health. PMID:24215744

  6. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J.; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm2 intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  7. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm(2) intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  8. Effect of low-intensity focused ultrasound on the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kanako; Hirano, Takashi; Noda, Kenji; Kodama, Satoru; Ichimiya, Issei; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesized that low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) increases vessel permeability and antibacterial drug activity in the mouse middle ear. We determined appropriate settings by applying LIFU to mouse ears with the external auditory canal filled with normal saline and performed histologic and immunohistologic examination. Acute otitis media was induced in mice with nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, and they were given ampicillin (50, 10, or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days with or without LIFU (1.0 W/cm(2), 20% duty cycle, 30 s). In the LIFU(+) groups receiving the 2- and 10-mg/kg doses, viable bacteria counts, number of inflammatory cells and IL-1β and TNF-α levels in middle ear effusion were significantly lower than in the LIFU(-) groups on the same doses. Severity of AOM also tended to be reduced more in the LIFU(+) groups than in the LIFU(-) groups. LIFU application with antibiotics may be effective for middle ear infection. PMID:23312959

  9. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound produced an increase of osteogenic genes expression during the process of bone healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Fávaro-Pípi, Elaine; Bossini, Paulo; de Oliveira, Poliani; Ribeiro, Juliana Uema; Tim, Carla; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Alves, Jose Marcos; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Selistre de Araújo, Heloísa Sobreiro; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal expression of osteogenic genes during the process of bone healing in low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treated bone defects by means of histopathologic and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Animals were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 30): control group (bone defect without treatment) and LIPUS treated (bone defect treated with LIPUS). On days 7, 13 and 25 postinjury, 10 rats per group were sacrificed. Rats were treated with a 30 mW/cm(2) LIPUS. The results pointed out intense new bone formation surrounded by highly vascularized connective tissue presenting a slight osteogenic activity, with primary bone deposition was observed in the group exposed to LIPUS in the intermediary (13 days) and late stages of repair (25 days) in the treated animals. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed an upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), osteocalcin and Runx2 genes 7 days after the surgery. In the intermediary period, there was no increase in the expression. The expression of alkaline phosphatase, BMP4 and Runx2 was significantly increased at the last period. Our results indicate that LIPUS therapy improves bone repair in rats and upregulated osteogenic genes, mainly at the late stages of recovery. PMID:20950932

  10. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  11. Low intensity ultrasonic vibration amplitude as a tool for characterisation water stable soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentler, Axel; Schomakers, Jasmin; Mayer, Herwig

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasonic dispersion of soil aggregates is a useful method to determine soil aggregate stability. Commercially available ultrasonic devices, however, operate at relatively high ultrasonic power, which hampers the analysis of less stable aggregates. Ultrasonic power is controlled in these devices with rather low accuracy and is used for correlation with the process of soil disaggregation. Self-developed ultrasonic equipment remedies these shortcomings by using low intensity ultrasonic vibrations. The vibration amplitude rather than the ultrasonic power is used to control the magnitude of loading in the dispersion experiment. Under well-defined geometrical conditions, the vibration amplitude strongly correlates with the magnitude of the acoustic pressure waves emitted into the fluid that cause disaggregation of soil particles. Samples of aggregates 2 000 - 250 μm of a degraded loamy silt chernozem, a loamy clay cambisol and a loamy sand cambisol had been collected under different tillage regimes in Austria: conventional tillage (CT) with mechanical weed control, reduced tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT) with inter cropping in winter. The cavitation threshold of gas saturated de-ionized water was determined at an ultrasonic vibration amplitude of 0.5-0.6 µm at 20 kHz frequency (acoustic pressure 0.9-1.1 bar) with a diode array spectrophotometer. Subsequent experiments were performed near this limit to be able to characterize weakly aggregated soils. Measuring soil aggregate stability (SAS) according to DIN norm showed greater aggregate stability of cambisol than of chernozem, however, could hardly show influences of tillage. Better results were obtained with the USAS (ultrasound soil aggregate stability) method, which on the one hand validated the SAS results. On the other hand it was possible to show an influence of soil tillage on aggregate stability, which significantly decreased from NT to RT and to CT for both soil types. The measurements correlated with total

  12. 76 FR 66929 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; The American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Approval of Deeming Authority for Rural... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for recognition as a... of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF's) request for deeming authority for RHCs. This notice...

  13. Mechanisms of soil aggregate failure by rapid increase in internal gas pressure during low-intensity burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berli, M.

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of low-intensity natural and managed fire is on the rise, especially in the arid and semi-arid parts of the U.S. Southwest. Yet, there is little understanding of the ramifications of such burns on soil characteristics and their associated ecological processes. In particular, effects of low-intensity fires on soil structure have generally been ignored because such fires have little effect on soil organic matter. Recently, we showed that soil aggregates subjected to rapid low-intensity heating (<200°C) deteriorate more than aggregates subjected to the same temperature but at slow heating rate. We hypothesized that rapid heating rate results in high internal gas pressure due to vaporization of pore water that exerts disruptive mechanical stress that exceeds the internal strength of the aggregates. Here, we present in situ measurements of gas pressure of aggregates subjected to low-intensity burns. We compared a wide range of aggregate wetness and temperature levels. In addition, we report direct visualization of aggregate breakdown during rapid gas expansion using dynamic environment scanning electron microscopy. Our observation to date show that the interior gas pressure of moist aggregates rise rapidly to 1.5-4kPa, whereas the pressure inside dry aggregates remain unchanged during rapid heating. These observations show that weakly aggregated soils of arid and semi-arid regions are very vulnerable to low-intensity burns.

  14. Biochemical responses of isolated lung CSCs after application of low intensity laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Crous, Anine

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that using high fluences of Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (HF-LILI) produce apoptotic effects on normal and neoplastic cells. This study aimed to determine whether HF-LILI induce cell death in lung CSCs. Lung CSCs were isolated using the stem cell marker CD 133, characterized using flow cytometry, and applied in experiments which included treatment with LILI at wavelengths of 636, 825 and 1060 nm with fluences ranging from 5 J/cm2 to 40 J/cm2. Viability and proliferation studies, using Alamar blue assay and adenosine triphosphate luminescence (ATP), indicated an increase when treating lung CSCs with low fluences of 5 - 20 J/cm2 and a decrease in viability and proliferation as well as an increase in apoptosis when applying a fluence of 40 J/cm2 indicated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) dyes. Results indicate that LILI, when treating lung CSCs, can induce either a bio-stimulatory or bio-inhibitory effect depending on the wavelength and fluence used. This study indicated successful apoptotic induction of lung CSCs. Future experiments should be able to conclude the exact mechanism behind HF-LILI, which can be used in the targeted treatments of CSC elimination, implementing HF-LILI in the same manner as PDT in the absence of a photosensitizer.

  15. Mode & mechanism of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew; Lin, Sheldon; Pounder, Neill; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    It has been 30years since the first level one clinical trial demonstrated low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) could accelerate fracture repair. Since 1994 numerous investigations have been performed on the effect of LIPUS. The majority of these studies have used the same signal parameters comprised of an intensity of 30mW/cm(2) SATA, an ultrasound carrier frequency of 1.5MHz, pulsed at 1kHz with an exposure time of 20minutes per day. These studies show that a biological response is stimulated in the cell which produces bioactive molecules. The production of these molecules, linked with observations demonstrating the enhanced effects on mineralization by LIPUS, might be considered the general manner, or mode, of how LIPUS stimulates fractures to heal. We propose a mechanism for how the LIPUS signal can enhance fracture repair by combining the findings of numerous studies. The LIPUS signal is transmitted through tissue to the bone, where cells translate this mechanical signal to a biochemical response via integrin mechano-receptors. The cells enhance the production of cyclo-oxygenese 2 (COX-2) which in turn stimulates molecules to enhance fracture repair. The aim of this review is to present the state of the art data related to LIPUS effects and mechanism. PMID:27130989

  16. Low intensity exercise does not impact cognitive function during exposure to normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Seo, Yongsuk; Peacock, Corey; Gunstad, John; Muller, Matthew D; Ridgel, Angela L; Glickman, Ellen L

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to hypoxia is associated with cognitive impairment, mediated by cerebral deoxygenation. This can be problematic for individuals who perform mental tasks at high altitude. Eight healthy men completed two experimental trials consisting of 5h of exposure to normobaric hypoxia (12.5% O2). In one of the experimental trials (Hypoxia) subjects remained resting in a seated position the entire 5h; in the other experimental trial (Hypoxia and Exercise) subjects rested 2h, cycled for 1h at constant wattage (workload equivalent to 50% of altitude adjusted VO2max), then rested the last 2h. Cerebral oxygenation was measured continuously via near-infrared spectroscopy and cognitive performance was assessed by Trail Making Test A and B. Cerebral oxygenation and cognitive performance both were impaired during exposure to hypoxia. In the Hypoxia and Exercise trial, subjects experienced further declinations in cerebral oxygenation without concomitant decreases in cognitive function. These data demonstrate that cognitive function declines during exposure to normobaric hypoxia and this decline is not exacerbated by low intensity exercise. PMID:26160408

  17. Biomolecular Effects of Low-Intensity Ultrasound: Apoptosis, Sonotransfection, and Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feril, Loreto B.; Kondo, Takashi; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Ryohei; Zhao, Qing-Li; Nozaki, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Toru; Kudo, Nobuki; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2007-07-01

    Biological effects of low-intensity ultrasound (US) focusing on US-induced programmed cell death (apoptosis), regulation of gene expression, and US-mediated gene transfection (sonotransfection) are reviewed. Studies have shown that US can induce apoptosis and that certain conditions can provide an optimal apoptosis induction. Sonotransfection of different cell lines in vitro and target tissues in vivo have been reported. Several genes can also be up-regulated or down-regulated by sonication. As to the potential therapeutic applications, apoptosis induction by US may induce direct and fast ways of treating tumor or cancer tissues. Systemic or local sonotransfection might also be a safe and effective gene therapy method in effecting the cure of local and systemic disorders. Gene regulation of target cells may be utilized in modifying cellular response to a treatment, such as increasing the sensitivity of diseased cells while making normal cells resistant to the side effects of the treatment. In addition, gene regulation by US may also play an important part in the enhanced healing of damaged tissues.

  18. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates nerve regeneration following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mai; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Masamichi; Iwata, Koichi; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, which is frequently caused by orofacial surgery or trauma, induces sensory loss in orofacial regions innervated by the IAN. However, no effective treatment for orofacial sensory loss currently exists. We determined whether sensory loss in facial skin above the mental foramen following IAN transection was recovered by exposure of the transected IAN to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX) was performed in 7-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. On day 7 after IANX, the effect of daily LIPUS (from day 0) on the transected IAN, in terms of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, was examined. Moreover, the number of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the facial skin above the mental foramen of rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS was counted using the retrograde neurotracing technique. Daily exposure of the transected IAN to LIPUS significantly promoted recovery of the head-withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation of the facial skin above the mental foramen, and the number of TG neurons innervating the facial skin above mental foramen was significantly increased in rats with IANX treated daily with LIPUS compared with sham or LIPUS-unexposed rats. Daily treatment of stumps of the transected IAN with LIPUS facilitated morphological and functional regeneration, suggesting that LIPUS is an effective and novel therapy for IAN injury. PMID:27058986

  19. Characterization of indium tin oxide surfaces and interfaces using low intensity x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Y.; Lyon, J. E.; Beerbom, M. M.; Schlaf, R.

    2006-11-01

    Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopic (UPS) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopic (XPS) characterizations of indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces prepared in ambient environment significantly lower the work function of the ITO surface. This artifact complicates the investigation of ITO surfaces and interfaces using XPS and UPS. The presented results demonstrate that, while the exposure of the sample surface to standard UPS UV sources results in a reduction of the work function within a second or less, XPS measurements show a more gradual work function change over the course of hundreds of seconds. This allowed the design of a measurement protocol based on low intensity x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy work function measurements, which do not cause significant work function changes during the exposure time needed for characterization. Applying this technique, the orbital lineup between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the valence and conduction bands of ITO were determined. The results indicate that it is appropriate to describe the ITO/P3HT junction as semiconductor heterojunction, and that hole injection most likely occurs between ITO conduction band minimum and P3HT HOMO.

  20. Human Response to Low-Intensity Sonic Booms Heard Indoors and Outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph D.; McCurdy, David A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Test subjects seated inside and outside a house were exposed to low-intensity N-wave sonic booms during a 3-week test period in June 2006- The house was instrumented to measure the booms both inside and out. F-18 aircraft were flown to achieve a variety of boom overpressures from approximately .1 to .6 psf During four test days, seventy-seven test subjects heard the booms while seated inside and outside the house. Using the Magnitude Estimation methodology and artificial reference sounds ; the subjects rated the annoyance of the booms. Since the same subjects heard similar booms both inside and outside the house, comparative ratings of indoor and outdoor annoyance were obtained. For a given metric level, indoor subjects gave higher annoyance scores than outdoor subjects. For a given boom; annoyance scores inside were on average the same as those outside. In a post-test questionnaire, the majority of subjects rated the indoor booms as more annoying than the outdoor ones. These results are discussed in this paper.

  1. The effect of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound in induced fracture of rat tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Teixeira, Renato da Costa; de Oliveira, Antônio Jorge Barbosa; Pontes, Roberto Waldesmand Farias; de Barros, Rui Sérgio Monteiro; Negrão, José Nazareno Cunha

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible effects of low-intensity ultrasound on induced tibia fracture of rats in a dose commonly used in physical therapy treatments. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups with 10 animals each. In the ultrasound group (USG), the animals were submitted to bone fracture and treatment with therapeutic ultrasound (TUS). Ultrasonic parameters are: frequency of 1.0 MHz, intensity of 0.2 W/cm2, pulsed mode at 20%, applied in stationary form during 10 minutes on the fracture region, for five weeks. The control group (CG) was submitted to bone fracture but not treated with ultrasound. RESULTS: The radiographies showed better consolidation in USG compared to CG. The statistical tests for alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium did not show significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: According to this study, TUS, applied with these parameters (not commonly used for bone therapy) accelerates bone healing, confirmed by radiography, yet the biochemical analysis was not conclusive. One reason for this inconsistency may have been some inadequacy of the biochemical protocol, currently under investigation. Level of Evidence II, Prospective comparative study. PMID:24453637

  2. Ash production and dispersal from sustained low-intensity Mono-Inyo eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael; Andrews, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Recent rhyolitic volcanism has demonstrated that prolonged low-intensity ash venting may accompany effusive dome formation. We examine the possibility and some consequences of episodes of extended, weak ash venting at the rhyolitic Mono-Inyo chain in Eastern California. We describe ash-filled cracks within one of the youngest domes, Panum Crater, which provide a textural record of ash venting during dome effusion. We use synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography to characterize the particles in these tuffisites. Particle sizes in well-sorted tuffisite layers agree well with grain size distributions observed during weak ash venting at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and yield approximate upper and lower bounds on gas velocity and mass flux during the formation of those layers. We simulate ash dispersal with Ash3d to assess the consequences of long-lived Mono-Inyo ash venting for ash deposition and the accompanying volcanic hazards. Our results highlight the sensitivity of large-scale outcomes of volcanic eruptions to small-scale processes.

  3. Chronic exposure to pulsed low-intensity microwaves is carcinogenic and tumorogenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2004-03-01

    To study health effects of lifetime exposure to low-intensity pulsed radiation >890 MHz, one controlled laboratory study of SPF* rats[1-3] and two of mice[4,5] were conducted, but only one[4] reported that its data showed an association between irradiation and cancer; reports of the other two studies minimized or denied such association. Critical review of these identified data evaluation errors; their correction enables a conclusion of microwave carcinogenicity from each study (the rat study also shows an association with endocrine-system primary malignancies and with a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla), enhancing the credibility of an epidemiological study[6] reporting a brain cancer risk for users of both analog and digital cellular phones. [1] J. Raloff. Science News 126(7):103(1984). [2] K. R. Foster & A. W. Guy. Sci Am 255(3):32-39(1986). [3] C.-K. Chou et al. Bioelectromagnetics 13:469-496(1992). [4] M. H. Repacholi et al. Radiat Res 147:631-640(1990)SPF\\. [5] T. D. Utteridge et al. Radiat Res 158:357-364(2002)non-SPF\\. [6] L. Hardell et al. Int J Oncol 22:399-407(2003). * SPF = specific-pathogen-free

  4. Design of a compact Faraday cup for low energy, low intensity ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantero, E. D.; Sosa, A.; Andreazza, W.; Bravin, E.; Lanaia, D.; Voulot, D.; Welsch, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Beam intensity is one of the key parameters in particle accelerators, in particular during machine commissioning, but also during operation for experiments. At low beam energies and low intensities a number of challenges arise in its measurement as commonly used non-invasive devices are no longer sensitive enough. It then becomes necessary to stop the beam in order to measure its absolute intensity. A very compact Faraday cup for determining ion beam currents from a few nanoamperes down to picoamperes for the HIE-ISOLDE post-accelerator at CERN has been designed, built and tested with beam. It has a large aperture diameter of 30 mm and a total length of only 16 mm, making it one of the most compact designs ever used. In this paper we present the different steps that were involved in the design and optimization of this device, including beam tests with two early prototypes and the final monitor. We also present an analysis of the losses caused by secondary particle emission for different repelling electrode voltages and beam energies. Finally, we show that results obtained from an analytical model for electron loss probability combined with Monte Carlo simulations of particles trajectories provide a very good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Microcirculation In Diabetic Neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battecha, Kadria H.; Atya, Azza M.

    2011-09-01

    Reduced microcirculation is a morbid element of neuropathy and one of the most common complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Many physical modalities have gained a considerable attention for enhancing cutaneous microcirculation in diabetic patients and prevent its serious complications. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to compare between the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on microcirculation in diabetic neuropathy. Thirty diabetic polyneuropathic patients ranged in age from 45-60 years participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received LILT on plantar surface of foot with a dose of 3 J/cm2 and wavelength (904 nm), while those in group (B) received TENS on lower leg for 30 minutes with frequency (2 HZ). Treatment was conducted 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by Laser Doppler flowmetry at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results revealed that group (A) showed statistically significant increase in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with group (B). So, it was concluded that LILT has to be more efficient than TENS in increasing cutaneous microcirculation in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  6. Effects of low intensity laser irradiation during healing of infected skin lesions in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, Ethne L.; Lilge, Lothar; Mazzulli, Tony; Pritzker, Kenneth P.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) on healing of infected skin wounds in the rat. Methods: Wounds on the dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (14 per group) were inoculated or sham-inoculated with P. aeruginosa. Wounds were irradiated or sham-irradiated three times weekly from Day 1-19 using 635nm or 808nm diode lasers at radiant exposure of 1 or 20 J/cm2 delivered in continuous wave (CW) or at an intensity modulation frequency of 3800Hz. Wound area and bacterial growth were evaluated three times weekly. Results: CW 808 nm (1 and 20 J/cm2) irradiation generally delayed healing in acute wounds. However, from Day 10 onwards CW 808 nm (1 J/cm2 and 20 J/cm2) and 808 nm 3800 Hz (1 J/cm2) irradiation improved healing in inoculated wounds. Healing in acute wounds improved using 635 nm irradiation at low radiant exposure (1 J/cm2); however, using 635 nm irradiation at high radiant exposure (20 J/cm2) delayed healing. Bacterial balance in wounds was significantly altered using 635 nm (20 J/cm2) and CW 808 nm irradiation (1 and 20 J/cm2). Conclusion: Clearing wounds of normal flora was not associated with improved healing. Proliferation of staphylococcal species in wounds was associated with delayed healing.

  7. Nanomaterials and synergistic low intensity direct current (LIDC) stimulation technology for orthopaedic implantable medical devices

    PubMed Central

    Samberg, Meghan E.; Cohen, Paul H.; Wysk, Richard A.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials play a significant role in biomedical research and applications due to their unique biological, mechanical, and electrical properties. In recent years, they have been utilised to improve the functionality and reliability of a wide range of implantable medical devices ranging from well-established orthopaedic residual hardware devices (e.g. hip implants) that can repair defects in skeletal systems to emerging tissue engineering scaffolds that can repair or replace organ functions. This review summarizes the applications and efficacies of these nanomaterials that include synthetic or naturally occurring metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites in orthopaedic implants, the largest market segment of implantable medical devices. The importance of synergistic engineering techniques that can augment or enhance the performance of nanomaterial applications in orthopaedic implants is also discussed,, the focus being on a low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) stimulation technology to promote the long-term antibacterial efficacy of oligodynamic metal-based surfaces by ionization, while potentially accelerating tissue growth and osseointegration. While many nanomaterials have clearly demonstrated their ability to provide more effective implantable medical surfaces, further decisive investigations are necessary before they can translate into medically safe and commercially viable clinical applications. The paper concludes with a discussion about some of the critical impending issues with the application of nanomaterials-based technologies in implantable medical devices, and potential directions to address these. PMID:23335493

  8. Low intensity-pulsed ultrasound induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingfang; Liu, Bangzhong; Liu, Guanghua; Wang, Ping; Yang, Mingzhen; Li, Yun; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether low intensity-pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) could induce apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, SMMC-7721, and to define the mechanism of ultrasound-induced apoptosis, in vitro. MTT assay was used to measure cell proliferation. Apoptosis was investigated by multiple methods such as flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, Ca(2+) mobilizations, pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expression, and light as well as ultramicroscopic morphology. The results provide evidence that LIPUS induced a dose-dependent effect on cell viability and apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Specifically, exposure of cells to >0.5 W/cm(2) intensity significantly increased cell apoptosis, caused shifts in cell cycle phase, and induced structural changes. Ultrasound significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and modulated expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. The findings suggest that this novel technology can be used to induce SMMC-7721 apoptosis via the Ca(2+)/mitochondrial pathway and could potentially be of clinical use for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721 cell line) and other cancers. PMID:26231998

  9. Tests of a single-wire drift chamber for possible use in low intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-02-01

    A single cell drift chamber with two dimensional readout has been evaluated as a candidate for reliable and inexpensive momentum tagging of low intensity calibration beams. Charges induced on shaped cathode pads allow a measurement of the coordinate parallel to the wire, while the drift time allows a measurement of the coordinate perpendicular to the wire. Two chamber orientations were used during the tests. In one the chambers were arranged with their wires parallel. In this case the intrinsic resolution of the chambers was measured; the top and bottom cells were used to define a track coordinate and this was compared to the coordinate in the middle chamber. To see if either of the two coordinate measurements is linear in real space, the chambers were rearranged to the second orientation, with the middle chamber rotated 90/sup 0/. The drift time was plotted against the charge ratio. The conclusion drawn from this study is that while the drift time measurement has adequate resolution, the charge ratio measurement is not a viable option for beam line use. (LEW)

  10. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Ankur; Kittur, Nandan; Kumbhojkar, Vinayak; Keluskar, Kanhoba Mahabaleshwar; Dahiya, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) can be utilized for different treatments in the field of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LILT on (1) the rate of canine movement during canine retraction phase and (2) evaluate the radiographic changes occurring during LILT around the irradiated area. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients of both genders were included for this study. One quadrant of the upper arch was considered control group (CG) and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth with 150 g. The opposite quadrant received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode emitting light (gallium-arsenide laser) at 904 nm, for 10 s at 12 mW, at 4.2 J/cm2. Laser application was done on 1st day, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21th, 28th, 35th, 42nd, 49th, 56th day respectively during the canine retraction phase. Distance was measured on 1st day, 35th day and 63rd day and appliance activation was done on 1st and 35th day. Results were analyzed using t-test with the significance level set at P < 0.01. Results: Mean value obtained from 1st to 63rd day was 3.30 ± 2.36 mm for CG and 3.53 ± 2.30 mm for laser group (LG). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth movement during canine retraction between the LG and the CG. There was no evidence of any pathologic changes in the radiograph following LILT. PMID:25225562