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Sample records for low-ion qso absorption-line

  1. The low-ion QSO absorption-line systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzetta, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Various techniques are used to investigate the class of QSO absorption-line systems that exhibit low-ion absorption lines. Four separate investigations are conducted as follows: Spectroscopy of 32 QSOs at red wavelengths is presented and used to investigate intermediate-redshift MgII absorption. A total of 22 Mg II doublets are detected, from which properties of the Mg II absorbers are derived. Marginal evidence for intrinsic evolution of the number density of the Mg II absorbers with redshift is found. The data are combined with previous observations of C IV and C II seen in the same QSOs at blue wavelengths, and the properties of Mg II- and C IV-selected systems are compared. A sample is constructed of 129 QSOs for which are available published data suitable for detecting absorption-line systems that are optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation. A total of 53 such Lyman-limit systems are found, from which properties of the Lyman-limit systems are derived. It is found that the rate of incidence of the systems does not strongly evolved with redshift. This result is contrasted with the evolution found previously for systems selected on the basis of Mg II absorption. Spectroscopy at red wavelengths of eight QSOs with known damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems is presented. Spectroscopic and spectrophotometric observations aimed at detecting molecular hydrogen and dust in the z = 2.796 damped Ly{alpha} absorber toward Q1337 + 113 are presented.

  2. Abundances in 8 QSO Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauroesch, James Thomas

    1995-01-01

    An analysis is given of high resolution observations of metal-absorption line systems in the spectra of 4 QSOs made with the echelle spectrograph on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. High spectral -resolution (9 to 18 km cdot s^{ -1}) observations were obtained for the QSOs S5 0014 + 813, H 0913 + 072, B2 1225 + 317, and HS 1946 + 7658; column densities were derived for the heavy element line systems. Abundances and/or abundance ratios have been determined for 8 systems and a variety of H I column densities in the redshift range 1-3.4 are probed. The systems studies are generally relatively poor in heavy elements, and appear to be similar in heavy element abundances to the gas out of which the Galactic halo stars of similar metallicity formed. Indications of the halo star-abundance sample include the observed ratios of (N/Si), (Al/Si), and (Mn/Fe). The existence of associated H II regions is inferred for a number of damped systems, and it is suggested that the possibly significant amount of gas in H II regions in damped Lyman-alpha systems can be constrained by the comparison of the column densities of O I, N I, N II, Si II, and S II in these systems. The ratio of N(Al II)/N(Al III) is shown to be a poor indicator of the amount of ionized gas in some cases. The abundances of Si as determined from N(Si II)/N(H I) suggest that there is a relatively rapid decrease in abundances in these systems at z _sp{ ~}> 2. Such a decrease in abundances is what would be expected if the galactic (thin) disks did not form before redshifts of z {~} 2. The use of Si II is important, since the weakness of the Zn II lines at low abundances (due to the low relative abundance of Zn compared to elements such as Si) will result in few detections, and in upper limits that are difficult to interpret. The observed drop in abundances is consistent with the decrease in number of heavy-element absorption systems at high redshifts, a result that is found in

  3. Intermediate-redshift galaxy halos - Results from QSO absorption lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzetta, K.M.; Bowen, D. Royal Greenwich Observatory, Cambridge )

    1990-07-01

    For a sample of Mg II-selected QSO absorption-line systems for which the absorbing galaxies have been successfully identified, the rest-frame equivalent widths of the Mg II 2796-A absorption lines are examined as a function of the known impact parameters between the background QSOs and the absorbing galaxies. There appears to exist a relationship between the equivalent widths and the impact parameters, in the sense that larger equivalent widths occur at smaller impact parameters. No trend of the doublet ratio is found with impact parameter, and neither the equivalent widths nor the doublet ratios are correlated with the absolute luminosities or redshifts of the absorbing galaxies. These results apparently indicate that the main factor that determines the equivalent width of a particular absorption system is the impact parameter between the background QSO and the absorbing galaxy. 32 refs.

  4. Active Galactic Nuclei Probed by QSO Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru

    2007-07-01

    Quasars are the extremely bright nuclei found in about 10% of galaxies. A variety of absorption features (known collectively as quasar absorption lines) are detected in the rest-frame UV spectra of these objects. While absorption lines that have very broad widths originate in gas that is probably physocally related to the quasars, narrow absorption lines (NALs) were thought to arise in galaxies and/or in the intter-alacttic medium between the quasars and us. Using high-resolution spectra of quasars, it is found that a substantial fraction of NALs arise in gas in the immediate vicinity of the quasars. A dramatically variable, moderately-broad absorption line in the spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820l is also found. The variability of this line is monitored in a campaign with Subaru telescope. These observational results are compared to models for outflows from the quasars, specifically, models for accretion disk winds and evaporating obscuring tori. It is quite important to determine the mechanism of outflow because of its cosmological implications. The outflow could expel angular momentum from the accretion disk and enable quasars to accrete and shine. In addition, the outflow may also regulate star formation in the early stages of the assembly of the host galaxy and enrich the interstellar and intergalactic medium with metals.

  5. QSO Lyalpha Absorption Lines in Galaxy Superclusters and Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Shull, J. M.; Penton, S.; Burks, G.; Donahue, M.

    1993-12-01

    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) to search for Lyalpha absorption clouds in nearby galaxy voids (cz <= 10,000 km s(-1) ). Thus far, we have obtained GHRS spectra (G160M, 1225 -- 1255 Angstroms, 0.25 Angstroms resolution) of three very bright Active Galactic Nuclei, Mrk 501, I Zw I, and Mrk 335, at V <= 14.5. We find 4 probable (4.0 sigma - 4.5 sigma ) and 4 definite (5 sigma - 16 sigma ) Lyalpha absorption lines, with equivalent widths W_λ = 50 - 200 m Angstroms, corresponding to column densities N(H I) = 10(13) -- 10(14) cm(-2) , assuming a typical Doppler parameter of b = 25 km s(-1) . Based on an updated version of the CfA redshift survey (Huchra and Clemens, private communication), most of these Lyalpha systems appear to be associated with supercluster - sized ``strings'' of galaxies similar to the ``Great Wall''. Toward Mrk 501, the nearest bright galaxy at the redshift of the strongest (200 m Angstroms) Lyalpha cloud lies 500 h75(-1) kpc off the line of sight. Models of H I disks exposed to the intergalactic ionizing radiation field (Dove & Shull 1994, ApJ, 423, in press) show that the N(H I) = 10(13) cm(-2) contour in a typical spiral galaxy is reached at 100 kpc radial extent. Thus, the Lyalpha absorbers associated with galaxy-string systems may be the result of H I in an extended halo, in dwarf satellite galaxies (M_B > -15), or in tidally-stripped gas. Most importantly for cosmological origins of baryons, one (4.3 sigma ) Lyalpha absorption line in the spectrum of Mrk 501 lies within the galaxy void in the foreground of the ``Great Wall''. The nearest bright galaxy, to a level M_B <= -18.5 for H_0 = 75 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) , is more than 5 Mpc away. A pencil-beam survey of faint galaxies to M_B = -16.0 finds no galaxy within 100 h75(-1) kpc of the line of sight, at or near the absorber redshift.

  6. PG 1700 + 518 - a low-redshift, broad absorption line QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Pettini, M.; Boksenberg, A.

    1985-07-01

    The first high-resolution optical spectra and lower resolution UV spectra of PG 1700 + 518, the only known broad-absorption-line (BAL) QSO at low emission redshift (0.288) are presented. The optical data were obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma and the UV data with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The outstanding feature of the optical spectrum is a strong, broad Mg II absorption trough, detached from the Mg II emission line and indicative of ejection velocities of between 7000 and 18,000 km/s. Also detected were narrow (FWHM = 350 km/s) Mg II absorption lines at absolute z = 0.2698, which are probably related to the mass ejection phenomenon. It is concluded that the emission-line spectrum is similar to that of other low-redshift QSOs although there are some obvious differences from typical BAL QSOs, most notably in the unusually low level of ionization of both emission-line and broad absorption line gas. 21 references.

  7. QSO absorption lines: The UV rest frame from 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher W.

    1997-05-01

    By charting the kinematic, chemical, and ionization conditions of galactic and intergalactic gas over the redshift range 0-4 with QSO absorption lines, the evolution of chemical abundances, the UV meta-galactic background, and the clustering dynamics of galactic gas can be studied. Keck/HIRES Mg II λ2796 profiles arising in z~1 galaxies are presented and the Mg II kinematic clustering function is given. The intriguing z=0.93 systems toward Q1206+459 are shown and compared to z~2 Keck/HIRES C IV profiles to illustrate how HST/STIS can be exploited for studies of the high ionization conditions in z<=1 Mg II selected systems. The scientific motives and plans for a large IR 2<=z<=4 Mg II survey with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope are presented.

  8. 1E 0104.2 + 3153 - A broad absorption-line QSO viewed through a giant elliptical galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J.; Schild, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.

    1984-01-01

    The optical identification of the X-ray source 1E 0104.2 + 3153 is complicated by the close projection of a broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO (z = 2.027) 10 arcsec from a giant elliptical galaxy (z = 0.111) at the center of a compact group of galaxies. At only 1.2 de Vaucouleur radii (16 kpc for H sub 0 = 100 km/s Mpc) this QSO-galaxy projection is the closest yet discovered. Based upon current observations, the source of the X-ray emission cannot be conclusively determined. Present in the BAL QSO spectrum are extremely strong Ca II H and K absorption lines due to the intervening galaxy, the first optical detection of the cold interstellar medium in an elliptical galaxy. The strength of these lines (EW = 2 and 1 A) requires observation through several interstellar clouds in the line of sight to the QSO. By its proximity to the central regions of the elliptical galaxy and the relative distances of the galaxy and QSO, this QSO is a particularly good candidate for observing dramatic transient gravitational lensing phenomena due to halo stars in the foreground galaxy.

  9. Correlation of QSO absorption lines in universes dominated by cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J.; Hogan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the redshift correlations between QSO absorption-line systems are investigated in the context of 'cold dark matter' cosmological models. Particles in 'particle-mesh' N-body simulations are interpreted as absorbing clouds at epochs corresponding to mean redshifts, z, of 0.0, 1.25, and 3.0. The velocity correlation function for absorbing clouds is found by passing lines-of-sight through the systems and computing velocity differences for those particles which lie close to the lines. It depends strongly on z and Omega but only weakly, if at all, on the number density, diameter or mass of the clouds. Two interpretations are possible: (1) the heavy element absorption systems are associated with galaxies which are an unbiased sample of the mass distribution in an Omega(0) = 0.2 universe or (2) the Lyman-alpha absorbers are an unbiased sample of the mass in an Omega(0) = 1 universe and the heavy-element absorption systems, like galaxies, are more strongly clustered than the mass.

  10. Variability of broad absorption lines in QSO SDSS J022844.09+000217.0 on multiyear time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhi-Cheng; Bian, Wei-Hao; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Yue-Feng

    2014-09-01

    The variability of broad absorption lines is investigated for a broad-absorption-line (BAL) quasar (QSO), SDSS J022844.09+000217.0 (z = 2.719), with 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectra covering 4128 d in the observed frame. Using the ratio of the root-mean-square (rms) spectrum to the mean spectrum, the relative flux change of the BAL trough is larger than that of the emission lines and the continuum. Fitting a power-law continuum and the emission-line profiles of C IV λ1549 and Si IVλ1399, we calculate the equivalent width (EW) for different epochs, as well as the continuum luminosity and the spectral index. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the spectral index and a weak negative correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the continuum luminosity. The strong correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the spectral index for this particular QSO suggests that dust is intrinsic to outflows. The weak correlation between the BAL variability and the continuum luminosity for this particular QSO implies that the BAL-trough variation is not dominated by photoionization.

  11. Broad Balmer Absorption Line Variability: Evidence of Gas Transverse Motion in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiheng; Zhou, Hongyan; Shu, Xinwen; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Pan, Xiang; Sun, Luming; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    We report on the discovery of broad Balmer absorption lines variability in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6, based on the optical and near-infrared spectra taken from the SDSS-I, SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and TripleSpec observations over a timescale of 5.8 years in the QSO's rest-frame. The blueshifted absorption profile of Hβ shows a variation of more than 5σ at a high velocity portion (\\gt 3000 {km} {{{s}}}-1) of the trough. We perform a detailed analysis for the physical conditions of the absorber using Balmer lines as well as metastable He i and optical Fe ii absorptions (λ4233 from b4P5/2 level and λ5169 from a6S5/2) at the same velocity. These Fe ii lines are identified in the QSO spectra for the first time. According to the photoionization simulations, we estimate a gas density of n({{H}})≈ {10}9.1 {{cm}}-3 and a column density of {N}{col}({{H}})≈ {10}23 {{cm}}-2 for the BOSS data, but the model fails to predict the variations of ionic column densities between the SDSS and BOSS observations if changes in ionizing flux are assumed. We thus propose transverse motion of the absorbing gas being the cause of the observed broad Balmer absorption line variability. In fact, we find that the changes in covering factors of the absorber can well-reproduce all of the observed variations. The absorber is estimated ∼0.94 pc away from the central engine, which is where the outflow likely experiences deceleration due to the collision with the surrounding medium. This scheme is consistent with the argument that LoBAL QSOs may represent the transition from obscured star-forming galaxies to classic QSOs.

  12. Dust depletion of Ca and Ti in QSO absorption-line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, C. R.; Richter, P.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: To explore the role of titanium- and calcium-dust depletion in gas in and around galaxies, we systematically study Ti/Ca abundance ratios in intervening absorption-line systems at low and high redshift. Methods: We investigate high-resolution optical spectra obtained by the UVES instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and spectroscopically analyze 34 absorption-line systems at z ≤ 0.5 to measure column densities (or limits) for Ca ii and Ti ii. We complement our UVES data set with previously published absorption-line data on Ti/Ca for redshifts up to z ~ 3.8. Our absorber sample contains 110 absorbers including damped Lyman α systems (DLAs), sub-DLAs, and Lyman-Limit systems (LLS). We compare our Ti/Ca findings with results from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds and discuss the properties of Ti/Ca absorbers in the general context of quasar absorption-line systems. Results: Our analysis indicates that there are two distinct populations of absorbers with either high or low Ti/Ca ratios with a separation at [Ti/Ca] ≈ 1. While the calcium-dust depletion in most of the absorbers appears to be severe, the titanium depletions are mild in systems with high Ti/Ca ratios. The derived trend indicates that absorbers with high Ti/Ca ratios have dust-to-gas ratios that are substantially lower than in the Milky Way. We characterize the overall nature of the absorbers by correlating Ti/Ca with other observables (e.g., metallicity, velocity-component structure) and by modeling the ionization properties of singly-ionized Ca and Ti in different environments. Conclusions: We conclude that Ca ii and Ti ii bearing absorption-line systems trace predominantly neutral gas in the disks and inner halo regions of galaxies, where the abundance of Ca and Ti reflects the local metal and dust content of the gas. Our study suggests that the Ti/Ca ratio represents a useful measure for the gas-to-dust ratio and overall metallicity in intervening absorption-line systems.

  13. Bounds on the fine structure constant variability from Fe ii absorption lines in QSO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, P.; Reimers, D.; Agafonova, I. I.; Levshakov, S. A.

    2008-10-01

    The Single Ion Differential α Measurement (SIDAM)method for measuring Δα/α and its figures of merit are illustrated together withthe results produced by means of Fe ii absorption linesof QSO intervening systems. The method providesΔα/α = -0.12 ±1.79 ppm (parts-per-million) at zabs = 1.15towards HE 0515-4414 and Δα/α = 5.66±2.67 ppm at zabs = 1.84towards Q 1101-264, which are so far the most accurate measurementsfor single systems. SIDAM analysis for 3 systems from the Chand et al. [1]sample provides inconsistent results which we interpret as due tocalibration errors of the Chand et al. data at the level ≈10 ppm.In one system evidence for photo-ionization Dopplershift between Mg ii and Fe ii lines is found.This evidence has important bearings on the Many Multipletmethod where the signal for Δα/αvariabilityis carried mainly by systems involving Mg ii absorbers.Some correlations are also found in the Murphy et al. [10] sample which suggestlarger errors than previously reported.Thus, we consider unlikely that both the Chand et al.and Murphy et al. datasets could providean estimate of Δα/α with an accuracy at the level of 1 ppm.A new spectrograph like the ESPRESSO projectwill be crucial to make progress in the astronomical determination of Δα/α.

  14. X-Raying the Ultraluminous Infrared Starburst Galaxy and Broad Absorption Line QSO Markarian 231 with Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. P.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    With 40 ks of Clzandra ACIS-S3 exposure, new information on both the starburst and QSO components of the X-ray emission of Markarian 231, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and broad absorption line QSO, has been obtained. The bulk of the X-ray luminosity is emitted from an unresolved nuclear point source, and the spectrum is remarkably hard, with the majority of the flux emitted above 2 keV. Most notably, significant nuclear variability (a decrease of -45% in approximately 6 hr) at energies above 2 keV indicates that Chuizdra has probed within light-hours of the central black hole. Although we concur with Maloney & Reynolds that the direct continuum is not observed, this variability coupled with the 188 eV upper limit on the equivalent width of the Fe K o emission line argues against the reflection-dominated model put forth by these authors based on their ASCA data. Instead, we favor a model in which a small, Compton-thick absorber blocks the direct X-rays, and only indirect, scattered X-rays from multiple lines of sight can reach the observer. Extended soft, thermal emission encompasses the optical extent of the galaxy and exhibits resolved structure. An off-nuclear X-ray source with a 0.35-8.0 keV luminosity of Lx = 7 x 10 sup39 ergs s sup -1 , consistent with the ultraluminous X-ray sources in other nearby starbursts, is detected. We also present an unpublished Faint Object Spectrograph spectrum from the Hirhhle Spuce Telescope archive showing the broad C IV absorption.

  15. The Dust, Nebular Emission, and Dependence on QSO Radio Properties of the Associated Mg II Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Pushpa; Berk Daniel, Vanden; Rahmani, Hadi; York, Donald G.

    2014-10-01

    We studied dust reddening and [O II] emission in 1730 Mg II associated absorption systems (AAS; relative velocity with respect to QSOs, <=3000 km s-1 in units of velocity of light, β, <=0.01) with 0.4 <=z abs <= 2 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, focusing on their dependence on the radio and other QSO properties. We used control samples, several with matching radio properties, to show that (1) AAS in radio-detected (RD) QSOs cause 2.6 ± 0.2 times higher dust extinction than those in radio-undetected (RUD) ones, which in turn cause 2.9 ± 0.7 times the dust extinction in the intervening systems; (2) AAS in core-dominated QSOs cause 2.0 ± 0.1 times higher dust extinction than those in lobe-dominated QSOs; (3) the occurrence of AAS is 2.1 ± 0.2 times more likely in RD QSOs than in RUD QSOs and 1.8 ± 0.1 time more likely in QSOs having black holes with masses larger than 1.23 × 109 M ⊙ than in those with lower-mass black holes; and (4) there is excess flux in [O II]λ3727 emission in the composite spectra of the AAS samples compared with those of the control samples, which is at the emission redshift. The presence of AAS enhances the O II emission from the active galactic nucleus and/or the host galaxy. This excess is similar for both RD and RUD samples and is 2.5 ± 0.4 times higher in lobe-dominated samples than in core-dominated samples. The excess depends on the black hole mass and Eddington ratio. All these point to the intrinsic nature of the AAS except for the systems with z abs > z em, which could be infalling galaxies.

  16. The dust, nebular emission, and dependence on QSO radio properties of the associated Mg II absorption line systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Pushpa; Daniel, Vanden Berk; Rahmani, Hadi; York, Donald G.

    2014-10-10

    We studied dust reddening and [O II] emission in 1730 Mg II associated absorption systems (AAS; relative velocity with respect to QSOs, ≤3000 km s{sup –1}; in units of velocity of light, β, ≤0.01) with 0.4 ≤z {sub abs} ≤ 2 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, focusing on their dependence on the radio and other QSO properties. We used control samples, several with matching radio properties, to show that (1) AAS in radio-detected (RD) QSOs cause 2.6 ± 0.2 times higher dust extinction than those in radio-undetected (RUD) ones, which in turn cause 2.9 ± 0.7 times the dust extinction in the intervening systems; (2) AAS in core-dominated QSOs cause 2.0 ± 0.1 times higher dust extinction than those in lobe-dominated QSOs; (3) the occurrence of AAS is 2.1 ± 0.2 times more likely in RD QSOs than in RUD QSOs and 1.8 ± 0.1 time more likely in QSOs having black holes with masses larger than 1.23 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} than in those with lower-mass black holes; and (4) there is excess flux in [O II]λ3727 emission in the composite spectra of the AAS samples compared with those of the control samples, which is at the emission redshift. The presence of AAS enhances the O II emission from the active galactic nucleus and/or the host galaxy. This excess is similar for both RD and RUD samples and is 2.5 ± 0.4 times higher in lobe-dominated samples than in core-dominated samples. The excess depends on the black hole mass and Eddington ratio. All these point to the intrinsic nature of the AAS except for the systems with z {sub abs} > z {sub em}, which could be infalling galaxies.

  17. MISALIGNMENT OF THE JET AND THE NORMAL TO THE DUSTY TORUS IN THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QSO FIRST J155633.8+351758

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Cormac; Punsly, Brian; O'Dea, Christopher P. E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-08-10

    We performed Very Long Baseline Array observations of the broad absorption line quasar FIRST J155633.8+351758, ''the first radio loud BALQSO''. Our observations at 15.3 GHz partially resolved a secondary component at position angle (P.A.) Almost-Equal-To 35 Degree-Sign . We combine this determination of the radio jet projection on the sky plane, with the constraint that the jet is viewed within 14. Degree-Sign 3 of the line of sight (as implied by the high variability brightness temperature) and with the P.A. of the optical/UV continuum polarization in order to study the quasar geometry. Within the context of the standard model, the data indicates a ''dusty torus'' (scattering surface) with a symmetry axis tilted relative to the accretion disk normal and a polar broad absorption line outflow aligned with the accretion disk normal. We compare this geometry to that indicated by the higher resolution radio data, brightness temperature, and optical/UV continuum polarization P.A. of a similar high optical polarization BALQSO, Mrk 231. A qualitatively similar geometry is found in these two polar BALQSOs; the continuum polarization is determined primarily by the tilt of the dusty torus.

  18. Continuum Fitting HST QSO Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method which we are using to fit and describe QSO spectra relies upon the fact that QSO continuum are generally very smooth and simple except for emission and absorption lines. To see this we need high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of QSOs at low redshift which have relatively few absorption lines in the Lyman-a forest. We need a large number of such spectra to use as the basis set for the PCA analysis which will find the set of principal component spectra which describe the QSO family as a whole. We have found that too few HST spectra have the required S/N and hence we need to supplement them with ground based spectra of QSOs at higher redshift. We have many such spectra and we have been working to make them suitable for this analysis. We have concentrated on this topic since 12/15/01.

  19. Fine-structure Constancy Measurements in QSO Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    The ESO Large Programme 185.A-0745 has awarded 10 nights on the VLT-UVES spectrograph for the study of the possible variation in the fine structure constant. We will present the fine-structure measurements from two lines of sight and several absorption systems. We will also present updated systematic error analyses.

  20. Atlas of Infrared Absorption Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This atlas of infrared absorption line contains absorption line parameters (line strength vs. wavenumber) from 500 to 7000 cm(exp-1) for 15 gases: H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, O2, SO2, NO, NO2, NH3, HCl, HF, HNO3 and CH3Cl.

  1. Ionization states of metallic absorption-line systems in continua of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denda, Kiyomi; Ikeuchi, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    Ionization states of metallic absorption-line systems in continua of quasars (QSO's) are studied, assuming that the metallic lines arise in gaseous halos of high-redshift galaxies in photoionization equilibrium under the background UV radiation, and constraints on the intensity and spectral shape of the UV radiation are obtained. Then a structure of absorbers suitable for all of the metallic absorption line systems are discussed.

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Quasars and Quasar Absorption-Line Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Topic cover in this paper included new observations of QSO absorption lines by the Keck Telescope HIRES spectrometer and the Hubble Space Telescope. An overview of the major scientific issues in this field is followed by a brief summary of a panel discussion that addressed future instrumental possibilities that could answer some of these questions.

  3. Do Atoms Really "Emit" Absorption Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecher, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Presents three absorption line sources that enhance student understanding of the phenomena associated with the interaction of light with matter and help dispel the misconception that atoms "emit" absorption lines. Sources include neodymium, food coloring and other common household liquids, and fluorescent materials. (MDH)

  4. The Chemical Evolution of QSO Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.

    2000-06-01

    The chemical evolution of the high redshift intergalactic and interstellar media of galaxies is studied using QSO absorption lines. The redshift evolution of damped Lyman alpha (DLA) system metallicity is studied down to z=0.5, and no significant increase in metals is found. The CIV/HI ratio in the Lyman alpha forest is investigated at z approximately 3 and traces of are metals found in the low density HI gas with optical depth of around 1. Finally, a new survey for DLAs in a radio-selected sample of QSOs is presented, with the aim of determining whether a significant dust bias may have affected previous surveys.

  5. The structure of the BAL QSO 1700 + 518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Neff, S. G.; Gower, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents 0.5-arcsec-resolution optical images of the low-redshift, bright, broad-absorption-line QSO 1700 + 518. A bright arc 2 arcsec is found to the NE of the nucleus which is redder than the surrounding host galaxy. There is also a faint radial structure to the SE, which is aligned with the core radio structure. The principal radio structure is a slightly resolved component coincident with the optical nucleus and an unresolved lobe 1 arcsec to the W which has no corresponding optical structure. The morphological and other properties of the QSO are discussed.

  6. QSOs and Absorption-Line Systems surrounding the Hubble Deep Field

    SciTech Connect

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Stoughton, Chris; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Tytler, David; Kirkman, David

    2000-06-01

    We have imaged a 45' x 45' area centered on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in UBVRI passbands, down to the limiting magnitudes of approximately 21.5, 22.5, 22.2, 22.2, and 21.2, respectively. The principal goals of the survey are to identify quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and to map structure traced by luminous galaxies and QSO absorption line systems in a wide volume containing the HDF. The area surveyed is 400 times as large as that of the HDF, and 40 times as large as that of the HDF Flanking Fields. We have selected QSO candidates from color space and identified four QSOs and two narrow emission line galaxies not yet discovered, bringing the total number of known QSOs in the area to 19. The bright z=1.305 QSO only 12' away from the HDF raises the northern HDF to nearly the same status as the southern Hubble Deep Field, which was selected to be proximate to a bright QSO. About half of the QSO candidates remain for spectroscopic verification. Absorption-line spectroscopy has been obtained for three bright QSOs in the field, using the 10 m Keck, 3.5 m ARC, and 2.4 m MDM telescopes. Five heavy-element absorption line systems have been identified, four of which overlap the well-explored redshift range covered by deep galaxy redshift surveys toward the HDF. The two absorbers at z=0.5565 and z=0.5621 occur at the same redshift as the secondmost populated redshift peak in the galaxy distribution, but each is more than 7 h-1 Mpc (comoving, {omega}{sub m} =1, {omega}{sub {lambda}} =0) away from the HDF line of sight in the transverse dimension. This supports more indirect evidence that the galaxy redshift peaks are contained within large sheetlike structures that traverse the HDF and may be precursors to large-scale ''pancake'' structures seen in the present-day galaxy distribution. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  7. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  8. Properties of low-redshift QSO absorption systems - QSO-galaxy pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    The chance proximity of QSOs and galaxies provides unique opportunities to probe the extent and content of gas in the foreground galaxies through evaluation of the incidence and strength of absorption lines in the spectra of the background QSOs. Recent results on the observed properties of these low-redshift, heavy-element absorption systems are summarized. These results are discussed in the context of the galaxy morphologies and environments and are briefly compared with Galactic absorption and with the inferred properties of higher-redshift QSO absorption systems.

  9. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHELL AT z = 3.5 SEEN IN THE THREE SIGHTLINES TOWARD THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED QSO B1422+231

    SciTech Connect

    Hamano, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Okoshi, Katsuya; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2012-08-01

    Using the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope with the IRCS Echelle spectrograph, we obtained high-resolution (R = 10,000) near-infrared (1.01-1.38 {mu}m) spectra of images A and B of the gravitationally lensed QSO B1422+231 (z = 3.628) consisting of four known lensed images. We detected Mg II absorption lines at z = 3.54, which show a large variance of column densities ({approx}0.3 dex) and velocities ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) between sightlines A and B with a projected separation of only 8.4h{sup -1}{sub 70} pc at that redshift. This is the smallest spatial structure of the high-z gas clouds ever detected after Rauch et al. found a 20 pc scale structure for the same z = 3.54 absorption system using optical spectra of images A and C. The observed systematic variances imply that the system is an expanding shell as originally suggested by Rauch et al. By combining the data for three sightlines, we managed to constrain the radius and expansion velocity of the shell ({approx}50-100 pc, 130 km s{sup -1}), concluding that the shell is truly a supernova remnant (SNR) rather than other types of shell objects, such as a giant H II region. We also detected strong Fe II absorption lines for this system, but with much broader Doppler width than that of {alpha}-element lines. We suggest that this Fe II absorption line originates in a localized Fe II-rich gas cloud that is not completely mixed with plowed ambient interstellar gas clouds showing other {alpha}-element low-ion absorption lines. Along with the Fe richness, we conclude that the SNR is produced by an SN Ia explosion.

  10. The intrinsic fraction of broad-absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, Christian; Scaringi, Simone; Goad, Michael R.; Cottis, Christopher E.

    2008-05-01

    We carefully reconsider the problem of classifying broad-absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) and derive a new, unbiased estimate of the intrinsic BALQSO fraction from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR3 quasi-stellar object (QSO) catalogue. We first show that the distribution of objects selected by the so-called `absorption index' (AI) is clearly bimodal in logAI, with only one mode corresponding to definite BALQSOs. The surprisingly high BALQSO fractions that have recently been inferred from AI-based samples are therefore likely to be overestimated. We then present two new approaches to the classification problem that are designed to be more robust than the AI, but also more complete than the traditional `balnicity index' (BI). Both approaches yield observed BALQSO fractions around 13.5 per cent, while a conservative third approach suggests an upper limit of 18.3 per cent. Finally, we discuss the selection biases that affect our observed BALQSO fraction. After correcting for these biases, we arrive at our final estimate of the intrinsic BALQSO fraction. This is fBALQSO = 0.17 +/- 0.01(stat) +/- 0.03(sys) with an upper limit of fBALQSO ~= 0.23. We conclude by pointing out that the bimodality of the logAI distribution may be evidence that the BAL-forming region has clearly delineated physical boundaries.

  11. On the statistics of quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiderwijk, E. J.

    1984-12-01

    The distribution of absorption lines in 13 quasar spectra is analyzed and shown to be fully consistent with the hypothesis of randomly, but not uniformly, distributed absorption features. The analysis by Libby et al. (1984), in which it is claimed that the number of wavelength coincidences among absorption lines in different quasar spectra (as measured in the rest frame of the quasars) is much larger than expected, implying absorbers in the quasars themselves, is totally invalid. Instead, the number of these coincidences is fully commensurate with the expected one on the assumption of randomness.

  12. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  13. Interstellar MG II Absorption Lines from Low-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, David V.; Blades, J. Chris; Pettini, Max

    1995-08-01

    We have used the GHRS aboard HST to search for interstellar Mg II 2796, 2803 absorption from the disks and halos of 17 low-redshift galaxies, using as probes QSOs and extragalactic supernovae whose sight lines pass close to, or through, intervening galaxies. The galaxies studied are of diverse morphological type, reside in different environments, and lie at separations of p' ≃ 2-113 h-1 kpc from a QSO line of sight. Ten of 11 galaxies at separations 31-113 h-1 kpc show no absorption to equivalent width limits of W(λ2796) <40-90 mÅ, which corresponds to N(Mg II) ≃1-4 × 1012 cm-2. Six galaxies lie at p' ≤ 9 kpc, and of these, four (NGC 4319, the LMC, M81, and the Milky Way) show absorption. Two early-type galaxies (NGC 1380 and Leo I) show no absorption at p' < 9 kpc: these nondetections are surprising because the separations are small and point to the possibility that the existence of extended absorbing halos may be a function of galaxy type. All of the galaxies which produce absorption are plausibly members of interacting systems. For absorbing galaxies probed below 9 kpc, the sight line passes within the optical radius of the galaxy, where the interstellar medium (ISM) is expected to have a high covering factor, and we do not attribute the absorption to the interactions. However, we do find that the environment of the absorbing galaxies affects the characteristics of the absorption detected the strength of lines, the complexity of line components, the ionization state of the gas and we warn of the dangers inherent in constructing models of generic halos based on statistical properties of QSO absorption-line surveys. Our data suggest that the covering factor of Mg II absorption is high for galaxies within ≍10 kpc, but very small beyond ≍30 h-1 kpc, a result consistent with the size found of Mg II halos deduced for galaxies at redshifts z > 0.2. The low-redshift galaxies observed in this study which show Mg II absorption are probably drawn from the same

  14. The theory of QSO absorption line systems and their relationship to the galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this effort is to paint a picture of what the Ly-alpha forest clouds are and how they are distributed in space. Progress during the first phase of this program involved development of the 'Cheshire Cat Model' of Ly-alpha clouds in which systems over a large range of column densities are produced by disks with somewhat smaller column densities than those of normal galaxies. A prediction of the slab model of Ly-alpha clouds was confirmed by a new observational result, and the comparison of models to the new data allowed an estimate of the pressure of the intergalactic medium. This result should be forthcoming in pre-print form within the next month. The various results will now be described in more detail.

  15. Probing the extent and content of low ionization gas in galaxies: QSO absorption and HI emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    The small projected separations of some QSO's and low-redshift galaxies provide unique opportunities to study the extent and content of gas in galaxies through observation of absorption in the QSO spectra. Observations of these systems provide valuable information on the connection between the absorbing gas and the galaxy, as well as detailed information on the morphology and environment of the galaxy itself. While there is direct evidence that galaxies can produce the intervening-type QSO absorption lines, over the past decade, the study of such 'QSO-galaxy pairs' (at low redshift) has been considered unsuccessful because new detections of absorption were seldom made. A fundamental problem concerning the relation between these low-redshift systems and those seen at moderate to high redshift remains unresolved. Direct and indirect measures of galaxy absorption cross sections at moderate to high redshifts (z is approximately greater than 20.5) are much larger than the optical and HI sizes of local galaxies. However, direct comparison of the low and moderate to high redshift systems is difficult since different ions are observed in different redshift regimes. Observations are presented for a new sample of QSO-galaxy pairs. Nine new QSO's which shine through nearby galaxies (on the sky-plane) were observed to search for CaII absorption in the QSO spectra at the foreground galaxy redshifts.

  16. Quasars as the formation sites of high-redshift ellipticals: a signature in the `associated' absorption-line systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Gratton, R.

    1997-03-01

    Published data on the average metallicities and abundance ratios for absorption-line systems in high-redshift quasars suggest that a dichotomy may exist between the chemical composition of damped Lyman alpha (Lyalpha) systems (interpreted as intervening galaxies in the QSO line of sight) and the z_abs~=z_em absorption- line systems associated with the quasar. Intervening systems have smaller than solar metallicities, whereas associated absorbers have solar or greater than solar metallicities and small N/C ratios. While these results have to be confirmed by more precise abundance determinations, we argue that they may be explained by an early phase of efficient metal enrichment occurring only in the close environment of high-z QSOs, and characterized by an excess type-II supernova (SNII) activity. This is reminiscent of the SNII phase required to explain the abundance ratios (favouring alpha- over Fe-group elements) observed in the intracluster (IC) medium of local galaxy clusters. We explore the following scenario, to be tested by forthcoming observations of QSO absorption lines using very large optical telescopes. (a) Well-studied damped- Lyalpha, Lyalpha and metal lines in intervening systems trace only part of the history of metal production in the Universe - the one concerning slowly star-forming discs or dwarf irregulars. (b) The complementary class of early-type and bulge-dominated galaxies formed quickly (at z>~4-5) through a huge episode of star formation favouring high-mass stars. (c) The nucleus of the latter is the site of the subsequent formation of a quasar, which partly hides from view the dimmer host galaxy. (d) The products of a galactic wind, following the violent episode of star formation in the host galaxy and metal pollution of the IC medium in the forming cluster, could be directly observable in the z_abs~=z_em associated absorption systems on the QSO line of sight.

  17. Non-Voigt Lyalpha Absorption Line Profiles.

    PubMed

    Outram; Carswell; Theuns

    2000-02-01

    Recent numerical simulations have lead to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the intergalactic medium and the loss of a physical justification for Voigt profile fitting of the Lyalpha forest. Many individual lines seen in simulated spectra have significant departures from the Voigt profile, yet could be well fitted by a blend of two or more such lines. We discuss the expected effect on the line profiles due to ongoing gravitational structure formation and Hubble expansion. We develop a method to detect departures from Voigt profiles of the absorption lines in a statistical way and apply this method to simulated Lyalpha forest spectra, confirming that the profiles seen do statistically differ from Voigt profiles. PMID:10622758

  18. Classifying broad absorption line quasars: metrics, issues and a new catalogue constructed from SDSS DR5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, S.; Cottis, C. E.; Knigge, C.; Goad, M. R.

    2009-11-01

    We apply a recently developed method for classifying broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) to the latest quasi-stellar object (QSO) catalogue constructed from Data Release 5 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our new hybrid classification scheme combines the power of simple metrics, supervised neural networks and visual inspection. In our view, the resulting BALQSO catalogue is both more complete and more robust than all previous BALQSO catalogues, containing 3552 sources selected from a parent sample of 28421 QSOs in the redshift range 1.7 < z < 4.2. This equates to a raw BALQSO fraction of 12.5 per cent. In the process of constructing a robust catalogue, we shed light on the main problems encountered when dealing with BALQSO classification, many of which arise due to the lack of a proper physical definition of what constitutes a BAL. This introduces some subjectivity in what is meant by the term BALQSO, and because of this, we also provide all of the meta-data used in constructing our catalogue, for every object in the parent QSO sample. This makes it easy to quickly isolate and explore subsamples constructed with different metrics and techniques. By constructing composite QSO spectra from subsamples classified according to the meta-data, we show that no single existing metric produces clean and robust BALQSO classifications. Rather, we demonstrate that a variety of complementary metrics are required at the moment to accomplish this task. Along the way, we confirm the finding that BALQSOs are redder than non-BALQSOs and that the raw BALQSO fraction displays an apparent trend with signal-to-noise ratio steadily increasing from 9 per cent in low signal-to-noise ratio data up to 15 per cent.

  19. Absorption-line measurements of AGN outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Dale L.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances in two nearby active galaxies, the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Markarian 1044 and the Seyfert 1 Markarian 279, are reported. Spectra from three space-based observatories HST, FUSE, and CHANDRA, are used to measure absorption lines in material outflowing from the nucleus. I make multi-wavelength comparisons to better convert the ionic column densities into elemental column densities which can then be used to determine abundances (metallicities). Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies are known to have extreme values of a number of properties compared to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as a class. In particular, emission-line studies have suggested that NLS1s are unusually metal-rich compared to broad-line AGNs of comparable luminosity. To test these suggestions I perform absorption-line studies on the NLS1 Markarian 1044, a nearby and bright AGN. I use lines of H I, C IV, N V, and O VI to properly make the photoionization correction through the software Cloudy and determine abundances of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. I find two results. The first is that Markarian 1044 has a bulk metallicity greater than five times solar. The second is that the N/C ratio in Markarian 1044 is consistent with a solar mixture. This is in direct contradiction of extrapolations from local H II regions which state N/ C should scale with bulk metallicity. This implies a different enrichment history in Markarian 1044 than in the Galactic disk. I also report discovery of three new low-redshift Lya forest lines with log N HI >= 12:77 in the spectrum of Markarian 1044. This number is consistent with the 2.6 expected Lya forest lines in the path length to Markarian 1044. I also investigate the CHANDRA X-ray spectrum of Markarian 279, a broad-line Seyfert 1. I use a new code, PHASE, to self-consistently model the entire absorption spectrum simultaneously. Using solely the X-ray spectrum I am able to determine the physical parameters of this absorber to a degree only

  20. Radiation Pressure-Driven Magnetic Disk Winds in Broad Absorption Line Quasi-Stellar Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKool, Martin; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1995-01-01

    We explore a model in which QSO broad absorption lines (BALS) are formed in a radiation pressure-driven wind emerging from a magnetized accretion disk. The magnetic field threading the disk material is dragged by the flow and is compressed by the radiation pressure until it is dynamically important and strong enough to contribute to the confinement of the BAL clouds. We construct a simple self-similar model for such radiatively driven magnetized disk winds, in order to explore their properties. It is found that solutions exist for which the entire magnetized flow is confined to a thin wedge over the surface of the disk. For reasonable values of the mass-loss rate, a typical magnetic field strength such that the magnetic pressure is comparable to the inferred gas pressure in BAL clouds, and a moderate amount of internal soft X-ray absorption, we find that the opening angle of the flow is approximately 0.1 rad, in good agreement with the observed covering factor of the broad absorption line region.

  1. Nebular UV Absorption Lines in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet

    We propose to continue our Cycle 1 program of studying the Lyman and Werner bands of H_2, seen in absorption against the UV continua of planetary nebula central stars, which arise within neutral-molecular envelopes surrounding the ionized gas. These are the pump lines for a fluorescent cascade of near-infrared emission lines which are observed in many planetary nebulae. By observing the UV lines we can probe the chemical and thermal structure of the envelopes, as well as measure molecular column densities and clarify the excitation processes for the infrared lines. In Cycle 1 we were granted time for three targets, one of which was successfully observed shortly before submission of this proposal. Although the data were not yet available for examination, similar target observed by the project team revealed a rich set of H_2 circumstellar absorption features, demonstrating the feasibility of our program. FUSE spectra also include absorption features from atomic species such as O I and C II, which give rise to important far-infrared fine-structure cooling lines that likewise have been observed from planetary nebulae. In Cycle 2, we add as a secondary goal a search for nebular components of the O VI 032, 1038 AA absorption lines, which trace the presence of hot shocked gas, in nebulae with anomalously strong optical recombination lines of ions of oxygen and nitrogen. This will test a plausible hypothesis for the origin of this anomaly.

  2. Unlocking the secrets of absorption line complexes in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It is well-established that the fraction of baryons in the Universe that are observable drops from nearly 100% at z 3 to less than 50% by z 0. Simulations predict that most of the missing baryons are located in the IGM at moderate densities and at temperatures of 10^5-10^7 K - gas that is generally in the filaments of the cosmic web and in circumgalactic regions. This gas is typically detected in the low-z Lyman alpha forest by measuring UV absorption lines of highly ionized metals, such as CIV and OVI. However, significant uncertainties exist relating to the physical conditions of the gas associated with these lines {such as temperature, metallicity, and ionization state}, which severely limits our ability to understand the physical environment of these absorbers. We propose to clarify the relationship between the multi-species absorption line complexes seen in QSO spectra and the physical conditions of the corresponding absorbing gas. We will do this using synthetic observing tools and the largest, most detailed simulations of the IGM to date, which include a new sophisticated treatment of non-equilibrium gas chemistry. We will create catalogs that enable conversion between specific combinations of observed absorption lines and the equivalent physical gas distribition, will calculate the total baryon content that is traceable with each ion, and will devise tests to distinguish between the circumgalactic and truly intergalactic medium. This work will be critical to the interpretation of previous and ongoing HST studies of the IGM - particularly those using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph - and directly addresses the HST Cycle 21 Ultraviolet Initiative.

  3. Ly alpha and IR galaxy companions of high redshift damped Ly alpha QSO absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caulet, Adeline; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1993-01-01

    We have used a Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS3) HgCdTe 256x256 array detector with the Infrared (IR) camera on the 2.3m telescope at Steward Observatory to image several Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) fields. The limiting magnitude is K'(2.1 microns) = 21.0 - 21.5 mag per square arcsec for a 3 sigma detection in 3 hours of in-field chopping observations. Each QSO line-of-sight samples several known absorbers with Mg2(lambda)2796-2803 A and/or C4(lambda)1548-1551 A absorption doublets. The equivalent width distributions of the low and high ionization absorption lines of the absorber sample are identical to those of the parent population of all absorbers. This selection process, used already for a spectroscopic survey of Mg2 absorption lines in C4-selected absorption systems at high z, gives a methodical approach to observing, reduces the observer biases, and makes a more efficient use of telescope time. This selection guarantees that imaging of the sample of QSO fields will provide complete sampling of the whole population of high z QSO absorbers. Follow-up optical and IR spectroscopy of these objects is scheduled for redshift measurement and confirmation of the absorbing galaxies and the cluster members.

  4. The HST quasar absorption line key project. 4: HST faint-object spectrograph and ground-based observations of the unusual low-redshift broad absorption-line quasi-stellar object PG 0043+039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnshek, David A.; Espey, Brian R.; Kopko, Michael, Jr.; Rauch, Michael; Weymann, Ray J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Boksenberg, Alec; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST FOS) observations have shown that the spectrum of the low-redshift (z(sub em) approximately equal to 0.384) QSO PG 0043+039 exhibits weak broad absorption lines (BALs). The BALs were discovered during the course of UV spectrophotometry made for the HST Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. The HST data are analyzed along with ground-based optical and IUE spectrophotometry. The object is found to have a number of atypical properties relative to normal non-BAL QSOs. The observed continuum is atypical in the sense that it is much weaker than that of a normal optically selected QSO at rest wavelengths approximately less than 2200 A. Intrinsic reddening of E(B-V) approximately equal to 0.11 mag by dust similar to that found in the SMC at the redshift of PG 0043+039 conservatively accounts for the observed continuum shape moderately well. These observed characteristics are typical of low-ionization BAL QSOs, but convincing evidence for BALs due to low-ionization transitions of Mg II, Al III, Al II, or C II does not exist. Therefore, this object may be a misaligned BAL QSO having many of the characteristics of low-ionization BAL QSOs with the sight line passing through a putative dusty region, but evidently missing clouds of high enough column density to produce observable low-ionization BALs. If the intrinsic dust-extinction model is correct, the observations suggest that the dust is not confined to the presumably higher density, low-ionization BAL clouds, but that it has drifted to nearby high-ionization BAL regions. We also consider other possible mechanisms for producing the shape of the continuous energy distribution which cannot be ruled out. We compare the Fe II emission in PG 0043+039 with that in another Key Project QSO, NGC 2841-UB 3, which has optical Fe II emission comparable in strength to that in PG 0043+039, but has anomalously weak UV Fe II emission. In addition, from an analysis of UV and optical

  5. Herschel-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties and star formation rates of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao Orjales, J. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Coppin, K.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S.; Page, M. J.; Valiante, E.

    2012-12-01

    We have used data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) at 250, 350 and 500 μm to determine the far-infrared (FIR) properties of 50 broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs). Our sample contains 49 high-ionization BAL QSOs (HiBALs) and one low-ionization BAL QSO (LoBAL) which are compared against a sample of 329 non-BAL QSOs. These samples are matched over the redshift range 1.5 ≤ z < 2.3 and in absolute i-band magnitude over the range -28 ≤ Mi ≤ -24. Of these, three BAL QSOs (HiBALs) and 27 non-BAL QSOs are detected at the >5 σ level. We calculate star formation rates (SFRs) for our individually detected HiBAL QSOs and the non-detected LoBAL QSO as well as average SFRs for the BAL and non-BAL QSO samples based on stacking the Herschel data. We find no difference between the HiBAL and non-BAL QSO samples in the FIR, even when separated based on differing BAL QSO classifications. Using Mrk 231 as a template, the weighted mean SFR is estimated to be ≈240 ± 21 M⊙ yr-1 for the full sample, although this figure should be treated as an upper limit if active galactic nucleus (AGN)-heated dust makes a contribution to the FIR emission. Despite tentative claims in the literature, we do not find a dependence of C IV equivalent width on FIR emission, suggesting that the strength of any outflow in these objects is not linked to their FIR output. These results strongly suggest that BAL QSOs (more specifically HiBALs) can be accommodated within a simple AGN unified scheme in which our line of sight to the nucleus intersects outflowing material. Models in which HiBALs are caught towards the end of a period of enhanced spheroid and black hole growth, during which a wind terminates the star formation activity, are not supported by the observed FIR properties. The Herschel-ATLAS is a project with Herschel, which is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important

  6. Absorption line CW EPR using an amplitude modulated longitudinal field.

    PubMed

    Fedin, Matvey; Gromov, Igor; Schweiger, Arthur

    2004-11-01

    In standard continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) experiments, the first derivative of absorption lines is detected. This type of a line shape is caused by the magnetic field modulation and is usually an undesired feature, since the sensitivity of CW-EPR drastically decreases with increasing linewidth. A new approach is introduced, which allows for the measurement of absorption line EPR spectra in systems with broad inhomogeneous lines. The method makes use of multiple-photon transitions that are induced in spin systems when a transverse microwave and a longitudinal radio frequency field are simultaneously applied. The absorption lines are obtained by using amplitude modulation of the radio frequency field and slight saturation of the spectral lines. The basics of the new approach are discussed and experimental examples are given. PMID:15504685

  7. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Olsen, Ben A.; Marsland, Robert; McGuyer, Bart H.; Happer, William

    2011-03-01

    Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines.

  8. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kostinski, Natalie; Olsen, Ben A.; Marsland, Robert III; McGuyer, Bart H.; Happer, William

    2011-03-15

    Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines.

  9. Cosmic Metallicity from ZnII-Selected QSO Absorption Line Systems Near Redshift z=1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, Eric

    2010-09-01

    We have searched nearly 15,000 strong intervening MgII systems in SDSS quasar spectra to measure spectral regions where weak, unsaturated metal lines are predicted to exist, with the aim of finding a representative sample of the strongest metal-line column density systems in the universe. These systems are clearly damped Lyman-alpha {DLA} systems, which track cosmologically intervening neutral gas regions that fall along the sightlines to background quasars. We propose STIS G230L spectroscopy of seven strong-ZnII-selected systems from this sample in order to measure their Lyman-alpha absorption profiles and derive their HI column densities. Since Zn is not depleted onto grains, measurement of N{HI} allows a direct measurement of the metal abundance in such systems. We expect the results to be representative of the upper envelope of the distribution of neutral-gas-phase metallicities near redshift z=1.2. If these systems are high-N{HI} DLAs {e.g., 6E21 atoms/cm^2} they will have metallicities typical of those normally found in DLAs {e.g., one-tenth solar}. However, if they are low-N{HI} DLAs {e.g., 2E20 atoms/cm(2) }, they will have supersolar metallicities. Since these DLAs are selected on the basis of their extreme metal-line properties, analysis of their metallicities and dust-to-gas ratios will lead to strong constraints on the range of properties exhibited by DLA systems.

  10. High Signal-to-Noise Echelle Spectroscopy of Quasar Absorption-Line Systems in the Direction of HS 1946+7658

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Lu, Limin; Savage, Blair D.

    1996-02-01

    We have obtained a high signal-to-noise (40 <= S/N <= 80) high- resolution (FWHM = 20 km s^-1^) spectrum of the radio-quiet QSO HS 1946+7658 (z_em_ = 3.051) with the echelle spectrograph on the KPNO 4 m telescope. We detect 11 metal systems in the direction of this QSO, including two Mg II systems, five C IV systems, two damped Lyα systems, and two associated systems. We use the apparent column density technique and profile fitting to measure the heavy element column densities and to assess the effects of absorption-line saturation. Profile fitting indicates that three of the C IV systems are narrow with b < 8 km s^-1^. This implies that T < 50,000 K, and therefore these systems are probably photoionized. The abundance patterns in the damped Lyα systems are strikingly similar to those observed in low- metallicity Milky Way stars and suggest that these absorption lines are due to galaxies in early stages of chemical enrichment (see Lu et al.). The prominent associated system at z_abs_ = 3.0496,3.0504 is detected in H I, C II, CIV, SiII, Si III, Si IV, A1 II, Al III, and N V. The high ion column density ratios in this associated system imply that the gas is more highly ionized than the Galactic halo. The high degree of ionization is not surprising given the extraordinary luminosity of the QSO (Hagen et al.). To study ionization and abundances in this associated system, we compare the observed column densities to a series of CLOUDY models in which photoionization by the QSO is the dominant ionization mechanism. For the input radiation field, we have used the various spectral energy distributions of HS 1946+7658 observed by Kuhn et al. The model that best fits the observed column densities of singly and doubly ionized species has solar relative and absolute abundances, but models with absolute metallicities a few times greater than solar fit comparably well. None of the models produce enough Si IV and C IV, but the QSO flux near the ionization potentials of these

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. II - Data calibration and absorption-line selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Saxe, David H.; Weymann, Ray J.; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    We present the observational and data processing aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Topics discussed include the observational technique, calibration of the data, software that simulates the data, the automated procedure used to identify and characterize the absorption features, and the determination of the sensitivity limits of the survey.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. XIV. The Evolution of Lyα Absorption Lines in the Redshift Interval z = 0-1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Ray J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Sargent, W. L. W.; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turnshek, David A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1998-10-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the rate of evolution of the Lyα absorption lines in the redshift interval 0.0 to ~1.5 based upon a sample of 987 Lyα absorption lines identified in the spectra of 63 QSOs obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra were obtained as part of the QSO Absorption Line Survey, an HST Key Project during the first four years of observations with the telescope. Fits to the evolution of the number of absorbers per unit redshift (dN/dz) of the form dN/dz = A × (1 + z)γ continue to yield values of γ in the range 0.1-0.3, decidedly flatter than results from ground-based data pertaining to the redshift range z > 1.7. These results are consistent with our previous results based on a much smaller sample of lines, but the uncertainties in the fit have been greatly reduced. The combination of the HST and ground-based data suggest a marked transition in the rate of evolution of the Lyα lines at a redshift of about 1.7. The 19 Lyα lines from an additional higher redshift QSO from our sample for which tentative line identifications are available (UM 18; zem = 1.89) support the suggestion of a rapid increase at around this redshift. We derive the cumulative distribution of the full sample of Lyα lines and show that the distribution in redshift can indeed be well represented by a power law of the form (1 + z)γ. For this same sample, the distribution of equivalent widths of the Lyα absorbers above a rest equivalent width of 0.1 Å is fit quite well by an exponential. Comparing samples of Lyα lines, one set of which has redshifts the same as, or very near to, the redshifts of ions from heavy elements and another set in which no ions from heavy elements have been identified, we find that the Lyα systems with heavy element detections have a much steeper slope than the high rest equivalent width portion of the Lyman-only sample. We argue that this result is not likely to be due to

  13. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF RADIO-SELECTED BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; Becker, R. H.; Gregg, M. D.; Tran, H. D.; White, R. L.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2010-07-15

    We report spectropolarimetry of 30 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with the Keck Observatory, 25 from the sample of Becker et al. Both high- and low-ionization BAL quasars are represented, with redshifts ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. The spectropolarimetric properties of radio-selected BAL quasars are very similar to those of radio-quiet BAL quasars: a sizeable fraction (20%) shows large continuum polarization (2%-10%) usually rising toward short wavelengths; emission lines are typically less polarized than the continuum; and absorption line troughs often show large polarization jumps. There are no significant correlations between polarization properties and radio properties, including those indicative of system orientation, suggesting that BAL quasars are not simply normal quasars seen from an edge-on perspective.

  14. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone; Cottis, Christopher E.; Knigge, Christian; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-12-01

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  15. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-12-05

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  16. Interstellar absorption lines in the galaxy NGC 1705

    SciTech Connect

    York, D.G.; Caulet, A.; Rybski, P.M.; Gallagher, J.S.; Blades, J.C. Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1990-03-01

    The possibility is considered, and shown to be plausible, that the strong C IV and Si IV absorption lines in low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of gas-rich dwarf galaxies are primarily interstellar, not stellar as has been supposed. The argument is based on analogies with H II regions in the Local Group, on low-resolution equivalent width measurements of gas-rich dwarf galaxies from the literature and on high-resolution UV spectra of NGC 1705. 48 refs.

  17. Interstellar absorption lines in the galaxy NGC 1705

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Donald G.; Caulet, Adeline; Rybski, Paul M.; Gallagher, John S.; Blades, J. Chris

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is considered, and shown to be plausible, that the strong C IV and Si IV absorption lines in low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of gas-rich dwarf galaxies are primarily interstellar, not stellar as has been supposed. The argument is based on analogies with H II regions in the Local Group, on low-resolution equivalent width measurements of gas-rich dwarf galaxies from the literature and on high-resolution UV spectra of NGC 1705.

  18. AFGL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation - 1982 edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, L. S.; Gamache, R. R.; Barbe, A.; Goldman, A.; Gillis, J. R.; Brown, L. R.; Toth, R. A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    1983-01-01

    The latest edition of the AFGL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation for the seven most active infrared terrestrial absorbers is described. Major modifications to the atlas for this edition include updating of water-vapor parameters from 0 to 4300 per cm, improvements to line positions for carbon dioxide, substantial modifications to the ozone bands in the middle to far infrared, and improvements to the 7- and 2.3-micron bands of methane. The atlas now contains about 181,000 rotation and vibration-rotation transitions between 0 and 17,900 per cm. The sources of the absorption parameters are summarized.

  19. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel; Graham, Matthew; Arav, Nahum; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Chamberlain, Carter; Barth, Aaron J.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Glikman, Eilat; Jun, Hyunsung David; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    We report on extreme spectral variability seen in a broad absorption line quasar over the past decade, initially identified from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V = 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following 5 years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V = 16.2. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line (Fe-LoBAL) quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km/s in velocity show coordinated changes in the depths of their troughs, correlated with the flux changes. Therefore, we interpret the variability in the absorption troughs to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material into our line of sight. This source highlights the sort of rare transition objects that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time domain surveys.

  20. Oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines from stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, Alex

    2011-05-01

    Herein we develop a new method to determine oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines with state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations of the optical spectrum of the Sun and of standard spectral reference stars. We update the log(gf) values of 911 neutral lines observed in the KPNO-FTS flux spectrum of the Sun and high-resolution echelle spectra (R = 80 000) of Procyon (F5 IV-V) and Eps Eri (K2 V) observed with large signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of 2000 using the new Mercator-Hermes spectrograph at La Palma Observatory (Spain). We find for 483 Fe I, 85 Ni I, and 51 Si I absorption lines in the sample a systematic overestimation of the literature log(gf) values with central line depths below 15%. We employ a curve-of-growth analysis technique to test the accuracy of the new oscillator strength values and compare calculated equivalent line widths to the Moore, Minnaert, and Houtgast atlas of the Sun. The online SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org interactively displays the observed and synthetic spectra and provides the new log(gf) values together with important atomic line data. The graphical database is under development for stellar reference spectra of every spectral sub-class observed with large spectral resolution and S/N ratios.

  1. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  2. Ultraviolet observations of interstellar absorption lines toward SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Joseph, Charles L.; De Boer, Klass S.

    1989-01-01

    High-dispersion IUE echelle spectra of SN 1987A were averaged in order to obtain UV absorption-line profiles of the highest possible quality in the direction of SN 1987A. The profiles for Si IV and C IV are quite similar and have much less structure than the Al III profile. On relating column densities, while the C IV and Si IV ratio is relatively constant over the 0-100 km/s velocity range, the C IV to Al III and Si IV to Al III ratios vary by nearly a factor of 10. This suggests that the C IV and Si IV along this sight line in the Galaxy and its halo may have a common origin which differs from that for Al III.

  3. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  4. Largescale QSO - Galaxy Correlations Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmann, M.; Schneider, P.

    1993-04-01

    Fugmann (1990) claimed indications for correlations between Lick galaxies and high-redshift, radio-loud background sources. We re- analyze these correlations using an improved statistical method based on Spearman's rank-order test, which we have introduced recently (Bartelmann & Schneider 1993). To our surprise, we are not able to reproduce Fugmann's results, but we detect a significant correlation between moderate-redshift sources from the 1-Jansky catalog and Lick galaxies, which increases when we apply an optical flux limit to the source sample. We interpret these empirical results in terms of an amplification bias caused by gravitational light deflection by dark matter; in particular, we argue that the observed large-scale QSO-galaxy correlations can provide a proof for the association of luminous matter (galaxies) with dark matter.

  5. Investigation of Lyman-limit absorption in QSO spectra - indirect evidence for evolution of the multicomponent nature of the absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzetta, K.M.

    1988-09-01

    This paper reexamines the redshift distribution of the class of QSO absorption-line systems that are optically-thick to Lyman continuum radiation (i.e., the Lyman-limit systems LLS), using a sample of 129 QSOs for which suitable data are available. It was found that the LLSs are uniformly distributed in velocity, relative to the background QSOs, and that the rate of incidence of the systems does not strongly evolve with redshift; the observed redshift distribution is consistent with nonevolving absorbers in a standard Friedmann cosmology with the deceleration parameter equal to 0.5. The reason for the discrepancy of this finding with data published on systems selected on the basis of Mg II absorption is discussed. It is suggested that the number of separate velocity components comprising the Mg II absorption lines decreases with time. 63 references.

  6. High-dispersion absorption-line spectroscopy of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, J.; Smith, Robert Connon; Costero, R.; Zharikov, S.; Michel, R.

    2008-07-01

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the unique magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aqr is presented. A radial velocity analysis of the absorption lines yields K2 = 168.7 +/- 1kms-1. Substantial deviations of the radial velocity curve from a sinusoid are interpreted in terms of intensity variations over the secondary star's surface. A complex rotational velocity curve as a function of orbital phase is detected which has a modulation frequency of twice the orbital frequency, leading to an estimate of the binary inclination angle that is close to 70°. The minimum and maximum rotational velocities are used to indirectly derive a mass ratio of q = 0.6 and a radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf of K1 = 101 +/- 3kms-1. We present an atmospheric temperature indicator, based on the absorption-line ratio of FeI and CrI lines, whose variation indicates that the secondary star varies from K0 to K4 as a function of orbital phase. The ephemeris of the system has been revised, using more than 1000 radial velocity measurements, published over nearly five decades. From the derived radial velocity semi-amplitudes and the estimated inclination angle, we calculate that the masses of the stars are M1 = 0.63 +/- 0.05Msolar M2 = 0.37 +/- 0.04Msolar, and their separation is a = 2.33 +/- 0.02Rsolar. Our analysis indicates the presence of a late-type star whose radius is larger, by a factor of nearly 2, than the radius of a normal main-sequence star of the same mass. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the measured variations in the rotational velocity, temperature and spectral type of the secondary star as functions of orbital phase may, like the radial velocity variations, be attributable to regions of enhanced absorption on the star's surface.

  7. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ~103-105 cm-3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage. Based on data collected at Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile in programs 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0474(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0461(A), 69.A-0204(A), 70.B-0522(A), 072.A-0346(A), 076.A-0860(A), 079.B-0469(A), and 166.A-0106(A).

  8. The central structure of Broad Absorption Line QSOs: observational characteristics in the cm-mm wavelength domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Mack, K.-H.; Dallacasa, D.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Benn, C. R.; Carballo, R.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.; Jiménez-Luján, F.

    2012-07-01

    Accounting for ~20% of the total QSO population, Broad Absorption Line QSOs are still an unsolved problem in the AGN context. They present wide troughs in the UV spectrum, due to material with velocities up to 0.2 c toward the observer. The two models proposed in literature try to explain them as a particular phase of the evolution of QSOs or as normal QSOs, but seen from a particular line of sight. We built a statistically complete sample of Radio-Loud BAL QSOs, and carried out an observing campaign to piece together the whole spectrum in the cm wavelength domain, and highlight all the possible differences with respect to a comparison sample of Radio-Loud non-BAL QSOs. VLBI observations at high angular resolution have been performed, to study the pc-scale morphology of these objects. Finally, we tried to detect a possible dust component with observations at mm-wavelengths. Results do not seem to indicate a young age for all BAL QSOs. Instead a variety of orientations and morphologies have been found, constraining the outflows foreseen by the orientation model to have different possible angles with respect to the jet axis.

  9. Detecting the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium through X-Ray Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Wang, Q. Daniel; Cash, Webster

    2012-02-01

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 105-107 K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance (lsim 3σ) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of ~90 and 190 per 50 mÅ spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N_{O VII}≈ 10^{15} cm^{-2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mÅ for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s-1) at >~ 3σ significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N_{OVII} at >=4σ from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of ~0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 × 10-8 erg s-1 cm-2 at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R ~ 4000 and effective area A >= 100 cm2 to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of ~2 Ms and would require ~11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux >~ 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  10. The parsec-scale structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Dallacasa, D.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.; Jiménez-Luján, F.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) belong to a class of objects not well-understood as yet. Their UV spectra show BALs in the blue wings of the UV resonance lines, owing to ionized gas with outflow velocities up to 0.2 c. They can have radio emission that is difficult to characterize and that needs to be studied at various wavelengths and resolutions. Aims: We aim to study the pc-scale properties of their synchrotron emission and, in particular, to determine their core properties. Methods: We performed observations in the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz to map the pc-scale structure of the brightest radio-loud objects of our sample, allowing a proper morphological interpretation. Results: A variety of morphologies have been found: 9 BAL QSOs on a total of 11 observed sources have a resolved structure. Core-jet, double, and symmetric objects are present, suggesting different orientations. In some cases the sources can be young GPS or CSS. The projected linear size of the sources, also considering observations from our previous work for the same objects, can vary from tens of pc to hundreds of kpc. In some cases, a diffuse emission can be supposed from the missing flux-density with respect to previous lower resolution observations. Finally, the magnetic field strength does not significantly differ from the values found in the literature for radio sources with similar sizes. Conclusions: These results are not easily interpreted with the youth scenario for BAL QSOs, in which they are generally compact objects still expelling a dust cocoon. The variety of orientations, morphologies, and extensions found are presumably related to different possible angles for the BAL producing outflows, with respect to the jet axis. Moreover, the phenomenon could be present in various phases of the QSO evolution. Table 3 is available in

  11. THE VIEWING ANGLES OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VERSUS UNABSORBED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.

    2012-06-10

    It was recently shown that there is a significant difference in the radio spectral index distributions of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and unabsorbed quasars, with an overabundance of BAL quasars with steeper radio spectra. This result suggests that source orientation does play into the presence or absence of BAL features. In this paper, we provide more quantitative analysis of this result based on Monte Carlo simulations. While the relationship between viewing angle and spectral index does indeed contain a lot of scatter, the spectral index distributions are different enough to overcome that intrinsic variation. Utilizing two different models of the relationship between spectral index and viewing angle, the simulations indicate that the difference in spectral index distributions can be explained by allowing BAL quasar viewing angles to extend about 10 Degree-Sign farther from the radio jet axis than non-BAL sources, though both can be seen at small angles. These results show that orientation cannot be the only factor determining whether BAL features are present, but it does play a role.

  12. Quasar Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multiyear Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2008-03-01

    We use quantitative metrics to characterize the variation of C IV λ1549 broad absorption lines (BALs) over 3-6 (rest-frame) years in a sample of 13 quasars at 1.7 <= z<= 2.8 and compare the results to previous studies of BAL variability on shorter timescales. The strong BALs in our study change in complex ways over 3-6 yr. Variation occurs in discrete regions only a few thousand kilometers per second wide, and the distribution of the change in absorption equivalent width broadens over time. We constrain the typical C IV BAL lifetime to be at least a few decades. While we do not find evidence to support a scenario in which the variation is primarily driven by photoionization on multiyear timescales, there is some indication that the variation is produced by changes in outflow geometry. We do not observe significant changes in the BAL onset velocity, indicating that the absorber is either far from the source or is being continually replenished and is azimuthally symmetric. It is not possible in a human lifetime to expand the timescales in our study by more than a factor of a few using optical spectroscopy. However, the strong variation we have observed in some BALs indicates that future studies of large numbers of BAL QSOs will be valuable to constrain BAL lifetimes and the physics of variation.

  13. Quasar Outflow Constraints using Broad Absorption Line Variability Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Sean; Shields, Joseph C.; Hamann, Fred; Capellupo, Daniel M.; Gallagher, Sarah; Brandt, W. Niel; Herbst, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Quasar outflows are plausible candidates for AGN feedback processes influencing the host galaxy and may explain the established correlations between the supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the surrounding bulge. In order to better understand feedback and the physical conditions of the outflowing gas, observational constraints on absorber kinematics and energetics are needed. We are utilizing multiple epoch, rest frame UV quasar spectra to establish limits on outflow locations and total column densities for the purpose of estimating wind kinetic energies and momenta. We are also investigating the variability patterns of broad absorption lines (BALs) and mini-BALs across a range of ionization states to probe underlying connections between the various classes of absorbers. This work employs observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hobby Eberly Telescope, and MDM observatory. We detect BAL variability in 3 out of 12 FeLoBAL quasars over multiple year timescales and conclude that the variable absorbers lie within tens of parsecs of the SMBH based on interpretations of the Fe II and Mg II BALS. We also measure significant BAL changes across daily to yearly timescales in a sample of 71 quasars with plausible detections of the P V 1117,1128 BAL. Detecting phosphorus in absorption is notable because it traces high column density outflows and is therefore relevant for studying AGN feedback. Constraints on outflow energetics and other selected results will be presented.

  14. VERY LARGE TELESCOPE SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.

    2011-03-15

    We present spectropolarimetry of 19 confirmed and four possible bright, southern broad absorption line (BAL) quasars from the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. A wide range of redshifts is covered in the sample (from 0.9 to 3.4), and both low- and high-ionization quasars are represented, as well as radio-loud and radio-quiet BALQSOs. We continue to confirm previously established spectropolarimetric properties of BALQSOs, including the generally rising continuum polarization with shorter wavelengths and comparatively large fraction with high broadband polarization (6 of 19 with polarizations >2%). Emission lines are polarized less than or similar to the continuum, except in a few unusual cases, and absorption troughs tend to have higher polarizations. A search for correlations between polarization properties has been done, identifying two significant or marginally significant correlations. These are an increase in continuum polarization with decreasing optical luminosity (increasing absolute B magnitude) and decreasing C IV emission-line polarization with increased continuum polarization.

  15. Absorption Line Profiles for 39 Rapidly Rotating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckley, T. R.; Carroll, R. W.; Miller, R. D.

    1984-05-01

    Absorption lines of He II, HeI, MgII and other ions have been measured in 169 photographic coude spectra for 39 rapidly rotating B-type stars on the main sequence. All 1500 separate line profiles have been analysed with a procedure of differential corrections by least-squares to yield the following parameters and their error estimates: half-width, central depth, equivalent width and shape parameter. The shape parameter includes Voigt profiles and also `super-Gaussian' and `super-damping' profiles. Up to 15 separately measured line profiles in each star have been superimposed to yield better composite profiles with point scatter as small as 0.5 per cent. In addition, a preliminary value of V sin i is derived for each line of each star, and a mean value (including error bars) is derived for each star. Results are compared and discussed, with reference to forthcoming work incorporating stellar distortion, gravity darkening, and other second-order effects, which will allow determinations of axial inclination and differential rotation of individual stars, using the data sets presented here and elsewhere.

  16. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  17. X-Ray Continua of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    The targets for this program, PG1416-129 and LBQS 2212-1759 were known to be Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BALQSOs). BALQSOs are highly absorbed in soft X-rays. Good high energy response of Rossi-XTE made them ideal targets for observation. We observed LBQS 2212-1759 with PCA. We have now analyzed the data and found that the source was not detected. Since our target was expected to be faint, reliable estimate of background was very important. With the release of new FTOOLS (version 4.1) we were able to do so. We also analyzed a well known bright object and verified our results with the published data. This gave us confidence in the non-detection of our target LBQS 2212-1759. We are currently investigating the implications of this non-detection. Due to some scheduling problems, our second target PG1416-129 was not observed in A01. It was observed on 06/26/98. This target was detected with RXTE. We are now working on the spectral analysis with XSPEC.

  18. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Kai E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  19. The orientation and polarization of broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present new spectropolarimetric observations of eight radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, and combine these new data with our previous spectropolarimetric atlases (of both radio-loud and radio-quiet objects; DiPompeo et al. 2010, DiPompeo et al. 2011a) in order to investigate the polarization properties of BAL quasars as a group. The total (radio-selected) sample includes 36 (26) high-ionization and 22 (15) low-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs and LoBALs, respectively). On average, we confirm that broad emission lines are polarized at a level similar to or less than the continuum and broad absorption troughs are more highly polarized, but we note that these properties are not true for all individual objects. Of the whole sample, 18 (31 per cent) have high (>2 per cent) continuum polarization, including 45 per cent of the LoBALs and 22 per cent of the HiBALs. We identify a few correlations between polarization and other quasar properties, as well as some interesting non-correlations. In particular, continuum polarization does not correlate with radio spectral index, which suggests that the polarization is not due to a standard geometry and preferred viewing angle to BAL quasars. The polarization also does not correlate with the amount of intrinsic dust reddening, indicating that the polarization is not solely due to direct light attenuation either. Polarization does appear to depend on the minimum BAL outflow velocity, confirming the results of previous studies and it may correlate with the maximum outflow velocity. We also find that continuum polarization anticorrelates with the polarization in the C iv broad emission and broad absorption. These results suggest that the polarization of BAL quasars cannot be described by one simple model, and that the scatterer location and geometry can vary significantly from object to object.

  20. Tracing inflows and outflows with absorption lines in circumgalactic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Amanda Brady; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Thompson, Robert; Weinberg, David H.

    2014-10-01

    We examine how H I and metal absorption lines within low-redshift galaxy haloes trace the dynamical state of circumgalactic gas, using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include a well-vetted heuristic model for galactic outflows. We categorize inflowing, outflowing, and ambient gas based on its history and fate as tracked in our simulation. Following our earlier work, showing that the ionization level of absorbers was a primary factor in determining the physical conditions of absorbing gas, we show here that it is also a governing factor for its dynamical state. Low-ionization metal absorbers (e.g. Mg II) tend to arise in gas that will fall on to galaxies within several Gyr, while high-ionization metal absorbers (e.g. O VI) generally trace material that was deposited by outflows many Gyr ago. Inflowing gas is dominated by enriched material that was previously ejected in an outflow; hence, accretion at low redshifts is typically substantially enriched. Recycling wind material is preferentially found closer to galaxies, and is more dominant in lower mass haloes since high-mass haloes have more hot gas that is able to support itself against infall. Low-mass haloes also tend to re-eject more of their accreted material, owing to our outflow prescription that employs higher mass loading factors for lower mass galaxies. Typical H I absorbers trace unenriched ambient material that is not participating in the baryon cycle, but stronger H I absorbers arise in cool, enriched inflowing gas. Instantaneous radial velocity measures of absorbers are generally poor at distinguishing between inflowing and outflowing gas, except in the case of very recent outflows. These results suggest that probing halo gas using a range of absorbers can provide detailed information about the amount and physical conditions of material that is participating in the baryon cycle.

  1. Broad absorption line variability in radio-loud quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, C. A.; Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Capellupo, D. M.; Gibson, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability within a sample of 46 radio-loud quasars (RLQs), selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) data to include both core-dominated (39) and lobe-dominated (7) objects. The sample consists primarily of high-ionization BAL quasars, and a substantial fraction have large BAL velocities or equivalent widths; their radio luminosities and radio-loudness values span ˜2.5 orders of magnitude. We have obtained 34 new Hobby-Eberly Telescope spectra of 28 BAL RLQs to compare to earlier SDSS data, and we also incorporate archival coverage (primarily dual-epoch SDSS) for a total set of 78 pairs of equivalent width measurements for 46 BAL RLQs, probing rest-frame time-scales of ˜80-6000 d (median 500 d). In general, only modest changes in the depths of segments of absorption troughs are observed, akin to those seen in prior studies of BAL radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). Also similar to previous findings for RQQs, the RLQs studied here are more likely to display BAL variability on longer rest-frame time-scales. However, typical values of |{Δ}EW| and |{Δ}EW|/ are ˜40 ± 20 per cent lower for BAL RLQs when compared with those of a time-scale-matched sample of BAL RQQs. Optical continuum variability is of similar amplitude in BAL RLQs and BAL RQQs; for both RLQs and RQQs, continuum variability tends to be stronger on longer time-scales. BAL variability in RLQs does not obviously depend upon their radio luminosities or radio-loudness values, but we do find tentative evidence for greater fractional BAL variability within lobe-dominated RLQs. Enhanced BAL variability within more edge-on (lobe-dominated) RLQs supports some geometrical dependence to the outflow structure.

  2. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption system of the z(sub e) = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at z(sub a) = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from z(sub e) strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other z(sub a) approximately equal z(sub e) absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 10(exp 20)/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z(sub a) approximately equal to z(sub e) systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the

  3. Clear evidence for the presence of O VI absorption in QSO metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Limin; Savage, Blair D.

    1993-01-01

    We have detected O VI 1031.93 A, 1037.62 A doublet absorption in a composite QSO spectrum formed from a large number of intervening C IV absorption systems. The detections constitute the first firm evidence for the presence of O VI in intervening QSO metal absorption systems. The equivalent width of the detected O VI absorption implies an O VI column density N(O VI) not less than 2.8 x 10 exp 14/sq cm. This value, together with the nondetection of the N V 1238.82 A, 1242.80 A doublet absorption, suggests that N(O VI)/N(N V) not less than 4.4. For collisionally ionized gas with a solar O to N abundance ratio in thermal equilibrium the above ratio requires a temperature T not less than 2.5 x 10 exp 5 K. It is found that C IV systems which show low-ionization species and those which do not both have associated O VI absorption, suggesting that O VI is probably present in all C IV systems. We also find that C IV systems which show low-ionization species on average have stronger high-ionization absorption lines than those which do not. A simple interpretation was given to explain this trend.

  4. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane; Hamann, Fred; Murphy, Michael T.; Nestor, Daniel

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  5. The Luminosity Function of QSO Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Timothy S.; Casertano, Stefano; Turnshek, David A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present some results from our HST archival image study of 71 QSO host galaxies. The objects are selected to have z less than or equal to 0.46 and total absolute magnitude M(sub v) less than or equal to -23 in our adopted cosmology (H(sub 0) = 50 kilometers per second Mpc(sup-1), q(sub 0) = 0.5, lambda = 0)). The aim of this initial study is to investigate the composition of the sample with respect to host morphology and radio loudness, as well as derive the QSO host galaxy luminosity function. We have analyzed available WFPC2 images in R or I band (U in one case), using a uniform set of procedures. The host galaxies span a narrow range of luminosities and are exceptionally bright, much more so than normal galaxies, usually L greater than L*(sub v). The QSOs are almost equally divided among three subclasses: radio-loud QSOs with elliptical hosts, radio-quiet QSOs with elliptical hosts, and radio-quiet QSOs with spiral hosts. Radio-loud QSOs with spiral hosts are extremely rare. Using a weighting procedure, we derive the combined luminosity function of QSO host galaxies. We find that the luminosity function of QSO hosts differs in shape from that of normal galaxies but that they coincide at the highest luminosities. The ratio of the number of quasar hosts to the number of normal galaxies at a luminosity L*(sub v) is R = (Lv/11.48L*(sub v))(sup 2.46), where L*(sub v) corresponds to M*(sub v)= -22.35, and a QSO is defined to be an object with total nuclear plus host light M(sub v) less than or equal to -23. This ratio can be interpreted as the probability that a galaxy with luminosity L(sub V) will host a QSO at redshift z approximately equal to 0.26.

  6. Detection of emission lines from z ˜ 3 DLAs towards the QSO J2358+0149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, Raghunathan; Hussain, Tanvir; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Krühler, Thomas; Japelj, Jure; Pâris, Isabelle; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2016-04-01

    Using VLT/X-shooter we searched for emission line galaxies associated to four damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs) and one sub-DLA at 2.73≤z ≤3.25 towards QSO J2358+0149. We detect [O III] emission from a "low-cool" DLA at zabs= 2.9791 (having log N(H I) = 21.69 ± 0.10, [Zn/H] = -1.83 ± 0.18) at an impact parameter of, ρ ˜ 12 kpc. The associated galaxy is compact with a dynamical mass of (1 - 6) × 109 M⊙, very high excitation ([O III]/[O II] and [O III]/[Hβ] both greater than 10), 12+[O/H]≤8.5 and moderate star formation rate (SFR≤2 M⊙ yr-1). Such properties are typically seen in the low-z extreme blue compact dwarf galaxies. The kinematics of the gas is inconsistent with that of an extended disk and the gas is part of either a large scale wind or cold accretion. We detect Lyα emission from the zabs= 3.2477 DLA (having log N(H I)=21.12±0.10 and [Zn/H]=-0.97 ± 0.13). The Lyα emission is redshifted with respect to the metal absorption lines by 320 km s-1, consistent with the location of the red hump expected in radiative transport models. We derive SFR˜0.2-1.7 M⊙ yr-1 and Lyα escape fraction of ≥10 per cent. No other emission line is detected from this system. Because the DLA has a small velocity separation from the quasar (˜500 km s-1) and the DLA emission is located within a small projected distance (ρ < 5 kpc), we also explore the possibility that the Lyα emission is being induced by the QSO itself. QSO induced Lyα fluorescence is possible if the DLA is within a physical separation of 340 kpc to the QSO. Detection of stellar continuum light and/or the oxygen emission lines would disfavor this possibility. We do not detect any emission line from the remaining three systems.

  7. Detection of emission lines from z ˜ 3 DLAs towards the QSO J2358+0149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, Raghunathan; Hussain, Tanvir; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Krühler, Thomas; Japelj, Jure; Pâris, Isabelle; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2016-07-01

    Using VLT/X-shooter, we searched for emission line galaxies associated with four damped Lyman α systems (DLAs) and one sub-DLA at 2.73 ≤z ≤3.25 towards QSO J2358+0149. We detect [O III] emission from a `low-cool' DLA at zabs = 2.9791 (having log N(H I) = 21.69 ± 0.10, [Zn/H] = -1.83 ± 0.18) at an impact parameter of, ρ ˜ 12 kpc. The associated galaxy is compact with a dynamical mass of (1-6) × 109 M⊙, very high excitation ([O III]/[O II] and [O III]/[Hβ] both greater than 10), 12+[O/H]≤8.5 and moderate star formation rate (SFR ≤2 M⊙ yr-1). Such properties are typically seen in the low-z extreme blue compact dwarf galaxies. The kinematics of the gas is inconsistent with that of an extended disc and the gas is part of either a large scale wind or cold accretion. We detect Lyα emission from the zabs = 3.2477 DLA [having log N(H I) = 21.12 ± 0.10 and [Zn/H] = -0.97 ± 0.13]. The Lyα emission is redshifted with respect to the metal absorption lines by 320 km s-1, consistent with the location of the red hump expected in radiative transport models. We derive SFR ˜0.2-1.7 M⊙ yr-1 and Lyα escape fraction of ≥10 per cent. No other emission line is detected from this system. Because the DLA has a small velocity separation from the quasar (˜500 km s-1) and the DLA emission is located within a small projected distance (ρ < 5 kpc), we also explore the possibility that the Lyα emission is being induced by the QSO itself. QSO-induced Lyα fluorescence is possible if the DLA is within a physical separation of 340 kpc to the QSO. Detection of stellar continuum light and/or the oxygen emission lines would disfavour this possibility. We do not detect any emission line from the remaining three systems.

  8. A REFINED QSO SELECTION METHOD USING DIAGNOSTICS TESTS: 663 QSO CANDIDATES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae-Won; Protopapas, Pavlos; Trichas, Markos; Alcock, Charles; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Khardon, Roni; Byun, Yong-Ik

    2012-03-10

    We present 663 QSO candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) selected using multiple diagnostics. We started with a set of 2566 QSO candidates selected using the methodology presented in our previous work based on time variability of the MACHO LMC light curves. We then obtained additional information for the candidates by crossmatching them with the Spitzer SAGE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Chandra, the XMM, and an LMC UBVI catalog. Using this information, we specified six diagnostic features based on mid-IR colors, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution template fitting, and X-ray luminosities in order to further discriminate high-confidence QSO candidates in the absence of spectra information. We then trained a one-class Support Vector Machine model using the diagnostics features of the confirmed 58 MACHO QSOs. We applied the trained model to the original candidates and finally selected 663 high-confidence QSO candidates. Furthermore, we crossmatched these 663 QSO candidates with the newly confirmed 151 QSOs and 275 non-QSOs in the LMC fields. On the basis of the counterpart analysis, we found that the false positive rate is less than 1%.

  9. Evidence for Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in the Broad Absorption Lines and Reddening of Mrk 231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B.; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* λ10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ~100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

  10. Integral field spectroscopy of QSO host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, K.; Wisotzki, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Christensen, L.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M. M.

    2004-02-01

    We describe a project to study the state of the ISM in ˜20 low redshift (z<0.3) QSO host galaxies observed with the PMAS integral field spectrograph. We describe the development of the method to access the stellar and gas components of the spectrum without the strong nuclear emission, in order to access the host galaxy properties in the central region. It shows that integral field spectroscopy promises to be very efficient in studying the gas distribution and its velocity field, and also the spatially resolved stellar population in the host galaxies of luminous AGN.

  11. MOLECULAR GAS IN INFRARED ULTRALUMINOUS QSO HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, X. Y.; Hao, C.-N.; Gao, Y.; Tan, Q. H.; Mao, S.; Omont, A.; Flaquer, B. O.; Leon, S.; Cox, P.

    2012-05-10

    We report CO detections in 17 out of 19 infrared ultraluminous QSO (IR QSO) hosts observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The cold molecular gas reservoir in these objects is in a range of (0.2-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (adopting a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO} = 0.8 M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}). We find that the molecular gas properties of IR QSOs, such as the molecular gas mass, star formation efficiency (L{sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}), and CO (1-0) line widths, are indistinguishable from those of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). A comparison of low- and high-redshift CO-detected QSOs reveals a tight correlation between L{sub FIR} and L'{sub CO(1-0)} for all QSOs. This suggests that, similar to ULIRGs, the far-infrared emissions of all QSOs are mainly from dust heated by star formation rather than by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), confirming similar findings from mid-infrared spectroscopic observations by Spitzer. A correlation between the AGN-associated bolometric luminosities and the CO line luminosities suggests that star formation and AGNs draw from the same reservoir of gas and there is a link between star formation on {approx}kpc scale and the central black hole accretion process on much smaller scales.

  12. Studying Velocity Turbulence from Doppler-broadened Absorption Lines: Statistics of Optical Depth Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2008-10-10

    We continue our work on developing techniques for studying turbulence with spectroscopic data. We show that Doppler-broadened absorption spectral lines, in particular, saturated absorption lines, can be used within the framework of the previously introduced technique termed the velocity coordinate spectrum (VCS). The VCS relates the statistics of fluctuations along the velocity coordinate to the statistics of turbulence; thus, it does not require spatial coverage by sampling directions in the plane of the sky. We consider lines with different degree of absorption and show that for lines of optical depth less than one, our earlier treatment of the VCS developed for spectral emission lines is applicable, if the optical depth is used instead of intensity. This amounts to correlating the logarithms of absorbed intensities. For larger optical depths and saturated absorption lines, we show that only wings of the line are available for the analysis. In terms of the VCS formalism, this results in introducing an additional window, whose size decreases with the increase of the optical depth. As a result, strongly saturated absorption lines only carry the information about the small-scale turbulence. Nevertheless, the contrast of the fluctuations corresponding to the small-scale turbulence increases with the increase of the optical depth, which provides advantages for studying turbulence by combining lines with different optical depths. By combining different absorption lines one can develop a tomography of the turbulence in the interstellar gas in all its complexity.

  13. HI Absorption Lines Detected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-zu, Wu; Martha P, Haynes; Riccardo, Giovanelli; Ming, Zhu; Ru-rong, Chen

    2015-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of HI 21-cm absorption lines based on the 40% survey data released by the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA). (1) Ten HI candidate absorbers have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. (2) For those sources with no detected absorptions, we have calculated the upper limit of their foreground HI column density NHI. The statistical result of the NHI distribution indicates that the ratio Ts/f between the averaged spin temperature and coverage factor for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. The radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing wave are the main factors affecting the detection of HI absorption lines, which have been analyzed and discussed as well in order to find a method of solution. Our study can serve as a pathfinder for the future large-scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China with greatly increased sensitivity, bandwidth, and observational sky area. As prospects, we have discussed two types of observational studies of HI absorption lines toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  14. Multiple Velocity Components in the C IV Absorption Line of NGC 5548

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Elvis, Martin; Wilkes, Belinda

    1999-01-01

    We have observed the much-studied Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our 14 ks observation covers the C IV emission line at a resolution of greater than 20,000. Our purpose was to study the absorption line found at lower resolution by IUE and the HST Faint Object Spectrograph. We found that the C IV absorption line resolves into six separate doublets with equivalent widths of 0.07-0.38 Angstrom. The absorption lines have blueshifts relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy of 380-1250 km s(exp -1), except for one, which has a redshift of 250 km s(exp -1), suggesting both inflow and outflow. The inflowing component may be related to the accretion flow into the nuclear black hole. All the doublet lines are resolved by the GHRS. Three doublets are narrow, with FWHM greater than or approximately 100 km s(exp -1), and three are broad, FWHM approximately 160-290 km s(exp -1). We find evidence of partial covering by the narrow absorption lines. Either (but not both) of the two strongest broad doublets could be from the same material that produces the X-ray ionized absorber seen in soft X-rays. The remaining five systems must be at least 10 times less ionized (and so of lower total column density) to remain consistent with the X-ray spectra.

  15. Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Melia, F.; Lusso, E.; Risaliti, G.

    2016-03-01

    A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 6.5 using a nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray luminosities of quasi stellar objects (QSOs). The Type Ia Supernovae (SN) HD has already provided a high-precision test of cosmological models, but the fact that the QSO distribution extends well beyond the supernova range (z ≲ 1.8), in principle provides us with an important complementary diagnostic whose significantly greater leverage in z can impose tighter constraints on the distance versus redshift relationship. In this paper, we therefore perform an independent test of nine different cosmological models, among which six are expanding, while three are static. Many of these are disfavored by other kinds of observations (including the aforementioned Type Ia SNe). We wish to examine whether the QSO HD confirms or rejects these earlier conclusions. We find that four of these models (Einstein-de Sitter, the Milne universe, the static universe with simple tired light and the static universe with plasma tired light) are excluded at the > 99% C.L. The quasi-steady state model is excluded at > 95% C.L. The remaining four models (ΛCDM/wCDM, the Rh = ct universe, the Friedmann open universe and a static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only ΛCDM/wCDM and Rh = ct also pass the Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test. The optimized parameters in ΛCDM/wCDM are Ωm = 0.20-0.20+0.24 and wde = -1.2-∞+1.6 (the dark energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Ωm = 0.38-0.19+0.20 and wde = -0.28-0.40+0.52. But whereas this optimization of parameters in ΛCDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the Rh = ct universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.

  16. Evidence for structure in the H I column density distribution of QSO absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petitjean, P.; Webb, J. K.; Rauch, M.; Carswell, R. F.; Lanzetta, K.

    1993-01-01

    The H I column density distribution function of QSO absorption line systems is investigated using recent data with high spectral resolution, and extensive surveys of the Lyman limit systems and damped Ly-alpha systems. The hypothesis that the differential distribution function is fitted by a single power law is rejected at the 99 percent confidence level. A double power law, with a break at N(H I) = 10 exp 16/sq cm, also provides a poor fit over the range in which the sample is complete. While there are no discontinuities in the observed distribution, there is a clear flattening at N(H I) of about 10 exp 16/sq cm, compared to lower column densities. These observed features can be understood using models of photoionized clouds which are confined by an external pressure with density profiles governed by gravity. In particular, the flattening at N(H I) of about 10 exp 16/sq cm can be explained in terms of a transition between metal-poor and metal-rich systems.

  17. A Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph Survey for Broad Absorption Lines in a Sample of Low-redshift Weak [O III] Quasi-stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnshek, David A.; Monier, Eric M.; Sirola, Christopher J.; Espey, Brian R.

    1997-02-01

    The study by Boroson & Meyers led to the suggestion that radio-quiet QSOs with weak [O III] and strong Fe II emission spectra form a class of QSOs that has a high probability of exhibiting broad absorption lines (BALs) in their spectra. Furthermore, they argued that since narrow-line [O III] emission is almost certainly emitted isotropically, this indicates that such objects have relatively large BAL region covering factors. Low covering factor models are consistent with scenarios in which most QSOs have BAL regions, while higher covering factor models are consistent with scenarios in which there are special classes of QSOs with large BAL region outflows. By making Hubble Space Telescope (HST) FOS observations and using IUE or HST archival data when available, the details of the Boroson & Meyers suggestion have been explored by directly searching for classical C IV BALs in a sample of 18 QSOs with weak [O III] and often strong Fe II emission. Six of the 18 QSOs are found to exhibit C IV BALs. (In the archival sample, four of six objects have BALs, while two of the 12 new objects observed with the HST FOS have BALs.) However, there is evidence that the sample is heterogeneous, with IRAS-selected objects and high-luminosity objects having a greater tendency to exhibit BALs. If an isotropic model for [O III] emission equivalent width is considered, the results suggest that for the 18 object sample as a whole the average BAL region covering factor is ~0.33+0.20-0.09, which is significantly larger (with a more than 99% probability) than the overall fraction of QSOs observed to have BALs (normally taken as ~0.1). Given possible selection effects, in the context of an isotropic model the results may indicate that some of the sample objects have covering factors <<0.33, while others have covering factors >>0.33. At the same time, it is impossible to rule out in a non-model-dependent way a scenario in which orientation effects are important and covering factors are

  18. Statistical and physical evolution of QSO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caditz, David; Petrosian, Vahe

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the physical evolution of discrete extragalactic sources, the statistical evolution of the observed population of sources, and the cosmological model is discussed. Three simple forms of statistical evolution: pure luminosity evolution (PLE), pure density evolution (PDE), and generalized luminosity evolution (GLE), are considered in detail together with what these forms imply about the physical evolution of individual sources. Two methods are used to analyze the statistical evolution of the observed distribution of QSO's (quasars) from combined flux limited samples. It is shown that both PLE and PDE are inconsistent with the data over the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.2, and that a more complicated form of evolution such as GLE is required, independent of the cosmological model. This result is important for physical models of AGN, and in particular, for the accretion disk model which recent results show may be inconsistent with PLE.

  19. New Ground Based facilities in QSO research; The GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.

    New ground based observing opportunities are becoming, or about to become, available to astronomers for QSO research. These, combined with state of the art focal plane instruments, provide unprecedented sensitivity for detecting faint surface brightness features. During the talk I will take the liberty of talking about one of these new large telescope facilities currently being built in Spain, and will discuss some of the advantages for QSO research offered by these new facilities.

  20. Absorption-line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass-losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10 (exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  1. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  2. Discovery of an X-ray Violently Variable Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Gutierrez, Carlos M.; Punsly, Brian; Chevallier, Loic; Goncalves, Anabela C.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we report on a quasar that is violently variable in the X-rays, XVV. It is also a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) that exhibits both high ionization and low ionization UV absorption lines (LoBALQSO). It is very luminous in the X-rays (approximately 10(exp 46) ergs s(sup -l) over the entire X-ray band). Surprisingly, this does not over ionize the LoBAL outflow. The X-rays vary by a factor of two within minutes in the quasar rest frame, which is shorter than 1/30 of the light travel time across a scale length equal to the black hole radius. We concluded that the X-rays are produced in a relativistic jet beamed toward earth in which variations in the Doppler enhancement produce the XVV behavior.

  3. Radiatively driven winds for different power law spectra. [for explaining narrow and broad quasar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltrametti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The analytic solutions for radiatively driven winds are given for the case in which the winds are driven by absorption of line and continuum radiation. The wind solutions are analytically estimated for different parameters of the central source and for different power law spectra. For flat spectra, three sonic points can exist; it is shown, however, that only one of these sonic points is physically realistic. Parameters of the central source are given which generate winds of further interest for explaining the narrow and broad absorption lines in quasars. For the quasar model presented here, winds which could give rise to the narrow absorption lines are generated by central sources with parameters which are not realistic for quasars.

  4. Common lines in the rest-frame absorption-line spectra of QSOs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshni, Y. P.; Singh, D.

    1985-02-01

    Libby et al. (1984) have studied the absorption-line data for 13 QSOs in the rest-frames of the QSOs. It is shown that the number of groups in which 5 lines or more lie within a wavelength interval of 1.0 Å found by these authors is insignificantly different from that that would be expected from chance coincidences. Consequently, there is no evidence that the rest-frame wavelengths at which these groups occur have any special significance.

  5. What Quasars Really Look Like: Unification of the Emission and Absorption Line Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We propose a simple unifying structure for the inner regions of quasars and AGN. This empirically derived model links together the broad absorption line (BALS), the narrow UV/X-ray ionized absorbers, the BELR, and the 5 Compton scattering/fluorescing regions into a single structure. The model also suggests an alternative origin for the large-scale bi-conical outflows. Some other potential implications of this structure are discussed.

  6. Reionisation and High-Redshift Galaxies: The View from Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, George D.; Bolton, James S.; Lidz, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Determining when and how the first galaxies reionised the intergalactic medium promises to shed light on both the nature of the first objects and the cosmic history of baryons. Towards this goal, quasar absorption lines play a unique role by probing the properties of diffuse gas on galactic and intergalactic scales. In this review, we examine the multiple ways in which absorption lines trace the connection between galaxies and the intergalactic medium near the reionisation epoch. We first describe how the Ly α forest is used to determine the intensity of the ionising ultraviolet background and the global ionising emissivity budget. Critically, these measurements reflect the escaping ionising radiation from all galaxies, including those too faint to detect directly. We then discuss insights from metal absorption lines into reionisation-era galaxies and their surroundings. Current observations suggest a buildup of metals in the circumgalactic environments of galaxies over z ~ 6 to 5, although changes in ionisation will also affect the evolution of metal line properties. A substantial fraction of metal absorbers at these redshifts may trace relatively low-mass galaxies. Finally, we review constraints from the Ly α forest and quasar near zones on the timing of reionisation. Along with other probes of the high-redshift Universe, absorption line data are consistent with a relatively late end to reionisation (5.5 ≲ z ≲ 7); however, the constraints are still fairly week. Significant progress is expected to come through improved analysis techniques, increases in the number of known high-redshift quasars from optical and infrared sky surveys, large gains in sensitivity from next-generation observing facilities, and synergies with other probes of the reionisation era.

  7. Discovery of Broad Soft X-ray Absorption Lines from the Quasar Wind in PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Nardini, E.; Behar, E.; O’Brien, P. T.; Tombesi, F.; Turner, T. J.; Costa, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of the prototype accretion disk wind quasar, PDS 456, is presented. Here, the XMM-Newton reflection grating spectrometer spectra are analyzed from the large 2013–2014 XMM-Newton campaign, consisting of five observations of approximately 100 ks in length. During the last observation (OBS. E), the quasar is at a minimum flux level, and broad absorption line (BAL) profiles are revealed in the soft X-ray band, with typical velocity widths of {σ }{{v}}˜ {{10,000}} km s‑1. During a period of higher flux in the third and fourth observations (OBS. C and D, respectively), a very broad absorption trough is also present above 1 keV. From fitting the absorption lines with models of photoionized absorption spectra, the inferred outflow velocities lie in the range ˜ 0.1{--}0.2c. The absorption lines likely originate from He and H-like neon and L-shell iron at these energies. A comparison with earlier archival data of PDS 456 also reveals a similar absorption structure near 1 keV in a 40 ks observation in 2001, and generally the absorption lines appear most apparent when the spectrum is more absorbed overall. The presence of the soft X-ray BALs is also independently confirmed by an analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC spectra below 2 keV. We suggest that the soft X-ray absorption profiles could be associated with a lower ionization and possibly clumpy phase of the accretion disk wind, where the latter is known to be present in this quasar from its well-studied iron K absorption profile and where the wind velocity reaches a typical value of 0.3c.

  8. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Rapid CIV Broad Absorption Line Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, C. J.; Hall, P. B.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M.; Filiz Ak, N.; Chen, Yuguang; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Green, Paul J.; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, C. S.; McGreer, Ian D.; Pâris, I.; Peterson, B. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (˜4000 km s-1 wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (˜29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ˜10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of ne ≳ 3.9 × 105 cm-3. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  9. Hawaii 167: A compact absorption-line object at z = 2.35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Songaila, A.; Hu, E. M.; Egami, E.; Huang, J.-S.; Pickles, A. J.; Ridgway, S. E.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    During the course of the Hawaii K-band (2.1 micrometer) survey we have detected a compact object, Hawaii 167, lying at a redshift of 2.33, in which are seen both low- and high-ionization absorption lines. In the near-infrared we see broad H alpha emission at a redshift of 2.35 but do not detect the other Balmer lines, (O II) lambda 3727, or (O III) lambda 5007. The absence of strong Mg II or C IV emission in the rest ultraviolet suggests that, at these wavelengths, we may be seeing a poststarburst galaxy rather than a quasar. Indeed, this class of object may be common enough to represent a major episode of galaxy formation, possibly the formation of the spheroids. However, Q0059-2735, the most extreme member of the class of Mg II absorbing broad absorption line quasars, is very similar to the present object, and there may be an evolutionary sequence or some other close connection between Hawaii 167 and the broad absorption line quasars.

  10. High Signal-to-Noise Echelle Spectroscopy of Quasar Absorption Line Systems with Metals in the Direction of HS 1700+6416

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Lu, Limin; Savage, Blair D.

    We have obtained a high signal-to-noise (30 <= S/N <= 70), high-resolution (FWHM = 20 km s-1) spectrum of the radio-quiet QSO HS 1700+6416 (zem = 2.72) with the echelle spectrograph on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m telescope. We detect 13 metal systems in the optical spectrum of this QSO, including six systems with associated optically thin Lyman limit absorption in the HST spectrum obtained by Reimers et al. We use the apparent column density technique and profile fitting to measure the heavy-element column densities and to evaluate the impact of unresolved absorption saturation. Profile fitting indicates that four of the C IV systems are narrow, with b < 8 km s-1, which implies that these absorbers are relatively cool and are probably photoionized. The dense cluster of C IV doublets at 2.432 < zabs < 2.441 shows the weak line of one C IV absorber apparently aligned with the strong line of a different C IV doublet, i.e., line locked, for two pairs of C IV absorbers. Line locking has been detected previously in zabs ~ zem absorbers, where radiation pressure is likely to play a role, but is surprising in this case since this C IV complex is displaced by ~24,000 km s-1 from the QSO emission redshift. This may be the remnant (or precursor) of a broad absorption line (BAL) outflow. However, it is possible that these alignments are chance alignments rather than true line locking. The high-ion column density ratios in the multicomponent Lyman limit absorber at zabs = 2.3150 suggest that the ionization conditions in this absorber differ significantly from the conditions in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way. From photoionization models we derive [Si/H] >= -0.95 and [Al/H] >= -0.96 for the strongest component of this absorber. These are conservative lower limits derived from lower ionization stages only; photoionization models in agreement with the observed low and high ionization stages require [M/H] ~ -0.45. In contrast, Vogel & Reimers derived [N/H] < -1.04 and

  11. A HIRES Detection of NA I D Absorption in the Spectrum of the QSO PKS 2020-370 Due to the Galaxy Klemola 31A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Barlow, T. A.

    1994-12-01

    By using the Keck telescope and HIRES spectrograph we have detected Na I D absorption lines in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 2020-370 (V = 17.5, z = 1.048) due to the galaxy Klemola 31A (z = 0.0288). The PKS 2020-370 line of sight is near an apparent spiral arm only 20" from the nucleus of Klemola 31A which corresponds to 17 kpc (H_o = 50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) ). The spectrum of PKS 2020-370 has strong Ca II absorption lines (W_λ ~ 350 m Angstroms \\ for the K line) at the galaxy redshift (Boksenberg et al, 1980, ApJ, 242, L145), but previous attempts to detect Na I have resulted in upper limits (Boisse et al. 1988, A&A, 191, 193, Womble, 1992, thesis UCSD). We observed PKS 2020-370 with HIRES in May 1994 at a resolution of 8 km s(-1) FWHM for a total of 90 minutes. The Na I D doublet is detected with a total W_λ for the Na I 5891.6 Angstroms \\ (vac) absorption line of about 160 m Angstroms . The absorption appears as two main velocity components separated by 23 km s(-1) . The optically thin estimate for N(Na I) = 1.0 times 10(12) cm(-2) gives an estimated N(Ca II)/N(Na I) = 5. This value suggests that the gas in Klemola 31A along the QSO line of sight is ``halo like''. Along ``disk like'' lines of sight where Ca is thought to be depleted onto grains in our Galaxy, the N(Ca II)/N(Na I) ratio is usually small (<= 1). Other QSO--galaxy pairs often show disk like N(Ca II)/N(Na I) ratios when the line of sight intersects starlight at 25 mag per sq. arcsec (Womble, 1992 thesis UCSD). The PKS 2020-370 sightline is near the optical extent of Klemola 31A but the N(Ca II)/N(Na I) is consistent with the sightline passing through two clouds in the halo. This research has been supported in part by NASA NAS5--29293 and NAG5--1630.

  12. Absorption Line Analysis to Interprete and Constrain Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Evolution with Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The mammoth challenge for contemporary studies of galaxy formation and evolution are to establish detailed models in the cosmological context in which both the few parsec scale physics within galaxies are self-consistently unified and made consistent with the observed universe of galaxies. They key diagnostics reside with the gas physics, which dictate virtually every aspect of galaxy formation and evolution. The small scale physics includes stellar feedback, gas cooling, heating, and advection and the multiphase interstellar medium; the large scale physics includes intergalactic accretion, local merging, effects of supernovae driven winds, and the development of extended metal-enriched gas halos.Absorption line data have historically proven to be {and shall in the future} virtually the most powerful tool for understanding gas physics on all spatial scales over the majority of the age of the universe- the key to success. Simply stated, absorption lines are one of astronomy's most powerful observational windows on the universe {galaxy formation, galaxy winds, IGM metal enrichment, etc.}. The high quality and vast numbers of absorption line data {obtained with HST and FUSE} probe a broad range of gas structures {ISM, HVCs, halos, IGM} over the full cosmic span when galaxies are actively evolving.We propose to use LCDM hydrodynamic cosmological simulations employing a Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree {ART} code to develop and refine our understanding of stellar feedback physics and its role in governing the gas physics that regulates the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. We aim to substantially progress our understanding of all possible gas phases embedded within and extending far from galaxies. Our methodology is to apply a series of quantitative observational constraints from absorption line systems to better understand extended galaxy halos and the influence of the cosmological environment of the simulated galaxies: {1} galaxy halos

  13. THE DARK SIDE OF QSO FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Trenti, Michele; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2011-07-20

    Observed high-redshift QSOs, at z {approx} 6, may reside in massive dark matter (DM) halos of more than 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} and are thus expected to be surrounded by overdense regions. In a series of 10 constrained simulations, we have tested the environment of such QSOs. The usage of constrained realizations has enabled us to address the issue of cosmic variance and to study the statistical properties of the QSO host halos. Comparing the computed overdensities with respect to the unconstrained simulations of regions empty of QSOs, assuming there is no bias between the DM and baryon distributions, and invoking an observationally constrained duty cycle for Lyman break galaxies, we have obtained the galaxy count number for the QSO environment. We find that a clear discrepancy exists between the computed and observed galaxy counts in the Kim et al. samples. Our simulations predict that on average eight z {approx} 6 galaxies per QSO field should have been observed, while Kim et al. detect on average four galaxies per QSO field compared to an average of three galaxies in a control sample (GOODS fields). While we cannot rule out a small number of statistics for the observed fields to high confidence, the discrepancy suggests that galaxy formation in the QSO neighborhood proceeds differently than in the field. We also find that QSO halos are the most massive of the simulated volume at z {approx} 6 but this is no longer true at z {approx} 3. This implies that QSO halos, even in a case where they are the most massive ones at high redshifts, do not evolve into the most massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.

  14. DISENTANGLING THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONS OF CENTAURUS A. II. ON THE NATURE OF THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Espada, D.; Matsushita, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Peck, A. B.; Henkel, C.; Iono, D.; Israel, F. P.; Muller, S.; Petitpas, G.; Pihlstroem, Y.; Taylor, G. B.; Trung, D. V.

    2010-09-01

    We report on atomic gas (H I) and molecular gas (as traced by CO(2-1)) redshifted absorption features toward the nuclear regions of the closest powerful radio galaxy, Centaurus A (NGC 5128). Our H I observations using the Very Long Baseline Array allow us to discern with unprecedented sub-parsec resolution H I absorption profiles toward different positions along the 21 cm continuum jet in the inner 0.''3 (or 5.4 pc). In addition, our CO(2-1) data obtained with the Submillimeter Array probe the bulk of the absorbing molecular gas with little contamination by emission, which was not possible with previous CO single-dish observations. We shed light on the physical properties of the gas in the line of sight with these data, emphasizing the still open debate about the nature of the gas that produces the broad absorption line ({approx}55 km s{sup -1}). First, the broad H I line is more prominent toward the central and brightest 21 cm continuum component than toward a region along the jet at a distance {approx}20 mas (or 0.4 pc) further from the nucleus. This indicates that the broad absorption line arises from gas located close to the nucleus, rather than from diffuse and more distant gas. Second, the different velocity components detected in the CO(2-1) absorption spectrum match well with other molecular lines, such as those of HCO{sup +}(1-0), except the broad absorption line that is detected in HCO{sup +}(1-0) (and most likely related to that of the H I). Dissociation of molecular hydrogen due to the active galactic nucleus seems to be efficient at distances r {approx}< 10 pc, which might contribute to the depth of the broad H I and molecular lines.

  15. Multiple Absorption-line Spectroscopy of the Intergalactic Medium. I. Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.

    2011-04-01

    We present a physically based absorption-line model for the spectroscopic study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). This model adopts results from Cloudy simulations and theoretical calculations by Gnat & Sternberg to examine the resulting observational signatures of the absorbing gas with the following ionization scenarios: collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), photoionization equilibrium, hybrid (photo- plus collisional ionization), and non-equilibrium cooling. As a demonstration, we apply this model to new observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of the IGM absorbers at z ~ 0.1877 along the 1ES 1553+113 sight line. We identify Lyα, C III, O VI, and N V absorption lines with two distinct velocity components (blue at zb = 0.18757; red at zr = 0.18772) separated by Δ(cz)/(1 + z) ≈ 38 km s-1. Joint analyses of these lines indicate that none of the examined ionization scenarios can be applied with confidence to the blue velocity component, although photoionization seems to play a dominant role. For the red component, CIE can be ruled out, but pure photoionization and hybrid scenarios (with T < 1.3 × 105 K) are more acceptable. The constrained ranges of hydrogen density and metallicity of the absorbing gas are n H = (1.9-2.3) × 10-5 cm-3 and Z = (0.43-0.67) Z sun. These constraints indicate O VI and H I ionization fractions, f O VI = 0.10-0.15 and f H I = (3.2-5.1) × 10-5, with total hydrogen column density N H = (0.7-1.2) × 1018 cm-2. This demonstration shows that the joint analysis of multiple absorption lines can constrain the ionization state of an absorber, and results used to estimate the baryonic matter contained in the absorber.

  16. Empirical calibrations of optical absorption-line indices based on the stellar library MILES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Jonas; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia

    2010-07-01

    Stellar population models of absorption-line indices are an important tool for the analysis of stellar population spectra. They are most accurately modelled through empirical calibrations of absorption-line indices with the stellar parameters such as effective temperature, metallicity and surface gravity, which are the so-called fitting functions. Here we present new empirical fitting functions for the 25 optical Lick absorption-line indices based on the new stellar library Medium resolution INT Library of Empirical Spectra (MILES). The major improvements with respect to the Lick/IDS library are the better sampling of stellar parameter space, a generally higher signal-to-noise ratio and a careful flux calibration. In fact, we find that errors on individual index measurements in MILES are considerably smaller than in Lick/IDS. Instead, we find the rms of the residuals between the final fitting functions and the data to be dominated by errors in the stellar parameters. We provide fitting functions for both Lick/IDS and MILES spectral resolutions and compare our results with other fitting functions in the literature. A FORTRAN 90 code is available online in order to simplify the implementation in stellar population models. We further calculate the offsets in index measurements between the Lick/IDS system to a flux-calibrated system. For this purpose, we use the three libraries MILES, ELODIE and STELIB. We find that offsets are negligible in some cases, most notably for the widely used indices Hβ, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335. In a number of cases, however, the difference between the flux-calibrated library and Lick/IDS is significant with the offsets depending on index strengths. Interestingly, there is no general agreement between the three libraries for a large number of indices, which hampers the derivation of a universal offset between the Lick/IDS and flux-calibrated systems.

  17. Direct Insights Into Observational Absorption Line Analysis Methods of the Circumgalactic Medium Using Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Vander Vliet, Jacob R.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Klypin, Anatoly

    2015-03-01

    We study the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a z = 0.54 simulated dwarf galaxy using hydroART simulations. We present our analysis methods, which emulate observations, including objective absorption line detection, apparent optical depth (AOD) measurements, Voigt profile (VP) decomposition, and ionization modeling. By comparing the inferred CGM gas properties from the absorption lines directly to the gas selected by low ionization H i and Mg ii, and by higher ionization C iv and O vi absorption, we examine how well observational analysis methods recover the “true” properties of CGM gas. In this dwarf galaxy, low ionization gas arises in sub-kiloparsec “cloud” structures, but high ionization gas arises in multiple extended structures spread over 100 kpc; due to complex velocity fields, highly separated structures give rise to absorption at similar velocities. We show that AOD and VP analysis fails to accurately characterize the spatial, kinematic, and thermal conditions of high ionization gas. We find that H i absorption selected gas and O vi absorption gas arise in totally distinct physical gas structures, calling into question current observational techniques employed to infer metallicities and the total mass of “warm-hot” CGM gas. We present a method to determine whether C iv and O vi absorbing gas is photo or collisionally ionized and whether the assumption of ionization equilibrium is sound. As we discuss, these and additional findings have strong implications for how accurately currently employed observational absorption line methods recover the true gas properties, and ultimately, our ability to understand the CGM and its role in galaxy evolution.

  18. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-07-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  19. The interstellar deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio - A reevaluation of Lyman absorption-line measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    The D/H ratio in the local interstellar medium is evaluated based upon previously published measurements of Lyman absorption lines together with the hypothesis that the D/H ratio is constant. A unique value for the D/H ratio of 1.5 (+/- 0.2) x 10 exp -5 by number is shown to be consistent with all published determinations made with the Copernicus and the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellites. The possibility that the D/H ratio may vary substantially in the local interstellar medium is considered and found to be unnecessary.

  20. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissé, P.; Bergeron, J.; Prochaska, J. X.; Péroux, C.; York, D. G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of five distant sources were assembled, for which two spectra are available, either VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES, which were taken several years apart. Methods: We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behaviour of a broad variety of absorption line systems by sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lyα systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results: Intervening absorption lines from Mg ii, Fe ii, or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of (moderately ionised) gas appear in general to be remarkably stable (1σ upper limits as low as 10% for some components on scales in the range 10-100 au), even for systems at zabs ≈ ze. Marginal variations are observed for Mg ii lines towards PKS 1229-021 at zabs = 0.83032; however, we detect no systems that display any change as large as those reported in low resolution SDSS spectra. The lack of clear variations for low β Mg ii systems does not support the existence of a specific population of absorbers made of swept-up gas towards blazars. In neutral or diffuse molecular media, clear changes are seen for Galactic Na i lines towards PKS 1229-02 (decrease in N by a factor of four for one of the five components over 9.7 yr), corresponding to structure on a scale of about 35 au, in good agreement with known properties of the Galactic interstellar medium. Tentative variations are detected for H2J = 3 lines towards FBQS J2340-0053 at zabs = 2.05454 (≃35% change in column density, N, over 0.7 yr in the rest frame), suggesting

  1. Probing the Inner Structure of Polar Broad Absorption-Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kajal

    2008-10-01

    We have discovered a sample of polar broad absorption-line quasars (BALQSOs). We know their inclination angles with reasonable certainty. Thus, these are the ideal objects to probe their inner structure through the X-ray studies. However, to date, we do not have a reasonably good signal-to-noise ratio X-ray spectrum of any of these objects. Here, we propose deep XMM-Newton observations of four polar BALQSOs to study the physical processes responsible for the X-ray emission, distribution of BAL clouds, wind driven mechanism, jet entrainment, etc. Finally, all these results will be used to constrain our time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations.

  2. Atlas of absorption lines from 0 to 17 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Rothman, L. S.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Richardson, D. J.; Larsen, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Plots of absorption line strength versus line position for wavenumbers from 0 to 17,900 cm(-1) are shown for 20 atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, O2, NO, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO3, OH, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, ClO, OCS, H2CO). Also shown are similar plots of lower-state energy values for adsorption lines for the strongly adsorbing atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, and CH4) for wavenumbers from 0 to 5000 cm(-1).

  3. X-ray Emission and Absorption Lines During the SSS Phase of RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönrich, R. A.; Ness, J.-U.

    2008-12-01

    The high-resolution X-ray spectra of the sixth outburst of RS Ophiuchi revealed P Cygni-like line profiles. We use the column densities of selected isolated absorption lines to derive the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio. We next discuss the origin of the emission lines, which may originate from the shock, and the absorption and emission lines may thus have a different formation history. Finally, we discuss the correlation of high-amplitude variability detected during the early SSS phase with variability in the hardness ratio that follows the same pattern but is shifted by 1000~sec.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: QSOs narrow absorption line variability (Hacker+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, T. L.; Brunner, R. J.; Lundgren, B. F.; York, D. G.

    2013-06-01

    Catalogues of 2,522 QAL systems and 33 variable NAL systems detected in SDSS DR7 quasars with repeat observations. The object identifiers, position coordinates, and plate-MJD-fibre designations are taken from the SpecObjAll table in the SDSS Catalogue Archive Server (CAS) while the quasar redshifts (zqso) are from Hewett & Wild (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/405/2302). The absorption system redshift (zabs), system grade, and detected lines are outputs of the York et al. (2013, in. prep.) QAL detection pipeline. Some absorption lines are flagged based on alternate identifications (a), proximity of masked pixels (b), or questionable continuum fits (c). (3 data files).

  5. The VLBI structure of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.

    2016-02-01

    The nature and origin of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars and their relationship to non-BAL quasars are an open question. The BAL quasars are probably normal quasars seen along a particular line of sight. Alternatively, they are young or recently refueled. The high resolution radio morphology of BAL quasars is very important to understand the radio properties of BAL quasars. We present VLBA observations at L and C bands for a sample of BAL quasars. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties, and distinguish the present models of explaining BAL phenomena.

  6. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  7. Absorption lines in the spectrum of Q0248 + 4302 due to a foreground tidal tail

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, W.L.W.; Steidel, C.C. California Univ., Berkeley )

    1990-08-01

    The strong absorption lines in the spectrum of the quasar Q0248 + 4302 are discussed. The absorption has been shown to be produced in a sinuous tidal tail which emanates from the nearby galaxy pair G0248 + 4302A,B. There is a velocity difference of about 260 km/s between the systemic redshift of the interacting galaxies and the redshift of the tidal tail at a galactocentric distance of about 11/h kpc. The large velocity spread observed in the tail gas is probably responsible for the unusual strength of the interstellar lines. 18 refs.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project: The Unusual Absorption-Line System in the Spectrum of PG 2302+029--Ejected or Intervening?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jannuzi, B. T.; Hartig, G. F.; Kirhakos, S.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Turnshek, D. A.; Weymann, R. J.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bergeron, J.; Boksenberg, A.; Savage, B. D.; Schneider, D. P.; Wolfe, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of a high-ionization broad absorption line system at a redshift of z(sub abs) = 0.695 in the spectrum of the z(sub em) = 1.052 radio-quiet quasar PG 2302+029. Broad absorption with FWHM from 3000 to 5000 km/s is detected from C iv, N v, and O vi in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph spectra of the quasar. A narrow-line system (FWHM approx. 250 km/s) at z(sub abs) = 0.7016 is resolved from the broad blend and includes absorption by Ly alpha and the C iv, N v, and O vi doublets. No absorption by low-ionization metal species (e.g., Si II and Mg II) is detected in the HST or ground-based spectra for either the broad or the narrow system. The centroids of the broad system lines are displaced by approx. 56,000 km/s to the blue of the quasar's broad emission lines. The reddest extent of the broad-line absorption is more than 50,000 km/s from the quasar. The properties of this system are unprecedented, whether it is an intervening or an ejected system.

  9. Detection of the lensing galaxy for the double QSO HE 1104-1805

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, M.; Claeskens, J.-F.; Surdej, J.; Hjorth, J.; Refsdal, S.; Wucknitz, O.; Sørensen, A. N.; Grundahl, F.

    1998-09-01

    High angular resolution ground-based direct imaging ( V, R, Ic) of the double QSO HE 1104-1805 has been obtained with the NOT and NTT telescopes. Analysis of these data led to the first detection of the lensing galaxy. Direct imaging of HE 1104-1805 has subsequently been carried out with the Planetary Camera (WFPC2) through the F555W (nearly Johnson V) and F814W (nearly Kron-Cousins Ic) filters onboard HST. These images confirm the presence of the deflector between the two lensed quasar components (A & B). Direct imaging of this system in the near infrared (IR) at 2.2 μm ( K'), with IRAC-2b at the Cassegrain focus of the ESO/MPI 2.2 m telescope, indicates that the additional component is indeed a very red extended object with magnitude K ≈ 16.5. We present deconvolutions of the HST and IR images using the 2-channel PLUCY method. From the HST observations, we also report very accurate relative positions and brightnesses of the QSO components. By comparison between the ground-based and the HST observations, from February-March 1994 to November 1995, we possibly detect the fading of component A by ˜0.3 magnitudes in the optical and a corresponding fading of B by about half this value. The observed monotonic decrease of the magnitude difference between B and A as a function of wavelength is consistent with a partial amplification of the A component by microlensing. Evolutionary models for galaxies show that, in order to produce the observed colour indices V - Ic > 2 and 4 < Ic - K < 4.5, the galaxy is likely to be of elliptical type with a redshift 0.95 < z < 1.4. This range is consistent with the redshift z = 1.32 measured from the absorption lines of metallic species in the spectra of the quasar components. However, other values for the redshift of the lens inside this range cannot be excluded. This galaxy would presently be among the most distant known gravitational lenses. Several theoretical models are found to fit the observations. The simplest one is a

  10. The bispectrum of the Lyman α forest at z~ 2-2.4 from a large sample of UVES QSO absorption spectra (LUQAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, M.; Matarrese, S.; Heavens, A.; Haehnelt, M. G.; Kim, T.-S.; Springel, V.; Hernquist, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a determination of the bispectrum of the flux in the Lyman α forest of quasi-stellar object (QSO) absorption spectra obtained from a large sample of Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) QSO absorption spectra (LUQAS), which consists of spectra observed with the high-resolution UVES. Typical errors on the observed bispectrum as obtained from a jack-knife estimator are ~ 50 per cent. For wavenumbers in the range 0.03 < k < 0.1 s km-1 the observed bispectrum agrees within the errors with that of the synthetic absorption spectra obtained from numerical hydro-simulations of a ΛCDM model with and without feedback from star formation. Including galactic feedback changes the bispectrum by less than 10 per cent. At smaller wavenumbers, the associated metal absorption lines contribute about 50 per cent to the bispectrum and the observed bispectrum exceeds that of the simulations. At wavenumbers k < 0.03 s km-1, second-order perturbation theory applied to the flux spectrum gives a reasonable (errors smaller than 30 per cent) approximation to the bispectra of observed and simulated absorption spectra. The bispectrum of the observed absorption spectra also agrees, within the errors, with that of a randomized set of absorption spectra where a random shift in wavelength has been added to absorption lines identified with VPFIT. This suggests that for a sample of the size presented here, the errors on the bispectrum are too large to discriminate between models with very different 3D distribution of Lyman α absorption. If it were possible to substantially reduce these errors for larger samples of absorption spectra, the bispectrum might become an important statistical tool for probing the growth of gravitational structure in the Universe at redshift z>~ 2.

  11. The Milky Way's Hot Gas Kinematics: Signatures in Current and Future OVII Absorption Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-02-01

    Detections of z ≈ 0 oxygen absorption and emission lines indicate the Milky Way hosts a hot (˜ {10}6 K), low-density plasma extending ≳ 50 {{kpc}} into the Mily Way’s halo. Current X-ray telescopes cannot resolve the line profiles, but the variation of their strengths on the sky constrains the radial gas distribution. Interpreting the O vii Kα absorption line strengths has several complications, including optical depth and line of sight velocity effects. Here, we present model absorption line profiles accounting for both of these effects to show the lines can exhibit asymmetric structures and be broader than the intrinsic Doppler width. The line profiles encode the hot gas rotation curve, the net inflow or outflow of hot gas, and the hot gas angular momentum profile. We show how line of sight velocity effects impact the conversion between equivalent width and the column density, and provide modified curves of growth accounting for these effects. As an example, we analyze the LMC sight line pulsar dispersion measure and O vii equivalent width to show the average gas metallicity is ≳ 0.6{Z}⊙ and b ≳ 100 km s-1. Determining these properties offers valuable insights into the dynamical state of the Milky Way’s hot gas, and improves the line strength interpretation. We discuss future strategies to observe these effects with an instrument that has a spectral resolution of about 3000, a goal that is technically possible today.

  12. The JHU-SDSS Metal Absorption Line Catalog: Redshift Evolution and Properties of Mg II Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangtun; Ménard, Brice

    2013-06-01

    We present a generic and fully automatic method aimed at detecting absorption lines in the spectra of astronomical objects. The algorithm estimates the source continuum flux using a dimensionality reduction technique and nonnegative matrix factorization, and then detects and identifies metal absorption lines. We apply it to a sample of ~105 quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and compile a sample of ~40,000 Mg II- and Fe II-absorber systems, spanning the redshift range 0.4 < z < 2.3. The corresponding catalog is publicly available. We study the statistical properties of these absorber systems and find that the rest equivalent width distribution of strong Mg II absorbers follows an exponential distribution at all redshifts, confirming previous studies. Combining our results with recent near-infrared observations of Mg II absorbers, we introduce a new parameterization that fully describes the incidence rate of these systems up to z ~ 5. We find the redshift evolution of strong Mg II absorbers to be remarkably similar to the cosmic star formation history over 0.4 < z < 5.5 (the entire redshift range covered by observations), suggesting a physical link between these two quantities.

  13. THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF THE INTRINSIC N V NARROW ABSORPTION LINE SYSTEMS OF THREE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jian; Charlton, Jane C.; Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Ganguly, Rajib E-mail: misawatr@shinshu-u.ac.j

    2010-10-20

    We employ detailed photoionization models to infer the physical conditions of intrinsic narrow absorption line systems found in high-resolution spectra of three quasars at z = 2.6-3.0. We focus on a family of intrinsic absorbers characterized by N V lines that are strong relative to the Ly{alpha} lines. The inferred physical conditions are similar for the three intrinsic N V absorbers, with metallicities greater than 10 times the solar value (assuming a solar abundance pattern), and with high ionization parameters (log U {approx} 0). Thus, we conclude that the unusual strength of the N V lines results from a combination of partial coverage, a high ionization state, and high metallicity. We consider whether dilution of the absorption lines by flux from the broad emission line region can lead us to overestimate the metallicities and we find that this is an unlikely possibility. The high abundances that we infer are not surprising in the context of scenarios in which metal enrichment takes place very early on in massive galaxies. We estimate that the mass outflow rate in the absorbing gas (which is likely to have a filamentary structure) is less than a few M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} under the most optimistic assumptions, although it may be embedded in a much hotter, more massive outflow.

  14. Measurability of Kinetic Temperature from Metal Absorption-Line Spectra Formed in Chaotic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Agafonova, Irina I.

    1999-06-01

    We present a new method for recovering the kinetic temperature of the intervening diffuse gas to an accuracy of 10%. The method is based on the comparison of unsaturated absorption-line profiles of two species with different atomic weights. The species are assumed to have the same temperature and bulk motion within the absorbing region. The computational technique involves the Fourier transform of the absorption profiles and the consequent entropy-regularized χ2-minimization (ERM) to estimate the model parameters. The procedure is tested using synthetic spectra of C+, Si+, and Fe+ ions. The comparison with the standard Voigt fitting analysis is performed, and it is shown that the Voigt deconvolution of the complex absorption-line profiles may result in estimated temperatures that are not physical. We also successfully analyze Keck telescope spectra of C II λ1334 and Si II λ1260 lines observed at the redshift z=3.572 toward the quasar Q1937-1009 by Tytler et al. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is jointly operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology.

  15. THE JHU-SDSS METAL ABSORPTION LINE CATALOG: REDSHIFT EVOLUTION AND PROPERTIES OF Mg II ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guangtun; Menard, Brice

    2013-06-20

    We present a generic and fully automatic method aimed at detecting absorption lines in the spectra of astronomical objects. The algorithm estimates the source continuum flux using a dimensionality reduction technique and nonnegative matrix factorization, and then detects and identifies metal absorption lines. We apply it to a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and compile a sample of {approx}40,000 Mg II- and Fe II-absorber systems, spanning the redshift range 0.4 < z < 2.3. The corresponding catalog is publicly available. We study the statistical properties of these absorber systems and find that the rest equivalent width distribution of strong Mg II absorbers follows an exponential distribution at all redshifts, confirming previous studies. Combining our results with recent near-infrared observations of Mg II absorbers, we introduce a new parameterization that fully describes the incidence rate of these systems up to z {approx} 5. We find the redshift evolution of strong Mg II absorbers to be remarkably similar to the cosmic star formation history over 0.4 < z < 5.5 (the entire redshift range covered by observations), suggesting a physical link between these two quantities.

  16. Detectability of cold streams into high-redshift galaxies by absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Sternberg, Amiel; Gnat, Orly; Ceverino, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major source of fuel for disc buildup, violent disc instability and star formation in massive galaxies at high redshift. We investigate to what extent such cold gas is detectable in the extended circumgalactic environment of galaxies via Lyα absorption and selected low-ionization metal absorption lines. We model the expected absorption signatures using high-resolution zoom-in adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. In the post-processing, we distinguish between self-shielded gas and unshielded gas. In the self-shielded gas, which is optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation, we assume pure collisional ionization for species with an ionization potential greater than 13.6 eV. In the optically-thin, unshielded gas, these species are also photoionized by the metagalactic radiation. In addition to absorption of radiation from background quasars, we compute the absorption line profiles of radiation emitted by the galaxy at the centre of the same halo. We predict the strength of the absorption signal for individual galaxies without stacking. We find that the Lyα absorption profiles produced by the streams are consistent with observations of absorption and emission Lyα profiles in high-redshift galaxies. Due to the low metallicities in the streams, and their low covering factors, the metal absorption features are weak and difficult to detect.

  17. Spectro web: oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines in the sun and procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.

    2008-10-01

    We update the online SpectroWeb database of spectral standard reference stars with 1178 oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines observed in the optical spectrum of the Sun and Procyon (α CMi A). The updated line oscillator strengths are measured with best fits to the disk-integrated KPNO-FTS spectrum of the Sun observed between 4000 Å and 6800 Å using state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations. A subset of 660 line oscillator strengths is validated with synthetic spectrum calculations of Procyon observed with ESO-UVES between 4700 Å and 6800 Å. The new log(gf)-values in SpectroWeb are improvements upon the values offered in the online Vienna Atomic Line Database (VALD). We find for neutral iron-group elements, such as Fe I, Ni I, Cr I, and Ti I, a statistically significant over-estimation of the VALD log((gf)-values for weak absorption lines with normalized central line depths below 15 %. For abundant lighter elements (e.g. Mg I and Ca I) this trend is statistically not significantly detectable, with the exception of Si I for which the log(gf)-values of 60 weak and medium-strong lines are substantially decreased to best fit the observed spectra. The newly measured log(gf)-values are available in the SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org, which interactively displays the observed and computed stellar spectra, together with corresponding atomic line data.

  18. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  19. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  20. Evidence for active galactic nucleus feedback in the broad absorption lines and reddening of MRK 231 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Leighly, Karen M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C.

    2014-06-20

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* λ10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ∼100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

  1. The η Car Campaign with UVES at the ESO VLT II. Interstellar and circumstellar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Stahl, O.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.; Gull, T. R.

    2005-09-01

    We monitored η Car and the Homunculus using the ESO VLT UVES spectrograph between 2002 and 2004 (see Weis et al., this proceedings). In these high dispersion spectra practically all interstellar absorption features known in the 3000 Å to 10000 Å regime are present (e.g. 4 Ti II lines, 3 Fe I lines, the Ca I line, both Na I doublets, the two K I doublets, and the Ca II doublets, several molecular lines, and a number of diffuse interstellar bands). Near-UV STIS spectra show many low ionization absorption lines (e.g. Gull et al., this proceedings), but there are several differences in the velocity structure and line strengths between these lines of sight, e.g. we do not detect multiple absorption components between -350 to -550 km s-1 in the UVES spectra. Changes over time are present in e.g. the Ca II lines, with small column density changes in the (probably interstellar) +80 km s-1 component and large changes in the -510 km s-1 component, which is most probably located in the outer shell of the Homunculus (see e.g. Nielsen et al., this proceedings). Similar changes in the Ti II 3384 Å component at -147 km s-1 are present, too. With the data set, we not only follow the temporal evolution of the circumstellar absorption components (presumably originating near η Car and in the Homunculus) before, during and after the event, but also search for changes along our long-slits centered on the star and on FOS4. Indeed, the -147 km s-1 component of the Ti II 3384 Å lines shows line strength variations over the southeast lobe of the Homunculus. A preliminary search for very high velocity absorption lines from the outer ejected using only one of our spectra already yielded a possible detection at -1500 km s-1. Clearly a detailed analysis of the absorption lines in the UVES data will provide many new insights into the structure and physics of η Car's ejecta.

  2. MULTIPLE ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yangsen; Michael Shull, J.; Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.

    2011-04-01

    We present a physically based absorption-line model for the spectroscopic study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). This model adopts results from Cloudy simulations and theoretical calculations by Gnat and Sternberg to examine the resulting observational signatures of the absorbing gas with the following ionization scenarios: collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), photoionization equilibrium, hybrid (photo- plus collisional ionization), and non-equilibrium cooling. As a demonstration, we apply this model to new observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of the IGM absorbers at z {approx} 0.1877 along the 1ES 1553+113 sight line. We identify Ly{alpha}, C III, O VI, and N V absorption lines with two distinct velocity components (blue at z{sub b} = 0.18757; red at z{sub r} = 0.18772) separated by {Delta}(cz)/(1 + z) {approx} 38 km s{sup -1}. Joint analyses of these lines indicate that none of the examined ionization scenarios can be applied with confidence to the blue velocity component, although photoionization seems to play a dominant role. For the red component, CIE can be ruled out, but pure photoionization and hybrid scenarios (with T < 1.3 x 10{sup 5} K) are more acceptable. The constrained ranges of hydrogen density and metallicity of the absorbing gas are n{sub H} = (1.9-2.3) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -3} and Z = (0.43-0.67) Z{sub sun}. These constraints indicate O VI and H I ionization fractions, f{sub OVI} = 0.10-0.15 and f{sub HI} = (3.2-5.1) x 10{sup -5}, with total hydrogen column density N{sub H} = (0.7-1.2) x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. This demonstration shows that the joint analysis of multiple absorption lines can constrain the ionization state of an absorber, and results used to estimate the baryonic matter contained in the absorber.

  3. Is the X-ray spectrum of the narrow emission line QSO PG1211+143 defined by its energetic outflow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the bright QSO PG1211+143 in 2001 revealed a blueshifted absorption line spectrum indicative of a high-velocity radial outflow of highly ionized gas. Unless highly collimated, the outflow mass rate was shown to be comparable to the accretion rate, with mechanical energy a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity. Analysis of the full XMM-Newton data set now allows the wider effects of that energetic outflow to be explored. We find that absorption and re-emission of the primary continuum flux in the ionized outflow, together with a second, less strongly absorbed, continuum component can explain the strong `soft excess' in PG1211+143 without the extreme velocity `smearing' in conflict with observed absorption line widths. Previously unpublished data from a second XMM-Newton observation of PG1211+143 is shown to be consistent with the new spectral model, finding that the additional continuum component dominates the spectral variability. We speculate that this variable continuum component is powered by the high-velocity outflow.

  4. Ultraviolet Fe VII absorption lines in planetary nebula nuclei, hot subdwarfs, and hot degenerate objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for Fe VII absorption lines in data from high-dispersion IUE-SWP observations of PN nuclei (PNN), hot subdwarfs (HSDs), and hot white dwarfs (HWDs). The data-reduction techniques employed are outlined, and the results are presented in extensive tables and sample spectra and characterized in detail. Absorption in at least one of the four Fe VII lines above 120 nm wavelength is found in 22 of 51 PNN, and possibly in 10 HSDs, in the pulsating HWD PG 1159 - 035, and in the PNN K1 - 16. It is concluded that Fe VII is more common in WD progenitors such as PNN than previously predicted and is especially typical of the more luminous low-gravity stars.

  5. An absorption line in the ultraviolet spectrum of 40 Eridani B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstein, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two excellent low-resolution spectra show an absorption line of equivalent width 3 A, near 1391 A, in the typical DA (hydrogen atmosphere) white dwarf 40 Eri B. The line is confirmed by a high-resolution spectrum and is the first seen in any DA star. Ultraviolet fluxes and the profile of Lyman-alpha confirm an effective temperature near 17,000 K. If the line is Si IV, it requires a temperature near 40,000 K. Unattractive possibilities are a hot circumstellar absorbing envelope dependent on accretion from companions, or formation at large optical depth in a transparent atmosphere with high Si/H. A suggestion that H2 should be considered leads to the possible interpretation as the (0, 5) transition of the Lyman band, formed at small optical depth. The band should be stronger in cooler DAs.

  6. Multi - Wavelength Analysis of Intermediate Class Absorption Line Galaxies in CFHTLS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baburao Pandge, Mahadev

    2015-08-01

    We present optical and X-ray analysis of a sample of some absorption line galaxies (ALGs). These galaxies are lie in the redshift range 0.14 < z < 0.34 and have X-ray luminosities L{0.5-10keV} = 1041-1043 erg s-1. The distribution of log (fX/fO) imply that these objects are intermediate class objects, i.e. lie between normal and classical active galaxies. From X-ray analysis of two of the intermediate class galaxies, namely ALG2 and ALG3, exhibit extended nature, perhaps linked with their cluster environment. Thus, from the X-ray spectral and optical imaging analysis, it is likely that all the targeted ALGs studied here can be the group/cluster candidates. Hardness ratio of these 5 candidates is found to be -0.42 \\pm 0.10, consistent with that reported for galaxies.

  7. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. II. RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-11-20

    The spectral absorption lines in early-type galaxies contain a wealth of information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population. Using our new population synthesis model that accounts for the effect of variable abundance ratios of 11 elements, we analyze very high quality absorption line spectra of 38 early-type galaxies and the nuclear bulge of M31. These data extend to 1 {mu}m and they therefore include the IMF-sensitive spectral features Na I, Ca II, and FeH at 0.82 {mu}m, 0.86 {mu}m, and 0.99 {mu}m, respectively. The models fit the data well, with typical rms residuals {approx}< 1%. Strong constraints on the IMF and therefore the stellar mass-to-light ratio, (M/L){sub stars}, are derived for individual galaxies. We find that the IMF becomes increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing velocity dispersion and [Mg/Fe]. At the lowest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF is consistent with the Milky Way (MW) IMF, while at the highest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF contains more low-mass stars (is more bottom-heavy) than even a Salpeter IMF. Our best-fit (M/L){sub stars} values do not exceed dynamically based M/L values. We also apply our models to stacked spectra of four metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and find an (M/L){sub stars} that implies fewer low-mass stars than a MW IMF, again agreeing with dynamical constraints. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed trends and conclude that variation in the IMF is the simplest and most plausible.

  8. WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF K TRANSITIONS OF OXYGEN, NEON, AND MAGNESIUM WITH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Jinyuan; Zhang Shuangnan; Yao Yangsen

    2013-09-10

    Accurate atomic transition data are important in many astronomical research areas, especially for studies of line spectroscopy. Whereas transition data of He-like and H-like ions (i.e., ions in high-charge states) have been accurately calculated, the corresponding data of K transitions of neutral or low-ionized metal elements are still very uncertain. Spectroscopy of absorption lines produced in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been proven to be an effective way to measure the central wavelengths of these atomic transitions. In this work, we analyze 36 Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating observations to search for and measure the ISM absorption lines along sight lines to 11 low-mass X-ray binaries. We correct the Galactic rotation velocity to the rest frame for every observation and then use two different methods to merge all the corrected spectra to a co-added spectrum. However, the co-added spectra obtained by this method exhibit biases, toward to either observations with high counts or lines with high signal-to-noise ratios. We do a Bayesian analysis of several significantly detected lines to obtain the systematic uncertainty and the bias correction for other lines. Compared to previous studies, our results improve the wavelength accuracy by a factor of two to five and significantly reduce the systematic uncertainties and biases. Several weak transitions (e.g., 1s-2p of Mg IV and Mg V; 1s-3p of Mg III and Mg V) are also detected for the first time, albeit with low significance; future observations with improved accuracy are required to confirm these detections.

  9. Multi-Sightline Observation of Narrow Absorption Lines in Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Saez, Cristian; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Chartas, George; Bauer, Franz E.; Inada, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-07-01

    We exploit the widely separated images of the lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 ({z}{em} = 2.197, θ = 22.″5) to observe its outflowing wind through two different sightlines. We present an analysis of three observations, including two with the Subaru telescope in 2010 February and 2014 April, separated by four years, and one with the Very Large Telescope, separated from the second Subaru observation by ∼2 months. We detect 66 narrow absorption lines (NALs), of which 24 are classified as intrinsic NALs that are physically associated with the quasar based on partial coverage analysis. The velocities of intrinsic NALs appear to cluster around values of {v}{ej} ∼ 59,000, 43,000, and 29,000 km s‑1, which is reminiscent of filamentary structures obtained by numerical simulations. There are no common intrinsic NALs at the same redshift along the two sightlines, implying that the transverse size of the NAL absorbers should be smaller than the sightline distance between two lensed images. In addition to the NALs with large ejection velocities of {v}{ej} > 1000 km s‑1, we also detect broader proximity absorption lines (PALs) at {z}{abs} ∼ {z}{em}. The PALs are likely to arise in outflowing gas at a distance of r ≤ 620 pc from the central black hole with an electron density of n e ≥8.7 × 103 cm‑3. These limits are based on the assumption that the variability of the lines is due to recombination. We discuss the implications of these results on the three-dimensional structure of the outflow.

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

  11. A multi-epoch spectroscopic study of the BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. II. Emission- and absorption-line variability time lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturni, F. G.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Perna, M.; Dadina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The study of high-redshift bright quasars is crucial to gather information about the history of galaxy assembly and evolution. Variability analyses can provide useful data on the physics of quasar processes and their relation with the host galaxy. Aims: In this study, we aim to measure the black hole mass of the bright lensed BAL QSO APM 08279+5255 at z = 3.911 through reverberation mapping, and to update and extend the monitoring of its C IV absorption line variability. Methods: We perform the first reverberation mapping of the Si IV and C IV emission lines for a high-luminosity quasar at high redshift with the use of 138 R-band photometric data and 30 spectra available over 16 years of observations. We also cross-correlate the C IV absorption equivalent width variations with the continuum light curve to estimate the recombination time lags of the various absorbers and infer the physical conditions of the ionised gas. Results: We find a reverberation-mapping time lag of ~900 rest-frame days for both Si IV and C IV emission lines. This is consistent with an extension of the BLR size-to-luminosity relation for active galactic nuclei up to a luminosity of ~1048 erg s-1, and implies a black hole mass of 1010 M⊙. Additionally, we measure a recombination time lag of ~160 days in the rest frame for the C IV narrow absorption system, which implies an electron density of the absorbing gas of ~2.5 × 104 cm-3. Conclusions: The measured black hole mass of APM 08279+5255 indicates that the quasar resides in an under-massive host-galaxy bulge with Mbulge ~ 7.5MBH, and that the lens magnification is lower than ~8. Finally, the inferred electron density of the narrow-line absorber implies a distance of the order of 10 kpc of the absorbing gas from the quasar, placing it within the host galaxy.

  12. The Dust-to-Gas Ratio in the Damped Ly alpha Clouds Towards the Gravitationally Lensed QSO 0957+561

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, Lin; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    We present HST/FOS spectra of the two bright images (A and B) of the gravitationally lensed QSO 0957+561 in the wavelength range 2200-3300 A. We find that the absorption system (Z(sub abs)) = 1.3911) near z(sub em) is a weak, damped Ly alpha system with strong Ly alpha absorption lines seen in both images. However, the H(I) column densities are different, with the line of sight to image A intersecting a larger column density. The continuum shapes of the two spectra differ in the sense that the flux level of image A increases more slowly toward shorter wavelengths than that of image B. We explain this as the result of differential reddening by dust grains in the damped Ly alpha absorber. A direct outcome of this explanation is a determination of the dust-to-gas ratio, k, in the damped Ly alpha system. We derive k = 0.55 + 0.18 for a simple 1/lambda extinction law and k = 0.31 + 0.10 for the Galactic extinction curve. For gravitationally lensed systems with damped Ly alpha absorbers, our method is a powerful tool for determining the values and dispersion of k, and the shapes of extinction curves, especially in the FUV and EUV regions. We compare our results with previous work.

  13. Constraining the variation of the fine-structure constant with observations of narrow quasar absorption lines

    SciTech Connect

    Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure in even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10{sup –5}, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (– 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10{sup –5} in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10{sup –5}, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (– 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10{sup –5}. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (– 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10{sup –5}. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements of

  14. Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB 080310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Ledoux, C.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Smette, A.; De Cia, A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Fox, A. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Jakobsson, P.

    2013-01-01

    We model the time-variable absorption of Fe II, Fe III, Si II, C II and Cr II detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.42743. To estimate the rest-frame afterglow brightness as a function of time, we use a combination of the optical VRI photometry obtained by the RAPTOR-T telescope array, which is presented in this paper, and Swift's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations. Excitation alone, which has been successfully applied for a handful of other GRBs, fails to describe the observed column density evolution in the case of GRB 080310. Inclusion of ionization is required to explain the column density decrease of all observed Fe II levels (including the ground state 6D9/2) and increase of the Fe III 7S3 level. The large population of ions in this latter level (up to 10% of all Fe III) can only be explained through ionization of Fe II, as a large fraction of the ionized Fe II ions (we calculate 31% using the Flexible Atomic and Cowan codes) initially populate the 7S3 level of Fe III rather than the ground state. This channel for producing a significant Fe III 7S3 level population may be relevant for other objects in which absorption lines from this level, the UV34 triplet, are observed, such as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and η Carinae. This provides conclusive evidence for time-variable ionization in the circumburst medium, which to date has not been convincingly detected. However, the best-fit distance of the neutral absorbing cloud to the GRB is 200-400 pc, i.e. similar to GRB-absorber distance estimates for GRBs without any evidence for ionization. We find that the presence of time-varying ionization in GRB 080310 is likely due to a combination of the super-solar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = +0.2) and the low H I column density (log N(H i) = 18.7) in the host of GRB 080310. Finally

  15. Time-Variable Complex Metal Absorption Lines in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Tajitsu, Akito

    2005-08-01

    We present a new spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 taken 1.28 yr (0.36 yr in the quasar rest frame) after a previous observation with Subaru+HDS. The new spectrum enables us to search for time variability as an identifier of intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs). This quasar shows a rich complex of C IV NALs within 60,000 km s-1 of the emission redshift. On the basis of covering factor analysis, Misawa et al. found that the C IV NAL system at zabs=2.42-2.45 (system A, at a shift velocity of vsh=8300-10,600 km s-1 relative to the quasar) was intrinsic to the quasar. With our new spectrum, we perform time variability analysis, as well as covering factor analysis, to separate intrinsic NALs from intervening NALs for eight C IV systems. Only system A, which was identified as an intrinsic system in the earlier paper by Misawa et al., shows a strong variation in line strength (Wobs~10.4-->19.1 Å). We speculate that a broad absorption line (BAL) could be forming in this quasar (i.e., many narrower lines will blend together to make a BAL profile). We illustrate the plausibility of this suggestion with the help of a simulation in which we vary the column densities and covering factors of the NAL complex. Under the assumption that a change of ionization state causes the variability, a lower limit can be placed on the electron density (ne>~3×104cm-3) and an upper limit on the distance from the continuum source (r<=6 kpc). On the other hand, if the motion of clumpy gas causes the variability (a more likely scenario), the crossing velocity and the distance from the continuum source are estimated to be vcross>8000 km s-1 and r<3 pc. In this case, the absorber does not intercept any flux from the broad emission line region, but only flux from the UV continuum source. If we adopt the dynamical model of Murray et al., we can obtain a much more strict constraint on the distance of the gas parcel from the continuum source, r<0.2 pc. Based on data collected at the Subaru

  16. IMPROVED AND QUALITY-ASSESSED EMISSION AND ABSORPTION LINE MEASUREMENTS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Sarzi, Marc; Schawinski, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    We present a new database of absorption and emission-line measurements based on the entire spectral atlas from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 7th data release of galaxies within a redshift of 0.2. Our work makes use of the publicly available penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) and gas and absorption line fitting (gandalf) IDL codes, aiming to improve the existing measurements for stellar kinematics, the strength of various absorption-line features, and the flux and width of the emissions from different species of ionized gas. Our fit to the stellar continuum uses both standard stellar population models and empirical templates obtained by combining a large number of stellar spectra in order to fit a subsample of high-quality SDSS spectra for quiescent galaxies. Furthermore, our fit to the nebular spectrum includes an exhaustive list of both recombination and forbidden lines. Foreground Galactic extinction is implicitly treated in our models, whereas reddening in the SDSS galaxies is included in the form of a simple dust screen component affecting the entire spectrum that is accompanied by a second reddening component affecting only the ionized gas emission. In order to check for systematic departures from the rather standard set of assumptions that enters our models, we provide a quality assessment for our fit to the SDSS spectra in our sample, for both the stellar continuum and the nebular emissions and across different wavelength regions. This quality assessment also allows the identification of objects with either problematic data or peculiar features. We hope to foster the discovery potential of our database; therefore, our spectral fit is available to the community. For example, based on the quality assessment around the H{alpha} and [N II] {lambda}6584 lines, approximately 1% of the SDSS spectra classified as 'galaxies' by the SDSS pipeline do in fact require additional broad lines to be matched, even though they do not show a strong continuum from an active

  17. Improved and Quality-assessed Emission and Absorption Line Measurements in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Sarzi, Marc; Schawinski, Kevin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2011-08-01

    We present a new database of absorption and emission-line measurements based on the entire spectral atlas from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 7th data release of galaxies within a redshift of 0.2. Our work makes use of the publicly available penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) and gas and absorption line fitting (gandalf) IDL codes, aiming to improve the existing measurements for stellar kinematics, the strength of various absorption-line features, and the flux and width of the emissions from different species of ionized gas. Our fit to the stellar continuum uses both standard stellar population models and empirical templates obtained by combining a large number of stellar spectra in order to fit a subsample of high-quality SDSS spectra for quiescent galaxies. Furthermore, our fit to the nebular spectrum includes an exhaustive list of both recombination and forbidden lines. Foreground Galactic extinction is implicitly treated in our models, whereas reddening in the SDSS galaxies is included in the form of a simple dust screen component affecting the entire spectrum that is accompanied by a second reddening component affecting only the ionized gas emission. In order to check for systematic departures from the rather standard set of assumptions that enters our models, we provide a quality assessment for our fit to the SDSS spectra in our sample, for both the stellar continuum and the nebular emissions and across different wavelength regions. This quality assessment also allows the identification of objects with either problematic data or peculiar features. We hope to foster the discovery potential of our database; therefore, our spectral fit is available to the community. For example, based on the quality assessment around the Hα and [N II] λ6584 lines, approximately 1% of the SDSS spectra classified as "galaxies" by the SDSS pipeline do in fact require additional broad lines to be matched, even though they do not show a strong continuum from an active nucleus, as

  18. Constraining the Variation of the Fine-structure Constant with Observations of Narrow Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure in even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10-5, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (- 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10-5 in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10-5, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (- 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10-5. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (- 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10-5. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements of quasar absorption lines are not yet capable of

  19. Evidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Hutsemékers, D.; Anguita, T.; Braibant, L.; Riaud, P.

    2015-10-01

    Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing in gravitationally lensed quasars is one of the few techniques that can test this model, yielding to the measurement of the size and of temperature profile of the accretion disc. We present spectroscopic observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, which reveal partial microlensing of the continuum emission that appears to originate from two separated regions: a microlensed region, corresponding the compact accretion disc; and a non-microlensed region, more extended and contributing to at least 30% of the total UV-continuum flux. Because this extended continuum is occulted by the broad absorption line clouds, it is not associated with the host galaxy, but rather with light scattered in the neighbourhood of the central engine. We measure the amplitude of microlensing of the compact continuum over the rest-frame wavelength range 1000-7000 Å. Following a Bayesian scheme, we confront our measurements to microlensing simulations of an accretion disc with a temperature varying as T ∝ R-1/ν. We find a most likely source half-light radius of R1/2 = 0.61 × 1016cm (i.e., 0.002 pc) at 0.18 μm, and a most-likely index of ν = 0.4. The standard disc (ν = 4/3) model is not ruled out by our data, and is found within the 95% confidence interval associated with our measurements. We demonstrate that, for H1413+117, the existence of an extended continuum in addition to the disc emission only has a small impact on the inferred disc parameters, and is unlikely to solve the tension between the microlensing source size and standard disc sizes, as previously reported in the literature. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). ESO program ID: 386.B-0337.Appendices A and B are available in electronic form

  20. The stability of QSO/AGN broad emission line clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krinsky, I. S.; Puetter, R. C.

    1992-08-01

    Results of a numerical linear stability analysis of QSO/AGN emission-line clouds (ELCs) embedded within a confining hot intercloud medium (HIM) are reported. A first-order linear perturbation analysis reveals two important ionstabilities. The first instability is thermal in nature and arises in the interface region between the HIM and the ELC where thermal convection dominates gas heating; the growth time of the instability is approximately 1000 s, resulting in an ELC evaporation time of about 10 yr. The second instability is dynamic in nature, with the sound wave amplitude growing in response to radiative forces. The growth time of this instability is about 10 exp 6 s and essentially independent of the wavelength. The results suggest that if QSO/AGN ELCs have properties similar to those of the standard ELC model, then the broad-line region is in a constant state of flux in which ELCs continually form, are destroyed, and then re-formed.

  1. MOSFIRE ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF z > 2 QUIESCENT GALAXIES: PROBING A PERIOD OF RAPID SIZE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Newman, Andrew B.

    2014-06-20

    Using the MOSFIRE near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph on the Keck 1 Telescope, we have secured high signal-to-noise ratio absorption line spectra for six massive galaxies with redshift 2 < z < 2.5. Five of these galaxies lie on the red sequence and show signatures of passive stellar populations in their rest-frame optical spectra. By fitting broadened spectral templates we have determined stellar velocity dispersions and, with broad-band Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer photometry and imaging, stellar masses and effective radii. Using this enlarged sample of galaxies, we confirm earlier suggestions that quiescent galaxies at z > 2 have small sizes and large velocity dispersions compared to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The dynamical masses are in very good agreement with stellar masses (log M {sub *}/M {sub dyn} = –0.02 ± 0.03), although the average stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio is larger than that found at lower redshift (–0.23 ± 0.05). By assuming evolution at fixed velocity dispersion, not only do we confirm a surprisingly rapid rate of size growth but we also consider the necessary evolutionary track on the mass-size plane and find a slope α = dlog R{sub e} /dlog M {sub *} ≳ 2 inconsistent with most numerical simulations of minor mergers. Both results suggest an additional mechanism may be required to explain the size growth of early galaxies.

  2. Gravitationally redshifted absorption lines in the X-ray burst spectra of a neutron star.

    PubMed

    Cottam, J; Paerels, F; Mendez, M

    2002-11-01

    The fundamental properties of neutron stars provide a direct test of the equation of state of cold nuclear matter, a relationship between pressure and density that is determined by the physics of the strong interactions between the particles that constitute the star. The most straightforward method of determining these properties is by measuring the gravitational redshift of spectral lines produced in the neutron star photosphere. The equation of state implies a mass-radius relation, while a measurement of the gravitational redshift at the surface of a neutron star provides a direct constraint on the mass-to-radius ratio. Here we report the discovery of significant absorption lines in the spectra of 28 bursts of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO0748-676. We identify the most significant features with the Fe XXVI and XXV n = 2-3 and O VIII n = 1-2 transitions, all with a redshift of z = 0.35, identical within small uncertainties for the respective transitions. For an astrophysically plausible range of masses (M approximately 1.3-2.0 solar masses; refs 2-5), this value is completely consistent with models of neutron stars composed of normal nuclear matter, while it excludes some models in which the neutron stars are made of more exotic matter. PMID:12422210

  3. Variability of 188 broad absorption lines QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Weihao

    2015-08-01

    The variability of broad absorption lines is investigated for a sample of 188 BAL QSOs (Z > 1.7) from the SDSS DR7, covering a timescale of about 0.001 - 3 years in the rest frame. 79 variable regions in the C iv BAL troughs are identified in 47 two-epoch different spectra. For 188 BAL QSOs with two-epoch spectra, it is found that there is no significant correlation between ∆L1500 and ∆α, and about half BAL QSOs appear redder during their brighter phases. It is consistent with the result for non-BAL QSOs by Bian et al. For a subsample of BAL QSOs with variable regions in BAL toughs, it is found that there is a mediate correlation between the ∆L1500 and ∆α, about 70% BAL QSOs appear bluer during their brighter phases. A larger proportion of BAL QSOs with variable BAL-trough regions show bluer during their brighter phases, which implies that the origin of variable BAL-trough regions is related to the central accretion processing. There is a weak correlation between ∆EW and ∆L1500. It suggests that the BAL-trough variation is not dominated by photoionization.

  4. The velocity distribution of interstellar gas observed in strong UV absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of three strong interstellar UV absorption lines of N I (1199 A), N II (1083 A), and Si III (1206 A) in 47 stars of widely varying distance and a variety of spectral types are analyzed to obtain a velocity distribution function for the interstellar gas. A technique based on the maximum and minimum velocities observed along a line of sight is adopted because of heavy line blending, and results are discussed for both power-law and exponential distribution functions. The expected distribution of radiative-phase supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium is calculated as a function of SNR birthrate and of the interstellar density in which they evolve. The results are combined with observed distance estimates, and it is shown that an interstellar density in excess of 0.1 per cu cm would be required to keep the SNRs sufficiently confined so that their cross sections are consistent with the observed number of components. The alternative possibility is considered that SNRs do not enter the radiative phase before escaping from the Galaxy or colliding with neighboring remnants.

  5. Modeling the double-trough structure observed in broad absorption line QSOs using radiative acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model explaining the double trough, separated by delta v approximately = 5900 km/s, observed in the C IV lambda-1549 broad absorption line (BAL) in a number of BALQSOs. The model is based on radiative acceleration of the BAL outflow, and the troughs result from modulations in the radiative force. Specifically, where the strong flux from the Lyman-alpha lambda-1215 broad emission line is redshifted to the frequency of the N V lambda-1240 resonance line, in the rest frame of the accelerating N V ions, the acceleration increases and the absorption is reduced. At higher velocities the Lyman-alpha emission is redshifted out of the resonance and the N V ions experience a declining flux which causes the second absorption trough. A strongly nonlinear relationship between changes in the flux and the optical depth in the lines is shown to amplify the expected effect. This model produces double troughs for which the shallowest absorption between the two troughs occurs at v approximately = 5900 km/s. Indeed, we find that a substantial number of the observed objects show this feature. A prediction of the model is that all BALQSOs that show a double-trough signature will be found to have an intrinsic sharp drop in their spectra shortward of approximately 1200 A.

  6. Atlas of Absorption Lines from 0 to 17900 Cm (sup)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Rothman, L. S.; Rinsland, C. P.; Pickett, H. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Namkung, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Plots of logarithm (base 10) of absorption line strength versus wavenumber from 0 to 17900/cm(sup)-1 are shown for the 28 atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, O2, NO, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO3, OH, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, ClO, OCS, H2CO, HOCl, N2, HCN, CH3Cl, H2O2, C2H2, C2H6, PH3), which appear in the 1986 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory high-resolution transmission molecular absorption data base (HITRAN) compilation, and for O(P-3), O-18 isotopic ozone, and HO2 from the 1984 JPL compilation in the 0- to 200/cm(sup)-1 region, and infrared solar CO lines at 4500 K. Also shown are plots of logarithm (base 10) of approximate infrared absorption cross sections of 11 heavy molecules versus wavenumber. The cross-section data cover 700 to 1800/cm(sup)-1 and are included as a separate data file in the 1986 HITRAN database.

  7. THE PITTSBURGH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY Mg II QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SURVEY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Monier, Eric M.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-04-15

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 {<=} z {<=} 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains {approx}17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the {approx}44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  8. AN INFRARED EXCESS IDENTIFIED IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Brotherton, M. S.; Myers, A. D.

    2013-01-10

    If broad absorption line (BAL) quasars represent a high-covering-fraction evolutionary state (even if this is not the sole factor governing the presence of BALs), it is expected that they should show an excess of mid-infrared radiation compared to normal quasars. Some previous studies have suggested that this is not the case. We perform the first analysis of the IR properties of radio-loud BAL quasars, using IR data from WISE and optical (rest-frame ultraviolet) data from SDSS, and compare the BAL quasar sample with a well-matched sample of unabsorbed quasars. We find a statistically significant excess in the mid- to near-infrared luminosities of BAL quasars, particularly at rest-frame wavelengths of 1.5 and 4 {mu}m. Our sample was previously used to show that BALs are observed along many lines of sight toward quasars, but with an overabundance of more edge-on sources, suggesting that orientation factors into the appearance of BALs. The evidence here-of a difference in IR luminosities between BAL quasars and unabsorbed quasars-can be ascribed to evolution. This suggests that a merging of the current BAL paradigms is needed to fully describe the class.

  9. Rest-frame optical properties of luminous, radio-selected broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Ganguly, R.; Brotherton, M. S.; DiPompeo, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX spectra of eight moderate-redshift (z = 0.7-2.4), radio-selected (log R* ≈ 0.4-1.9) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The spectra cover the rest-frame optical band. We compare the optical properties of these quasars to those of canonically radio-quiet (log R* ≲ 1) BAL quasars at similar redshifts and to low-redshift quasars from the Palomar-Green catalogue. As with previous studies of BAL quasars, we find that [O III] λ5007 is weak, and optical Fe II emission is strong, a rare combination in canonically radio-loud (log R* ≳ 1) quasars. With our measurements of the optical properties, particularly the Balmer emission-line widths and the continuum luminosity, we have used empirical scaling relations to estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios. These lie in the range (0.4-2.6) × 109 M⊙ and 0.1-0.9, respectively. Despite their comparatively extreme radio properties relative to most BAL quasars, their optical properties are quite consistent with those of radio-quiet BAL quasars and dissimilar to those of radio-loud non-BAL quasars. While BAL quasars generally appear to have low values of [O III] λ5007/Fe II an extreme of `Eigenvector 1', the Balmer line widths and Eddington ratios do not appear to significantly differ from those of unabsorbed quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities.

  10. Absorption line metrology by optical feedback frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Johannes; Kassi, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Optical feedback frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (OFFS-CRDS) is a near-shot-noise-limited technique combining a sensitivity of with a highly linear frequency axis and sub-kHz resolution. Here, we give an in-depth review of the key elements of the experimental setup encompassing a highly stable V-shaped reference cavity, an integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator and a tightly locked ring-down cavity with a finesse of 450,000. Carrying out a detailed analysis of the spectrometer performance and its limitations, we revisit the photo-electron shot-noise limit in CRDS and discuss the impact of optical fringes. We demonstrate different active schemes for fringe cancelation by varying the phase of parasitic reflections. The proof-of-principle experiments reported here include a broadband high-resolution spectrum of carbon dioxide at 1.6 µm and an isolated line-shape measurement with a signal-to-noise ratio of 80,000. Beyond laboratory-based absorption line metrology for fundamental research, OFFS-CRDS holds a considerable potential for field laser measurements of trace gas concentrations and isotopic ratios by virtue of its small sample volume and footprint, the robust cavity-locking scheme and supreme precision.

  11. The compact structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Wang, T. G.; Xie, F. G.

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of EVN+MERLIN very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) polarization observations of eight broad absorption line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including four low-ionization BAL quasars (LoBALs) and four high-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs) with either steep or flat spectra on Very Large Array (VLA) scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than 300 pc. In all cases, the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 per cent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2 × 109 to 5 × 1010K), suggests a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio morphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider a possible evolutionary scenario for BAL QSOs. In this scenario, BAL QSOs are probably a young population of radio sources that are compact steep spectrum or GHz peaked radio source analogues at the low end of radio power.

  12. Atlas of absorption lines from 0 to 17900 cm (sup)-1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Rothman, L.S.; Rinsland, C.P.; Pickett, H.M.; Richardson, D.J.; Namkung, J.S.

    1987-09-01

    Plots of logarithm (base 10) of absorption line strength versus wavenumber from 0 to 17900/cm(sup)-1 are shown for the 28 atmospheric gases (H/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, N/sub 2/O, CO, CH/sub 4/, O/sub 2/, NO, SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, NH/sub 3/, HNO/sub 3/, OH, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, ClO, OCS, H/sub 2/CO, HOCl, N/sub 2/, HCN, CH/sub 3/Cl, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, PH/sub 3/), which appear in the 1986 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory high-resolution transmission molecular absorption data base (HITRAN) compilation, and for O(P-3), O-18 isotopic ozone, and HO2 from the 1984 JPL compilation in the 0- to 200/cm(sup)-1 region, and infrared solar CO lines at 4500 K. Also shown are plots of logarithm (base 10) of approximate infrared absorption cross sections of 11 heavy molecules versus wavenumber. The cross-section data cover 700 to 1800/cm(sup)-1 and are included as a separate data file in the 1986 HITRAN database.

  13. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  14. On the Origin of the Wide HI Absorption Line Towards Sgr A *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakanath, K. S.; Goss, W. M.; Zhao, J. H.; Lang, C. C.

    2004-09-01

    We have imaged a region of ~5 extent surrounding Sgr A* in the HI 21 cm-line absorption using the Very Large Array. A Gaussian decomposition of the optical depth spectra at positions within ~2(~5 pcat 8.5 kpc) of Sgr A* detects a wide linw underlying the many narrow absorption lines. The wide line has a mean peak optical depth of 0.32 ± 0.12 centered at a mean velocity of Vlsr = -4 ± 15 km s-1. The mean full width half maximum is 119 ± 42 km s-1. Such a wide line is absent in the spectra at positions beyond ~2 from Sgr A*. The position-velocity diagrams do not reveal any diffuse feature which could be attributed to a large number of HI clouds along the line of sight to Sgr A*. Consequently, the wide line has no implications either to a global population of shocked HI clouds in the Galaxy or to the energetics of the interstellar medium as was earlier thought.

  15. Fast outflows in broad absorption line quasars and their connection with CSS/GPS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni , G.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Brienza, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    Broad absorption line quasars are among the objects presenting the fastest outflows. The launching mechanism itself is not completely understood. Models in which they could be launched from the accretion disk, and then curved and accelerated by the effect of the radiation pressure, have been presented. We conducted an extensive observational campaign, from radio to optical band, to collect information about their nature and test the models present in the literature, the main dichotomy being between a young scenario and an orientation one. We found a variety of possible orientations, morphologies, and radio ages, not converging to a particular explanation for the BAL phenomenon. From our latest observations in the m- and mm-band, we obtained an indication of a lower dust abundance with respect to normal quasars, thus suggesting a possible feedback process on the host galaxy. Also, in the low-frequency regime we confirmed the presence of CSS components, sometime in conjunction with a GPS one already detected at higher frequencies. Following this, about 70 % of our sample turns out to be in a GPS or CSS+GPS phase. We conclude that fast outflows, responsible for the BAL features, can be more easily present among objects going through a restarting or just-started radio phase, where radiation pressure can substantially contribute to their acceleration.

  16. C IV Broad Absorption Line Acceleration in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Trump, J. R.; Filiz Ak, N.; Anderson, S. F.; Green, Paul J.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, M.; Vivek, M.; Beatty, T. G.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We present results from the largest systematic investigation of broad absorption line (BAL) acceleration to date. We use spectra of 140 quasars from three Sloan Digital Sky Survey programs to search for global velocity offsets in BALs over timescales of ≈2.5–5.5 years in the quasar rest frame. We carefully select acceleration candidates by requiring monolithic velocity shifts over the entire BAL trough, avoiding BALs with velocity shifts that might be caused by profile variability. The C iv BALs of two quasars show velocity shifts consistent with the expected signatures of BAL acceleration, and the BAL of one quasar shows a velocity-shift signature of deceleration. In our two acceleration candidates, we see evidence that the magnitude of the acceleration is not constant over time; the magnitudes of the change in acceleration for both acceleration candidates are difficult to produce with a standard disk-wind model or via geometric projection effects. We measure upper limits to acceleration and deceleration for 76 additional BAL troughs and find that the majority of BALs are stable to within about 3% of their mean velocities. The lack of widespread acceleration/deceleration could indicate that the gas producing most BALs is located at large radii from the central black hole and/or is not currently strongly interacting with ambient material within the host galaxy along our line of sight.

  17. The Pittsburgh Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mg II Quasar Absorption-line Survey Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Monier, Eric M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-04-01

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 <= z <= 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains ~17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the ~44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  18. Quasar Absorption Lines in the Extreme Ultraviolet: The Smoking Guns of Cosmic Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripp, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Three years ago at the winter AAS meeting I presented a talk entitled, perhaps somewhat pretentiously, "Terra Incognita: Probing The IGM-Galaxy Interface With COS." Now that the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) has been successfully installed on the Hubble Space Telescope, this instrument is delivering data that even exceed my hopes and predictions from three years ago. This talk will demonstrate that COS is enabling investigations of aspects of the Universe that have never been seen before. Specific examples will include the following: (1) Detections of absorption lines of Ne VIII and Mg X, which probe highly-ionized and low-density plasmas that can exist at temperatures in excess of 106 K. Due to the low density of galaxy halos and the IGM, X-ray emission from these plasmas is entirely undetectable with current or future missions. (2) Detections of remarkably strong O VI absorbers spanning velocity ranges in excess of hundreds of km/s, probably arising in galactic winds. While such outflows can be seen from the ground, the extreme ultraviolet provides a much richer suite of physical conditions diagnostics. (3) Detection of molecular hydrogen in unexpected places. An unifying thems of these examples is cosmic feedback and accretion -- these observations provide important new constraints on how galaxies interact with their surroundings.

  19. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen Yue; York, D. G.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E.; Weaver, B. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  20. Is there a connection between broad absorption line quasars and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Grupe, Dirk; Nousek, John A.

    2015-02-01

    We consider whether broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are similar, as suggested by Brandt and Gallagher and Boroson. For this purpose, we constructed a sample of 11 BAL QSOs from existing Chandra and Swift observations. We found that BAL QSOs and NLS1s both operate at high Eddington ratios L/L{sub Edd}, although BAL QSOs have slightly lower L/L{sub Edd}. BAL QSOs and NLS1s in general have high Fe ii/Hβ and low [O iii]/Hβ ratios following the classic “Boroson and Green” eigenvector 1 relation. We also found that the mass accretion rates M-dot of BAL QSOs and NLS1s are more similar than previously thought, although some BAL QSOs exhibit extreme mass accretion rates of more than 10 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These extreme mass accretion rates may suggest that the black holes in BAL QSOs are relativistically spinning. Black hole masses in BAL QSOs are a factor of 100 larger than NLS1s. From their location on a M−σ plot, we find that BAL QSOs contain fully developed black holes. Applying a principal component analysis to our sample, we find eigenvector 1 to correspond to the Eddington ratio L/L{sub Edd}, and eigenvector 2 to black hole mass.

  1. VLBI survey of compact broad absorption line quasars with balnicity index BI = 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegłowski, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Roskowiński, C.

    2015-06-01

    We present high-resolution observations, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz, to image radio structures of 14 compact sources classified as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars based on the absorption index (AI). All sources but one were resolved, with the majority showing core-jet morphology typical for radio-loud quasars. We discuss in detail the most interesting cases. The high radio luminosities and small linear sizes of the observed objects indicate they are strong young active galactic nuclei. Nevertheless, the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter, log RI, of a larger sample of AI quasars shows that the objects observed by us constitute the most luminous, small subgroup of the AI population. Additionally, we report that for the radio-loudness parameter, the distribution of AI quasars and that for those selected using the traditional balnicity index differ significantly. Strong absorption is connected with lower log RI and thus probably larger viewing angles. Since the AI quasars have on average larger log RI, the orientation can mean that we see them less absorbed. However, we suggest that the orientation is not the only parameter that affects the detected absorption. That the strong absorption is associated with the weak radio emission is equally important and worth exploring.

  2. The far-infrared properties of broad absorption line quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Xingting

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a study which uses a sample of 320 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.68≤ z≤2.28 inside the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) region to compare the mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) properties of broad absorption line (BAL) and non-BAL quasars. The BAL quasar sample comprises 56 high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) quasars and two low-ionization BAL (LoBAL) quasars. The BAL and non-BAL samples have similar intrinsic absolute i magnitude. When combined with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) MIR photometry, the BAL quasars are found to have MIR luminosities and MIR-to-optical luminosity ratios consistent with those of the non-BALs, in good agreement with the results of Gallagher et al. The FIR detection rates of BAL and non-BAL quasars are found to be consistent with each other. The BAL quasars are found to have FIR fluxes indistinguishable from that of non-BAL quasars using survival analysis methods. No evidence is found for a correlation between FIR flux and BAL strength, consistent with the recent results of Cao Orjales et al. The FIR properties of this sample appear to be at odds with the evolutionary model in which BALs are an early phase in the lives of quasars.

  3. Is There a Connection between Broad Absorption Line Quasars and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupe, Dirk; Nousek, John. A.

    2015-02-01

    We consider whether broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are similar, as suggested by Brandt & Gallagher and Boroson. For this purpose, we constructed a sample of 11 BAL QSOs from existing Chandra and Swift observations. We found that BAL QSOs and NLS1s both operate at high Eddington ratios L/{{L}Edd}, although BAL QSOs have slightly lower L/{{L}Edd}. BAL QSOs and NLS1s in general have high Fe ii/Hβ and low [O iii]/Hβ ratios following the classic “Boroson & Green” eigenvector 1 relation. We also found that the mass accretion rates \\dot{M} of BAL QSOs and NLS1s are more similar than previously thought, although some BAL QSOs exhibit extreme mass accretion rates of more than 10 {{M}⊙ } yr-1. These extreme mass accretion rates may suggest that the black holes in BAL QSOs are relativistically spinning. Black hole masses in BAL QSOs are a factor of 100 larger than NLS1s. From their location on a M-σ plot, we find that BAL QSOs contain fully developed black holes. Applying a principal component analysis to our sample, we find eigenvector 1 to correspond to the Eddington ratio L/{{L}Edd}, and eigenvector 2 to black hole mass.

  4. Clustering properties of high matter density peaks from UVES observations of QSO pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, V.

    2003-06-01

    The association of high H 0 column density absorption systems in QSO spectra with galactic objects has been widely verified at redshifts up to z ~ 1, by direct imaging of QSO fields and follow-up spectroscopy (Guillemin & Bergeron 1997; Le Brun et al. 1997). We study the transverse clustering properties of these tracers of high matter density peaks, by looking for coincident absorption systems in adjacent lines of sight toward QSO pairs and groups (D'Odorico et al. 2002).

  5. Sensitivity analysis of oxygen absorption lines in the 1.26-1.27 micron spectral band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. C.; Prasad, N.; Browell, E. V.

    2009-12-01

    In the Decadal Survey prepared by the National Research Council (Reference: Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond), the ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons), requires simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2 in order to convert CO2 atmospheric concentrations to mixing ratios. As the mission is envisioned, the CO2 mixing ratio needs to be measured to a precision of 0.5 percent of background or better (slightly less than 2 ppm) at 100-km horizontal length scale overland and at 200-km scale over open oceans. While the O2 measurement could be made at 0.765 µm (the oxygen A band), the absorption cross section is substantially higher and the scattering is lower in the 1.26-1.27 µm wavelength band, and as such it is anticipated that better accuracies could be accomplished. Hence, NASA Langley Research Center is developing oxygen lidar technology in the 1.26-1.27 micron band for surface pressure measurements. One or more wavelengths for differential absorption lidar operation have to be carefully chosen to eliminate ambient influences on them. The model optical depth calculation is very sensitive to knowledge of the transmitted wavelengths and to the choice of Voigt input parameters. Uncertainties in atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and relative humidity can cause ~0.5 % errors in model optical depths. In order to select candidate wavelengths in the 1.26 micron spectral band, wavelength uncertainties due to temperature and pressure have to be determined. Uncertainties at line center and offset wavelengths have to be known precisely to reduce uncertainties in oxygen concentration measurements from airborne and space based platforms. In this paper, based on HITRAN database and absorption line measurements, we evaluate systematic relative errors and their sources of pressure shift and atmospheric temperature influences for selected O2 lines suitable for

  6. THE LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, C.; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Gallagher, S. C.; Bauer, F. E.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the long-term (rest-frame 3-30 yr) X-ray variability of 11 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, mainly to constrain the variation properties of the X-ray absorbing shielding gas that is thought to play a critical role in BAL wind launching. Our BAL quasar sample has coverage with multiple X-ray observatories including Chandra, XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, ASCA, ROSAT, and Einstein; 3-11 observations are available for each source. For seven of the eleven sources we have obtained and analyzed new Chandra observations suitable for searching for any strong X-ray variability. We find highly significant X-ray variability in three sources (PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059). The maximum observed amplitude of the 2-8 keV variability is a factor of 3.8 {+-} 1.3, 1.5 {+-} 0.2, and 9.9 {+-} 2.3 for PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059, respectively, and these sources show detectable variability on rest-frame timescales down to 5.8, 1.4, and 0.5 yr. For PG 1004+130 and PG 2112+059 we also find significant X-ray spectral variability associated with the flux variability. Considering our sample as a whole, we do not find that BAL quasars exhibit exceptional long-term X-ray variability when compared to the quasar population in general. We do not find evidence for common strong changes in the shielding gas owing to physical rearrangement or accretion-disk rotation, although some changes are found; this has implications for modeling observed ultraviolet BAL variability. Finally, we report for the first time an X-ray detection of the highly polarized and well-studied BAL quasar IRAS 14026+4341 in its new Chandra observation.

  7. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  8. A variable P v broad absorption line and quasar outflow energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Hamann, F.; Barlow, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high-velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift ze = 2.56), aided by the first detection of P V λλ1118, 1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, P V absorption at velocities where the C IV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the C IV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size <0.01 pc). With the assumption of solar abundances, we estimate that the total column density in the BAL outflow is log NH ≳ 22.3 cm-2. Variability in the P V and saturated C IV BALs strongly disfavours changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of 1.6 yr in the quasar rest frame indicates crossing speeds >750 km s-1 and a radial distance from the central black hole of ≲ 3.5 pc, if the crossing speeds are Keplerian. The total outflow mass is ˜4100 M⊙, the kinetic energy ˜4 × 1054 erg, and the ratio of the outflow kinetic energy luminosity to the quasar bolometric luminosity is ˜0.02 (at the minimum column density and maximum distance), which might be sufficient for important feedback to the quasar's host galaxy.

  9. SPECTRAL POLARIZATION OF THE REDSHIFTED 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE TOWARD 3C 286

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Arthur M.; Jorgenson, Regina A.; Robishaw, Timothy; Heiles, Carl; Xavier Prochaska, J. E-mail: raj@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: heiles@astro.berkeley.edu

    2011-05-20

    A reanalysis of the Stokes-parameter spectra obtained of the z = 0.692 21 cm absorption line toward 3C 286 shows that our original claimed detection of Zeeman splitting by a line-of-sight magnetic field, B{sub los} = 87 {mu}G, is incorrect. Because of an insidious software error, what we reported as Stokes V is actually Stokes U: the revised Stokes V spectrum indicates a 3{sigma} upper limit of B{sub los}< 17 {mu}G. The correct analysis reveals an absorption feature in fractional polarization that is offset in velocity from the Stokes I spectrum by -1.9 km s{sup -1}. The polarization position-angle spectrum shows a dip that is also significantly offset from the Stokes I feature, but at a velocity that differs slightly from the absorption feature in fractional polarization. We model the absorption feature with three velocity components against the core-jet structure of 3C 286. Our {chi}{sup 2} minimization fitting results in components with differing (1) ratios of H I column density to spin temperature, (2) velocity centroids, and (3) velocity dispersions. The change in polarization position angle with frequency implies incomplete coverage of the background jet source by the absorber. It also implies a spatial variation of the polarization position angle across the jet source, which is observed at frequencies higher than the 839.4 MHz absorption frequency. The multi-component structure of the gas is best understood in terms of components with spatial scales of {approx}100 pc comprised of hundreds of low-temperature (T {<=} 200 K) clouds with linear dimensions of <<100 pc. We conclude that previous attempts to model the foreground gas with a single uniform cloud are incorrect.

  10. On the origins of C IV absorption profile diversity in broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari; Hamann, Fred

    2015-05-01

    There is a large diversity in the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) profile among BAL quasars (BALQs). We quantify this diversity by exploring the distribution of the C IV BAL properties, full width at half-maximum (FWHM), maximum depth of absorption and its velocity shift (vmd), using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue. We find the following: (i) Although the median C IV BAL profile in the quasar rest-frame becomes broader and shallower as the UV continuum slope (αUV at 1700-3000 Å) gets bluer, the median individual profile in the absorber rest-frame remains identical, and is narrow (FWHM = 3500 km s-1) and deep. Only 4 per cent of BALs have FWHM > 10 000 km s-1. (ii) As the He II emission equivalent width (EW) decreases, the distributions of FWHM and vmd extend to larger values, and the median maximum depth increases. These trends are consistent with theoretical models in which softer ionizing continua reduce overionization, and allow radiative acceleration of faster BAL outflows. (iii) As αUV becomes bluer, the distribution of vmd extends to larger values. This trend may imply faster outflows at higher latitudes above the accretion disc plane. (iv) For non-BALQs, the C IV emission line decreases with decreasing He II EW, and becomes more asymmetric and blueshifted. This suggests an increasing relative contribution of emission from the BAL outflow to the C IV emission line as the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) gets softer, which is consistent with the increasing fraction of BALQs as the ionizing SED gets softer.

  11. Fast calculation of the Voight profile absorption line of gas for the atmospheric transmission function determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayanova, Eleonora A.; Ivanovsky, A. I.; Borisov, Yury A.; Glazkov, V. N.; Bankova, T. V.

    2004-01-01

    A fast method is offered for calculation of Voight spectral absorption line contour. A line profile is represented by a sum of terms of an absolutely converging series, containing undimensioned parameters a and b, connected with a property of the absorbing molecule, atmospheric temperature and pressure. The value b changes in a large limit from zero at the line center to 1000 and more at far wing of the line. The value a, describing a ratio of the Lorenz and Doppler effects, changes from a value ~5 near the surface of the Earth to 10-5 in the stratosphere. Twenty terms of series ensure the high accuracy of the approximation for values b ranging from 0 to 5. The deviation from accurate Voight contour formula is less than 4*10-4 or 0.04%. However, a large b value implies increase the number of terms, and the computing time increases accordingly. Numerical integration of Voight formula by Gauss-Hermite quadrature is simple, fast and accurate calculation for a value b> 5. In this case the deviation from accurate Voight formula is less than 2*10-5 or 0.002%. Using the proposed approximation of the Voight profile line, the atmospheric transmission function was computed for the path Sun- satellite represented as a net of tangent heights relative to the Earth"s surface up to 100 km with 1 km step. The computation method involves 29 spectral channels of the water absorption region (933-959 nm) and 14 channels of the molecular oxygen absorption region (758-771 nm). The computations were performed for certain profiles of H2O, O2, temperature and pressure. The computations results were compared with experimental data.

  12. A strong redshift dependence of the broad absorption line quasar fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, James T.; Hewett, Paul C.; Maddox, Natasha; Richards, Gordon T.; Belokurov, Vasily

    2011-01-01

    We describe the application of non-negative matrix factorization to generate compact reconstructions of quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with particular reference to broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). BAL properties are measured for Si IVλ1400, C IVλ1550, Al IIIλ1860 and Mg IIλ2800, resulting in a catalogue of 3547 BALQSOs. Two corrections, based on extensive testing of synthetic BALQSO spectra, are applied in order to estimate the intrinsic fraction of C IV BALQSOs. First, the probability of an observed BALQSO spectrum being identified as such by our algorithm is calculated as a function of redshift, signal-to-noise ratio and BAL properties. Secondly, the different completenesses of the SDSS target selection algorithm for BALQSOs and non-BAL quasars are quantified. Combining the detection probabilities with an intrinsic E(B-V) distribution capable of reproducing the observed increase in mean E(B-V) with increasing redshift, the intrinsic C IV BALQSO fraction is 41 ± 5 per cent. Our analysis of the selection effects allows us to measure the dependence of the intrinsic C IV BALQSO fraction on luminosity and redshift. We find a factor of 3.5 ± 0.4 decrease in the intrinsic fraction from the highest redshifts, z≃ 4.0, down to z≃ 2.0. The redshift dependence implies that an orientation effect alone is not sufficient to explain the presence of BAL troughs in some but not all quasar spectra. Our results are consistent with the intrinsic BALQSO fraction having no strong luminosity dependence, although with 3σ limits on the rate of change of the intrinsic fraction with luminosity of -6.9 and 7.0 per cent dex-1 we are unable to rule out such a dependence.

  13. A new perspective on the interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun from UV absorption line results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gry, Cecile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    We offer a new, more inclusive, picture of the local interstellar medium, where it is composed of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions. Our study of velocities based on Mg II and Fe II ultraviolet absorption lines indicates that the cloud has an average motion consistent with the velocity vector of gas impacting the heliosphere and does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like the squashing of a balloon. The outer boundary of the cloud is in average 10 pc away from us but is highly irregular, being only a few parsecs away in some directions, with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. Average H I volume densities vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm3 over different sight lines. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in this effect from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Additional, secondary velocity components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume holding the gas that we identify with the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about - 7.2 km/s with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of an implosive shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  14. Investigating the radio-loud phase of broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Pedani, M.; Benn, C. R.; Mack, K.-H.; Holt, J.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Jiménez-Luján, F.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Broad absorption lines (BALs) are present in the spectra of ~20% of quasars (QSOs); this indicates fast outflows (up to 0.2c) that intercept the observer's line of sight. These QSOs can be distinguished again into radio-loud (RL) BAL QSOs and radio-quiet (RQ) BAL QSOs. The first are very rare, even four times less common than RQ BAL QSOs. The reason for this is still unclear and leaves open questions about the nature of the BAL-producing outflows and their connection with the radio jet. Aims: We explored the spectroscopic characteristics of RL and RQ BAL QSOs with the aim to find a possible explanation for the rarity of RL BAL QSOs. Methods: We identified two samples of genuine BAL QSOs from SDSS optical spectra, one RL and one RQ, in a suitable redshift interval (2.5 < z < 3.5) that allowed us to observe the Mg ii and Hβ emission lines in the adjacent near-infrared (NIR) band. We collected NIR spectra of the two samples using the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, Canary Islands). By using relations known in the literature, we estimated the black-hole mass, the broad-line region radius, and the Eddington ratio of our objects and compared the two samples. Results: We found no statistically significant differences from comparing the distributions of the cited physical quantities. This indicates that they have similar geometries, accretion rates, and central black-hole masses, regardless of whether the radio-emitting jet is present or not. Conclusions: These results show that the central engine of BAL QSOs has the same physical properties with and without a radio jet. The reasons for the rarity of RL BAL QSOs must reside in different environmental or evolutionary variables. Figure 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Is the Na D Absorption Line Useful For Integrated Light Stellar Population Studies In Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Marcel; Milvang-Jensen, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Sodium Na D absorption line at 5895 Angstroms is one of the strongest absorption features in stellar photospheres, but has been rarely used in integrated light stellar population studies of galaxies. A principal reason why it has not been used is the suspicion that interstellar absorption within the galaxies may enhance or alter the absorption profile of the combined stellar light, thus giving an errant description of the stellar population. As a project undertaken during the National Virtual Observatory Summer School, we have investigated to what extent ISM absorption seems to alter the measurements. We use VO tools to create multiple galaxy samples: a sample expected to have little ISM (cluster galaxies, which are mainly ellipticals), and two samples with higher expected levels of ISM (HI-detected galaxies and morphologically late-type galaxies). After culling the samples to match the same distribution of (older) ages and (higher) metallicities, we find that the Na D vs. velocity dispersion correlation is not significantly different for the samples with and without ISM, and all have similar levels of scatter. Consequently, the Na D line seems like a promising tool for evolutionary studies comparing high and low redshift galaxy samples. Our continuing work focuses on the effects of possible ISM absorption on the line-of-sight velocity profile as derived from the Na D line compared to Mgb and Ca H & K absorption features. This research has made use of data obtained from and software provided by the US National Virtual Observatory, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. We thank the US-VO and the NSF for the partial funding they provided to attend this meeting.

  16. Quasar broad absorption line variability measurements using reconstructions of unabsorbed spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildy, C.; Goad, M. R.; Allen, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Gemini/GMOS+William Herschel Telescope/ISIS variability study of 50 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars of redshift range 1.9 < z < 4.2, containing 38 Si IV and 59 C IV BALs and spanning rest-frame time intervals of ≈10 months to 3.7 years. We find that 35/50 quasars exhibit one or more variable BALs, with 58 per cent of Si IV and 46 per cent of C IV BALs showing variability across the entire sample. On average, Si IV BALs show larger fractional change in BAL pseudo-equivalent width than C IV BALs, as referenced to an unabsorbed continuum+emission line spectrum constructed using non-negative matrix factorization. No correlation is found between BAL variability and quasar luminosity, suggesting that ionizing continuum changes do not play a significant role in BAL variability (assuming the gas is in photoionization equilibrium with the ionizing continuum). A subset of 14 quasars have one variable BAL from each of Si IV and C IV with significant overlap in velocity space and for which variations are in the same sense (strengthening or weakening) and which appear to be correlated (98 per cent confidence). We find examples of both appearing and disappearing BALs in weaker/shallower lines with disappearance rates of 2.3 per cent for C IV and 5.3 per cent for Si IV, suggesting average lifetimes of 142 and 43 years, respectively. We identify five objects in which the BAL is coincident with the broad emission line, but appears to cover only the continuum source. Assuming a clumpy inhomogeneous absorber model and a typical size for the continuum source, we infer a maximum cloud radius of 1013 to 1014 cm, assuming Eddington limited accretion.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph and ground-based observations of the broad absorption line quasar 0226-1024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Weymann, Ray J.; Morris, Simon L.; Kopko, Michael, Jr.; Turnshek, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Foltz, Craig B.; Burbidge, E. M.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.

    1992-01-01

    Faint Object Spectrograph data from the Hubble Space Telescope of the broad absorption line quasar 0226-1024 have revealed the presence of 8-10 absorbing ions between 680 and 1000 A (restframe): C III, N III, N IV, O III, O IV, O VI, S V, S VI, possibly Ne VIII, and possibly O V* arising from a metastable excited state. We also present ground-based optical observations of the broad line troughs for the following ions: H I, C IV, N V, Si IV, and possibly Fe III, S IV, P V, and C III* (also arising from a metastable excited state). The results of this fit are used to estimate the absorbing ionic column densities. There is evidence that the broad absorption line clouds are optically thick and either do not completely cover the continuum source or narrow unresolved lines are present.

  18. Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1993-01-01

    We report water-vapor absorption line measurements that are made by using the first Stokes radiation (930-982 nm) with HWHM 0.015/cm generated by a narrow-linewidth, tunable dye laser. Forty-five absorption line strengths are measured with an uncertainty of 6 percent and among them are fourteen strong lines that are compared with previous measurements for the assessment of spectral purity of the light source. Thirty air-broadened linewidths are measured with 8 percent uncertainty at ambient atmospheric pressure with an average of 0.101/cm. The lines are selected for the purpose of temperature-sensitive or temperature-insensitive lidar measurements. Results for these line strengths and linewidths are corrected for broadband radiation and finite laser linewidth broadening effects and compared with the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption.

  19. Formation of a Giant Galactic Gaseous Halo: Metal-Absorption Lines and High-Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan

    1992-04-01

    A Galactic gaseous halo formed through the interstellar disk-halo connection is simulated by means of a two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic code based upon the chimney model of the interstellar medium, a new version of the galactic fountain. Galactic rotation, heating processes by diffuse UV flux, and radiative cooling processes are taken into account. The resulting gaseous halo can be divided into three categories, i.e., wind-type halo, bound-type halo, and cooled-type halo. In this way, we try to reproduce the column densities of C IV, N V, O VI, and Si IV in the observed absorption lines of halo stars. Assuming that the radiatively cooled halo gas condenses into clouds due to thermal instabilities, we can calculate their distribution and ballistic motions in the Galactic gravitational field. These correspond to the high- and intermediate-velocity clouds observed at high Galactic latitudes. We find that a cooled-type halo with a gas temperature between 5 X 10^5 and 10^6 K and a density between 10^-3 and 10^-2 cm^-3 at the disk-halo interface can reproduce the observational facts about our Galaxy. Supposing that the metal-absorption-line systems of QSOs arise from the halos of intervening galaxies formed by similar processes, we calculate features of the Ca II, Mg II, C IV, and Si IV absorption lines in various stages of galactic evolution. We conclude that C IV systems which are greater than 50 kpc in size correspond to the wind-type halo. On the other hand, Mg II and Ca II systems can only be detected in a very restricted region ( Metaxa, SMALL FAINT CLUSTERS IN THE LMC This is a short review of the main results of my Ph.D. thesis concerning some important problems on the dynamical properties of the LMC star clusters. The topic of this thesis was to find and study the dynamical paramters (tidal radius r_t core radius r_c concentration parameters log (r_t/r_c), and total mass M) for a large sample of small LMC clusters and to define their location in the

  20. Absorption lines from magnetically driven winds in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravorty, S.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Belmont, R.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Coriat, M.; Drappeau, S.; Malzac, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High resolution X-ray spectra of black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) show blueshifted absorption lines suggesting the presence of outflowing winds. Furthermore, observations show that the disk winds are equatorial and they occur in the Softer (disk dominated) states of the outburst and are less prominent or absent in the Harder (power-law dominated) states. Aims: We want to test whether the self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models can explain the observational results for accretion disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow from the accretion disk is not a free parameter. This mass loading is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations without neglecting any physical term. Thus, the physical properties of the outflow depend on and are controlled by the global structure of the disk. Methods: We studied different MHD solutions characterized by different values of the disk aspect ratio (ɛ) and the ejection efficiency (p). We also generate two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. Such heating could be either from dissipation of energy due to MHD turbulence in the disk or from illumination of the disk surface. Warm solutions can have large (>0.1) values of p, which would imply larger wind mass loading at the base of the outflow. We use each of these MHD solutions to predict the physical parameters (distance, density, velocity, magnetic field, etc.) of an outflow. Motivated by observational results, we have put limits on the ionization parameter (ξ), column density, and timescales. Further constraints were derived for the allowed values of ξ from thermodynamic instability considerations, particularly for the Hard SED. These physical constraints were imposed on each of these outflows to select regions within it, which are consistent with the observed winds. Results: The cold MHD solutions are found to be

  1. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP> and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes

  2. Dependence of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar Fraction on Radio Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Dai, Xinyu; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2008-11-01

    We find that the fraction of classical broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) among the FIRST radio sources in the Sloan Data Release 3, is 20.5+ 7.3-5.9% at the faintest radio powers detected (L1.4 GHz ~ 1032 erg s-1), and rapidly drops to lesssim8% at L1.4 GHz ~ 3 × 1033 erg s-1. Similarly, adopting the broader absorption index (AI) definition of Trump et al., we find the fraction of radio BALQSOs to be 44+ 8.1-7.8%, reducing to 23.1+ 7.3-6.1% at high luminosities. While the high fraction at low radio power is consistent with the recent near-IR estimates by Dai et al., the lower fraction at high radio powers is intriguing and confirms previous claims based on smaller samples. The trend is independent of the redshift range, the optical and radio flux selection limits, or the exact definition of a radio match. We also find that at fixed optical magnitude, the highest bins of radio luminosity are preferentially populated by non-BALQSOs, consistent with the overall trend. We do find, however, that those quasars identified as AI-BALQSOs but not under the classical definition do not show a significant drop in their fraction as a function of radio power, further supporting independent claims that these sources, characterized by lower equivalent width, may represent an independent class from the classical BALQSOs. We find the balnicity index, a measure of the absorption trough in BALQSOs, and the mean maximum wind velocity to be roughly constant at all radio powers. We discuss several plausible physical models which may explain the observed fast drop in the fraction of the classical BALQSOs with increasing radio power, although none is entirely satisfactory. A strictly evolutionary model for the BALQSO and radio emission phases requires a strong fine-tuning to work, while a simple geometric model, although still not capable of explaining polar BALQSOs and the paucity of FRII BALQSOs, is statistically successful in matching the data if part of the apparent radio

  3. Erasing a false dichotomy: The complex nature of broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, Michael A.

    The main goal of this thesis is to test the various models proposed to explain the important subclass of quasars known as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. In particular, I focus on whether viewing angle alone can explain why only a fraction of quasars exhibit BALs in their optical/ultraviolet spectra, or if some other model or combination of models is more likely. Much of the work contained here focuses on radio-selected BAL quasars, a relatively poorly studied class to this point, and so a secondary goal is to provide a detailed analysis of their properties. Finally, I provide a large spectropolarimetric atlas of BAL quasars for use by the community. Using new multi-frequency radio observations of a large sample of BAL quasars, and a carefully selected, well-matched sample of unabsorbed quasars, I show that there does appear to be an overabundance of steep-spectrum BAL sources, though they cover a wide range of spectral slopes. Monte-Carlo modeling of these distributions show that BAL quasars are seen from a range of viewing angles, including all of the viewing angles that unabsorbed quasars are seen from. However, at the largest viewing angles, we will generally see BAL quasars. No other spectral features or quasar outflow properties correlate with viewing angle, suggesting that BAL winds in all directions are driven by the same mechanism. BAL quasars are indeed more likely to be polarized than non-BAL sources. However, this is not simply due to orientation or extinction of the direct un-polarized continuum light, as polarization does not correlate with viewing angle or dust extinction. It seems that there is much variation in the polarizing scattering material, both in its location and geometry, between individual sources. This makes it difficult to use polarization studies to constrain BAL quasar models, though it is likely useful for detailed study of individual objects. Simple explanations using only one parameter are clearly no longer sufficient, and we

  4. Unusual high-redshift radio broad absorption-line quasar 1624+3758

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, C. R.; Carballo, R.; Holt, J.; Vigotti, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Mack, K.-H.; Perley, R. A.

    2005-07-01

    We present observations of the most radio-luminous broad absorption-line (BAL) quasar known, 1624+3758, at redshift z= 3.377. The quasar has several unusual properties. (1) The FeII UV191 1787-Åemission line is very prominent. (2) The BAL trough (BALnicity index 2990 km s-1) is detached by 21000 km s-1 and extends to velocity v=-29000 km s-1. There are additional intrinsic absorbers at -1900 and -2800 km s-1. (3) The radio rotation measure of the quasar, 18350 rad m-2, is the second highest known. The radio luminosity is P1.4GHz= 4.3 × 1027 W Hz-1 (H0= 50 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0= 0.5) and the radio loudness is R*= 260. The radio source is compact and the radio spectrum is GHz-peaked, consistent with it being relatively young. The width of the CIV emission line, in conjunction with the total optical luminosity, implies a black hole mass MBH~ 109Msolar, L/LEddington~ 2. The high Eddington ratio and the radio-loudness place this quasar in one corner of Boroson's two-component scheme for the classification of active galactic nuclei, implying a very high accretion rate, and this may account for some of the unusual observed properties. The v=-1900km s-1 absorber is a possible Lyman-limit system, with N(HI) = 4 × 1018 cm-2, and a covering factor of 0.7. A complex mini-BAL absorber at v=-2200 to -3400 km s-1 is detected in each of CIV, NV and OVI. The blue and red components of the CIV doublet happen to be unblended, allowing both the covering factor and optical depth to be determined as a function of velocity. Variation of the covering factor with velocity dominates the form of the mini-BAL, with the absorption being saturated (e-τ~ 0) over most of the velocity range. The velocity dependence of the covering factor and the large velocity width imply that the mini-BAL is intrinsic to the quasar. There is some evidence of line-locking between velocity components in the CIV mini-BAL, suggesting that radiation pressure plays a role in accelerating the outflow.

  5. Outflows in infrared-luminous galaxies: Absorption-line spectroscopy of starbursts and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupke, David S.

    Large-scale galactic outflows, better known as superwinds, are driven by the powerful energy reservoirs in star forming and active galaxies. They play a significant role in galaxy formation, galaxy evolution, and the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We have performed a survey of over 100 infrared-luminous galaxies in order to address the exact frequency with which they occur in different galaxy types, the dependence of their properties on those of their host galaxies, and their properties in the most luminous starburst and active galaxies. Most of our sample consists of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), and we use moderate- resolution spectroscopy of the Na I D interstellar absorption feature (which directly probes the neutral gas phase). We find superwinds in the majority of these galaxies at typical maximum, deprojected velocities of 500 700 km s-1. The detection rate increases with star formation rate (SFR) in starbursts, while the mass outflow rate appears constant with SFR, contrary to theoretical expectations. The resulting mass entrainment efficiencies in ULIRGs are quite low, of order a few percent of the star formation rate. There is some dependence of outflow velocity on host galaxy properties; the outflow velocities in LINERs are higher than those in H II galaxies, and the highest column density gas in each galaxy may have an upper envelope in velocity that increases with SFR. Outflows in most galaxies hosting a dominant AGN have very similar properties to those in starbursts, so discerning their power source is difficult. The velocities in Seyfert 2 outflows may be slightly higher than those in starbursts, and the fraction of neutral gas escaping Seyfert 2s is higher than that in starbursts (˜50% vs. ≲ 20%). The outflows in our Seyfert 1 galaxies have extreme velocities of up to ˜104 km s-1, and two of three Seyfert is with outflows possess broad absorption lines. Finally, we find that spectroscopy of a few galaxies at very high

  6. Constraining the geometry, size scale and physical conditions of outflowing broad absorption line regions in quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sui Chi

    Quasars are known for generating luminosities of up to 1047 erg s--1 in volumes of scales smaller than 2 x 10 15 cm. The optical/UV continuum emission is generally believed to arise from a rotating accretion disk (AD) surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of ˜ 108 M⊙ . Such emission can be calculated by treating the AD as a multi-temperature blackbody. While the continuum emitting region is well defined, the properties, location and kinematics of the broad emission line regions (BELRs) and broad absorption line regions (BALRs) remain unclear. On one hand, the reverberation mapping technique can give constraints on the location of the BELRs, but not the kinematics. On the other hand, the line-of-sight kinematics of the BALRs is directly observable, but their locations are not well constrained, resulting in a large range of inferred distances, from 0.01 pc to tens of kpc. Therefore, I combined observational results to investigate the geometry, size, and physical conditions of the BELRs and BALRs. I verified that the Lyalpha and CIV BELRs are located at a similar distance. Using these findings, I was able to constrain the size of the Lyalpha BELR and place a lower limit on the size of the N V BALR. I built an empirical model with the optical/UV continuum emission from the AD, the BELR from the chromosphere of the AD, and the outflowing BALR. In the continuum region, I found that over 95 percent of the total flux comes from the region at ~ 125rg, where rg is the gravitational radius of the SMBH. For the BELRs, I computed a disk-wind model with relativistic effects to explain the often-observed single-peaked BEL profiles. However, I show that such a model cannot explain the observed blue asymmetries in the high-ionization BELs or their blueshifted peaks relative to low-ionization BELs. Using results on time variability of BALR gas, and assuming the variability is caused by the gas moving perpendicular across the line-of-sight over a time scale of about a year

  7. Detection of harmonics and recovery of the absorption line profile using logarithmic-transformed wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Menglong; Sun, Dandan

    2016-07-01

    A versatile signal processing strategy for eliminating the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) and distortion in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy is theoretically demonstrated and experimentally validated. The strategy involves logarithmic transformation and differential detection, which are achieved using a homemade circuit. Through the logarithmic transformation, the optical intensity modulation of the laser, which performs as the source of RAM and distortion, is separated from the absorption-induced power attenuation and further balanced during the differential detection. The first harmonic, which is proportional to the first-order derivative of the absorption line profile in the case of a small modulation index, is extracted along with the second harmonic and is integrated for the recovery of the absorption line profile. The experiments are carried out for CH4 at its R(3) absorption line of the 2ν3 overtone for validation of the system, and the derived results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical simulations. These promising results indicate the high potential of the strategy for absorption spectrum-based determination of gas properties.

  8. Generalized Continuity Equation Solutions for the QSO Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caditz, David M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a generalized continuity equation that describes the relationship between the statistical and physical evolution of populations of astronomical objects. This equation allows us to parameterize the luminosity function (LF) in terms of physically meaningful quantities, such as creation timescale, τs, object evolutionary timescale, τg, and lifetime, am. The shape and evolution of the LF are shown to be sensitive to these physical parameters, with large regions of the parameter space producing relatively simple evolutionary scenarios such as density evolution (DE) or luminosity evolution (LE). Regions of parameter space where τs ≲ 0.3tH and τg ≲ 0.5tH, where tH is the Hubble time, may be characterized by more complex evolution including the natural formation of a double power-law shape and mixed density and luminosity evolution (ME). This result has important consequences for the interpretation of the quasi-stellar object (QSO) LF, implying that the timescales for creation and physical evolution may fall near the above range. A fit to QSO survey data for redshifts 0.68 < z < 4 implies that τs ∼ 0.2tH and τg ∼ 0.05tH with QSOs having a maximum lifetime of am ∼ 0.25tH.

  9. X-Ray Spectrum of a Narrow-Line QSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    During the reporting period, seven papers using ASCA data, supported in whole or in part by this grant, were published or submitted to refereed journals. Their abstracts are given in this report, and the complete bibliographic references are listed in the Appendix. Titles include (1) A Broad-Band X-ray Study of the Geminga Pulsar; (2) ASCA Observations of PSR 1920+10 and PSR 0950+08; (3) X-ray and Optical Spectroscopy of IRAS 20181-2244: Not a Type 2 QSO, but a I Zw I Object; (4) Models for X-ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars; (5) Optical and X-ray Spectroscopy of 1E 0449.4-1823: Demise of the Original Type 2 QSO; (6) The ASCA Spectrum of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy Pictor A: A Simple Power Law with No Fe Ka Line; and (7) ASCA Spectra of NGC 4388 and ESO 103-G35: Absorption, Reflection, and Variability in Intermediate Type Seyfert Galaxies.

  10. ABSORPTION-LINE PROBES OF THE PREVALENCE AND PROPERTIES OF OUTFLOWS IN PRESENT-DAY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanmei; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang Jing; Tremonti, Christy A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2010-08-15

    We analyze star-forming galaxies drawn from SDSS DR7 to show how the interstellar medium (ISM) Na I {lambda}{lambda}5890, 5896 (Na D) absorption lines depend on galaxy physical properties, and to look for evidence of galactic winds. We combine the spectra of galaxies with similar geometry/physical parameters to create composite spectra with signal-to-noise {approx}300. The stellar continuum is modeled using stellar population synthesis models, and the continuum-normalized spectrum is fit with two Na I absorption components. We find that (1) ISM Na D absorption lines with equivalent widths EW > 0.8 A are only prevalent in disk galaxies with specific properties-large extinction (A{sub V} ), high star formation rates (SFR), high SFR per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}), or high stellar mass (M{sub *}); (2) the ISM Na D absorption lines can be separated into two components: a quiescent disk-like component at the galaxy systemic velocity and an outflow component; (3) the disk-like component is much stronger in the edge-on systems, and the outflow component covers a wide angle but is stronger within 60{sup 0} of the disk rotation axis; (4) the EW and covering factor of the disk component correlate strongly with dust attenuation, highlighting the importance that dust shielding may play in the survival of Na I; (5) the EW of the outflow component depends primarily on {Sigma}{sub SFR} and secondarily on A{sub V} ; and (6) the outflow velocity varies from {approx}120 to 160 km s{sup -1} but shows little hint of a correlation with galaxy physical properties over the modest dynamic range that our sample probes (1.2 dex in log {Sigma}{sub SFR} and 1 dex in log M{sub *}).

  11. Subaru High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Complex Metal Absorption Lines of the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Yamada, Toru; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Wang, Yiping; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Tanaka, Ichi

    2003-03-01

    We present a high-resolution spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem=2.542), observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. This quasar, first discovered in the Hamburg/CfA Quasar Survey, has 11 C IV lines at 1.962.29 and resolves some of them into multiple narrow components with b<25 km s-1 because of the high spectral resolution R=45,000, while other lines show broad profiles (b>65 km s-1). We use three properties of C IV lines, specifically, time variability, covering factor, and absorption-line profile, to classify them into quasar intrinsic absorption lines (QIALs) and spatially intervening absorption lines (SIALs). The C IV lines at 2.42absorption lines to an intervening galaxy. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  12. Morphology of QSO host galaxies --- a look at the SED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A.; Coelho, B.; Anton, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia Initial QSO Catalogue presents several characteristics of its 1,248,372 listed objects, among which the optical morphological type. From this a program studies the host galaxies of QSOs present in the SDSS up to its 8th release, based on retrieving a data bank of images in the five ugriz colors for the 105,783 objects spectroscopically found as QSOs. The first scope of this program is to study QSOs for which the isophotes of the host galaxy are not pronounced, so that the centroid determination is not affected for those fundamental grid-points of the Gaia Celestial Reference Frame. Since the target images come from relatively short exposures, we developed an approach to access disturbances of the target PSF relatively to the nearby stars. Here we focus on the first results for absolute magnitude of QSOs combining the SDSS colors and the SED library from Gaia.

  13. Radio line and continuum observations of quasar-galaxy pairs and the origin of low reshift quasar absorption line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Vangorkom, J. H.; Hauxthausen, E. M.; Stocke, J. T.; Salzer, J.

    1990-01-01

    There are a number of known quasars for which our line of sight to the high redshift quasar passes within a few Holmberg radii of a low redshift galaxy. In a few of these cases, spectra of the quasar reveal absorption by gas associated with the low redshift galaxy. A number of these pairs imply absorption by gas which lies well outside the optical disk of the associated galaxy, leading to models of galaxies with 'halos' or 'disks' of gas extending to large radii. The authors present observations of 4 such pairs. In three of the four cases, they find that the associated galaxy is highly disturbed, typically due to a gravitational interaction with a companion galaxy, while in the fourth case the absorption can be explained by clouds in the optical disk of the associated galaxy. They are led to an alternative hypothesis concerning the origin of the low redshift absorption line systems: the absorption is by gas clouds which have been gravitationally stripped from the associated galaxy. These galaxies are rapidly evolving, and should not be used as examples of absorption by clouds in halos of field spirals. The authors conclude by considering the role extended gas in interacting systems plays in the origin of higher redshift quasar absorption line systems.

  14. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project VI. Variations of the Intrinsic Absorption Lines in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.; Agn Storm Team

    2015-01-01

    The AGN STORM collaboration monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 over a six-month period, with observations spanning the hard X-ray to mid-infrared wavebands. The core of this campaign was an intensive HST COS program, which obtained 170 far-ultraviolet spectra at approximately daily intervals, with twice-per-day monitoring of the X-ray, near-UV, and optical bands during much of the same period using Swift. The broad UV absorption lines discovered by Kaastra et al. (2014) and associated with the new soft X-ray obscurer are continuously present in the STORM campaign COS spectra. Their strength varies with the degree of soft X-ray obscuration as revealed by the Swift X-ray spectra. The narrow associated absorption lines in the UV spectrum of NGC 5548 remain strong. The lower-ionization transitions that appeared concurrently with the soft X-ray obscuration vary in response to the changing UV flux on a daily basis. Their depths over the longer term, however, also respond to the strength of the soft X-ray obscuration, indicating that the soft X-ray obscurer has a significant influence on the ionizing UV continuum that is not directly tracked by the observable UV continuum itself.

  15. The mean star-forming properties of QSO host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, D. J.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Lutz, D.; Netzer, H.; Trump, J. R.; Silverman, J. D.; Schramm, M.; Lusso, E.; Berta, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Förster-Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S.; Magnelli, B.; Mainieri, V.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A.; Mignoli, M.; Nordon, R.; Popesso, P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-12-01

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) occur in galaxies in which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are growing substantially through rapid accretion of gas. Many popular models of the co-evolutionary growth of galaxies and black holes predict that QSOs are also sites of substantial recent star formation (SF), mediated by important processes, such as major mergers, which rapidly transform the nature of galaxies. A detailed study of the star-forming properties of QSOs is a critical test of these models. We present a far-infrared Herschel/PACS study of the mean star formation rate (SFR) of a sample of spectroscopically observed QSOs to z ~ 2 from the COSMOS extragalactic survey. This is the largest sample to date of moderately luminous QSOs (with nuclear luminosities that lie around the knee of the luminosity function) studied using uniform, deep far-infrared photometry. We study trends of the mean SFR with redshift, black hole mass, nuclear bolometric luminosity, and specific accretion rate (Eddington ratio). To minimize systematics, we have undertaken a uniform determination of SMBH properties, as well as an analysis of important selection effects of spectroscopic QSO samples that influence the interpretation of SFR trends. We find that the mean SFRs of these QSOs are consistent with those of normal massive star-forming galaxies with a fixed scaling between SMBH and galaxy mass at all redshifts. No strong enhancement in SFR is found even among the most rapidly accreting systems, at odds with several co-evolutionary models. Finally, we consider the qualitative effects on mean SFR trends from different assumptions about the SF properties of QSO hosts and from redshift evolution of the SMBH-galaxy relationship. While currently limited by uncertainties, valuable constraints on AGN-galaxy co-evolution can emerge from our approach.

  16. A new limit on the variation of the fine-structure constant using absorption line multiplets in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Le Duc

    2015-08-01

    One of the key questions of modern physics concerns the possibility that physical constants vary over space and time during the history of the universe. The Standard Model of physics is built on these constants, but it does not provide any explanation for their values, nor requires their constancy over space and time. Here we set a new limit on possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine-structure constant , by comparing transitions line multiplets in an ensemble of Fe II 1608, 2344, 2374, 2383, 2587 and 2600 observed in the early universe with those measured in the laboratory. Based on the optical spectra observations of QSO HE 0515-4414, we deduced a constraint of at redshift z = 1.15. This is at present the tightest limit on at early cosmological epochs compared to the published results in the literature.

  17. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - Implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Broderick, J. J.; Mitchell, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions.

  18. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Broderick, J.J.; Mitchell, K.J.

    1986-07-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions. 30 references.

  19. Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Radio Morphologies and Five New H i 21cm Absorption Line Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sharma, Soniya; Kanekar, Nissim

    2016-03-01

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  20. H{beta} LINE WIDTHS AS AN ORIENTATION INDICATOR FOR LOW-IONIZATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang Shaohua E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.co

    2010-12-20

    There is evidence from radio-loud quasars to suggest that the distribution of the H{beta} broad emission line (BEL) gas is arranged in a predominantly planar orientation, and this result may well also apply to radio-quiet quasars. This would imply that the observed FWHM of the H{beta} BELs is dependent on the orientation of the line of sight to the gas. If this view is correct then we propose that the FWHM can be used as a surrogate, in large samples, to determine the line of sight to the H{beta} BELs in broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). The existence of broad UV absorption lines (BALs) means that the line of sight to BALQSOs must also pass through the BAL out-flowing gas. It is determined that there is a statistically significant excess of narrow-line profiles in the SDSS DR7 archival spectra of low-ionization broad absorption line quasars (LoBALQSOs), indicating that BAL gas flowing close to the equatorial plane does not commonly occur in these sources. We also find that the data is not well represented by random lines of sight to the BAL gas. Our best fit indicates two classes of LoBALQSOs, the majority ({approx}2/3) are polar outflows that are responsible for the enhanced frequency of narrow-line profiles, and the remainder are equatorial outflows. We further motivated the line of sight explanation of the narrow-line excess in LoBALQSOs by considering the notion that the skewed distribution of line profiles is driven by an elevated Eddington ratio in BALQSOs. We constructed a variety of control samples comprised of non-LoBALQSOs matched to a de-reddened LoBALQSO sample in redshift, luminosity, black hole mass, and Eddington ratio. It is demonstrated that the excess of narrow profiles persists within the LoBALQSO sample relative to each of the control samples with no reduction of the statistical significance. Thus, we eliminate the possibility that the excess narrow lines seen in the LoBALQSOs arise from an enhanced Eddington ratio.

  1. Time-averaging approximation in the interaction picture: Absorption line shapes for coupled chromophores with application to liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mino; Skinner, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    The time-averaging approximation (TAA), originally developed to calculate vibrational line shapes for coupled chromophores using mixed quantum/classical methods, is reformulated. In the original version of the theory, time averaging was performed for the full one-exciton Hamiltonian, while herein the time averaging is performed on the coupling (off-diagonal) Hamiltonian in the interaction picture. As a result, the influence of the dynamic fluctuations of the transition energies is more accurately described. We compare numerical results of the two versions of the TAA with numerically exact results for the vibrational absorption line shape of the OH stretching modes in neat water. It is shown that the TAA in the interaction picture yields theoretical line shapes that are in better agreement with exact results.

  2. Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Eracleous, M.; Charlton, J. C.; Chartas, G.; Kashikawa, N.

    2008-10-01

    We observed the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z_{em} = 2.542, first discovered by Dobrzycki et al. 1996) six times over an interval of 4.2 yrs (1.2 yrs in the quasar rest frame) using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru telescope. The purpose was to study the mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL; FWHM ˜ 1,000 km s^{-1}) that is blue-shifted from the quasar by ˜ 9,500 km s^{-1}. We found significant time variability, which supported the physical association of the mini-BAL gas with an outflow from the quasar. We have narrowed down the cause of the variability to two possible scenarios. We also used archival Chandra x-ray data to study the x-ray properties of this quasar. The results constrain the location of the absorbing gas relative to the overall outflow.

  3. Catalog of Narrow C IV Absorption Lines in BOSS. II. For Quasars with Z em > 2.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Qin, Yi-Ping; Qin, Ming; Pan, Cai-Juan; Pan, Da-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    As the second work in a series of papers aiming to detect absorption systems in the quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we continue the analysis of Paper I by expanding the quasar sample to those quasars with z em > 2.4. This yields a sample of 21,963 appropriate quasars to search for narrow C IV λλ1548, 1551 absorptions with Wr >= 0.2 Å for both lines. There are 9708 quasars with at least one appropriate absorption system imprinted on their spectra. From these spectra, we detect 13,919 narrow C IV absorption systems whose absorption redshifts cover a range of z abs = 1.8784-4.3704. In this paper and Paper I, we have selected 37,241 appropriate quasars with median S/N >= 4 and 1.54 <~ z em <~ 5.16 to visually analyze narrow C IV λλ1548, 1551 absorption doublets one by one. A total of 15,999 quasars are found to have at least one appropriate absorption system imprinted on their spectra. From these 15,999 quasar spectra, we have detected 23,336 appropriate C IV λλ1548, 1551 absorption systems with Wr >= 0.2 Å whose absorption redshifts cover a range of z abs = 1.4544-4.3704. The largest values of Wr are 3.19 Å for the λ1548 absorption line and 2.93 Å for the λ1551 absorption line, respectively. We find that only a few absorbers show large values of Wr . About 1.1% of the total absorbers have Wr λ1548 >= 2.0 Å.

  4. TOWARD DETECTING THE 2175 A DUST FEATURE ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG HIGH-REDSHIFT Mg II ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Junxian; Wang Tinggui; Ge Jian

    2011-05-10

    We report detections of 39 2175 A dust extinction bump candidates associated with strong Mg II absorption lines at z{approx} 1-1.8 on quasar spectra in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR3. These strong Mg II absorption line systems are detected among 2951 strong Mg II absorbers with a rest equivalent width W{sub r} {lambda}2796> 1.0 A at 1.0 < z < 1.86, which is part of a full sample of 7421 strong Mg II absorbers compiled by Prochter et al. The redshift range of the absorbers is chosen to allow the 2175 A extinction features to be completely covered within the SDSS spectrograph operation wavelength range. An upper limit of the background quasar emission redshift at z = 2.1 is set to prevent the Ly{alpha} forest lines from contaminating the sensitive spectral region for the 2175 A bump measurements. The FM90 parameterization is applied to model the optical/UV extinction curve in the rest frame of Mg II absorbers of the 2175 A bump candidates. The simulation technique developed by Jiang et al. is used to derive the statistical significance of the candidate 2175 A bumps. A total of 12 absorbers are detected with 2175 A bumps at a 5{sigma} level of statistical significance, 10 are detected at a 4{sigma} level, and 17 are detected at a 3{sigma} level. Most of the candidate bumps in this work are similar to the relatively weak 2175 A bumps observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud LMC2 supershell rather than the strong ones observed in the Milky Way. This sample has greatly increased the total number of 2175 A extinction bumps measured on SDSS quasar spectra. Follow-up observations may rule out some of the possible false detections and reveal the physical and chemical natures of 2175 A quasar absorbers.

  5. A Survey of Metal Lines at High Redshift. II. SDSS Absorption Line Studies—O VI Line Density, Space Density, and Gas Metallicity at z abs ~ 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N >=5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0.19 Å for the O VI 1032 Å component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs >= 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the "incompleteness and S/N-corrected" redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (2.8 < z < 3.2) = 4.6 ± 0.3, ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (3.2 < z < 3.6) = 6.7 ± 0.8, and ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (3.6 < z < 4.0) = 8.4 ± 2.9. We can place a secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: ΩO VI (2.8 < z < 3.2) >= 1.9 × 10-8 h -1. We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, {O VI}/{O}, and adopting the Anders & Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 < z < 3.2) >= 3.6 × 10-4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of

  6. QSO Narrow [OIII] Line Width and Host Galaxy Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonning, E. W.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.

    2004-05-01

    Established correlations between galaxy bulge luminosity L, black hole mass MBH, and stellar velocity dispersion sigma in galaxies suggest a close relationship between the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Measurements of the MBH - sigma relationship as a function of cosmic time may shed light on the origin of this relationship. One approach is to derive MBH and sigma from the widths of QSO broad and narrow lines, respectively (Shields et al. 2003, ApJ, 583, 124; Nelson 2000, ApJ, 544, L91). We investigate the utility of using the velocity of the narrow line emitting gas as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion in QSOs by examining host magnitudes and [OIII] line widths for low redshift QSOs. For our limited range of L, the increase in sigma with L predicted by the Faber-Jackson relation is substantially obscured by scatter. However, sigma([O III]) is consistent in the mean with host galaxy luminosity. EWB is a NASA GSRP fellow. GAS and SS are supported under Texas Advanced Research Program grant 003658-0177-2001 and NSF grant AST-0098594.

  7. Intergalactic Medium Emission Observations with the Cosmic Web Imager. I. The Circum-QSO Medium of QSO 1549+19, and Evidence for a Filamentary Gas Inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-05-01

    The Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI), an integral field spectrograph designed to detect and map low surface brightness emission, has obtained imaging spectroscopic maps of Lyα from the circum-QSO medium (CQM) of QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843. Extensive extended emission is detected from the CQM, consistent with fluorescent and pumped Lyα produced by the ionizing and Lyα continuum of the QSO. Many features present in PCWI spectral images match those detected in narrow-band images. Filamentary structures with narrow line profiles are detected in several cases as long as 250-400 kpc. One of these is centered at a velocity redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, and displays a spatially collimated and kinematically cold line profile increasing in velocity width approaching the QSO. This suggests that the filament gas is infalling onto the QSO, perhaps in a cold accretion flow. Because of the strong ionizing flux, the neutral column density is low, typically N(H\\,\\scriptsize{I}) \\sim 10^{12}{--} 10^{15}\\, cm^{ - 2}, and the line center optical depth is also low (typically τ0 < 10), insufficient to display well separated double peak emission characteristic of higher line optical depths. With a simple ionization and cloud model we can very roughly estimate the total gas mass (log M gas = 12.5 ± 0.5) and the total (log M tot = 13.3 ± 0.5). We can also calculate a kinematic mass from the total line profile (2 × 1013 M ⊙), which agrees with the mass estimated from the gas emission. The intensity-binned spectrum of the CQM shows a progression in kinematic properties consistent with heirarchical structure formation.

  8. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. I. The circum-QSO medium of QSO 1549+19, and evidence for a filamentary gas inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-05-10

    The Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI), an integral field spectrograph designed to detect and map low surface brightness emission, has obtained imaging spectroscopic maps of Lyα from the circum-QSO medium (CQM) of QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843. Extensive extended emission is detected from the CQM, consistent with fluorescent and pumped Lyα produced by the ionizing and Lyα continuum of the QSO. Many features present in PCWI spectral images match those detected in narrow-band images. Filamentary structures with narrow line profiles are detected in several cases as long as 250-400 kpc. One of these is centered at a velocity redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, and displays a spatially collimated and kinematically cold line profile increasing in velocity width approaching the QSO. This suggests that the filament gas is infalling onto the QSO, perhaps in a cold accretion flow. Because of the strong ionizing flux, the neutral column density is low, typically N(H I)∼10{sup 12}--10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}, and the line center optical depth is also low (typically τ{sub 0} < 10), insufficient to display well separated double peak emission characteristic of higher line optical depths. With a simple ionization and cloud model we can very roughly estimate the total gas mass (log M {sub gas} = 12.5 ± 0.5) and the total (log M {sub tot} = 13.3 ± 0.5). We can also calculate a kinematic mass from the total line profile (2 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}), which agrees with the mass estimated from the gas emission. The intensity-binned spectrum of the CQM shows a progression in kinematic properties consistent with heirarchical structure formation.

  9. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line. PMID:25910116

  10. High resolution deep imaging of a bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; He, Wei; Yamada, Toru; Tanaka, Ichi; Iye, Masanori; Ji, Tuo

    2015-05-01

    We have obtained deep J and Ks-band images centered on a bright radio quiet QSO UM 402 (zem = 2.856) using the IRCS camera and adaptive optics systems that are part of the Subaru Telescope, as well as retrieved WFC3/F140W archive images of this object. A faint galaxy (mk = 23.32±0.05 in the Vega magnitude system) that lies ~ 2.4″ north of the QSO sightline has been clearly resolved in all three deep high resolution datasets, and appears as an irregular galaxy with two close components in the Ks-band images (separation ~ 0.3″). Given the small impact parameter (b = 19.6 kpc, at zlls = 2.531), as well as the red color of (J - Ks)Vega ~ 1.6, it might be a candidate galaxy giving rise to the Lyman Limit system absorption at zabs = 2.531 seen in the QSO spectrum. After carefully subtracting the point spread function from the QSO images, the host galaxy of this bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3 was marginally revealed. We placed a lower limit on the host component of mk ~ 23.3 according to our analyses. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  11. A Stringent Limit on Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant Using Absorption Line Multiplets in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, T. D.

    2016-06-01

    One of the key questions of modern physics concerns the possibility that physical constants have varied throughout the history of the Universe. The standard model of physics is built on these constants, but it does not provide any explanation for their values, nor does it require their constancy over space and time. Here, we set a new limit on possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine-structure constant α = e 2/4πɛ0 ħc by comparing transitions and line multiplets in an ensemble of Fe II λ 1608, λ 2344, λ 2374, λ 2383, λ 2587, and λ 2600 observed in the early Universe with those measured in the laboratory. Based on the optical spectrum observations of QSO HE 0515-4414, we deduce a constraint of Δα/α = (-0.157± 0.300)×10-6 at redshift z = 1.15. At present, this represents the tightest limit on Δα/α in early cosmological epochs compared to the published results in the literature.

  12. Updated models for the creation of a low-Z QSO absorber by a dwarf galaxy wind

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, Brian A.; Joeris, Peter; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2014-11-01

    We present new GALEX images and optical spectroscopy of J1229+02, a dwarf post-starburst galaxy located 81 kpc from the 1585 km s{sup −1} absorber in the 3C 273 sight line. The absence of Hα emission and the faint GALEX UV fluxes confirm that the galaxy's recent star formation rate is <10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Absorption-line strengths and the UV−optical SED give similar estimates of the acceptable model parameters for its youngest stellar population where f{sub m}<60% of its total stars (by mass) formed in a burst t{sub sb}=0.7–3.4 Gyr ago with a stellar metallicity of −1.7<[Fe/H]<+0.2; we also estimate the stellar mass of J1229+02 to be 7.3QSO absorber; i.e., any putative ejecta must interact with ambient gas from outside J1229+02. Because J1229+02 is located in the southern extension of the Virgo cluster ample potential sources of this ambient gas exist. Based on the two nearest examples of strong metal-line absorbers discovered serendipitously (the current one and the 1700 km s{sup −1} metal-line absorber in the nearby Q1230 + 0115 sight line), we conclude that absorbers with 10{sup 14}

  13. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  14. Systematic QSO emission-line velocity shifts and new unbiased redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Fan, Xiao-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for determining mean line velocities which is an order of magnitude more accurate than past work is presented. Using a large sample of 518 lines from 160 QSOs, it is found that each UV emission line has a well-determined mean velocity, with a surprisingly small QSO-to-QSO dispersion of under 200 km/s. All correlations between emission-line velocities and QSO properties are found to be explained by just three basic correlations. Both N V and Mg II tend to be at less negative velocities in radio-quiet vs radio-loud QSOs, and C IV lines with small equivalent widths are at more negative velocities, probably because of the line asymmetry. The finding of Sargent et al. (1989) that the UV spectral index increases with UV luminosity is confirmed, but their claim that radio-loud and radio-quiet QSOs have different indices is not confirmed.

  15. Monitoring of the extreme alpha_ox variations in the luminous NL QSO PHL 1092

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniutti, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    During a 2008 XMM-Newton observation the luminous Narrow-Line quasar PHL 1092 showed a dramatic X-ray flux drop by a factor ~200 with respect to previous X-ray observations, becoming one of the most extreme X-ray weak QSO (alpha_ox = -2.44), after being X-ray "normal" (alpha_ox = -1.56) only 4.5 years earlier. Note that the extreme 2008 X-ray weakness corresponds to a factor ~320 with respect to the expected X-ray flux of QSO with the given luminosity. The aim of this proposal is to continue our UV and X-ray monitoring of this extreme source with two 25 ks exposures (one for each visibility window, hence separated by about 6 months) to unveil the timescale over which transitions from X-ray weak to normal QSO states take place in this most extraordinary AGN.

  16. The x ray properties of a large, uniform QSO sample: Einstein observations of the LBQS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Xu, X.; Green, P. J.; Foltz, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Although there are large numbers of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSO's) now observed in X rays, extensive X-ray observations of uniformly selected, 'complete' QSO samples are more rare. The Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS) consists of about 1000 objects with well understood properties, most brighter than B = 18.8 and thus amenable to X-ray detections in relatively brief exposures. The sample is thought to be highly complete in the range 0.2 less than z less than 3.3, a significantly broader interval than many other surveys. The Einstein IPC observed 150 of these objects, mostly serendipitously, during its lifetime. We report the results of an analysis of these IPC data, considering not only the 20 percent of the objects we find to have positive X-ray detections, but also the ensemble X-ray properties derived by 'image stacking'.

  17. Constraining The Reionization History With QSO Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallerani, S.; Choudhury, T. R.; Ferrara, A.

    2006-08-01

    We use a semi-analytical approach to simulate absorption spectra of QSOs at high redshifts with the aim of constraining the cosmic reionization history. We consider two physically motivated and detailed reionization histories: (i) an Early Reionization Model (ERM) in which the intergalactic medium is reionized by PopIII stars at z~14, and (ii) a more standard Late Reionization Model (LRM) in which overlapping, induced by QSOs and normal galaxies, occurs at z~6. An example of simulated spectra is provided by FIG.1. From the analysis of current Lyα forest data at z<6, we conclude that it is impossible to disentangle the two scenarios, which fit equally well the observed Gunn-Peterson optical depth, flux probability distribution function and dark gap width distribution. At z>6, however, clear differences start to emerge which are best quantified by the dark gap width distribution. We find that 35 (zero) per cent of the lines of sight within 5.750Å in the rest frame of the QSO if re-ionization is not (is) complete at z>~6 (FIG.2). Similarly, the ERM predicts peaks of width ~1Å in 40 per cent of the lines of sight in the redshift range 6.0-6.6; in the same range, LRM predicts no peaks of width >0.8Å (FIG.3). We conclude that the dark gap and peak width statistics represent superb probes of cosmic reionization if about ten QSOs can be found at z>6.

  18. Constraining the reionization history with QSO absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallerani, S.; Choudhury, T. Roy; Ferrara, A.

    2006-08-01

    We use a semi-analytical approach to simulate absorption spectra of QSOs at high redshifts with the aim of constraining the cosmic reionization history. We consider two physically motivated and detailed reionization histories: (i) an early reionization model (ERM) in which the intergalactic medium is reionized by Pop III stars at z ~ 14, and (ii) a more standard late reionization model (LRM) in which overlapping, induced by QSOs and normal galaxies, occurs at z ~ 6. From the analysis of current Lyα forest data at z < 6, we conclude that it is impossible to disentangle the two scenarios, which fit equally well the observed Gunn-Peterson optical depth, flux probability distribution function and dark gap width distribution. At z > 6, however, clear differences start to emerge which are best quantified by the dark gap and peak width distributions. We find that 35 (0) per cent of the lines of sight (LOS) within 5.7 < z < 6.3 show dark gaps of widths >50Å in the rest frame of the QSO if reionization is not (is) complete at z >~ 6. Similarly, the ERM predicts peaks of width ~1Å in 40 per cent of the LOS in the redshift range 6.0-6.6 in the same range, LRM predicts no peaks of width >0.8Å. We conclude that the dark gap and peak width statistics represent superb probes of cosmic reionization if about ten QSOs can be found at z > 6. We finally discuss strengths and limitations of our method.

  19. Measurement of the absorption line profiles of water vapour isotopomers at 1.39 {mu}m using the methods of diode laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'michev, A S; Nadezhdinskii, Aleksandr I; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2011-07-31

    The issues related to high-precision measurement of the absorption line profiles of water vapour and its isotopomers using the methods of diode laser spectroscopy in the near IR range aimed at the analysis and detection of greenhouse gases are considered. The absorption line shape of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O is investigated as a function of pressure of different buffer gases. The influence of the instrument function of the diode laser (DL) on the precision of measuring the line profile is studied. From fitting the profile of Doppler-broadened H{sub 2}{sup 16}O absorption line to a model profile the lasing line width of the DL with a fibre pigtail is determined. The frequencies and intensities of absorption lines of water isotopomers H{sub 2}{sup 16}O, H{sub 2}{sup 17}O, H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, and HDO are measured in the range of DL oscillation. Analytical spectral regions are chosen for distant probing of water vapour using an airborne lab. (laser spectroscopy)

  20. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  1. XMM-Newton Observations of the Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasar FBQS J131213.5+231958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Smita; Dai, Xinyu

    2010-12-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar FBQS J131213.5+231958. The X-ray spectrum of the source can be well described by an absorbed power-law model in which the absorber is either ionized or only partially covers the continuum source. This can explain the apparent lack of absorption observed in the Chandra spectrum with low signal-to-noise ratio. While the power-law slope of the spectrum is similar to that of non-BAL radio-loud quasars, the Eddington luminosity ratio is likely to be significantly higher than the mean. This shows that in high-mass black holes (BHs), high Eddington accretion may not result in as steep of a spectrum as in lower-mass BHs. This provides important constraints for accretion disk models. It also provides support to the idea that BAL quasars, at least their radio-loud subclass, represent an early evolutionary stage of quasars.

  2. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  3. Interstellar absorption lines toward NGC 2264 and AFGL 2591 - Abundances of H2, H3(+), and CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, John H.; Van Dishoek, Ewine F.; Willner, Steven P.; Woods, R. Claude

    1990-01-01

    Interstellar absorption-line spectroscopy of NGC 2264 is reported which shows that the CO molecule has a column density of 5 x 10 to the 18th/sq cm and a rotational excitation temperature of 28 K. A direct upper limit on the H2 column density implies that at least 6 percent of a solar carbon abundance is in the form of CO. The upper limit on the H3(+) abundance implies that the cosmic-ray ionization rate is of the order of 10 to the -16th/s or less. The H3(+) upper limit, together with a previous radio detection of H2D(+) emission, implies either an enormous overabundance of the deuterated molecule or else that most of the radio emission comes from clouds not located directly between use and the infrared source. Observations of the sources AFGL 2591 and NGC 2024 IRS2 indicate that upper limits on H3(+) imply cosmic ray ionization rates of less than 3 and 60 x 10 to the -17th/s, respectively.

  4. Variable Doppler shifts of the thermal wind absorption lines in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madej, O. K.; Jonker, P. G.; Díaz Trigo, M.; Miškovičová, I.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we address the general applicability of the method pioneered by Zhang, Liao & Yao in which the motion of the compact object can be tracked using wind X-ray absorption lines. We present the velocity measurements of the thermal wind lines observed in the X-ray spectrum of a few low-mass X-ray binaries: GX 13+1, H 1743-322, GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105. We find that the variability in the velocity of the wind lines in about all of the sources is larger than conceivable radial velocity variations of the compact object. GX 13+1 provides a potential exception, although it would require the red giant star to be massive with a mass of ≈5-6 M⊙. We conclude that the variability of the source luminosity occurring on a time-scale of days/months can affect the outflow properties making it difficult to track the orbital motion of the compact object using current observations. Given the intrinsic variability of the outflows we suggest that low-mass X-ray binaries showing stable coronae instead of an outflow (e.g. 4U 1254-69, MXB 1659-29, 4U 1624-49) could be more suitable targets for tracking the orbital motion of the compact object.

  5. Inner-Shell Absorption Lines of Fe 6-Fe 16: a Many-Body Perturbation Theory Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Ming F.; Holczer, Tomer; Behar, Ehud; Kahn, Steven M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-01-17

    We provide improved atomic calculation of wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and autoionization rates relevant to the 2 -> 3 inner-shell transitions of Fe VI-XVI, the so-called Fe M-shell unresolved transition array (UTA). A second order many-body perturbation theory is employed to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, which are systematically larger than previous theoretical results by 15-45 mA. For a few transitions of Fe XVI and Fe XV where laboratory measurements exist, our new wavelengths are accurate to within a few mA. Using these new calculations, the apparent discrepancy in the velocities between the Fe M-shell UTA and other highly ionized absorption lines in the outflow of NGC 3783 disappears. The oscillator strengths in our new calculation agree well with the previous theoretical data, while the new autoionization rates are significantly larger, especially for lower charge states. We attribute this discrepancy to the missing autoionization channels in the previous calculation. The increased autoionization rates may slightly affect the column density analysis of the Fe M-shell UTA for sources with high column density and very low turbulent broadening. The complete set of atomic data is provided as an electronic table.

  6. Hydrodynamical simulations of the jet in the symbiotic star MWC 560. I. Structure, emission and synthetic absorption line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.; Camenzind, M.; Schmid, H. M.

    2005-01-01

    We performed hydrodynamical simulations with and without radiative cooling of jet models with parameters representative of the symbiotic system MWC 560. For symbiotic systems we have to perform jet simulations of a pulsed underdense jet in a high density ambient medium. We present the jet structure resulting from our simulations and calculate emission plots which account for expected radiative processes. In addition, our calculations provide expansion velocities for the jet bow shock, the density and temperature structure in the jet, and the propagation and evolution of the jet pulses. In MWC 560 the jet axis is parallel to the line of sight so that the outflowing jet gas can be seen as blue shifted, variable absorption lines in the continuum of the underlying jet source. Based on our simulations we calculate and discuss synthetic absorption profiles. Based on a detailed comparison between model spectra and observations we discuss our hydrodynamical calculations for a pulsed jet in MWC 560 and suggest improvements for future models. Figures \\ref{skizze}, \\ref{modi_det}, \\ref{slice_cool_p}, \\ref{NV_3.0_synch}, \\ref{modelicool_greyscale}, \\ref{line_rem}-\\ref{line_dv} and \\ref{line_zmax} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  7. Highly Ionized Iron Absorption Lines from Outflowing Gases in the X-ray Spectrum of NGC 1365

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risaliti, G.; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.; Baldi, A.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Zezas, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the discovery of four absorption lines in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365, at energies between 6.7 and 8.3 keV. The lines are detected with high statistical confidence (from >20 sigma for the strongest to -4 sigma for the weakest) in two XMM-Newton observations 60 ks long. We also detect the same lines, with a lower signal-to-noise ratio (but still >2 sigma for each line), in two previous shorter (-10 ks) XMM-Newton observations. The spectral analysis identifies these features as Fe XXV and Fe XXVI Kalpha and Kbeta lines, outflowing with velocities varying between -1000 and -5000 km/s among the observations. These are the highest quality detections of such lines so far. The high equivalent widths [EW (Kalpha) approximately 100 eV] and the Kalpha/Kbeta ratios imply that the lines are due to absorption of the AGN continuum by a highly ionized gas with column density NH-5?1023 cm(exp -2) at a distance of -(50-100)RS from the continuum source.

  8. Multifrequency VLBI Observations of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar J1020+4320: Recently Restarted Jet Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Nanako; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Asada, Keiichi; Hayashi, Takayuki J.; Nagai, Hiroshi; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Jike, Takaaki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Shoko

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports on very-long-baseline interferometry observations of the radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasar J1020+4320 at 1.7, 2.3, 6.7, and 8.4 GHz using the Japanese VLBI network (JVN) and European VLBI network (EVN). The radio morphology is compact with a size of ˜10 pc. The convex radio spectrum has been stable over the last decade; an observed peak frequency of 3.2 GHz is equivalent to 9.5 GHz in the rest frame, suggesting an age on the order of ˜100 years as a radio source, according to an observed correlation between the linear size and the peak frequency of compact steep spectrum (CSS) and giga-hertz peaked spectrum (GPS) radio sources. A low-frequency radio excess suggests a relic of past jet activity. J1020+4320 may be one of the quasars with recurrent and short-lived jet activity during a BAL-outflowing phase.

  9. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  10. High-resolution imaging of QSO 2305 + 187 (= 4C 18.68)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Crabtree, D.; Neff, S. G.; Gower, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Optical imaging of QSO 2305 + 187 with resolution ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 arcsec in continuum and line emission is presented. The data are from FOCAM and the HR Cam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the Wide Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. These are compared with previously published optical and radio images. The QSO host galaxy has the basic properties of an elliptical, but has significant irregularities, and tidal tails which indicate an ongoing gravitational interaction with a close companion.

  11. UNSHIFTED METASTABLE He I* MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE SYSTEM IN THE NARROW-LINE TYPE 1 QUASAR SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Chenwei; Ge, Jian; Hamann, Fred; Komossa, S.; Yuan, Weimin; Zuther, Jens; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen

    2015-02-10

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1} centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n {sub H} ∼ (1.0-2.5) × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and a column density of N {sub H} ∼ (1.0-3.2) × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} and is located at R ∼100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  12. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2009-11-10

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  13. The Evolution of Quasar C IV and Si IV Broad Absorption Lines over Multi-year Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hewett, Paul C.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the variability of C IV λ1549 broad absorption line (BAL) troughs over rest-frame timescales of up to ≈7 yr in 14 quasars at redshifts z >~ 2.1. For nine sources at sufficiently high redshift, we also compare the C IV and Si IV λ1400 absorption variation. We compare shorter and longer term variability using spectra from up to four different epochs per source and find complex patterns of variation in the sample overall. The scatter in the change of absorption equivalent width (EW), ΔEW, increases with the time between observations. BALs do not, in general, strengthen or weaken monotonically, and variation observed over shorter (lsimmonths) timescales is not predictive of multi-year variation. We find no evidence for asymmetry in the distribution of ΔEW that would indicate that BALs form and decay on different timescales, and we constrain the typical BAL lifetime to be gsim30 yr. The BAL absorption for one source, LBQS 0022+0150, has weakened and may now be classified as a mini-BAL. Another source, 1235+1453, shows evidence of variable, blue continuum emission that is relatively unabsorbed by the BAL outflow. C IV and Si IV BAL shape changes are related in at least some sources. Given their high velocities, BAL outflows apparently traverse large spatial regions and may interact with parsec-scale structures such as an obscuring torus. Assuming BAL outflows are launched from a rotating accretion disk, notable azimuthal symmetry is required in the outflow to explain the relatively small changes observed in velocity structure over times up to 7 yr.

  14. Unveiling the intrinsic X-ray properties of broad absorption line quasars with a relatively unbiased sample

    SciTech Connect

    Morabito, Leah K.; Dai, Xinyu; Leighly, Karen M.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Shankar, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence of a higher intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) than that obtained in optical surveys, on which most previous X-ray studies of BALQSOs have focused. Here we present Chandra observations of 18 BALQSOs at z ∼ 2, selected from a near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) sample, where the BALQSO fraction is likely to be close to the intrinsic fraction. We measure photon indices using the stacked spectra of the optically faint (i – K{sub s} ≥ 2.3 mag) and optically bright (i – K{sub s} < 2.3 mag) samples to be Γ ≅ 1.5-2.1. We constrain their intrinsic column density by modeling the X-ray fractional hardness ratio, finding a mean column density of 3.5 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} assuming neutral absorption. We incorporate Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical measurements (rest frame UV) to study the broadband spectral index between the X-ray and UV bands, and compare this to a large sample of normal quasars. We estimate that the optically faint BALQSOs are X-ray weaker than the optically bright ones, and the entire sample of BALQSOs are intrinsically X-ray weak when compared to normal active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Correcting for magnification of X-ray emission via gravitational lensing by the central black hole viewed at large inclination angles makes these BALQSOs even more intrinsically X-ray weak. Finally, we estimate AGN kinetic feedback efficiencies of a few percent for an X-ray wind of 0.3c in high-ionization BALQSOs. Combined with energy carried by low-ionization BALQSOs and UV winds, the total kinetic energy in BALQSOs can be sufficient to provide AGN kinetic feedback required to explain the co-evolution between black holes and host galaxies.

  15. The role of radiative acceleration in outflows from broad absorption line QSOs. 1: Comparison with O star winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the role of radiation pressure in accelerating the broad absorption line (BAL) outflows in QSOs by comparing their properties with those of radiatively driven O star winds. We find that, owing to their lower column densities and higher velocity spreads, BAL outflows have only a few tens of strong resonance lines that are dynamically important, as compared with 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4) lines in O star winds. We show that the combined radiative force (the 'force multiplier') declines more rapidly as a function of column density for BAL outflows than for O star winds. This is mainly attributed to the absence of lines from excited states in the BAL region. The absorbing gas in BAL outflows must have a small filling factor in order for radiative acceleration to be important dynamically. This allows the absorbing material to remain at a high enough density to maintain the ion species necessary for efficient radiative acceleration as well (as those responsible for the observed absorption), without the average flow density becoming so large that the absorbing matter cannot be accelerated by an increment larger than its own sound speed. The latter condition is necessary if the outflow is to tap a large portion of the incident photon momentum. Once a small filling factor is assumed, radiative acceleration can be more efficient in BAL outflows than in O stars. We show that terminal velocities of a few times 10(exp 4) km/sec can be expected, provided that the absorbing matter does not have to drag with it a much heavier substrate.

  16. Unveiling the Intrinsic X-Ray Properties of Broad Absorption Line Quasars with a Relatively Unbiased Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Leah K.; Dai, Xinyu; Leighly, Karen M.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Shankar, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence of a higher intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) than that obtained in optical surveys, on which most previous X-ray studies of BALQSOs have focused. Here we present Chandra observations of 18 BALQSOs at z ~ 2, selected from a near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) sample, where the BALQSO fraction is likely to be close to the intrinsic fraction. We measure photon indices using the stacked spectra of the optically faint (i - Ks >= 2.3 mag) and optically bright (i - Ks < 2.3 mag) samples to be Γ ~= 1.5-2.1. We constrain their intrinsic column density by modeling the X-ray fractional hardness ratio, finding a mean column density of 3.5 × 1022 cm-2 assuming neutral absorption. We incorporate Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical measurements (rest frame UV) to study the broadband spectral index between the X-ray and UV bands, and compare this to a large sample of normal quasars. We estimate that the optically faint BALQSOs are X-ray weaker than the optically bright ones, and the entire sample of BALQSOs are intrinsically X-ray weak when compared to normal active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Correcting for magnification of X-ray emission via gravitational lensing by the central black hole viewed at large inclination angles makes these BALQSOs even more intrinsically X-ray weak. Finally, we estimate AGN kinetic feedback efficiencies of a few percent for an X-ray wind of 0.3c in high-ionization BALQSOs. Combined with energy carried by low-ionization BALQSOs and UV winds, the total kinetic energy in BALQSOs can be sufficient to provide AGN kinetic feedback required to explain the co-evolution between black holes and host galaxies.

  17. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Madsen, K. K.; Ptak, A. F.; Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Risaliti, G.; Saz, C.; Stern, D.; Veilleux, S.; Walton, D. J.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  18. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. I. DATA AND EMPIRICAL TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-20

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 {mu}m and 0.72-1.03 {mu}m for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is {approx}> 200 A{sup -1} out to 1 {mu}m, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I {lambda}8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH {lambda}9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II {lambda}8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  19. The role of radiative acceleration in outflows from broad absorption line QSOs. 1: Comparison with O star winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Nahum; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1994-06-01

    We investigate the role of radiation pressure in accelerating the broad absorption line (BAL) outflows in QSOs by comparing their properties with those of radiatively driven O star winds. We find that, owing to their lower column densities and higher velocity spreads, BAL outflows have only a few tens of strong resonance lines that are dynamically important, as compared with 103 - 104 lines in O star winds. We show that the combined radiative force (the 'force multiplier') declines more rapidly as a function of column density for BAL outflows than for O star winds. This is mainly attributed to the absence of lines from excited states in the BAL region. The absorbing gas in BAL outflows must have a small filling factor in order for radiative acceleration to be important dynamically. This allows the absorbing material to remain at a high enough density to maintain the ion species necessary for efficient radiative acceleration as well (as those responsible for the observed absorption), without the average flow density becoming so large that the absorbing matter cannot be accelerated by an increment larger than its own sound speed. The latter condition is necessary if the outflow is to tap a large portion of the incident photon momentum. Once a small filling factor is assumed, radiative acceleration can be more efficient in BAL outflows than in O stars. We show that terminal velocities of a few times 104 km/sec can be expected, provided that the absorbing matter does not have to drag with it a much heavier substrate.

  20. DETECTION OF A TRANSIENT X-RAY ABSORPTION LINE INTRINSIC TO THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT H 2356-309

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Taotao; Buote, David A.; Humphrey, Philip J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    2011-04-10

    Since the launch of the Einstein X-ray Observatory in the 1970s, a number of broad absorption features have been reported in the X-ray spectra of BL Lac objects. These features are often interpreted as arising from high-velocity outflows intrinsic to the BL Lac object, therefore providing important information about the inner environment around the central engine. However, such absorption features have not been observed more recently with high-resolution X-ray telescopes such as Chandra and XMM-Newton. In this paper, we report the detection of a transient X-ray absorption feature intrinsic to the BL Lac object H 2356-309 with the Chandra X-ray Telescope. This BL Lac object was observed during XMM-Newton cycle 7 and Chandra cycles 8 and 10, as part of our campaign to investigate X-ray absorption produced by the warm-hot intergalactic medium residing in the foreground large-scale superstructure. During one of the 80 ks Chandra cycle 10 observations, a transient absorption feature was detected at 3.3{sigma} (or 99.9% confidence level, accounting for the number of 'trials), which we identify as the O VIII K{alpha} line produced by an absorber intrinsic to the BL Lac object. None of the other 11 observations showed this line. We constrain the ionization parameter (25 {approx}< {Xi} {approx}< 40) and temperature (10{sup 5} K absorption line; however, the derived properties of the emission material are very different from those of the absorption material, implying it is unlikely a typical P Cygni-type profile.

  1. Measurements of mesospheric water vapour, aerosols and temperatures with the Spectral Absorption Line Imager (SALI-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, M. G.; Mullins, M.; Brown, S.; Sargoytchev, S. I.

    2001-08-01

    Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, mesospheric clouds (MC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of MC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recently evidence has been provided which suggests that they are a critical indicator of atmospheric change. The aim of the SALI-AT experiment is to make simultaneous (although not strictly collocated) measurements of water vapour, aerosols and temperature in the mesosphere and the mesopause region under twilight condition in the presence of mesospheric clouds. The water vapour will be measured in the regime of solar occultation utilizing a water vapour absorption band at 936 nm wavelength employing the SALI (Spectral Absorption Line Imager) instrument concept. A three-channel zenith photometer, AT-3, with wavelengths of 385 nm, 525 nm, and 1040 nm will measure Mie and Rayleigh scattering giving both mesospheric temperature profiles and the particle size distribution. Both instruments are small, low cost and low mass. It is envisioned that the SALI-AT experiment be flown on a small rocket - the Improved Orion/Hotel payload configuration, from the Andoya Rocket range, Norway. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height.

  2. Imaging Polarimetry of Scattered Light from the Buried QSO in IRAS F15307+3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Jeffrey; Hines, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present new imaging polarimetry observations of the Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxy and Type 2 QSO IRAS F15307+3252 (z = 0.9257). The observations were obtained with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advance Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The images show strongly polarized (p ≥ 20%) light extending ~8 kpc southwest from the center of the galaxy. The overall shape suggests that the extended emission has a single-sided, conical structure of apparent half-opening angle ~16 degrees and apex centered at the galaxy nucleus. The polarization position angle (at each resolution element) is perpendicular to the axis of the extended emission, implying that the structure is illuminated by a central source in the galaxy nucleus that is not seen directly. F15307+3252 is known to harbor a buried QSO that was revealed in a polarized spectrum by Hines et al. (1995); the degree of polarization and position angle of this polarized spectrum match those of the extended structure seen in our new HST/ACS data. We thus conclude that this extended emission is light from the buried QSO that is scattered (thus polarized) into our line of sight, and importantly, this object would be classified optically as a Type 1 QSO if viewed from the vantage point of the scattering material. The conical structure of the scattered light suggests that the material blocking our direct line of sight to the QSO has a spatial distribution similar to the dusty torus in lower redshift Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). Assuming that the scattered-light-cone half-opening angle is the same as the dusty torus half-opening angle, we derive a dust-covering fraction of ≥ 95%. This, and comparison between the observed spectral energy distribution of F15307+3252 and that of a composite Type 1 QSO, suggests that the majority of the luminosity in F15307+3252 is powered by the central QSO. Deep HST/ACS images in total light also show clearly that F15307+3252 sits at the center of a

  3. Variable Reddening and Broad Absorption Lines in the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy WPVS 007: An Origin in the Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Cooper, Erin; Grupe, Dirk; Terndrup, Donald M.; Komossa, S.

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of an occultation event in the low-luminosity narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 in 2015 February and March. In concert with longer timescale variability, these observations place strong constraints on the nature and location of the absorbing material. Swift monitoring has revealed a secular decrease since ∼2010 accompanied by flattening of the optical and UV photometry that suggests variable reddening. Analysis of four Hubble Space Telescope COS observations since 2010, including a Director’s Discretionary time observation during the occultation, shows that the broad-absorption-line velocity offset and the C iv emission-line width both decrease as the reddening increases. The occultation dynamical timescale, the BAL variability dynamical timescale, and the density of the BAL gas show that both the reddening material and the broad-absorption-line gas are consistent with an origin in the torus. These observations can be explained by a scenario in which the torus is clumpy with variable scale height, and the BAL gas is blown from the torus material like spray from the crest of a wave. As the obscuring material passes into our line of sight, we alternately see high-velocity broad absorption lines and a clear view to the central engine, or low-velocity broad absorption lines and strong reddening. WPVS 007 has a small black hole mass, and correspondingly short timescales, and so we may be observing behavior that is common in BALQSOs, but is not typically observable. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11733, 13015, and 14058.

  4. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-10-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γeff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  5. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  6. High Dust Depletion in two Intervening Quasar Absorption Line Systems with the 2175 Å Extinction Bump at z ~ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui

    2010-12-01

    We present the column densities of heavy elements and dust depletion studies in two strong Mg II absorption systems at z ~ 1.4 displaying the 2175 Å dust extinction feature. Column densities are measured from low-ionization absorption lines using an Apparent Optical Depth Method on the Keck/ESI spectra. We find that the dust depletion patterns resemble that of cold diffuse clouds in the Milky Way (MW). The values, [Fe/Zn] ≈-1.5 and [Si/Zn]<-0.67, are among the highest dust depletion measured for quasar absorption line systems. In another 2175 Å absorber at z = 1.64 toward the quasar SDSS J160457.50+220300.5, Noterdaeme et al. reported a similar dust depletion measurement ([Fe/Zn] = -1.47 and [Si/Zn] = -1.07) and detected C I and CO absorption lines on its VLT/UVES spectrum. We conclude that heavy dust depletion (i.e., a characteristic of cold dense clouds in MW) is required to produce a pronounced 2175 Å extinction bump. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. 10: Galactic H I 21 centimeter emission toward 143 quasars and active Galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockman, Felix J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Sensitive H I 21 cm emission line spectra have been measured for the directions to 143 quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) chosen from the observing lists for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Narrow-band and wide-band data were obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 43 m radio telescope for each object. The narrow-band data have a velocity resolution of 1 km/s, extend from -220 to +170 km/s, and are corrected for stray 21 cm radiation. The wide-band data have a resolution of 4 km/s and extend from -1000 to +1000 km/s. The data are important for the interpretation of ultraviolet absorption lines near zero redshift in Key Project spectra. Twenty-two percent of the quasars lie behind Galactic high-velocity H I clouds with absolute value of V(sub LSR) greater than 100 km/s whose presence can increase the equivalent width of interstellar absorption lines significantly. This paper contains the emission spectra and measures of the H I velocities and column densities along the sight line to each quasar. We discuss how the measurements can be used to estimate the visual and ultraviolet extinction toward each quasar and to predict the approximate strength of the strong ultraviolet resonance lines of neutral gas species in the HST Key Project spectra.

  8. A LARGE NUMBER OF z > 6 GALAXIES AROUND A QSO AT z = 6.43: EVIDENCE FOR A PROTOCLUSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Yousuke; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Goto, Tomotsugu; Furusawa, Hisanori; Overzier, Roderik

    2010-10-01

    QSOs have been thought to be important for tracing highly biased regions in the early universe, from which the present-day massive galaxies and galaxy clusters formed. While overdensities of star-forming galaxies have been found around QSOs at 2 < z < 5, the case for excess galaxy clustering around QSOs at z > 6 is less clear. Previous studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have reported the detection of small excesses of faint dropout galaxies in some QSO fields, but these surveys probed a relatively small region surrounding the QSOs. To overcome this problem, we have observed the most distant QSO at z = 6.4 using the large field of view of the Suprime-Cam (34' x 27'). Newly installed red-sensitive fully depleted CCDs allowed us to select Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx} 6.4 more efficiently. We found seven LBGs in the QSO field, whereas only one exists in a comparison field. The significance of this apparent excess is difficult to quantify without spectroscopic confirmation and additional control fields. The Poisson probability to find seven objects when one expects four is {approx}10%, while the probability to find seven objects in one field and only one in the other is less than 0.4%, suggesting that the QSO field is significantly overdense relative to the control field. These conclusions are supported by a comparison with a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation which includes the higher order clustering of galaxies. We find some evidence that the LBGs are distributed in a ring-like shape centered on the QSO with a radius of {approx}3 Mpc. There are no candidate LBGs within 2 Mpc from the QSO, i.e., galaxies are clustered around the QSO but appear to avoid the very center. These results suggest that the QSO is embedded in an overdense region when defined on a sufficiently large scale (i.e., larger than an HST/ACS pointing). This suggests that the QSO was indeed born in a massive halo. The central deficit of galaxies may

  9. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs. I. Detection and statistical incidence of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Yaqoob, T.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines have been detected in recent years between 7 and 10 keV in the X-ray spectra of several radio-quiet AGNs. The derived blue-shifted velocities of the lines can often reach mildly relativistic values, up to 0.2-0.4c. These findings are important because they suggest the presence of a previously unknown massive and highly ionized absorbing material outflowing from their nuclei, possibly connected with accretion disk winds/outflows. Aims: The scope of the present work is to statistically quantify the parameters and incidence of the blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines through a uniform analysis on a large sample of radio-quiet AGNs. This allows us to assess their global detection significance and to overcome any possible publication bias. Methods: We performed a blind search for narrow absorption features at energies greater than 6.4 keV in a sample of 42 radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. A simple uniform model composed by an absorbed power-law plus Gaussian emission and absorption lines provided a good fit for all the data sets. We derived the absorption lines parameters and calculated their detailed detection significance making use of the classical F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We detect 36 narrow absorption lines on a total of 101 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observations. The number of absorption lines at rest-frame energies higher than 7 keV is 22. Their global probability to be generated by random fluctuations is very low, less than 3 × 10-8, and their detection have been independently confirmed by a spectral analysis of the MOS data, with associated random probability <10-7. We identify the lines as Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonant absorption. They are systematically blue-shifted, with a velocity distribution ranging from zero up to ~0.3c, with a peak and mean value at ~0.1c. We detect variability of the lines on both EWs and blue-shifted velocities among different XMM-Newton observations

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. 6: Properties of the metal-rich systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Petitjean, Patrick; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bahcall, John N.; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of a sample of 18 metal-rich, low-redshift z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) absorbers seen in low- and medium-resolution spectra obtained for the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project with the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS). For most of the C IV and Lyman-limit systems, observations in the optical wavelength range of the expected associated Mg II absorption are available. As at high redshift (z approximately 2), there are two subclasses of absorbers which are characterized by the presence or absence of MG II absorption. However, some low-redshift Mg II and Fe absorptions originate from regions optically thin to UV ionizing photons and thus, at low redshift, the low-ionization systems do not always trace high opacities, as is the case at high redshift. This implies that the mean ionization state of metal-rich, optically thin absorbing clouds falls with decreasing redshift, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the gas is photoionized by the metagalactic UV background radiation field. Two main constraints are derived from the analysis of the Lyman-limit sample, assuming photoionization models are valid. First, a low opacity to ionizing photons (tau(sub LL) approximately less than 1), as observed for several Mg II-Fe II systems at z approximately 0.5, sets limits on the ionization level of hydrogen, thus on the total hydrogen column density and the heavy element abundances, (Z/H) approximately -0.5 to -0.3. Second, the dimensions of individual Mg II clouds are smaller than at high redshift by a factor 3-10. At z approximately greater than 0.6, the O VI absorption doublet is detected in four of the five z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) systems for which the O VI wavelength range has been observed, whereas the associated N V doublet is detected in only two cases. This suggests that the presence of a high-ionization O VI phase is a general property of z approximately 0.6-1 absorption systems

  11. A correlation test of the intrinsic interpretation of QSO absorption redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1975-01-01

    It is noted that the general intrinsic interpretation of QSO absorption redshifts predicts a high probability of clustering for the expulsion velocities of clouds ejected from a QSO core and that a correlation function has been defined which depends on the probability of clustering of three or more expulsion velocities. A test of this correlation is formulated which utilizes data on pairs of QSOs with similar emission redshifts and at least three well established absorption redshifts with corresponding expulsion velocities greater than 0.02c. It is shown that the correlation should be positive (maximum value +100%) if the absorption systems are intrinsic and correlated, zero if there is no physical connection among these systems, and negative if a strong anticorrelation exists or QSOs tend to eject one or two clouds at well separated characteristic velocities. Data on five QSOs are analyzed, and large positive values are obtained for the correlations.

  12. ALMA Reveals a Compact Starburst Around a Hidden QSO at z˜5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, R.; Norman, C. A.; Vignali, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present ALMA 1.3mm observations of XID403, an SMG at z=4.75 in the Chandra Deep Field South hosting a heavily obscured, Compton-thick QSO. The ALMA data show that the dust heated by star formation is distributed within ˜0.9 kpc from the nucleus (effective radius). The SFR and dust temperature obtained from the Herschel+ALMA far-IR SED, reveal a warm and compact starburst with surface density of 200 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Our analysis suggest that, besides the mass, SFR and gas consumption timescale, objects like XID403 have also the right size to be the progenitors of the compact quiescent massive galaxies seen at z˜3. It is finally shown that the density of the gas co-spatial with the dust provides a substantial contribution to the absorbing column density towards the QSO as measured from the X-rays.

  13. 0114 + 074 - A very asymmetric galaxy in the field of an intermediate-redshift QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Akujor, C.E. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn )

    1989-10-01

    New radio-continuum observations of 0114 + 074 (4C 07.4) are presented. It is shown that this radio source consists of two distinct objects: a point source identified with an 18.0 mag QSO and a highly asymmetric 18.5 mag galaxy. The patently asymmetric structure of the galaxy is most plausibly due to intrinsically asymmetric energy funding of the lobes by the central machine or nucleus, rather than external influences. 41 refs.

  14. Discovery of Associated Absorption Lines in an X-Ray Warm Absorber: Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph Observations of MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monier, Eric M.; Mathur, Smita; Wilkes, Belinda; Elvis, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a 'warm absorber' was first suggested to explain spectral variability in an X-ray spectrum of the radio-quiet quasi-stellar object (QSO) MR 2251-178. A unified picture, in which X-ray warm absorbers and 'intrinsic' UV absorbers are the same, offers the opportunity to probe the nuclear environment of active galactic nuclei. To test this scenario and understand the physical properties of the absorber, we obtained a UV spectrum of MR 2251-178 with the Faint Object Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST spectrum clearly shows absorption due to Lyalpha, N v, and C IV, blueshifted by 300 km s(exp -1) from the emission redshift of the QSO. The rarity of both X-ray and UV absorbers in radio-quiet QSOs suggests these absorbers are physically related, if not identical. Assuming the unified scenario, we place constraints on the physical parameters of the absorber and conclude the mass outflow rate is essentially the same as the accretion rate in MR 2251-178.

  15. Results of Monitoring the Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2007-05-01

    We present six new and two previously published high-resolution spectra of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem=2.542) taken over an interval of 4.2 yr (1.2 yr in the quasar rest frame). The observations were made with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope and the Medium Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The purpose was to study the narrow absorption lines (NALs). We use time variability and coverage fraction analysis to separate intrinsic absorption lines, which are physically related to the quasar, from intervening absorption lines. By fitting models to the line profiles, we derive the parameters of the respective absorbers as a function of time. Only the mini-BAL system at zabs~2.43 (vshift~9500 km s-1) shows both partial coverage and time variability, although two NAL systems possibly show evidence of partial coverage. We find that all the troughs of the mini-BAL system vary in concert and its total equivalent width variations resemble those of the coverage fraction. However, no other correlations are seen between the variations of different model parameters. Thus, the observed variations cannot be reproduced by a simple change of ionization state or by motion of a homogeneous parcel of gas across the cylinder of sight. We propose that the observed variations are a result of rapid continuum fluctuations, coupled with coverage fraction fluctuations caused by a clumpy screen of variable optical depth located between the continuum source and the mini-BAL gas. An alternative explanation is that the observed partial coverage signature is the result of scattering of continuum photons around the absorber, thus the equivalent width of the mini-BAL can vary as the intensity of the scattered continuum changes. Based on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  16. XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer detection of the missing interstellar O VII Kα absorption line in the spectrum of Cyg X-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabot, Samuel H. C.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Yao, Yangsen

    2013-05-01

    The hot interstellar medium is an important part of the Galactic ecosystem and can be effectively characterized through X-ray absorption line spectroscopy. However, in a study of the hot medium using the accreting neutron star X-ray binary, Cyg X-2, as a background light source, a mystery came about when the putatively strong O VII Kα line was not detected in Chandra grating observations, while other normally weaker lines such as O VII Kβ as well as O VI and O VIII Kα are clearly present. We have investigated the grating spectra of Cyg X-2 from 10 XMM-Newton observations, in search of the missing line. We detect it consistently in nine of these observations, but the line is absent in the remaining one observation or is inconsistent with the detection in others at a ˜4σ confidence level. This absence of the line resembles that seen in the Chandra observations. Similarly, the O VI Kα line is found to disappear occasionally, but not in concert with the variation of the O VII Kα line. All these variations are most likely due to the presence of changing O VII and O VI Kα emission lines of Cyg X-2, which are blurred together with the absorption ones in the X-ray spectra. A re-examination of the Chandra grating data indeed shows evidence for a narrow emission line slightly off the O VI Kα absorption line. We further show that narrow N V emission lines with varying centroids and fluxes are present in far-ultraviolet spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. These results provide new constraints on the accretion around the neutron star and on the X-ray-heating of the stellar companion. The understanding of these physical processes is also important to the fidelity of using such local X-ray binaries for interstellar absorption line spectroscopy.

  17. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  18. Investigation of SO3 absorption line for in situ gas detection inside combustion plants using a 4-μm-band laser source.

    PubMed

    Tokura, A; Tadanaga, O; Nishimiya, T; Muta, K; Kamiyama, N; Yonemura, M; Fujii, S; Tsumura, Y; Abe, M; Takenouchi, H; Kenmotsu, K; Sakai, Y

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated 4-μm-band SO3 absorption lines for in situSO3 detection using a mid-infrared laser source based on difference frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. In the wavelength range of 4.09400-4.10600 μm, there were strong SO3 absorption lines. The maximum absorption coefficient at a concentration of 170 ppmv was estimated to be about 3.2×10-5  cm-1 at a gas temperature of 190°C. In coexistence with H2O, the reduction of the SO3 absorption peak height was observed, which was caused by sulfuric acid formation. We discuss a method of using an SO3 equilibrium curve to derive the total SO3 molecule concentration. PMID:27607263

  19. Errarum: Detection of Absorption-Line Features in the X-Ray Spectra of the Galactic Superluminal Source GRO J1655-40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Y.; Inoue, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Ebisawa, K.; Nagase, F.; Kotani, T.; Gehrels, N.

    1998-06-01

    In the paper ``Detection of Absorption-Line Features in the X-Ray Spectra of the Galactic Superluminal Source GRO J1655-40'' by Y. Ueda, H. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, K. Ebisawa, F. Nagase, T. Kotani, and N. Gehrels (ApJ, 492, 782 [1998]), there is an error in the curve of growth for the Kα absorption line (Fig. 4). The revised version of Figure 4 given here replaces Figure 4 in the paper. Several numbers derived from the figure should be corrected accordingly, but the conclusion of the paper is not affected. In the third paragraph of the discussion section (page 786), the iron column density of the plasma should be 1019-1020 cm-2, which corresponds to a hydrogen column density of 3 × 1023-3 × 1024 cm-2. The final limit on the hydrogen column density of the line-absorbing plasma should be changed to 3 × 1023 cm-2 < NH < 1024 cm-2.

  20. The spatial and kinematic structure of QSO metal-line absorption systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent attempts to infer the spatial and kinematic distributions of the material responsible for absorption lines observed in the spectra of background QSOs are presented. Current models of the absorbing regions are compared, and initial observational results are described. This research is expected to lead eventually to a detailed picture of the extended gaseous halo regions of galaxies at early evolutionary stages and to an understanding of the physical processes at work in these halos.

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT BL LACERTAE OBJECTS ARE QSO REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2014-11-20

    We evaluate with numerical simulations the hypothesis that BL Lacertae objects (BLLs) are the remnants of quasi-stellar objects. This hypothesis is based on their highly peculiar redshift evolution. They have a comoving space density that increases with decreasing redshift, contrary to all other active galactic nuclei. We assume that relativistic jets are below detection in young radio-quiet quasars and increase in strength with cosmic time so that they eventually are detected as BLLs. Our numerical simulations fit very well the observed redshift distributions of BLLs. There are strong indications that only the high-synchrotron-peaked BLLs could be QSO remnants.

  2. High-Redshift QSOs in the SWIRE Survey and the z~3 QSO Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siana, Brian; Polletta, Maria del Carmen; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Farrah, Duncan; Babbedge, Tom S. R.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Surace, Jason; Shupe, David; Fang, Fan; Franceschini, Alberto; Oliver, Seb

    2008-03-01

    We use a simple optical/infrared (IR) photometric selection of high-redshift QSOs that identifies a Lyman break in the optical photometry and requires a red IR color to distinguish QSOs from common interlopers. The search yields 100 z ~ 3 (U-dropout) QSO candidates with 19 < r' < 22 over 11.7 deg2 in the ELAIS-N1 (EN1) and ELAIS-N2 (EN2) fields of the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy Survey. The z ~ 3 selection is reliable, with spectroscopic follow-up of 10 candidates confirming that they are all QSOs at 2.83 < z < 3.44. We find that our z ~ 4 (g'-dropout) sample suffers from both unreliability and incompleteness but present seven previously unidentified QSOs at 3.50 < z < 3.89. Detailed simulations show our z ~ 3 completeness to be ~80%-90% from 3.0 < z < 3.5, significantly better than the ~30%-80% completeness of the SDSS at these redshifts. The resulting luminosity function extends 2 mag fainter than SDSS and has a faint-end slope of β = - 1.42 +/- 0.15, consistent with values measured at lower redshift. Therefore, we see no evidence for evolution of the faint-end slope of the QSO luminosity function. Including the SDSS QSO sample, we have now directly measured the space density of QSOs responsible for ~70% of the QSO UV luminosity density at z ~ 3. We derive a maximum rate of H I photoionization from QSOs at z ~ 3.2, Γ = 4.8 × 10-13 s-1, about half of the total rate inferred through studies of the Lyα forest. Therefore, star-forming galaxies and QSOs must contribute comparably to the photoionization of H I in the intergalactic medium at z ~ 3. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. Is QSO 1146 + 111B,C due to lensing by a cosmic string?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A newly discovered lens candidate, QSO 1146 + 111B,C, is discussed which appears to consist of two images of equal brightness of a quasar at redshift 1.01 separated by 2.6 arcmin. If this is produced by a cosmic string, its mass per unit length is about 4.0 x 10 to the 23rd g/cm or more. This value is large enough to be interesting for string-assisted galaxy formation and near the upper limits implied by the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background and constraints on gravitational radiation.

  4. Discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 observed by Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, George W.; Woo, Jonathan W.; Nagase, Fumiaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakao, Taro

    1990-01-01

    A cyclotron absorption line near 20 keV has been found in the spectrum of the massive eclipsing binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 in observations with the Ginga observatory. The line is detected throughout the 529 s pulse cycle with a variable equivalent width that has its maximum value during the smaller peak of the two-peak pulse profile. It is found that the profile of the pulse and the phase-dependence of the cyclotron line can be explained qualitatively by a pulsar model based on recent theoretical results on the properties of pencil beams emitted by accretion-heated slabs of magnetized plasma at the magnetic poles of a neutron star. The indicated field at the surface of the neutron star is 1.7 (1 + z) x 10 to the 12th G, where z is the gravitational redshift.

  5. Intensities and N2 collision-broadening coefficients measured for selected H2O absorption lines between 715 and 732 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, T. D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.; Giver, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    Intensities and N2 collision-broadening coefficients are measured for 62 water vapor absorption lines between 715 and 732 nm potentially applicable to laser remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. Absolute line strengths and widths were determined from spectra corrected for instrument resolution, air-path absorption and Lorentz and Doppler broadening for pure water vapor and water vapor-nitrogen mixtures in a multipass absorption cell with a base path length of 25 m (White cell). Line strengths are observed to range from 4 x 10 to the -25th to 4 x 10 to the -23rd kayser/molecule per sq cm, and collision broadening coefficients are found to be approximately equal to 0.1 kayser/atm.

  6. Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption Lines in the Burst Spectra of the Neutron Star in the X-Ray Binary EXO 0748-676

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottoam, J.; Paerels, F.; Mendez, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The most straightforward manner of determining masses and radii of neutron stars is by measuring the gravitational redshift of spectral lines produced in the neutron star photosphere; such a measurement would provide direct constraints on the mass-to-radius ratio of the neutron star, and therefore on the equation of state for neutron star matter. Using data taken with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on board the XMM-Newton observatory we identify, for the first time, significant absorption lines in the spectra of 28 bursts of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676. The most significant features are consistent with the Fe XXVI and XXV n=2-3 and O VIII n=1-2 transitions, with a redshift of z=0.35, identical within small uncertainties for the different transitions. This constitutes the first direct and unambiguous measurement of the gravitational redshift in a neutron star.

  7. Integral-field spectrophotometry of the quadruple QSO HE 0435-1223: Evidence for microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisotzki, L.; Becker, T.; Christensen, L.; Helms, A.; Jahnke, K.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez, S. F.

    2003-09-01

    We present the first spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of the recently discovered quadruple QSO and gravitational lens HE 0435-1223. Using the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS), we show that all four QSO components have very similar but not identical spectra. In particular, the spectral slopes of components A, B, and D are indistinguishable, implying that extinction due to dust plays no major role in the lensing galaxy. While also the emission line profiles are identical within the error bars, as expected from lensing, the equivalent widths show significant differences between components. Most likely, microlensing is responsible for this phenomenon. This is also consistent with the fact that component D, which shows the highest relative continuum level, has brightened by 0.07 mag since Dec. 2001. We find that the emission line flux ratios between the components are in better agreement with simple lens models than broad band or continuum measurements, but that the discrepancies between model and data are still unacceptably large. Finally, we present a detection of the lensing galaxy, although this is close to the limits of the data. Comparing with a model galaxy spectrum, we obtain a redshift estimate of zlens=0.44+/- 0.02.

  8. Quasar Ton 34 with steepest far-UV break known has entered new bal QSO phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Using HST-COS/G140L and HST-STIS with G230L and G430L, we request 4 orbits to observe the QSO Ton34 {z=1.928}. Among archive HST/FOS spectra, Ton34 shows an unusually steep FUV drop, equivalent to a powerlaw of index -5. At shorter wavelengths, only an extremely noisy IUE spectra exists. The FUV observations would provide us with a unique window to test whether Ton34 remains EUV deficient at shorter wavelengths or shows instead the onset of a second peak in the extreme {E}UV, explaining how photoionization can still account for its high excitation emission lines of CIV, OVIA? With the STIS MAMA-NUV spectrum, we will also study and confirm whether low excitation EUV BLR lines such as the permitted lines of OII + OIII {835A?} or NIII {686A?} are present and as strong as reported from an earlier but noisy IUE spectrum {this would possibly favor shock excitation}. Using archive optical spectra near the CIV region {from years 1988 and 2006}, we recently showed that Ton34 is currently undergoing a strong BalQSO phase, the first case reported among bright quasars. A priority of the proposed STIS NUV observations will be to look for the presence of blueshifted absorption troughs near Ly-alpha or OIV {as well as any change in the continuum's sharp break} using the STIS/G430L spectrum.

  9. BREAKING THE OBSCURING SCREEN: A RESOLVED MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN A BURIED QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-09-20

    We present Keck laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the nearby buried quasi-stellar object (QSO) F08572+3915:NW. We use near-infrared integral field data taken with the OH-Suppressing Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph to reveal a compact disk and molecular outflow using Paα and H{sub 2} rotational-vibrational transitions at a spatial resolution of 100 pc. The outflow emerges perpendicular to the disk into a bicone of one-sided opening angle 100° up to distances of 400 pc from the nucleus. The integrated outflow velocities, which reach at least –1300 km s{sup –1}, correspond exactly to those observed in (unresolved) OH absorption, but are smaller (larger) than those observed on larger scales in the ionized (neutral atomic) outflow. These data represent a factor of >10 improvement in the spatial resolution of molecular outflows from mergers/QSOs, and plausibly represent the early stages of the excavation of the dust screen from a buried QSO.

  10. A study of ultraviolet absorption lines through the complete Galactic halo by the analysis of HST faint object spectrograph spectra of active Galactic nuclei, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Geoffrey S.; Bartko, Frank; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Sachs, Elise R.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Harms, Richard J.; Massa, Derck

    1994-01-01

    The ultraviolet (1150 - 2850 A) spectra of a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) have been used to study the properties of the Galactic halo. The objects that served as probes are 3C 273, PKS 0454-220, Pg 1211+143, CSO 251, Ton 951, and PG 1351+640. The equivalent widths of certain interstellar ions have been measured, with special attention paid to the C IV/C II and Si IV/Si II ratios. These ratios have been intercompared, and the highest values are found in the direction of 3C 273, where C IV/C II = 1.2 and Si IV/Si II greater than 1. These high ratios may be due to a nearby supernova remnant, rather than to ionized gas higher up in the Galactic halo. Our data give some support to the notion that QSO metal-line systems may arise from intervening galaxies which contain high supernova rates, galactic fountains, and turbulent mixing layers.

  11. A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample. III. Optical spectroscopic properties and activity classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremou, E.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Zuther, J.; Eckart, A.; Valencia-Schneider, M.; Vitale, M.; Shan, C.

    2015-08-01

    Context. We report on the optical spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 99 low-luminosity quasi-stellar objects (LLQSOs) at z ≤ 0.06 base the Hamburg/ESO QSO Survey (HES). To better relate the low-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the QSO population it is important to study samples of the latter type at a level of detail similar to that of the low-redshift AGN. Powerful QSOs, however, are absent at low redshifts due to evolutionary effects and their small space density. Our understanding of the (distant) QSO population is, therefore, significantly limited by angular resolution and sensitivity. The LLQSOs presented here offer the possibility of studying the faint end of this population at smaller cosmological distances and, therefore, in greater detail. Aims: In comparing two spectroscopic methods, we aim to establish a reliable activity classification scheme of the LLQSOs sample. Our goal is to enrich our systematic multiwavelength analysis of the AGN/starburst relation in these systems and give a complementary information on this particular sample of LLQSOs from the Hamburg ESO survey. Methods: Here, we present results of the analysis of visible wavelength spectroscopy provided by the HES and the 6 Degree Field Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). These surveys use different spectroscopic techniques, long-slit and circular fiber, respectively. These allow us to assess the influence of different apertures on the activity of the LLQSOs using classical optical diagnostic diagrams. We perform a Gaussian fitting of strong optical emission lines and decompose narrow and broad Balmer components. Results: A small number of our LLQSO present no broad component, which is likely to be present but buried in the noise. Two sources show double broad components, whereas six comply with the classic NLS1 requiremnts. As expected in NLR of broad line AGNs, the [Sii]-based electron density values range between 100 and 1000 Ne/cm3. Using the optical characteristics of Populations A and B

  12. Evidence for Ultra-fast Outflows in Radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-shell Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-11-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s-1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ~10,000 km s-1 (~0.03c) up to ~100,000 km s-1 (~0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ~42,000 km s-1 (~0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ~ 3-6 erg s-1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ~ 4.2 erg s-1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ~ 1022-1024 cm-2, with a mean value of N H ~ 1023 cm-2. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can

  13. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-11-20

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s{sup -1} and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from {approx}10,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.03c) up to {approx}100,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.3c), with a peak and mean value of {approx}42,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log {xi} {approx} 3-6 erg s{sup -1} cm, with a mean value of log {xi} {approx} 4.2 erg s{sup -1} cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 22}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}, with a mean value of N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of

  14. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs. 2; Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-Shell Absorption Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Clapp, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blue shifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\siml00,000kmis (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of\\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6 erg s/cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s/cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\siml0(exp 22)-10(exp 24)/sq cm, with a mean value of N_H\\siml0(exp23)/sq cm. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  15. Chandra View of the Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium toward 1ES 1553+113: Absorption-line Detections and Identifications. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Gupta, A.; Danforth, C.; Barcons, X.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Davé, R.; Kaastra, J.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Shull, J. M.; Takei, Y.; Zappacosta, L.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Large Program observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z >~ 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113, aimed to secure the first uncontroversial detections of the missing baryons in the X-rays. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2σ and 4.1σ. Six of these lines are detected at high single-line statistical significance (3.6 <= σ <= 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or far-ultraviolet (FUV) signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z ~= 0, and we identify them with Galactic O I and C II. The remaining eight lines may be imprinted by intervening absorbers and are all consistent with being high-ionization counterparts of FUV H I and/or O VI intergalactic medium signposts. In particular, five of these eight possible intervening absorption lines (single-line statistical significances of 4.1σ, 4.1σ, 3.9σ, 3.8σ, and 2.7σ), are identified as C V and C VI Kα absorbers belonging to three WHIM systems at zX = 0.312, zX = 0.237, and langzX rang = 0.133, which also produce broad H I (and O VI for the zX = 0.312 system) absorption in the FUV. For two of these systems (zX = 0.312 and 0.237), the Chandra X-ray data led the a posteriori discovery of physically consistent broad H I associations in the FUV (for the third system the opposite applies), so confirming the power of the X-ray-FUV synergy for WHIM studies. The true statistical significances of these three X-ray absorption systems, after properly accounting for the number of redshift trials, are 5.8σ (zX = 0.312; 6.3σ if the low-significance O V and C V Kβ associations are considered), 3.9σ (zX = 0.237), and 3.8σ (langzX rang = 0.133), respectively.

  16. CHANDRA VIEW OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM TOWARD 1ES 1553+113: ABSORPTION-LINE DETECTIONS AND IDENTIFICATIONS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Nicastro, F.; Zappacosta, L.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Gupta, A.; Danforth, C.; Shull, J. M.; Barcons, X.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Dave, R.; Kaastra, J.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Takei, Y.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Large Program observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z {approx}> 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113, aimed to secure the first uncontroversial detections of the missing baryons in the X-rays. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2{sigma} and 4.1{sigma}. Six of these lines are detected at high single-line statistical significance (3.6 {<=} {sigma} {<=} 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or far-ultraviolet (FUV) signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z {approx_equal} 0, and we identify them with Galactic O I and C II. The remaining eight lines may be imprinted by intervening absorbers and are all consistent with being high-ionization counterparts of FUV H I and/or O VI intergalactic medium signposts. In particular, five of these eight possible intervening absorption lines (single-line statistical significances of 4.1{sigma}, 4.1{sigma}, 3.9{sigma}, 3.8{sigma}, and 2.7{sigma}), are identified as C V and C VI K{alpha} absorbers belonging to three WHIM systems at z{sub X} = 0.312, z{sub X} = 0.237, and (z{sub X} ) = 0.133, which also produce broad H I (and O VI for the z{sub X} = 0.312 system) absorption in the FUV. For two of these systems (z{sub X} = 0.312 and 0.237), the Chandra X-ray data led the a posteriori discovery of physically consistent broad H I associations in the FUV (for the third system the opposite applies), so confirming the power of the X-ray-FUV synergy for WHIM studies. The true statistical significances of these three X-ray absorption systems, after properly accounting for the number of redshift trials, are 5.8{sigma} (z{sub X} = 0.312; 6.3{sigma} if the low-significance O V and C V K{beta} associations are considered), 3.9{sigma} (z

  17. XMM-Newton Observation of Fe K(alpha) Emission from a BAL QSO: Mrk 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a 20 ksec XMM-Newton observation of Mrk 231. EPIC spectral data reveal strong line emission due to Fe K alpha, which has rarely been detected in this class, as BAL QSOs are very faint in the X-ray band. The line energy is consistent with an origin in neutral Fe. The width of the line is equivalent to a velocity dispersion approximately 18,000 kilometers per second and thus the line may be attributed to transmission and/or reflection from a distribution of emitting clouds. If, instead, the line originates in the accretion disk then the line strength and flat X-ray continuum support some contribution from a reflected component, although the data disfavor a model where the hard X-ray band is purely reflected X-rays. The line parameters are similar to those obtained for the Fe Ka line detected in another BAL QSO, H1413 + 117.

  18. IUE and ROSAT monitoring of the bright QSO H1821+643

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules; Kolman, Michiel; Shrader, Chris; Filippenko, Alexei

    1991-01-01

    The analysis is presented of IUE observations of the bright QSO H1821+643, obtained during the ROSAT All Sky Survey (the RIASS program). The objectives were: (1) to establish whether the UV and soft X ray radiation have the same physical origin; and (2) to determine if this physical origin is an accretion disk. Supporting ground based spectrophotometry was also obtained. The analysis shows that the shape and flux level of the UV continuum did not vary among the seven IUE observation spanning one month, to an upper limit of about 8 percent. So it is of great interest to determine whether the soft X ray flux varied during this period. Since X ray variability in AGNs is often more rapid and of higher amplitude than in the UV, detection of X ray variability in the ROSAT data could severely challenge the accretion disk model for the soft X ray excess.

  19. The TESIS Project: Are Type 2 QSO Hidden in X-Ray Emitting EROs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    X-ray selected EROs are, on average, the hardest X-ray sources in medium and deep X-ray fields. This coupled with their extremely red colors (R-K > 5) suggest that they represent one of the most promising population where looking for high-luminosity (LX > 1044 erg s-1) and X-ray obscured (NH > 1022 cm-2) type2 AGNs, the so called QSO2 (e.g., [5]; [4]; Mignoli et al. submitted to A&A). These latter are predicted in large density by the synthesis model of the Cosmic X-ray background [9] even if only few observational evidences have been found so far (e.g., [1] and references therein; Caccianiga et al. A&A accepted).

  20. Variable X-Ray Absorption in the Mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giustini, M.; Cappi, M.; Chartas, G.; Dadina, M.; Eracleous, M.; Ponti, G.; Proga, D.; Tombesi, F.; Vignali, C.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. X-ray studies of AGN with powerful nuclear winds are important to constrain the physics of the inner accretion/ejection flow around SMBH, and to understand the impact of such winds on the AGN environment. Aims. Our main scientific goal is to constrain the properties of a variable outflowing absorber that is thought to be launched near the SMBH of the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041 using a multi-epoch observational campaign performed with XMM-Newton. Methods. We performed temporally resolved X-ray spectroscopy and simultaneous UV and X-ray photometry on the most complete set of observations and on the deepest X-ray exposure of a mini-BAL QSO to date. Results. We found complex X-ray spectral variability on time scales of both months and hours, best reproduced by means of variable massive ionized absorbers along the line of sight. As a consequence, the observed optical-to-X-ray spectral index is found to be variable with time. In the highest signal-to-noise observation we detected highly ionized X-ray absorbing material outflowing much faster (u(sub X) approx. 16 500 km/s) than the UV absorbing one (u(sub uv) approx. 5,000 km/s). This highly ionized absorber is found to be variable on very short (a few kiloseconds) time scales. Conclusions. Our findings are qualitatively consistent with line driven accretion disk winds scenarios. Our observations have opened the time-resolved X-ray spectral analysis field for mini-BAL QSOs; only with future deep studies will we be able to map the dynamics of the inner flow and understand the physics of AGN winds and their impact on the environment.

  1. Suzaku observations of the type 2 QSO in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Shutaro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2013-11-20

    We report the Suzaku/XIS and HXD and Chandra/ACIS-I results on the X-ray spectra of the Phoenix cluster at the redshift z = 0.596. The spectrum of the intracluster medium (ICM) is well reproduced with the emissions from low-temperature (∼3.0 keV and ∼0.76 solar) and high-temperature (∼11 keV and ∼0.33 solar) plasmas; the former is localized at the cluster core, while the latter distributes over the cluster. In addition to these ICM emissions, a strongly absorbed power-law component is found, which is due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the cluster center. The absorption column density and unobscured luminosity of the AGN are ∼3.2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2} and ∼4.7 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} (2-10 keV), respectively. Furthermore, a neutral iron (Fe I) K-shell line is discovered for the first time with the equivalent width (EW) of ∼150 eV at the rest frame. The column density and the EW of the Fe I line are exceptionally large for such a high-luminosity AGN, and hence the AGN is classified as a type 2 quasi-stellar object (QSO). We speculate that a significant fraction of the ICM cooled gas would be consumed to maintain the torus and to activate the type 2 QSO. The Phoenix cluster has a massive starburst in the central galaxy, indicating that suppression in the cooling flow is less effective. This may be because the onset of the latest AGN feedback has occurred recently and has not yet been effective. Alternatively, the AGN feedback is predominantly in radiative mode, not in kinetic mode, and the torus may work as a shield to reduce its effect.

  2. AN Fe XXIV ABSORPTION LINE IN THE PERSISTENT SPECTRUM OF THE DIPPING LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY 1A 1744-361

    SciTech Connect

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-07-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra) High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary 1A 1744-361 during its 2008 July outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT {approx} 1.0 keV) plus power law ({Gamma} {approx} 1.7) with an absorption edge. In the residuals of the combined spectrum, we find a significant absorption line at 6.961 {+-} 0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe XXVI (hydrogen-like Fe) 2-1 transition. We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of v < 221 km s{sup -1}. We find an equivalent width for the line of 27{sup +2}{sub -3} eV, from which we determine a column density of (7 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} via a curve-of-growth analysis. Using XSTAR simulations, we place a lower limit on the ionization parameter of >10{sup 3.6} erg cm s{sup -1}. We discuss what implications the feature has on the system and its geometry. We also present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data accumulated during this latest outburst and, via an updated color-color diagram, clearly show that 1A 1744-361 is an 'atoll' source.

  3. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  4. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  5. An Fe XXIV Absorption Line in the Persistent Spectrum of the Dipping Low-Mass X-Ray Binary 1A 1744-361

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra) High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary 1A 1744-361 during its 2008 July outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT approx. 1.0 keV) plus power law (Gamma approx. 1.7) with an absorption edge. In the residuals of the combined spectrum, we find a significant absorption line at 6.961 +/- 0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe xxvi (hydrogen-like Fe) 2-1 transition.We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of nu < 221 km/s. We find an equivalent width for the line of 27+2/-3 eV, from which we determine a column density of (7 +/- 1)×10(exp 17) /sq. cm via a curve-of-growth analysis. Using XSTAR simulations, we place a lower limit on the ionization parameter of >103.6 erg cm/s. We discuss what implications the feature has on the system and its geometry. We also present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data accumulated during this latest outburst and, via an updated color-color diagram, clearly show that 1A 1744-361 is an "atoll" source

  6. A Deep Search For Faint Galaxies Associated With Very Low-redshift C IV Absorbers. II. Program Design, Absorption-line Measurements, and Absorber Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, Joseph N.; Tripp, Todd M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K.; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Meara, John M.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Katz, Neal; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the evolution of metal-enriched gas over recent cosmic epochs as well as to characterize the diffuse, ionized, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium, we have conducted a blind survey for C iv absorption systems in 89 QSO sightlines observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. We have identified 42 absorbers at z < 0.16, comprising the largest uniform blind sample size to date in this redshift range. Our measurements indicate an increasing C iv absorber number density per comoving path length (d{N}/{dX}= 7.5 ± 1.1) and modestly increasing mass density relative to the critical density of the universe (ΩC iv = 10.0 ± 1.5 × 10-8) from z ˜ 1.5 to the present epoch, consistent with predictions from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, the data support a functional form for the column density distribution function that deviates from a single power law, also consistent with independent theoretical predictions. As the data also probe heavy element ions in addition to C iv at the same redshifts, we identify, measure, and search for correlations between column densities of these species where components appear to be aligned in velocity. Among these ion-ion correlations, we find evidence for tight correlations between C ii and Si ii, C ii and Si iii, and C iv and Si iv, suggesting that these pairs of species arise in similar ionization conditions. However, the evidence for correlations decreases as the difference in ionization potential increases. Finally, when controlling for observational bias, we find only marginal evidence for a correlation (86.8% likelihood) between the Doppler line width b(C iv) and column density N(C iv).

  7. Detection of a z=0.0515, 0.0522 absorption system in the QSO S4 0248+430 due to an intervening galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Cohen, Ross D.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1990-01-01

    In some of the few cases where the line of sight to a Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) passes near a galaxy, the galaxy redshift is almost identical to an absorption redshift in the spectrum of the QSO. Although these relatively low redshift QSO-galaxy pairs may not be typical of the majority of the narrow heavy-element QSO absorption systems, they provide a direct measure of column densities in the outer parts of galaxies and some limits on the relative abundances of the gas. Observations are presented here of the QSO S4 0248+430 and a nearby anonymous galaxy (Kuhr 1977). The 14 second separation of the line of sight to the QSO (z sub e = 1.316) and the z=0.052 spiral galaxy, (a projected separation of 20 kpc ((h sub o = 50, q sub o = 0)), makes this a particularly suitable pair for probing the extent and content of gas in the galaxy. Low resolution (6A full width half maximum), long slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra show strong CA II H and K lines in absorption at the redshift of the galaxy (Junkkarinen 1987). Higher resolution spectra showing both Ca II H and K and Na I D1 and D2 in absorption and direct images are reported here.

  8. Determination of mass loss and mass transfer rates of Algol (Beta Persei) from the analysis of absorption lines in the UV spectra obtained by the IUE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, Kristen

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archive of high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the eclipsing semi-detached binary star, Algol ([beta] Persei, HD 19356), taken from September 1978 to September 1989, is analyzed in order to characterize the movement of gas within and from this system. Light curves are constructed, using a total of 1647 continuum level measurements. These results support the semidetached status of this interacting binary star. Radial velocities, residual intensities, full width half maxima (FWHM), line asymmetries, and equivalent widths of UV absorption lines for aluminum, magnesium, iron, and silicon in a range of ionization states are determined and analyzed. For selected epochs, we were able to isolate gas stream and photospheric contributions by an examination of the differences between spectral line shapes. We observed variations in line shape and strength, with orbital phase and epoch, indicating the presence of stable gas streams and circumstellar gas, and periods of increased mass-transfer activity associated with transient gas streams. The 1989 data indicates moderate activity. This epoch was examined most closely since it provides the greatest phase coverage. Spectral line profiles in 1978 and 1984 have the strongest gas-flow absorption components, indicating that these are the epochs of the greatest activity. The dense phase coverage in September 1989 allows us to measure the mass loss rate from Algol B into Algol A which is of order ~10 -14 [Special characters omitted.] /yr. Since the highest gas-flow velocities are in the 100 kilometer per second range, well below escape velocity, we conclude that systemic mass loss due to gas flow is small for the Algol system.

  9. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Kelly Elizabeth; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Delgado, J. D.; Annen, J.; Lefèvre, F.

    2008-09-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars’ atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 μm with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35°, on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60°N 112°W was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  10. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. Niel; Alexander, David M; Stern, Daniel; Teng, Stacy H.; Arevalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Ogle, Patrick M.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Saez, Cristian; Scott, Amy; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z<1.3. However, their rest-frame 2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (>33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  11. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  12. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically X-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, J. R.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Ptak, A. F.; and others

    2014-04-10

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin (N{sub H}∼1.2{sub −0.3}{sup +0.3}×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity (L {sub 0.5–30} {sub keV} ∼ 1.0 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is ∼0.03% compared to the typical values of 2%-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope (α{sub OX} ∼ –1.7). It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  13. An HST/COS observation of broad Lyα emission and associated absorption lines of the BL Lacertae object H 2356-309

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Taotao; Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Buote, David A.; Canizares, Claude R.; Gastaldello, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Lyα emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Lyα emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called high-energy peaked BL Lacs, after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor (Γ) of the relativistic jet to be ≥8.1 with a maximum viewing angle of 3.°6. The derived Γ is somewhat larger than previous measurements of Γ ≈ 3-5, implying a covering factor of ∼3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. We also detected two H I and one O VI absorption lines that are within |Δv| < 150 km s{sup –1} of the BL Lac object. The O VI and one of the H I absorbers likely coexist due to their nearly identical velocities. We discuss several ionization models and find a photoionization model where the ionizing photon source is the BL Lac object that can fit the observed ion column densities with reasonable physical parameters. This absorber can either be located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or in the BLR.

  14. An Fe XXVI Absorption Line in the Persistent Spectrum of the Dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary 1A 1744-361

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2009-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra of the dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) 1A 1744-361 during its July 2008 outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT approx. 1.0 keV) plus power-law (Gamma approx. 1.7) with an absorption edge at 7.6 keV. In the residuals of the combined spectrum we find a significant absorption line at 6.961+/-0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe XXVI (hydrogen-like Fe) 2 - 1 transition. We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of v < 221 km/s. We find an equivalent width for the line of 27+2/-3 eV, from which we determine a column density of 7+/-1 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm via a curve-of-growth analysis. Using XSTAR simulations, we place a lower limit on the ionization parameter of > 10(exp 3.6) erg cm/s. The properties of this line are consistent with those observed in other dipping LMXBs. Using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data accumulated during this latest outburst we present an updated color-color diagram which clearly shows that IA 1744-361 is an "atoll" source. Finally, using additional dips found in the RXTE and CXO data we provide an updated orbital period estimate of 52+/-5 minutes.

  15. A study of the discrepant QSO X-ray luminosity function from the HEAO-2 data archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitive X-ray information for approximately 90 previously uncataloged Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) in the redshift range 1.8 is less than or equal to z which is less than or equal to 3. Even with the longest esixting Einstein Observatory X-ray exposures, only 25% of these objects are positively detected in X-rays. The data were used to investigate the ensemble X-ray properties of high redshift QSOs, and the QSO population in general.

  16. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF MASSIVE, KILOPARSEC-SCALE OUTFLOWS IN THE INFRARED-LUMINOUS QSO Mrk 231

    SciTech Connect

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2011-03-10

    The quasi-stellar object (QSO)/merger Mrk 231 is arguably the nearest and best laboratory for studying QSO feedback. It hosts several outflows, including broad-line winds, radio jets, and a poorly understood kpc-scale outflow. In this Letter, we present integral field spectroscopy from the Gemini telescope that represents the first unambiguous detection of a wide-angle, kiloparsec-scale outflow from a powerful QSO. Using neutral gas absorption, we show that the nuclear region hosts an outflow with blueshifted velocities reaching 1100 km s{sup -1}, extending 2-3 kpc from the nucleus in all directions in the plane of the sky. A radio jet impacts the outflow north of the nucleus, accelerating it to even higher velocities (up to 1400 km s{sup -1}). Finally, 3.5 kpc south of the nucleus, star formation is simultaneously powering an outflow that reaches more modest velocities of only 570 km s{sup -1}. Blueshifted ionized gas is also detected around the nucleus at lower velocities and smaller scales. The mass and energy flux from the outflow are {approx}>2.5 times the star formation rate and {approx}>0.7% of the active galactic nucleus luminosity, consistent with negative feedback models of QSOs.

  17. The Size and Nature of Lyman- alpha Forest Clouds Probed by QSO Pairs and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yihu; Duncan, Robert C.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Bechtold, Jill

    1996-05-01

    Closely separated QSO pairs and groups make it possible to probe the size, geometry, and spatial clustering of Lyα forest clouds. Recent spectroscopic observations of Q1343 + 2640A/B give evidence that the transverse sizes of Lyα clouds are very large at redshifts ~2 (as reported by Bechtold et al. in 1994). In this paper, we describe a robust Bayesian statistical method for determining cloud sizes in spherical and in thin disk geometries, apply this method to the available data, and discuss implications of our results for models of Lyα clouds. Under the assumption of a population of uniform-sized and unclustered Lyα clouds, the data from Q1343 + 2640A/B give a 99% confidence lower and upper bounds 61 < R < 533 h^-1^ kpc on the radius of spherical clouds at z ~ 1.8, with a median value of 149 h^-1^ kpc [({OMEGA}_0_, {LAMBDA}_0_) = (1,0), and h = H_0_/100 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^]. The baryonic mass of such large clouds, if they are roughly homogeneous and quasi-spherical, is comparable to the baryonic mass of dwarf irregular galaxies. Their cosmic overdensity is close to the turnaround density but generally below the virialization density, which suggests a population of gravitationally bound but unvirialized protogalactic objects at z ~ 2. The comoving volume density of these clouds is similar to that of the faint blue galaxies (FBGs) at the limiting magnitude B~26-27, if these FBGs are distributed approximately over the range of redshift from 0.8 to 2. The timescale for dynamical collapse of overdensities like these clouds is also comparable to the cosmic time difference between z ~ 2 and z ~ 1. Both populations of objects show similar weak clustering in space. All this evidence suggests a possible identification of Lyα clouds as the collapsing progenitors of the FBGs at z~1. We also investigate the other closely separated QSO pairs with published high-quality spectra: Q0307- 1931/0307-1932, Q0107-0232/0107- 0235, and the triplet of Q1623 +268. Imposing a uniform W_0

  18. QSO Clustering - Part One - Optical Surveys in the Redshift Range 0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, T.; Boyle, B. J.

    1994-12-01

    We present QSO clustering results from ~700 QSOs detected in three surveys, including the Durham/AAT UVX Survey. We have made a 4σ detection of QSO clustering at scales of < 10 h^-1^ Mpc (q_0_ = 0.5), stronger than expected on the basis of models of the evolution of the galaxy correlation function where the clustering is assumed to be stable in proper coordinates. A model in which QSOs randomly sample a galaxy distribution with present-day clustering coherence length, r_0_ ~ 6 h^-1^ Mpc, and which is fixed in comoving coordinates, is strongly suggested by the data; a stable-clustering, high-amplitude (r_0_ ~ 11 h^-1^ Mpc) model can be excluded when the low-redshift Seyfert clustering results of Georgantopoulos & Shanks (Paper II) are considered. The conclusion that ultraviolet-excess (UVX) QSOs randomly sample the underlying galaxy distribution is also given strong support from the observation by Ellingson, Yee & Green that the clustering environment of z ~ 0.6 radio- quiet QSOs is no different from that of average galaxies. Our results therefore suggest that a comoving model may also describe the evolution of galaxy clustering out to z = 2.2; such a model is consistent with biased models of galaxy clustering with either q_0_ = 0.01 or q_0_ = 0.5. We have also tentatively detected, at a lower level of significance (~2σ), anticorrelation at the ξ ~ -0.1 level in the range 40 < r < 100 h^-1^ Mpc in the q_0_ = 0.5 QSO correlation function. Anticorrelation is expected in models where the power-law spectral index, n, of the primordial mass spectrum has a value >= 1. No other features are detectable at the +/- 0.05 level in ξ at any scale in the range 10 < r < 1000 h^-1^ Mpc. Finally, we show that the spatial position of features in the QSO correlation function is very sensitive to the cosmological model. In particular, we find that, in a model with zero spatial curvature, {LAMBDA} not equal to 0 and {OMEGA}_0_ < 0.03, the QSO clustering extends up to a comoving

  19. Ultraviolet/X-ray Variability and the Extended X-ray Emission of the Radio-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 1004+130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Miller, B. P.; Luo, B.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of recent Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio-loud (RL), broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1004+130. We compare our new observations to archival X-ray and UV data, creating the most comprehensive, high signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, spectral monitoring campaign of a RL BAL quasar to date. We probe for variability of the X-ray absorption, the UV BAL, and the X-ray jet, on month-year timescales. The X-ray absorber has a low column density of {N}H=8× {10}20-4× {10}21 {{cm}}-2 when it is assumed to be fully covering the X-ray emitting region, and its properties do not vary significantly between the four observations. This suggests that the observed absorption is not related to the typical “shielding gas” commonly invoked in BAL quasar models, but is likely due to material further from the central black hole. In contrast, the C iv BAL shows strong variability. The equivalent width (EW) in 2014 is {EW}=11.24+/- 0.56 \\AA, showing a fractional increase of Δ {EW}/< {EW}> =1.16+/- 0.11 from the 2003 observation, 3183 days earlier in the rest-frame. This places PG 1004+130 among the most highly variable BAL quasars. By combining Chandra observations we create an exposure that is 2.5 times deeper than studied previously, with which to investigate the nature of the X-ray jet and extended diffuse X-ray emission. An X-ray knot, likely with a synchrotron origin, is detected in the radio jet ˜ 8\\prime\\prime (30 kpc) from the central X-ray source with a spatial extent of ˜ 4\\prime\\prime (15 kpc). No similar X-ray counterpart to the counterjet is detected. Asymmetric, non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission, likely due to inverse Compton scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background photons, is also detected.

  20. Searching for variations in the fine-structure constant and the proton-to-electron mass ratio using quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Julian A.

    2012-02-01

    (abridged) Quasar absorption lines provide a precise test of the assumed constancy of the fundamental constants of physics. We have investigated potential changes in the fine-structure constant, alpha, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu. The many-multiplet method allows one to use optical fine-structure transitions to constrain (Delta alpha)/alpha at better than the 10^(-5) level. We present a new analysis of 154 quasar absorbers with 0.2 < z <3.7 in VLT/UVES spectra. From these absorbers we find 2.2 sigma evidence for angular variations in alpha under a dipole+monopole model. Combined with previous Keck/HIRES observations, we find 4.1 sigma evidence for angular (and therefore spatial) variations in alpha, with maximal increase of alpha occurring in the direction RA=(17.3 +/- 1.0) hr, dec=(-61 +/- 10) deg. Under a model where the observed effect is proportional to the lookback-time distance the significance increases to 4.2 sigma. Dipole models fitted to the VLT and Keck samples and models fitted to z<1.6 and z>1.6 sub-samples independently yield consistent estimates of the dipole direction, which suggests that the effect is not caused by telescope systematics. We consider a number of systematic effects and show that they are unable to explain the observed dipole effect. We have used spectra of the quasars Q0405-443, Q0347-383 and Q0528-250 from VLT/UVES to investigate the absorbers at z=2.595, 3.025 and 2.811 in these spectra respectively. We find that (Delta mu)/mu=(10.1 +/- 6.6) x 10^(-6), (8.2 +/- 7.5) x 10^(-6) and (-1.4 +/- 3.9) x 10^(-6) in these absorbers respectively. A second spectrum of Q0528-250 provides an additional constraint of (Delta mu)/mu=(0.2 +/- 3.2_stat +/- 1.9_sys) x 10^(-6). The weighted mean of these values yields (Delta mu)/mu=(1.7 +/- 2.4) x 10^(-6), the most precise constraint on evolution in mu at z>1.

  1. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  2. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R.; Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  3. Physical Conditions in Quasar Outflows: Very Large Telescope Observations of QSO 2359-1241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Bautista, Manuel A.; Arav, Nahum; Moe, Maxwell; Costantini, Elisa; Benn, Chris

    2008-11-01

    We analyze the physical conditions of the outflow seen in QSO 2359-1241 (NVSS J235953-124148), based on high-resolution spectroscopic VLT observations. This object was previously studied using Keck HIRES data. The main improvement over the HIRES results is our ability to accurately determine the number density of the outflow. For the major absorption component, the populations from five different Fe II excited levels yield a gas density nH = 104.4 cm-3 with less than 20% scatter. We find that the Fe II absorption arises from a region with roughly constant conditions and temperature greater than 9000 K, before the ionization front where temperature and electron density drop. Further, we model the observed spectra and investigate the effects of varying gas metallicities and the spectral energy distribution of the incident ionizing radiation field. The accurately measured column densities allow us to determine the ionization parameter (log UH ≈ - 2.4) and total column density of the outflow [log NH(cm -2) ≈ 20.6]. Combined with the number density finding, these are stepping stones toward determining the mass flux and kinetic luminosity of the outflow, and therefore its importance to AGN feedback processes. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatories under program 078.B-0433(A).

  4. ORIGIN OF THE COMPLEX RADIO STRUCTURE IN BAL QSO 1045+352

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawronski, Marcin P.; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2010-08-01

    We present new, more sensitive, high-resolution radio observations of a compact broad absorption line (BAL) quasar, 1045+352, made with the EVN+MERLIN at 5 GHz. These observations allowed us to trace the connection between the arcsecond structure and the radio core of the quasar. The radio morphology of 1045+352 is dominated by a knotty jet showing several bends. We discuss possible scenarios that could explain such a complex morphology: galaxy merger, accretion disk instability, precession of the jet, and jet-cloud interactions. It is possible that we are witnessing an ongoing jet precession in this source due to internal instabilities within the jet flow; however, a dense environment detected in the submillimeter band and an outflowing material suggested by the X-ray absorption could strongly interact with the jet. It is difficult to establish the orientation between the jet axis and the observer in 1045+352 because of the complex structure. Nevertheless, taking into account the most recent inner radio structure, we conclude that the radio jet is oriented close to the line of sight, which can mean that the opening angle of the accretion disk wind can be large in this source. We also suggest that there is no direct correlation between the jet-observer orientation and the possibility of observing BALs.

  5. Origin of the Complex Radio Structure in BAL QSO 1045+352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Gawroński, Marcin P.; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2010-08-01

    We present new, more sensitive, high-resolution radio observations of a compact broad absorption line (BAL) quasar, 1045+352, made with the EVN+MERLIN at 5 GHz. These observations allowed us to trace the connection between the arcsecond structure and the radio core of the quasar. The radio morphology of 1045+352 is dominated by a knotty jet showing several bends. We discuss possible scenarios that could explain such a complex morphology: galaxy merger, accretion disk instability, precession of the jet, and jet-cloud interactions. It is possible that we are witnessing an ongoing jet precession in this source due to internal instabilities within the jet flow; however, a dense environment detected in the submillimeter band and an outflowing material suggested by the X-ray absorption could strongly interact with the jet. It is difficult to establish the orientation between the jet axis and the observer in 1045+352 because of the complex structure. Nevertheless, taking into account the most recent inner radio structure, we conclude that the radio jet is oriented close to the line of sight, which can mean that the opening angle of the accretion disk wind can be large in this source. We also suggest that there is no direct correlation between the jet-observer orientation and the possibility of observing BALs.

  6. Erratum: ``CO Line Width Differences in Early Universe Molecular Emission-Line Galaxies: Submillimeter Galaxies versus QSO Hosts'' (AJ, 131, 2763 [2006])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Wang, Ran

    2006-11-01

    It has been pointed out to us that in three dimensions the mean angle of randomly oriented disks with respect to the sky plane is <θ>=30deg, and not the 45° assumed in the original paper. This lower angle for the (assumed) random distribution of submillimeter galaxies, coupled with the factor of 2.3 lower mean CO line width for high-z, far-IR-luminous QSO host galaxies relative to the submillimeter galaxies, implies a mean angle with respect to the sky plane for the QSO host galaxies of <θ>QSO=13deg, as opposed to the 18° quoted in the original paper. We thank Pat Hall for bringing this to our attention.

  7. Resolving the inner structure of QSO discs through fold-caustic-crossing events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolmasov, P.; Shakura, N. I.

    2012-06-01

    Although the bulk of the observed optical flux from the discs of intermediate-redshift lensed quasars is formed well outside the region of strong relativistic boosting and light bending, relativistic effects have an important influence on microlensing curves. The reason lies in the divergent nature of amplification factors near fold caustics, which are increasingly sensitive to small spatial size details. Higher-order disc images produced by strong light bending around the black hole may affect the amplification curves, making a contribution of up to several per cent near maximum amplification. In accordance with theoretical predictions, some of the observed high-amplification events possess fine structure. Here we consider three putative caustic-crossing events, one by SBS J1520+530 and two events for individual images of Einstein's cross (QSO J2237+0305). Using relativistic disc models allows us to improve the fits but the required inclinations are high, ?. Such high inclinations apparently contradict the absence of any strong absorption that is likely to arise if a disc is observed edge-on through a dust torus. Still, high inclinations are required only for the central parts of the disc, which allows the disc itself initially to be tilted by 60-90° with respect to the black hole and aligned toward the black hole equatorial plane near the last stable orbit radius. For SBS J1520+530, an alternative explanation for the observed amplification curve is a superposition of two subsequent fold-caustic crossings. While relativistic disc models favour black hole masses ˜1010 M⊙ (several times higher than the virial estimates) or small Eddington ratios, this model is consistent with the observed distribution of galaxies over peculiar velocities only if the black hole mass is ?.

  8. THE VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL Fe II EMISSION IN PG QSO 1700+518

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Weihao; Huang Kai; Zhang Li; Yuan Qirong; Huang Keliang; Hu Chen; Wang Jianmin

    2010-07-20

    It is found that Fe II emission contributes significantly to the optical and ultraviolet spectra of most active galactic nuclei. The origin of the optical/UV Fe II emission is still open to debate. The variability of Fe II would give clues to this origin. Using 7.5 yr spectroscopic monitoring data of one Palomar-Green (PG) quasi-stellar object (QSO), PG 1700+518, with strong optical Fe II emission, we obtain the light curves of the continuum f {sub {lambda}}(5100 A), Fe II, the broad component of H{beta}, and the narrow component of H{beta} by spectral decomposition. Through the interpolation cross-correlation method, we calculate the time lags for the light curves of Fe II, the total H{beta}, the broad component of H{beta}, and the narrow component of H{beta} with respect to the continuum light curve. We find that the Fe II time lag in PG 1700+518 is 209{sup +100} {sub -147} days, while the H{beta} time lag cannot be determined. Assuming that the Fe II and H{beta} emission regions follow the virial relation between the time lag and the FWHM for the H{beta} and Fe II emission lines, we can derive the H{beta} time lag to be 148{sup +72} {sub -104} days. The H{beta} time lag calculated from the empirical luminosity-size relation is 222 days, which is consistent with our measured Fe II time lag. Considering the optical Fe II contribution, PG 1700+518 shares the same spectral slope variability characteristic, i.e., harder spectrum during brighter phase, as the other 15 PG QSOs in our previous work.

  9. The structure and ionization of the extended emission-line filaments surrounding the QSO MR 2251-178

    SciTech Connect

    Macchetto, F.; Colina, L.; Golombek, D.; Perryman, M.A.C.; Di Serego Alighieri, S. ESA, Astrophysics Div., Noordwijk ESA, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, Garching )

    1990-06-01

    This paper presents new VLA radio maps, at 6 cm and 20 cm, of the QSO MR 2251-178, together with deep high-spatial-resolution images in the O II forbidden 3727-A line in the O III forbidden 5007-A line, and H-alpha emission lines, showing the presence of extended emission-line filaments surrounding the MR 2251-178. The morphology of the circumnuclear emission-line regions and an extended system of filaments in different ionization states are shown. The physical characteristics, such as luminosities, densities, mass, and ionization parameters of different filaments are derived. 48 refs.

  10. Providing Stringent Star Formation Rate Limits of z ∼ 2 QSO Host Galaxies at High Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Do, Tuan; Larkin, James E.; Armus, Lee; Gallagher, S. C.

    2016-04-01

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (zHα = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (zHα = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M⊙ yr‑1 originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s‑1. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M⊙ yr‑1 distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M⊙ yr‑1 kpc‑2. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M⊙ yr‑1 kpc‑2. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington rate, if star formation is present in the host (1.4–20 kpc) it would have to occur diffusely

  11. The radiation pressure-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability - Analysis and application to QSO emission line clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The growth of perturbations in a photoionized gas slab accelerated by radiation pressure under conditions like those in QSO emission-line regions is analyzed. A linear dispersion relation is derived, and numerical radiation-transfer calculations are performed to evaluate the coefficients and roots of that dispersion relation for L-alpha optical depths between 0.1 and 10,000. The nonlinear growth of the waves is estimated, and it is concluded that complete dispersal of the clouds is likely. On the basis of qualitative arguments it is suggested that clouds of greater optical depth are linearly stable.

  12. Confirming the gamma-ray blazar nature of the low energy counterpart QSO PKS1725+123 of 2FGL J1727.9+1220 with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.

    2012-06-01

    Following the near infrared NIR brightening of the QSO PKS1725+123 (=BZQJ1728+1215) (ATEL #4201), associated to the gamma-ray source 2FGL J1727.9+1220 in Nolan et al. (2012 ApJS, 199, 31), we searched in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ, 140, 1868) catalog at the VLBI position of the QSO PKS1725+123 (R.A.(J2000): 17h28m07.0512s, Dec.(J2000): +12d15m39.485s) reported in Beasley et al.

  13. Ca II and Na I absorption in the QSO S4 0248 + 430 due to an intervening galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Cohen, Ross D.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the QSO S4 0248 + 430 and a nearby anonymous galaxy are presented. Two absorption components are found in both Ca II H and K and Na I D1 and D2 at z(a) = 0.0515, 0.0523. Column densities of log N(Ca II) = 13.29, 13.50, and log N(Na I) = 13.79, 14.18 are found for z(a) = 0.0515, 0.0523 absorption systems, respectively. The column density ratios imply considerable calcium depletion and disk-type absorbing gas. At least one and possibly both absorption components are produced by high-velocity gas. A broadband image of the field shows an asymmetrical armlike feature or possible tidal tail covering and extending past the position of the QSO. The presence of this extended feature and the apparent difference between the absorption velocities and galaxy rotation velocity suggest that the absorbing gas is not ordinary disk gas, but rather is a result of tidal disruption.

  14. Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO's in the context of the 4D Eigenvector 1 Parameter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, Nicolae Sebastian

    We explore spectroscopic properties of N ~ 470 quasars with redshift z within 0.7. It is a large and homogeneous sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) "QSO" sources brighter than either 17.5 psf g- or i-band magnitude. The research is developed in the framework of the 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) Parameter Space. We exploit and also test the concept of two quasar populations (labeled A and B) nominally separated at FWHM(Hb) = 4000 km s -1 . The project comprises three chapters: (1) a search for a dichotomy/bimodality between radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) quasars, (2) an analysis of the Hb profile diversity and (3) an investigation of the luminosity effects on the 4DE1 measures. The second part is a dual approach: constructing composite/median spectra and (complementary) defining a set of diagnostic measures (asymmetry, kurtosis, centroid shift) in individual sources profiles. The third section incorporates a sample of N = 53 quasars at z [approximate] 0.9-3.0 with VLT/ISAAC spectra of the Hb region. This addition allows us to cover six decades of luminosity. We find that the RL quasars occupy a much more restricted domain in the optical plane of the 4DE1 compared to the RQ sources, which supports the notion of bimodality. FRII and CD RL sources show significant 4DE1 domain differences that likely reflect differences in line of sight orientation (inclined versus face-on, respectively) for these two classes. Quasars do not distribute randomly about an average optical spectrum. Our results support the conceptof two populations A and B. Population A composite Hb profiles are best described by a Lorentzian, but Population B spectra require a double Gaussian. High and low accretion sources (another version of the Population A/B concept) show significant differences in terms of Black Hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio L bol /L Edd . Moreover, they show distinct properties in terms of line asymmetry, shift and shapes. The minimum detectable FWHM (Hb) increases with

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON HYPERLUMINOUS QSO LIFETIMES VIA FLUORESCENT Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT Z {approx_equal} 2.7

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, Ryan; Steidel, Charles C.

    2013-09-20

    We present observations of a population of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) exhibiting fluorescent emission via the reprocessing of ionizing radiation from nearby hyperluminous QSOs. These LAEs are part of a survey at redshifts 2.5 < z < 2.9 combining narrow-band photometric selection and spectroscopic follow-up to characterize the emission mechanisms, physical properties, and three-dimensional locations of the emitters with respect to their nearby hyperluminous QSOs. These data allow us to probe the radiation field, and thus the radiative history, of the QSOs, and we determine that most of the eight QSOs in our sample have been active and of comparable luminosity for a time 1 Myr {approx}< t{sub Q} {approx}< 20 Myr. Furthermore, we find that the ionizing QSO emission must have an opening angle {theta} {approx} 30 Degree-Sign or larger relative to the line of sight.

  16. Five nights of intensive R- and V-band photometry of QSO 0957+561A,B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovaldsen, J. E.; Teuber, J.; Stabell, R.; Evans, A. K. D.

    2003-11-01

    We present R- and V-band photometry of the gravitational lens system QSO 0957+561 from five nights (one in 2000 January and four in 2001 March, corresponding to the approximate time delay for the system) of uninterrupted monitoring at the Nordic Optical Telescope. In the photometry scheme we have stressed careful magnitude calibration as well as corrections for the lens galaxy contamination and the crosstalk between the twin (A and B) quasar images. The resulting, very densely sampled, light curves are quite stable, in conflict with earlier claims derived from the same data material. We estimate high-precision timelag-corrected B/A flux ratios in both colour bands, as well as V-R colour indices for A and B, and discuss the short time-scale variability of the system.

  17. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M.; Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X.; Howk, J. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R.

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  18. X-ray heating and ionization of broad-emission-line regions in QSO's and active galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.; Shields, G.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1980-07-01

    Absorption of x-rays deep within the broad-line emitting clouds in QSO's and the nuclei of active galaxies creates extensive zones of warm (T approx. 10/sup 4/K), partially ionized N/sub e//N approx. 0.1) gas. Because Lyman alpha photons are trapped in these regions, the x-ray energy is efficiently channeled into Balmer lines collisionally excited from the n = 2 level. The HI regions plus the HII regions created by ultraviolet photons illuminating the surfaces of the clouds give rise to integrated L..cap alpha../H..cap alpha.. line emission ratios between 1 and 2. Enhanced MgII line emission from the HI regions gives rise to integrated MgII/H..cap alpha.. ratios near 0.5. The OI line lambda 8446 is efficiently pumped by trapped H..cap alpha.. photons and in the x-ray heated zone an intensity ratio I (lambda 8446)/I(H..cap alpha..) approx. < 0.1 is calculated. All of these computed ratios now are in agreement with observations.

  19. The MUSE view of QSO PG 1307+085: an elliptical galaxy on the MBH-σ* relation interacting with its group environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Bennert, V. N.; Scharwächter, J.; Woo, J.-H.; Choudhury, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    We report deep optical integral-field spectroscopy with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope of the luminous radio-quiet quasi-stellar object (QSO) PG 1307+085 obtained during commissioning. Given the high sensitivity and spatial resolution delivered by MUSE, we are able to resolve the compact (re ˜ 1.3 arcsec) elliptical host galaxy. After spectroscopic deblending of the QSO and host galaxy emission, we infer a stellar velocity dispersion of σ* = 155 ± 19 km s-1. This places PG 1307+085 on the local MBH-σ* relation within its intrinsic scatter but offset towards a higher black hole mass with respect to the mean relation. The MUSE observations reveal a large extended narrow-line region (ENLR) around PG 1307+085 reaching out to ˜30 kpc. In addition, we detect a faint ionized gas bridge towards the most massive galaxy of the galaxy group at 50 kpc distance. The ionized gas kinematics does not show any evidence for gas outflows on kpc scales despite the high QSO luminosity of Lbol > 1046 erg s-1. Based on the ionized gas distribution, kinematics and metallicity we discuss the origin of the ENLR with respect to its group environments including minor mergers, ram-pressure stripping or gas accretion as the likely scenarios. We conclude that PG 1307+085 is a normal elliptical host in terms of the scaling relations, but that the gas is likely affected by the environment through gravity or ambient pressure. It is possible that the interaction with the environment, seen in the ionized gas, might be responsible for driving sufficient gas to the black hole.

  20. The primordial deuterium abundance: subDLA system at zabs = 2.437 towards the QSO J 1444+2919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashev, S. A.; Zavarygin, E. O.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Telikova, K. N.; Varshalovich, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We report a new detection of neutral deuterium in the sub-Damped Lyman Alpha system with low metallicity [O/H] = -2.042 ± 0.005 at zabs = 2.437 towards QSO J 1444+2919. The hydrogen column density in this system is logN(H I) =19.983 ± 0.010 and the measured value of deuterium abundance is log(D/H) = -4.706 ± 0.007stat ± 0.067syst. This system meets the set of strict selection criteria stated recently by Cooke et al. 2014 and, therefore, widens the Precision Sample of D/H. However, possible underestimation of systematic errors can bring a bias into the mean D/H value (especially if one uses a weighted mean). Hence, it might be reasonable to relax these selection criteria and thus increase the number of acceptable absorption systems with measured D/H values. The unweighted mean value of 15 robust D/H measurements gives a conservative value of the primordial deuterium abundance (D/H)p = (2.54 ± 0.19) × 10-5 which is in good agreement with the prediction given by analysis of the cosmic microwave background radiation for the standard big bang nucleosynthesis. By means of the derived unweighted mean (D/H)p value the baryon density of the Universe Ωbh2 = 0.0218 ± 0.0010 and the baryon-to-photon ratio η = (5.96 ± 0.27) × 10-10 have been deduced. These values have confidence intervals which are less stringent than that obtained for the Precision Sample and, thus, leave a broader window for new physics. The latter is particularly important in the light of the lithium problem.

  1. Differential interferometry of QSO broad-line regions - I. Improving the reverberation mapping model fits and black hole mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Petrov, Romain G.; Meilland, Anthony; Hönig, Sebastian F.

    2015-03-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) estimates the size and kinematics of broad-line regions (BLR) in quasars and type I AGNs. It yields size-luminosity relation to make QSOs standard cosmological candles, and mass-luminosity relation to study the evolution of black holes and galaxies. The accuracy of these relations is limited by the unknown geometry of the BLR clouds distribution and velocities. We analyse the independent BLR structure constraints given by super-resolving differential interferometry. We developed a three-dimensional BLR model to compute all differential interferometry and RM signals. We extrapolate realistic noises from our successful observations of the QSO 3C 273 with AMBER on the VLTI. These signals and noises quantify the differential interferometry capacity to discriminate and measure BLR parameters including angular size, thickness, spatial distribution of clouds, local-to-global and radial-to-rotation velocity ratios, and finally central black hole mass and BLR distance. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model-fit, of data simulated for various VLTI instruments, gives mass accuracies between 0.06 and 0.13 dex, to be compared to 0.44 dex for RM mass-luminosity fits. We evaluate the number of QSOs accessible to observe with current (AMBER), upcoming (GRAVITY) and possible (OASIS with new generation fringe trackers) VLTI instruments. With available technology, the VLTI could resolve more than 60 BLRs, with a luminosity range larger than four decades, sufficient for a good calibration of RM mass-luminosity laws, from an analysis of the variation of BLR parameters with luminosity.

  2. The evolution of host mass and black hole mass in quasi-stellar objects from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, S.; Croom, S. M.; Miller, L.; Babic, A.; Moore, D.; Brewer, B.; Sharp, R. G.; Boyle, B. J.; Shanks, T.; Smith, R. J.; Outram, P. J.; Loaring, N. S.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the relation between the mass of supermassive black holes (MBH) in quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and the mass of the dark matter haloes hosting them (MDH). We measure the widths of broad emission lines (MgII λ2798, CIV λ1549) from QSO composite spectra as a function of redshift. These widths are then used to determine virial black hole mass estimates. We compare our virial black hole mass estimates to dark matter halo masses for QSO hosts derived by Croom et al. based on measurements of QSO clustering. This enables us to trace the MBH-MDH relation over the redshift range z = 0.5-2.5. We calculate the mean zero-point of the MBH-MDH relation to be MBH = 108.4+/-0.2Msolar for an MDH = 1012.5Msolar. These data are then compared with several models connecting MBH and MDH as well as recent hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution. We note that the flux-limited nature of QSO samples can cause a Malmquist-type bias in the measured zero-point of the MBH-MDH relation. The magnitude of this bias depends on the scatter in the MBH-MDH relation, and we re-evaluate the zero-point assuming three published values for this scatter. We create a subsample of our data defined by a constant magnitude interval around L* and find (1 + z)3.3+/-1.3 evolution in MBH between z ~ 0.5 and 2.5 for typical, L* QSOs. We also determine the Eddington ratios (L/LEdd) for the same subsample and find no significant evolution: (1 + z)-0.4+/-1.1. Taken at face value, our data suggest that a decrease in active black hole mass since z ~ 2.5 is the driving force behind luminosity evolution of typical, L*, optically selected QSOs. However, we note that our data are also consistent with a picture in which reductions in both black hole mass and accretion rate contribute equally to luminosity evolution. In addition, we find that these evolution results are strongly affected by the virial black hole mass estimators used. Changes to the calibration of these have a significant effect on the

  3. Analysis of molecular hydrogen absorption toward QSO B0642–5038 for a varying proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.; Murphy, M. T.; Whitmore, J. B.

    2014-02-10

    Rovibronic molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) transitions at redshift z {sub abs} ≅ 2.659 toward the background quasar B0642–5038 are examined for a possible cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. We utilize an archival spectrum from the Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼35 per 2.5 km s{sup –1} pixel at the observed H{sub 2} wavelengths (335-410 nm). Some 111 H{sub 2} transitions in the Lyman and Werner bands have been identified in the damped Lyα system for which a kinetic gas temperature of ∼84 K and a molecular fraction log f = –2.18 ± 0.08 are determined. The H{sub 2} absorption lines are included in a comprehensive fitting method, which allows us to extract a constraint on a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio Δμ/μ from all transitions at once. We obtain Δμ/μ = (17.1 ± 4.5{sub stat} ± 3.7{sub sys}) × 10{sup –6}. However, we find evidence that this measurement has been affected by wavelength miscalibration errors recently identified in UVES. A correction based on observations of objects with solar-like spectra gives a smaller Δμ/μ value and contributes to a larger systematic uncertainty: Δμ/μ = (12.7 ± 4.5{sub stat} ± 4.2{sub sys}) × 10{sup –6}.

  4. Variability of GeV gamma-ray emission in QSO B0218+357 due to microlensing on intermediate size structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitarek, J.; Bednarek, W.

    2016-06-01

    Strong gravitational lensing leads to an occurrence of multiple images, with different magnifications, of a lensed source. Those magnifications can in turn be modified by microlensing on smaller mass scales within the lens. Recently, measurements of the changes in the magnification ratio of the individual images have been proposed as a powerful tool for estimation of the size and velocity of the emission region in the lensed source. The changes of the magnification ratios in blazars PKS1830-211 and QSO B0218+357, if interpreted as caused by a microlensing on individual stars, put strong constraints on those two variables. These constraints are difficult to accommodate with the current models of gamma-ray emission in blazars. In this paper we study if similar changes in the magnification ratio can be caused by microlensing on intermediate size structures in the lensing galaxy. We investigate in details three classes of possible lenses: globular clusters (GCs), open clusters (OCs) and giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We apply this scenario to the case of QSO B0218+357. Our numerical simulations show that changes in magnifications with similar time-scales can be obtained for relativistically moving emission regions with sizes up to 0.01 pc in the case of microlensing on the cores of GCs or clumps in GMCs. From the density of such structures in spiral galaxies we estimate however that lensing in GMCs would be more common.

  5. The low-metallicity QSO HE 2158 - 0107: a massive galaxy growing by accretion of nearly pristine gas from its environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Wisotzki, L.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2011-11-01

    The metallicities of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are usually well above solar in their narrow-line regions, often reaching up to several times solar in their broad-line regions independent of redshift. Low-metallicity AGN are rare objects that have so far always been associated with low-mass galaxies hosting low-mass black holes (MBH106M⊙). We present integral field spectroscopy data of the low-redshift (z = 0.212) quasi-stellar object (QSO) HE 2158 - 0107 for which we find strong evidence of sub-solar NLR metallicities associated with a massive black hole (MBH ~ 3 × 108M⊙). The QSO is surrounded by a large extended emission-line region reaching out to 30 kpc from the QSO in a tail-like geometry. We present optical and near-infrared images and investigate the properties of the host galaxy. The host of HE 2158 - 0107 is most likely a very compact bulge-dominated galaxy with a size of re ~ 1.4 kpc. The multi-colour spectral energy distribution (SED) of the host is quite blue, indicative of a significant young age stellar population formed within the last 1 Gyr. A 3σ upper limit of Lbulge,H < 4.5 × 1010L ⊙ ,H for the H-band luminosity and a corresponding stellar mass upper limit of Mbulge < 3.4 × 1010M⊙ show that the host is offset from the local black hole-bulge relations. This is independently supported by the kinematics of the gas. Although the stellar mass of the host galaxy is lower than expected, it cannot explain the exceptionally low metallicity of the gas. We suggest that the extended emission-line region and the galaxy growth are caused by the infall of nearly pristine gas from the environment of the QSO host. Minor mergers of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies or the theoretically predicted smooth accretion of cold (~ 104 K) gas are both potential drivers behind that process. Because the metallicity of the gas in the QSO narrow-line region is much lower than expected, we suspect that the external gas has already reached the galaxy centre and may

  6. Evidence for feedback in action from the molecular gas content in the z ~ 1.6 outflowing QSO XID2028

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, M.; Feruglio, C.; Cresci, G.; Mainieri, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Perna, M.; Santini, P.; Vito, F.; Marconi, A.; Merloni, A.; Lutz, D.; Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Maiolino, R.; Rosario, D.; Daddi, E.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Lusso, E.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Gas outflows are believed to play a pivotal role in shaping galaxies, as they regulate both star formation and black hole growth. Despite their ubiquitous presence, the origin and the acceleration mechanism of these powerful and extended winds is not yet understood. Direct observations of the cold gas component in objects with detected outflows at other wavelengths are needed to assess the impact of the outflow on the host galaxy interstellar medium (ISM). Methods: We observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer an obscured quasar at z ~ 1.5, XID2028, for which the presence of an ionized outflow has been unambiguously signalled by NIR spectroscopy. The detection of 12CO(3-2) emission in this source allows us to infer the molecular gas content and compare it to the ISM mass derived from the dust emission. We then analyzed the results in the context of recent insights on scaling relations, which describe the gas content of the overall population of star-forming galaxies at a similar redshifts. Results: The star formation efficiency (~100) and gas mass (Mgas = 2.1-9.5 × 1010 M⊙) inferred from the CO(3-2) line depend on the underlying assumptions on the excitation of the transition and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. However, the combination of this information and the ISM mass estimated from the dust mass suggests that the ISM/gas content of XID2028 is significantly lower than expected for its observed M⋆, sSFR and redshift, based on the most up-to-date calibrations (with gas fraction <20% and depletion timescale <340 Myr). Conclusions: Overall, the constraints we obtain from the far infrared and millimeter data suggest that we are observing QSO feedback able to remove the gas from the host. Based on observations with the Plateau de Bure millimetre interferometer, operated by the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimetre Range (IRAM), which is funded by a partnership of INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).A FITS file for the spectrum

  7. Screening of lipid high producing mutant from rhodotorula glutinis by low ion implantation and study on optimization of fermentation medium.

    PubMed

    Shichang, Li; Pengpeng, Zhang; Shaobin, Gu; Hongxia, Liu; Ya, Liu; Shengnan, Liu

    2013-09-01

    In order to obtain lipid producing strain with high-yield, the wild type stain Rhodotorula glutinis was treated by low ion implantation, and optimization of fermentation medium for higher lipid yield was carried out using mutant strain. It was found that the strain had a higher positive mutation rate when the output power was 10 keV and the dose of N(+) implantation was 80 × 2.6 × 10(13) ions/cm(2). Then a high-yield mutant strain D30 was obtained through cid-heating coupling ultrasonic method and lipid yield was 3.10 g/L. Additionally, the surface response method was used to optimize fermentation medium. The three significant factors (glucose, peptone, KH2PO4) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimized parameters of fermentation medium were as follows: glucose 73.40 g/L, peptone 1.06 g/L and KH2PO4 3.56 g/L. Finally the fermentation characteristic of high-yield mutation strain D30 was studied, when fermentation time was 10 days, which lipid yield increased to 7.81 g/L. Fatty acid composition of the lipid was determined by GC, and the most represented fatty acids of mutant D30 were C16:0 (11.4 %), C16:1 (5.66 %), C18:1 (49.3 %), and C18:2 (27.0 %). PMID:24426135

  8. Studies of galaxies giving rise to QSO absorption systems and observations of the high-redshift universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    I present a study of the galaxies that give rise to Lyman-α (Lyα) and triply ionized carbon (CIV) absorption lines observed in the spectra of background quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), as well as on studies of the high-redshift universe. By comparing the redshifts of galaxies and Lyα absorption systems along common lines of sight, I confirmed the existence of an anti- correlation between Lyα absorption equivalent width and galaxy impact parameter. Further analysis showed that tenuous gas is likely to be distributed around galaxies in spherical halos rather than in flattened disks with the gaseous extent scaling with galaxy B-band and K-band luminosities. I found that extended gaseous halos are a common and generic feature of galaxies over a wide range of luminosity and morphological type and Lyα absorption systems traced a significant and representative portion of the galaxy population. Applying the scaling relation between galaxy gaseous radius and galaxy B-band luminosity to predict the incidence of Lyα absorption systems originating in extended gaseous envelopes of galaxies, I found that luminous galaxies can explain about 50% of Lyα absorption systems with absorption equivalent width W > 0.3 Å. By comparing the redshifts of galaxies and CIV absorption systems along common lines of sight, I found that extended gaseous halos of galaxies have been metal contaminated out to large galactocentric radii, ~100 h-1 kpc. The covering factor of ionized gas in galactic halos was estimated to be 0.93 with a 1 σ lower bound of 0.83, which may strongly constrain the possibilities that CIV absorption systems arised in accreting satellite galaxies or in filaments of gravitationally collapsed structures. To study the high-redshift universe, I analyzed very deep slitless spectroscopy observations acquired by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations are especially suited for identifying very distant galaxies due to

  9. The absorption spectrum of the QSO PKS 2126-158 (z_em =3.27) at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.

    1998-01-01

    Spectra of the z_em = 3.268 quasar PKS 2126-158 have been obtained in the range lambda lambda 4300-6620 Angstroms with a resolution Rsmallimeq27000 and an average signal-to-noise ratio s/nsmallimeq 25 per resolution element. The list of the identified absorption lines is given together with their fitted column densities and Doppler widths. The modal value of the Doppler parameter distribution for the Lyalpha lines is smallimeq 25 km s(-1) . The column density distribution can be described by a power-law dn / dN ~ N(-beta ) with beta smallimeq 1.5. 12 metal systems have been identified, two of which were previously unknown. In order to make the column densities of the intervening systems compatible with realistic assumptions about the cloud sizes and the silicon to carbon overabundance, it is necessary to assume a jump beyond the He II edge in the spectrum of the UV ionizing background at z smallim 3 a factor 10 larger than the standard predictions for the integrated quasar contribution. An enlarged sample of C IV absorptions (71 doublets) has been used to analyze the statistical properties of this class of absorbers strictly related to galaxies. The column density distribution is well described by a single power-law, with beta =1.64 and the Doppler parameter distribution shows a modal value b_CIV smallimeq 14 km s(-1) . The two point correlation function has been computed in the velocity space for the individual components of C IV features. A significant signal is obtained for scales smaller than 200- 300 km s(-1) , xi (30< Delta v < 90 km\\ s(-1) ) = 33 +/- 3. A trend of decreasing clustering amplitude with decreasing column density is apparent, analogously to what has been observed for Lyalpha lines. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No. 2-013-49K). Table 2 is only available in electronic from via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  10. METALLICITIES, DUST, AND MOLECULAR CONTENT OF A QSO-DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM REACHING log N(H I) = 22: AN ANALOG TO GRB-DLAs

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, R.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.; Rahmani, H.; Lopez, S.

    2012-06-15

    We present the elemental abundance and H{sub 2} content measurements of a damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system with an extremely large H I column density, log N(H I) (cm{sup -2}) = 22.0 {+-} 0.10, at z{sub abs} = 3.287 toward the QSO SDSS J081634+144612. We measure column densities of H{sub 2}, C I, C I*, Zn II, Fe II, Cr II, Ni II, and Si II from a high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution VLT-UVES spectrum. The overall metallicity of the system is [Zn/H] = -1.10 {+-} 0.10 relative to solar. Two molecular hydrogen absorption components are seen at z = 3.28667 and 3.28742 (a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 52 km s{sup -1}) in rotational levels up to J = 3. We derive a total H{sub 2} column density of log N(H{sub 2}) (cm{sup -2}) = 18.66 and a mean molecular fraction of f = 2N(H{sub 2})/[2N(H{sub 2}) + N(H I)] = 10{sup -3.04{+-}0.37}, typical of known H{sub 2}-bearing DLA systems. From the observed abundance ratios we conclude that dust is present in the interstellar medium of this galaxy, with an enhanced abundance in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds. However, the total amount of dust along the line of sight is not large and does not produce any significant reddening of the background QSO. The physical conditions in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds are constrained directly from the column densities of H{sub 2} in different rotational levels, C I and C I*. The kinetic temperature is found to be T Almost-Equal-To 75 K and the particle density lies in the range n{sub H} = 50-80 cm{sup -3}. The neutral hydrogen column density of this DLA is similar to the mean H I column density of DLAs observed at the redshift of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs). We explore the relationship between GRB-DLAs and the high column density end of QSO-DLAs finding that the properties (metallicity and depletion) of DLAs with log N(H I) > 21.5 in the two populations do not appear to be significantly different.

  11. The distribution of Extremely High Accretion Rates and Metallicities of QSO's as a Function of Redshift over Cosmic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Seif, Nasser; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2016-07-01

    The investigation of how QSOs' extremity of accretion rates vary with redshift has remained a major focus of our study in the last five years. How does the evolution of QSOs trace the accretion history of early SMBH? What does accretion at super-Eddington rates look like? Does the correlation between SMBHs and metallicity of QSOs emission line evolve differently at high redshift? Is it a surprise that metallicity is high at high redshift, or is this expected? Here, we establish a new database for the width of an emission line (e.g., Hβ, Mg II and C IV) to obtain a large statistical sample of QSOs at different redshifts. We calculated L/LEdd that determined mass from previous studies (Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)). We investigated the significant evolution of L/ LEdd for any value of MBH as a function of redshift. Also, we investigated the evolution and distribution of the accretion rate (L/LEdd) over cosmic time with a concentration on the extremely high accretion rate sources at high redshift. The current study investigated the accretion rate (L/LEdd) correlation to other QSO properties and investigated how the accretion of Black Holes L/LEdd and MBH occurs within heavily obscured environments. Our research found that some QSOs are radiating near the Eddington limit with L/ Ledd ~ 1 and those QSOs have extreme accretion. We also found that the lowest M BH has the highest accretion rate, a result that was already noted by McClure & Dunlop (2004). The distribution of Eddington ratio displayed by QSOs clearly shows that all luminous QSOs accreted at their Eddington limit have a poor approximation. This result is important because it is often assumed that optically luminous QSOs are accreting at their Eddington limit within the models of QSOs evolution. We determined the peak of the L/LEdd versus redshift and we found the largest of those peaks to be at the interval of redshift (1< Z < 2). We noted that the highest peak of the distribution of L/LEdd at all

  12. XMM-Newton reveals a Seyfert-like X-ray spectrum in the z = 3.6 QSO B1422+231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadina, M.; Vignali, C.; Cappi, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; De Marco, B.; Chartas, G.; Giustini, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Matter flows from the central regions of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) during their active phases are probably responsible for the properties of the super-massive black holes and those of the bulges of host galaxies. To understand how this mechanism works, we need to characterize the geometry and the physical state of the accreting matter at cosmological redshifts, when QSO activity is at its peak. Aims: We aim to use X-ray data to probe the matter inflow at the very center of a QSO at z = 3.62. While complex absorption, the iron K emission line, reflection hump, and high-energy cutoff are known to be almost ubiquitous in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN), only a few distant objects are known to exhibit some of them. Methods: The few high-quality spectra of distant QSO were collected by adding sparse pointings of single objects obtained during X-ray monitoring campaigns. This could have introduced spurious spectral features due to source variability and/or microlensing. To avoid such problems, we decided to collect a single-epoch and high-quality X-ray spectrum of a distant AGN. We thus picked up the z = 3.62 QSO B1422+231, whose flux, enhanced by gravitationally lensing, is proven to be among the brightest lensed QSOs in X-rays (F2-10 keV ~ 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2). Results: The X-ray spectrum of B1422+231 is found to be very similar to the one of a typical nearby Seyfert galaxy. Neutral absorption is clearly detected (NH ~ 5 × 1021 cm-2 at the redshift of the source), while a strong absorption edge is measured at E ~ 7.5 keV with an optical depth of τ ~ 0.14. We also find hints of the FeKα line in emission at E ~ 6.4 keV line (EW ≲ 70 eV), and a hump is detected in the E ~ 15 - 20 keV energy band (rest frame) in excess of what is predicted by a simple absorbed power-law. Conclusions: The spectrum can best be modeled with two rather complex models; one assumes ionized and partially covering matter along the line of sight, the other is characterized by a

  13. Confirming the gamma-ray blazar nature of the low energy counterpart QSO GB6 J1604+5714 of 2FGL J1604.6+5710 with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.

    2012-06-01

    Following the rapid optical variability detected in the QSO GB6 J1604+5714 (=BZQJ1604+5714) (ATEL #4184), associated to the gamma-ray source 2FGL J1604.6+5710 (=1FGL J1604.3+5710) in Nolan et al. (2012 ApJS, 199, 31), we searched in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ, 140, 1868) catalog at the VLBI position of the QSO GB6 J1604+5714 (R.A.(J2000): 16h04m37.3546s, Dec.(J2000): +57d14m36.660s) reported in Beasley et al......

  14. A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample . IV. Molecular gas contents and conditions of star formation in three nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Lydia; Krips, Melanie; Busch, Gerold; Scharwächter, Julia; König, Sabine; Eckart, Andreas; Smajić, Semir; García-Marin, Macarena; Valencia-S., Mónica; Fischer, Sebastian; Dierkes, Jens

    2016-03-01

    We present a pilot study of ~3'' resolution observations of low CO transitions with the Submillimeter Array in three nearby Seyfert galaxies, which are part of the low-luminosity quasi-stellar object (LLQSOs) sample consisting of 99 nearby (z = 0.06) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) taken from the Hamburg/ESO quasi-stellar object (QSO) survey. Two sources were observed in 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) and the third in 12CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3). None of the sources is detected in continuum emission. More than 80% of the 12CO detected molecular gas is concentrated within a diameter (FWHM) < 1.8 kpc. 13CO is tentatively detected, while HCO+ emission could not be detected. All three objects show indications of a kinematically decoupled central unresolved molecular gas component. The molecular gas masses of the three galaxies are in the range Mmol = (0.7-8.7) × 109M⊙. We give lower limits for the dynamical masses of Mdyn> 1.5 × 109M⊙ and for the dust masses of Mdust> 1.6 × 106M⊙. The R21 = 12CO/13CO(2-1) line luminosity ratios show Galactic values of R21 ~ 5-7 in the outskirts and R21 ≳ 20 in the central region, similar to starbursts and (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs; i.e. LIRGs and ULIRGs), implying higher temperatures and stronger turbulence. All three sources show indications of 12CO(2-1)/12CO(1-0) ratios of ~0.5, suggesting a cold or diffuse gas phase. Strikingly, the 12CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio of ~1 also indicates a higher excited phase. Since these galaxies have high infrared luminosities of LIR ≥ 1011L⊙ and seem to contain a circumnuclear starburst with minimum surface densities of gas and star formation rate (SFR) around Σmol = 50-550 M⊙pc-2 and ΣSFR = 1.1-3.1 M⊙ kpc-2 yr-1, we conclude that the interstellar medium in the centers of these LIRG Seyferts is strongly affected by violent star formation and better described by the ULIRG mass conversion factor.

  15. What Drives the Outflows in Broad Absorption Line QSOs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We have made progress in the areas related to the propulsion and confinement of gas responsible for broad absorption troughts in QSOs: Radiative Acceleration in BALQSOs; The "Ghost" of Lyman (alpha); and Magnetic Confinement of Absorbing Gas.

  16. The interstellar absorption-line spectrum of Mu Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, J.; Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1982-01-01

    UV interstellar lines have been measured on high-resolution, long- and short-wavelength IUE spectra of the B8 V star Mu Oph. Column densities for the observed atoms and ions have been determined as well as turbulent velocities. The interstellar spectrum of Mu Oph is similar to the ones for Rho Oph and Zeta Oph. The ionization equilibria of several elements give consistent limits for the electron density. The C I line arising from different fine-structure levels are studied to yield estimates on the physical conditions in the cloud. Relative depletion of elements in the cloud seen in the interstellar spectrum of Mu Oph follows the same pattern as seen in the interstellar spectra of Zeta Oph and six other stars in the Rho Oph cloud complex.

  17. Infra-red absorption lines by molecules in grain mantles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, W.; Allamandola, L. J.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1980-06-01

    The laboratory spectrum of a solid mixture of H2O, CO, CH3OH, and NH3 at a temperature of 10 K reproduces the shape and peak positions of interstellar features. It is shown that the broad absorption features evident in the MIR spectra of some astronomical objects associated with interstellar dust can be explained by absorptions of molecules in grain mantles.

  18. Foreign-gas broadening of nitrous oxide absorption lines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, L. D.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    We have measured the foreign-gas broadening coefficients for collisional broadening of lines in the nu-3 fundamental of N2O by He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2, D2, and CH4. These coefficients, which give the ratio of the line-broadening ability of these gases to the line-broadening ability of N2, can be used with recent measurements and calculations of N2 broadening to obtain optical collision cross sections.

  19. Broadening of infrared absorption lines at reduced temperatures - Carbon dioxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, L. D.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    An evacuated high-resolution Czerny-Turner spectrograph, which is described in this paper, has been used to determine the strengths S and self-broadening parameters for lines in the R branch of the nu (sub 3) fundamental of carbon dioxide at 298 and at 207 K. The values of self-broadening parameters at 207 K are greater than those to be expected on the basis of a fixed collision cross section.

  20. Pressure dependence of Se absorption lines in AlSb

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L. |; Haller, E.E.; Ramdas, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    Using far infrared absorption spectroscopy, the authors have investigated electronic transition spectra of Se donors in AlSb as a function of hydrostatic pressure. At least two distinct ground to bound excited state transition lines, which depend quadratically on the pressure, can be seen. At pressures between 30 and 50 kbar, evidence of an anti-crossing between one of the electronic transitions and a peak which they attribute to the 2 zone center LO phonon mode can be seen.

  1. Effects of velocity averaging on the shapes of absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity averaging of collision cross sections produces non-Lorentz line shapes, even at densities where Doppler broadening is not apparent. The magnitude of the effects will be described using a model in which the collision broadening depends on a simple velocity power law. The effect of the modified profile on experimental measures of linewidth, shift and amplitude will be examined and an improved approximate line shape will be derived.

  2. Intracavity absorption line shape and the super-regen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewellen, L. R.; Brink, G. O.

    1981-10-01

    Intracavity absorption has been observed in a short lived excited state of helium produced in an RF discharge inside the dye laser cavity. The line shape consists of an absorption feature with two symmetric enhancement wings. The central absorption feature is considerably broadened over the natural width, and this is shown to be in agreement with the superregen model. It is also shown that under certain conditions the ICA signal inverts so that the central feature becomes enhanced and the symmetric wings appear as absorption. This result is also in agreement with predictions of the model.

  3. The missing UV absorption lines of NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leech, K. J.; Penston, M. V.; Snijders, M. A. J.; Ward, M. J.; Gull, T. R.

    1990-01-01

    Near simultaneous high dispersion long and short wavelength International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 are discussed. Previous observations revealed a narrow absorption system in Mg II not present in Ly alpha or C IV. The new observations confirm the presence of this system in Mg II and its absence in the other lines. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Future Hubble Space Telescope studies of NGC 4151 are discussed.

  4. Exploiting enzyme catalysis in ultra-low ion strength media for impedance biosensing of avian influenza virus using a bare interdigitated electrode.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingchun; Callaway, Zachary; Lum, Jacob; Wang, Ronghui; Lin, Jianhan; Li, Yanbin

    2014-02-18

    Enzyme catalysis is broadly used in various fields but generally applied in media with high ion strength. Here, we propose the exploitation of enzymatic catalysis in ultra-low ion strength media to induce ion strength increase for developing a novel impedance biosensing method. Avian influenza virus H5N1, a serious worldwide threat to poultry and human health, was adopted as the analyte. Magnetic beads were modified with H5N1-specific aptamer to capture the H5N1 virus. This was followed by binding concanavalin A (ConA), glucose oxidase (GOx), and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to create bionanocomposites through a ConA-glycan interaction. The yielded sandwich complex was transferred to a glucose solution to trigger an enzymatic reaction to produce gluconic acid, which ionized to increase the ion strength of the solution, thus decreasing the impedance on a screen-printed interdigitated array electrode. This method took advantages of the high efficiency of enzymatic catalysis and the high susceptibility of electrochemical impedance on the ion strength and endowed the biosensor with high sensitivity and a detection limit of 8 × 10(-4) HAU in 200 μL sample, which was magnitudes lower than that of some analogues based on biosensing methods. Furthermore, the proposed method required only a bare electrode for measurements of ion strength change and had negligible change on the surficial properties of the electrode, though some modification of magnetic beads/Au nanoparticles and the construction of a sandwich complex were still needed. This helped to avoid the drawbacks of commonly used electrode immobilization methods. The merit for this method makes it highly useful and promising for applications. The proposed method may create new possibilities in the broad and well-developed enzymatic catalysis fields and find applications in developing sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-operate biosensing and biocatalysis devices. PMID:24180352

  5. UNVEILING THE MASK ON THE ULIRG-TO-QSO TRANSITION OBJECT [H89]1821+643 AT z = 0.3: A GAS-POOR/GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGER AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR CO-BASED DYNAMICAL MASS ESTIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, M.; Wagg, J.; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Feain, I. J.

    2011-08-20

    We report the detection of the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 emission line in [H89]1821+643, one of the most optically luminous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the local universe, and a template ULIRG-to-QSO transition object, located in a rich, cool-core cluster at z = 0.297. The CO emission is likely to be extended, highly asymmetric with respect to the center of the host elliptical where the QSO resides, and correspond with a molecular gas mass of {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. The dynamical mass enclosed by the CO emission-line region could amount to {approx}1.7 x 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} (80% of the total mass of the elliptical host). The bulk of the CO emission is located at {approx}9 kpc southeast from the nuclei position, close to a faint optical structure, suggesting that the CO emission could either represent a gas-rich companion galaxy merging with the elliptical host or a tail-like structure reminiscent of a previous interaction. We argue that the first scenario is more likely given the large masses implied by the CO source, which would imply a highly asymmetric elliptical host. The close alignment between the CO emission's major axis and the radio plume suggests a possible role in the excitation of the ambient gas reservoir by the latter. The stacking technique was used to search for CO emission and 3-mm continuum emission from galaxies in the surrounding cluster. However, no detection was found toward individual galaxies or the stacked ensemble of galaxies, with a 3{sigma} limit of <1.1 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} for the molecular gas.

  6. Zooming into the broad line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 ≡ the Einstein Cross. III. Determination of the size and structure of the C iv and C iii] emitting regions using microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Schmidt, R.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.; Meylan, G.; Eigenbrod, A.; Anguita, T.; Agol, E.; Wambsganss, J.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: We aim to use microlensing taking place in the lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 to study the structure of the broad line region (BLR) and measure the size of the region emitting the C iv and C iii] lines. Methods: Based on 39 spectrophotometric monitoring data points obtained between Oct. 2004 and Dec. 2007, we derived lightcurves for the C iv and C iii] emission lines. We used three different techniques to analyse the microlensing signal. Different components of the lines (narrow, broad, and very broad) were identified and studied. We built a library of the simulated microlensing lightcurves that reproduce the signal observed in the continuum and in the lines provided only the source size is changed. A Bayesian analysis scheme is then developed to derive the size of the various components of the BLR. Results: 1. The half-light radius of the region emitting the C iv line is found to be RC IV} ˜ 66+110-46} light-days = 0.06+0.09-0.04 pc = 1.7+2.8-1.1 × 1017 cm (at 68.3% CI). Similar values are obtained for C iii]. Relative sizes of the carbon-line and V-band continuum emitting-regions are also derived with median values of Rline/Rcont in the range 4 to 29, depending on the FWHM of the line component. 2. The size of the C iv emitting region agrees with the radius-luminosity relationship derived from reverberation mapping. Using the virial theorem, we derive the mass of the black hole in QSO 2237 + 0305 to be MBH ~ 108.3 ± 0.3 M⊙. 3. We find that the C iv and C iii] lines are produced in at least 2 spatially distinct regions, the most compact one giving rise to the broadest component of the line. The broad and narrow line profiles are slightly different for C iv and C iii]. 4. Our analysis suggests a different structure for the C iv and Fe ii+iii emitting regions, with the latter produced in the inner part of the BLR or in a less extended emitting region than C iv. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT Unit Telescope # 2 Kueyen (Cerro Paranal, Chile

  7. Constraints on chemical evolution models from QSOALS abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Models of the formation and early chemical evolution of our Galaxy are guided and constrained by our knowledge of abundances in globular cluster stars and halo field stars. The abundance patterns identified in halo and disk stars should be discernible in absorption lines of gas clouds in forming galaxies which are accidentally lying in front of background QSO's. Conversely, the ensemble of QSO absorption line systems (QSOALS) at each redshift may suggest a detailed model for the formation of our Galaxy that is testable using abundance patterns in halo stars.

  8. QSO color selection in the SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.J.; Yanny, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will image 10,000 square degrees in the north galactic cap in five filters. We hope to identify and obtain spectra for about 100,000 quasars brighter than 20th magnitude in this area. The selection will be primarily on the basis of point spread function and colors, but we will also identify quasars from a catalog of FIRST radio sources. The selection areas in color space must be determined during the testing period prior to the official start of the survey. This task may determine the length of the test period. In anticipation of this becoming the critical path, we have written a body of software that will allow us to quickly analyze a set of multicolor data and make a first cut at the selection limits.

  9. MASTER-IAC: Sloan QSO flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Gress, O.; Kuvshinov, D.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-06-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 24m 38.99s +10d 57m 29.5s on 2016-06-14.08069 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (the limit is 17.9m).

  10. QSO evolution and the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A model is developed of a cold, photoionized intergalactic medium in which only discrete, evolving sources (quasars) produce the observed extragalactic hard X-ray background. Constraints on the model are imposed by observed optical depth limits to various redshifts, far UV and visible flux measurements, X-ray background and source counts in the region 2-6 keV, and it makes use of results of the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey and the Braccesi Quasar survey to obtain expressions for the quasar evolution function, absolute luminosity, present number density and switch-on redshift. Results of computer modeling reveal an intergalactic medium with a density with respect to closure less than 0.35, temperature of 16,000 K and fractional ion abundances of approximately 0.000001 for H I and 0.001 for He II, under the assumption of a Hubble constant of 50 km/sec per Mpc. In addition, spectral indices of -0.4 and -1.3 are obtained for the regions of the emission spectrum above and below 4 x 10 to the 18th Hz.

  11. MASTER: QSO flare and dwarf novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkova, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Tlatov, A.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Kniazev, S. Potter A.; Senik, V.; Parkhomenko, D. Dormidontov A.

    2016-04-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 12h 16m 18.59s +14d 53m 08.9s on 2016-04-14.99251 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 15.8 (limit 18.8m).

  12. Radio structures in QSO-galaxy pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akujor, Chidi E.

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally agreed that if quasars and nearby low redshift galaxies are associated, then there should be luminous connections between them. However, most of the observational evidence being presented is in the optical domain, whereas such evidence should also exist at radio frequencies. The author is, therefore, investigating some quasar-galaxy pairs at radio frequencies to search for luminous connections and other structural peculiarities. Radio maps of some of these sources are presented.

  13. Double troughs in broad absorption line quasars and Ly-alpha-N V line-locking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Voit, G. M.; Morris, Simon L.; Weymann, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    It was investigated whether the double trough (DT) structure in the mean C IV BAL trough reported by Weymann et al. (1991) is real or due to statistical fluctuations of BAL troughs over random outflow velocities in a limited sample. A sample of 72 BAL QSOs with C IV BAL troughs was analyzed. It is found that only 22 percent of the sample explicitly exhibits the DT feature; when present the DTs are deep. A Monte Carlo simulation of the mean C IV BAL suggests that the DT feature is real at only the 95-98 percent level.

  14. The assembly histories of quiescent galaxies since z = 0.7 from absorption line spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Moustakas, John; Graves, Genevieve J.; Holden, Bradford P.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2014-09-10

    We present results from modeling the optical spectra of a large sample of quiescent galaxies between 0.1 < z < 0.7 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We examine how the stellar ages and abundance patterns of galaxies evolve over time as a function of stellar mass from 10{sup 9.6}-10{sup 11.8} M {sub ☉}. Galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of mass and redshift and modeled over a wavelength range from 4000 Å to 5500 Å. Full spectrum stellar population synthesis modeling provides estimates of the age and the abundances of the elements Fe, Mg, C, N, and Ca. We find negligible evolution in elemental abundances at fixed stellar mass over roughly 7 Gyr of cosmic time. In addition, the increase in stellar ages with time for massive galaxies is consistent with passive evolution since z = 0.7. Taken together, these results favor a scenario in which the inner ∼0.3-3 R {sub e} of massive quiescent galaxies have been passively evolving over the last half of cosmic time. Interestingly, the derived stellar ages are considerably younger than the age of the universe at all epochs, consistent with an equivalent single-burst star formation epoch of z ≲ 1.5. These young stellar population ages coupled with the existence of massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 indicate the inhomogeneous nature of the z ≲ 0.7 quiescent population. The data also permit the addition of newly quenched galaxies at masses below ∼10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} at z < 0.7. Additionally, we analyze very deep Keck DEIMOS spectra of the two brightest quiescent galaxies in a cluster at z = 0.83. There is tentative evidence that these galaxies are older than their counterparts in low-density environments. In the Appendix, we demonstrate that our full spectrum modeling technique allows for accurate and reliable modeling of galaxy spectra to low S/N (∼20 Å{sup –1}) and/or low spectral resolution (R ∼ 500).

  15. Wavelength Locking to CO2 Absorption Line-Center for 2-Micron Pulsed IPDA Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-micron CW (Continuous Wave) laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nanometers, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  16. A comparison of neutral hydrogen 21 cm observations with UV and optical absorption-line measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanelli, R.; York, D. G.; Shull, J. M.; Haynes, M. P.

    1978-01-01

    Several absorption components detected in visible or UV lines have been identified with emission features in new high-resolution, high signal-to-noise 21 cm observations. Stars for which direct overlap is obtained are HD 28497, lambda Ori, mu Col, HD 50896, rho Leo, HD 93521, and HD 219881. With the use of the inferred H I column densities from 21 cm profiles, rather than the integrated column densities obtained from L-alpha, more reliable densities can be derived from the existence of molecular hydrogen. Hence the cloud thicknesses are better determined; and 21 cm emission maps near these stars can be used to obtain dimensions on the plane of the sky. It is now feasible to derive detailed geometries for isolated clumps of gas which produce visual absorption features.

  17. Interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of sigma Sco using Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Since the launch of Copernicus in 1972, studies have been made of the depletion of gas-phase elements onto dust grains. A few stars have been studied in detail, resulting in a standard depletion pattern which has since been used for comparison. Recent developments, however, have suggested that this standard pattern may need to be re-examined. Some weak, semi-forbidden lines were detected recently which may be able to resolve some of the ambiguities. Studies of single elements have shown that depletion of carbon and oxgyen are much smaller than previously determined. The high resolution ultraviolet spectral scans of sigma Sco were originally made in 1973, but have only recently been analyzed. All these stars are bright and moderately reddened. All four stars will be analyzed in detail, but sigma Sco is the first one completed. The data has broad coverage of ions, making these stars excellent candidates for determination of accurate depletions. A profile-fitting analysis was used rather than curves-of-growth in order to determine separate abundances and depletions in components separated by several km/sec.

  18. Absorption-line survey of 32 QSOs at red wavelengths - properties of the Mg II absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzetta, K.M.; Wolfe, A.M.; Turnshek, D.A.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a survey of 32 QSOs for Mg II absorption at red wavelengths are presented, and the properties of the metal absorption systems are investigated. When interpreted in terms of ejection, the Mg II absorption systems are randomly distributed in velocity relative to the QSOs, although the systems may cluster on scales of a few thousand km/s. This is consistent with the absorption systems arising in intervening material not associated with the QSOs. The equivalent width distribution of the Mg II systems is well fitted by either an exponential or a power-law distribution, with the number density of the absorption systems increasing with decreasing rest equivalent width. There is marginally significant evidence for cosmological evolution of the number density of the Mg II absorbers, and no evidence for evolution of the Mg II equivalent width distribution with redshift. 42 references.

  19. Primary orbit and the absorption lines of HDE 226868 (Cygnus X-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ninkov, Z.; Walker, G.A.H.; Yang, S.

    1987-10-01

    From Reticon spectra of about 1 A resolution taken between 1980 and 1984, the radial velocity curve of HDE 226868 is found to be characteristic of a single-line spectroscopic binary with K = 75.0 + or - 1.0 km/s and e = 0.0. Combining historical velocities from the literature with present data and applying a period-folding analysis, a period of 5.59964 + or - 0.00001 days is found. These values agree well with those published by Gies and Bolton (1982). The value of v sin i is estimated to be 94.3 + or - 5 km/s from CFHT Reticon spectra taken at 0.1 A resolution. Assuming that the rotation of the primary is synchronized to the orbital revolution of the secondary gives a primary to secondary mass ratio between 1.5 and 2.3. An absolute magnitude of -6.5 + or - 0.2 is derived from the equivalent width of H-gamma (1.5 + or - 0.1 A) and the calibration of Walker and Millward (1985), which is consistent with the spectral classification of O9.7 Iab. Assuming 20 solar masses as a reasonable estimate for the mass of the primary implies a mass of 10 + or - 1 solar masses for the secondary. 62 references.

  20. Search for infrared absorption lines of atmospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    A search for features of the ClO (1-0) vibration-rotation band has been conducted based on a 5000 signal-to-rms noise ratio IR spectrum derived by coadding 39 high-quality 0.0053/cm resolution solar spectra recorded with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak. Evidence for absorption has been found at the locations of several of the stronger ClO P-branch lines with minimal interference. Detailed results are presented for the P(8.5) and P(7.5) 2Pi3/2-2Pi3/2 lines of Cl-35O at 833.2974 and 834.6249/cm, respectively. If ClO is present in the stratosphere at the concentrations indicated by other methods, our analysis indicates that modest improvements in signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution would permit a definitive detection of ClO in IR ground-based spectra.

  1. Measurements of self-broadening of infrared absorption lines of ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, C. P.; Devi, V. M.

    1991-01-01

    Lorentz self-broadening coefficients have been determined for 355 spectral lines belonging to five different infrared vibration-rotation bands of O3 in the spectral region from 4.8 to 17 microns. Six ozone absorption spectra, recorded at room temperature using a Fourier transform spectrometer, were analyzed. The half-width values were obtained through a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure. The results are compared with previous measurements, and the vibration of the half-widths with vibrational and rotational quantum numbers is examined.

  2. An STIS Atlas of Ca II Triplet Absorption Line Kinematics in Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Axon, D.; Valluri, M.; Mandalou, J.; Merritt, D.

    2013-09-01

    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M •) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M • estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the Ca II triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M • estimates since they are found to have data that is comparable in quality with data that has been used in the past to estimate M •. However, we find no relation between the signal-to-noise ratio in the previously analyzed spectra and the uncertainties of the black hole masses derived from the spectra. We also find that there is a very limited number of appropriately observed stellar templates in the archive from which to estimate the effects of template mismatching. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  3. Studying Absorption Line Feature in the Relativistic Jet Source GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 is among the most interesting objects in our Galaxy. It is subject to erratic accretion instabilities with energization of relativistic jets producing X-ray, optical and radio emission. This source was observed by ASCA on Sept. 27, 1994, April 20, 1995, October 23, 1996 and April 25, 1997 as part of a long timescale investigation. We detected strong variability of the source, and in particular the existence of burst/dip structure in October 1996 and April 1997. Clear evidence of transient absorption features at 6.7, 7.0 and 8.0 keV was obtained for the first time in September 1994 and April 1995. Given the phenomenology of plasmoid energization and ejection, these transient spectral features might be produced by material entrained in the radio jets or in other high-velocity outflows. Our contribution to the interpretation is to incorporate these observations into a overall theoretical picture for GRS 1915+105 also taking into account other observations by XTE and BSAX. The emerging picture is complex. The central source is subject to (most likely) super-Eddington instabilities mediated by magnetic field build-up, reconnection and dissipation in the form of blobs that eventually leads to the formation of transient spectral features from the surrounding of the plasmoid emitting region. A comprehensive theoretical investigation is in progress.

  4. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczynska, Michael R.; Webb, John K.; King, Julian A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Flambaum, Victor V.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.3 observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of Δα/α = (0.22 ± 0.23) × 10-5, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular, we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of Δα/α measurements, thus unnecessarily reducing the overall precision. We further show that fitting absorption systems with too few velocity components also results in a significant increase in the scatter of Δα/α measurements, and in addition causes Δα/α error estimates to be systematically underestimated. These results thus identify some of the potential pitfalls in analysis techniques and provide a guide for future analyses.

  5. A summary of transition probabilities for atomic absorption lines formed in low-density clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Smith, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A table of wavelengths, statistical weights, and excitation energies is given for 944 atomic spectral lines in 221 multiplets whose lower energy levels lie below 0.275 eV. Oscillator strengths were adopted for 635 lines in 155 multiplets from the available experimental and theoretical determinations. Radiation damping constants also were derived for most of these lines. This table contains the lines most likely to be observed in absorption in interstellar clouds, circumstellar shells, and the clouds in the direction of quasars where neither the particle density nor the radiation density is high enough to populate the higher levels. All ions of all elements from hydrogen to zinc are included which have resonance lines longward of 912 A, although a number of weaker lines of neutrals and first ions have been omitted.

  6. Unraveling the mysteries of the Leo Ring: An absorption line study of an unusual gas cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J. L.; Haislmaier, Karl; Giroux, M. L.; Keeney, B. A.; Schneider, S. E.

    2014-07-20

    Since the discovery of the large (2 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) intergalactic cloud known as the Leo Ring in the 1980s, the origin of this object has been the center of a lively debate. Determining the origin of this object is still important as we develop a deeper understanding of the accretion and feedback processes that shape galaxy evolution. We present Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of three sightlines near the ring, two of which penetrate the high column density neutral hydrogen gas visible in 21 cm observations of the object. These observations provide the first direct measurement of the metallicity of the gas in the ring, an important clue to its origin. Our best estimate of the metallicity of the ring is ∼10% Z{sub ☉}, higher than expected for primordial gas but lower than expected from an interaction. We discuss possible modifications to the interaction and primordial gas scenarios that would be consistent with this metallicity measurement.

  7. Narrow absorption lines with two observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-01

    We assemble 3524 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with repeated observations to search for variations of the narrow C IV λ λ 1548,1551 and Mg II λ λ 2796,2803 absorption doublets in spectral regions shortward of 7000 Å in the observed frame, which corresponds to time-scales of about 150-2643 d in the quasar rest frame. In these quasar spectra, we detect 3580 C IV absorption systems with zabs = 1.5188-3.5212 and 1809 Mg II absorption systems with zabs = 0.3948-1.7167. In term of the absorber velocity (β) distribution in the quasar rest frame, we find a substantial number of C IV absorbers with β < 0.06, which might be connected to absorption of quasar outflows. The outflow absorption peaks at υ ≈ 2000 km s^{-1} and drops rapidly below this peak value. Among 3580 C IV absorption systems, 52 systems (˜1.5 per cent) show obvious variations in equivalent widths in the absorber rest frame (Wr): 16 enhanced, 16 emerged, 12 weakened and 8 disappeared systems, respectively. We find that changes in Wrλ1548 are related neither to the time-scales of the two SDSS observations nor to absorber velocities in the quasar rest frame. Variable absorption in low-ionization species is important to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbing gas. There are two variable Mg II absorption systems measured from SDSS spectra detected by Hacker et al. However, in our Mg II absorption sample, we find that neither shows variable absorption with confident levels of >4σ for λ2796 lines and >3σ for λ2803 lines.

  8. P Cygni profiles in zeta Ophiuchi and zeta Puppis. [far UV absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed P Cygni profiles are plotted using data from selected regions of the far-UV spectra of zeta OPh and zeta Pup obtained by the Copernicus satellite. Equivalent widths and velocity shifts of both emission and absorption features are also presented. For zeta Oph, it is found that only the C IV and N V resonance lines exhibit the P Cygni phenomenon; for zeta Pup, the resonance lines of C III, N III, Si IV, C IV, P V, S VI, N V, and O VI all show strong P Cygni lines, although the emission component seems to be absent in N III. For both stars, it is shown that parts of most absorption profiles exceed the escape velocity, indicating mass ejection. The short-wavelength edges of the resonance lines are found to average about -1590 km/s in zeta Oph and about -2660 km/s in zeta Pup, with no significant dependence on ionization potential. It is noted that the equivalent width of the emission component is always considerably less than that of the absorption component, suggesting that absorption occurs close to the stellar surface.

  9. X-ray absorption lines - Signature for preheat level in non-explosive laser implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakobi, B.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Bourke, P.; Soures, J. M.; Hooper, C. F.; Deckman, H.

    1980-08-01

    The measured X-ray spectrum from thick glass shells imploded with two TW six-beam laser pulses displayed absorption by transitions of Si ions. This indicates the existence around the time of peak compression of a cooler (less than approximately 200 eV) layer surrounding the hot innermost glass layer, of density times thickness approximately 0.0006 g/sq cm. This temperature is indicative of the preheat level ealier in the implosion.

  10. AN STIS ATLAS OF Ca II TRIPLET ABSORPTION LINE KINEMATICS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheldor, D.; Mandalou, J.; Axon, D.; Valluri, M.; Merritt, D.

    2013-09-15

    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M{sub .}) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M{sub .} estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the Ca II triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M{sub .} estimates since they are found to have data that is comparable in quality with data that has been used in the past to estimate M{sub .}. However, we find no relation between the signal-to-noise ratio in the previously analyzed spectra and the uncertainties of the black hole masses derived from the spectra. We also find that there is a very limited number of appropriately observed stellar templates in the archive from which to estimate the effects of template mismatching.

  11. Heterodyne detection of the 752.033-GHz H2O rotational absorption line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionne, G. F.; Fitzgerald, J. F.; Chang, T. S.; Litvak, M. M.; Fetterman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable high resolution two stage heterodyne radiometer was developed for the purpose of investigating the intensity and lineshape of the 752.033 GHz rotational transition of water vapor. Single-sideband system noise temperatures of approximately 45,000 K were obtained using a sensitive GaAs Schottky diode as the first stage mixer. First local oscillator power was supplied by a CO2 laser pumped formic acid laser (761.61 GHz), generating an X-band IF signal with theoretical line center at 9.5744 GHz. Second local oscillator power was provided by means of a 3 GHz waveguide cavity filter with only 9 dB insertion loss. In absorption measurements of the H2O taken from a laboratory simulation of a high altitude rocket plume, the center frequency of the 752 GHz line was determined to within 1 MHz of the reported value. A rotational temperature 75 K, a linewidth 5 MHz and a Doppler shift 3 MHz were measured with the line-of-sight intersecting the simulated-plume axis at a distance downstream of 30 nozzle diameters. These absorption data were obtained against continuum background radiation sources at temperatures of 1175 and 300 K.

  12. THz Differential Radar for Detection of Weak Molecular Absorption Lines in Bio-Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Hamid

    2006-03-01

    THz frequency range (300-3000 GHz) promises unique capabilities and advantages for detection of trace gases and biological aerosols immersed in the atmosphere. Techniques used for microwave atmospheric remote sensing can be used within the atmospheric transmission windows to carry out standoff detection of biological markers in real time. THz spectroscopy has been used as an important new tool in investigations of atmospheric molecular gases and a wide range of airborne biological materials. We have embarked upon development of field deployable THz differential radar. Bio-aerosols are the most difficult analytes to face due to their heterogeneity in size, toxicity, and bio/chemical composition. JPL has demonstrated monolithic solid-state THz sources with impressive output power. The sources are enabled by W-band power amplifiers and planar Schottky diode multipliers. These, together with room temperature detectors (based on the same technology), allow one to make a compact and robust transmitter/receiver with sufficient sensitivity and frequency agility to carry out detailed investigation of various molecular vapors and bio-aerosols at standard temperature and pressure. Current status of the THz differential radar technology development effort along with future trends will be presented.

  13. Catalog of Narrow Mg II Absorption Lines in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Using the Data Release 9 Quasar spectra from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, which does not include quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we detect narrow Mg ii λλ2796, 2803 absorption doublets in the spectral data redward of 1250 Å (quasar rest frame) until the red wing of the Mg ii λ2800 emission line. Our survey is limited to quasar spectra with a median signal-to-noise ratio < {{S}}/{{N}}> ≥slant 4 pixel-1 in the surveyed spectral region, resulting in a sample that contains 43,260 quasars. We have detected a total of 18,598 Mg ii absorption doublets with 0.2933 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.6529. About 75% of absorbers have an equivalent width at rest frame of {W}rλ 2796≥slant 1 \\mathringA . About 75% of absorbers have doublet ratios ({DR}={W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803) in the range of 1 ≤ DR ≤ 2, and about 3.2% lie outside the range of 1 - σDR ≤ DR ≤ 2 + σDR. We characterize the detection false positives/negatives by the frequency of detected Mg ii absorption doublets in the limits of the S/N of the spectral data. The S/N = 4.5 limit is assigned a completeness fraction of 53% and tends to be complete when the S/N is greater than 4.5. The redshift number densities of all of the detected Mg ii absorbers moderately increase from z ≈ 0.4 to z ≈ 1.5, which parallels the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. Limiting our investigation to those quasars whose emission redshift can be determined from narrow emission lines, the relative velocities (β) of Mg ii absorbers have a complex distribution which probably consists of three classes of Mg ii absorbers: (1) cosmologically intervening absorbers; (2) environmental absorbers that reside within the quasar host galaxies or galaxy clusters; (3) quasar outflow absorbers. After subtracting contributions from cosmologically intervening absorbers and environmental absorbers, the β distribution of the Mg iiabsorbers might mainly be contributed by the quasar outflow absorbers and peaks at υ ≈ 1500 km s-1. This peak velocity is lower than the value of 2000 km s-1 found in statistical analysis of C iv absorbers.

  14. A Bayesian Method For Finding Galaxies That Cause Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Laubner, David Andrew; Scott, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of candidate absorber-galaxy pairs for 39 low redshift quasar sightlines (0.06 < z < 0.85) using a statistical approach to match absorbers with galaxies near the quasar lines of sight. Of the 75 quasars observed with HST/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and archived on the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), 39 overlap with the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We downloaded the COS linelists for these quasar spectra from MAST and queried the SDSS DR12 database for photometric data on all galaxies within 1 Mpc of each of these quasar lines of sight. We calculated photometric redshifts for all the SDSS galaxies using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift code. We used all these absorber and galaxy data as input into an absorber-galaxy matching code which also employs a Bayesian scheme, along with known statistics of the intergalactic medium and circumgalactic media of galaxies, for finding the most probable galaxy match for each absorber. We compare our candidate absorber-galaxy matches to existing studies in the literature and explore trends in the absorber and galaxy properties among the matched and non-matched populations. This method of matching absorbers and galaxies can be used to find targets for follow up spectroscopic studies.

  15. Synthetic Spectra of H Balmer and HE I Absorption Lines. I. Stellar Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Delgado, Rosa M.; Leitherer, Claus

    1999-12-01

    We present a grid of synthetic profiles of stellar H Balmer and He I lines at optical wavelengths with a sampling of 0.3 Å. The grid spans a range of effective temperature 50,000 K>=Teff>=4000 K, and gravity 0.0<=logg<=5.0 at solar metallicity. For Teff>=25,000 K, non-LTE stellar atmosphere models are computed using the code TLUSTY (Hubeny). For cooler stars, Kurucz LTE models are used to compute the synthetic spectra. The grid includes the profiles of the high-order hydrogen Balmer series and He I lines for effective temperatures and gravities that have not been previously synthesized. The behavior of H8 to H13 and He I λ3819 with effective temperature and gravity is very similar to that of the lower terms of the series (e.g., Hβ) and the other He I lines at longer wavelengths; therefore, they are suited for the determination of the atmospheric parameters of stars. These lines are potentially important to make predictions for these stellar absorption features in galaxies with active star formation. Evolutionary synthesis models of these lines for starburst and poststarburst galaxies are presented in a companion paper. The full set of the synthetic stellar spectra is available for retrieval at our website or on request from the authors.

  16. Diurnal and Interannual Variation in Absorption Lines of Isotopic Carbon Dioxide in Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Henning, Wade G.

    2015-11-01

    Groundbased observations of Mars in 2003, 2007, 2012, and 2014 have detected transitions of carbon dioxide containing the stable minor isotopes of oxygen and carbon as well as the primary isotopes, using the ultrahigh resolution spectrometer HIPWAC at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. The most well characterized minor isotope is O-18, due to strong lines and observational opportunities. The average estimated O-18/O-16 isotope ratio is roughly consistent with other in situ and remote spectroscopic measurements but demonstrates an additional feature in that the retrieved ratio appears to increase with greater ground surface temperature. These conclusions primarily come from analyzing a subset of the 2007 data. Additional observations have been acquired over a broad range of local time and meridional position to evaluate variability with respect to ground surface temperature. These additional observations include one run of measurements with C-13. These observations can be compared to local in situ measurements by the Curiosity rover to narrow the uncertainty in absolute isotope ratio and extend isotopic measurements to other regions and seasons on Mars. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide heavy isotopes on Mars is central to estimating the primordial atmospheric inventory on Mars. Preferential freeze-distillation of heavy isotopes means that any measurement of the isotope ratio can be only a lower limit on heavy isotope enrichment due to past and current loss to space.

  17. The primary orbit and the absorption lines of HDE 226868 (Cygnus X-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninkov, Z.; Walker, G. A. H.; Yang, S.

    1987-10-01

    From Reticon spectra of about 1 A resolution taken between 1980 and 1984, the radial velocity curve of HDE 226868 is found to be characteristic of a single-line spectroscopic binary with K = 75.0 + or - 1.0 km/s and e = 0.0. Combining historical velocities from the literature with present data and applying a period-folding analysis, a period of 5.59964 + or - 0.00001 days is found. These values agree well with those published by Gies and Bolton (1982). The value of v sin i is estimated to be 94.3 + or - 5 km/s from CFHT Reticon spectra taken at 0.1 A resolution. Assuming that the rotation of the primary is synchronized to the orbital revolution of the secondary gives a primary to secondary mass ratio between 1.5 and 2.3. An absolute magnitude of -6.5 + or - 0.2 is derived from the equivalent width of H-gamma (1.5 + or - 0.1 A) and the calibration of Walker and Millward (1985), which is consistent with the spectral classification of O9.7 Iab. Assuming 20 solar masses as a reasonable estimate for the mass of the primary implies a mass of 10 + or - 1 solar masses for the secondary.

  18. Probing low-redshift galaxies using quasar absorption lines with an emphasis on Ca II absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardane, Gendith M.

    We searched for intervening CaII absorption in nearly 95,000 quasar spectra with i≤20 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS) data releases DR7+DR9. Our identification of >400 CaII systems is the largest compilation of CaII absorbers in a blind search. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation. PMID:23493423

  20. Fine Structure of the R Absorption Lines of Cr3+ in Antiferromagnetic Dysprosium Aluminum Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Kajiura, Masako; Sugano, Satoru

    1981-11-01

    The absorption spectrum of a Cr3+ ion in an antiferromagnetic disprosium aluminum garnet with the Néel temperature TN of 2.5 K, is measured in the red region between 1.7 K and 4.2 K. It is shown that the fine structure of the R1 and R2 lines at 1.7 K can be explained by using an effective Hamiltonian for the t2g3 2E excited state of Cr3+ in the surrounding of the ordered Dy3+ spins. The gross feature of the observed temperature dependence of the fine structure is shown to be reproduced by assuming appropriate exchange interactions of Cr3+ with Dy3+.

  1. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening -bearing clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Balashev, S. A.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Kaminker, A. D.; Klimenko, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening -bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in absorption-line system formation of the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the absorption systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of absorption system in the spectrum of Q 1232+082 (see Ivanchik et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404:1583, 2010, Balashev et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418:357, 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about 11 %. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed absorption systems can be partially covered. Accounting of the effect may allow to revise significantly physical parameters of interstellar clouds obtained by the spectral analysis.

  2. The Effect of Clustering on Estimations of the UV Ionizing Background from the Proximity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascarelle, S. M.; Lanzetta, K. M.; Chen, H. W.

    1999-09-01

    There have been several determinations of the ionizing background using the proximity effect observed in the distibution of Lyman-alpha absorption lines in the spectra of QSOs at high redshift. It is usually assumed that the distribution of lines should be the same at very small impact parameters to the QSO as it is at large impact parameters, and any decrease in line density at small impact parameters is due to ionizing radiation from the QSO. However, if these Lyman-alpha absorption lines arise in galaxies (Lanzetta et al. 1995, Chen et al. 1998), then the strength of the proximity effect may have been underestimated in previous work, since galaxies are known to cluster around QSOs. Therefore, the UV background estimations have likely been overestimated by the same factor.

  3. The ionization conditions in the Milky Way halo - Infalling gas toward the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Observations of gas in the Milky Way halo are studied with an eye toward the theoretical predictions of the Galactic Fountain model for the production of halo gas. Data are shown that indicate significant variations in the ionization conditions in infalling halo gas in the northern galactic hemisphere. Understanding the nature of Milky Way halo gas plays a critical role in interpreting QSO absorption lines in the investigation of galaxies at high redshift.

  4. A Population of Weak Metal-Line Absorbers Surrounding the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Philipp; Charlton, Jane C.; Fangano, Alessio P. M.; Bekhti, Nadya Ben; Masiero, Joseph R.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the detection of a population of weak metal-line absorbers in the halo or nearby intergalactic environment of the Milky Way. Using high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectra of bright quasars (QSO) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), along six sight lines we have observed unsaturated, narrow absorption in O I and Si II, together with mildly saturated C II absorption at high radial velocities (|v LSR| = 100-320 km s-1). The measured O I column densities lie in the range N(O I) < 2 × 1014 cm-2 implying that these structures represent Lyman limit Systems and sub-Lyman limit System with H I column densities between 1016 and 3 × 1018 cm-2, thus below the detection limits of current 21 cm all-sky surveys of high-velocity clouds (HVCs). The absorbers apparently are not directly associated with any of the large high column density HVC complexes, but rather represent isolated, partly neutral gas clumps embedded in a more tenuous, ionized gaseous medium situated in the halo or nearby intergalactic environment of the Galaxy. Photoionization modeling of the observed low ion ratios suggests typical hydrogen volume densities of n H > 0.02 cm-3 and characteristic thicknesses of a several parsec down to subparsec scales. For three absorbers, metallicities are constrained in the range of 0.1-1.0 solar, implying that these gaseous structures may have multiple origins inside and outside the Milky Way. Using supplementary optical absorption-line data, we find for two other absorbers Ca II/O I column-density ratios that correspond to solar Ca/O abundance ratios. This finding indicates that these clouds do not contain significant amounts of dust. This population of low column density gas clumps in the circumgalactic environment of the Milky Way is indicative of the various processes that contribute to the circulation of neutral gas in the extended halos of spiral galaxies. These processes include the accretion of gas from the

  5. MASTER-IAC: bright QSO flare and OT discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Popova, E.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Chazov, V.; Israelyan, G.; Lodieu, N.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-07-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L )discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 19h 18m 40.69s +42d 21m 03.3s on 2016-07-25.00863 UT. The OT magnitude in unfiltered is 17.9m (limit 18.7m).

  6. The time delay in the twin QSO Q0957 + 561

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    From 10 yr of brightness monitoring of the two gravitational mirage components of Q0957 + 561 A,B it is shown that the time delay is 1.11 yr. An intensive program of daily brightness monitoring suggests a further refinement of the time delay to 404 days. Careful superposition of the phased brightness records shows that small differences are seen. These differences are attributed to microlensing by a star or stars in the lens galaxy. 5 refs.

  7. Explore Full Range of QSO/AGN Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Wilkes, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to perform ISO spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data from the Infrared Space Observatory s Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, but including as well some other spectroscopic databases. Four kinds of regions are considered in the studies: (1) disks around more evolved objects; (2) young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star formation regions; (3) star formation in external, bright IR galaxies; and (4) the galactic center. One prime focus of the program is the OH lines in the far infrared. The program had the following goals: 1) Refine the data analysis of IS0 observations to obtain deeper and better SNR results on selected sources. The IS0 data itself underwent "pipeline 10" reductions in early 2001, and additional "hands-on data reduction packages" were supplied by the IS0 teams in 2001. The Fabry-Perot database is particularly sensitive to noise and slight calibration errors. 2) Model the atomic and molecular line shapes, in particular the OH lines, using revised monte- carlo techniques developed by the SWAS team at the Center for Astrophysics; 3) Attend scientific meetings and workshops; 4) Do E&PO activities related to infrared astrophysics and/or spectroscopy.

  8. Filling in of Fraunhofer and gas-absorption lines in sky spectra as caused by rotational Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Sioris, C E; Evans, W F

    1999-04-20

    A line-by-line radiative-transfer model to quantify the Ring effect as caused by rotational Raman scattering has been developed for the 310-550-nm spectral interval. The solar zenith angle and the resolution are key input parameters, as is the sky spectrum (excluding inelastic atmospheric scattering), which was modeled with MODTRAN 3.5. The filling in is modeled for ground-based viewing geometry and includes surface reflection and single inelastic scattering. It is shown that O2 contributes half of the filling in of N2. A strong inverse relationship with wavelength is noted in the filling in. A comparison with observations shows moderate agreement. The largest filling in occurs in the Ca II K and H lines. PMID:18319844

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Narrow MgII absorption lines from SDSS-DR9Q (Chen+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.-F.; Gu, Q.-S.; Chen, Y.-M.

    2016-01-01

    The Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) project (Dawson et al. 2013AJ....145...10D) of SDSS-III (Eisenstein et al. 2011AJ....142...72E) uses upgraded versions of the SDSS spectrographs mounted on the Sloan 2.5m telescope at Apache Point, New Mexico. The spectra are taken through 2" diameter fibers and cover a wavelength range from 3600 to 10400Å with a resolution of R~2000 and a dispersion of 69km/s/pixel. (1 data file).

  10. Pressure Sounding of the Middle Atmosphere from ATMOS Solar Occultation Measurements of Atmospheric CO(sub 2) Absorption Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Gunson, M.; Lowes, L.; Rinsland, C.; Zander, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for retrieving the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the tangent point of an infrared spectrum recorded in the solar occultation mode is described and applied to measurements made by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer. Tangent pressure values are inferred from measurements of isolated CO(sub 2) lines with temperature-insensitive intensities. Tangent pressures are determined with a spectroscopic precision of 1-3%, corresponding to a tangent point height precision, depending on the scale height, of 70-210 meters.

  11. Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO(2) absorption lines.

    PubMed

    Abrams, M C; Gunson, M R; Lowes, L L; Rinsland, C P; Zander, R

    1996-06-01

    A method for retrieving the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the tangent point of an infrared spectrum recorded in the solar occultation mode is described and applied to measurements made by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier-transform spectrometer. Tangent pressure values are inferred from measurements of isolated CO(2) lines with temperature-insensitive strengths by measuring the slant-column CO(2) amount and by adjusting the viewing geometry until the calculated column matches the observed column. Tangent pressures are determined with a spectroscopic precision of l%-3%, corresponding to a tangent-point height precision of 70-210 m. The total uncertainty is limited primarily by the quality of the spectra and ranges between 4% and 6% (280-420 m) for spectra with signal-to-noise ratios of 300:1 and between 4% and 10% for spectra with signal-to-noise ratios of 100:1. The retrieval of atmospheric pressure increases the accuracy of the retrieved-gas concentrations by minimizing the effect of systematic errors introduced by climatological pressure data, ephemeris parameters, and the uncertainties in instrumental pointing. PMID:21085429

  12. THE DIAGNOSTIC O VI ABSORPTION LINE IN DIFFUSE PLASMAS: COMPARISON OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS TO FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    De Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2012-12-20

    The nature of the interstellar O VI in the Galactic disk is studied by means of a multi-fluid hydrodynamical approximation, tracing the detailed time-dependent evolution of the ionization structure of the plasma. Our focus is to explore the signature of any non-equilibrium ionization condition present in the interstellar medium using the diagnostic O VI ion. A detailed comparison between the simulations and FUSE data is carried out by taking lines of sight (LOS) measurements through the simulated Galactic disk, covering an extent of 4 kpc from different vantage points. The simulation results bear a striking resemblance with the observations: (1) the N(O VI) distribution with distance and angle fall within the minimum and maximum values of the FUSE data; (2) the column density dispersion with distance is constant for all the LOS, showing a mild decrease at large distances; (3) O VI has a clumpy distribution along the LOS; and (4) the time-averaged midplane density for distances >400 pc has a value of (1.3-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} cm{sup -3}. The highest concentration of O VI by mass occurs in the thermally stable (10{sup 3.9} K < T {<=} 10{sup 4.2} K; 20%) and unstable (10{sup 4.2} K < T < 10{sup 5} K; 50%) regimes, both well below its peak temperature in collisional ionization equilibrium, with the corresponding volume filling factors oscillating with time between 8%-20% and 4%-5%, respectively. These results may also be relevant for intergalactic metal absorption systems at high redshifts.

  13. Measurement of pressure broadening of the Kr absorption line at 811.3 nm with a diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheyev, Pavel A.; Churnyshov, Alexander K.; Ufimtsev, Nikolay I.; Ghildina, Anna R.; Azyazov, Valery N.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) with unique properties was recently proposed. To study this promising laser system it is necessary to have reliable diagnostics for the active medium. A set of pressure broadening coefficients, for self- and foreign- gas collision partners, is needed for measurements of the number density of metastable atoms and temperature in a rare gas discharge plasma by means of spectroscopy. However, literature analysis had shown that pressure broadening coefficients for rare gas lines in mixtures that are of interest for OPRGL's are surprisingly hard to find, or were not yet measured. Diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed for measurements of pressure broadening coefficients for the Krypton 811.3 nm line in an RF discharge. A multi-quantum well diode laser (L808P030, Thorlabs) with an original short external cavity was used as a source of probe radiation. The natural isotopic distribution of Kr was taken into account, and an appropriate fit function was constructed. This permitted the determination of pressure broadening coefficients using the natural mixture of isotopes. The coefficients for the Kr 811.3 nm line at 300 K, measured for the first time, were ξKr-Ne = (1.50 ± 0.05) ×10-10 s-1cm3 for broadening by Neon, and ξKr-Ar = (3.5 ± 0.3) ×10-10 s-1cm3 for broadening by Argon.

  14. Rest-UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator: The Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Davidzon, I.; Salvato, M.; Laigle, C.; Ilbert, O.; Onodera, M.; Hasinger, G.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Sanders, D.; Silverman, J. D.; Yan, L.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We measure a relation between the depth of four prominent rest-UV absorption complexes and metallicity for local galaxies and verify it up to z∼ 3. We then apply this relation to a sample of 224 galaxies at 3.5\\lt z\\lt 6.0 (< z> =4.8) in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), for which unique UV spectra from the Deep Imaging Multi-object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) and accurate stellar masses from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH) are available. The average galaxy population at z∼ 5 and {log}(M/{M}ȯ )\\gt 9 is characterized by 0.3–0.4 dex (in units of 12+{log}({{O/H}})) lower metallicities than at z ∼ 2, but comparable to z∼ 3.5. We find galaxies with weak or no Lyα emission to have metallicities comparable to z ∼ 2 galaxies and therefore may represent an evolved subpopulation of z∼ 5 galaxies. We find a correlation between metallicity and dust in good agreement with local galaxies and an inverse trend between metallicity and star-formation rate consistent with observations at z ∼ 2. The relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation) is similar to z∼ 3.5, but there are indications of it being slightly shallower, in particular for the young, Lyα-emitting galaxies. We show that, within a “bathtub” approach, a shallower MZ relation is expected in the case of a fast (exponential) build-up of stellar mass with an e-folding time of 100–200 Myr. Because of this fast evolution, the process of dust production and metal enrichment as a function of mass could be more stochastic in the first billion years of galaxy formation compared to later times.

  15. Theoretical investigation of the broad one-photon absorption line-shape of a flexible symmetric carbazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio; Rizzo, Antonio; Lin, Na; Zhao, Xian

    2016-08-17

    The one-photon absorption spectrum of a carbazole derivative has been studied by employing density functional response theory combined with a mixed quantum/classical (QC) approach to simulate the spectral shape. In a first step of our analysis we employed the vertical gradient (VG) vibronic model to investigate the role of Franck-Condon (FC) profiles of the first ten electronic excited states of the system, underlying most of the range of the experimental spectrum. We then focussed on the first six excited states covering the low-energy region of the spectrum, and investigated the effect of inter-state electronic couplings on the spectral shapes within Herzberg-Teller (HT) theory. Furthermore, in order to introduce the broadening effects due to the two inter-ring torsions, we employed a QC approach, adopting VG vibronic models for high-frequency modes and computing the contribution of the torsions to the spectrum from the distribution of the excitation energies along a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy. Finally, we estimated the solvent inhomogeneous broadening by computing the solvent reorganization energy using a polarizable continuum model. Our calculations allow us to obtain a non-phenomenological description of the low-energy part of the spectrum in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment and to dissect the relative importance of solvent, torsional flexibility, FC vibronic progressions, and inter-state couplings in determining its broad spectral shapes and the modulation of its intensity. Our analysis also clearly highlights that the investigated carbazole represents a big challenge for available methodologies due to the existence of many close-lying excited electronic states coupled by internal low-frequency and high-frequency motions and by solvent fluctuations. The study of their impact on the spectra at the HT level is only approximate and more refined treatments would require a fully quantum-dynamical calculation on the manifold of the coupled states. PMID:27485550

  16. UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator and the Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z=5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, Andreas; Capak, Peter L.; Davidson, Iary; Kakazu, Yuko; Salvato, Mara; Laigle, Clotilde; Onodera, Masato; Masters, Daniel; COSMOS Team

    2016-01-01

    Probing the metal content of high redshift galaxies is essential to study their formation and evolution in the early universe. However, the spectral features used to measure the metallicity are shifted out of the wavelength range of current spectrographs at high-z and therefore alternative methods must be used.We measure the relation between four prominent UV absorption complexes and metallicity for more than 50 local galaxies and, by using a sample of more than 20 galaxies at z ~ 2 - 3, verify that this relation holds up to z ˜ 3. We then apply this method to a sample of ˜ 220 galaxies at 3.5 < z < 6.0 in COSMOS, for which unique UV spectra from DEIMOS and accurate stellar mass estimates from SPLASH are available. The z ~ 5 galaxies at 9 < log(m/M⊙) < 11 are characterized by 0.3 - 0.4 dex (in units of 12 + log(O/H)) lower metallicities than galaxies at z ˜ 2 but comparable to z ˜ 3 - 3.5 galaxies. In the same stellar mass range, we do not find a significant relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation), suggesting that the MZ relation at z ~ 5 is very shallow or breaking down. Since we verify a correlation between dust obscuration (measured by β) and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), we argue that the process of dust production and metal enrichment in the first billion years of galaxy formation is more stochastic than at later times. Using a "bathtub" model approach, we find that an exponential build up of stellar mass within a short time of several 100 Myr can explain a shallow MZ relation at z ˜ 5. Furthermore, we find a weak anti-correlation between star-formation rates and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), indicative of these galaxies being fueled by the inflow of pristine (metal-poor) gas. The galaxy sample presented in this work is unique to further test these scenarios using ALMA and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

  17. Broadening of the infrared absorption lines at reduced temperatures. II - Carbon monoxide in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, L. D.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    The strengths of the rotational lines in the R branch of the CO fundamental have been determined at temperatures of 298, 202, and 132 K by means of a high-resolution spectrograph. The results can be used to determine line strengths at other temperatures by means of the Herman-Wallis relation or by considerations of the populations of the rotational levels in the ground vibrational state. Parameters describing the self-broadening and carbon dioxide broadening of CO lines have been determined at 298 and 202 K. The results are compared with other recent experimental and theoretical studies.

  18. Precise limits on cosmological variability of the fine-structure constant with zinc and chromium quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael T.; Malec, Adrian L.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2016-09-01

    The strongest transitions of Zn and Cr II are the most sensitive to relative variations in the fine-structure constant (Δα/α) among the transitions commonly observed in quasar absorption spectra. They also lie within just 40 Å of each other (rest frame), so they are resistant to the main systematic error affecting most previous measurements of Δα/α: long-range distortions of the wavelength calibration. While Zn and Cr II absorption is normally very weak in quasar spectra, we obtained high signal-to-noise, high-resolution echelle spectra from the Keck and Very Large Telescopes of nine rare systems where it is strong enough to constrain Δα/α from these species alone. These provide 12 independent measurements (three quasars were observed with both telescopes) at redshifts 1.0-2.4, 11 of which pass stringent reliability criteria. These 11 are all consistent with Δα/α = 0 within their individual uncertainties of 3.5-13 parts per million (ppm), with a weighted mean Δα/α = 0.4 ± 1.4stat ± 0.9sys ppm (1σ statistical and systematic uncertainties), indicating no significant cosmological variations in α. This is the first statistical sample of absorbers that is resistant to long-range calibration distortions (at the <1 ppm level), with a precision comparable to previous large samples of ˜150 (distortion-affected) absorbers. Our systematic error budget is instead dominated by much shorter range distortions repeated across echelle orders of individual spectra.

  19. Phase-Dependent Observations of Intermediate Polars and The Broad Emission and Absorption Line Region in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Bond, Howard E.

    1995-01-01

    The Intermediate Polars (IP's) constitute a class of Cataclysmic Variables (CV's), which are binary star systems in which mass is transferred from a late-type main-sequence star to a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. In the IP's, the inner accretion disk is evidently disrupted by the magnetic field of the white dwarf. High-temperature shocks at the white dwarf's magnetic poles (where accretion occurs) produce X-rays, which are reprocessed into photons over a broad energy band across the electromagnetic spectrum. Because the white dwarf typically spins rapidly (rotation periods a few 10s to a few 100s of seconds), the signals due to both the X-rays and reprocessed photons are pulsed. The shape of the spectrum of pulse amplitude as a function of wavelength yields information about both the temperature and size of the pulse-emitting region. It has been noted by several investigators that the optical pulsation amplitudes rise steeply toward short wavelengths. It is therefore a fair surmise that pulsation amplitudes peak in the ultraviolet. The scientific goal of this project was to observe a representative sample of IP's, using IUE, in search of the expected strong UV pulsations, and hence to further our understanding of pulse-producing mechanisms.

  20. First detection of ionized helium absorption lines in infrared K band spectra of O-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Block, David L.; Geballe, T. R.; Hanson, Margaret M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained high SNR, moderate-resolution K band spectra of two early O-type main sequence stars, HD 46150 O5 V, and HD 46223 O4 V, in the Rosette Nebula. We report the detection, for the first time, of the 2.189 micron He II line in O-type stars. Also detected is the 2.1661 micron Br-gamma line in absorption. The 2.058 micron He I line appears to be present in absorption in both stars, although its appearance at our resolution is complicated by atmospheric features. These three lines can form the basis for a spectral classification system for hot stars in the K band that may be used at infrared wavelengths to elucidate the nature of those luminous stars in otherwise obscured H II and giant H II regions.

  1. Crystal-field analysis and calculation of two-photon absorption line strengths of dicesium sodium hexachlorogadolinate(III).

    PubMed

    Duan, Chang-Kui; Tanner, Peter A

    2010-03-31

    The crystal-field energy level calculation of the 4f(7) ion Gd(3+) in the crystal Cs(2)NaGdCl(6) has fitted 45 levels with standard deviation 12 cm(-1), with the energy parameters being consistent with those from other studies. The resulting eigenvectors have been employed in the calculation of two-photon absorption (TPA) intensities of transitions from the electronic ground state (8)S(7/2) to the crystal-field levels of excited (6)P, (6)I and (6)D multiplet terms. The TPA line strengths are highly polarization dependent and exhibit striking differences for linearly polarized incident radiation compared with circularly polarized radiation. The relative intensities are compared with those available from previous experimental studies and some reassignments have been made. Good agreement of calculated and experimental TPA spectra is found, except for the intensity ratio of the transitions to (6)P(7/2) or (6)P(5/2) compared with that to (6)P(3/2), for linear and circular polarizations, where the calculation overestimates the ratio. Reasons for this disagreement are presented. PMID:21389490

  2. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  3. IUE observations of extragalactic objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenberg, A.; Snijders, M. A. J.; Wilson, R.; Benvenuti, P.; Clavell, J.; Macchetto, F.; Penston, M.; Boggess, A.; Gull, T. R.; Gondhalekar, P.

    1978-01-01

    During the commissioning phase of IUE several extragalactic objects were observed spectrally at low dispersion in the UV range lambda lambda 1150-3200: the Seyfert galaxies NGC4151 and NGC1068, the QSO 3C273, the BL Lacertae object B2 1101+38, the giant elliptical galaxy M87 and the spiral galaxy M81. The results obtained are presented and a preliminary analysis given for all six objects, discussing the continuous spectrum, extinction, emission line spectrum and absorption line spectrum, where possible for each case. Several new or confirmatory astrophysical results are obtained.

  4. Interstellar Mg II and C IV absorption by 1 1/2 galaxies along the sightline to MrK 205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, David V.; Blades, J. Chris

    1993-01-01

    The first results of our HST survey designed to search for Mg 2 and C 4 absorption lines from the disks and halos of low-redshift galaxies using background QSO's and supernovae as probes are presented. Our survey utilizes the high resolution of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph enabling us to calculate the column densities and doppler parameters of individual components within an absorption complex, and hence determine the physical conditions of the absorbing gas. Observing the complexity of the absorption line profiles i.e., the velocity distribution and total velocity extent of the constituent components, offers an important description of the kinematics of the absorbing gas, and hence an understanding of its origin. Focus is on one sight line in particular, that towards Mrk 205, which passes 3-5 kpc from the intervening galaxy NGC 4319. Mg 2 and C 4 absorption from both local Milky Way halo gas and from NGC 4319 is detected.

  5. On local ionization equilibrium and disk winds in QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2014-11-01

    We present theoretical C IV λλ1548,1550 absorption line profiles for QSOs calculated assuming the accretion disk wind (ADW) scenario. The results suggest that the multiple absorption troughs seen in many QSOs may be due to the discontinuities in the ion balance of the wind (caused by X-rays), rather than discontinuities in the density/velocity structure. The profiles are calculated from a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind for a typical QSO black hole mass, a typical QSO luminosity, and for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk. We include the effects of ionizing X-rays originating from within the inner disk radius by assuming that the wind is shielded from the X-rays from a certain viewing angle up to 90° ({sup e}dge on{sup )}. In the shielded region, we assume constant ionization equilibrium, and thus constant line-force parameters. In the non-shielded region, we assume that both the line-force and the C IV populations are nonexistent. The model can account for P-Cygni absorption troughs (produced at edge on viewing angles), multiple absorption troughs (produced at viewing angles close to the angle that separates the shielded region and the non-shielded region), and for detached absorption troughs (produced at an angle in between the first two absorption line types); that is, the model can account for the general types of broad absorption lines seen in QSOs as a viewing angle effect. The steady nature of ADWs, in turn, may account for the steady nature of the absorption structure observed in multiple-trough broad absorption line QSOs. The model parameters are M {sub bh} = 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and L {sub disk} = 10{sup 47} erg s{sup –1}.

  6. Metallicity and nature of zabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, P.

    1995-05-01

    Of the various types of heavy element absorption lines that appear in quasar spectra, considerable controversy has surrounded the interpretation of the so-called {z_abs ~ z_em} systems, defined as C{\\small IV} doublets at redshifts within Delta v=+/-5000 km s(-1) \\ of the emission redshift. As reviewed most recently by Foltz, Chaffee, Weymann, and Anderson, 1988, in QSO Absorption Lines: Probing the Universe Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.53, it is not presently clear whether this class of absorption system is external or intrinsic in nature. One possibility is that such systems arise in the halos of galaxies located in a cluster that includes the host galaxy of the quasar (Weymann, Williams, Peterson, and Turnshek, 1979, ApJ, 234, 33). Alternatively, such systems could be related to the so-called broad absorption-line systems, and caused by absorption in matter ejected by the quasar itself (Turnshek, 1988, in QSO Absorption Lines: Probing the Universe Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.17. Recent studies of {z_abs ~ z_em} systems (Savaglio, D'Odorico, and M{\\o}ller, 1994, A&A, 281, 331; Petitjean, Rauch, and Carswell, 1994, A&A, 291, 29; M{\\o}ller, Jakobsen, and Perryman, 1994, A&A, 287, 719) have revealed that the {z_abs ~ z_em} systems are in fact distinctly different from corresponding intervening systems, in that they generally have extremely high metallicities. This suggests that those systems are more likely to be related to BAL systems, rather than to intervening absorbers. I shall briefly review the evidence for the metallicities of those systems, as well as the inverse luminosity correlation (M{\\o}ller, Jakobsen, 1987, ApJ-Lett 320, L75). Both of these results may provide important clues to the distribution, nature, and history of the absorbing gas in the AGN environment.

  7. On Local Ionization Equilibrium and Disk Winds in QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2014-11-01

    We present theoretical C IV λλ1548,1550 absorption line profiles for QSOs calculated assuming the accretion disk wind (ADW) scenario. The results suggest that the multiple absorption troughs seen in many QSOs may be due to the discontinuities in the ion balance of the wind (caused by X-rays), rather than discontinuities in the density/velocity structure. The profiles are calculated from a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind for a typical QSO black hole mass, a typical QSO luminosity, and for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk. We include the effects of ionizing X-rays originating from within the inner disk radius by assuming that the wind is shielded from the X-rays from a certain viewing angle up to 90° ("edge on"). In the shielded region, we assume constant ionization equilibrium, and thus constant line-force parameters. In the non-shielded region, we assume that both the line-force and the C IV populations are nonexistent. The model can account for P-Cygni absorption troughs (produced at edge on viewing angles), multiple absorption troughs (produced at viewing angles close to the angle that separates the shielded region and the non-shielded region), and for detached absorption troughs (produced at an angle in between the first two absorption line types); that is, the model can account for the general types of broad absorption lines seen in QSOs as a viewing angle effect. The steady nature of ADWs, in turn, may account for the steady nature of the absorption structure observed in multiple-trough broad absorption line QSOs. The model parameters are M bh = 109 M ⊙ and L disk = 1047 erg s-1.

  8. Radio HI and optical absorption-line spectra of an intermediate-velocity cloud in the general direction of the M15 globular cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, D. C.; Bates, B.; Keenan, F. P.; Kemp, S. N.; Ryans, R. S. I.; Davies, R. D.; Sembach, K. R.

    1998-07-01

    Using HI spectra obtained with the Lovell telescope (FWHM ~ 12 arcmin) we present maps showing the HI distribution and velocity structure of an intermediate-velocity cloud (IVC; v_LSR~70 km s^-1) which is observed in the general direction of the globular cluster M15. The gas is shown to be clumpy in nature and we examine its position and velocity structure. The IVC is detected in absorption in the CaII K line towards five cluster stars in intermediate resolution spectra obtained with ISIS/WHT and in high resolution UES/WHT NaI D line spectra of two cluster stars (II-75; IV-38). The clumpy nature of the gas is indicated by the NaI and KI spectra obtained in the II-75 and IV-38 sightlines, which have angular separation ~ 3.5 arcmin. The IVC is detected in KI in the higher column density II-75 sightline; this appears to be the first detection of IVC or HVC gas in KI. The IVC gas towards M15 has a similar velocity to that observed towards HD 203664, some 3.1 deg away from the cluster. Similarities in the IVC gas velocity suggest a gas structure that extends across both sightlines, although gas column densities are considerably higher towards M15. For a common feature, this would place the M15 IVC at a height above the Galactic plane (z-distance) of <~1.5 kpc based on the Little et al. estimate of the HD 203664 distance. From the fine-scale structure and column density observations, estimates are made of the space density of the small-scale concentrations. However, these remain uncertain and the present observations emphasize the need for higher spatial and spectral resolution studies to provide firmer estimates of cloud properties. We report also on a radio HI and CaII line survey towards a sample of 24 stars over a wider field. This was carried out in an attempt to detect any wider distribution of the IVC gas and to place better limits on its distance. Although these observations are of sufficient spectral quality, no new optical detections are reported.

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. v. redshift evolution of lyman limit absorption in the spectra of a large sample of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik A.; Boksenberg, Alec; Steidel, Charles C.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turnshek, David A.; Weymann, Ray J.

    1995-05-01

    Using a sample of 119 QSOs, containing objects we have selected having previously available high quality ground-based and IUE spectral observations, together with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 26 QSOs from Bahcall et al. (1993, 1995) and Impey et al. (1995) and new optical observations of 41 objects by Steidel & Sargent (1995), we study the redshift evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs; tau greater than 1.0) over the reshift range 0.32 less than or equal to zLLS less than or equal to 4.11. The HST observations significantly improve the determination of the low redshift (0.4 less than or equal to zLLS less than or equal to 1.4) distribution. We find the effect which may have been responsible for the apparent strong evolution at aLLS greater than or equal to 2.5 found by Lanzetta (1991), which led him to consider a broken, not single power law as a better description of the redshift distribution of LLSs. After removing objects which may bias our sample, leaving a total of 169 QSOs, we find the distribution is well described by a single power law, and obtain for the number density as a function of redshift the form N(z) = N0(1 + z)gamma with gamma = 1.50 =/- 0.39 and N0 = 0.25-0.10+0.17, consistent with a constant comoving density of absorbers in a Firedmann universe with q0 = 0 but indicating evolution if q0 = 1/2.

  10. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.

    1989-01-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data.

  11. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. v. redshift evolution of lyman limit absorption in the spectra of a large sample of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik A.; Boksenberg, Alec; Steidel, Charles, C.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bacall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Using a sample of 119 QSOs, containing objects we have selected having previously available high quality ground-based and IUE spectral observations, together with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 26 QSOs from Bahcall et al. (1993, 1995) and Impey et al. (1995) and new optical observations of 41 objects by Steidel & Sargent (1995), we study the redshift evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs; tau greater than 1.0) over the reshift range 0.32 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 4.11. The HST observations significantly improve the determination of the low redshift (0.4 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 1.4) distribution. We find the effect which may have been responsible for the apparent strong evolution at a(sub LLS) greater than or equal to 2.5 found by Lanzetta (1991), which led him to consider a broken, not single power law as a better description of the redshift distribution of LLSs. After removing objects which may bias our sample, leaving a total of 169 QSOs, we find the distribution is well described by a single power law, and obtain for the number density as a function of redshift the form N(z) = N(sub 0)(1 + z)(exp gamma) with gamma = 1.50 =/- 0.39 and N(sub 0) = 0.25(sup -0.10)(sub +0.17), consistent with a constant comoving density of absorbers in a Firedmann universe with q(sub 0) = 0 but indicating evolution if q(sub 0) = 1/2.

  13. NuSTAR discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1553-542

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Molkov, Sergey V.; Jenke, Peter J.; Finger, Mark H.; Poutanen, Juri

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of a spectral and timing analysis of the poorly studied transient X-ray pulsar 2S 1553-542 using data collected with the NuSTAR and Chandra observatories and the Fermi/GBM instrument during an outburst in 2015. The properties of the source at high energies (>30 keV) are studied for the first time and the sky position has been essentially improved. The source broad-band spectrum has a quite complicated shape and can be reasonably described by a composite model with two continuum components - a blackbody emission with the temperature about 1 keV at low energies and a power law with an exponential cut-off at high energies. Additionally, an absorption feature at ˜23.5 keV is discovered both in phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra and interpreted as the cyclotron resonance scattering feature corresponding to the magnetic field strength of the neutron star B ˜ 3 × 1012 G. Based on the Fermi/GBM data, the orbital parameters of the system were substantially improved, which allowed us to determine the spin period of the neutron star P = 9.27880(3) s and a local spin-up dot{P} ˜eq -7.5 × 10^{-10} s s-1 due to the mass accretion during the NuSTAR observations. Assuming accretion from the disc and using standard torque models, we estimated the distance to the system as d = 20 ± 4 kpc.

  14. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of disk winds in active galactic nuclei using broad and mini-broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of the uniform analysis of 46 XMM-Newton observations of six BAL and seven mini-BAL QSOs belonging to the Palomar-Green Quasar catalogue. Moderate-quality X-ray spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn, and allowed to characterise the general source spectral shape to be complex, significantly deviating from a power law emission. A simple power law analysis in different energy bands strongly suggests absorption to be more significant than reflection in shaping the spectra. If allowing for the absorbing gas to be either partially covering the continuum emission source or to be ionised, large column densities of the order of 1022-1024 cm-2 are inferred. When the statistics was high enough, virtually every source was found to vary in spectral shape on various time scales, from years to hours. All in all these observational results are compatible with radiation driven accretion disk winds shaping the spectra of these intriguing cosmic sources.

  15. Thermal structure and CO distribution for the Venus mesosphere/lower thermosphere: 2001-2009 inferior conjunction sub-millimeter CO absorption line observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald

    2012-02-01

    Sub-millimeter 12CO (346 GHz) and 13CO (330 GHz) line absorptions, formed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus (70-120 km), have been mapped across the nightside Venus disk during 2001-2009 inferior conjunctions, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Radiative transfer analysis of these thermal line absorptions supports temperature and CO mixing profile retrievals, as well as Doppler wind fields (described in the companion paper, Clancy et al., 2012). Temporal sampling over the hourly, daily, weekly and interannual timescales was obtained over 2001-2009. On timescales inferred as several weeks, we observe changes between very distinctive CO and temperature nightside distributions. Retrieved nightside CO, temperature distributions for January 2006 and August 2007 observations display strong local time, latitudinal gradients consistent with early morning (2-3 am), low-to-mid latitude (0-40NS) peaks of 100-200% in CO and 20-30 K in temperature. The temperature increases are most pronounced above 100 km altitudes, whereas CO variations extend from 105 km (top altitude of retrieval) down to below 80 km in the mesosphere. In contrast, the 2004 and 2009 periods of observation display modest temperature (5-10 K) and CO (30-60%) increases, that are centered on antisolar (midnight) local times and equatorial latitudes. Doppler wind derived global (zonal and should be SSAS) circulations from the same data do not exhibit variations correlated with these CO, temperature short-term variations. However, large-scale residual wind fields not fit by the zonal, SSAS circulations are observed in concert with the strong temperature, CO gradients observed in 2006 and 2007 (Clancy et al., 2010). These short term variations in nightside CO, temperature distributions may also be related to observed nightside variations in O 2 airglow (Hueso, H., Sánchez-Lavega, A., Piccioni, G., Drossart, P., Gérard, J.C., Khatuntsev, I., Zasova, L., Migliorini, A. [2008]. J. Geophys. Res. 113, E00B02. doi:10.1029/2008JE003081) and upper mesospheric SO and SO 2 layers (Sandor, B.J., Clancy, R.T., Moriarty-Schieven, G.H., Mills, F.P. [2010]. Icarus 208, 49-60). The retrieved temperature profiles also exhibit 20 K long-term (2001-2009) variations in nightside (whole disk) average mesospheric (80-95 km) temperatures, similar to 1982-1991 variations identified in previous millimeter CO line observations (Clancy et al., 1991). Global average diurnal variations in lower thermospheric temperatures and mesospheric CO abundances decreased by a factor-of-two between 2000-2002 versus 2007-2009 periods of combined dayside and nightside observations. The infrequency and still limited temporal extent of the observations make it difficult to assign specific timescales to such longer term variations, which may be associated with longer term variations observed for cloud top SO 2 (Esposito, L.W., Bertaux, J.-L., Krasnopolsky, V., Moroz, V.I., Zasova, L.V. [1997]. Chemistry of lower atmosphere and clouds. In: Bougher, S.W., Hunten, D.M., Phillips, R.J. (Eds.), VENUS II, 1362pp) and mesospheric water vapor (Sandor, B.J., Clancy, R.T. [2005]. Icarus 177, 129-143) abundances.

  16. Absorption-line detections of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} K gas in spiral-rich groups of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Danforth, Charles W.; Syphers, David; Yamamoto, H.; Shull, J. Michael; Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia; Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart; Kim, Tae-Sun; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.

    2014-08-20

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, the COS Science Team has conducted a high signal-to-noise survey of 14 bright QSOs. In a previous paper, these far-UV spectra were used to discover 14 'warm' (T ≥ 10{sup 5} K) absorbers using a combination of broad Lyα and broad O VI absorptions. A reanalysis of a few of this new class of absorbers using slightly relaxed fitting criteria finds as many as 20 warm absorbers could be present in this sample. A shallow, wide spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey has been conducted around these sight lines to investigate the warm absorber environment, which is found to be spiral-rich groups or cluster outskirts with radial velocity dispersions σ = 250-750 km s{sup –1}. While 2σ evidence is presented favoring the hypothesis that these absorptions are associated with the galaxy groups and not with the individual, nearest galaxies, this evidence has considerable systematic uncertainties and is based on a small sample size so it is not entirely conclusive. If the associations are with galaxy groups, the observed frequency of warm absorbers (dN/dz = 3.5-5 per unit redshift) requires them to be very extended as an ensemble on the sky (∼1 Mpc in radius at high covering factor). Most likely these warm absorbers are interface gas clouds whose presence implies the existence of a hotter (T ∼ 10{sup 6.5} K), diffuse, and probably very massive (>10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) intra-group medium which has yet to be detected directly.

  17. An investigation of the ammonia absorption line near 6450 A in the spectrum of Saturn. II - A quantitative analysis of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramchuk, V. V.; Karmeliuk, A. I.

    Results of investigation of the Saturn spectra published earlier are analyzed. The rotation temperature (Trot = 129±8K) has been determined from the comparison of the intensities of ammonia lines λλ6444.6 Å (J = 3, K = 1), 6445.6 Å (J = 3, K = 2) and 6452.6 Å (J = 2, K = 1) in terms of the homogeneous half-infinite atmosphere model. The pressure is equal to 1.7±0.1 atm at the level of the ammonia band λ6450 Å formation. The volume concentration of gaseous ammonia in the cloud layer of Saturn is (6.7±1.2)×1012cm-3. The ratio of the volume concentration of ammonia and methane is (0.76±0.13)×10-2.

  18. DEEP ABSORPTION LINE STUDIES OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: THE DYNAMICAL-MASS-SIZE RELATION AND FIRST CONSTRAINTS ON THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    SciTech Connect

    Toft, S.; Gallazzi, A.; Zirm, A.; Wold, M.; Zibetti, S.; Grillo, C.; Man, A.

    2012-07-20

    We present dynamical and structural scaling relations of quiescent galaxies at z = 2, including the dynamical-mass-size relation and the first constraints on the fundamental plane (FP). The backbone of the analysis is a new, very deep Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectrum of a massive, compact, quiescent galaxy at z = 2.0389. We detect the continuum between 3700 and 22,000 A and several strong absorption features (Balmer series, Ca H+K, G band) from which we derive a stellar velocity dispersion of 318 {+-} 53 km s{sup -1}. We perform detailed modeling of the continuum emission and line indices and derive strong simultaneous constraints on the age, metallicity, and stellar mass. The galaxy is a dusty (A{sub V} = 0.77{sup +0.36}{sub -0.32}) solar metallicity (log(Z/Z{sub Sun }) = 0.02{sup +0.20}{sub -0.41}) post-starburst galaxy, with a mean-luminosity-weighted log(age/yr) of 8.9 {+-} 0.1. The galaxy formed the majority of its stars at z > 3 and currently has little or no ongoing star formation. We compile a sample of three other z {approx} 2 quiescent galaxies with measured velocity dispersions, two of which are also post-starburst like. Their dynamical-mass-size relation is offset significantly less than the stellar-mass-size relation from the local early-type relations, which we attribute to a lower central dark matter fraction. Recent cosmological merger simulations agree qualitatively with the data, but cannot fully account for the evolution in the dark matter fraction. The z {approx} 2 FP requires additional evolution beyond passive stellar aging to be in agreement with the local FP. The structural evolution predicted by the cosmological simulations is insufficient, suggesting that additional, possibly non-homologous, structural evolution is needed.

  19. Investigation of broadening and shift of vapour absorption lines of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O in the frequency range 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdinskii, A I; Pereslavtseva, A A; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2014-10-31

    We present the results of investigation of water vapour absorption spectra in the 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1} range that is of particular interest from the viewpoint of possible application of the data obtained for monitoring water vapour in the Earth's stratosphere. The doublet of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O near ν = 7185.596 cm{sup -1} is analysed. The coefficients of broadening and shift of water vapour lines are found in the selected range in mixtures with buffer gases and compared to those obtained by other authors. (laser spectroscopy)

  20. An adaptive optics package designed for astronomical use with a laser guide star tuned to an absorption line of atomic sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J.T.; Avicola, K.; Brase, J.M.

    1994-04-11

    We present the design and implementation of a very compact adaptive optic system that senses the return light from a sodium guide-star and controls a deformable mirror and a pointing mirror to compensate atmospheric perturbations in the wavefront. The deformable mirror has 19 electrostrictive actuators and triangular subapertures. The wavefront sensor is a Hartmann sensor with lenslets on triangular centers. The high-bandwidth steering mirror assembly incorporates an analog controller that samples the tilt with an avalanche photodiode quad cell. An {line_integral}/25 imaging leg focuses the light into a science camera that can either obtain long-exposure images or speckle data. In laboratory tests overall Strehl ratios were improved by a factor of 3 when a mylar sheet was used as an aberrator. The crossover frequency at unity gain is 30 Hz.

  1. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35. 1 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, W.A.; Bruhweiler, F.C. Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC )

    1989-12-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data. 18 refs.

  2. Galex Discovery of a Damped Lyα System at Redshift z ≈ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, Eric M.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja

    2009-12-01

    We report the first discovery of a QSO damped Lyα system (DLA) by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite. The system was initially identified as an Mg II absorption-line system (z abs = 1.028) in the spectrum of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) QSO J0203-0910 (z em = 1.58). The presence of unusually strong absorption due to metal lines of Zn II, Cr II, Mn II, and Fe II clearly suggested that it might be a DLA with N H I >= 2 × 1020 atoms cm-2. Follow-up GALEX NUV grism spectroscopy confirms that the system exhibits a DLA absorption line, with a measured H I column density of N H I = 1.50 ± 0.45 × 1021 atoms cm-2. By combining the GALEX N H I determination with the SDSS spectrum measurements of unsaturated metal-line absorption due to Zn II, which is generally not depleted onto grains, we find that the system's neutral-gas-phase metal abundance is [Zn/H] = -0.70 ± 0.22, or ≈20% solar. By way of comparison, although this system has one of the largest Zn+ column densities, its metal abundances are comparable to other DLAs at z ≈ 1. Measurements of the abundances of Cr, Fe, and Mn help to further pin down the evolutionary state of the absorber.

  3. A Direct Detection of Gas Accretion: The Lyman Limit System in 3C 232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Danforth, Charles W.

    2010-06-01

    The gas added to and removed from galaxies over cosmic time greatly affects their stellar populations and star formation rates. QSO absorption line studies in close QSO/galaxy pairs create a unique opportunity to study the physical conditions and kinematics of this gas. Here we present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the QSO/galaxy pair, 3C 232/NGC 3067. The quasar spectrum contains a Lyman limit (NHi = 1 × 1020 cm-2) absorption system (LLS) at cz = 1421 km s-1 that is associated with the nearby Sab galaxy NGC 3067. Previous work identifies this absorber as a high-velocity cloud (HVC) in NGC 3067 but the kinematics of the absorbing gas, infalling or outflowing, were uncertain. The HST images presented here establish the orientation of NGC 3067 and so establish that the LLS/HVC is infalling. Using this system as a prototype, we extend these results to higher-z Mgii/LLS to suggest that Mgii/LLSs are a sightline sampling of the so-called `cold mode accretion' (CMA) infalling onto luminous galaxies. To match the observed Mgii absorber statistics, the CMA must be more highly ionised at higher redshifts. The key observations needed to further the study of low-z LLSs is HST UV spectroscopy, for which a new instrument, the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, has just been installed greatly enhancing our observational capabilities.

  4. On the sizes of neutral hydrogen regions giving rise to damped Lyα absorption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E. M.; Turnshek, D. A.; Rao, S.

    2009-08-01

    Using quasi-stellar object (QSO) absorption-line spectra obtained along closely spaced sightlines, we examine the transverse sizes of regions containing large columns of neutral hydrogen gas at redshifts z ~ 1.5. The observations are primarily of intervening damped Lyα (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption-line systems in gravitationally lensed QSOs. In particular, Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of the four-component Cloverleaf QSO (H1413+1143) reveals three new DLA/sub-DLA systems at z ~ 1.44, 1.49 and 1.66. A neutral hydrogen column density of NHI >= 2 × 1020atomscm-2 is required for a system to be classified as a DLA, but none of the three systems has an HI column density above the DLA threshold in all four components. Over component separations <1.4 arcsec in the Cloverleaf, corresponding to transverse sizes of ~5-12h-170kpc, the HI column densities typically change by factors of ~2-40. Similar observations of other QSOs containing absorption systems in the DLA regime are summarized from the literature. In addition to establishing approximate sizes for DLA regions, the results have implications for their volume-averaged HI gas number densities and neutral gas masses. By combining our results on DLA absorber sizes with published results on the sizes of lower column density QSO absorbers, which however arise in very ionized regions, we infer the useful relation that the typical transverse size of an absorber in the redshift interval z ~ [1, 2] is Sabs ~ 11h-170[NHI/1020]-1/4kpc. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. E-mail: emonier@brockport.edu

  5. New regime of low ion collisionality in the neoclassical equilibrium of tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The neoclassical description of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibrium is formulated for an unconventionally low ordering of the collisionality that suits realistic thermonuclear fusion conditions. This requires a drift-kinetic analysis to the second order of the ion Larmor radius, which yields a new contribution to the leading solution for the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution function if the equilibrium geometry is not up-down symmetric. An explicit geometrical factor weighs this second Larmor-radius order, low-collisionality effect that modifies the neoclassical ion parallel flow, and the ion contribution to the bootstrap current.

  6. New Regime of Low Ion Collisionality in the Neoclassical Equilibrium of Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. J.

    2015-11-01

    The neoclassical description of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibrium is formulated for an unconventionally low ordering of the collisionality that suits realistic thermonuclear fusion conditions. This requires a drift-kinetic analysis to the second order of the ion Larmor radius, which yields a new contribution to the leading solution for the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution function if the equilibrium geometry is not up-down symmetric. An explicit geometrical factor weighs this second Larmor-radius order, low-collisionality effect that modifies the neoclassical ion parallel flow and the ion contribution to the bootstrap current. For this low-collisionality neoclassical equilibrium solution, the pressure anisotropy part of the Chew-Goldberger-Low stress tensor is comparable to the gyroviscosity and their contributions to the flux-surface-averaged parallel momentum equation balance exactly. Work supported by the U.S. D.O.E.

  7. New regime of low ion collisionality in the neoclassical equilibrium of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J. J.

    2015-07-15

    The neoclassical description of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibrium is formulated for an unconventionally low ordering of the collisionality that suits realistic thermonuclear fusion conditions. This requires a drift-kinetic analysis to the second order of the ion Larmor radius, which yields a new contribution to the leading solution for the non-Maxwellian part of the ion distribution function if the equilibrium geometry is not up-down symmetric. An explicit geometrical factor weighs this second Larmor-radius order, low-collisionality effect that modifies the neoclassical ion parallel flow, and the ion contribution to the bootstrap current.

  8. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  9. Three-dimensional parameterization of the stellar locus with application to QSO color selection

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, H.J.; Yanny, B.

    1997-11-01

    A straightforward method for parameterizing and visualizing a locus of points in n-space is presented. The algorithm applies directly to the problem of distinguishing QSOs from Galactic stars in multicolor space. When applied to an existing four-filter data set (photometric errors of {sigma}{approximately}0.1mag and B{sub J}{approx_lt}21.5), it recovers 95{percent} of the known QSOs, with 76{percent} of the candidate sources yielding QSOs. If only the non{endash}ultraviolet excess candidates are considered, it recovers 69{percent} of the 13 known QSOs, with 47{percent} of the candidate sources yielding QSOs. The completeness and efficiency will differ depending on the depth and accuracy of the photometric data. The algorithm scales well to large data sets and allows astrophysical information about the location of QSOs in color space to be easily added to improve efficiency. Three-dimensional visualization of the high-accuracy photometry ({sigma}{lt}0.01mag) of the Catalogue of {ital WBVR} Magnitudes of Northern Sky Bright Stars (V{lt}7.2) yields the first look at the intrinsic width in the Galactic star color distribution. The stellar locus is found to populate a ribbon-like subset of color-color-color space. In the G to early-K star region, the cross section of the stellar locus has a FWHM of 0.07 mag in the wide direction. We attribute the majority of the width to metallicity differences between the stars, although there may be some contribution from other sources such as differential reddening. The FWHM in the thin direction is 0.03 mag or less. The locus is parameterized from late-B stars through M stars. We reproduce the metallicities of 64 F and G dwarfs with an rms error of 0.13. The distribution of bright stars along the locus is also presented. The algorithm can be applied to parameterize any one-dimensional set of data that is distributed in n-dimensional space. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of QSO pairs (Marble+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, A. R.; Eriksen, K. A.; Impey, C. D.; Bai, L.; Miller, L.

    2009-07-01

    Optical spectroscopy was obtained in the northern and southern hemispheres with the 6.5m MMT at Mount Hopkins, Arizona, and the twin 6.5m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas, Chile (Clay and Baade telescopes in 2002 and 2003 respectively). All observations were made between 2002 April 12 and 2004 May 18. (3 data files).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric classification of QSO from RCS-2 (Carrasco+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, D.; Barrientos, L. F.; Pichara, K.; Anguita, T.; Murphy, D. N. A.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.; Hsieh, B. C.; Lopez, S.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogs contain the quasar candidates with their coordinates, magnitudes, respective errors, and an indicator of whether or not they were classified as quasars in the other two samples. We present three separate catalogs. Table1 corresponds to the candidates selected from DS1, matching the training set magnitude distribution and using only RCS-2 photometric information. Table2 contains the candidates from DS2, where objects with detection in the NUV GALEX band were used. Table3 includes the candidates from DS3, where information from W1 and W2 bands from WISE was used. (3 data files).

  12. Discovery of low-redshift X-ray selected quasars - New clues to the QSO phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Forman, W. R.; Steiner, J. E.; Canizares, C. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The identification of six X-ray sources discovered by the Einstein Observatory with X-ray quasars is reported, and the properties of these X-ray selected quasars are discussed. The four high-latitude fields of 1 sq deg each in which the Einstein imaging proportional counter detected serendipitous X-ray sources at intermediate exposures of 10,000 sec were observed by 4-m and 1.5-m telescopes, and optical sources with uv excesses and emission line spectra typical of many low-redshift quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies were found within the 1-arcsec error boxes of the X-ray sources. All six quasars identified were found to be radio quiet, with low redshift and relatively faint optical magnitudes, and to be similar in space density, colors and magnitude versus redshift relation to an optically selected sample at the same mean magnitude. X-ray luminosity was found to be well correlated with both continuum and broad-line emission luminosities for the known radio-quiet quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies, and it was observed that the five objects with the lowest redshifts have very similar X-ray/optical luminosity ratios despite tenfold variations in X-ray luminosity. It is concluded that photoionization by a continuum extending to X-ray energies is the dominant excitation mechanism in radio-quiet quasars.

  13. 4C 18.68 - A QSO with precessing radio jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, A. C.; Hutchings, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    High-resolution VLA radio maps at 20 cm and 6 cm wavelengths of the quasar 4C 18.68 reveal an extended halo of about 20 arcsec containing complex curved structures extending east and west from the central source. The central source has a flat spectrum, while the spectrum generally steepens with distance from the center of the structure. The details of the structure and polarization of the emission suggest relativistic ejection in opposing directions by a precessing or rotating double jet with a period of about 50,000 years, consistent with the presence of two interacting massive bodies in the central source.

  14. THE GALAXY ENVIRONMENT OF A QSO AT z {approx} 5.7

    SciTech Connect

    Banados, Eduardo; Venemans, Bram; Walter, Fabian; Kurk, Jaron; Overzier, Roderik; Ouchi, Masami

    2013-08-20

    High-redshift quasars are believed to reside in massive halos in the early universe and should therefore be located in fields with overdensities of galaxies, which are thought to evolve into galaxy clusters seen in the local universe. However, despite many efforts, the relationship between galaxy overdensities and z {approx} 6 quasars is ambiguous. This can possibly be attributed to the difficulty of finding galaxies with accurate redshifts in the vicinity of z {approx} 6 quasars. So far, overdensity searches around z {approx} 6 quasars have been based on studies of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which probe a redshift range of {Delta}z Almost-Equal-To 1. This range is large enough to select galaxies that may not be physically related to the quasar. We use deep narrow- and broadband imaging to study the environment of the z = 5.72 quasar ULAS J0203+0012. The redshift range probed by our narrow-band selection of Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) is {Delta}z Almost-Equal-To 0.1, which is significantly narrower than the LBG searches. This is the first time that LAEs were searched for near a z {approx} 6 quasar, in an effort to provide clues about the environments of quasars at the end of the epoch of reionization. We find no enhancement of LAEs in the surroundings of ULAS J0203+0012 in comparison with blank fields. We explore different explanations and interpretations for this non-detection of a galaxy overdensity, including that (1) the strong ionization from the quasar may prevent galaxy formation in its immediate vicinity and (2) high-redshift quasars may not reside in the center of the most massive dark matter halos.

  15. MASTER: possible superluminous SN, QSO flare and new dwarf novae outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gress, O.; Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Tlatov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Ivanov, K.; Budnev, N.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Yu.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L )discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 59m 39.54s +02d 08m 59.6s on 2016-08-02.06248 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.8m (lim=20.1m).

  16. MASTER-Net: bright PSN in PGC2041038, QSO flare and dwarf nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Samus, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Kuvshinov, D.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelyan, G.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Gress, O.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.

    2016-03-01

    MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L)discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 14m 05.90s +33d 55m 09.7s on 2016-03-18.76802 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 18.8m).

  17. New aperture photometry of QSO 0957+561; application to time delay and microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovaldsen, J. E.; Teuber, J.; Schild, R. E.; Stabell, R.

    2003-05-01

    We present a re-reduction of archival CCD frames of the doubly imaged quasar 0957+561 using a new photometry code. Aperture photometry with corrections for both cross contamination between the quasar images and galaxy contamination is performed on about 2650 R-band images from a five year period (1992-1997). From the brightness data a time delay of 424.9 +/- 1.2 days is derived using two different statistical techniques. The amount of gravitational microlensing in the quasar light curves is briefly investigated, and we find unambiguous evidence of both long term and short term microlensing. We also note the unusual circumstance regarding time delay estimates for this gravitational lens. Estimates by different observers from different data sets or even with the same data sets give lag estimates differing by typically 8 days, and error bars of only a day or two. This probably indicates several complexities where the result of each estimate depends upon the details of the calculation.

  18. MODELING HIGH-VELOCITY QSO ABSORBERS WITH PHOTOIONIZED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC DISK WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud

    2010-11-10

    We extend our modeling of the ionization structure of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-disk winds, previously applied to Seyfert galaxies, to a population of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) of much lower X-ray-to-UV flux ratios, i.e., smaller {alpha}{sub ox} index, motivated by UV/X-ray ionized absorbers with extremely high outflow velocities in UV-luminous QSOs. We demonstrate that magnetically driven winds ionized by a spectrum with {alpha}{sub ox} {approx_equal} -2 can produce the charge states responsible for C IV and Fe XXV/Fe XXVI absorption in wind regions with corresponding maximum velocities of v(C IV) {approx_lt}0.1c and v(Fe XXV) {approx_lt} 0.6c (where c is the speed of light) and column densities N {sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}, in general agreement with observations. In contrast to the conventional radiation-driven wind models, high-velocity flows are always present in our MHD-driven winds but manifest in the absorption spectra only for {alpha}{sub ox} {approx_lt} -2, as larger {alpha}{sub ox} values ionize the wind completely out to radii too large to demonstrate the presence of these high velocities. We thus predict increasing velocities of these ionized absorbers with decreasing (steeper) {alpha}{sub ox}, a quantity that emerges as the defining parameter in the kinematics of the active galactic nucleus UV/X-ray absorbers.

  19. COS-GTO: QSO Absorbers, Galaxies and Large-scale Structures in the Local Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2009-07-01

    This is a program to probe the large scale structure of baryons in the universe, including addressing questions of baryon fraction, physical conditions and relationships between absorbers and large-scale structures of galaxies. Besides these specific goals, this proposed GTO program also probes a large enough total path length in Ly alpha and OVI to add significantly to what STIS/FUSE has already observed. Several Galactic High Velocity Cloud Complexes also are probed by these sightlines, particularly the M Complex. The total path length of this proposed program for Ly alpha large-scale structure surveys is delta_z 5.5. We have selected a variety of targets to address these questions, under the following subcategories:1. Target 8 bright BL Lac objects to search for low contrast Ly alpha absorbers from the warm-hot interstellar medium {WHIM}. Science drivers: What are physical conditions and extent of warm-hot IGM in the current epoch? Can we discover metal-poor WHIM using very broad Ly alpha lines? What is the number density of such lines {dN/dz} and what is their relationship if any with tentative Chandra detections of even hotter gas?2. Ly alpha cloud sizes: The targets are a bright AGN pair which yield tangential distance separations of 100-500 kpc at z=0.01-0.05, where galaxy surveys are excellent. This pair has two filaments and two voids in this distance range. Science drivers: What are the characteristic sizes of Ly alpha absorbers, weak metal-line absorbers and absorbers in voids? Better size determinations will tighten current estimates of the baryon content of the photoionzed IGM .3. Probes of starburst outflows: The targets are bright AGN, <= 100 kpc in projection out of the minor axis of nearby starburst galaxies. Science drivers: Outflowing, unbound winds have been implicated as a primary mechanism to enrich the IGM in mass, metals and energy. But do starburst winds from massive galaxies escape the galaxy's gravitational potential? If so, what is the metallicity and what are mass outflow rates of these winds?4. A large galaxy's gaseous halo: Three probes of the kinematics and metallicity of a single L* galaxy halo. These observations includes G130M, G160M exposures at SNR 20 and G285M at 2850A and SNR 10 for MgII. The 2L* galaxy, ESO 157-G049 {cz=1678 km/s}, being probed by these sightlines has an available H I 21cm map from ATCA, H alpha imaging from CTIO and long-slit spectra from MSSSO. Science drivers: What are the extent, metallicity, ionization conditions and kinematics of gaseous halos of normal luminous {L*} galaxies? Is there evidence for outflow, inflow or galactic fountain circulation of gas in massive galaxy halos? What is the source of halo gas {outflowing winds, infalling metal-poor gas from stripping of nearby dwarf galaxies, nuclear outflows, large numbers of bound dark matter halos??} and what is the relationship between this gas and Galactic high-velocity clouds {HVCs}?5. Dwarf galaxy winds: These targets probe the kinematics and metallicities of outflows from active and inactive {in terms of star formation} dwarfs. Science drivers: Outflowing winds from dwarf galaxies have also been implicated as a primary mechanism to enrich the IGM in mass, metals and energy. What is the evidence that either current starforming dwarfs or "dormant" {and low surface brightness; LSB} dwarfs {presumably in between star forming episodes} create unbound winds of substantial cross section { 100 kpc} sufficient to account for all weak metal-line absorbers at high- and low-z? What are the ionization conditions, mass outflow rates, extents and metallicities of these winds, if they are ubiquitous around dwarf galaxies?{H0 is assumed to be 70 km/s/Mpc}

  20. Blowin' in the wind: feedback from QSO outflows at high-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresci, G.

    2016-06-01

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, although direct observational evidences are still scarce, probably because radiatively driven winds are rare as they arise during a short-lived phase. I will present near-IR integral field observations of a sample of high-z QSOs, in which we clearly resolve fast (up to 1500 km/s) extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflows in the [OIII] lines, whose high velocity and high mass outflow rate are unlikely to be sustained by star formation only. Moreover, Star Formation tracers in some of these objects show that the outflow position is anti-correlated with the star forming regions in the host galaxy, representing the first direct evidences of powerful outflows removing the gas from the host galaxy (`negative feedback'). Evidences of gas depletion in these source are also provided by the direct measurement of molecular gas from PDBI and ALMA observations. However, in one of the objects we also have evidences of the opposite mechanism, star formation triggered at the edges of the outflow ('positive feedback').

  1. Two component model for X-ray emission of radio selected QSO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Singh, K. P.; Kembhavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Using a large database of radio, optical, and x ray luminosities of AGNs with survival analysis, it was found that the x ray emission of the radio selected quasars has two components. One is related to the optical luminosity and the other is related to the radio luminosity.

  2. MASTER-IAC: QSO 2QZ J132407-0032 optical flare and OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Shurpakov, S.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Rebolo, R.; Ricart, M. Serra; Israelian, G.; Lodieu, N.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Shumkov, V.; Vladimirov, V.

    2016-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 32m 39.21s +19d 32m 15.0s on 2016-02-12.86192 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.1 (limit 19.2m).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mid-IR QSO spectral templates (Hill+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. R.; Gallagher, S. C.; Deo, R. P.; Peeters, E.; Richards, G. T.

    2014-11-01

    We coordinate cross matched the SDSS quasar catalogue (Schneider et al., 2010AJ....139.2360S, Cat. VII/260) with the Spitzer (Werner et al. 2004ApJS..154....1W) Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) archive, using a match radius of 2 arcsec, yielding 184 low-resolution (R~60-130) MIR spectra. We selected all data which had short-low (SL; 5.1-14.3um) and/or long-low (LL; 13.9-39.9um) modules (although not all objects necessarily had both modules), opting to keep only the low-resolution data. (2 data files).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectrum of QSO XMMC 2028 (Brusa+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, M.; Feruglio, C.; Cresci, G.; Mainieri, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Perna, M.; Santini, P.; Vito, F.; Marconi, A.; Merloni, A.; Lutz, D.; Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Maiolino, R.; Rosario, D.; Daddi, E.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Lusso, E.

    2015-03-01

    Observations of the CO(3-2) transition of XID2028, redshifted to 2mm, obtained with the PdBI Interferometer. Dates of observations: 31-May, 1, 6, June 2014. XID2028 was observed with receivers tuned to a frequency of 133.37GHz, corresponding to the expected frequency of the CO(3-2) emission line, with the PdBI array in the (D) configuration. The continuum is not detected with a 3σ upper limit on its flux of 0.3mJy. (1 data file).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar masses of optical & IR QSO hosts (Zhang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Shi, Y.; Rieke, G. H.; Xia, X.; Wang, Y.; Sun, B.; Wan, L.

    2016-05-01

    This study builds on that of Shi et al. (2014, J/ApJS/214/23), who presented infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of Palomar-Green (PG; Schmidt & Green 1983ApJ...269..352S) and 2MASS quasars (Cutri et al. 2001ASPC..232...78C; Smith et al. 2002, J/ApJ/569/23) and used them to derive SFRs. We complement these results by estimating the stellar masses using the optical/near-IR photometric measurements of quasar hosts from the literature based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based adaptive optics (AO) observations. (1 data file).

  6. Cosmic Metal Production and the Contribution of QSO Absorption Systems to the Ionizing Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero; Shull, J. Michael

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery by Cowie et al. (1995) and Tytler et al. (1995) of metals in the Ly alpha clouds shows that the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is contaminated by the products of stars and suggests that ionizing photons from massive star formation may be a significant contributor to the UV background radiation at early epochs. We assess the validity of the stellar photoionization hypothesis. Based on recent computations of metal yields and 0-star Lyman continuum (Lyc) fluxes, we find that 0.2 percent of the rest-mass energy of the metals produced is radiated as Lyc. By modeling the transfer of ionizing radiation through the IGM and the rate of chemical enrichment, we demonstrate that the background intensity of photons at 1 ryd that accompanies the production of metals in the Ly alpha forest clouds may be significant, approaching 0.5 x 10(exp -21) ergs cm squared s(-1) Hz(-1) sr(-1) at z approximately equals 3 if the Lyc escape fraction is greater than of equal to 0.25. Together with quasars, massive stars could then, in principle, provide the hydrogen and helium Lyc photons required to ionize the universe at high redshifts. We propose that observations of the He2 Gunn-Peterson effect and of the metal ionization states of the Ly alpha forest and Lyman-limit absorbers should show the signature of a stellar spectrum. We also note that the stellar photoionization model fails if a large fraction of the UV radiation emitted from stars cannot escape into the IGM, as suggested by the recent Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope observations by Leitherer et al. (1995) of low-redshift starburst galaxies, or if most of the metals observed at z is approximately 3 were produced at much earlier epochs.

  7. Another recent NIR Flare of the QSO BZBJ1454+5124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Recillas, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We call attention on our recent observation of the Gamma Ray source 2FGLJ1454.4+5123 related with the quasar SBS1452+516 (z=1.0831) with the CANICA NIR camera on the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astrofisico Guillermo Haro, located in Cananea, Mexico.

  8. NICMOS Imaging of the BALQSO PG1700+518

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, D. C.; Low, F. J.; Thompson, R. I.; Weymann, R. J.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a 1.6mu m HST/NICMOS camera 2 image of the low-ionization Broad Absorption Line QSO (BALQSO) PG1700+518. This relatively nearby (z = 0.292) object is one of the most infrared luminous (radio-quiet) QSOs known [log(L_IR/Lsun) = 12.12: Low et al. 1988, ApJ, 327, L41]. Previous ground-based images show an associated arc-like feature located ~ 2.5arcsec NE from the bright point-source (Hutchings, Neff & Gower 1992, PASP, 104, 62), with an ``E+A'' optical spectrum indicative of an old population of stars plus a 9 (+/- 4)x 10(7) year old starburst (Canalizo & Stockton 1997, ApJ, 480, L5). However, the origin of this structure (companion galaxy or tidal tail) can not be discerned from the ground-based images. Our 0.076arcsec /pixel NICMOS image clearly resolves the arc-like feature into a central condensation surrounded by a bright ring, reminiscent of a ring galaxy. Subtraction of a scaled psf-star from PG1700+518 reveals diffuse emission underlying the bright QSO point-source and extending ~ 2arcsec SW. The overall morphology of the PG1700+518 system is very similar to that of the IRAS-discovered, infrared luminous QSO (IRAS 04505-2958: Low et al. 1988; Boyce et al. 1996, ApJ, 473, 760), and suggests a near head-on collision between the PG1700+518 and its companion. The relative velocity between the QSO and the companion ( ~ 140 km s(-1) ) implies that the collision occurred ~ 5x 10(7) years ago, consistent with the inferred age of the starburst.

  9. Warm and Hot Gases in and around Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    We propose a pilot joint XMM-Newton/HST observing program to study both warm and hot gases in two optically-selected galaxy clusters at z=0.1-0.2. Each cluster has a UV-bright background QSO projected within the expected strong accretion shock. We will measure the luminosity, temperature,and morphology of the hot gas component and observe UV absorption lines of the O VI doublet and other ion transitions of the clusters. These lines are sensitive to the thermal, kinetic, and chemical properties of warm gas, associated with the halos of individual galaxies and the intracluster medium. This joint study will thus allow us for the first time to characterize the heating/cooling and dynamic processes of the gases in the clusters.

  10. Search for correlated UV and x ray absorption of NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Christopher; Halpern, Jules P.; Kolman, Michiel

    1991-01-01

    NGC 3516, a low-luminosity Seyfert galaxy, is one of a small fraction of Seyfert galaxies that exhibit broad absorption in a resonance line. In order to determine whether the UV and x ray absorption in NGC 3516 are related, 5 IUE observations were obtained, quasi-simultaneously with 4 Ginga observations. The results are presented and discussed. The following subject areas are covered: short-term UV variability; emission lines; galactic absorption lines; the C IV, N V, and Si IV absorption features; lower limit on the carbon column density; estimate of the distance from the absorber to the continuum source; variability in the continuum and absorption; a comparison with BAL QSO's; and the x ray-UV connection.

  11. Can quasars photoionize the intergalactic medium at high redshift?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Madau, Piero

    1993-01-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) by quasar sources at high redshift are discussed. The integrated UV background from observed QSO's, taking into account the hydrogen opacity associated with intervening Ly-alpha clouds and Lyman limit systems are computed. It is noted that the published data appear to indicate a significant underdensity of absorption systems in the Ly-alpha forest with column densities N(sub HI) greater than 10(exp 15) cm(sup -2). This deficit results in a reduction of the opacity of the universe by a factor of 1.5-3 at z = 3-5 relative to previous estimates. The QSO contribution to the metagalactic flux at the Lyman edge may be as large as J(sub 912)(z) is approximately 6((1 + z)/4.5)(sup 0.5) x 10(exp -22) erg cm(sup -2) s(sup -1) Hz(sup -1) sr(sup -1) for q(sup o) = O, and slightly lower for q(sub o) = 1/2. For a density of the diffuse component of the IGM of omega(sub D)(h(sub 50)(sup 2)) less than 0.025, QSO's could photoionize a smooth IGM sufficiently to satisfy the constraints imposed by the Gunn-Peterson effect. The epoch of reionization could be as recent as z is approximately greater than 5. As a result, neutral patches of IGM would be detectable in the spectra of high redshift quasars. The patches would appear as absorption line systems with typical column densities of 10(exp 19) - 10(exp 20) cm(sup -2), and velocity widths of 100 - 1000 km s(sup -1).

  12. Probing a Starburst Galaxy's Superwind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocke, John

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Science Team for IGM studies proposes to observe the bright QSO/starburst galaxy pair, SBS1108+560/M108 for the following purposes: 1. To measure the FUV brightness of the QSO to determine whether an HST/COS observation is viable and to set its exposure times. 2. To determine the locations of the brighter star forming regions in the disk of M108 to compare wth high resolution HI 21cm, H alpha and soft X-ray continuum maps which show supershells, line-emitting loops and extra-planar clumps of hot gas. 3. To use the relative extinctions of near-side and far-side star forming regions to determine the orientation of M108 in space. This determination is required in order to correctly interpret the kinematics of any QSO absorption line system(s) found in our COS spectrum of SBS1108+560. M108 (NGC3556) is a moderate starburst from the IRAS-selected sample of Lehnert & Heckman, moderately inclined on the sky (75 deg.) and very nearby (14 Mpc). The proximity of SBS1108+560 to M108 (25 kpc) and its location quite close to the minor-axis of M108 make this pairing quite unusual (one of only 3 to be observed by COS) and an important opportunity for understanding the nature and dynamics of starburst superwinds. An important question we hope to answer with this set of GALEX and HST data is whether starburst winds from massive spiral galaxies actually escape the gaalxy's gravitational potential and so enrich the IGM with metals."

  13. Low-z LoBAL QSOs: orientation or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarova, M.

    2015-09-01

    Low-ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBALs) are redder type-1 QSOs characterized by broad, blue-shifted absorptions of Mg II, indicating gas outflows at velocities up to 0.2c. There is still much debate regarding the nature of these objects. In the orientation paradigm, LoBALs are present in all QSOs, but can only be observed along limited lines of sight that skim the obscuring torus. Conversely, in the evolution paradigm LoBALS have been interpreted as being a short phase in the early stages of the QSO lifecycle, when QSO-driven winds are expelling gas and dust from the central regions. To explore the suggestion by previous work that LoBALS are more likely to be observed in mergers and recently fueled QSOs, we conducted a morphological analysis of a volume-limited sample of 22 SDSS-selected LoBALs at 0.5 < z < 0.6 using HST/WFC3. We find signs of recent or ongoing tidal interaction in 2/3 of the host galaxies, and detailed surface brightness analysis with GALFIT indicates that the vast majority have early-type morphologies. Our results confirm the high rate of mergers in LoBAL hosts and they further show that LoBALs can be observed at any stage of the merger when QSO activity is expected, according to numerical simulations. While the morphologies of these objects may support the evolution paradigm, their SEDs do not suggest they are a population of QSOs statistically different from optically-selected type-1 QSOs. We discuss the two possible explanations for LoBALs implied by our results.

  14. ERRORS IN APPLYING LOW ION-STRENGTH ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT ALGORITHMS TO HIGHER IONIC-STRENGTH AQUATIC MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicological and regulatory communities are currently exploring the use of free-ion-activity- models as a means of reducing uncertainties in current methods for assessing metals bioavailabi- lity from contaminated aquatic media. While most practitioners would support the des...

  15. Development of a transparent, non-cytotoxic, silver ion-exchanged glass with antimicrobial activity and low ion elution.

    PubMed

    Shim, Gyu-In; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Eom, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Se-Young

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, skin irritation, and ion elution behaviors of glass doped with silver ions with respect to its application to electronic equipment such as phones and tablet screens. The microbes tested were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum. AgNO3 powder was spread on both sides of aluminosilicate glass, and it was heated to 250-280°C for 10min. Under optimized heating conditions (260°C, 10min), the antimicrobial activity of ion-exchanged glass against bacteria and fungi was over 99.9% after 24 weeks. The glass failed to irritate the skin of experimental animals and was considered non-cytotoxic. The maximum amount of Ag ions that were eluted from the ion-exchanged glass into drinking water was measured at 0.037±0.003μgL(-1), an amount which is several orders of magnitude below the standard limit of 0.1mgL(-1) in drinking water. Ag ion-exchanged glass had characteristics suitable for use as a display screen, such as a light transmittance of 90% and a surface roughness of 0.704nm. Our findings suggest that glass doped with silver ions is more hygienic than non-doped glass is, and should be applied to display screens and glassware. PMID:25837509

  16. Tomography of a Gamma-ray Burst Progenitor and its Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Moller, Palle; Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Gorosabel, Javier; Perez, Enrique; deUgartePostigo, Antonio; Solano, Enrique; BarradoyNavascues, David; CastroCeron, Jose Marie; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared and high-resolution optical spectroscopy of the bright afterglow of the very intense gamma-ray burst recorded on 2002, October 4 (GRB 021004). Besides of line emission in the near-IR allowing an independent measurement of the systemic redshift (z = 2.3304 plus or minus 0.0005), we find several absorption line groups spanning a range of about 3,000 kilometers per second in velocity relative to the redshift of the host galaxy. The absorption profiles are very complex with both velocity-broadened components extending over several 100 kilometers per second and narrow lines with velocity widths of only approximately 20 kilometers per second. By analogy with QSO absorption line studies, the relative velocities, widths, and degrees of ionization of the lines ("line-locking", "ionization-velocity correlation") show that the progenitor had both an extremely strong radiation field and several distinct mass loss phases (winds). These results are consistent with GRB progenitors being massive stars, such as Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) or Wolf-Rayet stars, providing a detailed picture of the spatial and velocity structure of the GRB progenitor star at the time of explosion. The host galaxy is a prolific star-forming galaxy with a SFR of approximately 10 solar mass yr(sup -l).

  17. Impact of ambient O2(a1Δg) on satellite-based laser remote sensing of O2 columns using absorption lines in the 1.27 µm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, William E.; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dobler, Jeremy T.; Llewellyn, Edward J.

    2014-06-01

    Determination of CO2 mixing ratio columns from space using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) requires simultaneous measurements of CO2 number density columns and knowledge of the dry atmospheric surface pressure. One approach to determining the surface pressure is to make an LAS column measurement of O2 number density in the 7857.3-7921.7 cm-1 (1.27 µm) region of the O2(1Δ) state. A complicating factor in the LAS O2 measurement is the presence of a permanent but spatially variable natural source of airglow from the O2(1Δ) state. In addition, the laser radiation can induce stimulated emission from the ambient O2(1Δ) state and also cause stimulated absorption and emission from the ground state O2 molecules as the laser beam passes through the atmosphere. Finally, the upwelling surface-reflected solar radiation is an additional source of background radiation. The effects of these additional radiation sources on the LAS measurement of O2 are examined. The surface-reflected solar radiation produces the largest background at 3 orders of magnitude more intense than the laser backscatter signal, while the airglow is of the same order of magnitude as the laser backscatter. The stimulated emission from ambient O2(a1Δg) is found to be about the same order of magnitude as the laser radiation. These effects are evaluated under noon, twilight, and midnight conditions at midlatitudes, the equator, and the pole. The stimulated emission is in the same direction and in phase with the laser signal, its contamination of the LAS O2 measurement prevents a full sunlight determination of surface pressure.

  18. Mapping Baryons in the Halo of NGC 1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, David

    2012-10-01

    We propose observing 5 background QSOs whose sightlines pass through the halo of NGC 1097 at impact parameters of 53-183 kpc. NGC 1097 is a bright {-21.1} spiral galaxy that has the highest surface density of background, UV-bright QSOs in the nearby Universe. The galaxy hosts a low luminosity AGN at its core, surrounded by a ring of intense star-forming regions; there is also evidence from stellar tidal streams that the galaxy has recently cannibalized a number of dwarf galaxies, and a companion dwarf elliptical is still clearly merging with the outer disk. We aim to examine the physical conditions of gas that fills the halo of such an active galaxy. We will search primarily for Lya and SiIV absorption lines in the spectra of the background QSOs, as well as weak NV from hot gas. At the lowest impact parameters, we may also be able to find absorption lines from low ionization species. Our goals are to test whether the halo of NGC 1097 contains the same distribution of Lyman-alpha forest clouds seen at higher redshifts out to large distances from galaxies, and determine how the HI column density, covering fraction, and temperature of the gas decline with radius in a single galaxy halo. We will examine whether the velocities of the absorbers are consistent with those expected from gas co-rotating in the dark matter halo of the galaxy, or whether there exists a distribution of velocities that might indicate outflows from the galactic disk or from the central AGN, or, alternatively, from inflows from the IGM. Our map of Lya and SiIV around NGC 1097 will provide an important template for understanding the origin of higher redshift QSO absorption line systems.

  19. A study of the discrepant QSO X-ray luminosity function from the HEAO-2 data archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.

    1984-01-01

    An in-progress investigation aimed at characterizing the X-ray luminosity of very faint QSOs is described. More than 100 faint, previously uncataloged QSOs which lie in areas imaged in X rays at very high sensitivity were discovered.

  20. THE QSO HE 0450-2958: SCANTILY DRESSED OR HEAVILY ROBED? A NORMAL QUASAR AS PART OF AN UNUSUAL ULIRG

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, Knud; Elbaz, David; Pantin, Eric; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Letawe, Geraldine; Chantry, Virginie

    2009-08-01

    The luminous z = 0.286 quasar HE 0450-2958 is interacting with a companion galaxy at 6.5 kpc distance and the whole system radiates in the infrared (IR) at the level of an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG). A so far undetected host galaxy triggered the hypothesis of a mostly 'naked' black hole (BH) ejected from the companion by three-body interaction. We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/NICMOS 1.6 {mu}m imaging data at 0.''1 resolution and VLT/VISIR 11.3 {mu}m images at 0.''35 resolution that are for the first time resolving the system in the near- and mid-infrared. We combine these data with existing optical HST and CO maps. (1) At 1.6 {mu}m we find an extension NE of the quasar nucleus that is likely a part of the host galaxy, though not its main body. If true, a combination with upper limits on a main body co-centered with the quasar brackets the host-galaxy luminosity to within a factor of {approx}4 and places HE 0450-2958 directly onto the M{sub BH} - M{sub bulge} relation for nearby galaxies. (2) A dust-free line of sight to the quasar suggests a low dust obscuration of the host galaxy, but the formal upper limit for star formation (SF) lies at 60 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. HE 0450-2958 is consistent with lying at the high-luminosity end of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies, and more exotic explanations like a 'naked quasar' are unlikely. (3) All 11.3 {mu}m radiation in the system is emitted by the quasar nucleus. It has warm ULIRG-strength IR emission powered by BH accretion and is radiating at super-Eddington rate, L/L{sub Edd} = 6.2{sup +3.8}{sub -1.8}, or 12 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. (4) The companion galaxy is covered in optically thick dust and is not a collisional ring galaxy. It emits in the far-infrared at ULIRG strength, powered by Arp220-like SF (strong starburst-like). An M82-like SED is ruled out. (5) With its BH accretion rate, HE 0450-2958 produces not enough new stars to maintain its position on the M{sub BH} - M{sub bulge} relation, and SF and BH accretion are spatially disjoint. This relation can either only be maintained averaging over a longer timescale ({approx}<500 Myr) and/or the bulge has to grow by redistribution of pre-existing stars. (6) Systems similar to HE 0450-2958 with spatially disjoint ULIRG-strength star formation and quasar activity might be common at high redshifts but at z < 0.43 we only find <4% (3/77) candidates for a similar configuration.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Long-term radio variations of QSO J1819+3845 (de Bruyn+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, A. G.; Macquart, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Most of the data reduction procedures employed for the data presented have been described extensively in previous papers (Dennett-Thorpe & de Bruyn 2003A&A...404..113D; Macquart & de Bruyn 2006A&A...446..185M; 2007MNRAS.380L..20M). We present here a brief summary. All the observations presented in this paper were obtained with the multi frequency frontends located at the prime focus of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio telescope (WSRT). The frontends cover broad frequency ranges around 350MHz (henceforth 85cm), 1400MHz (21cm), 2300MHz (13cm), 4900MHz (6cm) and 8500MHz (3.6cm). The data presented in this paper, and previous papers, now span a period exceeding 13 years. (9 data files).

  2. Properties of distant galaxies and QSO absortion line systems: A deep multicolor imaging survey of the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahata, Noriaki

    2001-03-01

    I present a study on statistical properties of faint galaxy population identified in the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs). The broad-band imaging observations of the HDFs present the deepest images of the universe ever obtained. Based on the available optical and near-infrared space- and ground-based imaging data of the HDFs, I conducted photometry and photometric redshift measurements of all the objects detected in the HDFs. First, I developed and improved three kinds of techniques that allowed to optimally determine the photometry and redshift of faint galaxies identified in the HDFs. They are (1) optimal photometry technique, (2) non-negative least-squares image reconstruction technique, and (3) photometric redshift technique. Using these techniques, I constructed a catalog of 5,318 galaxies and 47 stars across ˜12 arcmin2 of the total survey area of the HDFs. The redshift range of the galaxies spans 0 < z < 10 and beyond. Next, based on the HDF observations, I studied a history of cosmic star formation toward high redshifts (0 < z < 10). The study was motivated by previous measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity density by other groups. Previous conclusions were that the UV luminosity density increases with increasing redshift up to z ˜ 1--2 and then decreases or remains constant (e.g., Madau et al. 1996, 1998). On the other hand, previous work neglected the effect of cosmological surface brightness dimming, that could dominate the measurements at high redshifts. I revisited this problem by considering the distribution of star formation rate intensity (calculated from the rest-frame 1500 A luminosity of galaxies) and thereby making explicit the surface brightness threshold of the HDF observations. The results of the analysis include (1) by neglecting cosmological surface brightness dimming effects, previous measurements have missed a dominant fraction of the UV luminosity density at z ≳ 2, (2) the UV luminosity density plausibly increases monotonically with redshift toward the highest redshifts z ≈ 10, and (3) the distribution of star formation rate intensities matches the distribution of neutral hydrogen column densities traced by damped Lyman-alpha absorption systems at redshifts z ≈ 2--5.

  3. Communications via the radio artificial earth satellite: Design of the tracking diagram and features for conducting QSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrozhanskiy, V.; Rybkin, V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the operation of a transmitting artifical Earth satellite. A tracking diagram for the satellite is constructed. The zone of radio visibility can be determined based on the techniques proposed.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absorption spectrum of the QSO PKS2126-158 (D'Odorico+ 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.

    1997-10-01

    Spectra of the zem=3.268 quasar PKS 2126-158 have been obtai the wavelength range 430-662nm with a resolution R=27000 and an average signal to noise ratio s/n=25 per resolution element. 12 metal absorption systems have been identified, two of which were previously unknown. All the lines shortward of the Lymanα emission not identified as due to metals have been fitted as Lymanα and Lymanβ. We reported statistical analysis of this sample of lines. In particular, the two-point correlation function for metal systems has been computed. (1 data file).

  5. Searching for space-time variation of the fine structure constant using QSO spectra: overview and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Kozlov, M. G.; Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.

    2010-11-01

    Current theories that seek to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions suggest that spatial and temporal variation of fundamental constants is a possibility, or even a necessity, in an expanding Universe. Several studies have tried to probe the values of constants at earlier stages in the evolution of the Universe, using tools such as big-bang nucleosynthesis, the Oklo natural nuclear reactor, quasar absorption spectra, and atomic clocks (see, e.g. Flambaum & Berengut (2009)).

  6. COS-GTO: QSO Absorbers, Galaxies and Large-scale Structures in the Local Universe Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2010-09-01

    This is a program to probe the large scale structure of baryons in the universe, including addressing questions of baryon fraction, physical conditions and relationships between absorbers and large-scale structures of galaxies. Besides these specific goals, this proposed GTO program also probes a large enough total path length in Ly alpha and OVI to add significantly to what STIS/FUSE has already observed. Several Galactic High Velocity Cloud Complexes also are probed by these sightlines, particularly the M Complex. The total path length of this proposed program for Ly alpha large-scale structure surveys is delta_z 5.5. We have selected a variety of targets to address these questions, under the following subcategories:1. Target 8 bright BL Lac objects to search for low contrast Ly alpha absorbers from the warm-hot interstellar medium {WHIM}. Science drivers: What are physical conditions and extent of warm-hot IGM in the current epoch? Can we discover metal-poor WHIM using very broad Ly alpha lines? What is the number density of such lines {dN/dz} and what is their relationship if any with tentative Chandra detections of even hotter gas?2. Ly alpha cloud sizes: The targets are a bright AGN pair which yield tangential distance separations of 100-500 kpc at z=0.01-0.05, where galaxy surveys are excellent. This pair has two filaments and two voids in this distance range. Science drivers: What are the characteristic sizes of Ly alpha absorbers, weak metal-line absorbers and absorbers in voids? Better size determinations will tighten current estimates of the baryon content of the photoionzed IGM .3. Probes of starburst outflows: The targets are bright AGN, <= 100 kpc in projection out of the minor axis of nearby starburst galaxies. Science drivers: Outflowing, unbound winds have been implicated as a primary mechanism to enrich the IGM in mass, metals and energy. But do starburst winds from massive galaxies escape the galaxy's gravitational potential? If so, what is the metallicity and what are mass outflow rates of these winds?4. A large galaxy's gaseous halo: Three probes of the kinematics and metallicity of a single L* galaxy halo. These observations includes G130M, G160M exposures at SNR 20 and G285M at 2850A and SNR 10 for MgII. The 2L* galaxy, ESO 157-G049 {cz=1678 km/s}, being probed by these sightlines has an available H I 21cm map from ATCA, H alpha imaging from CTIO and long-slit spectra from MSSSO. Science drivers: What are the extent, metallicity, ionization conditions and kinematics of gaseous halos of normal luminous {L*} galaxies? Is there evidence for outflow, inflow or galactic fountain circulation of gas in massive galaxy halos? What is the source of halo gas {outflowing winds, infalling metal-poor gas from stripping of nearby dwarf galaxies, nuclear outflows, large numbers of bound dark matter halos??} and what is the relationship between this gas and Galactic high-velocity clouds {HVCs}?5. Dwarf galaxy winds: These targets probe the kinematics and metallicities of outflows from active and inactive {in terms of star formation} dwarfs. Science drivers: Outflowing winds from dwarf galaxies have also been implicated as a primary mechanism to enrich the IGM in mass, metals and energy. What is the evidence that either current starforming dwarfs or "dormant" {and low surface brightness; LSB} dwarfs {presumably in between star forming episodes} create unbound winds of substantial cross section { 100 kpc} sufficient to account for all weak metal-line absorbers at high- and low-z? What are the ionization conditions, mass outflow rates, extents and metallicities of these winds, if they are ubiquitous around dwarf galaxies?6} M31 Galaxy Halo {added 12/2010}This program extension will probe the large scale structure of baryons in the universe, with a particular emphasis on the relationships between absorbers in the intergalactic medium {IGM} and galaxies. Science drivers include: What are the extent, metallicity, ionization conditions and kinematics of gaseous halos of galaxies? Is there evidence for outflow, inflow, or galactic fountain circualtion of gas in massive galaxy halos? What is the source of halo gas {outflowing winds, infalling metal-poor gas from stripping of nearby dwarf galaxies, nuclear outflows, large numbers of bound dark matter halos}? In this program, we will use bright star-formation regions in M31 to search for evidence of infalling gas consistent with cold mode accretion models. By replacing background quasars with targets in the galaxy itself, we eliminate the ambiguity in the velocity offsets between the absorber and the galaxy.{H0 is assumed to be 70 km/s/Mpc}

  7. Searching for space-time variation of the fine structure constant using QSO spectra: overview and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Kozlov, M. G.; Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest the possibility of spatial and temporal variation of fundamental ``constants'' in the Universe. Using quasar absorption systems we can probe the value of the fine-structure constant, alpha = e2/hbar c, over the history of the universe. Previous studies of three independent samples of data, containing 143 absorption systems spread from 2 to 10 billion years after big bang, hint that alpha was smaller 7 - 11 billion years ago. However competing studies show no such alpha -variation. The studies can be improved by utilising more atomic transitions that are seen in quasar spectra, however in many cases this is hampered by a lack of accurate laboratory frequency measurements. The aim of this paper is to provide a compilation of transitions of importance to the search for alpha variation. They are E1 transitions from the ground state in several different atoms and ions, with wavelengths ranging from around 900 - 6000 Å, and require an accuracy of better than 10-4 Å. We also discuss isotope shift measurements that are needed in order to resolve systematic effects in the study. Researchers who are interested in performing these measurements should contact the authors directly.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample. III. (Tremou+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremou, E.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Zuther, J.; Eckart, A.; Valencia-Schneider, M.; Vitale, M.; Shan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The optical spectroscopic analysis of the LLQSO sample is based on two sets of observations. The first data set is from the HES (Reimers et al., 1996A&AS..115..235R, Cat. J/A+AS/115/235), in which follow-up observations were carried out to confirm the type-1 character of the survey candidates spectroscopically. In addition to this, we have used data from the 6 Degree Field Galaxy survey (6dFGS), an optical spectroscopy public database (Jones et al., 2004MNRAS.355..747J, 2009MNRAS.399..683J, Cat. VII/259). (3 data files).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-RM project: z<1 QSO host galaxies (Matsuoka+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Strauss, M. A.; Shen, Y.; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, J. E.; Ho, L. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, M.; Trump, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    We use the data acquired in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project, in which a single spectroscopic field was repeatedly observed to explore the variability of quasars. The full technical details of the project are found in Shen et al. (2015, J/ApJS/216/4). SDSS-RM was conducted during the dark/gray time in the final season (2013-2014) of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Dawson et al. 2013AJ....145...10D). The target field (centered at RAJ2000=14:14:49.00, DEJ2000=+53:05:00.0) coincides with the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS 1; Kaiser et al. 2010SPIE.7733E..0EK) Medium Deep Field MD07, which lies within the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey W3 field. (1 data file).

  10. Conditions for star formation in nearby AGN and QSO hosts observed with near-infrared integral-field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, G.; Fazeli, N.; Smajic, S.; Eckart, A.; Moser, L.; Valencia-S., M.

    2016-05-01

    Integral-field spectroscopy in the near-infrared (NIR) is a powerful tool to analyze the gaseous and stellar distributions and kinematics, as well as the excitation mechanisms in the centers of galaxies. The unique combination of NIR and sub-mm data at comparable high angular resolution, which has just been possible with SINFONI and ALMA, allows to trace warm and cold gas reservoirs. Only the NIR gives an unobscured view to the center and allows to study the conditions and impact of star formation in the centers of galaxies in a spatially resolved way. Here, we present recent studies of nearby Seyferts and low-luminosity QSOs performed by our group.

  11. The Ionization and Metallicity of the Intervening O VI Absorber at z=0.1212 in the Spectrum of H1821+643

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Giroux, Mark L.; Stocke, John T.; Tumlinson, Jason; Oegerle, William R.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We use high-resolution UV (ultraviolet) spectra of the radio-quiet QSO (quasi-stellar object) H1821+643 (z(sub em) = 0.297), obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), to study the ionization and metallicity of an intervening O VI absorption line system at z(sub abs) = 0.1212. This absorber has the following notable properties: (1) Several galaxies are close to the sight line at the absorber redshift, including an actively star-forming galaxy at a projected distance of 144 h(sub 75)(exp -1) kpc. (2) There is a complex cluster of H I Ly(alpha) absorption lines near the O VI redshift, including at least five components spread over a velocity range of approximately 700 km s(exp -1). (3) The strongest Ly(alpha) line in the cluster appears to be composed of a mildly saturated component with a typical b-value blended with a remarkably broad component with b approximately equals 85 km s(exp -1). (4) The O VI absorption is not aligned with the strongest (saturated) H I absorption, but instead is well-aligned with the very broad component. (5) The only detected species (at the 4(sigma) level) are O VI and H I despite coverage of strong transitions of abundant elements (e.g., C II, C III, and C IV). Based on these constraints, we find that the absorption line properties can be produced in collisionally ionized gas with 10(exp 5.3) is equal to or less than T is equal to or less than 10(exp 5.6) K and -1.8 is equal to or less than [O/H] is equal to or less than -0.6. However, we find that photoionization is also viable if the pathlength l through the absorbing gas is long enough; simple photoionization models require 85 is equal to or less than l is equal to or less than 1900 kpc and -1.1 is equal to or less than [O/H] is equal to or less than -0.3. We briefly discuss how observations of X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and O VIII could be used, in principle, to break the ionization mechanism

  12. BAL QSOs AND EXTREME UFOs: THE EDDINGTON CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew

    2013-05-20

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to {approx}10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-{sigma} relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  13. BAL QSOs and Extreme UFOs: The Eddington Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to ~10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-σ relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  14. Resolving the Structure of Ionized Helium in the Intergalactic Medium with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. 2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, G. A.; Shull, J. M.; Oegerle, W.; Zheng, W.; Davidsen, A. F.; Songaila, A.; Tumlinson, J.; Cowie, L. L.; Dehavreng, J.-M.; Friedman, S. D.

    2001-01-01

    The neutral hydrogen and the ionized helium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are unique probes of structure in the universe at epochs intermediate between the earliest density fluctuations seen in the cosmic background radiation and the distribution of galaxies visible today. We present Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of the line of sight to the QSO HE2347-4342 in the 1000-1187 angstrom band at a resolving power of 15,000. Above redshift z = 2.7, the IGM is largely opaque in He II Ly-alpha (304 angstroms). At lower redshifts, the optical depth gradually decreases to a mean value tau = 1 at z = 2.4. We resolve the He II Ly-alpha absorption as a discrete forest of absorption lines in the z = 2.3 - 2.7 redshift range. Approximately 50% of these spectral features have H I counterparts with column densities N(sub HI) > 10(exp 12.3)/sq cm visible in a Keck spectrum. These account for most of the observed opacity in He II Ly-alpha. The remainder have N(sub HI) < 10(exp 12.3)/sq cm, below the threshold for current observations. A short extrapolation of the power-law distribution of H I column densities to lower values can account for these new absorbers. The He II to H I column density ratio eta averages approximately 80, consistent with photoionization of the IGM by a hard ionizing spectrum resulting from the integrated light of quasars at high redshift, but there is considerable scatter. Values of eta > 100 in many locations indicate that there may be localized contributions from starbursts or heavily filtered QSO radiation.

  15. On the covering fraction variability in an EUV mini-BAL outflow from PG 1206+459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzahid, S.; Srianand, R.; Charlton, J.; Eracleous, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first detection of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) absorption variability in the Ne VIII λλ770, 780 mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL) in the spectrum of the quasar (QSO) PG 1206+459. The observed equivalent width (EW) of the Ne VIII doublet shows a ˜4σ variation over a time-scale of 2.8 months in the QSO's rest frame. Both members of the Ne VIII doublet exhibit non-black saturation, indicating partial coverage of the continuum source. An increase in the Ne VIII covering fraction from fc = 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.72 ± 0.03 is observed over the same period. The Ne VIII profiles are too highly saturated to be susceptible to changes in the ionization state of the absorbing gas. In fact, we do not observe any significant variation in the EW and/or column density after correcting the spectra for partial coverage. We, thus, propose transverse motions of the absorbing gas as the cause of the observed variability. Using a simple model of a transiting cloud we estimate a transverse speed of ˜1800 km s-1. For Keplerian motion, this corresponds to a distance between the absorber and the central engine of ˜1.3 pc, which places the absorber just outside the broad-line region. We further estimate a density of ˜5 × 106 cm-3 and a kinetic luminosity of ˜1043-1044 erg s-1. Such large kinetic powers suggest that outflows detected via EUV lines are potentially major contributors to active galactic nuclei feedback.

  16. THE NATURE OF A GALAXY ALONG THE SIGHT LINE TO PKS 0454+039

    SciTech Connect

    Takamiya, Marianne; Chun, Mark; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Gharanfoli, Soheila

    2012-10-01

    We report on the properties of a faint blue galaxy (G1) along the line of sight to the QSO PKS 0454+039 from spectroscopic and imaging data. We measured emission lines of H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6732, and [N II] {lambda}6584 in the spectrum of G1 obtained with the Gemini/GMOS instrument. The spectroscopic redshift of G1 is z = 0.0715 {+-} 0.0002. From the extinction-corrected H{alpha} flux, we determine a modest star formation rate of SFR = 0.07 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a specific SFR of log (sSFR) -8.4. Using three different abundance indicators, we determine a nebular abundance 12 + log (O/H) ranging from 7.6 to 8.2. Based on the velocity dispersion inferred from the emission line widths and the observed surface brightness profile, we estimate the virial mass of G1 to be M{sub vir} {approx} 6.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} with an effective radius of 2.0 kpc. We estimate the stellar mass of G1 using spectral energy distribution fitting to be M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} and an r'-luminosity of L{sub r'} = 1.5x10{sup 8} L{sub Sun }. Overall, G1 is a faint, low-mass, low-metallicity Im/H II galaxy. We also report on the line flux limits of another source (G3) which is the most likely candidate for the absorber system at z = 0.8596. From the spectrum of the QSO itself, we report a previously undetected Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 absorption line system at z = 1.245.

  17. A SCUBA-2 survey of FeLoBAL QSOs. Are FeLoBALs in a `transition phase' between ULIRGs and QSOs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violino, Giulio; Coppin, Kristen E. K.; Stevens, Jason A.; Farrah, Duncan; Geach, James E.; Alexander, Dave M.; Hickox, Ryan; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-04-01

    It is thought that a class of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, characterized by Fe absorption features in their UV spectra (called `FeLoBALs'), could mark a transition stage between the end of an obscured starburst event and a youthful QSO beginning to shed its dust cocoon, where Fe has been injected into the interstellar medium by the starburst. To test this hypothesis, we have undertaken deep Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) 850 μm observations of a sample of 17 FeLoBAL QSOs with 0.89 ≤ z ≤ 2.78 and -23.31 ≤ MB ≤ -28.50 to directly detect an excess in the thermal emission of the dust which would probe enhanced star formation activity. We find that FeLoBALs are not luminous sources in the sub-mm, none of them are individually detected at 850 μm, nor as a population through stacking (Fs = 1.14 ± 0.58 mJy). Statistical and survival analyses reveal that FeLoBALs have sub-mm properties consistent with BAL and non-BAL QSOs with matched redshifts and magnitudes. An Spectral Energy Distribution fitting analysis shows that the far-infrared emission is dominated by active galactic nuclei activity, and a starburst component is required only in 6/17 sources of our sample; moreover the integrated total luminosity of 16/17 sources is L ≥ 1012 L⊙, high enough to classify FeLoBALs as infrared luminous. In conclusion, we do not find any evidence in support of FeLoBAL QSOs being a transition population between an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) and an unobscured QSO; in particular, FeLoBALs are not characterized by a cold starburst which would support this hypothesis.

  18. Chemical abundances and ionization in sub-Damped Lyman-alpha absorbers at z < 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiring, Joseph D.

    2008-06-01

    The chemical composition of galaxies provide important clues into galaxy formation and evolution. Quasar (QSO) absorption line systems offer a unique window into the high redshift Universe and the properties of normal galaxies at high redshift. QSO absorbers have long been used to study distant galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM). The Damped Lyman-a systems (DLAs), with neutral Hydrogen column densities of log N H I > 20.3, and sub-Damped Lyman-a systems (sub-DLAs) with 19.0 < log N H I < 20.3 contain the majority of the neutral gas in the Universe at high redshift, probe metallicities over ~90% of the cosmic history, and are believed to be the progenitors of modern day galaxies. Models of the chemical evolution of galaxies predict that the mean metallicity of galaxies should reach a solar value by z ~ 0 due to the ongoing cycles of star formation which enrich the galaxy with heavy elements. The DLA systems which have been the preferred class of absorbers for these investigations however appear to be metal poor at all redshifts, and show little evolution in their metallicity, contradicting the models of chemical evolution, the "missing metals problem". We have amassed a sample of 32 sub-DLAs and 3 DLAS at z abs < 1.5 using the 6.5m Magellan II telescope with the MIKE spectrograph, and the 8.2m VLT-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph to study the properties of these systems and determine their metal content. We have measured the absorption lines of multiple lines in these systems and determined column densities and abundances. We have also created grids of photoionization models using CLOUDY to determine the effects of ionization in these systems. Although the gas is largely ionized, the abundances appear not to require significant ionization corrections. We find that the sub-DLAs, especially at low z are more metal rich than the DLA systems, with [Zn/H] subDLA = -0.30 ± 0.15 and [Zn/H] DLA = -0.94 ± 0.11. These systems appear to contain ~ 40 - 75

  19. Tracing the outflow of a z = 0.334 FeLoBAL: New constraints from low-ionization absorbers in FBQS J1151+3822

    SciTech Connect

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Leighly, Karen M.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C.

    2014-03-01

    We show for the first time that FBQS J1151+3822 is an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar (FeLoBAL QSO), the second-brightest and second-closest known example of this class. He I* and Fe II together act as an effective analytical tool, allowing us to obtain useful kinematic constraints from photoionization models of the outflow without needing to assume any particular acceleration model. The main outflow's log ionization parameter is –1.5, the log hydrogen density (cm{sup –3}) 5.5-8, the log hydrogen column density (cm{sup –2}) 21.7-21.9, the absorption radius 7.2-127 pc, and the kinetic luminosity is 0.16%-4.5% of the bolometric luminosity. We obtain line-of-sight covering fractions of ∼0.25 for strong Fe II, ∼0.5 for He I*, and ∼0.6 for Mg II. Narrower and shallower absorption lines from weaker Fe II and Mn II with an outflow velocity of ∼3400 km s{sup –1} have appeared between 2005 and 2011, suggesting that dense cores may have condensed inside the main outflow. Consideration of the literature might suggest that the FBQS J1151+3822 outflow is a member of a rare and distinct subclass of FeLoBALs with high densities and correspondingly small absorption radii. We find, however, that such outflows are not necessarily a distinct subclass, and that their apparent rarity could be a symptom of selection bias in studies using density-sensitive lines.

  20. H I OBSERVATIONS OF THE Ca II ABSORBING GALAXIES Mrk 1456 AND SDSS J211701.26-002633.7

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2009-12-15

    In an effort to study Damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) galaxies at low redshift, we have been using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify galaxies projected onto quasi-stellar object (QSO) sight lines and to characterize their optical properties. For low-redshift galaxies, the H I 21 cm emission line can be used as an alternate tool for identifying possible DLA galaxies, since H I-emitting galaxies typically exhibit H I columns that are larger than the classical DLA limit. Here, we report on follow-up H I 21 cm emission-line observations of two DLA candidates that are both low-redshift spiral galaxies, Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7. The observations were made using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and Arecibo telescope, respectively. Analysis of their H I properties reveal the galaxies to be about one and two M*{sub HI} galaxies, respectively, and to have average H I mass, gas richness, and gas-mass fraction for their morphological types. We consider Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 to be candidate DLA systems based upon the strength of the Ca II absorption lines they cause in their QSO's spectra, and impact parameters to the QSO that are smaller than the stellar disk. Compared to the small numbers of other H I detected DLA and candidate DLA galaxies, Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 have high H I masses. Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 have also been found to lie in galaxy groups that are high in H I gas mass compared to the group containing SBS 1543+593, the only DLA galaxy previously known to be situated in a galaxy group. When compared with the expected properties of low-z DLAs from an H I-detected sample of galaxies, Mrk 1456 and SDSS J211701.26-002633.7 fall within the ranges for impact parameter and M{sub B} ; and the H I mass distribution for the H I-detected DLAs agrees with that of the expected H I mass distribution for low-z DLAs. Our observations support galaxy-evolution models in which high-mass galaxies make up an increasing