Sample records for low-mass stars revisited

  1. Gravitational waves from low mass neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Low mass neutron stars may be uniquely strong sources of gravitational waves. The neutron star crust can support large deformations for low mass stars. This is because of the star's weaker gravity. We find maximum ellipticities {epsilon} (fractional difference in moments of inertia) that are 1000 times larger, and maximum quadrupole moments Q{sub 22} over 100 times larger, for low mass stars than for 1.4M{sub {center_dot}}neutron stars. Indeed, we calculate that the crust can support an {epsilon} as large as 0.005 for a minimum mass neutron star. A 0.12M{sub {center_dot}}star, that is maximally strained and rotating at 100 Hz, will produce a characteristic gravitational wave strain of h{sub 0}=2.1x10{sup -24} at a distance of 1 kpc. The gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO should be sensitive to such objects through out the Milky Way Galaxy. A low mass neutron star could be uniquely identified from a large observed spin down rate and its discovery would have important implications for general relativity, supernova mechanisms, and possibly nucleosynthesis.

  2. The origin of low mass stars.

    PubMed

    Wilking, B A

    1997-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that most low mass stars in the Galaxy (< 5 M [symbol: see text]) form alongside massive stars in clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds. Once their parental gas is removed, the fate of these clusters is to disperse and blend into the field population of the galactic disk. The distribution of stellar masses in the solar neighborhood, called the Initial Mass Function, is discussed in the context of the origin of low mass stars. Arguments based on the production rate of field stars are presented that point to giant molecular clouds as the primary birth sites for low mass stars. The role of observations of molecular clouds at millimeter and infrared wavelengths in confirming this picture is reviewed. Millimeter-wave observations have revealed that molecular clouds consist of low-density gas interspersed with high-density cores. Near-infrared images of these clouds indicate that stars form preferentially in these cores, with the number of young stars roughly scaling with the mass of the core. Molecular-line and near-infrared observations which characterize star formation in the nearest giant molecular cloud complex in Orion are presented. The implications for the Sun forming in a cluster environment are briefly discussed. PMID:9150571

  3. Aging jets from low-mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. A.; Chen, W. P.

    1994-01-01

    An extended faint optical jet is associated with the compact emission region plus faint star known as HH 55. HH 55 is located in the Lupus 2 cloud 2 min SW of the well studied T Tauri star RU Lupi. The HH 55 jet extends 55 sec N and 35 sec S in PA 160 deg. The HH 55 star is an emission line star of spectral type M3.5. Its image in the emission lines of H-alpha and (S II) is slightly elongated by 2 sec - 3 sec to the S but in continuum light is symmetrical and pointlike ((full width at half maximum) (FWHM) = 1.7 sec). The star and jet have several features in common with the star and jet known as Sz 102 = Th 28 in the nearby Lupus 3 cloud. We suggest that these objects are representative of the late evolutionary stage of the HH jet-outflow phenomenon and point out that such objects may be quite common although difficult to detect. With L(sub bol) approximately = 0.005 solar luminosity, and log T(sub e) approximately = 3.5, the HH 55 star is close to the main sequence and evolutionary tracks suggest an age of 3 x 10(exp 7) yr.

  4. Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Liu, Michael C; Allard, France; Blake, Cullen H; Bonnefoy, M; Cody, Ann Marie; Day-Jones, A C; Dupuy, Trent J; Kraus, Adam; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Precise measurements of the fundamental properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are key to understanding the physics underlying their formation and evolution. While there has been great progress over the last decade in studying the bulk spectrophotometric properties of low-mass objects, direct determination of their masses, radii, and temperatures have been very sparse. Thus, theoretical predictions of low-mass evolution and ultracool atmospheres remain to be rigorously tested. The situation is alarming given that such models are widely used, from the determination of the low-mass end of the initial mass function to the characterization of exoplanets. An increasing number of mass, radius, and age determinations are placing critical constraints on the physics of low-mass objects. A wide variety of approaches are being pursued, including eclipsing binary studies, astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solutions, interferometry, and characterization of benchmark systems. In parallel, many more systems suitable ...

  5. Atmospheric circulations of terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Edson; Sukyoung Lee; Peter Bannon; James F. Kasting; David Pollard

    2011-01-01

    Circulations and habitable zones of planets orbiting low-mass stars are investigated. Many of these planets are expected to rotate synchronously relative to their parent stars, thereby raising questions about their surface temperature distributions and habitability. We use a global circulation model to study idealized, synchronously rotating (tidally locked) planets of various rotation periods, with surfaces of all land or all

  6. Evolution of very low mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.A.; Rappaport, S.A.; Joss, P.C.

    1986-12-01

    The results of numerical evolutionary calculations for stars with masses in the range of 0.01-0.10 solar mass are presented. The stellar models by which these stars are followed from the early stages of contraction through deuterium burning to the very late stages of degenerate cooling at ages comparable to that of the Galaxy are described, and the methodology used to investigate the major uncertainties in the input physics are discussed. It is found that, for brown dwarfs with masses substantially below the end of the hydrogen-burning main sequence, the evolution of the effective temperature and bolometric luminosity are fairly well determined, despite the residual uncertainties in the input physics. In particular, the evolution is remarkably insensitive to the choice of the atmospheric opacity law at low temperatures and to the amount of mismatch in specific entropy across the stellar envelope. The minimum mass for a star to attain main-sequence status is moderately sensitive to the assumed input physics, particularly the surface boundary conditions. 58 references.

  7. Convection in low mass stars By FRANCESCA DANTONA

    E-print Network

    D'Antona, Francesca

    Convection in low mass stars By FRANCESCA DANTONA Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio, Italy I review the two main aspects of convection modeling important for the stellar structure: i that the Lithium test can be safely used as an age indicator. 1. Modeling Convection: MLT and FST models

  8. Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G. [Vanderbilt University, Physics and Astronomy Department, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Allard, France [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Blake, Cullen H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Bonnefoy, M. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, BP 53, F-38041 GRENOBLE Cedex 9 (France); Cody, Ann Marie; Kraus, Adam [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Day-Jones, A. C. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Lopez-Morales, Mercedes [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2009-02-16

    Precise measurements of the fundamental properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are key to understanding the physics underlying their formation and evolution. While there has been great progress over the last decade in studying the bulk spectrophotometric properties of low-mass objects, direct determination of their masses, radii, and temperatures have been very sparse. Thus, theoretical predictions of low-mass evolution and ultracool atmospheres remain to be rigorously tested. The situation is alarming given that such models are widely used, from the determination of the low-mass end of the initial mass function to the characterization of exoplanets.An increasing number of mass, radius, and age determinations are placing critical constraints on the physics of low-mass objects. A wide variety of approaches are being pursued, including eclipsing binary studies, astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solutions, interferometry, and characterization of benchmark systems. In parallel, many more systems suitable for concerted study are now being found, thanks to new capabilities spanning both the very widest (all-sky surveys) and very narrowest (diffraction-limited adaptive optics) areas of the sky. This Cool Stars 15 splinter session highlighted the current successes and limitations of this rapidly growing area of precision astrophysics.

  9. Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Michael C. Liu; Keivan G. Stassun; France Allard; Cullen H. Blake; M. Bonnefoy; Ann Marie Cody; A. C. Day-Jones; Trent J. Dupuy; Adam Kraus; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

    2008-10-06

    Precise measurements of the fundamental properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are key to understanding the physics underlying their formation and evolution. While there has been great progress over the last decade in studying the bulk spectrophotometric properties of low-mass objects, direct determination of their masses, radii, and temperatures have been very sparse. Thus, theoretical predictions of low-mass evolution and ultracool atmospheres remain to be rigorously tested. The situation is alarming given that such models are widely used, from the determination of the low-mass end of the initial mass function to the characterization of exoplanets. An increasing number of mass, radius, and age determinations are placing critical constraints on the physics of low-mass objects. A wide variety of approaches are being pursued, including eclipsing binary studies, astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solutions, interferometry, and characterization of benchmark systems. In parallel, many more systems suitable for concerted study are now being found, thanks to new capabilities spanning both the very widest (all-sky surveys) and very narrowest (diffraction-limited adaptive optics) areas of the sky. This Cool Stars 15 splinter session highlighted the current successes and limitations of this rapidly growing area of precision astrophysics.

  10. Companions of old brown dwarfs, and very low mass stars

    E-print Network

    Guenther, E W; Guenther, Eike W.; Wuchterl, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    Up to now, most planet search projects have concentrated on F to K stars. In order to considerably widen the view, we have stated a survey for planets of old, nearby brown dwarfs and very low mass stars. Using UVES, we have observed 26 brown dwarfs and very low mass stars. These objects are quite inactive and are thus highly suitable for such a project. Two objects were found to be spectroscopic binaries. Another object shows significant radial velocity variations. From our measurements, we conclude that this object either has a planetary-mass companion, or the variations are caused by surface features. Within the errors of the measurements, the remaining objects are constant in radial velocity. While it is impossible to strictly exclude an orbiting planet from sparsely sampled RV data, we conclude that it is unlikely that these objects are orbited by massive planets with periods of 40 days or less.

  11. The Scorched Atmosphere of a Low Mass Star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Hines; Gary Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    The recent detection of mid-IR emission from the brown dwarf companion to the white dwarf GD1400 (Farihi & Christopher 2005) demonstrates the power of IRAC for characterizing low-mass companions to white dwarf (WD) stars. Compared with GD1400, the close binary system SDSS121209.31+013627.7 (hereafter SDSS1212) is potentially a far more significant target in this effort. SDSS1212 consists of a magnetic WD

  12. Observational and Theoretical Studies of Low-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    1998-01-01

    Under this grant we have pursued studies of low-mass star formation with observations of candidate star-forming regions, (1) to determine the incidence of "infall asymmetry" in the spectral lines from very red young stellar objects; (2) to make detailed maps of candidate infall regions to determine the spatial extent of their infall asymmetry; (3) to compare the spatial and velocity structure of candidate infall regions with single dish and interferometer resolution; and (4) to begin a program of observations of starless dense cores to detect the presence or absence of infall motions.

  13. Angular momentum transport within evolved low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Mankovich, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen, E-mail: matteo@kitp.ucsb.edu [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-06-10

    Asteroseismology of 1.0-2.0 M {sub ?} red giants by the Kepler satellite has enabled the first definitive measurements of interior rotation in both first ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars and those on the helium burning clump. The inferred rotation rates are 10-30 days for the ?0.2 M {sub ?} He degenerate cores on the RGB and 30-100 days for the He burning core in a clump star. Using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Evolution code, we calculate state-of-the-art stellar evolution models of low mass rotating stars from the zero-age main sequence to the cooling white dwarf (WD) stage. We include transport of angular momentum due to rotationally induced instabilities and circulations, as well as magnetic fields in radiative zones (generated by the Tayler-Spruit dynamo). We find that all models fail to predict core rotation as slow as observed on the RGB and during core He burning, implying that an unmodeled angular momentum transport process must be operating on the early RGB of low mass stars. Later evolution of the star from the He burning clump to the cooling WD phase appears to be at nearly constant core angular momentum. We also incorporate the adiabatic pulsation code, ADIPLS, to explicitly highlight this shortfall when applied to a specific Kepler asteroseismic target, KIC8366239.

  14. Empirical Isochrones for Low Mass Stars in Nearby Young Associations

    E-print Network

    Herczeg, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Absolute ages of young stars are important for many issues in pre-main sequence stellar and circumstellar evolution but are long recognized as difficult to derive and calibrate. In this paper, we use literature spectral types and photometry to construct empirical isochrones in HR diagrams for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the eta Cha, epsilon Cha, and TW Hya Associations and the beta Pic and Tuc-Hor Moving Groups. A successful theory of pre-main sequence evolution should match the shapes of the stellar loci for these groups of young stars. However, when comparing the combined empirical isochrones to isochrones predicted from evolutionary models, discrepancies lead to a spectral type (mass) dependence in stellar age estimates. Improved prescriptions for convection and boundary conditions in the latest models of pre-main sequence models lead to a significantly improved correspondence between empirical and model isochrones, with small offsets at low temperatures that may be explained by observational uncert...

  15. Dust discs around low-mass main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Walker, Helen J.

    1988-01-01

    The current understanding of the formation of circumstellar disks as a natural accompaniment to the process of low-mass star formation is examined. Models of the thermal emission from the dust disks around the prototype stars Alpha Lyr, Alpha PsA, Beta Pic, and Epsilon Eri are discussed, which indicate that the central regions of three of these disks are almost devoid of dust within radii ranging between 17 and 26 AU, with the temperature of the hottest zone lying between about 115 and 210 K. One possible explanation of the dust-free zones is the presence of a planet at the inner boundary of each cloud which sweeps up grains crossing its orbit.

  16. Signatures of Infall in Regions of Low Mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardones, Diego

    1998-01-01

    We used mm-wavelength lines to probe the dense gas kinematics around nearby low mass young stellar objects (YSOs). We used optically thin lines to study the underlying core rest velocity, and optically thick lines to study the foreground absorption velocity field. We surveyed 47 nearby low mass YSOs to determine the frequency of infall-like and expansion-like spectral signatures. We used ? v = (vthick - vthin) / ? vthin, to characterize the spectral line asymmetries. The distribution of ? v is skewed toward negative (blue-shifted) velocities. This excess is much more significant for Class 0 than for Class I sources, indicating that we detect infall motions toward Class 0 and not toward Class I sources. We present maps of 12 YSOs from the survey having strong H2CO line asymmetries. The H2CO self-absorption features are concentrated toward the YSOs in all sources, having predominant infall-like line asymmetries over spatial scales of 0.01--0.04 pc, where the mean gas density is ~105 cm-3. We derive typical infall speeds of 0.01 -- 0.1 km s-1 over the cores, indicating mass accretion rates of (0.1 - 10) × 10-6 Modot yr-1. We find strong velocity gradients, up to 6 km s-1 pc-1, close to the core half maximum contours, suggestive of core motions through an inter-core medium. We present results of spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations with a variety of cloud models. We find that the single most important parameter that determines the line profile shapes is the inward speed in the outer layers of the cores, which are predominantly responsible for the spectral line self-absorption. Our main conclusions are Infall motions are detected toward 40-50% of Class 0 sources, and < 10% of Class I sources. Most sources with infall motions have line widths dominated by non-thermal, rather than thermal motions Infall motions are extended over spatial scales of 0.01--0.04 pc. Infall motions are distinguishable from bipolar outflows by analyzing the spatial distribution of the line asymmetries. Dense star forming cores are apparently moving in an inter core medium, consistent with them being gravitationally bound objects. The observed strong line asymmetries require high infall speeds at large distances from the YSOs, which are inconsistent with pure inside-out collapse models.

  17. The role of low-mass star clusters in forming the massive stars in DR 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the young low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar population associated with the massive star-forming region DR 21 by using archival X-ray Chandra observations and by complementing them with existing optical and infrared (IR) surveys. The Chandra observations have revealed for the first time a new highly extincted population of PMS low-mass stars previously missed in observations at other wavelengths. The X-ray population exhibits three main stellar density peaks, coincident with the massive star-forming regions, being the DR 21 core the main peak. The cross-correlated X-ray/IR sample exhibits a radial `Spokes-like' stellar filamentary structure that extends from the DR 21 core towards the northeast. The near-IR data reveal a centrally peaked structure for the extinction, which exhibits its maximum in the DR 21 core and gradually decreases with the distance to the N-S cloud axis and to the cluster centre. We find evidence of a global mass segregation in the full low-mass stellar cluster, and of a stellar age segregation, with the youngest stars still embedded in the N-S cloud, and more evolved stars more spatially distributed. The results are consistent with the scenario where an elongated overall potential well created by the full low-mass stellar cluster funnels gas through filaments feeding stellar formation. Besides the full gravitational well, smaller scale local potential wells created by dense stellar sub-clusters of low-mass stars are privileged in the competition for the gas of the common reservoir, allowing the formation of massive stars. We also discuss the possibility that a stellar collision in the very dense stellar cluster revealed by Chandra in the DR 21 core is the origin of the large-scale and highly energetic outflow arising from this region.

  18. Signatures of Infall in Regions of Low Mass Star Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Mardones

    1998-01-01

    We used mm-wavelength lines to probe the dense gas kinematics around nearby low mass young stellar objects (YSOs). We used optically thin lines to study the underlying core rest velocity, and optically thick lines to study the foreground absorption velocity field. We surveyed 47 nearby low mass YSOs to determine the frequency of infall-like and expansion-like spectral signatures. We used

  19. Very low mass stars and white dwarfs in NGC 6397

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, Francesco; De Marchi, Guido; Romaniello, Martino

    1995-01-01

    Deep Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in wide bands centered at 606 and 802 nm were taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 4.6 min from the center of the galactic globular cluster NGC 6397. The images were used to accurately position approximately 2120 stars detected in the field on a color magnitude diagram down to a limiting magnitude m(sub 814) approximately = m(sub I) approximately = 26 determined reliably and solely by counting statistics. A white dwarf sequence and a rich, narrow cluster main sequence are detected for the first time, the latter stretching from m(sub 814) = 18.5 to m(sub 814) = 24.0 where it becomes indistinguishable from the field population. Two changes of slope of the main sequence at m(sub 814) approximately = 20 and m(sub 814) approximately = 22.5 are evident. The corresponding luminosity function increases slowly from M(sub 814) approximately = 6.5 to 8.5 are expected from ground-based observations but then drops sharply from there dwon to the measurement limit. The corresponding mass function obtained bu using the only presently available mass-luminosity function for the cluster's metallicity rises to a plateau between approximately 0.25 and approximately 0.15 solar mass, but drops toward the expected mass limit of the normal hydrogen burning main sequence at approximately 0.1 solar mass. This result is in clear contrast to that obtained from the ground and implies either a substantial modification of the cluster's initial mass function due to dynamical evolution in its lifetime, or that very low mass stars are not produced in any dynamically significant amount by clusters of this type. The white dwarf sequence is in reasonable agreement with a cooling sequence of models of mass 0.5 solar mass at the canonical distance of NGC 6397 with a scatter that is most likely due to photometric errors, but may also reflect real differences in mass or chemical composition. Contamination from unresolved galaxies, which cannot be reliably identified with our filters, makes it difficult to meaningfully compare the observed white dwarf luminosity function with its theoretical counterpart.

  20. The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

  1. Low Mass Star Formation in the Taurus-Auriga Clouds

    E-print Network

    Scott J. Kenyon; Mercedes Gomez; Barbara A. Whitney

    2008-10-07

    We review the history and structure of star formation in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds. Our discussion includes a summary of the macroscopic cloud properties, the population of single and binary pre-main sequence stars, the properties of jets and outflows, and detailed summaries of selected individual objects. We include comprehensive tables of dark clouds, young stars, and jets in the clouds.

  2. The Impact of Rotation on the Evolution of Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    D. Brown; M. Salaris

    2007-11-09

    High precision photometry and spectroscopy of low-mass stars reveal a variety of properties standard stellar evolution cannot predict. Rotation, an essential ingredient of stellar evolution, is a step towards resolving the discrepancy between model predictions and observations. The first rotating stellar model, continuously tracing a low-mass star from the pre-main sequence onto the horizontal branch, is presented. The predicted luminosity functions of globular clusters and surface rotation velocities on the horizontal branch are discussed.

  3. New Very Low-Mass T-Tauri Stars in Taurus: Young Brown Dwarfs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesar Briceno; Lee Hartmann; John Stauffer

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results of a CCD survey aimed at obtaining the first extensive sample of very low-mass pre-main sequence objects in the Taurus star forming region. Candidate objects for follow up observations were selected from the color-magnitude diagrams. In medium resolution spectra we identified nine new low-mass pre main sequence stars. Using the optical photometry and spectra we derive

  4. Finding X-ray Coronal Cycles in Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Maurice; Guenther, Hans Moritz; Auchettl, Katie

    2015-01-01

    We seek to increase the number of stars known to have an X-ray coronal cycle. Four stars (including the Sun) are known to experience periodic long-term coronal flux variability but the statistics are not superb. In this analysis, we analyze four stellar sources that have been observed frequently by Chandra and XMM-Newton over the last ~11 years. These four sources were the brightest among numerous stellar point sources within the Chandra Deep Field South. Solar flares can dramatically increase the flux measured for our stars on short time intervals and, in observations with insufficient time coverage, can be confused for the maximum of the stars' magnetic cycles (if they have one). We have discarded times where solar proton flares are detected in the data. We utilize an APEC model, which represents the coronal plasma, to fit our stellar spectra. As our sources are very faint, we do not subtract the background, but instead we fit the background and source spectra simultaneously. We use the chi-squared statistic to evaluate the confidence of our fits. We present four light curves which suggest that a long-term X-ray flux variability similar to our Sun (the solar X-ray flux can vary by a factor of 10 over ~11 years) is not present in these stellar sources. None of our stars experienced a flux variability exceeding a factor of 3 over an 11 year time scale but one of the four stars in our sample exhibits short term variability over a one year period. However, our stellar sources are too faint to conclusively state that the flux remains constant throughout all epochs.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense AS-SURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  5. Modelling the hidden magnetic field of low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, P.; Jardine, M.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Jeffers, S.; Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.

    2014-04-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging is a spectropolarimetric technique that is used to map the large-scale surface magnetic fields of stars. These maps in turn are used to study the structure of the stars' coronae and winds. This method, however, misses any small-scale magnetic flux whose polarization signatures cancel out. Measurements of Zeeman broadening show that a large percentage of the surface magnetic flux may be neglected in this way. In this paper we assess the impact of this `missing flux' on the predicted coronal structure and the possible rates of spin-down due to the stellar wind. To do this we create a model for the small-scale field and add this to the Zeeman-Doppler maps of the magnetic fields of a sample of 12 M dwarfs. We extrapolate this combined field and determine the structure of a hydrostatic, isothermal corona. The addition of small-scale surface field produces a carpet of low-lying magnetic loops that covers most of the surface, including the stellar equivalent of solar `coronal holes' where the large-scale field is opened up by the stellar wind and hence would be X-ray dark. We show that the trend of the X-ray emission measure with rotation rate (the so-called `activity-rotation relation') is unaffected by the addition of small-scale field, when scaled with respect to the large-scale field of each star. The addition of small-scale field increases the surface flux; however, the large-scale open flux that governs the loss of mass and angular momentum in the wind remains unaffected. We conclude that spin-down times and mass-loss rates calculated from surface magnetograms are unlikely to be significantly influenced by the neglect of small-scale field.

  6. High-redshift galaxies and low-mass stars

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Bremer, Malcolm N

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity available to near-infrared surveys has recently allowed us to probe the galaxy population at $z\\approx 7$ and beyond. The existing {\\em Hubble} Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Infrared Camera (VIRCam) instruments allow deep surveys to be undertaken well beyond one micron - a capability that will be further extended with the launch and commissioning of the {\\em James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)}. As new regions of parameter space in both colour and depth are probed new challenges for distant galaxy surveys are identified. In this paper we present an analysis of the colours of L and T dwarf stars in widely used photometric systems. We also consider the implications of the newly-identified Y dwarf population - stars that are still cooler and less massive than T dwarfs for both the photometric selection and spectroscopic follow-up of faint and distant galaxies. We highlight the dangers of working in the low-signal-to-noise regime, and ...

  7. Evolution of Low-Mass Population III Stars

    E-print Network

    Takuma Suda; Masayuki Y. Fujimoto; Naoki Itoh

    2007-06-19

    We present the evolutionary models of metal-free stars in the mass range from 0.8 to 1.2 Msun with up-to-date input physics. The evolution is followed to the onset of hydrogen mixing into a convection, driven by the helium flash at red giant or asymptotic giant branch phase. The models of mass M >= 0.9 Msun undergo the central hydrogen flash, triggered by the carbon production due to the 3-alpha reactions. We find that the border of the off-center and central ignition of helium core flash falls between 1.1 and 1.2 Msun; the models of mass M liquid region, where electron conduction and radiation compete, is shown to be important since it affects the thermal state in the helium core and influences the red giant branch evolution. It is also found that the non-resonant term of 3-alpha reactios plays an important role, although it has negligible effect in the evolution of stars of younger populations. We compare our models with the computations by several other sets of authors, to confirm the good agreement except for one study which finds the helium ignition much closer to the center with consequences important for subsequent evolution.

  8. An age-activity calibration for old low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2014-09-01

    Low-mass stars are highly interesting targets: we are able to detect planets in their habitable zones, and upcoming searches for biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres will focus on low-mass star systems due to their ubiquity and proximity. We aim to develop an age-activity calibration for old low-mass stars, using wide binary systems consisting of an M or K dwarf and a white dwarf. The age of the system is determined by the WD cooling time plus its progenitor lifetime, yielding reliable ages in the regime >1 Gyr. For an exploratory sample of 7 systems where we have already derived ages, we propose to perform Chandra ACIS-S observations to determine the X-ray luminosities of the M dwarfs and correlate their stellar activity with age. We ask for a total observing time of 110 ks.

  9. RADIUS-DEPENDENT ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION IN LOW-MASS STARS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, Ansgar [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Mohanty, Subhanjoy, E-mail: Ansgar.Reiners@phys.uni-goettingen.de [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-10

    Angular momentum evolution in low-mass stars is determined by initial conditions during star formation, stellar structure evolution, and the behavior of stellar magnetic fields. Here we show that the empirical picture of angular momentum evolution arises naturally if rotation is related to magnetic field strength instead of to magnetic flux and formulate a corrected braking law based on this. Angular momentum evolution then becomes a strong function of stellar radius, explaining the main trends observed in open clusters and field stars at a few Gyr: the steep transition in rotation at the boundary to full convection arises primarily from the large change in radius across this boundary and does not require changes in dynamo mode or field topology. Additionally, the data suggest transient core-envelope decoupling among solar-type stars and field saturation at longer periods in very low mass stars. For solar-type stars, our model is also in good agreement with the empirical Skumanich law. Finally, in further support of the theory, we show that the predicted age at which low-mass stars spin down from the saturated to unsaturated field regimes in our model corresponds remarkably well to the observed lifetime of magnetic activity in these stars.

  10. The low-mass classic Algol-type binary UU Leo revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui

    2013-12-01

    New multi-color photometry of the eclipsing binary UU Leo, acquired from 2010 to 2013, was carried out by using the 60-cm and 85-cm telescopes at the Xinglong station, which is administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, the photometric solution was derived from BVR light curves. The results imply that UU Leo is a semi-detached Algol-type binary, with a mass ratio of q = 0.100(±0.002). The change in orbital period was reanalyzed based on all available eclipsing times. The O - C curve could be described by an upward parabola superimposed on a quasi-sinusoidal curve. The period and semi-amplitudes are Pmod = 54.5(±1.1) yr and A = 0.0273d(±0.0015d), which may be attributed to the light-time effect via the presence of an invisible third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +4.64(±0.14) × 10-7d yr-1, which may be interpreted by the conserved mass being transferred from the secondary to the primary. With mass being transferred, the low-mass Algol-type binary UU Leo may evolve into a binary system with a main sequence star and a helium white dwarf.

  11. Angular momentum evolution of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs: observations and theory

    E-print Network

    Bouvier, J; Mohanty, S; Scholz, A; Stassun, K G; Zanni, C

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims at providing the most complete review of both the emerging concepts and the latest observational results regarding the angular momentum evolution of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. In the time since Protostars & Planets V, there have been major developments in the availability of rotation period measurements at multiple ages and in different star-forming environments that are essential for testing theory. In parallel, substantial theoretical developments have been carried out in the last few years, including the physics of the star-disk interaction, numerical simulations of stellar winds, and the investigation of angular momentum transport processes in stellar interiors. This chapter reviews both the recent observational and theoretical advances that prompted the development of renewed angular momentum evolution models for cool stars and brown dwarfs. While the main observational trends of the rotational history of low mass objects seem to be accounted for by these new models, a n...

  12. Star formation histories of low-mass star forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Gallego, J.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of 74 spectroscopically confirmed low-mass star forming galaxies (LMSFGs) with stellar masses 7.3star formation (SF) and chemical enrichment histories, and state of the art modeling of the stellar and nebular emission, and dust attenuation. Our work extends the SF Main Sequence over 2 dex toward lower stellar masses. The median SFH of the sample of LMSFGs shows that more than 90% of the stellar mass estimated for the targets is formed in the 0.7-3.0 Gyr period prior to their observation.

  13. PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ollivier; O. Absil; F. Allard; J.-P. Berger; P. Bordé; F. Cassaing; B. Chazelas; A. Chelli; O. Chesneau; V. Coudé du Foresto; D. Defrère; P. Duchon; P. Gabor; J. Gay; E. Herwats; S. Jacquinod; P. Kern; P. Kervella; J.-M. Le Duigou; A. Léger; B. Lopez; F. Malbet; D. Mourard; D. Pelat; G. Perrin; Y. Rabbia; D. Rouan; J.-M. Reiss; G. Rousset; F. Selsis; P. Stee; J. Surdej

    2009-01-01

    PEGASE is a mission dedicated to the exploration of the environment (including habitable zone) of young and solar-type stars\\u000a (particularly those in the DARWIN catalogue) and the observation of low mass companions around nearby stars. It is a space\\u000a interferometer project composed of three free flying spacecraft, respectively featuring two 40 cm siderostats and a beam combiner\\u000a working in the visible

  14. The large-scale axisymmetric magnetic topology of avery-low-mass fully-convective star

    E-print Network

    JF Donati; T Forveille; AC Cameron; JR Barnes; X Delfosse; MM Jardine; JA Valenti

    2006-02-03

    Understanding how cool stars produce magnetic fields within their interiors is crucial for predicting the impact of such fields, such as the activity cycle of the Sun. In this respect, studying fully convective stars enables us to investigate the role of convective zones in magnetic field generation. We produced a magnetic map of a rapidly rotating, very-low-mass, fully convective dwarf through tomographic imaging from time series of spectropolarimetric data. Our results, which demonstrate that fully convective stars are able to trigger axisymmetric large-scale poloidal fields without differential rotation, challenge existing theoretical models of field generation in cool stars.

  15. The low-mass star and sub-stellar populations of the 25 Orionis group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Juan José; Briceño, César; Mateu, Cecilia; Hernández, Jesús; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.; Allen, Lori

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of a survey of the low-mass star and brown dwarf population of the 25 Orionis group. Using optical photometry from the CIDA (Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía `Francisco J. Duarte', Mérida, Venezuela) Deep Survey of Orion, near-IR photometry from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy and low-resolution spectroscopy obtained with Hectospec at the MMT telescope, we selected 1246 photometric candidates to low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with estimated masses within 0.02 ? M/M? ? 0.8 and spectroscopically confirmed a sample of 77 low-mass stars as new members of the cluster with a mean age of ˜7 Myr. We have obtained a system initial mass function of the group that can be well described by either a Kroupa power-law function with indices ?3 = -1.73 ± 0.31 and ?2 = 0.68 ± 0.41 in the mass ranges 0.03 ? M/M? ? 0.08 and 0.08 ? M/M? ? 0.5, respectively, or a Scalo lognormal function with coefficients m_c=0.21^{+0.02}_{-0.02} and ? = 0.36 ± 0.03 in the mass range 0.03 ? M/M? ? 0.8. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of this numerous candidate sample, we have confirmed the east-west elongation of the 25 Orionis group observed in previous works, and rule out a possible southern extension of the group. We find that the spatial distributions of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in 25 Orionis are statistically indistinguishable. Finally, we found that the fraction of brown dwarfs showing IR excesses is higher than for low-mass stars, supporting the scenario in which the evolution of circumstellar discs around the least massive objects could be more prolonged.

  16. Low Mass Companions for Five Solar-Type Stars from the Magellan Planet Search Program

    E-print Network

    Dante Minniti; R. Paul Butler; Mercedes Lopez-Morales; Stephen A. Shectman; Fred C. Adams; Pamela Arriagada; Alan P. Boss; John E. Chambers

    2008-10-29

    We report low mass companions orbiting five Solar-type stars that have emerged from the Magellan precision Doppler velocity survey, with minimum (Msini) masses ranging from 1.2 to 25 Mjup. These nearby target stars range from mildly metal-poor to metal-rich, and appear to have low chromospheric activity. The companions to the brightest two of these stars have previously been reported from the CORALIE survey. Four of these companions (HD 48265-b, HD 143361-b, HD 28185-b, HD 111232-b) are low-mass Jupiter-like planets in eccentric intermediate and long-period orbits. On the other hand, the companion to HD 43848 appears to be a long period brown dwarf in a very eccentric orbit.

  17. Rotational Evolution of Low Mass Post-T Tauri Stars at 10-30 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, G.; Rodríguez, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present a complementary study to those presented by Scholz et al. (2007) of rotation and chromospheric activity for a sample of 33 young low-mass stars of the southern hemisphere with spectral types G-K belonging to the stellar associations: TWA Hya (˜10 Myr), BPMG (˜11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL, ˜21 Myr), Lower Centarus Crux (LCC, ˜23 Myr), and Tucana-Horologium (THA, ˜30 Myr). Using CaII infrared triplet (IRT) chromospheric lines analysis of FEROS spectra, we detected a clear decay of the chromospheric activity with age. The rotation — activity relation shows prominent differences with those observed in main sequence stars indicating that young low-mass stars generate their magnetic fields in a different way. Theoretical predictions using a time-dependent stellar spin evolution model were also done and confirm that such kind of spin up is a consequence of the disappearance of the disks at the beginning of the post T Tauri stage.

  18. Ultra low-mass star and substellar formation in sigma Orionis

    E-print Network

    J. A. Caballero

    2005-11-07

    The nearby young sigma Orionis cluster (~360 pc, ~3 Ma) is becoming one of the most important regions for the study of ultra low-mass star formation and its extension down to the mass regimes of the brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects. Here, I introduce the sigma Orionis cluster and present three studies that the JOVIAN group is developing: a pilot programme of near-infrared adaptive-optics imaging, intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy of a large sample of stars of the cluster and a study of the mass function down to the planetary-mass domain. This paper is a summary of the content of four posters that I presented in the Ultra low-mass star formation and evolution Workshop, as single author or on behalf of different collaborations.

  19. Probing the circumstellar environments of very young low-mass stars using water masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Vogel, S. N.; Myers, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The VLA is used to search nearby very young low-mass stars for water maser emission. The sample consists of 26 low-luminosity IRAS sources embedded in dense molecular cores, a class of sources suspected to be newly forming low-mass stars on the order of a few hundred thousand years old. Three sources were detected. High spatial resolution maps show the region of maser emission is generally confined to an area smaller than about 0.5 arcsec near the star, and the velocities of individual components span intervals ranging from 20 to 40 km/s. It is inferred from the fact that the maser velocities are too large to be due to gravitational motions in at least two of the sources that the masers are associated with the winds from the young low-mass stars. A comparison of the high spatial resolution maser data to lower-resolution CO data shows no evidence for higher collimation close to the star; the stellar wind cavity appears to have similar collimation at 10 exp 15 cm as at 10 exp 7 to 10 exp 18 cm.

  20. Planet Formation around Low-Mass Stars: The Moving Snow Line and Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2006-10-01

    We develop a semianalytic model for planet formation during the pre-main-sequence contraction phase of a low-mass star. During this evolution, the stellar magnetosphere maintains a fixed ratio between the inner disk radius and the stellar radius. As the star contracts at constant effective temperature, the ``snow line,'' which separates regions of rocky planet formation from regions of icy planet formation, moves inward. This process enables rapid formation of icy protoplanets that collide and merge into super-Earths before the star reaches the main sequence. The masses and orbits of these super-Earths are consistent with super-Earths detected in recent microlensing experiments.

  1. Reducing Radius and Temperature Uncertainties for Low-Mass Kepler Objects of Interest With Proxy Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Justin; Ballard, S.

    2014-01-01

    The number of exoplanets known to exist around low-mass stars is rising steadily, and we now know that these stars are the most likely to host small planets. The opportunities for the characterization of small planets (and eventually the search for biomarkers in their atmospheres) are bolstered for those that orbit small stars. The small size of their host star boosts the detectability of exoplanetary signatures, from their transit depths to their radial velocity amplitudes. The next generation of telescopes such as JWST and TESS will be well-poised to conduct such studies, but maximizing their return depends crucially upon understanding the population of planets identified around low-mass stars within the existing Kepler sample. Unfortunately, the empirical metrics and synthetic spectra that allow for the characterization of cooler and hotter spectral types, respectively, breaks down for stars in the spectral range between M1 and K5, making it difficult to determine which exoplanets are the best ones to study more closely with future instruments. Since the vast majority of exoplanets are discovered and characterized by the effect they produce on their host stars, these uncertainties in stellar parameters result in large uncertainties for the radii and temperatures of its planets. We describe our program to reduce these uncertainties for a sample of planet candidates discovered by the Kepler Space Telescope by applying the radii and temperatures of nearby "proxy" stars, which have had their radii measured directly with interferometry, to our target stars. We use spectral typing software to identify suitable proxy stars. We show that by applying the parameters of proxy stars to our target stars, the uncertainties in stellar temperature and radius can be reduced. Finally, we validate our findings by comparing them with the size, temperature, and metallicity determined from near-infrared spectra of our target stars.

  2. Investigating the Properties of Low-Mass Stars Using Spectra of Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluns, Kyle; West, A. A.; Dhital, S.; Massey, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a study designed to characterize wide, low-mass (< 0.5 M_Sun) binaries identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We examine the SDSS database level completeness (for identifying visual binaries) and analyze the pairs that both have individual SDSS spectra. A comprehensive by-eye examination reveals that a significant fraction of the sources within 1" of the primary stellar source are misclassified as duplicate detections and, hence, are omitted from the photometric primary catalog in the SDSS database. This discrepancy has a noticeable effect on estimates of the binary fraction, mass function, luminosity function, and other studies that rely on large, photometric samples of low-mass stars. Due to their coeval nature, binaries with at least one low-mass component are important for calibrating the age-activity relation and the relative metallicity scales. Better defined stellar ages and metallicities allow for a proper analysis of stellar and Galactic evolution using ubiquitous low-mass stars. We constructed a spectroscopic sample of wide binaries, for which there is at least one low-mass component and an individual spectrum for each star. Each binary was verified using measurements of their common proper motions and a chance alignment probability calculated from a six-dimensional model of the Milky Way. The orbital separation of the binary components provides an extra age constraint due to mechanisms that destroy wide binaries during thin-disk dynamical heating. We evaluate the behavior of the magnetic activity in coeval systems, with a specific focus on the dependence of activity on orbital separation and location in the Galactic disk. The preliminary results of our analysis will help calibrate the age-activity relation in M dwarfs. In addition, we calibrate the relative metallicity scale for metal poor K and M dwarfs using a modified index based on TiO and CaH molecular band features.

  3. The coronal temperatures of low-mass main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, C. P.; Güdel, M.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We study the X-ray emission of low-mass main-sequence stars to derive a reliable general scaling law between coronal temperature and the level of X-ray activity. Methods: We collect ROSAT measurements of hardness ratios and X-ray luminosities for a large sample of stars to derive which stellar X-ray emission parameter is most closely correlated with coronal temperature. We calculate average coronal temperatures for a sample of 24 low-mass main-sequence stars with measured emission measure distributions (EMDs) collected from the literature. These EMDs are based on high-resolution X-ray spectra measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra. Results: We confirm that there is one universal scaling relation between coronal average temperature and surface X-ray flux, FX, that applies to all low-mass main-sequence stars. We find that coronal temperature is related to FX by T?cor = 0.11 FX0.26, where T?cor is in MK and FX is in erg s-1 cm-2.

  4. A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Conroy, Charlie

    2010-12-16

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we report observations of the Na?(I) doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. These lines are strong in stars with masses less than 0.3M(?) (where M(?) is the mass of the Sun) and are weak or absent in all other types of stars. We unambiguously detect both signatures, consistent with previous studies that were based on data of lower signal-to-noise ratio. The direct detection of the light of low-mass stars implies that they are very abundant in elliptical galaxies, making up over 80% of the total number of stars and contributing more than 60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low-mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1M(?) to 1M(?). PMID:21124316

  5. A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2010-12-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we report observations of the NaI doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. These lines are strong in stars with masses less than 0.3Msolar (where Msolar is the mass of the Sun) and are weak or absent in all other types of stars. We unambiguously detect both signatures, consistent with previous studies that were based on data of lower signal-to-noise ratio. The direct detection of the light of low-mass stars implies that they are very abundant in elliptical galaxies, making up over 80% of the total number of stars and contributing more than 60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low-mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1Msolar to 1Msolar.

  6. S-process in extremely metal-poor, low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, M. A.; Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Extremely metal-poor (EMP), low-mass stars experience an ingestion of protons into the helium-rich layer during the core He-flash, resulting in the production of neutrons through the reactions 12C(p,?)13N(?)13C(?,n)16O. This is a potential site for the production of s-process elements in EMP stars, which does not occur in more metal-rich counterparts. The signatures of s-process elements in the two most iron deficient stars observed to date, HE1327-2326 & HE0107-5240, still await for an explanation. Aims: We investigate the possibility that low-mass EMP stars could be the source of s-process elements observed in extremely iron deficient stars, either as a result of self-enrichment or in a binary scenario as the consequence of a mass transfer episode. Methods: We present evolutionary and post-processing s-process calculations of a 1 M? stellar model with metallicities of Z = 0, 10-8, and 10-7. We assess the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis results to uncertainties in the input physics of the stellar models with particular regard to the details of convective mixing during the core He-flash. Results: Our models provide the possibility of explaining the C, O, Sr, and Ba abundance for the star HE0107-5240 as the result of mass-transfer from a low-mass EMP star. The drawback of our model is that nitrogen would be overproduced and the 12C/^{13C} abundance ratio would be underproduced in comparison to the observed values if mass would be transferred before the primary star enters the asymptotic giant branch phase. Conclusions: Our results show that low-mass EMP stars cannot be ruled out as companion stars that might have polluted HE1327-2326 and HE0107-5240 and produced the observed s-process pattern. However, more detailed studies of the core He-flash and the proton ingestion episode are needed to determine the robustness of our predictions.

  7. Activity and rotation of low mass stars in young open clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Seifahrt, Andreas; Reiners, Ansgar [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Scholz, Aleks [SUPA, School of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-02-16

    We present first results from a multi-object spectroscopy campaign in IC2602, the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the Coma cluster using VLT/FLAMES. We analysed the data for radial velocity, rotational velocity (v sin i), and H{alpha}-activity. Here, we highlight three aspects of this study in the context of rotational braking and the rotation-activity relationship among low mass stars. Finally we discuss the cluster membership of sources in IC2602.

  8. An Equation of State for Low-Mass Stars and Giant Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Saumon; G. Chabrier; H. M. van Horn

    1995-01-01

    We present new equations of state (EOS) for hydrogen and helium, intended for applications to low-mass stars (M < 1 Msun), brown dwarfs, and giant planets. They cover the range 2.10

  9. THE RADIUS DISCREPANCY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SINGLE VERSUS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spada, F. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Demarque, P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Kim, Y.-C. [Yonsei University Observatory and Astronomy Department, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sills, A., E-mail: fspada@aip.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-10-20

    A long-standing issue in the theory of low-mass stars is the discrepancy between predicted and observed radii and effective temperatures. In spite of the increasing availability of very precise radius determinations from eclipsing binaries and interferometric measurements of radii of single stars, there is no unanimous consensus on the extent (or even the existence) of the discrepancy and on its connection with other stellar properties (e.g., metallicity, magnetic activity). We investigate the radius discrepancy phenomenon using the best data currently available (accuracy ?< 5%). We have constructed a grid of stellar models covering the entire range of low-mass stars (0.1-1.25 M{sub ?}) and various choices of the metallicity and mixing length parameter, ?. We used an improved version of the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code, implementing surface boundary conditions based on the most up-to-date PHOENIX atmosphere models. Our models are in good agreement with others in the literature and improve and extend the low mass end of the Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Our calculations include rotation-related quantities, such as moments of inertia and convective turnover timescales, useful in studies of magnetic activity and rotational evolution of solar-like stars. Consistent with previous works, we find that both binaries and single stars have radii inflated by about 3% with respect to the theoretical models; among binaries, the components of short orbital period systems are found to be the most deviant. We conclude that both binaries and single stars are comparably affected by the radius discrepancy phenomenon.

  10. The convective noise floor for the spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D. E.; Brault, J. W.

    The threshold mass for the unambiguous spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars is defined here as the time when the maximum acceleration in the stellar radial velocity due to the Doppler reflex of the companion exceeds the apparent acceleration produced by changes in convection. An apparent acceleration of 11 m/s/yr in integrated sunlight was measured using near infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. This drift in the apparent solar velocity is attributed to a lessening in the magnetic inhibition of granular convection as solar minimum approaches. The threshold mass for spectroscopic detection of companions to a one solar mass star is estimated at below one Jupiter mass.

  11. The convective noise floor for the spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D. E.; Brault, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The threshold mass for the unambiguous spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars is defined here as the time when the maximum acceleration in the stellar radial velocity due to the Doppler reflex of the companion exceeds the apparent acceleration produced by changes in convection. An apparent acceleration of 11 m/s/yr in integrated sunlight was measured using near infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. This drift in the apparent solar velocity is attributed to a lessening in the magnetic inhibition of granular convection as solar minimum approaches. The threshold mass for spectroscopic detection of companions to a one solar mass star is estimated at below one Jupiter mass.

  12. Discovery of an outflow of the very low-mass star ISO 143

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergens, V.; Kopytova, T.; Pohl, A.

    2012-12-01

    We discover that the very young very low-mass star ISO 143 (M5) is driving an outflow based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden [S II] emission lines at 6716 Å and 6731 Å observed in UVES/VLT spectra. This adds another object to the handful of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars (M5-M8) for which an outflow has been confirmed and which show that the T Tauri phase continues at very low masses. We find the outflow of ISO 143 to be intrinsically asymmetric and the accretion disk to not obscure the outflow, as only the red outflow component is visible in the [S II] lines. ISO 143 is only the third T Tauri object showing a stronger red outflow component in spectro-astrometry, after RW Aur (G5) and ISO 217 (M6.25). We show here that, including ISO 143, two out of seven outflows confirmed in the very low-mass regime (M5-M8) are intrinsically asymmetric. We measure a spatial extension of the outflow in [S II] of up to 200-300 mas (about 30-50 AU) and velocities of up to 50-70 km s-1. We furthermore detect line emission of ISO 143 in Ca II (8498 Å), O I (8446 Å), He I (7065 Å), and weakly in [Fe II] (7155 Å). Based on a line profile analysis and decomposition we demonstrate that (i) the Ca II emission can be attributed to chromospheric activity, a variable wind, and the magnetospheric infall zone, (ii) the O I emission mainly to accretion-related processes but also a wind, and (iii) the He I emission to chromospheric or coronal activity. We estimate a mass outflow rate of ISO 143 of ~10-10 M? yr-1 and a mass accretion rate in the range of ~10-8 to ~10-9 M? yr-1. These values are consistent with those of other brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars. The derived ?out/?acc ratio of 1-20% does not support previous findings of this number being very large (>40%) for very low-mass objects. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile in program 080.C- 0904(A) 082.C-0023(A+B).

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars: Effective Temperatures, Metallicities, Masses and Radii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S. Muirhead; Katherine Hamren; Everett Schlawin; Barbara Rojas-Ayala; Kevin R. Covey; James P. Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    We report stellar parameters for low-mass planet-candidate host stars recently announced by the Kepler Mission. We obtained medium-resolution, K-band spectra of 84 low-mass Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). We identified one KOI as a giant; for the remaining dwarfs, we estimated effective temperatures by comparing measurements of K-band regions dominated by H2O opacity with predictions of synthetic spectra for low-mass

  14. Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in NGC 2024: Constraints on the Substellar Mass Function

    E-print Network

    J. L. Levine; A. Steinhauer; R. J. Elston; E. A. Lada

    2006-04-13

    We present results from a near-infrared spectroscopic study of candidate brown dwarfs and low mass stars in the young cluster NGC 2024. Using FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 2.1m and 4m telescopes, we have obtained spectra of ~70 new members of the cluster and classified them via the prominent J and H band water absorption features. Derived spectral types range from ~M1 to later than M8 with typical classification errors of 0.5-1 subclasses. By combining these spectral types with JHK photometry, we place these objects on the H-R diagram and use pre-main sequence evolutionary models to infer masses and ages. The mean age for this low mass population of NGC 2024 is 0.5 Myr and derived masses range from ~0.7-0.02 solar masses with 23 objects falling below the hydrogen-burning limit. The logarithmic mass function rises to a peak at ~0.2 solar masses before turning over and declining into the substellar regime. There is a possible secondary peak at ~0.035 solar masses however the errors are also consistent with a flat IMF in this region. The ratio of brown dwarfs to stars is similar to that found in the Trapezium but roughly twice the ratio found in IC 348, leading us to conclude that the substellar IMF in young clusters may be dependent on the local star forming environment.

  15. Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. I. Theoretical formalism

    E-print Network

    Belkacem, K; Goupil, M J; Sonoi, T; Ouazzani, R M; Dupret, M A; Mathis, S; Mosser, B; Grosjean, M

    2015-01-01

    Seismic observations by the space-borne mission \\emph{Kepler} have shown that the core of red giant stars slows down while evolving, requiring an efficient physical mechanism to extract angular momentum from the inner layers. Current stellar evolution codes fail to reproduce the observed rotation rates by several orders of magnitude, and predict a drastic spin-up of red giant cores instead. New efficient mechanisms of angular momentum transport are thus required. In this framework, our aim is to investigate the possibility that mixed modes extract angular momentum from the inner radiative regions of evolved low-mass stars. To this end, we consider the Transformed Eulerian Mean (TEM) formalism, introduced by Andrews \\& McIntyre (1978), that allows us to consider the combined effect of both the wave momentum flux in the mean angular momentum equation and the wave heat flux in the mean entropy equation as well as their interplay with the meridional circulation. In radiative layers of evolved low-mass stars, ...

  16. Physical properties of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z <1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2015-05-01

    In this poster we present the physical properties of a sample of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z<1). We selected a population of dwarf galaxies because dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) they resemble the first structures that hierarchical models predict to form first in the Universe (Dekel & Silk 1986) and that are responsible for the reionization process (Bouwens et al. 2012); and (2) the way or epoch they form and how they evolve are still open questions of modern astrophysics. We selected the sample on the CDFS field. Photometry (40 bands, from UV to far-IR) and preliminary photometric redshifts and stellar masses were obtained from RAINBOW database (Pérez-González et al. 2008). Morphology fom Griffith et al. (2012). Main selection was done by stellar mass, selecting those galaxies with stellar mass M_*<10^8 {M}_?. Spectroscopic redshifts were obtained from deep (4 h) MOS spectroscopy with the VIMOS spectrograph at VLT. The average spectrum is characterized by a faint, blue and flat continuum and strong emission lines, revealing that the systems are dominated by an undergoing star formation burst. SFRs and stellar masses are consistent with the SF main-squence over a 2 dex range. More massive objects show higher SFRs than low-mass objects, following the SF main sequence. Distant dwarfs and BCDs follow the overall star-forming sequence in the excitation-luminosity diagram, populating the high excitation, low metallicity and high strength region.

  17. Identification and characterization of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberasturi, M.; Solano, E.; Martín, E.

    2015-05-01

    Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (with spectral types M, L, T and Y) are the most common objects in the Milky Way. A complete census of these objects is necessary to understand the theories about their complex structure and formation processes. In order to increase the number of known objects in the Solar neighborhood (d<30 pc), we have made use of the Virtual Observatory which allows an efficient handling of the huge amount of information available in astronomical databases. We also used the WFC3 installed in the Hubble Space Telescope to look for T5+ dwarfs binaries.

  18. On the helium flash in low-mass Population III Red Giant stars

    E-print Network

    H. Schlattl; S. Cassisi; M. Salaris; A. Weiss

    2001-05-23

    We investigate the evolution of initially metal-free, low-mass Red Giant stars through the He core flash at the tip of the Red Giant Branch. The low entropy barrier between the helium- and hydrogen-rich layers enables a penetration of the helium flash driven convective zone into the inner tail of the extinguishing H-burning shell. As a consequence, protons are mixed into high-temperature regions triggering a H-burning runaway. The subsequent dredge-up of matter processed by He and H burning enriches the stellar surface with large amounts of helium, carbon and nitrogen. Extending previous results by Hollowell et al. (1990) and Fujimoto et al. (2000), who claimed that the H-burning runaway is an intrinsic property of extremely metal-poor low-mass stars, we found that its occurrence depends on additional parameters like the initial composition and the treatment of various physical processes. We perform some comparisons between predicted surface chemical abundances and observational measurements for extremely metal-deficient stars. As in previous investigations, our results disclose that although the described scenario provides a good qualitative agreement with observations, considerable discrepancies still remain. They may be due to a more complex evolutionary path of `real' stars, and/or some shortcomings in current evolutionary models. In addition, we analyze the evolutionary properties after the He core flash, during both the central and shell He-burning phases, allowing us to deduce some interesting differences between models whose Red Giant Branch progenitor has experienced the H-flash and canonical models. In particular, the Asymptotic Giant Branch evolution of extremely metal-deficient stars and the occurrence of thermal pulses are strongly affected by the previous RGB evolution.

  19. Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. I. Theoretical formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacem, K.; Marques, J. P.; Goupil, M. J.; Sonoi, T.; Ouazzani, R. M.; Dupret, M. A.; Mathis, S.; Mosser, B.; Grosjean, M.

    2015-07-01

    Seismic observations by the space-borne mission Kepler have shown that the core of red giant stars slows down while evolving, requiring an efficient physical mechanism to extract angular momentum from the inner layers. Current stellar evolution codes fail to reproduce the observed rotation rates by several orders of magnitude and instead predict a drastic spin-up of red giant cores. New efficient mechanisms of angular momentum transport are thus required. In this framework, our aim is to investigate the possibility that mixed modes extract angular momentum from the inner radiative regions of evolved low-mass stars. To this end, we consider the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) formalism, which allows us to consider the combined effect of both the wave momentum flux in the mean angular momentum equation and the wave heat flux in the mean entropy equation as well as their interplay with the meridional circulation. In radiative layers of evolved low-mass stars, the quasi-adiabatic approximation, the limit of slow rotation, and the asymptotic regime can be applied for mixed modes and enable us to establish a prescription for the wave fluxes in the mean equations. The formalism is finally applied to a 1.3 M? benchmark model, representative of observed CoRoT and Kepler oscillating evolved stars. We show that the influence of the wave heat flux on the mean angular momentum is not negligible and that the overall effect of mixed modes is to extract angular momentum from the innermost region of the star. A quantitative and accurate estimate requires realistic values of mode amplitudes. This is provided in a companion paper. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. The First Direct Measurements of Magnetic Fields on Very Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Reiners, A

    2006-01-01

    We present the first direct magnetic field measurements on M dwarfs cooler than spectral class M4.5. Utilizing a new method based on the effects of a field on the FeH band near 1 micron, we obtain information on whether the integrated surface magnetic flux (Bf) is low (well under 1 kilogauss), intermediate (between 1 and about 2.5 kG), or strong (greater than about 3 kG) on a set of stars ranging from M2 down to M9. We also measure the rotational broadening (vsini) and Halpha emission for more than 20 stars. Our goal is to advance the understanding of how dynamo field production varies with stellar parameters for very low-mass stars, how the field and emission activity are related, and whether there is a connection between the rotation and magnetic flux. We find that fields are produced throughout the M-dwarfs. Among the early M stars we have too few targets to yield conclusive results. In the mid-M stars, there is a clear connection between slow rotation and weak fields. In the late-M stars, rotation is alwa...

  1. Marginally stable orbits around neutron stars and QPOs in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. C.; Lamb, F. K.

    1992-12-01

    A variety of quasi-periodic intensity oscillations (QPOs) have been observed in low-mass X-ray binaries. To explain some of these QPOs, scenarios have been proposed that require the magnetic field of the neutron star to be negligible, the radius Rms of the marginally stable orbit to be greater than the equatorial radius R_eq of the star, and the character of the flow between Rms and R_eq to be significantly different from that outside Rms. Motivated in part by these scenarios, we have investigated further the physics of disk accretion by rotating nonmagnetic neutron stars. Among the important effects that must be included in any accurate treatment are the effect of rotation on the shape of the star, the effects of stellar rotation and oblateness on the metric, gravitational lensing, and the effects of radiation stresses on the accreting plasma. Although previous studies have considered some of these effects, ours is the first to consider all of them. We find that the character of the accretion flow near the neutron star is generally qualitatively different from that discussed by previous authors. We discuss the implications of our results for scenarios in which QPOs are produced in the flow near the neutron star. This work was supported in part by NSF grant PHY 91-00283 and NASA grant NAGW 1583.

  2. The atomic and molecular content of disks around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Herczeg, G. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Carr, J. S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Bruderer, S., E-mail: pascucci@lpl.arizona.edu [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    There is growing observational evidence that disk evolution is stellar-mass-dependent. Here, we show that these dependencies extend to the atomic and molecular content of disk atmospheres. We analyze a unique dataset of high-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra from eight very low mass star and brown dwarf disks. We report the first detections of Ne{sup +}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and tentative detections of H{sub 2}O toward these faint and low-mass disks. Two of our [Ne II] 12.81 ?m emission lines likely trace the hot (?5000 K) disk surface irradiated by X-ray photons from the central stellar/sub-stellar object. The H{sub 2} S(2) and S(1) fluxes are consistent with arising below the fully or partially ionized surface traced by the [Ne II] emission in gas at ?600 K. We confirm the higher C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/HCN flux and column density ratio in brown dwarf disks previously noted from low-resolution IRS spectra. Our high-resolution spectra also show that the HCN/H{sub 2}O fluxes of brown dwarf disks are on average higher than those of T Tauri disks. Our LTE modeling hints that this difference extends to column density ratios if H{sub 2}O lines trace warm ?600 K disk gas. These trends suggest that the inner regions of brown dwarf disks have a lower O/C ratio than those of T Tauri disks, which may result from a more efficient formation of non-migrating icy planetesimals. An O/C = 1, as inferred from our analysis, would have profound implications on the bulk composition of rocky planets that can form around very low mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  3. The Secondary Star in Cataclysmic Variables and Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    D. A. Smith; V. S. Dhillon

    1998-08-20

    We critically re-examine the available data on the spectral types, masses and radii of the secondary stars in cataclysmic variables (CVs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), using the new catalogue of Ritter & Kolb (1998) as a starting point. We find there are 55 reliable spectral type determinations and only 14 reliable mass determinations of CV secondary stars (10 and 5, respectively, in the case of LMXBs). We derive new spectral type-period, mass-radius, mass-period and radius-period relations, and compare them with theoretical predictions. We find that CV secondary stars with orbital periods shorter than 7-8 hours are, as a group, indistinguishable from main sequence stars in detached binaries. We find it is not valid, however, to estimate the mass from the spectral type of the secondary star in CVs or LMXBs. We find that LMXB secondary stars show some evidence for evolution, with secondary stars which are slightly too large for their mass. We show how the masses and radii of the secondary stars in CVs can be used to test the validity of the disrupted magnetic braking model of CV evolution, but we find that the currently available data are not sufficiently accurate or numerous to allow such an analysis. As well as considering secondary star masses, we also discuss the masses of the white dwarfs in CVs, and find mean values of M_1 = 0.69+/-0.13 M_sun below the period gap, and M_1 = 0.80+/-0.22 M_sun above the period gap.

  4. Sequential Formation of Low-Mass Stars in the BRC 14 Region

    E-print Network

    Ikuko Matsuyanagi; Yoichi Itoh; Koji Sugitani; Yumiko Oasa; Tadashi Mukai; Motohide Tamura

    2006-05-23

    We have carried out a deep near-infrared survey of a bright-rimmed molecular cloud, BRC 14 (IC 1848A). The 10 sigma limiting magnitude of the survey is 17.7 mag at the K-band. Seventy-four sources are classified as young stellar object (YSO) candidates based on the near-infrared color-color diagram. The faintest YSO candidates may have masses of an order of tenths of the solar mass, assuming the age of 1 Myr. We examined three values as indicators of star formation; fraction of the YSO candidates, extinctions of all sources, and near-infrared excesses of the YSO candidates. All indicators increase from outside of the rim to the center of the molecular cloud, which suggests that the formation of the low-mass stars in the BRC 14 region proceeds from outside to the center of the cloud.

  5. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Allard, F; Homeier, D; Freytag, B

    2012-06-13

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. PMID:22547243

  6. Effects of non-standard neutrino emission on the evolution of low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arceo-Díaz, S.; Schröder, K.-P.; Jack, D.; Zuber, K.

    2014-10-01

    Using the {Pools et al. (1995)} version of the STARS code with updated numerical tables for neutrino plasmon decay ({Kantor et al. 2007}), along with the reinterpretation of the Reimers mass-loss prescription by {Schröder et al. (2005)}, we analyze the consequences of enhanced neutrino emission on the internal structure and late evolution of the degenerated cores in low-mass stars, the non-standard increase in tip-RGB luminosity and the impact on the calibration of the Reimers mass-loss mechanism and the changes driven in post-RGB phases. With synthetic spectra generated with the PHOENIX code {Baron & Hauschildt et al. (1997)}, we also study the dependence of the non-standard increase in brightness on the selected NIR photometric band. By comparing our stellar evolutionary models with the synthetic spectra and the photometric data base of ?-Cen by {Sollima et al. (2004)}, we find the limit value ?_{?}? 2.2× 10^{-12}?_{B}.

  7. M-to-K: A Search For Planets Around Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra; Lepine, Sebastien; Gaidos, Eric; Valenti, Jeff

    2008-08-01

    While essentially 100% of solar type stars in a 30 parsec (radius) volume are on current Doppler surveys, only 10% of Mdwarfs in that same volume are being surveyed for exoplanets. Mdwarfs dominate the stellar census in our Galaxy and with low stellar masses, the relatively larger reflex velocities permit the detection of the lowest mass exoplanets. Furthermore, the proximity of the habitable zone (HZ) to these low luminosity stars also results in larger reflex stellar velocites and greater detectability for low-mass, HZ planets. We propose a precision Doppler search for a set of recently identified Mdwarfs brighter than V=11. In addition to exoplanet detection, these data will be used to compile a comprehensive catalog about our nearest stellar neighbors. The radial velocity measurements will also serve as a comparison baseline for current construction of new gas cells to replace iodine as a wavelength reference for Doppler measurements redward of 6000 Angstroms.

  8. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. PMID:22547243

  9. An Astrometric Companion to the Nearby Metal-Poor, Low-Mass Star LHS 1589

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Skemer, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    We report the discovery of a companion to the high proper motion star LHS 1589, a nearby high-velocity, low-mass subdwarf. The companion (LHS 1589B) is located 0.224''+/-0.004'' to the southwest of the primary (LHS 1589A), and is 0.5 mag fainter than the primary in the Ks band. The pair was resolved with the IRCAL infrared camera at Lick Observatory, operating with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system. A low-resolution spectrum of the unresolved pair obtained at the MDM observatory shows the source to be consistent with a cool subdwarf of spectral subtype sdK7.5. A photometric distance estimate places the metal-poor system at a distance d=81+/-18 pc from the Sun. We also measure a radial velocity Vrad=67+/-8 km s-1, which, together with the proper motion and estimated distance, suggests that the pair is roaming the inner Galactic halo on a highly eccentric orbit. With a projected orbital separation s=18.1+/-4.8 AU, and a crude estimate of the system's total mass, we estimate the orbital period of the system to be in the range 75 yr low-mass stars. Based on observations performed with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system at the Lick Observatory, operated by the University of California system. Based on observations conducted at the MDM observatory, operated jointly by the University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, the Ohio State University, Columbia University, and the University of Ohio.

  10. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Disks in Lupus

    E-print Network

    P. R. Allen; K. L. Luhman; P. C. Myers; S. T. Megeath; L. E. Allen; L. Hartmann; G. G. Fazio

    2007-02-16

    Using the Infrared Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, we have obtained images of the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 \\micron. We present photometry in these bands for the 41 previously known members that are within our images. In addition, we have identified 19 possible new members of the cloud based on red 3.6-8.0 \\micron colors that are indicative of circumstellar disks. We have performed optical spectroscopy on 6 of these candidates, all of which are confirmed as young low-mass members of Lupus 3. The spectral types of these new members range from M4.75 to M8, corresponding to masses of 0.2-0.03 $M_\\odot$ for ages of $\\sim1$ Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. We also present optical spectroscopy of a candidate disk-bearing object in the vicinity of the Lupus 1 cloud, 2M 1541-3345, which Jayawardhana & Ivanov recently classified as a young brown dwarf ($M\\sim0.03$ $M_\\odot$) with a spectral type of M8. In contrast to their results, we measure an earlier spectral type of M5.75$\\pm$0.25 for this object, indicating that it is probably a low-mass star ($M\\sim0.1$ $M_\\odot$). In fact, according to its gravity-sensitive absorption lines and its luminosity, 2M 1541-3345 is older than members of the Lupus clouds ($\\tau\\sim1$ Myr) and instead is probably a more evolved pre-main-sequence star that is not directly related to the current generation of star formation in Lupus.

  11. Meridional circulation and shear turbulence in low-mass RGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Talon, S.; Siess, L.

    Red giant (RGB) stars in the field and in globular clusters present abundance anomalies that can not be explained by standard stellar evolution models. Some of these peculiarities, in particular those concerning lithium, carbon and nitrogen for stars more luminous than the bump, attest the presence of extra-mixing processes at play inside the stars. Although their nature remains unclear, rotation has often been invoked as a possible source for mixing inside RGB stars (Sweigart & Mengel 1979; Charbonnel 1995; Denissenkov & Tout 2000). Much work has been done during the last decade on the description of rotation-induced mixing and on the transport of angular momentum and chemicals by meridional circulation and shear turbulence (Zahn 1992, etc.). Within this framework, we present the first fully consistent computations of rotating low mass and low metallicity stars from the Zero Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) to the upper RGB. When self-consistent evolution of the internal distribution of angular momentum is taken into account, it is found that meridional circulation and shear instability by themselves are not able to produce the required amount of mixing to account for the observed abundance patterns.

  12. A Substantial Population of Low Mass Stars in Luminous Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    van Dokkum, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we investigate the stellar mass function in elliptical galaxies by measuring the strength of the Na I doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in their spectra. These lines are strong in stars with masses 80% of the total number of stars and contributing >60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1 - 1 Msun.

  13. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Anglada-Escude, Guillem [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  14. Neutron star masses and radii from quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Steiner, Andrew W., E-mail: james.lattimer@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: steiner3@uw.edu [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of neutron star radius constraints from five quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and examine how they depend on measurements of their distances and amounts of intervening absorbing material, as well as their assumed atmospheric compositions. We construct and calibrate to published results a semi-analytic model of the neutron star atmosphere which approximates these effects for the predicted masses and radii. Starting from mass and radius probability distributions established from hydrogen-atmosphere spectral fits of quiescent sources, we apply this model to compute alternate sets of probability distributions. We perform Bayesian analyses to estimate neutron star mass-radius curves and equation of state (EOS) parameters that best-fit each set of distributions, assuming the existence of a known low-density neutron star crustal EOS, a simple model for the high-density EOS, causality, and the observation that the neutron star maximum mass exceeds 2 M {sub ?}. We compute the posterior probabilities for each set of distance measurements and assumptions about absorption and composition. We find that, within the context of our assumptions and our parameterized EOS models, some absorption models are disfavored. We find that neutron stars composed of hadrons are favored relative to those with exotic matter with strong phase transitions. In addition, models in which all five stars have hydrogen atmospheres are found to be weakly disfavored. Our most likely models predict neutron star radii that are consistent with current experimental results concerning the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction near the nuclear saturation density.

  15. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  16. Formation of Low-Mass Stars in Elliptical Galaxy Cooling Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    1999-11-01

    Thermal X-ray emission from cooling flows in elliptical galaxies indicates that ~1 Msolar of hot (T~107 K) interstellar gas cools each year, accumulating ~1010 Msolar over a Hubble time. Paradoxically, optical and radio frequency emission from the cooled gas is lacking, indicating that less than ~10-3 of the cooled gas remains. Many have speculated that the cooled gas has formed into relatively invisible low-mass stars, particularly in the context of massive cooling flows in galaxy clusters. We focus here on cooling flows in elliptical galaxies like NGC 4472 where the cooled gas is made visible in emission lines from H II regions ionized and heated (THII~104 K) by stellar ultraviolet radiation. The low filling factor of H II gas requires that the hot gas cools at ~106 cooling sites within several kpc of the galactic center. H II mass slowly increases at each site at ~10-6 Msolar yr-1 until a neutral core develops. Neutral cores are heated (THI~15 K) and ionized (x~10-6) by thermal X-rays from the entire interstellar cooling flow. We show that the maximum mass of spherical H I cores that become gravitationally unstable is only ~2 Msolar. No star can exceed this mass, and fragmentation of collapsing cores produces stars of even lower mass. By this means we establish with some confidence that the hypothesis of low-mass star formation is indeed correct--the initial mass function is bottom heavy, but its stars may be optically luminous. Slightly more massive stars <~4.5 Msolar can form near the effective radius (r=8.57 kpc in NGC 4472) if sufficient masses of interstellar gas cool there, producing a luminous population of intermediate-mass stars perhaps with radial orbits that may contribute to the stellar H? index. The degree of ionization in gravitationally collapsing cores is sufficiently low to allow magnetic fields to disconnect by ambipolar diffusion. Low-mass star formation is very efficient, involving ~106 Msolar of galactic cold gas at any time, in agreement with observed upper limits on cold gas mass. We discuss the cooling region surrounding a typical cooling site and show that the total X-ray absorption in cold and cooling gas is much less than that indicated by recent X-ray observations. Using a mass dropout scheme consistent with X-ray observations and dynamical mass-to-light ratios, we plot the global H? surface brightness profile in NGC 4472 and compare it with the smaller contribution from H II gas recently ejected from red giant stars. The lifetime of cooled gas at each cooling site, ~105 yr, is too short to permit dust formation and perhaps also gas phase formation of molecules.

  17. Investigating the rotational evolution of young, low-mass stars using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.; Bouvier, J.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Young stars rotate well below break-up velocity, which is thought to result from the magnetic coupling with their accretion disk. Aims: We investigate the rotational evolution of young stars under the disk-locking hypothesis through Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Our simulations included 280 000 stars, each of which was initially assigned a mass, a rotational period, and a mass accretion rate. The mass accretion rate depends on both mass and time, following power-law indices of 1.4 and -1.5, respectively. A mass-dependent accretion threshold was defined below which a star was considered as diskless, which resulted in a distribution of disk lifetimes that matches observations. Stars were evolved at constant angular spin rate while accreting and at constant angular momentum when they became diskless. Results: Starting with a bimodal distribution of periods for disk and diskless stars, we recovered the bimodal period distribution seen in several young clusters. The short-period peak mostly consists of diskless stars, and the long-period peak is mainly populated by accreting stars. Both distributions, however, present a long tail toward long periods, and a population of slowly rotating diskless stars is observed at all ages. We reproduced the observed correlations between disk fraction and spin rate, as well as between IR excess and rotational period. The period-mass relation we derived from the simulations only shows the same global trend as observed in young clusters when we released the disk-locking assumption for the lowest mass stars. Finally, we find that the time evolution of median specific angular momentum follows a power-law index of -0.65 for accreting stars, as expected from disk locking, and of -0.53 for diskless stars, a shallower slope that results from a wide distribution of disk lifetimes. At the end of the accretion phase, our simulations reproduce the angular momentum distribution of the low-mass members of the 13 Myr h Per cluster. Conclusions: Using observationally documented distributions of disk lifetimes, mass accretion rates, and initial rotation periods, and evolving an initial population from 1 to 12 Myr, we reproduced the main characteristics of pre-main sequence angular momentum evolution, which supports the disk-locking hypothesis.

  18. Objects associated with low-mass star formation in the GUM nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. A.

    1986-03-01

    The Gum nebula contains a number of small, dense molecular clouds, some of which are still producing stars of low mass. Observations are presented of three small nebulae and one peculiar emission line star which are located in or near the dust clouds Sandqvist 109 and 111. The three nebulae are each coincident with point sources in the IRAS catalog which, in each case, apparently mark the location of a very young star embedded within the dust cloud. Two nebulae, Re 4 and Re 5, were discovered in a survey by Reipurth. The third is the object HH 46, which belongs to the remarkable string of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects first described by Schwartz. A 15th mag star near the head of the Re 4 nebula is almost certainly a foreground object and is not connected with Re 4 itself. The spectrum of Re 4 shows emission lines characteristic of HH objects superposed on a very red continuum. Re 5 shows only a red continuum with a few absorption lines. Broad emission lines in HH 46 indicates a complex velocity pattern near the associated IRAS source. The principal peculiarity of the M-type emission line dwarf is a small, jet-like appendage, with a purely emission line spectrum. Attention is directed to the likelihood that star formation is being observed here under highly simplified circumstances. Such examples are likely to be especially amenable to the study both of the initial conditions for star birth and of the subsequent evolution of the resulting star.

  19. Near infrared photometric and optical spectroscopic study of 22 low mass star clusters embedded in nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Among the star clusters in the Galaxy, those embedded in nebulae represent the youngest group, which has only recently been explored. The analysis of a sample of 22 candidate embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII environments is presented. Methods: We employed optical spectroscopic observations of stars in the directions of the clusters carried out at CASLEO (Argentina) together with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS catalogue. Our analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour diagrams and on theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field star contamination by carrying out a statistical subtraction. Results: The studied objects have the characteristics of low mass systems. We derive their fundamental parameters. Most of the cluster ages are younger than 2 Myr. The studied embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII region complexes do not have stars of spectral types earlier than B. The total stellar masses locked in the clusters are in the range 20-220 M?. They are found to be gravitationally unstable and are expected to dissolve in a timescale of a few Myr. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  20. Photometric and spectroscopic study of low mass embedded star clusters in reflection nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the candidate embedded stellar systems in the reflection nebulae vdBH-RN 26, vdBH-RN} 38, vdBH-RN} 53a, GGD 20, ESO 95-RN 18 and NGC 6595 is presented. Optical spectroscopic data from CASLEO (Argentina) in conjunction with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue were employed. The analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams together with theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field population affecting the analysis by carrying out a statistical subtraction. The fundamental parameters for the stellar systems were derived. The resulting ages are in the range 1-4 Myr and the objects are dominated by pre-main sequence stars. The observed masses locked in the clusters are less than 25 M?. The studied systems have no stars of spectral types earlier than B, indicating that star clusters do not necessarily evolve through an HII region phase. The relatively small locked mass combined with the fact that they are not numerous in catalogues suggests that these low mass clusters are not important donors of stars to the field populations. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  1. The temperature and chronology of heavy-element synthesis in low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyskens, P.; van Eck, S.; Jorissen, A.; Goriely, S.; Siess, L.; Plez, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roughly half of the heavy elements (atomic mass greater than that of iron) are believed to be synthesized in the late evolutionary stages of stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 solar masses. Deep inside the star, nuclei (mainly iron) capture neutrons and progressively build up (through the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process) heavier elements that are subsequently brought to the stellar surface by convection. Two neutron sources, activated at distinct temperatures, have been proposed: 13C and 22Ne, each releasing one neutron per ?-particle (4He) captured. To explain the measured stellar abundances, stellar evolution models invoking the 13C neutron source (which operates at temperatures of about one hundred million kelvin) are favoured. Isotopic ratios in primitive meteorites, however, reflecting nucleosynthesis in the previous generations of stars that contributed material to the Solar System, point to higher temperatures (more than three hundred million kelvin), requiring at least a late activation of 22Ne (ref. 1). Here we report a determination of the s-process temperature directly in evolved low-mass giant stars, using zirconium and niobium abundances, independently of stellar evolution models. The derived temperature supports 13C as the s-process neutron source. The radioactive pair 93Zr-93Nb used to estimate the s-process temperature also provides, together with the pair 99Tc-99Ru, chronometric information on the time elapsed since the start of the s-process, which we determine to be one million to three million years.

  2. An IRAS Hires study of low mass star formation in the Taurus molecular ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan; Surace, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    The Taurus molecular cloud supposedly has no star clusters but only isolated star formation. However, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) shows us that a small star cluster is currently forming in Taurus. Most of the sources are deeply embedded and are probably low-mass protostars. We use High Resolution (HiRes) images of the IRAS data from the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to look for additional infrared members of the cluster. We also investigate the question of whether the infrared emission matches predictions for protostellar sources by examining whether the dust emission is resolved on scales of one arcminute (approx. 10(exp 17) cm). With the exception of a luminous visible star, HD 29647, we find that the sources L1527, TMC1A, TMC1, TMC1C, tMR1, and IC2087 are unresolved in the HiRes images at 60 microns. Further analysis of IC2087 shows that it is unresolved at all four IRAS wavelengths.

  3. 19 low mass hyper-velocity star candidates from the first data release of LAMOST survey

    E-print Network

    Li, Yin-bi; Zhao, Gang; Lu, You-jun; Wei, Peng; Du, Bing; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Han, Zhan-wen; Wang, Bo; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-hui; Wang, Yue-fei; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-velocity stars are believed to be ejected out from the Galactic center through dynamical interactions between (binary) stars and the central massive black hole(s). In this paper, we report 19 low mass F/G/K type hyper-velocity star candidates from over one mil- lion stars of the first data release of the LAMOST general survey. We determine the unbound probability for each candidate using a Monte-Carlo simulation by assuming a non-Gaussian proper-motion error distribution, Gaussian heliocentric distance and radial velocity error dis- tributions. The simulation results show that all the candidates have unbound possibilities over 50% as expected, and one of them may even exceed escape velocity with over 90% probabili- ty. In addition, we compare the metallicities of our candidates with the metallicity distribution functions of the Galactic bulge, disk, halo and globular cluster, and conclude that the Galactic bulge or disk is likely the birth place for our candidates.

  4. A Pulsation Search among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very-low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters ? Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  5. The First Direct Measurements of Magnetic Fields on Very Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    A. Reiners; G. Basri

    2006-10-12

    We present the first direct magnetic field measurements on M dwarfs cooler than spectral class M4.5. Utilizing a new method based on the effects of a field on the FeH band near 1 micron, we obtain information on whether the integrated surface magnetic flux (Bf) is low (well under 1 kilogauss), intermediate (between 1 and about 2.5 kG), or strong (greater than about 3 kG) on a set of stars ranging from M2 down to M9. We also measure the rotational broadening (vsini) and Halpha emission for more than 20 stars. Our goal is to advance the understanding of how dynamo field production varies with stellar parameters for very low-mass stars, how the field and emission activity are related, and whether there is a connection between the rotation and magnetic flux. We find that fields are produced throughout the M-dwarfs. Among the early M stars we have too few targets to yield conclusive results. In the mid-M stars, there is a clear connection between slow rotation and weak fields. In the late-M stars, rotation is always measureable, and the strongest fields go with the most rapid rotators. These very cool rapid rotators have the largest magnetic flux in the whole sample. Halpha emission is found to be a good general proxy for magnetic fields. The drop-off in fractional emission near the bottom of the main sequence is not accompanied by a drop-off in magnetic flux, lending credence to the hypothesis that it is due to atmospheric coupling to the field rather than changes in the field itself. It is clear that the methodology we have developed can be further applied to discover more about the behavior of magnetic dynamos and magnetic activity in cool and fully convective objects.

  6. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Jonker, P. G. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, Massachusetts (United States); Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-02-27

    Chandra or XMM-Newton observations of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries can provide important constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. The mass and radius of the neutron star can potentially be determined from fitting a neutron star atmosphere model to the observed X-ray spectrum. For a radius measurement it is of critical importance that the distance to the source is well constrained since the fractional uncertainty in the radius is at least as large as the fractional uncertainty in the distance. Uncertainties in modelling the neutron star atmosphere remain. At this stage it is not yet clear if the soft thermal component in the spectra of many quiescent X-ray binaries is variable on timescales too short to be accommodated by the cooling neutron star scenario. This can be tested with a long XMM-Newton observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence. With such an observation one can use the Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum to constrain the interstellar extinction to the source. This removes this parameter from the X-ray spectral fitting of the EPIC pn and MOS spectra and allows one to investigate whether the variability observed in the quiescent X-ray spectrum of this source is due to variations in the soft thermal spectral component or variations in the power law spectral component coupled with variations in N{sub H}. This will test whether the soft thermal component can indeed be due to the hot thermal glow of the neutron star. Irrespective of the outcome of such a study, the observed cooling in quiescence in sources for which the crust is significantly out of thermal equilibrium with the core due to a prolonged outburst, such as KS 1731-260, seem excellent candidates for mass and radius determinations through modelling the observed X-rays with a neutron star atmosphere model (the caveats about the source distance and atmosphere modelling do also apply here obviously and presently prevent one from obtaining such constraints). Finally, the fact that the soft thermal glow in sources such as SAX J1808.4-3658 and 1H 1905+000 has not been detected in quiescence means that the neutron star cores of these sources must be cold. The most plausible explanation seems to be that the neutron stars are more massive than 1.4 M{sub {center_dot}} and cool via the direct URCA process.

  7. X-Shooter study of accretion in ?-Ophiucus: very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Alcalá, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new VLT/X-Shooter optical and near-infrared spectra of a sample of 17 candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs located in the ?-Ophiucus cluster. We derived the spectral type and extinction for all the targets, and then we determined their physical parameters. All the objects but one have M??0.6 M?, and eight have mass below or close to the hydrogen-burning limit. Using the intensity of various permitted emission lines present in their spectra, we determined the accretion luminosity and mass accretion rates (?acc) for all the objects. When compared with previous works targeting the same sample, we find that, in general, these objects are not as strongly accreting as previously reported, and we suggest that the reason is our more accurate estimate of the photospheric parameters. We also compare our findings with recent works in other slightly older star-forming regions, such as Lupus, to investigate possible differences in the accretion properties, but we find that the accretion properties for our targets have the same dependence on the stellar and substellar parameters as in the other regions. This leads us to conclude that we do not find evidence for a different dependence of ?acc with M? when comparing low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Moreover, we find a similar small (?1 dex) scatter in the ?acc-M? relation as in some of our recent works in other star-forming regions, and no significant differences in ?acc due to different ages or properties of the regions. The latter result suffers, however, from low statistics and sample selection biases in the current studies. The small scatter in the ?acc-M? correlation confirms that mass accretion rate measurements in the literature based on uncertain photospheric parameters and single accretion indicators, such as the H? width, can lead to a scatter that is unphysically large. Our studies show that only broadband spectroscopic surveys coupled with a detailed analysis of the photospheric and accretion properties allows us to properly study the evolution of disk accretion rates in star-forming regions. This work is based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.C-0876.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlione, A.; Aguilera, D. N.; Pons, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Context. We monitored the quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries after active periods of intense activity in X-rays (outbursts). Aims: The theoretical modeling of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust may be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed. Methods: We numerically simulated the thermal evolution of the neutron star crust and compared them with inferred surface temperatures for five sources: MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260, XTE J1701-462, EXO 0748-676 and IGR J17480-2446. Results: We find that the evolution of MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260 and EXO 0748-676 can be well described within a deep crustal cooling scenario. Conversely, we find that the other two sources can only be explained with models beyond crustal cooling. For the peculiar emission of XTE J1701-462 we propose alternative scenarios such as residual accretion during quiescence, additional heat sources in the outer crust, and/or thermal isolation of the inner crust due to a buried magnetic field. We also explain the very recent reported temperature of IGR J17480-2446 with an additional heat deposition in the outer crust from shallow sources.

  9. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries with Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Jean Swank

    2004-02-21

    Before the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) it was recognized that neutron star accretion disks could extend inward to very near the neutron star surface, and thus be governed by millisecond timescales. Previous missions lacked the sensitivity to detect them. The kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) that RXTE discovered are often, but not always, evident in the X-ray flux. In 8 years RXTE has found kilohertz signals in about a fourth of 100 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) containing neutron stars. The observed power spectra have simple dominant features, the two kilohertz oscillations, a low frequency oscillation, and band-limited white noise. They vary systematically with changes in other source properties and offer the possibility of comparison with model predictions. New information from the millisecond pulsars resolves some questions about the relations of the QPO and the spin. Coherence, energy spectrum and time lag measurements have indicated systematic behaviors, which should constrain mechanisms.

  10. Short-lived isotopes and 23Na production in low mass AGB Stars

    E-print Network

    S. Cristallo; R. Gallino; O. Straniero; L. Piersanti; I. Dominguez

    2006-06-15

    We discuss the synthesis of some short-lived isotopes and of 23Na in thermally pulsing AGB stars with initial mass of 2 Msun and two different metallicities (Z=1.5e-2, corresponding to the metal amount in the Sun, and Z=1e-4), representative of disk and halo stars, respectively. The different nucleosynthesis channels are illustrated in some details. As previously found, the 13C formed after each third dredge up episode is usually completely consumed by alpha captures before the onset of the subsequent thermal pulse, releasing neutrons. This is the most efficient neutron source in low mass AGB stars and the resulting s-process nucleosynthesis is at the origin of the solar main component. However, in the solar metallicity model, we find that the temperature of the first formed 13C pocket remains too low during the interpulse and the 13C is not completely burnt, being partially engulfed in the convective zone generated by the following thermal pulse. Due to the rapid convective mixing in this zone, the 13C is exposed to a larger temperature and a nucleosynthesis characterized by a relatively high neutron density develops. The main effect is the strong enhancement of isotopes located beyond some critical branching in the neutron-capture path, like 60Fe, otherwise only marginally produced during a standard s-process nucleosynthesis.

  11. Runaway Heating by R-Modes of Neutron Stars in Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Levin

    1999-01-01

    Recently Andersson et al. and Bildsten have independently suggested that an r-mode instability might be responsible for stalling the neutron star spin-up in strongly accreting low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). We show that if this does occur, there are two possibilities for the resulting neutron star evolution. If the r-mode damping is a decreasing function of temperature, then the star undergoes

  12. The temperature and chronology of heavy-element synthesis in low-mass stars.

    PubMed

    Neyskens, P; Van Eck, S; Jorissen, A; Goriely, S; Siess, L; Plez, B

    2015-01-01

    Roughly half of the heavy elements (atomic mass greater than that of iron) are believed to be synthesized in the late evolutionary stages of stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 solar masses. Deep inside the star, nuclei (mainly iron) capture neutrons and progressively build up (through the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process) heavier elements that are subsequently brought to the stellar surface by convection. Two neutron sources, activated at distinct temperatures, have been proposed: (13)C and (22)Ne, each releasing one neutron per ?-particle ((4)He) captured. To explain the measured stellar abundances, stellar evolution models invoking the (13)C neutron source (which operates at temperatures of about one hundred million kelvin) are favoured. Isotopic ratios in primitive meteorites, however, reflecting nucleosynthesis in the previous generations of stars that contributed material to the Solar System, point to higher temperatures (more than three hundred million kelvin), requiring at least a late activation of (22)Ne (ref. 1). Here we report a determination of the s-process temperature directly in evolved low-mass giant stars, using zirconium and niobium abundances, independently of stellar evolution models. The derived temperature supports (13)C as the s-process neutron source. The radioactive pair (93)Zr-(93)Nb used to estimate the s-process temperature also provides, together with the pair (99)Tc-(99)Ru, chronometric information on the time elapsed since the start of the s-process, which we determine to be one million to three million years. PMID:25567282

  13. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). V. Age-Dating Low-Mass Companions to Members and Interlopers of Young Moving Groups

    E-print Network

    Bowler, Brendan P; Liu, Michael C; Schlieder, Joshua E; Mann, Andrew W; Dupuy, Trent J; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Flagg, Laura; Weinberger, Alycia J; Aller, Kimberly M; Allers, Katelyn N; Best, William M J; Kotson, Michael C; Montet, Benjamin T; Herczeg, Gregory J; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Eric L; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A; Hayward, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7-M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8-120 Myr) in the literature. The inferred masses of the companions (~10-100 Mjup) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars so we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. 2MASS J02155892-0929121 C is a new M7 substellar companion (40-60 Mjup) with clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and hence youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ~40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (1 Gyr) tidally-locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with ...

  14. New Low-Mass Members of the Taurus Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Briceño, César; Stauffer, John R.; Hartmann, Lee; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Caldwell, Nelson

    2003-06-01

    Briceño et al. recently used optical imaging, data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and follow-up spectroscopy to search for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in 8 deg2 of the Taurus star-forming region. By the end of that study, there remained candidate members of Taurus that lacked the spectroscopic observations needed to measure spectral types and determine membership. In this work, we have obtained spectroscopy of the 22 candidates that have AV<=8, from which we find six new Taurus members with spectral types of M2.75 through M9. The new M9 source has the second latest spectral type of the known members of Taurus (~0.02 Msolar). Its spectrum contains extremely strong emission in H? (W?~950 Å), as well as emission in He I 6678 Å and the Ca II IR triplet. This is the least massive object known to exhibit emission in He I and Ca II, which together with the strong H? are suggestive of intense accretion. Based on observations obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Keck Observatory, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and the MMT Observatory. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  15. Identifying low-mass members of nearby star clusters using proper motion & color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Mark A.

    I present a combined kinematic and photometric search for new, low-mass (m ? 0.2 M? ) members of nearby (d < 300 pc) star clusters. Using both proper motion and color criteria, a total of 33 low-mass objects have been newly recognized as members of the Taurus, Praesepe, and Pleiades clusters. In addition, 18 potential cluster members are noted, and 4 members are recovered from previous member searches. Multi-epoch imaging was performed using i-band Megacam observations unique to this study, combined with archival CFH telescope data in the optical I and Z bands. Near-infrared detections were also acquired from the 2MASS survey. The imaging data were processed using the Pan-STARRS IPP data pipeline software in order to provide high-precision relative astrometry, from which proper motions were extracted. Low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from the IRTF telescope gives confirmation on the membership status of the selected candidates. The addition of proper motion criteria to complement the often-used color selection allows for a more effective identification of low-mass cluster members whose broadband spectral features are similar to the bulk of galactic field objects lying along the line-of-sight. Culling the candidates using proper motion also significantly reduces the amount of candidates that require spectroscopic follow-up, even in the NIR color-space with the highest levels of field contamination. Comparison of the search results to a galactic field model by Robin et al. (2003) provides strong evidence that brighter member candidates in Taurus (i < 17) found to be of mid-M spectral types are highly likely to be clusters members rather than field dwarfs. While the addition of new members to the Praesepe and Pleiades clusters are minor compared to the current known population, there is suggestive evidence that the mass function of Taurus is significantly lacking in mid-M dwarfs, and in fact may actually resemble the mass functions of other similarly-aged clusters. The successful application of this search technique using the IPP software is significant, as the Pan-STARRS survey program is conducting regular imaging of 75% of the total sky over the next 3-4 years.

  16. Lense-Thirring precession in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Jeroen

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with low frequencies (0.01-70 Hz) have been observed in the X-ray light curves of most neutron-star and black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. Despite having been discovered more than 25 years ago, their origin is still not well understood. Similarities between the low-frequency QPOs in the two types of systems suggest that they have a common origin in the accretion flows around black holes and neutron stars. Some of the proposed models that attempt to explain low- frequency QPOs invoke a General Relativistic effect known as Lense-Thirring precession (or "frame dragging"). However, for Lense-Thirring precession to produce substantial modulations of the X-ray flux through relativistic beaming and gravitational lensing, the rotation axis of the inner part of the accretion disk needs to have a substantial tilt (10-20 degrees) with respect to the spin axis of the compact object. We argue that observational evidence for such titled inner accretion disks can be found in the variability of neutron- star low-mass X-ray binaries that are viewed at inclination angles of 60-80 degrees. In these systems low-frequency QPOs at ~0.1-15 Hz are observed that modulate the emission from the neutron star by quasi-periodic obscuration, presumably by a titled inner disc. The goal of our proposed program is to test whether the frequency evolution and spectral state dependence of these QPOs is similar to what is observed for the low-frequency QPOs that are observed in lower-inclination neutron-star X-ray binaries. To make such a comparison, we need to better characterize the properties and behavior of these QPOs. Our study will make use of almost 1300 RXTE observations of 11 sources, totaling 5.7 Ms of data. Signatures of strong gravity have long been sought after in accreting compact objects. While strong evidence from spectral features has emerged in the last decade (e.g. gravitationally broadened iron emission lines), there have only been hints of such signatures from X-ray variability. If it can be shown that the frequency evolution and spectral state dependence the QPOs in the high-inclination sources is similar to that of the low-frequency QPOs in 'normal' (lower-inclination) neutron-star X-ray binaries, this would lend strong support for Lense-Thirring precession models. This work addresses goals laid out in NASA's strategic plan. In particular, since we will study the close environment around black holes and neutron stars, it is highly relevant to objective 2.4.1: "Improve understanding of the origin and destiny of the universe, and the nature of black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and gravity".

  17. Precision Photometric Monitoring of Young Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs: Shedding Light on Rotation, Pulsation, and the Star-disk Connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Marie Cody; L. A. Hillenbrand

    2010-01-01

    Young star-forming regions are host to a variety of optically variable sources, from accreting and flaring stars to those whose light is modulated by surface spots. In addition, recent theory has suggested that a new type of variability-- pulsation powered by deuterium burning-- may be at work on hour timescales in young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars. Photometric

  18. An HST Imaging Survey of Low-Mass Stars in the Chamaeleon I Star Forming region

    E-print Network

    Robberto, M; Da Rio, N; Apai, D; Pascucci, I; Ricci, L; Goddi, C; Testi, L; Palla, F; Bacciotti, F

    2012-01-01

    We present new HST/WFPC2 observations of 20 fields centered around T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star forming region. Images have been obtained in the F631N ([OI]6300A), F656N (Ha) and F673N ([SII]6716A+6731A) narrow-band filters, plus the Johnson V-band equivalent F547M filter. We detect 31 T Tauri stars falling within our fields. We discuss the optical morphology of 10 sources showing evidence of either binarity, circumstellar material, or mass loss. We supplement our photometry with a compilation of optical, infrared and sub-millimeter data from the literature, together with new sub-mm data for three objects, to build the Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of 19 single sources. Using an SED model fitting tool, we self-consistently estimate a number of stellar and disk parameters, while mass accretion rates are directly derived from our Ha photometry. We find that bolometric luminosities derived from dereddened optical data tend to be underestimated in systems with high alpha(2-24} IR spectral index, s...

  19. Planets Around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). V. Age-dating Low-mass Companions to Members and Interlopers of Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Liu, Michael C.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Flagg, Laura; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2015-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7–M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8–120 Myr) in the literature. Three of these are new companions identified in our AO imaging survey, and two others are confirmed to be comoving with their host stars for the first time. The inferred masses of the companions (?10–100 MJup) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars; therefore we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. The new M7 substellar companion 2MASS J02155892–0929121 C (40–60 MJup) shows clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and, hence, youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ?40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (?100 AU) configuration. In addition, Li i ?6708 absorption in the intermediate-gravity M7.5 companion 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B provides unambiguous evidence that it is young (?200 Myr) and resides below the hydrogen-burning limit. Three new close-separation (<1?) companions (2MASS J06475229–2523304 B, PYC J11519+0731 B, and GJ 4378 Ab) orbit stars previously reported as candidate YMG members, but instead are likely old (?1 Gyr) tidally locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with YMG-like kinematics underscores the importance of radial velocity and parallax measurements to validate candidate young stars identified via proper motion and activity selection alone. Finally, we spectroscopically confirm the cool temperature and substellar nature of HD 23514 B, a recently discovered M8 benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the dustiest-known member of the Pleiades. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Program 090.A-9010(A)).

  20. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Disks in Lupus

    E-print Network

    Allen, P R; Myers, P C; Megeath, S T; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Fazio, G G

    2007-01-01

    Using the Infrared Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, we have obtained images of the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 \\micron. We present photometry in these bands for the 41 previously known members that are within our images. In addition, we have identified 19 possible new members of the cloud based on red 3.6-8.0 \\micron colors that are indicative of circumstellar disks. We have performed optical spectroscopy on 6 of these candidates, all of which are confirmed as young low-mass members of Lupus 3. The spectral types of these new members range from M4.75 to M8, corresponding to masses of 0.2-0.03 $M_\\odot$ for ages of $\\sim1$ Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. We also present optical spectroscopy of a candidate disk-bearing object in the vicinity of the Lupus 1 cloud, 2M 1541-3345, which Jayawardhana & Ivanov recently classified as a young brown dwarf ($M\\sim0.03$ $M_\\odot$) with a spectral type of M8. In co...

  1. Spectra of low-mass helium star models and the type Ic supernova SN 1987M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Wheeler, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The question of whether the low-mass helium star models reproduce the helium-poor Type Ic spectrum of SN 1987M is investigated by comparing the theoretical spectrum from the 3.3-solar-mass model of Shigeyama et al. (1990) to observations of SN 1987M reported by Filippenko et al. (1990). The results indicate a number of positive correlations between the observed and the computed spectra. In both types of spectra, Ca II, O I, and Mg I emission lines dominate at late times, and, if extensive composition mixing is imposed, good fits can be made to the shapes of the emission features and good agreement can be found with the observed ratio of the forbidden and IR triplet blends of Ca II. The former indicates that the 3.3-solar-mass model predicts the proper density/velocity structure, and the latter indicates that the computed temperature structure is consistent with the observation though the lines are too strong relative to the continuum. This result is roughly independent of the He abundance. The computed and observed spectra are consistent with a small Ni-56 production in contrast to Type Ia thermonuclear events whose spectra are dominated by Fe-group lines at late times.

  2. Determination of mass and orbital parameters of a low-mass star HD 213597B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Deshpande, Rohit; Dixit, Vaibhav; Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Anandarao, B. G.; Hebb, Leslie; Janardhan, P.

    2014-08-01

    HD 213597 is an eclipsing binary system which was detected by the STEREO spacecraft and was speculated to host a low-mass stellar companion. We used high-resolution spectroscopy with the 10-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope and the 1.2-m telescope in Mount Abu for radial velocity (RV) measurements of this source. We performed aperture photometry for this star on the STEREO archival data and thereby confirm the transit signature. We also did follow-up ground-based photometry with a 10-inch telescope from Mt Abu. The spectroscopic RV semi-amplitude of the primary (33.39 km s-1) indicates that the secondary is an M dwarf making the system a short period F+M eclipsing binary. These RVs along with the inclination derived from our combined photometric analysis (i = 84.9°), enable us to estimate the mass of the secondary as MB ˜ 0.286 M? and radius as RB ˜ 0.344 R? using an estimated mass MA ˜ 1.3 M? and radius RB ˜ 1.97 R? of the primary. Our spectral analysis returned the following parameters: Teff = 6625 ± 121 K, [Fe/H] = -0.095 ± 0.08 and log g = 3.72 ± 0.22 for the primary. When log g is constrained to a value of 3.96, we derive Teff = 6753 ± 52 K and [Fe/H] = -0.025 ± 0.05.

  3. Statistics of Low-Mass Companions to Stars: Implications for Their Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Black, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more significant results from observational astronomy over the past few years has been the detection, primarily via radial velocity studies, of low-mass companions (LMCs) to solar-like stars. The commonly held interpretation of these is that the majority are "extrasolar planets" whereas the rest are brown dwarfs, the distinction made on the basis of apparent discontinuity in the distribution of M sin i for LMCs as revealed by a histogram. We report here results from statistical analysis of M sin i, as well as of the orbital elements data for available LMCs, to rest the assertion that the LMCs population is heterogeneous. The outcome is mixed. Solely on the basis of the distribution of M sin i a heterogeneous model is preferable. Overall, we find that a definitive statement asserting that LMCs population is heterogeneous is, at present, unjustified. In addition we compare statistics of LMCs with a comparable sample of stellar binaries. We find a remarkable statistical similarity between these two populations. This similarity coupled with marked populational dissimilarity between LMCs and acknowledged planets motivates us to suggest a common origin hypothesis for LMCs and stellar binaries as an alternative to the prevailing interpretation. We discuss merits of such a hypothesis and indicate a possible scenario for the formation of LMCs.

  4. THE Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign DOUBLET AS AN AGE INDICATOR IN LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Lepine, Sebastien; Rice, Emily [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Fielding, Drummond [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tomasino, Rachael, E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: lepine@amnh.org, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: dfieldi1@jhu.edu, E-mail: tomas1r@cmich.edu [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We investigate the use of the gravity sensitive neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at 8183 Angstrom-Sign and 8195 Angstrom-Sign (Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign doublet) as an age indicator for M dwarfs. We measured the Na doublet equivalent width (EW) in giants, old dwarfs, young dwarfs, and candidate members of the {beta} Pic moving group using medium-resolution spectra. Our Na 8200 A doublet EW analysis shows that the feature is useful as an approximate age indicator in M-type dwarfs with (V - K{sub s}) {>=} 5.0, reliably distinguishing stars older and younger than 100 Myr. A simple derivation of the dependence of the Na EW on temperature and gravity supports the observational results. An analysis of the effects of metallicity shows that this youth indicator is best used on samples with similar metallicity. The age estimation technique presented here becomes useful in a mass regime where traditional youth indicators are increasingly less reliable, is applicable to other alkali lines, and will help identify new low-mass members in other young clusters and associations.

  5. PERIODIC VARIABILITY OF LOW-MASS STARS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, A. C.; Hawley, S. L.; Ivezic, Z.; Kowalski, A. F.; Sesar, B. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bochanski, J. J. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); West, A. A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2011-04-10

    We present a catalog of periodic stellar variability in the 'Stripe 82' region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After aggregating and re-calibrating catalog-level data from the survey, we ran a period-finding algorithm (Supersmoother) on all point-source light curves. We used color selection to identify systems that are likely to contain low-mass stars, in particular M dwarfs and white dwarfs. In total, we found 207 candidates, the vast majority of which appear to be in eclipsing binary systems. The catalog described in this paper includes 42 candidate M dwarf/white dwarf pairs, four white dwarf pairs, 59 systems whose colors indicate they are composed of two M dwarfs and whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in detached eclipsing binaries, and 28 M dwarf systems whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in contact binaries. We find no detached systems with periods longer than 3 days, thus the majority of our sources are likely to have experienced orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity. Indeed, 26 of 27 M dwarf systems that we have spectra for show signs of chromospheric magnetic activity, far higher than the 24% seen in field stars of the same spectral type. We also find binaries composed of stars that bracket the expected boundary between partially and fully convective interiors, which will allow the measurement of the stellar mass-radius relationship across this transition. The majority of our contact systems have short orbital periods, with small variance (0.02 days) in the sample near the observed cutoff of 0.22 days. The accumulation of these stars at short orbital period suggests that the process of angular momentum loss, leading to period evolution, becomes less efficient at short periods. These short-period systems are in a novel regime for studying the effects of orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity, which are thought to be the source of discrepancies between mass-radius predictions and measurements of these properties in eclipsing binaries.

  6. Young Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.

    1999-11-01

    I present new results from a continuing program to identify and characterize the low-mass stellar and substellar populations in the young cluster IC 348 (0.5-10 Myr). Optical spectroscopy has revealed young objects with spectral types as late as M8.25. The intrinsic J-H and H-K colors of these sources are dwarflike, whereas the R-I and I-J colors appear intermediate between the colors of dwarfs and giants. Furthermore, the spectra from 6500 to 9500 Å are reproduced well with averages of standard dwarf and giant spectra, suggesting that such averages should be used in the classification of young late-type sources. An H-R diagram is constructed for the low-mass population in IC 348 (K6-M8). The presumably coeval components of the young quadruple system GG Tau (White et al.) and the locus of stars in IC 348 are used as empirical isochrones to test the theoretical evolutionary models. The calculations of Burrows et al. do not appear to be consistent with the data at these earliest stages of stellar evolution. There is fair agreement between the data and the model isochrones of D'Antona & Mazzitelli, except near the hydrogen-burning limit. The agreement cannot be improved by changing the conversion between spectral types and effective temperatures. On the other hand, for the models of Baraffe et al., an adjustment of the temperature scale to progressively warmer temperatures at later M types, intermediate between dwarfs and giants, brings all components of GG Tau onto the same model isochrone and gives the population of IC 348 a constant age and age spread as a function of mass. When other observational constraints are considered, such as the dynamical masses of GM Aur, DM Tau, and GG Tau A, the models of Baraffe et al. are the most consistent with observations of young systems. With compatible temperature scales, the models of both D'Antona & Mazzitelli and Baraffe et al. suggest that the hydrogen-burning mass limit occurs near M6 at ages of <~10 Myr. Thus, several likely brown dwarfs are discovered in this study of IC 348, with masses down to ~20-30 MJ.

  7. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star formation activity.

  8. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Lim, Jeremy [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Donati, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Johns-Krull, Christopher M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-61 Houston, TX 77005 (United States); MartIn, Eduardo L., E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: jlim@asiaa.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: donati@ast.obs-mip.f, E-mail: cmj@rice.ed, E-mail: ege@iac.e [CSIC-INTA Centro de Astrobiologia, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-20

    The magnetic field topology plays an important role in the understanding of stellar magnetic activity. While it is widely accepted that the dynamo action present in low-mass partially convective stars (e.g., the Sun) results in predominantly toroidal magnetic flux, the field topology in fully convective stars (masses below approx0.35 M {sub sun}) is still under debate. We report here our mapping of the magnetic field topology of the M4 dwarf G 164-31 (or Gl 490B), which is expected to be fully convective, based on time series data collected from 20 hr of observations spread over three successive nights with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our tomographic imaging technique applied to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles reveals an axisymmetric large-scale poloidal magnetic field on the M4 dwarf. We then apply a synthetic spectrum fitting technique for measuring the average magnetic flux on the star. The flux measured in G 164-31 is |Bf| = 3.2 +- 0.4 kG, which is significantly greater than the average value of 0.68 kG determined from the imaging technique. The difference indicates that a significant fraction of the stellar magnetic energy is stored in small-scale structures at the surface of G 164-31. Our Halpha emission light curve shows evidence for rotational modulation suggesting the presence of localized structure in the chromosphere of this M dwarf. The radius of the M4 dwarf derived from the rotational period and the projected equatorial velocity is at least 30% larger than that predicted from theoretical models. We argue that this discrepancy is likely primarily due to the young nature of G 164-31 rather than primarily due to magnetic field effects, indicating that age is an important factor which should be considered in the interpretation of this observational result. We also report here our polarimetric observations of five other M dwarfs with spectral types from M0 to M4.5, three of them showing strong Zeeman signatures.

  9. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. I. Stars with a radiative core

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Current address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala 751 20, Sweden. (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden.gr@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M {sub ?}—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  10. UM 625 REVISITED: MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WITH A LOW-MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ning; Dong Xiaobo; Yang Huan; Wang Junxian [Key laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C., E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xbdong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    UM 625, previously identified as a narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN), actually exhibits broad H{alpha} and H{beta} lines whose width and luminosity indicate a low black hole (BH) mass of 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of the nuclear and host galaxy properties of UM 625. Analysis of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggests that this system contains a heavily absorbed and intrinsically X-ray weak ({alpha}{sub ox} = -1.72) nucleus. Although not strong enough to qualify as radio loud, UM 625 does belong to a minority of low-mass AGNs detected in the radio. The broadband spectral energy distribution constrains the bolometric luminosity to L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To (0.5-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} Almost-Equal-To 0.02-0.15. A comprehensive analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images shows that UM 625 is a nearly face-on S0 galaxy with a prominent, relatively blue pseudobulge (Sersic index n = 1.60) that accounts for {approx}60% of the total light in the R band. The extended disk is featureless, but the central {approx}150-400 pc contains a conspicuous semi-ring of bright, blue star-forming knots, whose integrated ultraviolet luminosity suggests a star formation rate of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The mass of the central BH roughly agrees with the value predicted from its bulge velocity dispersion but is significantly lower than that expected from its bulge luminosity.

  11. Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries, Millisecond Radio Pulsars, and the Cosmic Star Formation Rate

    E-print Network

    Nicholas E. White; Pranab Ghosh

    1998-07-06

    We report on the implications of the peak in the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) at redshift z ~ 1.5 for the resulting population of low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXB) and for that of their descendants, the millisecond radio pulsars (MRP). Since the evolutionary timescales of LMXBs, their progenitors, and their descendants are thought be significant fractions of the time-interval between the SFR peak and the present epoch, there is a lag in the turn-on of the LMXB population, with the peak activity occurring at z ~ 0.5 - 1.0. The peak in the MRP population is delayed further, occurring at z < 0.5. We show that the discrepancy between the birthrate of LMXBs and MRPs, found under the assumption of a stead-state SFR, can be resolved for the population as a whole when the effects of a time-variable SFR are included. A discrepancy may persist for LMXBs with short orbital periods, although a detailed population synthesis will be required to confirm this. Further, since the integrated X-ray luminosity distribution of normal galaxies is dominated by X-ray binaries, it should show strong luminosity evolution with redshift. In addition to an enhancement near the peak (z ~ 1.5) of the SFR due to the prompt turn-on of the relatively short-lived massive X-ray binaries and young supernova remnants, we predict a second enhancement by a factor ~10 at a redshift between ~ 0.5 and ~ 1 due to the delayed turn-on of the LMXB population. Deep X-ray observations of galaxies out to z ~ 1 by AXAF will be able to observe this enhancement, and, by determining its shape as a function of redshift, will provide an important new method for constraining evolutionary models of X-ray binaries.

  12. Discovery of a Wide Substellar Companion to a Nearby Low-Mass Star

    E-print Network

    Jacqueline Radigan; David Lafrenière; Ray Jayawardhana; René Doyon

    2008-08-11

    We report the discovery of a wide (135+/-25 AU), unusually blue L5 companion 2MASS J17114559+4028578 to the nearby M4.5 dwarf G 203-50 as a result of a targeted search for common proper motion pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Adaptive Optics imaging with Subaru indicates that neither component is a nearly equal mass binary with separation > 0.18", and places limits on the existence of additional faint companions. An examination of TiO and CaH features in the primary's spectrum is consistent with solar metallicity and provides no evidence that G 203-50 is metal poor. We estimate an age for the primary of 1-5 Gyr based on activity. Assuming coevality of the companion, its age, gravity and metallicity can be constrained from properties of the primary, making it a suitable benchmark object for the calibration of evolutionary models and for determining the atmospheric properties of peculiar blue L dwarfs. The low total mass (M_tot=0.21+/-0.03 M_sun), intermediate mass ratio (q=0.45+/-0.14), and wide separation of this system demonstrate that the star formation process is capable of forming wide, weakly bound binary systems with low mass and BD components. Based on the sensitivity of our search we find that no more than 2.2% of early-to-mid M dwarfs (9.0 0.06 M_sun.

  13. EVOLUTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND YIELDS OF LOW-MASS ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS AT DIFFERENT METALLICITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.; Piersanti, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Gallino, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); DomInguez, I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lederer, M. T. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)

    2009-05-01

    The envelope of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars undergoing periodic third dredge-up (TDU) episodes is enriched in both light and heavy elements, the ashes of a complex internal nucleosynthesis involving p, {alpha}, and n captures over hundreds of stable and unstable isotopes. In this paper, new models of low-mass AGB stars (2 M {sub sun}), with metallicity ranging between Z = 0.0138 (the solar one) and Z = 0.0001, are presented. Main features are (1) a full nuclear network (from H to Bi) coupled to the stellar evolution code, (2) a mass loss-period-luminosity relation, based on available data for long-period variables, and (3) molecular and atomic opacities for C- and/or N-enhanced mixtures, appropriate for the chemical modifications of the envelope caused by the TDU. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and chemical evolutions is presented; moreover, we present a uniform set of yields, comprehensive of all chemical species (from hydrogen to bismuth). The main nucleosynthesis site is the thin {sup 13}C pocket, which forms in the core-envelope transition region after each TDU episode. The formation of this {sup 13}C pocket is the principal by-product of the introduction of a new algorithm, which shapes the velocity profile of convective elements at the inner border of the convective envelope: both the physical grounds and the calibration of the algorithm are discussed in detail. We find that the pockets shrink (in mass) as the star climbs the AGB, so that the first pockets, the largest ones, leave the major imprint on the overall nucleosynthesis. Neutrons are released by the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction during the interpulse phase in radiative conditions, when temperatures within the pockets attain T {approx} 1.0 x 10{sup 8} K, with typical densities of (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7}) neutrons cm{sup -3}. Exceptions are found, as in the case of the first pocket of the metal-rich models (Z = 0.0138, Z = 0.006 and Z = 0.003), where the {sup 13}C is only partially burned during the interpulse: the surviving part is ingested in the convective zone generated by the subsequent thermal pulse (TP) and then burned at T {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 8} K, thus producing larger neutron densities (up to 10{sup 11} neutrons cm{sup -3}). An additional neutron exposure, caused by the {sup 22}Ne({alpha}, n){sup 25}Mg during the TPs, is marginally activated at large Z, but becomes an important nucleosynthesis source at low Z, when most of the {sup 22}Ne is primary. The final surface compositions of the various models reflect the differences in the initial iron-seed content and in the physical structure of AGB stars belonging to different stellar populations. Thus, at large metallicities the nucleosynthesis of light s-elements (Sr, Y, Zr) is favored, whilst, decreasing the iron content, the overproduction of heavy s-elements (Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm) and lead becomes progressively more important. At low metallicities (Z = 0.0001) the main product is lead. The agreement with the observed [hs/ls] index observed in intrinsic C stars at different [Fe/H] is generally good. For the solar metallicity model, we found an interesting overproduction of some radioactive isotopes, like {sup 60}Fe, as a consequence of the anomalous first {sup 13}C pocket. Finally, light elements (C, F, Ne, and Na) are enhanced at any metallicity.

  14. The Low-Mass Stellar IMF at High Redshift: Faint Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Rosemary F. G. Wyse; Gerard Gilmore; Sofia Feltzing; Mark Houdashelt

    1999-11-18

    Low-mass stars, those with main-sequence lifetimes that are of order the age of the Universe, provide unique constraints on the Initial Mass Function (IMF) when they formed. Star counts in systems with simple star-formation histories are particularly straightforward to interpret, and those in old systems allow one to determine the low-mass stellar IMF at large look-back times and thus at high redshift. We present the faint stellar luminosity function (based on optical HST data) in an external galaxy, the Ursa Minor dwarf Spheroidal (dSph). This relatively-nearby (distance 70kpc) companion galaxy to the Milky Way has a stellar population with narrow distributions of age and of metallicity, remarkably similar to that of a classical halo globular cluster such as M92 or M15, i.e. old and metal-poor. Contrasting with globular clusters, the internal velocity dispersion of the Ursa Minor dSph indicates the presence of significant amounts of dark matter. We find that the main sequence stellar luminosity function of the Ursa Minor dSph, and implied IMF, down to 0.4 of a solar mass is indistinguishable from that of the halo globular clusters M92 and M15. Thus the low mass stellar IMF for stars that formed at high redshift is invariant in going from a low-surface-brightness, dark-matter-dominated external galaxy, to a globular cluster within the Milky Way.

  15. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (?1 M {sub Jup}) around 122 newly identified nearby (?40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M {sub ?}) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M {sub Jup} at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M {sub Jup}; L0{sub ?1}{sup +2}; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64{sub ?23}{sup +30} M {sub Jup}; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M {sub Jup}; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M {sub Jup}; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M {sub Jup} planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M {sub Jup} range like those orbiting HR 8799 and ? Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M {sub Jup}) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub ?1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  16. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (gsim1 M Jup) around 122 newly identified nearby (lsim40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M ?) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M Jup at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M Jup; L0+2-1; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64+30-23 M Jup; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M Jup; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M Jup; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M Jup planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799 and ? Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M Jup) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8+2.4-1.5%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. This work was also based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  17. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori: A Critical Test of Magnetic Evolution Models for Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Torres, Guillermo; Pavlovski, Kresimir; Feiden, Gregory A; Sabby, Jeffrey A; Bruntt, Hans; Clausen, Jens Viggo

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 Ori. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low-mass stars and ascribed to the effects of magnetic activity and/or spots. We show that models from the Dartmouth series that incorporate magnetic fields are able to match the observations with plausible field strengths of 1-2 kG, consistent with a rough estimate we derive for that star.

  18. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    E-print Network

    L. G. Althaus; A. H. Corsico; A. Gautschy; Z. Han; A. M. Serenelli; J. A. Panei

    2003-09-09

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33 Msun white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. The evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation are also fully accounted for by computing the conservative binary evolution of an initially 2.5-Msun Pop. I star with a 1.25 Msun companion, and period P_i= 3 days. Evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. We find that chemical diffusion induces the occurrence of an additional hydrogen thermonuclear flash which leads to stellar models with thin hydrogen envelopes. As a result, a fast cooling is encountered at advanced stages of evolution. In addition, we explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarf models. As compared with their helium-core counterparts, low-mass oxygen-core white dwarfs are characterized by a pulsational spectrum much more featured, an aspect which could eventually be used for distinguishing both types of stars if low-mass white dwarfs were in fact found to pulsate as ZZ Ceti-type variables. Finally, we perform a non-adiabatic pulsational analysis on the resulting carbon/oxygen low-mass white dwarf models.

  19. Correcting for Activity Effects on the Temperatures, Radii, and Estimated Masses of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Stassun, Keivan G; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J

    2012-01-01

    We present empirical relations for determining the amount by which the effective temperatures and radii---and therefore the estimated masses---of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are altered due to chromospheric activity. Accurate estimates of stellar radii are especially important in the context of searches for transiting exoplanets, which rely upon the assumed stellar radius/density to infer the planet radius/density. Our relations are based on a large set of well studied low-mass stars in the field and on a set of benchmark low-mass eclipsing binaries. The relations link the amount by which an active object's temperature is suppressed, and its radius inflated, to the strength of its Halpha emission. These relations are found to approximately preserve bolometric luminosity. We apply these relations to the peculiar brown-dwarf eclipsing binary 2M0535-05, in which the active, higher-mass brown dwarf has a cooler temperature than its inactive, lower-mass companion. The relations correctly reproduce the observed...

  20. The Schweizer-Middleditch star revisited

    E-print Network

    M. R. Burleigh; U. Heber; D. O'Donoghue; M. A. Barstow

    2000-02-10

    We have re-observed and re-analysed the optical spectrum of the Schweizer-Middleditch star, a hot subdwarf which lies along almost the same line-of-sight as the centre of the historic SN1006 supernova remnant (SNR). Although this object is itself unlikely to be the remnant of the star which exploded in 1006AD, Wellstein et al. (1999) have demonstrated that it could be the remnant of the donor star in a pre-supernova Type Ia interacting binary, if it possesses an unusually low mass. We show that, if it had a mass of 0.1-0.2 Msun, the SM star would lie at the same distance (~800pc) as the SNR as estimated by Willingale et al. (1995). However, most distance estimates to SN1006 are much larger than this, and there are other convincing arguments to suggest that the SM star lies behind this SNR. Assuming the canonical subdwarf mass of 0.5 Msun, we constrain the distance of the SM star as 1050 pc

  1. Extracting multipole moments of neutron stars from quasi-periodic oscillations in low mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge; Muccino, Marco

    2015-06-01

    We consider the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations of low-mass X-ray binaries within the Hartle-Thorne spacetime. We show that the interpretation of the epicyclic frequencies of this spacetime with the observed kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations, within the Relativistic Precession Model, allows us to extract the total mass M, angular momentum J, and quadrupole moment Q of the compact object in a low-mass X-ray binary. We exemplify this fact by analyzing the data of the Z-source GX 5-1. We show that the extracted multipole structure of the compact component of this source deviates from the one expected from a Kerr black hole and instead it points to a neutron star explanation.

  2. Rotation of low-mass stars - A new probe of stellar evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Pinsonneault; Steven D. Kawaler; P. Demarque

    1990-01-01

    Models of stars of various masses and rotational parameters were developed and compared with observations of stars in open clusters of various ages in order to analyze the evolution of rotating stars from the early premain sequence to an age of 1.7 x 10 to the 9th yrs. It is shown that, for stars older than 10 to the 8th

  3. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. I. A LOW-MASS RATIO STELLAR COMPANION TO TYC 4110-01037-1 IN A 79 DAY ORBIT

    E-print Network

    Stassun, Keivan

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical among binary systems with solar-like (T [subscript eff] [< over ~] 6000 K) primary stars. Our analysis of TYC ...

  4. Deuterium chemistry of dense gas in the vicinity of low-mass and massive star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Zainab; Viti, Serena; Bayet, Estelle; Caselli, Paola

    2014-09-01

    The standard interstellar ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) atoms is ˜1.5 × 10-5. However, the deuterium fractionation is in fact found to be enhanced, to different degrees, in cold, dark cores, hot cores around massive star-forming regions, lukewarm cores, and warm cores (hereafter hot corinos) around low-mass star-forming regions. In this paper, we investigate the overall differences in the deuterium chemistry between hot cores and hot corinos. We have modelled the chemistry of dense gas around low-mass and massive star-forming regions using a gas-grain chemical model. We investigate the influence of varying the core density, the depletion efficiency of gaseous species on to dust grains, the collapse mode and the final mass of the protostar on the chemical evolution of star-forming regions. We find that the deuterium chemistry is, in general, most sensitive to variations of the depletion efficiency on to grain surfaces, in agreement with observations. In addition, the results showed that the chemistry is more sensitive to changes in the final density of the collapsing core in hot cores than in hot corinos. Finally, we find that ratios of deuterated sulphur bearing species in dense gas around hot cores and corinos may be good evolutionary indicators in a similar way as their non-deuterated counterparts.

  5. DISCOVERY OF A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO A METAL-RICH F STAR WITH THE MARVELS PILOT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Lee, Brian; Cuong Nguyen, Duy; Morehead, Robert C.; Wan Xiaoke; Zhao Bo; Liu Jian; Guo Pengcheng; Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 326711-2055 (United States); Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Scott Gaudi, B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Niedzielski, Andrzej [Torun Center for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100, Torun (Poland); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Stassun, Keivan G.; Gary, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wolszczan, Alex [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barnes, Rory, E-mail: scfleming@astro.ufl.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion orbiting the metal-rich, main sequence F star TYC 2949-00557-1 during the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) pilot project. The host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6135 {+-} 40 K, logg = 4.4 {+-} 0.1, and [Fe/H] = 0.32 {+-} 0.01, indicating a mass of M = 1.25 {+-} 0.09 M{sub sun} and R = 1.15 {+-} 0.15 R{sub sun}. The companion has an orbital period of 5.69449 {+-} 0.00023 days and straddles the hydrogen burning limit with a minimum mass of 64 M{sub J} , and thus may be an example of the rare class of brown dwarfs orbiting at distances comparable to those of 'Hot Jupiters'. We present relative photometry that demonstrates that the host star is photometrically stable at the few millimagnitude level on time scales of hours to years, and rules out transits for a companion of radius {approx}>0.8 R{sub J} at the 95% confidence level. Tidal analysis of the system suggests that the star and companion are likely in a double synchronous state where both rotational and orbital synchronization have been achieved. This is the first low-mass companion detected with a multi-object, dispersed, fixed-delay interferometer.

  6. Radial velocities of very low mass stars and candidate brown dwarf members of the Hyades and Pleiades, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Liebert, James; Giampapa, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We have determined H alpha equivalent widths and radial velocities with 1 sigma accuracies of approximately 5 km/s for approximately 20 candidate very low mass members of the Pleiades cluster and for a few proposed very low mass members of the Hyades. Most of the Pleiades targets were selected from the recent Hambly, Hawkins, and Jameson proper motion survey, where they were identified as probable Pleiades brown dwarfs with an age spread from 3 to 70 Myr. Our spectroscopic data and a reinterpretation of the photometric data confirm that these objects are indeed likely Pleiades members; however, we believe that they more likely have masses slightly above the hydrogen burning mass limit and that there is no firm evidence for an age spread amongst these stars. All of the very low mass Pleiades and Hyades members show H alpha in emission. However, the ratio of H alpha flux to biometric flux in the Pleiades shows a maximum near M(sub Bol) approximately equal to 9.5 (M approximately equal to 0.3 solar mass) and a sharp decrease to lower masses. This break occurs at the approximate mass where low mass stars are expected to become fully convective, and it is tempting to assume that the decrease in H alpha flux is caused by some change in the behavior of stellar dynamos at this mass. We do not see a similar break in activity at this mass in the Hyades. We discuss possible evolutionary explanations for this difference in the H alpha activity between the two clusters.

  7. How does a low-mass cut-off in the stellar IMF affect the evolution of young star clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Goodwin, S. P.; de Grijs, R.; Rose, M.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate how different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) can affect the mass-loss and survival of star clusters. We find that IMFs with radically different low-mass cut-offs (between 0.1 and 2 M?) do not change cluster destruction time-scales as much as might be expected. Unsurprisingly, we find that clusters with more high-mass stars lose relatively more mass through stellar evolution, but the response to this mass-loss is to expand and hence significantly slow their dynamical evolution. We also argue that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to have clusters with different IMFs that are initially `the same', since the mass, radius and relaxation times depend on each other and on the IMF in a complex way. We conclude that changing the IMF to be biased towards more massive stars does speed up mass-loss and dissolution, but that it is not as dramatic as might be thought.

  8. Testing Stellar Evolution Models: Absolute Dimensions of the Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary Star V651 Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Allison; Torres, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate values of several key quantities for the low-mass, 0.9968096 day period, double-lined eclipsing binary V651 Cas. We determine accurate values for the masses, radii and temperatures of the primary and secondary as follows: M = 0.8553(81) solar masses, R = 0.957(17) solar radii, and effective temperature = 5733(100) K for the primary component, and M = 0.7564(48) solar masses, R = 0.771(15) solar radii, and effective temperature = 5113(105) for the secondary component, with formal uncertainties shown in parentheses. A comparison with the stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program suggests an age of 11(1) Gyr for a best-fit metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.2. While the isochrone mentioned correctly reproduces the measured radii and temperatures of the stars within the current uncertainties, we note that the secondary radius appears marginally larger and the temperature marginally cooler than models would predict. This is consistent with similar discrepancies found for other low-mass stars, generally accredited to surface activity. With further improvement in the measurement errors, and a spectroscopic measure of the metallicity, V651 Cas should be a valuable system for understanding the effects of magnetic activity on the global structure of low-mass stars and for providing guidance to improve stellar evolution models.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  9. Impact of internal gravity waves on the rotation profile inside pre-main sequence low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Talon, S.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: We study the impact of internal gravity waves (IGW), meridional circulation, shear turbulence, and stellar contraction on the internal rotation profile and surface velocity evolution of solar metallicity low-mass pre-main sequence stars. Methods: We compute a grid of rotating stellar evolution models with masses between 0.6 and 2.0 M? taking these processes into account for the transport of angular momentum, as soon as the radiative core appears and assuming no more disk-locking from that moment on. IGW generation along the PMS is computed taking Reynolds-stress and buoyancy into account in the bulk of the stellar convective envelope and convective core (when present). Redistribution of angular momentum within the radiative layers accounts for damping of prograde and retrograde IGW by thermal diffusivity and viscosity in corotation resonance. Results: Over the whole mass range considered, IGW are found to be efficiently generated by the convective envelope and to slow down the stellar core early on the PMS. In stars more massive than ~1.6 M?, IGW produced by the convective core also contribute to angular momentum redistribution close to the ZAMS. Conclusions: Overall, IGW are found to significantly change the internal rotation profile of PMS low-mass stars.

  10. From Stars to Super-Planets: The Low-Mass IMF in the Young Cluster IC348

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Najita, Joan R.; Tiede, Glenn P.; Carr, John S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative method for the spectral classification of late-type objects. Using photometric indices, constructed from HST/NICMOS narrow-band imaging, that measure the strength of the 1.9 micron water band, we determine the spectral type and reddening for every M-type star in the field, thereby separating cluster members from the interloper population. Due to the efficiency of our spectral classification technique, our study is complete from approximately 0.7 solar mass to 0.015 solar mass. The mass function derived for the cluster in this interval, dN/d log M alpha M(sup 0.5), is similar to that obtained for the Pleiades, but appears significantly more abundant in brown dwarfs than the mass function for companions to nearby sun-like stars. This provides compelling observational evidence for different formation and evolutionary histories for substellar objects formed in isolation vs. as companions. Because our determination of the IMF is complete to very low masses, we can place interesting constraints on the role of physical processes such as fragmentation in the star and planet formation process and the fraction of dark matter in the Galactic halo that resides in substellar objects.

  11. Rotation of low-mass stars - A new probe of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Demarque, P.

    1990-01-01

    Models of stars of various masses and rotational parameters were developed and compared with observations of stars in open clusters of various ages in order to analyze the evolution of rotating stars from the early premain sequence to an age of 1.7 x 10 to the 9th yrs. It is shown that, for stars older than 10 to the 8th yrs and less massive than 1.1 solar mass, the surface rotation rates depend most strongly on the properties of the angular momentum loss. The trends of the currently available observations suggest that the rotation periods are a good indicator of the field-star ages.

  12. Observations of suspected low-mass post-T Tauri stars and their evolutionary status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, R.; Walter, F. M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Finkenzeller, U.; Herbig, G. H.; Odell, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a study of five X-ray discovered weak emission pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex are presented. All are of spectral type K7-M0, and about 1-2 mag above the main sequence. One is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, the first spectroscopic binary PMS star to be confirmed. The ages, masses, and radii of these stars as determined by photometry and spectroscopy are discussed. The difference in emission strength between these and the T Tauri stars is investigated, and it is concluded that these 'post-T Tauri' stars do indeed appear more evolved than the T Tauri stars, although there is no evidence of any significant difference in ages.

  13. New BVI C Photometry of Low-mass Pleiades Stars: Exploring the Effects of Rotation on Broadband Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamai, Brittany L.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Stauffer, John R.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2014-08-01

    We present new BVIC photometry for 350 Pleiades proper motion members with 9 < V <~ 17. Importantly, our new catalog includes a large number of K- and early M-type stars, roughly doubling the number of low-mass stars with well-calibrated Johnson/Cousins photometry in this benchmark cluster. We combine our new photometry with existing photometry from the literature to define a purely empirical isochrone at Pleiades age (?100 Myr) extending from V = 9 to 17. We use the empirical isochrone to identify 48 new probable binaries and 14 likely nonmembers. The photometrically identified single stars are compared against their expected positions in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). At 100 Myr, the mid K and early M stars are predicted to lie above the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) having not yet reached the ZAMS. We find in the B - V versus V CMD that mid K and early M dwarfs are instead displaced below (or blueward of) the ZAMS. Using the stars' previously reported rotation periods, we find a highly statistically significant correlation between rotation period and CMD displacement, in the sense that the more rapidly rotating stars have the largest displacements in the B - V CMD.

  14. New BVI {sub C} photometry of low-mass pleiades stars: Exploring the effects of rotation on broadband colors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamai, Brittany L.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Stauffer, John R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present new BVI{sub C} photometry for 350 Pleiades proper motion members with 9 < V ? 17. Importantly, our new catalog includes a large number of K- and early M-type stars, roughly doubling the number of low-mass stars with well-calibrated Johnson/Cousins photometry in this benchmark cluster. We combine our new photometry with existing photometry from the literature to define a purely empirical isochrone at Pleiades age (?100 Myr) extending from V = 9 to 17. We use the empirical isochrone to identify 48 new probable binaries and 14 likely nonmembers. The photometrically identified single stars are compared against their expected positions in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). At 100 Myr, the mid K and early M stars are predicted to lie above the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) having not yet reached the ZAMS. We find in the B – V versus V CMD that mid K and early M dwarfs are instead displaced below (or blueward of) the ZAMS. Using the stars' previously reported rotation periods, we find a highly statistically significant correlation between rotation period and CMD displacement, in the sense that the more rapidly rotating stars have the largest displacements in the B – V CMD.

  15. Low-mass supernovae in the early Galactic halo: source of the double r/s-process enriched halo stars?

    E-print Network

    Albert A. Zijlstra

    2003-12-18

    Several stars at the low-metallicity extreme of the Galactic halo ([Fe/H]=-2.5) show strong enhancements of both s-process and r-process elements. The presence of s-process elements in main-sequence stars is explained via mass transfer from an AGB companion star in a binary system. r-Process elements originate in type-II supernovae and also require mass transfer. It is however unclear how pollution by both an AGB star and a supernova could have occured. Here I show that the initial--final-mass relation steepens at low metallicity, due to low mass-loss efficiency. This may cause the degenerate cores of low-Z, high-mass AGB stars to reach the Chandresekhar mass, leading to an Iben & Renzini-type-1.5 supernova. Such supernovae can explain both the enhancement patterns and the metallicity dependence of the double-enhanced halo stars. Reduced mass loss efficiency predicts more massive remnants in metal-poor globular clusters. The evidence for a high M/L population in the cores of globular clusters is briefly discussed.

  16. Infrared Spectra of Low-Mass Stars: Toward a Temperature Scale for Red Dwarfs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Leggett; F. Allard; Graham Berriman; Conard C. Dahn; Peter H. Hauschildt

    1996-01-01

    We present new low-resolution (R ˜ 250)1.0-2.4 mum spectra for 13 red dwarf stars. The sample size is increased to 16 by including other published infrared spectra. New, as well as published, red spectra are presented for 10 of these 16 stars, and new and published VRIJHKLL' photometry is also presented. Both halo and disk stars are included in the

  17. Physical Properties of Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars Inferred from High-resolution Model Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Barman, T.; Mclean, Ian S.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only ~M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R ~ 2000) and high (R ~ 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  18. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Emily L.; Mclean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Barman, T.; Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: erice@amnh.org

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only {approx}M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R {approx} 2000) and high (R {approx} 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  19. Constraining the Low-Mass Slope of the Star Formation Sequence at 0.5?z?2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn; Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Henry, Alaina L.; Skelton, Rosalind; Fumagalli, Mattia; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica; Rigby, Jane R.; 3D-HST Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of data from deep extragalactic surveys have revealed a picture where star-forming galaxies follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This observed star formation sequence encapsulates information about feedback, gas density and gas accretion rates over cosmic time. I will present a self-consistent empirical study measuring the slope of this relation for a complete sample of galaxies selected from the 3D-HST photometric catalogs at 0.5?z?2.5, using deep photometry in the CANDELS fields. Probing a factor of ten lower in stellar mass than previous high-redshift studies, we show that the slope of the star formation rate - stellar mass relation is mass-dependent; we measure a steep slope of order unity out to z=2.5 for low mass galaxies, and a slope that becomes increasingly flatter with time at the highest masses. These observations of the star formation sequence help reconcile existing tensions with theoretical galaxy formation models.

  20. The evolution of solar-like activity of low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    An analysis of data on chromospheric activity obtained in the framework of exoplanet-search programs is presented. Observations of 1334 stars showing that the chromospheric activity of the Sun is clearly higher than for the vast majority of stars in the solar vicinity are used. A comparison of chromospheric and coronal activity led to the identification of a significant group of stars with a low level of chromospheric activity, whose coronal radiation spans wide ranges. There are reasons to believe that the chromospheric and coronal activities of one group of stars decrease simultaneously as the rotation decelerates, while, in stars of the other group, the chromospheric activity diminishes, but their coronas remain stronger than that of the Sun. Features of cyclic activity of the Sun are discussed. This enables us to associate differences in the behavior of the activity with different depths of the convective zones of stars of spectral classes earlier and later than G6. Arguments in favor of a two-layer dynamo and different roles of the large-scale and small-scale magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of activity are formulated. Age estimations based on activity levels (gyrochronology) must be carried out differently for these different groups of stars.

  1. Cometary globules in the GUM nebula. II - Low mass star formation in cometary globule 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, M.; Sahu, K. C.

    1992-06-01

    We present the following observations of Wra 220, the H-alpha emission line star seen superposed on cometary globule 22 (CG22) on the ESO-SERC IIIaJ plates: (1) low resolution blue and red spectra (2) high resolution spectra in the region of the H-alpha 6563 A line (3) NIR photmetry (4) visual photometry from CCD images (5) IRAS Point Source Catalog data. Based on these data, we conclude that Wra 220 is a T-Tauri star physically associated with CG22. Other properties of the star like luminosity class, spectral energy distribution, etc. have also been derived.

  2. A NEW METHOD TO IDENTIFY NEARBY, YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: drodrigu@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    We describe a new method to identify young, late-type stars within {approx}150 pc of the Earth that employs visual or near-infrared (NIR) data and the GALEX GR4/5 database. For spectral types later than K5, we demonstrate that the ratio of GALEX near-ultraviolet to visual and NIR emission is larger for stars with ages between 10 and 100 Myr than for older, main-sequence stars. A search in regions of the sky encompassing the TW Hya and Scorpius-Centaurus Associations has returned 54 high-quality candidates for follow up. Spectroscopic observations of 24 of these M1-M5 objects reveal Li 6708 A absorption in at least 17 systems. Because GALEX surveys have covered a significant fraction of the sky, this methodology should prove valuable for future young star studies.

  3. 1 Millimeter Polarimetry of Young Stellar Objects: Low-Mass Protostars and T Tauri Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohide Tamura; J. H. Hough; Saeko S. Hayashi

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the polarization of the 1.1 mm and 0.8 mm continuum emission for three pr T Tauri stars and two T Tauri stars. Positive detections were made for NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 16293 - 2422, while L1551 IRS 5 and HL Tau were only marginally detected. For GG Tau we measured a 2 sigma upper limit

  4. STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF A YOUNG SUPER-STAR CLUSTER IN NGC 4038/39: DIRECT DETECTION OF LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Greissl, Julia; Meyer, Michael R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Christopher, Micol H.; Scoville, Nick Z., E-mail: jgreissl@as.arizona.ed [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-02-20

    We present an analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of a young massive star cluster in the overlap region of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/39 using population synthesis models. Our goal is to model the cluster population as well as provide rough constraints on its initial mass function (IMF). The cluster shows signs of youth, such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines in the near-infrared. Late-type absorption lines are also present which are indicative of late-type stars in the cluster. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars or red supergiants alone. Thus, we interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages, which is feasible since the 1'' spectrum encompasses a physical region of {approx}90 pc and radii of super-star clusters (SSCs) are generally measured to be a few parsecs. One cluster is young (<= 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second cluster is older (6 Myr-18 Myr) and is needed to reproduce the overall depth of the late-type absorption features in the spectrum. Both are required to accurately reproduce the near-infrared spectrum of the object. Thus, we have directly detected PMS objects in an unresolved SSC for the first time using a combination of population synthesis models and PMS tracks. This analysis serves as a testbed of our technique to constrain the low-mass IMF in young SSCs as well as an exploration of the star formation history of young UC H II regions.

  5. The young low-mass star ISO-Oph-50: extreme variability induced by a clumpy, evolving circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Alexander; Muži?, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    ISO-Oph-50 is a young low-mass object in the ˜1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region undergoing dramatic changes in its optical/near/mid-infrared brightness by 2-4 mag. We present new multi-band photometry and near-infrared spectra, combined with a synopsis of the existing literature data. Based on the spectroscopy, the source is confirmed as a mid-M dwarf, with evidence for ongoing accretion. The near-infrared light curves show large-scale variations, with 2-4 mag amplitude in the bands IJHK, with the object generally being bluer when faint. Near its brightest state, the object shows colour changes consistent with variable extinction of ?AV ˜ 7 mag. High-cadence monitoring at 3.6 ?m reveals quasi-periodic variations with a typical time-scale of 1-2 weeks. The best explanation for these characteristics is a low-mass star seen through circumstellar matter, whose complex variability is caused by changing inhomogeneities in the inner parts of the disc. When faint, the direct stellar emission is blocked; the near-infrared radiation is dominated by scattered light. When bright, the emission is consistent with a photosphere strongly reddened by circumstellar dust. Based on the available constraints, the inhomogeneities have to be located at or beyond ˜0.1 au distance from the star. If this scenario turns out to be correct, a major portion of the inner disc has to be clumpy, structured, and/or in turmoil. In its observational characteristics, this object resembles other types of young stellar objects with variability caused in the inner disc. Compared to other objects, however, ISO-Oph-50 is clearly an extreme case, given the large amplitude of the brightness and colour changes combined with the erratic behaviour. ISO-Oph-50 has been near its brightest state since 2013; further monitoring is highly encouraged.

  6. The variation of tidal dissipation in the convective envelope of low-mass stars along their evolution

    E-print Network

    Mathis, S

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995, more than 1500 exoplanets have been discovered around a large diversity of host stars (from M- to A-type stars). Tidal dissipation in stellar convective envelopes is a key actor that shapes the orbital architecture of short-period systems. Our objective is to understand and evaluate how tidal dissipation in the convective envelope of low-mass stars (from M to F types) depends on their mass, evolutionary stage and rotation. Using a simplified two-layer assumption, we compute analytically the frequency-averaged tidal dissipation in their convective envelope. This dissipation is due to the conversion into heat of the kinetic energy of tidal non wave-like/equilibrium flow and inertial waves because of the viscous friction applied by turbulent convection. Using grids of stellar models allows us to study the variation of the dissipation as a function of stellar mass and age on the Pre-Main-Sequence and on the Main-Sequence for stars with masses spanning from $0.4$ to $1.4M_{\\odot}$. As shown by observat...

  7. Radiative feedback by low-mass stars in the first generation

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hueckstaedt, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcconkie, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The survival of cosmological minihalos in both ionizing and Lyman-Werner (LW) UV fields from nearby and distant sources has attracted recent attention for its role in regulating the rise of stellar populations at high red-shifts. Numerical models suggest that the first stars form in isolation in small dark matter halos of {approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z {approx} 20-30 and that they are very massive, 25-500 M{sub {circle_dot}}. These stars form large H II regions 2.5-5 kpc in radius capable of engulfing nearby halos. With the rise of Population III stars throughout the cosmos also comes a global LW background that sterilizes mini-halos of H{sub 2}, delaying or preventing new star formation in them. At high redshifts, ionizaing radiation is therefore relatively local while LW photons can originate from many megaparsects away because their energies lie below the ionization limit of H.

  8. EVOLUTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND YIELDS OF LOW-MASS ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS AT DIFFERENT METALLICITIES. II. THE FRUITY DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Cristallo, S.; Dominguez, I.; Abia, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Di Rico, G.; Quintini, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Bisterzo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    By using updated stellar low-mass stars models, we systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this paper, we present a database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables and Yields (FRUITY). An interactive Web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up (TDU) episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 {<=}M/M{sub Sun} {<=} 3.0 and metallicities 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {<=} Z {<=} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, is discussed. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parameterization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the TDU efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find good agreement with observations.

  9. Evolution, Nucleosynthesis, and Yields of Low-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars at Different Metallicities. II. The FRUITY Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Domínguez, I.; Abia, C.; Di Rico, G.; Quintini, M.; Bisterzo, S.

    2011-12-01

    By using updated stellar low-mass stars models, we systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this paper, we present a database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields (FRUITY). An interactive Web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up (TDU) episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 <=M/M ? <= 3.0 and metallicities 1 × 10-3 <= Z <= 2 × 10-2, is discussed. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parameterization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the TDU efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find good agreement with observations.

  10. The circumstellar environment of TMR-1 - A young, low-mass star in the Taurus molecular ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Beichman, C. A.; Gautier, T. N.; Hester, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Near-infrared camera and Owens Valley millimeter interferometer data are presented that reveal the circumstellar environment of TMR-1 on scales of roughly 1000 AU. TMR-1 is a deeply embedded, young, low-mass star located in a rotating ring of material in the TMC-1/Heiles Cloud 2 region of the Taurus molecular cloud. The stellar wind cavity, as outlined by the extended infrared continuum emission at 2.2 microns, overlaps with the redshifted outflow detected in the (C-12)O data. High-density circumstellar material is seen in (C-13)O in emission and at 2.2 microns in absorption. The morphology suggests the high-density gas may either be part of a 1000 AU disk or may represent infalling material from the molecular cloud core. TMR-1 appears to be in an early wind-clearing phase of protostar formation.

  11. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories. PMID:20016595

  12. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Stasinska, G.; Binette, L.

    2011-10-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]/H?, [SII]/H? with galactic height.

  13. Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low Mass Clusters of M83

    E-print Network

    Andrews, J E; Chandar, R; Elmegreen, B G; Kennicutt, R C; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R; Lee, J C; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R W; Whitmore, B

    2014-01-01

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages $\\leq$ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the upper end of the stellar IMF in M83 is consistent with an universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the $\\lessapprox$ 10$^{3}$ Msun clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  14. Nonequilibrium iron oxide formation in some low-mass post-asymptotic giant branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1992-11-01

    Using experimental evidence that under highly oxidizing conditions gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite) and Fe3O4 display refractory behavior, it is proposed that very low C/O ratios, that could be unique to evolving AGB stars, induce nonequilibrium formation of ferromagnetic iron oxide grains along with chondritic dust. The oxides are preferentially fractionated from chondritic dust in the stellar magnetic field which could account for the observed extreme iron underabundance in their photosphere. A search for the 1-2.5-micron IR absorption feature, or for diagnostic magnetite and maghemite IR absorption features, could show the validity of the model proposed.

  15. Accurate Alpha Abundance and C/O of Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyette, Mark; Muirhead, Philip; Mann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate methods for measuring elemental abundances in M dwarf stars from high resolution (R>25,000), near-infrared spectra. With synthetic spectra from the BT-Settl model atmosphere library, we identify NIR features sensitive to enhancement of alpha elements (C, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti) in M dwarfs. We also describe a method for measuring the amount of oxygen not bound in CO from molecular and atomic features in the NIR Y-band that, when combined with recently published methods of measuring carbon abundance in M dwarfs from K-band spectra, provides the ratio of carbon to oxygen (C/O). The ratio of carbon to oxygen is an important parameter for determining interior structures of exoplanets and processes that drive planet formation as evidenced by recent studies of the super Earth 55 Cnc e. We outline a potential observing program to empirically calibrate these methods via a sample of M dwarfs with widely-separated (5''-1500''), but associated, F, G or K-type binary companions. Once calibrated, we will apply these methods to a survey of nearby M dwarfs, including many stars that will be observed by NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).

  16. The capture of dark matter particles through the evolution of low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilidio; Casanellas, Jordi; Eugenio, Daniel [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Evora, Portugal and CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    We studied the rate at which stars capture dark matter (DM) particles, considering different assumptions regarding the DM characteristics and, in particular, investigating how the stellar physics influences the capture rate. Two scenarios were considered: first, we assumed the maximal values for the spin-dependent and spin-independent DM particle-nucleon scattering cross sections allowed by the limits from direct detection experiments. Second, we considered that both scattering cross sections are of the same order, with the aim of studying the dependencies of the capture rate on stellar elements other than hydrogen. We found that the characteristics of the capture rate are very different in the two scenarios. Furthermore, we quantified the uncertainties on the computed capture rate (C{sub {chi}}) and on the ratio between the luminosities from DM annihilations and thermonuclear reactions (L{sub {chi}}/L{sub nuc}) derived from an imprecise knowledge of the stellar structure and DM parameters. For instance, while an uncertainty of 10% on the typical DM velocity leads to similar errors on the computed C{sub {chi}} and L{sub {chi}}/L{sub nuc}, the same uncertainty on the stellar mass becomes more relevant and duplicates the errors. Our results may be used to evaluate the reliability of the computed capture rate for the hypothetical use of stars other than the Sun as DM probes.

  17. Accretion onto Planetary Mass Companions of Low-mass Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yifan; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kraus, Adam L.; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of accretion rates onto planetary mass objects may distinguish between different planet formation mechanisms, which predict different accretion histories. In this Letter, we use Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 UVIS optical photometry to measure accretion rates onto three accreting objects, GSC 06214-00210 b, GQ Lup b, and DH Tau b, that are at the planet/brown dwarf boundary and are companions to solar mass stars. The excess optical emission in the excess accretion continuum yields mass accretion rates of 10-9-10-11 M ? yr-1 for these three objects. Their accretion rates are an order of magnitude higher than expected from the correlation between mass and accretion rates measured from the UV excess, which is applicable if these wide planetary mass companions formed by protostellar core fragmentation. The high accretion rates and large separation from the central star demonstrate the presence of massive disks around these objects. Models for the formation and evolution of wide planetary mass companions should account for their large accretion rates. High ratios of H? luminosity over accretion luminosity for objects with low accretion rates suggest that searches for H? emission may be an efficient way to find accreting planets.

  18. Calibrating Core Overshooting in Low-Mass Stars with Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deheuvels, S.

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the chemically mixed regions associated with convective cores remains uncertain due to our poor understanding of the interface between convective and radiative zones (e.g. overshooting). This generates large uncertainties on stellar ages. So far, several studies have shown that convective cores must extend beyond the Schwarzschild boundary. However, very few constraints exist on the size of this extension and its dependency with stellar parameters. We used 3 years of high-precision photometric data from the Kepler satellite to investigate how stars whose mass lies around the limit for having a convective core (M˜1.2 M_?) can contribute to the longstanding question of the size of convective cores. We constrained the amount of core overshooting in 14 targets and found a tendency of overshooting to increase with stellar mass in this mass range. These results will be presented in more details in a paper in preparation.

  19. Dissipation Efficiency in Turbulent Convective Zones in Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, K.; Sasselov, D.; Robinson, F.; Demarque, P.

    2009-10-01

    We extend the analysis of Penev et al. to calculate effective viscosities for the surface convective zones of three main-sequence stars of 0.775 M sun, 0.85 M sun, and the present day Sun. In addition, we also pay careful attention to all normalization factors and assumptions in order to derive actual numerical prescriptions for the effective viscosity as a function of the period and direction of the external shear. Our results are applicable for periods that are too long to correspond to eddies that fall within the inertial subrange of Kolmogorov scaling, but no larger than the convective turnover time, when the assumptions of the calculation break down. We find moderately anisotropic viscosity, scaling linearly with the period of the external perturbation, with its components having magnitudes between three and ten times smaller than the Zahn's prescription.

  20. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Ciesla, Fred J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our Solar System. Here we suggest that the water content of primitive bodies in many planetary systems may actually be much higher, as carbonaceous chondrites have lost some of their original water due to heating from short-lived radioisotopes that drove parent body alteration. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of Habitable Zone planets and planetary system architecture which could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model predicted tren...

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN LOW-MASS E/S0 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Lisa H.; Vogel, Stuart N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Laine, Seppo [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    We consider the relationship between molecular gas and star formation surface densities in 19 morphologically defined E/S0s with stellar mass {approx}<4 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, paying particular attention to those found on the blue sequence in color versus stellar mass parameter space, where spiral galaxies typically reside. While some blue-sequence E/S0s must be young major-merger remnants, many low-mass blue-sequence E/S0s appear much less disturbed and may be experiencing the milder starbursts associated with inner-disk building as spirals (re)grow. For a sample of eight E/S0s (four blue, two mid, and two red sequence) whose CARMA CO(1-0), Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, and GALEX FUV emission distributions are spatially resolved on a 750 pc scale, we find roughly linear relationships between molecular gas and star formation surface densities within all galaxies, with power-law indices N = 0.6-1.9 (median 1.2). Adding 11 more blue-sequence E/S0s whose CO(1-0) emission is not as well resolved, we find that most of our E/S0s have global 1-8 kpc aperture-averaged molecular gas surface densities overlapping the range spanned by the disks and centers of spiral galaxies. While many of our E/S0s fall on the same Schmidt-Kennicutt relation as local spirals, {approx}80% (predominantly on the blue sequence) are offset toward apparently higher molecular gas star formation efficiency (i.e., shorter molecular gas depletion time). Possible interpretations of the elevated efficiencies include bursty star formation similar to that in local dwarf galaxies, H{sub 2} depletion in advanced starbursts, or simply a failure of the CO(1-0) emission to trace all of the molecular gas.

  2. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). III. A Young Dusty L Dwarf Companion at the Deuterium-Burning Limit

    E-print Network

    Bowler, Brendan P; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Dupuy, Trent J

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.45" (~52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R~3800) 1.5-2.4 $\\mu$m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the ~120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 +/- 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I $\\lambda$6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of ~10-120 Myr is possible. The age...

  3. Rotational mixing in low-mass stars. I Effect of the mu-gradients in main sequence and subgiant Pop I stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, A.; Talon, S.; Charbonnel, C.; Forestini, M.

    2003-02-01

    We present a first set of results concerning stellar evolution of rotating low-mass stars. Our models include fully consistent transport of angular momentum and chemicals due to the combined action of rotation induced mixing (according to Maeder & Zahn \\cite{Maeder98}) and element segregation. The analysis of the effects of local variations of molecular weight due to the meridional circulation on the transport of angular momentum and chemicals are under the scope of this study. We apply this mechanism to low mass main sequence and subgiant stars of population I. We show that the so-called mu -currents are of major importance in setting the shape of the rotation profile, specially near the core. Furthermore, as shown by Talon & Charbonnel (\\cite{Talon98}) and Charbonnel & Talon (\\cite{Charbonnel99}) using models without mu -currents, we confirm that rotation-induced mixing in stars braked via magnetic torquing can explain the blue side of the Li dip, as well as the low Li abundances observed in subgiants even when mu -currents are taken into account. We emphasize that mu variations are not to be neglected when treating rotation-induced mixing, and that they could be of great importance for latter evolutionary stages.

  4. TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF STARS IN AND AROUND THE LAGOON NEBULA. I. ROTATION PERIODS OF 290 LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN NGC 6530

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Calen B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: henderson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We have conducted a long-term, wide-field, high-cadence photometric monitoring survey of {approx}50,000 stars in the Lagoon Nebula H II region. This first paper presents rotation periods for 290 low-mass stars in NGC 6530, the young cluster illuminating the nebula, and for which we assemble a catalog of infrared and spectroscopic disk indicators, estimated masses and ages, and X-ray luminosities. The distribution of rotation periods we measure is broadly uniform for 0.5 days < P < 10 days; the short-period cutoff corresponds to breakup. We observe no obvious bimodality in the period distribution, but we do find that stars with disk signatures rotate more slowly on average. The stars' X-ray luminosities are roughly flat with rotation period, at the saturation level (log L{sub X} /L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To -3.3). However, we find a significant positive correlation between L{sub X} /L{sub bol} and corotation radius, suggesting that the observed X-ray luminosities are regulated by centrifugal stripping of the stellar coronae. The period-mass relationship in NGC 6530 is broadly similar to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), but the slope of the relationship among the slowest rotators differs from that in the ONC and other young clusters. We show that the slope of the period-mass relationship for the slowest rotators can be used as a proxy for the age of a young cluster, and we argue that NGC 6530 may be slightly younger than the ONC, making it a particularly important touchstone for models of angular momentum evolution in young, low-mass stars.

  5. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-mass Stars. II. Fully Convective Main-sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2014-07-01

    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.

  6. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. II. Fully convective main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@gmail.com, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.

  7. The pre-main sequence evolutionary models of low mass stars in the mass range 0.30 Msun - 0.60 Msun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kucuk

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary models of stars of low mass in the mass range of 0.30 to 0.60 solar masses are presented. Each model begins from the threshold of stability and the evolution progresses up to the zero age main sequence (ZAMS). Particular attention has been paid to the treatment of the electron screening factors and thermonuclear reaction rates. A comparison for the

  8. A SEARCH FOR IRON EMISSION LINES IN THE CHANDRA X-RAY SPECTRA OF NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    E-print Network

    Cackett, E. M.

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, ...

  9. A VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART TO THE NEUTRON-STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY 4U 1705 – 440

    E-print Network

    Homan, Jeroen

    We report the discovery of a near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to the persistent neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1705 – 440, at a location consistent with its recently determined Chandra X-ray position. The NIR source ...

  10. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. III. IRON, MAGNESIUM, AND SILICON

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, Channon [Current address: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA, Houston, TX 77058-1113 (United States); Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce, E-mail: visscher@lpi.usra.ed, E-mail: lodders@wustl.ed, E-mail: bfegley@wustl.ed [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States)

    2010-06-20

    We use thermochemical equilibrium calculations to model iron, magnesium, and silicon chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), and low-mass stars. The behavior of individual Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of temperature, pressure, and metallicity. Our equilibrium results are thus independent of any particular model atmosphere. The condensation of Fe metal strongly affects iron chemistry by efficiently removing Fe-bearing species from the gas phase. Monatomic Fe is the most abundant Fe-bearing gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs, and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Mg- and Si-bearing gases are effectively removed from the atmosphere by forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) cloud formation. Monatomic Mg is the dominant magnesium gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Silicon monoxide (SiO) is the most abundant Si-bearing gas in the deep atmospheres of brown dwarfs and EGPs, whereas SiH{sub 4} is dominant in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas giant planets. Several other Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases become increasingly important with decreasing effective temperature. In principle, a number of Fe, Mg, and Si gases are potential tracers of weather or diagnostic of temperature in substellar atmospheres.

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry in Giant Planets, Brown Dwarfs, and Low-Mass Dwarf Stars III. Iron, Magnesium, and Silicon

    E-print Network

    Visscher, Channon; Fegley, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    We use thermochemical equilibrium calculations to model iron, magnesium, and silicon chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), and low-mass stars. The behavior of individual Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of temperature, pressure, and metallicity. Our results are thus independent of any particular model atmosphere. The condensation of Fe metal strongly affects iron chemistry by efficiently removing Fe-bearing species from the gas phase. Monatomic Fe is the most abundant Fe-bearing gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Mg- and Si-bearing gases are effectively removed from the atmosphere by forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and enstatite (MgSiO3) cloud formation. Monatomic Mg is the dominant magnesium gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Silicon monoxide (SiO) is the most abundant Si-b...

  12. The Dynamical Evolution of Low-mass Hydrogen-burning Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and Planetary-mass Objects Formed through Disk Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Stamatellos, D.; Goodwin, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) via disk fragmentation. As disk fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of Stamatellos & Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting disks. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2, respectively. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km s?1, with some runaway escapers with velocities over 30 km s?1. Roughly 6% (set 1) and 2% (set 2) of the companions pair up into very low-mass binary systems, resulting in respective binary fractions of 3.2% and 1.2%. The majority of these pairs escape as very low-mass binaries, while others remain bound to the host star in hierarchical configurations (often with retrograde inner orbits). Physical collisions with the host star (0.43 and 0.18 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) and between companions (0.08 and 0.04 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) are relatively common and their frequency increases with increasing disk mass. Our study predicts observable properties of very low-mass binaries, low-mass hierarchical systems, the BD desert, and free-floating BDs and PMOs in and near young stellar groupings, which can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of very low-mass stars, BDs, and PMOs.

  13. Are the red halos of galaxies made of low-mass stars? Constraints from subdwarf star counts in the Milky Way halo

    E-print Network

    E. Zackrisson; C. Flynn

    2008-09-17

    Surface photometry detections of red and exceedingly faint halos around galaxies have resurrected the old question of whether some non-negligible fraction of the missing baryons of the Universe could be hiding in the form of faint, hydrogen-burning stars. The optical/near-infrared colours of these red halos have proved very difficult to reconcile with any normal type of stellar population, but can in principle be explained by advocating a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. This implies a high stellar mass-to-light ratio and hence a substantial baryonic mass locked up in such halos. Here, we explore the constraints imposed by current observations of ordinary stellar halo subdwarfs on a putative red halo of low-mass stars around the Milky Way. Assuming structural parameters similar to those of the red halo recently detected in stacked images of external disk galaxies, we find that a smooth halo component with a bottom-heavy initial mass function is completely ruled out by current star count data for the Milky Way. All viable smooth red halo models with a density slope even remotely similar to that of the stacked halo moreover contain far too little mass to have any bearing on the missing-baryon problem. However, we note that these constraints can be sidestepped if the red halo stars are locked up in star clusters, and discuss potential observations of other nearby galaxies that may be able to put such scenarios to the test.

  14. KEPLER CYCLE 1 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS STARS: NEW ECLIPSING BINARIES, SINGLE STAR ROTATION RATES, AND THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF STARSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T. E.; Coughlin, J. L.; Ule, N. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M., E-mail: tharriso@nmsu.edu, E-mail: jlcough@nmsu.edu, E-mail: nmule@nmsu.edu, E-mail: mlopez@ieec.uab.es [Institut de Ciencies de L'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Fac. Ciencies. Torre C5 parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    We have analyzed Kepler light curves for 849 stars with T{sub eff} {<=} 5200 K from our Cycle 1 Guest Observer program. We identify six new eclipsing binaries, one of which has an orbital period of 29.91 days and two of which are probably W UMa variables. In addition, we identify a candidate 'warm Jupiter' exoplanet. We further examine a subset of 670 sources for variability. Of these objects, 265 stars clearly show periodic variability that we assign to rotation of the low-mass star. At the photometric precision level provided by Kepler, 251 of our objects showed no evidence for variability. We were unable to determine periods for 154 variable objects. We find that 79% of stars with T{sub eff} {<=} 5200 K are variable. The rotation periods we derive for the periodic variables span the range 0.31 days {<=} P{sub rot} {<=} 126.5 days. A considerable number of stars with rotation periods similar to the solar value show activity levels that are 100 times higher than the Sun. This is consistent with results for solar-like field stars. As has been found in previous studies, stars with shorter rotation periods generally exhibit larger modulations. This trend flattens beyond P{sub rot} = 25 days, demonstrating that even long-period binaries may still have components with high levels of activity and investigating whether the masses and radii of the stellar components in these systems are consistent with stellar models could remain problematic. Surprisingly, our modeling of the light curves suggests that the active regions on these cool stars are either preferentially located near the rotational poles, or that there are two spot groups located at lower latitudes, but in opposing hemispheres.

  15. 2M1155-79 (= T Cha B): A Low-mass, Wide-separation Companion to the Nearby, "Old" T Tauri Star T Cha

    E-print Network

    Kastner, Joel H; Montez, R; Murphy, S J; Bessell, M S; Sacco, G G

    2012-01-01

    The early-K star T Cha, a member of the relatively nearby (D ~ 100 pc) epsilon Cha Association, is a relatively "old" (age ~7 Myr) T Tauri star that is still sporadically accreting from an orbiting disk whose inner regions are evidently now being cleared by a close, substellar companion. We report the identification, via analysis of proper motions, serendipitous X-ray imaging spectroscopy, and followup optical spectroscopy, of a new member of the epsilon Cha Association that is very likely a low-mass companion to T Cha at a projected separation of ~38 kAU. The combined X-ray and optical spectroscopy data indicate that the companion, T Cha B (= 2M1155-79), is a weak-lined T Tauri star (wTTS) of spectral type M3 and age ~low-mass member of the Cha cloud pre-MS population. T Cha becomes the third...

  16. CAN THE GROWTH OF DUST GRAINS IN LOW-METALLICITY STAR-FORMING CLOUDS AFFECT THE FORMATION OF METAL-POOR LOW-MASS STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, Takaya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: takaya.nozawa@ipmu.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    The discovery of a low-mass star with such a low metallicity as {<=}4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Z{sub Sun} reveals the critical role of dust in the formation of extremely metal-poor stars. In this Letter, we explore the effect of the growth of dust grains through accretion of gaseous refractory elements in very low metallicity pre-stellar cores on cloud fragmentation induced by dust emission cooling. Employing a simple model of grain growth in a gravitationally collapsing gas, we show that Fe and Si grains can grow efficiently at hydrogen densities of {approx_equal} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} in the clouds with metal abundances of -5 {approx}< [Fe, Si/H] {approx}< -3. The critical metal number abundances, above which the grain growth could induce the fragmentation of the gas clouds, are estimated to be A{sub crit} {approx_equal} 10{sup -9}-10{sup -8}, unless the initial grain radius is too large ({approx}>1 {mu}m) or the sticking probability is too small ({approx}<0.01). We find that even if the initial dust-to-gas mass ratio is well below the minimum value required for the dust-induced fragmentation, the grain growth increases the dust mass high enough to cause the gas to fragment into sub-solar mass clumps. We suggest that as long as the critical metal abundance is satisfied, grain growth could play an important role in the formation of low-mass stars with metallicity as low as 10{sup -5} Z{sub Sun }.

  17. An HST Imaging Survey of Low-mass Stars in the Chamaeleon I Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robberto, M.; Spina, L.; Da Rio, N.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ricci, L.; Goddi, C.; Testi, L.; Palla, F.; Bacciotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of 20 fields centered around T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region. Images have been obtained in the F631N ([O I] ?6300), F656N (H?), and F673N ([S II] ??6716, 6731) narrow-band filters, plus the Johnson V-band equivalent F547M filter. We detect 31 T Tauri stars falling within our fields. We discuss the optical morphology of 10 sources showing evidence of either binarity, circumstellar material, or mass loss. We supplement our photometry with a compilation of optical, infrared, and submillimeter (sub-mm) data from the literature, together with new sub-mm data for three objects, to build the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 19 single sources. Using an SED model fitting tool, we self-consistently estimate a number of stellar and disk parameters, while mass accretion rates are directly derived from our H? photometry. We find that bolometric luminosities derived from dereddened optical data tend to be underestimated in systems with high ?2-24 IR spectral index, suggesting that disks seen nearly edge-on may occasionally be interpreted as low-luminosity (and therefore more evolved) sources. On the other hand, the same ?2-24 IR spectral index, a tracer of the amount of dust in the warmer layers of the circumstellar disks, and the mass accretion rate appear to decay with the isochronal stellar age, suggesting that the observed age spread (sime 0.5-5 Myr) within the cluster is real. Our sample contains a few outliers that may have dissipated their circumstellar disks on a shorter timescale.

  18. Planets around Low-mass Stars. III. A Young Dusty L Dwarf Companion at the Deuterium-burning Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 (?52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R ? 3800) 1.5-2.4 ?m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the ~120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 ± 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I ?6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of ~10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where "hot-start" evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, ? And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is ?12-13 M Jup or ?22-27 M Jup if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M Jup if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition (?1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr) planetary companions. Altogether, the low mass, low temperature, and red colors of 2MASS 0122-2439 B make it a bridge between warm planets like ? Pic b and cool, very dusty ones like HR 8799 bcde. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J., E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 ( Almost-Equal-To 52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 3800) 1.5-2.4 {mu}m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the {approx}120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 {+-} 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I {lambda}6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of {approx}10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, {kappa} And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is Almost-Equal-To 12-13 M{sub Jup} or Almost-Equal-To 22-27 M{sub Jup} if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M{sub Jup} if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition ( Almost-Equal-To 1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr) planetary companions. Altogether, the low mass, low temperature, and red colors of 2MASS 0122-2439 B make it a bridge between warm planets like {beta} Pic b and cool, very dusty ones like HR 8799 bcde.

  20. NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENT WITH THE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY U24 IN NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A-2T8 (Canada); Brown, Edward F., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 3250 Biomedical Physical Science Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    This paper reports the spectral and timing analyses of the quiescent low-mass X-ray binary (qLMXB) U24 observed during five archived Chandra/ACIS exposures of the nearby globular cluster NGC 6397, for a total of 350 ks. We find that the X-ray flux and the parameters of the hydrogen atmosphere spectral model are consistent with those previously published for this source. On short timescales, we find no evidence of aperiodic intensity variability, with 90% confidence upper limits during five observations ranging between <8.6% rms and <19% rms, in the 0.0001-0.1 Hz frequency range (0.5-8.0 keV); and no evidence of periodic variability, with maximum observed powers in this frequency range having a chance probability of occurrence from a Poisson-deviated light curve in excess of 10%. We also report the improved neutron star (NS) physical radius measurement, with statistical accuracy of the order of {approx}10%: R{sub NS} = 8.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.6} km for M{sub NS} = 1.4 M{sub sun}. Alternatively, we provide the confidence regions in mass-radius space as well as the best-fit projected radius R{sub {infinity}} = 11.9{sup +1.0}{sub -0.8} km, as seen by an observer at infinity. The best-fit effective temperature, kT{sub eff} = 80{sup +4}{sub -5} eV, is used to estimate the NS core temperature which falls in the range T{sub core} = (3.0-9.8) x 10{sup 7} K, depending on the atmosphere model considered. This makes U24 the third most precisely measured NS radius among qLMXBs, after those in {omega} Cen and M13.

  1. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects. IV. Accretion in low-mass stars and substellar objects in Lupus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Manara, C. F.; Spezzi, L.; Stelzer, B.; Frasca, A.; Biazzo, K.; Covino, E.; Randich, S.; Rigliaco, E.; Testi, L.; Comerón, F.; Cupani, G.; D'Elia, V.

    2014-01-01

    We present VLT/X-shooter observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and substellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star-forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2 M?, but mostly with 0.1 M?star. Based on observations collected at the European Souther Observatory at Paranal, under programs 084.C-0269(A), 085.C-0238(A), 086.C-0173(A), 087.C-0244(A) and 089.C-0143(A).Tables 1-4 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Molecular Abundances and Low-Mass Star Formation. II. Organic and Deuterated Species toward IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Jansen, David J.; Groesbeck, T. D.

    1995-07-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter line surveys of the protobinary source IRAS 16293-2422 are presented in the 230 and 345 GHz windows. In total, 265 lines belonging to 44 molecules and their isotopomers (24 chemically different species) have been detected. Here the data for organic and deuterated molecules are considered; the results for Si- and S-bearing species have been discussed in an earlier paper (Blake et al. 1994). The observations have been analyzed through a combination of rotation diagrams and full statistical equilibrium/ radiative transfer calculations. At least three physically and chemically different components can be distinguished within the 20" (3000 AU) beam. The first component is the warm (Tkin ? 80 K) and dense [n(H2) ? (0.5-1) × 107 cm-3] gas sampled by Si- and S-containing molecules such as SiO and SO2. This gas is found to be rich in organic molecules such as CH3OH, CH3CN, and H2CO, as well. It is only 3"-10" in size (500-1500 AU) and most likely represents the interaction of the bipolar outflow(s) with the circumbinary envelope. The second component is the circumbinary envelope itself, which has Tkin 40 K and n(H2) 106 - 107 cm-3 and is 10"-15" in size (2000 AU). It contains common molecules like CS, HCO+, and H2CO. The third component is the colder, lower density outer part of the envelope, which gradually fades into the ambient surrounding cloud core [Tkin ? 10-20 K; n(H2) (3 × 104)-(2 × 105) cm-3]. Radicals such as CN, C2H, and C3H2 appear to reside principally in this region. The ambient cloud material is also probed through self-absorbed features in the line profiles of molecules such as HCN, HCO+, and H2CO. Beam-averaged abundances over a 20" scale are presented and are compared with those observed in cold dark clouds such as L134N and TMC-1 and with high-mass star-forming cores such as Orion-KL. Remarkably high deuterium fractionation ratios are found, which are more characteristic of hot core regions than of cold, quiescent clouds. As a whole, the chemical and physical regimes that can be distinguished in the low-mass young stellar object IRAS 16293-2422 are qualitatively similar to those found in high-mass star-forming regions, confirming the earlier conclusion that the chemical composition depends more on the age of the object than its mass.

  3. Statistical properties of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. H.; Chen, L.; Zhang, C. M.; Lei, Y. J.; Qu, J. L.

    2014-02-01

    We collect the data of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) published before 2012 from 26 neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) sources, then we analyze the centroid frequency (?) distribution of twin kHz QPOs (lower frequency ?_1 and upper frequency ?_2) both for Atoll and Z sources. For the data without shift-and-add, we find that Atoll and Z sources show different distributions of ?_1, ?_2 and ?_2/?_1, but the same distribution of ?? (difference of twin kHz QPOs), which indicates that twin kHz QPOs may share the common properties of LXMBs and have the same physical origins. The distribution of ?? is quite different from a constant value, so is ?_2/?_1 from a constant ratio. The weighted mean values and maxima of ?_1 and ?_2 in Atoll sources are slightly higher than those in Z sources. We also find that shift-and-add technique can reconstruct the distributions of ?_1 and ??. The K-S test results of ?_1 and ?? between Atoll and Z sources from data with shift-and-add are quite different from those without it, and we think that this may be caused by the selection biases of the sample. We also study the properties of the quality factor (Q) and the root-mean-squared (rms) amplitude of 4U 0614+09 with data from the two observational methods, but the errors are too big to make a robust conclusion. The NS spin frequency (?_s) distribution of 28 NS-LMXBs show a bigger mean value (˜ 408 Hz) than that (˜ 281 Hz) of the radio binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs), which may be due to the lack of the spin detections from Z sources (systematically lower than 281 Hz). Furthermore, on the relations between the kHz QPOs and NS spin frequency ?_s, we find the approximate correlations of the mean values of ?? with NS spin and its half, respectively.

  4. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies: scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzmán, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-12-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200 early-type dwarf galaxies in the magnitude range 16.0 < mF814W < 22.6 mag, corresponding to -19.0 < MF814W < -12.4 mag. Nuclear star clusters are detected in 80 per cent of the galaxies, thus doubling the sample of HST-observed early-type dwarf galaxies with nuclear star clusters. We confirm that the nuclear star cluster detection fraction decreases strongly towards faint magnitudes. The luminosities of nuclear star clusters do not scale linearly with host galaxy luminosity. A linear fit yields L_nuc ˜ L_gal^{0.57± 0.05}. The nuclear star cluster-host galaxy luminosity scaling relation for low-mass early-type dwarf galaxies is consistent with formation by globular cluster (GC) accretion. We find that at similar luminosities, galaxies with higher Sérsic indices have slightly more luminous nuclear star clusters. Rounder galaxies have on average more luminous clusters. Some of the nuclear star clusters are resolved, despite the distance of Coma. We argue that the relation between nuclear star cluster mass and size is consistent with both formation by GC accretion and in situ formation. Our data are consistent with GC inspiralling being the dominant mechanism at low masses, although the observed trend with Sérsic index suggests that in situ star formation is an important second-order effect.

  5. Spherically Symmetric Model Atmospheres for Low-Mass Pre-Main-Sequence Stars with Effective Temperatures between 2000 and 6800 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    France Allard; Peter H. Hauschildt; Andreas Schweitzer

    2000-01-01

    We present a grid of spherically symmetric model atmospheres for young pre-MS stars. This grid spans the parameter range 2000 K<=Teff<=6800 K and 2.0<=logg<=3.5 for M=0.1 Msolar, appropriate for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. A major improvement is the replacement of TiO and H2O line lists with the newer line list, calculated by the NASA-Ames group, for TiO (about 175

  6. Low-mass, helium-enriched PG1159 stars: a possible evolutionary origin and the implications for their pulsational stability properties

    E-print Network

    L. G. Althaus; A. H. Córsico; M. M. Miller Bertolami

    2007-03-13

    We examine a recently-proposed evolutionary scenario that could explain the existence of the low-mass, helium-enriched PG1159 stars. We assess the overstability of pulsation g-modes of stellar models as evolution proceeds along the PG1159 domain. Stellar models are extracted from the full evolution of a 1 Mo model star that experiences its first thermal pulse as a late thermal pulse (LTP) after leaving the AGB. The evolutionary stages corresponding to the born-again episode and the subsequent helium sub-flashes are taken into account in detail. Under reasonable mass-loss rate assumptions, the evolutionary scenario reproduces the high helium abundances observed in some PG1159 stars. We find that, despite the high helium abundance in the driving layers, there exists a narrow region in the log g-log Teff diagram for which the helium-enriched PG1159 sequence exhibits unstable pulsation modes with periods in the range 500 to 1600 s. In particular, the nonpulsating helium-enriched PG1159 star, MCT 0130-1937, is located outside the theoretical instability domain. Our results suggest that MCT 0130-1937 is a real non-pulsating star and that the lack of pulsations should not be attributed to unfavorable geometry. Our study hints at a consistent picture between the evolutionary scenario that could explain the existence of helium-enriched PG1159 stars and the nonvariable nature of MCT 0130-1937. We also present theoretical support for the unusually high helium abundance observed in the nonpulsating PG1159 star HS 1517+7403. We suggest that HS 1517+7403 could be a transition object linking the low-mass helium-rich O(He) stars with the helium-enriched PG1159 stars via the evolutionary connection K1-27-->HS 1517+7403-->MCT 0130-1937.

  7. 2M1155-79 (= T CHAMAELEONTIS B): A LOW-MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION COMPANION TO THE NEARBY, 'OLD' T TAURI STAR T CHAMAELEONTIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, Joel H.; Thompson, Emily A.; Montez, Rodolfo; Sacco, Giuseppe Germano [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu [RSAA, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-03-10

    The early-K star T Cha, a member of the nearby (D Almost-Equal-To 100 pc) {epsilon} Cha Association, is a relatively 'old' (age {approx} 7 Myr) T Tauri star that is still sporadically accreting from an orbiting disk whose inner regions are now evidently being cleared by a close, substellar companion. We report the identification, via analysis of proper motions, serendipitous X-ray imaging spectroscopy, and follow-up optical spectroscopy, of a new member of the {epsilon} Cha Association that is very likely a low-mass companion to T Cha at a projected separation of {approx}38 kAU. The combined X-ray and optical spectroscopy data indicate that the companion, T Cha B (= 2M1155-79), is a weak-lined T Tauri star (wTTS) of spectral type M3 and age {approx}< 10 Myr. The serendipitous X-ray (XMM-Newton) observation of T Cha B, which targeted T Cha, also yields serendipitous detections of two background wTTS in the Chamaeleon cloud complex, including one newly discovered, low-mass member of the Cha cloud pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) population. T Cha becomes the third prominent example of a nearby, 'old' yet still actively accreting, K-type pre-MS star/disk system (the others being TW Hya and V4046 Sgr) to feature a low-mass companion at very large (12-40 kAU) separation, suggesting that such wide-separation companions may affect the conditions and timescales for planet formation around solar-mass stars.

  8. An Empirical Correction for Activity Effects on the Temperatures, Radii, and Estimated Masses of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Stassun, Keivan G; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J

    2012-01-01

    We present an empirical relations for correcting the estimated masses, effective temperatures, and radii of chromospherically active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. We base our corrections on a large set of low-mass stars in the field with Halpha activity measurements, and on a set of low-mass eclipsing binaries with X-ray activity measurements from which we indirectly infer the Halpha activity. Both samples yield consistent relations linking the amount by which an active object's temperature is suppressed, and the amount by which its radius is inflated, to the strength of its Halpha emission. Bolometric luminosity is found to be approximately preserved by these temperature and radius corrections. We apply these relations to the peculiar brown-dwarf eclipsing binary 2M0535-05, in which the active, higher-mass brown dwarf has a cooler temperature than its inactive, lower-mass companion. We find that the Halpha-corrected temperatures bring the inferred masses of the brown dwarfs into agreement with theoretical...

  9. Statistical Properties of Galactic ? Scuti Stars: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.

    2013-05-01

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 ? Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodríguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of ? Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodríguez's work. All the ? Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing ? Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  10. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Althaus; A. H. Córsico; A. Gautschy; Z. Han; A. M. Serenelli; J. A. Panei

    2004-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon\\/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33-Msolar white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell

  11. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Althaus; A. H. Corsico; A. Gautschy; Z. Han; A. M. Serenelli; J. A. Panei

    2003-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational\\u000aproperties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon\\/oxygen cores. In particular, we\\u000afollow the evolution of a 0.33 Msun white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent\\u000away with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history\\u000aof the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of\\u000ahydrogen

  12. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  13. Binaries discovered by the SPY survey. VI. Discovery of a low mass companion to the hot subluminous planetary nebula central star EGB 5 - a recently ejected common envelope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Nelemans, G.

    2011-04-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) in close binary systems are assumed to be formed via common envelope ejection. According to theoretical models, the amount of energy and angular momentum deposited in the common envelope scales with the mass of the companion. That low mass companions near or below the core hydrogen-burning limit are able to trigger the ejection of this envelope is well known. The currently known systems have very short periods ?0.1-0.3 d. Here we report the discovery of a low mass companion (M2 > 0.14 M?) orbiting the sdB star and central star of a planetary nebula EGB 5 with an orbital period of 16.5 d at a minimum separation of 23 R?. Its long period is only just consistent with the energy balance prescription of the common envelope. The marked difference between the short and long period systems will provide strong constraints on the common envelope phase, in particular if the masses of the sdB stars can be measured accurately. Due to selection effects, the fraction of sdBs with low mass companions and similar or longer periods may be quite high. Low mass stellar and substellar companions may therefore play a significant role for the still unclear formation of hot subdwarf stars. Furthermore, the nebula around EGB 5 may be the remnant of the ejected common envelope making this binary a unique system to study this short und poorly understood phase of binary evolution. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes No. 167.H-0407(A) and 71.D-0383(A). Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). Some of the data used in this work were obtained at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) operated by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING).

  14. Centaurus Star-Forming Field Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltcheva, Nadia; Golev, V.; Moran, K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the structure of the star-forming field in Centaurus based on intermediate-band uvby? photometry of a large sample of O-B9 -stars. The derived precise homogeneous photometric distances and color excesses allow us to reveal spatially coherent groups and layers and to revise the membership and distance of the Cen OB1 association. In particular, we are seeking a correlation between the distribution of the massive OB-stars and that of ionized and neutral interstellar material that would allow a better understanding of the interactions among various ISM components in the Galactic stars-forming fields. For the purpose we combine the photometric findings with several multi-wavelength surveys (Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey, Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas, MSX Galactic Plane Survey, WISE All-Sky Data Release, CO survey of the Milky Way, and Southern Galactic Plane Survey). This allows us to map the OB-star distribution together with the super-shells of neutral and ionized material located toward Centaurus. Acknowledgments. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-0708950.

  15. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies: scaling relations

    E-print Network

    Brok, Mark den; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200 early-type dwarf galaxies in the magnitude range $16.0 < m_{F814W} < 22.6 $ mag, corresponding to $-19.0 < M_{F814W} < -12.4 $ mag. Nuclear star clusters are detected in 80% of the galaxies, thus doubling the sample of HST-observed early-type dwarf galaxies with nuclear star clusters. \\changed{We confirm that the} nuclear star cluster detection fraction decreases strongly toward faint magnitudes. The luminosities of nuclear star clusters do not scale linearly with host galaxy luminosity. A linear fit yields L$_{nuc} \\sim $L$_{gal}^{0.57\\pm0.05}$. The nuclear star cluster-host galaxy luminosity scaling relation for low-mass early-type dwarf galaxies is consistent with formation by globular cluster accre...

  16. Collective properties of neutron-star X-ray binary populations of galaxies. II. Pre-low-mass X-ray binary properties, formation rates, and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadkamkar, H. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru 560080 (India); Ghosh, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-04-01

    We continue our exploration of the collective properties of neutron-star X-ray binaries in the stellar fields (i.e., outside globular clusters) of normal galaxies. In Paper I of this series, we considered high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In this paper (Paper II), we consider low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whose evolutionary scenario is very different from that of HMXBs. We consider the evolution of primordial binaries up to the stage where the neutron star just formed in the supernova explosion of the primary is in a binary with its low-mass, unevolved companion, and this binary has circularized tidally, producing what we call a pre-low-mass X-ray binary (pre-LMXB). We study the constraints on the formation of such pre-LMXBs in detail (since these are low-probability events), and calculate their collective properties and formation rates. To this end, we first consider the changes in the binary parameters in the various steps involved, viz., the common-envelope phase, the supernova, and the tidal evolution. This naturally leads to a clarification of the constraints. We then describe our calculation of the evolution of the distributions of primordial binary parameters into those of pre-LMXB parameters, following the standard evolutionary scenario for individual binaries. We display the latter as both bivariate and monovariate distributions, discuss their essential properties, and indicate the influences of some essential factors on these. Finally, we calculate the formation rate of these pre-LMXBs. The results of this paper will be used in a subsequent one to compute the expected X-ray luminosity function of LMXBs.

  17. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland)] [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  18. The 13C(?,n)16O reaction as a neutron source for the s-process in AGB low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M.; La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Kiss, G. G.; Rogachev, G. V.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Avila, M.; Guardo, G. L.; Koshchiy, E.; Kuchera, A.; Lamia, L.; Maiorca, E.; Palmerini, S.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Santiago, D.; Spartà, R.

    2014-05-01

    The 13C(?,n)16O reaction is considered to be the most important neutron source for producing the main component of the s-process in low mass stars. In this paper we focus our attention on two of the main open problems concerning its operation as a driver for the slow neutron captures. Recently, a new measurement of the 13C(?,n)16O reaction rate was performed via the Trojan Horse Method greatly increasing the accuracy. Contemporarily, on the modelling side, magnetic mechanisms were suggested to justify the production of the 13C pocket, thus putting the s-process in stars on safe physical ground. These inputs allow us to reproduce satisfactorily the solar distribution of elements.

  19. The {sup 13}C(?,n){sup 16}O reaction as a neutron source for the s-process in AGB low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M. [INFN and University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M.R.; Romano, S.; Spartà, R. [INFN and University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Kiss, G. G. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Rogachev, G. V.; Avila, M.; Koshchiy, E.; Kuchera, A.; Santiago, D. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Maiorca, E. [INAF - Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Palmerini, S. [Departamento de Fìsica Teòrica y del Cosmsos, Universidad de Granada,Granada (Spain)

    2014-05-09

    The {sup 13}C(?,n){sup 16}O reaction is considered to be the most important neutron source for producing the main component of the s-process in low mass stars. In this paper we focus our attention on two of the main open problems concerning its operation as a driver for the slow neutron captures. Recently, a new measurement of the {sup 13}C(?,n){sup 16}O reaction rate was performed via the Trojan Horse Method greatly increasing the accuracy. Contemporarily, on the modelling side, magnetic mechanisms were suggested to justify the production of the {sup 13}C pocket, thus putting the s-process in stars on safe physical ground. These inputs allow us to reproduce satisfactorily the solar distribution of elements.

  20. Evidence of a Broad Relativistic Iron Line from the Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binary Serpens X-1

    E-print Network

    Sudip Bhattacharyya; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2007-08-27

    We report on an analysis of XMM-Newton data from the neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Serpens X-1 (Ser X-1). Spectral analysis of EPIC PN data indicates that the previously known broad iron K$\\alpha$ emission line from this source has a significantly skewed structure with a moderately extended red wing. The asymmetric shape of the line is well described with the laor and diskline models in XSPEC and strongly supports an inner accretion disk origin of the line. To our knowledge this is the first strong evidence of a relativistic line in a neutron star LMXB. This finding suggests that the broad lines seen in other neutron star LMXBs likely originate from the inner disk as well. Detailed study of such lines opens up a new way to probe neutron star parameters and their strong gravitational fields. The red wing of the iron line from Ser X-1 is not as broad as that observed from some black hole systems. This is not unreasonable for a neutron star system, as the accretion disk has to terminate at or before the hard stellar surface. Finally, the inferred source inclination angle in the approximate range 40 degree to 60 degree is consistent with the lack of dips and eclipses from Ser X-1.

  1. SHORT-DURATION LENSING EVENTS. I. WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS? FREE-FLOATING LOW-MASS OBJECTS? OR HIGH-VELOCITY STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Rosanne [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Short-duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than 1 AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the solar system's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kiloparsec. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.

  2. Short-duration Lensing Events. I. Wide-orbit Planets? Free-floating Low-mass Objects? Or High-velocity Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2012-08-01

    Short-duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than 1 AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the solar system's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kiloparsec. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.

  3. A WIDELY SEPARATED, HIGHLY OCCLUDED COMPANION TO THE NEARBY LOW-MASS T TAURI STAR TWA 30

    E-print Network

    Looper, Dagny L.

    We report the discovery of TWA 30B, a wide (~3400 AU), co-moving M dwarf companion to the nearby (~42 pc) young star TWA 30. Companionship is confirmed from their statistically consistent proper motions and radial velocities ...

  4. On the origin of the IMF: First detection of a low-mass star ejected from a triple stellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loinard, L.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Rodriguez, M.

    2002-12-01

    Using high-resolution, multi-epoch VLA observations, we have detected orbital motions in several low-luminosity protobinary systems in the Taurus and rho-Ophiuchus molecular complexes. The masses obtained from Kepler's third law are of the order of 0.5 to 1 Msun, as would have been expected for such low-mass protostars. In addition, in one of the sources studied (a triple system in Taurus), one of the three component appears to have been recently ejected from the system. During the first 15 of the 20 years covered by the observations, this component has been on a closed elliptical orbit with a velocity of a few km/s, but in the last 5 years, it has started to spiral out at high speed (20 km/s). Such an ejection is not unexpected in a triple system, because such systems are thought to exhibit chaotic behaviours. However, this is the first time that it is detected directly. The implications for the IMF will be discussed

  5. A search for iron emission lines in the Chandra X-ray spectra of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    E. M. Cackett; J. M. Miller; J. Homan; M. van der Klis; W. H. G. Lewin; M. Mendez; J. Raymond; D. Steeghs; R. Wijnands

    2008-09-18

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, recent observations with Suzaku and XMM-Newton have revealed broad asymmetric iron line profiles in 4 neutron star LMXBs, confirming an inner disk origin for these lines in neutron star systems. Here, we present a search for iron lines in 6 neutron star LMXBs. For each object we have simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations at 2 separate epochs, allowing for both a high resolution spectrum, as well as broadband spectral coverage. Out of the six objects in the survey, we only find significant iron lines in two of the objects, GX 17+2 and GX 349+2. However, we cannot rule out that there are weak, broad lines present in the other sources. The equivalent width of the line in GX 17+2 is consistent between the 2 epochs, while in GX 349+2 the line equivalent width increases by a factor of ~3 between epochs as the source flux decreases by a factor of 1.3. This suggests that the disk is highly ionized, and the line is dominated by recombination emission. We find that there appears to be no specific locations in the long-term hardness-intensity diagrams where iron emission lines are formed, though more sources and further observations are required.

  6. The dynamical evolution of low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects formed through disc fragmentation

    E-print Network

    Li, Yun; Stamatellos, D; Goodwin, S P

    2015-01-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects via disc fragmentation. As disc fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the SPH simulations of Stamatellos & Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting discs. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km/s, with some runaway escapers with ve...

  7. Taking into account the effects of component proximity on the spectral-line profiles of stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. S.; Antokhina, E. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    An exact calculation of CaI ?6439 Å absorption profiles in the spectra of optical stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems is carried out. The calculations are used to revise a formula relating the rotational broadening of lines and the component-mass ratio. In the case of modest (substantial) X-ray heating, failure to take into account the tidal-rotational deformation of the figure of the star leads to overestimation (underestimation) of the mass of the relativistic object. The radial-velocity curves of optical stars are modeled for binary systems with various parameters and X-ray heating powers k x ; corresponding tables of K corrections are presented. Refined values for the component-mass ratio q = 23 ± 1, black-hole mass M x = 8.4 ± 0.5, and optical-star mass M v = 0.36 ± 0.07 for the GS 2023+338 (V404 Cyg) system are presented.

  8. Star formation in BOK globules and low-mass clouds. I - The cometary globules in the GUM Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, B.

    1983-01-01

    Optical and IR photometry, together with red and blue spectra, show that Bernes 135 is a premain-sequence star of about 50 solar luminosities, 2.5-3 solar masses, and an effective temperature of 6800 K. While Bernes 135 is associated with the cometary globule CG 1 in the Gum Nebula, Bernes 136 is associated with the cometary globule CG 13 and is an early F-type field star whose radial velocity relative to the globule is 25.9 km/sec. While the main present source of UV radiation in the Gum Nebula is Zeta Puppis, the evaporation of the globules is not efficient enough to fully destroy any but the smallest modules during the remaining lifetime of Zeta Puppis. A scenario for module formation and evolution is suggested in which UV radiation from a massive O-star can destroy small neighboring clouds and separate less dense cloud material from cloud cores.

  9. Self-regulated cooling flows in elliptical galaxies and in cluster cores - Is exclusively low mass star formation really necessary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Djorgovski, S.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bruzual A., G.

    1986-01-01

    A self-consistent treatment of the heating by supernovae associated with star formation in a spherically symmetric cooling flow in a cluster core or elliptical galaxy is presented. An initial stellar mass function similar to that in the solar neighborhood is adopted. Inferred star-formation rates, within the cooling region - typically the inner 100 kpc around dominant galaxies at the centers of cooling flows in XD clusters - are reduced by about a factor of 2, relative to rates inferred when the heat input from star formation is ignored. Truncated initial mass functions (IMFs) are also considered, in which massive star formation is suppressed in accordance with previous treatments, and colors are predicted for star formation in cooling flows associated with central dominant elliptical galaxies and with isolated elliptical galaxies surrounded by gaseous coronae. The low inferred cooling-flow rates around isolated elliptical galaxies are found to be insensitive to the upper mass cutoff in the IMF, provided that the upper mass cutoff exceeds 2 M solar mass. Comparison with observed colors favors a cutoff in the IMF above 1 M solar mass in at least two well-studied cluster cooling flows, but a normal IMF cannot be excluded definitively. Models for NGC 1275 support a young (less than about 3 Gyr) cooling flow. As for the isolated elliptical galaxies, the spread in colors is consistent with a normal IMF. A definitive test of the IMF arising via star formation in cooling flows requires either UV spectral data or supernova searches in the cooling-flow-centered galaxies.

  10. Relativistic Iron Line Emission from the Neutron Star Low-mass X-ray Binary 4U 1636-536

    E-print Network

    Dirk Pandel; Philip Kaaret; Stephane Corbel

    2013-05-14

    We present an analysis of XMM-Newton and RXTE data from three observations of the neutron star LMXB 4U 1636-536. The X-ray spectra show clear evidence of a broad, asymmetric iron emission line extending over the energy range 4-9 keV. The line profile is consistent with relativistically broadened Fe K-alpha emission from the inner accretion disk. The Fe K-alpha line in 4U 1636-536 is considerably broader than the asymmetric iron lines recently found in other neutron star LMXBs, which indicates a high disk inclination. We find evidence that the broad iron line feature is a combination of several K-alpha lines from iron in different ionization states.

  11. Direct-imaging discovery of a 12-14 Jupiter-mass object orbiting a young binary system of very low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Gagné, J.; Girard, J. H.; Lagrange, A. M.; Chauvin, G.; Naud, M.-E.; Lafrenière, D.; Doyon, R.; Riedel, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Malo, L.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Though only a handful of extrasolar planets have been discovered via direct-imaging, each of these discoveries had a tremendous impact on our understanding of planetary formation, stellar formation, and cool atmosphere physics. Aims: Since many of these newly imaged giant planets orbit massive A or even B stars, we investigate whether giant planets could be found orbiting low-mass stars at large separations. Methods: We have been conducting an adaptive optic imaging survey to search for planetary-mass companions of young M dwarfs in the solar neigbourhood, in order to probe different initial conditions of planetary formation. Results: We report here the direct-imaging discovery of 2MASS J01033563-5515561(AB)b, a 12-14 MJup companion at a projected separation of 84 AU from a pair of young late-M stars, with which it shares proper motion. We also detected a Keplerian-compatible orbital motion. Conclusions: This young L-type object at the planet/brown dwarf mass boundary is the first ever imaged around a binary system at a separation compatible with formation in a disc. Based on observations obtained with NACO on VLT UT-4 at ESO-Paranal (runs 090.C-0698(A) and 70.D-0444(A).

  12. A Thermal Infrared Imaging Study of Very Low Mass, Wide-separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Upper Scorpius Stars: Constraining Circumstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Currie, Thayne; Su, Kate Y. L.; Esposito, Simone; Hill, John M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Jones, Terry; Kim, Jihun; Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Nelson, Matthew J.; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Wilson, John C.

    2013-04-01

    We present a 3-5 ?m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M BD <25 M Jup; M BD/M sstarf ? 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 ?m and 24 ?m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 ?m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 ?m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 ?m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 ?m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 ± 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M Jup beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering. Observations reported here were obtained at the LBT and MMT Observatories. The MMT Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  13. The Snow Line in Viscous Disks around Low-mass Stars: Implications for Water Delivery to Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Min, Michiel; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2015-07-01

    The water-ice or snow line is one of the key properties of protoplanetary disks that determines the water content of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. Its location is determined by the properties of the star, the mass accretion rate through the disk, and the size distribution of dust suspended in the disk. We calculate the snow-line location from recent observations of mass accretion rates and as a function of stellar mass. By taking the observed dispersion in mass accretion rates as a measure of the dispersion in initial disk mass, we find that stars of a given mass will exhibit a range of snow-line locations. At a given age and stellar mass, the observed dispersion in mass accretion rates of 0.4 dex naturally leads to a dispersion in snow-line locations of ?0.2 dex. For ISM-like dust sizes, the 1? snow-line location among solar-mass stars of the same age ranges from ?2 to ?5 AU. For more realistic dust opacities that include larger grains, the snow line is located up to two times closer to the star. We use these locations and the outcome of N-body simulations to predict the amount of water delivered to terrestrial planets that formed in situ in the habitable zone. We find that the dispersion in snow-line locations leads to a large range in water content. For ISM-like dust sizes, a significant fraction of habitable-zone terrestrial planets around Sun-like stars remain dry, and no water is delivered to the habitable zones of low-mass M stars (\\lt 0.5 {M}? ) as in previous works. The closer-in snow line in disks with larger grains enables water delivery to the habitable zone for a significant fraction of M stars and all FGK stars. Considering their larger numbers and higher planet occurrence, M stars may host most of the water-rich terrestrial planets in the galaxy if these planets are able to hold on to their water in their subsequent evolution.

  14. The doubly eclipsing quintuple low-mass star system 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, M. E.; Norton, A. J.; Gillen, E.; Busuttil, R.; Kolb, U. C.; Aigrain, S.; McQuillan, A.; Hodgkin, S. T.; González, E.

    2015-06-01

    Our discovery of 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5 as a probable doubly eclipsing quadruple system, containing a contact binary with P ~ 0.23 d and a detached binary with P ~ 1.31 d, was announced in 2013. Subsequently, Koo and collaborators confirmed the detached binary spectroscopically, and identified a fifth set of static spectral lines at its location, corresponding to an additional non-eclipsing component of the system. Here we present new spectroscopic and photometric observations, allowing confirmation of the contact binary and improved modelling of all four eclipsing components. The detached binary is found to contain components of masses 0.837 ± 0.008 and 0.674 ± 0.007M?, with radii of 0.832 ± 0.018 and 0.669 ± 0.018R? and effective temperatures of and K, respectively; the contact system has masses 0.86 ± 0.02 and 0.341 ± 0.011M?, radii of 0.79 ± 0.04 and 0.52 ± 0.05R?, respectively, and a common effective temperature of 4700 ± 50 K. The fifth star is of similar temperature and spectral type to the primaries in the two binaries. Long-term photometric observations indicate the presence of a spot on one component of the detached binary, moving at an apparent rate of approximately one rotation every two years. Both binaries have consistent system velocities around -11 to -12 km s-1, which match the average radial velocity of the fifth star; consistent distance estimates for both subsystems of d = 78 ± 3 and d = 73 ± 4 pc are also found, and, with some further assumptions, of d = 83 ± 9 pc for the fifth star. These findings strongly support the claim that both binaries - and very probably all five stars - are gravitationally bound in a single system. The consistent angles of inclination found for the two binaries (88.2 ± 0.3°and 86 ± 4°) may also indicate that they originally formed by fragmentation (around 9-10 Gyr ago) from a single protostellar disk, and subsequently remained in the same orbital plane. Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Candidate hypervelocity stars of spectral type G and K revisited

    E-print Network

    Ziegerer, E; Heber, U; Irrgang, A; Gaensicke, B T; Geier, S

    2015-01-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVS) move so fast that they are unbound to the Galaxy. When they were first discovered in 2005, dynamical ejection from the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the Galactic Centre (GC) was suggested as their origin. The two dozen HVSs known today are young massive B stars, mostly of 3-4 solar masses. Recently, 20 HVS candidates of low mass were discovered in the Segue G and K dwarf sample, but none of them originates from the GC. We embarked on a kinematic analysis of the Segue HVS candidate sample using the full 6D phase space information based on new proper motion measurements. Their orbital properties can then be derived by tracing back their trajectories in different mass models of our Galaxy. We present the results for 14 candidate HVSs, for which proper motion measurements were possible. Significantly lower proper motions than found in the previous study were derived. Considering three different Galactic mass models we find that all stars are bound to the Galaxy. We confirm that the s...

  16. A Low-Mass Main-Sequence Star and Accretion Disk in the Very Faint Transient M15 X-3

    E-print Network

    Arnason, Robin; Heinke, Craig; Cohn, Haldan; Lugger, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    We present near-simultaneous Chandra/HST observations of the very faint ($L_{x} transient source M15 X-3, as well as unpublished archival Chandra observations of M15 X-3. The Chandra observations constrain the luminosity of M15 X-3 to be $< 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in all observed epochs. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of curvature, and prefers a fit to a broken power-law with break energy $E_{\\rm break} = 2.7^{+0.4}_{-0.6}$ keV, and power law indices of $\\Gamma_{1} = 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.2}$ and $\\Gamma_{2} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.2}$ over a single power law. We fit our new F438W ($B$), F606W (broad $V$), and F814W ($I$) HST data on the blue optical counterpart with a model for an accretion disk and a metal-poor main sequence star. From this fit, we determine the companion to be consistent with a main sequence star of mass $0.440^{+0.035}_{-0.060}$ $M_{\\odot}$ in a $\\sim$4-hour orbit. X-ray irradiation of the companion is likely to be a factor in the optical emission from the system, ...

  17. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. I. CME Impact on Expected Magnetospheres of Earth-Like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Helmut Lammer; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; Martin Leitner; Franck Selsis; Carlos Eiroa; Arnold Hanslmeier; Helfried K. Biernat; Charles J. Farrugia; Helmut O. Rucker

    2007-01-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph\\/Inferometer (NASA). The higher

  18. Statistical technique to study the connection between large-scale structures in the ISM and low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Z. T.

    2007-10-01

    Applying a color index selection the Point Source Catalog of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS PSC) has been searched for Classical T Tauri (CTT) stars in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic quadrant based on their apparent K_S excess. The selection resulted in 3872 reliable CTT candidates. The obtained CTT sample is extended enough for statistical examination of the inhomogeneities in their distribution due to correlation with structures in the ISM, like infrared loops. A correlation was observed between the presence of dust loops and the CTT density. The latter shows an excess on loops with respect to that expected from random fluctuation in a homogeneous distribution matching with the observed overall distribution. Monte Carlo simulations were used to show the significance of the excess. The results imply that the formation of a fraction of CTTs was triggered during the loop formation.

  19. Timing Spectroscopy of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Low-Mass X-ray Neutron Star Binaries

    E-print Network

    Lev Titarchuk; Vladimir Osherovich; Sergey Kuznetsov

    1999-09-15

    Precise simultaneous measurements of the frequencies of the two kiloHertz quasi-periodic oscillations (referred in the literature as upper and lower kHz QPOs) cast doubts on the validity of the simple beat-frequency interpretation and some of the modifications introduced to explain the results of the varying frequency difference. A new model explains the variation of the frequency difference suggesting that the upper kHz QPO,namely nu_h is an upper hybrid frequency of the Keplerian oscillator under the influence of the Coriolis force and the lower kHz QPO is the Keplerian frequency nu_K. Such an oscillator has two branches characterized by high frequency nu_h (around 1 kHz) and by low frequency nu_L (around 50 Hz). The frequency nu_L depends strongly on the angle, delta between the normal to the neutron star disk and Omega - the angular velocity of the magnetosphere surrounding the neutron star. In the lower part of the QPO spectrum (around 10 Hz), this model identifies the frequency of radial viscous oscillations nu_v (previously called "extra noise component") and the break frequency nu_b, which is associated with the diffusive process in the transition region (the innermost part of the disk). According to this model, all frequencies (namely nu_h, nu_L, nu_b and nu_v) have specific dependences on nu_K. This paper focuses on the verification of the predicted relations. For the source 4U 1728-34, the best theoretical fit is obtained for delta=8.3+/-1.0^o, which is slightly larger than delta=5.5+/- 0.5^o previously found for Sco X-1. In addition, we show that the theoretically derived power law relation, nu_b proportional to nu_v^{1.61} is consistent with the recent observations of other atoll and Z-sources.

  20. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). I. A Substellar Companion to the Young M Dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    E-print Network

    Bowler, Brendan P; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Dupuy, Trent J; Cieza, Lucas A; Kraus, Adam L; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2.4" (~120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0$^{+2}_{-1}$. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of ~10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 +/- 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the ~50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to t...

  1. Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. II. Spin-down of the core of red giants induced by mixed modes

    E-print Network

    Belkacem, K; Goupil, M J; Mosser, B; Sonoi, T; Ouazzani, R M; Dupret, M A; Mathis, S; Grosjean, M

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants by the CoRoT and \\emph{Kepler} space-borne missions allows us to investigate the internal structure of evolved low-mass stars. In particular, the measurement of the mean core rotation rate as a function of the evolution places stringent constraints on the physical mechanisms responsible for the angular momentum redistribution in stars. It showed that the current stellar evolution codes including the modelling of rotation fail to reproduce the observations. An additional physical process that efficiently extracts angular momentum from the core is thus necessary. Our aim is to assess the ability of mixed modes to do this. To this end, we developed a formalism that provides a modelling of the wave fluxes in both the mean angular momentum and the mean energy equations in a companion paper. In this article, mode amplitudes are modelled based on recent asteroseismic observations, and a quantitative estimate of the angular momentum transfer is obtained. This i...

  2. Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. II. Spin-down of the core of red giants induced by mixed modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacem, K.; Marques, J. P.; Goupil, M. J.; Mosser, B.; Sonoi, T.; Ouazzani, R. M.; Dupret, M. A.; Mathis, S.; Grosjean, M.

    2015-07-01

    The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants by the CoRoT and Kepler space-borne missions allows us to investigate the internal structure of evolved low-mass stars, from the end of the main sequence to the central helium-burning phase. In particular, the measurement of the mean core rotation rate as a function of the evolution places stringent constraints on the physical mechanisms responsible for the angular momentum redistribution in stars. It showed that the current stellar evolution codes including the modelling of rotation fail to reproduce the observations. An additional physical process that efficiently extracts angular momentum from the core is thus necessary. Our aim is to assess the ability of mixed modes to do this. To this end, we developed a formalism that provides a modelling of the wave fluxes in both the mean angular momentum and the mean energy equations in a companion paper. In this article, mode amplitudes are modelled based on recent asteroseismic observations, and a quantitative estimate of the angular momentum transfer is obtained. This is performed for a benchmark model of 1.3 M? at three evolutionary stages, representative of the evolved pulsating stars observed by CoRoT and Kepler. We show that mixed modes extract angular momentum from the innermost regions of subgiants and red giants. However, this transport of angular momentum from the core is unlikely to counterbalance the effect of the core contraction in subgiants and early red giants. In contrast, for more evolved red giants, mixed modes are found efficient enough to balance and exceed the effect of the core contraction, in particular in the hydrogen-burning shell. Our results thus indicate that mixed modes are a promising candidate to explain the observed spin-down of the core of evolved red giants, but that an other mechanism is to be invoked for subgiants and early red giants.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN {nu}{sub max} AND AGE t FROM ZAMS TO RGB-TIP FOR LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. K.; Gai, N., E-mail: tyk450@163.com, E-mail: ning.gai@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2013-07-10

    Stellar age is an important quantity in astrophysics, which is useful for many fields both in the universe and galaxies. It cannot be determined by direct measurements, but can only be estimated or inferred. We attempt to find a useful indicator of stellar age, which is accurate from the zero-age main sequence to the tip of red giant branch for low-mass stars. Using the Yale Rotation and Evolution Code (YREC), a grid of stellar models has been constructed. Meanwhile, the frequency of maximum oscillations' power {nu}{sub max} and the large frequency separation {Delta}{nu} are calculated using the scaling relations. For the stars, the masses of which are from 0.8 M{sub Sun} to 2.8 M{sub Sun }, we can obtain the {nu}{sub max} and stellar age by combing the scaling relations with the four sets of grid models (YREC, Dotter et al., Marigo et al., and YY isochrones). We find that {nu}{sub max} is tightly correlated and decreases monotonically with the age of the star from the main sequence to the red giant evolutionary stages. Moreover, we find that the line shapes of the curves in the Age versus {nu}{sub max} diagram, which is plotted by the four sets of grid models, are consistent for red giants with masses from 1.1 M{sub Sun} to 2.8 M{sub Sun }. For red giants, the differences of correlation coefficients between Age and {nu}{sub max} for different grid models are minor and can be ignored. Interestingly, we find two peaks that correspond to the subgiants and bump of red giants in the Age versus {nu}{sub max} diagram. By general linear least-squares, we make the polynomial fitting and deduce the relationship between log(Age) and log({nu}{sub max}) in red giants' evolutionary state.

  4. Spectral Energy Distributions of Young Stars in IC 348: The Role of Disks in Angular Momentum Evolution of Young, Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Covey, Kevin R.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2011-08-01

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these "disk-locking" theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 ?m, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the disk-locked state to the disk-released state must occur more rapidly than the stellar contraction timescale.

  5. THE FREQUENCY OF LOW-MASS EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, S. J. [Anglo-Australian Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping 1710 (Australia); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL 10 9AB (United Kingdom); Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of NSW, 2052 (Australia); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington DC 20015-1305 (United States); Marcy, G. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Carter, B. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: otoole@aao.gov.au

    2009-08-20

    We report first results from the Anglo-Australian Telescope Rocky Planet Search-an intensive, high-precision Doppler planet search targeting low-mass exoplanets in contiguous 48 night observing blocks. On this run, we targeted 24 bright, nearby and intrinsically stable Sun-like stars selected from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search's main sample. These observations have already detected one low-mass planet reported elsewhere (HD 16417b), and here we reconfirm the detection of HD 4308b. Further, we have Monte Carlo simulated data from this run on a star-by-star basis to produce robust detection constraints. These simulations demonstrate clear differences in the exoplanet detectability functions from star to star due to differences in sampling, data quality and intrinsic stellar stability. They reinforce the importance of star-by-star simulation when interpreting the data from Doppler planet searches. These simulations indicate that for some of our target stars we are sensitive to close-orbiting planets as small as a few Earth masses. The two low-mass planets present in our 24-star sample indicate that the exoplanet minimum mass function at low masses is likely to be a flat {alpha} {approx} -1 (for dN/dM {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}}) and that between 15% {+-} 10% (at {alpha} = -0.3) and 48% {+-} 34% (at {alpha} = -1.3) of stars host planets with orbital periods of less than 16 days and minimum masses greater than 3 M {sub +}.

  6. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects: IV -- Accretion in low-mass stars and sub-stellar objects in Lupus

    E-print Network

    Alcalá, J M; Manara, C F; Spezzi, L; Stelzer, B; Frasca, A; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Randich, S; Rigliaco, E; Testi, L; Comerón, F; Cupani, G; D'Elia, V

    2013-01-01

    We present X-Shooter/VLT observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2Msun, but mostly with 0.1Msun < Mstar < 0.5Msun. Our aim is twofold: firstly, analyse the relationship between excess-continuum and line emission accretion diagnostics, and, secondly, to investigate the accretion properties in terms of the physical properties of the central object. The accretion luminosity (Lacc), and from it the accretion rate (Macc), is derived by modelling the excess emission, from the UV to the near-IR, as the continuum emission of a slab of hydrogen. The flux and luminosity (Ll) of a large number of emission lines of H, He, CaII, etc., observed simultaneously in the range from ~330nm to 2500nm, were computed. The luminosity of all the lines is well correlated with Lacc. We provide empirical relationships between Lacc and the luminosity of 39 emission lines, which have a lower dispersion as comp...

  7. Discovery and Observations of ASASSN-13db, an EX Lupi-type Accretion Event on a Low-mass T Tauri Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Prieto, Jose L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Zhu, Z.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Grupe, D.; Croxall, K.; Adams, J. J.; Simon, J. D.; Morrell, N.; McGraw, S. M.; Wagner, R. M.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Jencson, J.; Pojmanski, G.; Starrfield, S. G.; Szczygie?, D. M.; Woodward, C. E.

    2014-04-01

    We discuss ASASSN-13db, an EX Lupi-type ("EXor") accretion event on the young stellar object (YSO) SDSS J051011.01-032826.2 (hereafter SDSSJ0510) discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). Using archival photometric data of SDSSJ0510 we construct a pre-outburst spectral energy distribution and find that it is consistent with a low-mass class II YSO near the Orion star forming region (d ~ 420 pc). We present follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source after the ?V ~ -5.4 mag outburst that began in 2013 September and ended in early 2014. These data indicate an increase in temperature and luminosity consistent with an accretion rate of ~10-7 M ? yr-1, three or more orders of magnitude greater than in quiescence. Spectroscopic observations show a forest of narrow emission lines dominated by neutral metallic lines from Fe I and some low-ionization lines. The properties of ASASSN-13db are similar to those of the EXor prototype EX Lupi during its strongest observed outburst in late 2008.

  8. New evolutionary models for pre-main sequence and main sequence low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraffe, Isabelle; Homeier, Derek; Allard, France; Chabrier, Gilles

    2015-05-01

    We present new models for low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit that consistently couple atmosphere and interior structures, thereby superseding the widely used BCAH98 models. The new models include updated molecular linelists and solar abundances, as well as atmospheric convection parameters calibrated on 2D/3D radiative hydrodynamics simulations. Comparison of these models with observations in various colour-magnitude diagrams for various ages shows significant improvement over previous generations of models. The new models can solve flaws that are present in the previous ones, such as the prediction of optical colours that are too blue compared to M dwarf observations. They can also reproduce the four components of the young quadruple system LkCa 3 in a colour-magnitude diagram with one single isochrone, in contrast to any presently existing model. In this paper we also highlight the need for consistency when comparing models and observations, with the necessity of using evolutionary models and colours based on the same atmospheric structures.

  9. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). I. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-10

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2.''4 ({approx}120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0{sup +2}{sub -1}. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of {approx}10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 {+-} 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the {approx}50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the {approx}200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 {+-} 6 M{sub Jup} for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages.

  10. XTE J1701-462 AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF SUBCLASSES IN LOW-MAGNETIC-FIELD NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lewin, Walter H. G. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mendez, Mariano [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen University, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Lin Dacheng [Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Casella, Piergiorgio [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Belloni, Tomaso M., E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.ed [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2010-08-10

    We report on an analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) XTE J1701-462, obtained during its 2006-2007 outburst. The X-ray properties of the source changed between those of various types of NS-LMXB subclasses. At high luminosities, the source switched between two types of Z source behavior and at low luminosities we observed a transition from Z source to atoll source behavior. These transitions between subclasses primarily manifest themselves as changes in the shapes of the tracks in X-ray color-color (CD) and hardness-intensity diagrams (HID), but they are accompanied by changes in the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, broadband variability, burst behavior, and/or X-ray spectra. We find that for most of the outburst the low-energy X-ray flux is a good parameter to track the gradual evolution of the tracks in CD and HID, allowing us to resolve the evolution of the source in greater detail than before and relate the observed properties to other NS-LMXBs. We further find that during the transition from Z to atoll, characteristic behavior known as the atoll upper banana can equivalently be described as the final stage of a weakening Z source flaring branch, thereby blurring the line between the two subclasses. Our findings strongly suggest that the wide variety in behavior observed in NS-LXMBs with different luminosities can be linked through changes in a single variable parameter, namely the mass accretion rate, without the need for additional differences in the neutron star parameters or viewing angle. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the spectral changes observed in NS-LMXBs and suggest that, contrary to what is often assumed, the position along the color-color tracks of Z sources is not determined by the instantaneous mass accretion rate.

  11. The mass spectrum of metal-free Stars resulting from photodissociation feedback: A scenario for the formation of low-mass population III stars

    E-print Network

    K. Omukai; Y. Yoshii

    2003-08-28

    The initial mass function (IMF) of metal-free stars that form in the initial starburst of massive (virial temperatures >10^4K) metal-free protogalaxies is studied. In particular, we focus on the effect of H2 photodissociation by pre-existing stars on the fragmentation mass scale, presumedly determined by the Jeans mass at the end of the initial free-fall phase, i.e., at the so-called ``loitering phase,'' characterized by the local temperature minimum. Photodissociation diminishes the Jeans mass at the loitering phase, thereby reducing the fragmentation mass scale of primordial clouds. Thus, in a given cloud, far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the first star, which is supposedly very massive (about 10^3Msun), reduces the mass scale for subsequent fragmentation. Through a series of similar processes the IMF for metal-free stars is established. If FUV radiation exceeds a threshold level, the star-forming clumps collapse solely through atomic cooling. Correspondingly, the fragmentation scale drops discontinuously from a few time 10Msun to sub-solar scales. In compact clouds (>1.6kpc for clouds of gas mass 10^8Msun), this level of radiation field is attained, and sub-solar mass stars are formed even in a metal-free environment. Consequently, the IMF becomes bi-modal, with peaks at a few tenths of Msun and a few times 10Msun. The high-mass portion of the IMF is found to be a very steep function of the stellar mass, xi_high(m) being proportinal to m^{-5}. Therefore, the typical mass scale of metal-free stars is significantly smaller than that of the very first stars. Also we study the thermal instability in collapsing primordial prestellar clumps, and discuss why the thermal instability occuring during the three-body H2 formation does not appear to manifest itself in causing further fragmentation of such clumps.

  12. X-ray Emission from Young Stellar Objects in the \\epsilon Chamaeleontis Group: the Herbig Ae Star HD 104237 and Associated Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Testa, Paola; Schulz, Norbert S; Ishibashi, Kazunori

    2008-01-01

    We present Chandra-HETGS observations of the Herbig Ae star HD 104237 and the associated young stars comprising lower mass stars, in the 0.15-1.75\\msol mass range, in their pre-main sequence phase. The brightest X-ray source in the association is the central system harboring the Herbig Ae primary, and a K3 companion. Its X-ray variability indicates modulation possibly on time scales of the rotation period of the Herbig Ae star, and this would imply that the primary significantly contributes to the overall emission. The spectrum of the Herbig Ae+K3 system shows a soft component significantly more pronounced than in other K-type young stars. This soft emission is reminiscent of the unusually soft spectra observed for the single Herbig Ae stars HD 163296 and AB Aur, and therefore we tentatively attribute it to the Herbig Ae of the binary system. The HETGS spectrum shows strong emission lines corresponding to a wide range of plasma temperatures. The He-like triplet of MgXI and NeIX suggest the presence of plasma ...

  13. Daily multiwavelength Swift monitoring of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4: evidence for accretion and reprocessing during quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.; Brown, E. F.; D'Angelo, C.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted the first long-term (60 d), multiwavelength (optical, ultraviolet, UV, and X-ray) simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4 with daily Swift observations from 2012 June to August, with the goal of understanding variability in the low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 during quiescence. We found Cen X-4 to be highly variable in all energy bands on time-scales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent variability a factor of 22 drop in the X-ray count rate in only 4 d. The X-ray, UV and optical (V band) emission are correlated on time-scales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index ? about 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen neutron star (NS) atmosphere (kT = 59-80 eV) and a power law (with spectral index ? = 1.4-2.0), with the spectral shape remaining constant as the flux varies. Both components vary in tandem, with each responsible for about 50 per cent of the total X-ray flux, implying that they are physically linked. We conclude that the X-rays are likely generated by matter accreting down to the NS surface. Moreover, based on the short time-scale of the correlation, we also unambiguously demonstrate that the UV emission cannot be due to either thermal emission from the stream impact point, or a standard optically thick, geometrically thin disc. The spectral energy distribution shows a small UV emitting region, too hot to arise from the accretion disc, that we identified as a hotspot on the companion star. Therefore, the UV emission is most likely produced by reprocessing from the companion star, indeed the vertical size of the disc is small and can only reprocess a marginal fraction of the X-ray emission. We also found the accretion disc in quiescence to likely be UV faint, with a minimal contribution to the whole UV flux.

  14. Constraints on First-Stars Models From Observations of Local Low-Mass Dwarf Galaxies and Galactic Metal-Poor Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Long Yan; Venkatesan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The first metal-free stars in the universe had hard ionizing photon spectra and unique element yields from their supernovae, leaving signatures in the reionization of the intergalactic medium and in the metal enrichment of gas in the early universe. Here, we examine the metal abundances in a variety of systems in the local universe, from very metal-poor Galactic halo stars to ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and compare them with the latest theoretical models of massive stars with and without rotation. We confirm the similar abundance patterns found in the ultra-faint dwarfs and metal-poor halo stars by recent studies, and find new trends of interest in a variety of individual elements spanning metallicity values of [Fe/H] from about -2 to -5. We also compare our results with the abundances found in the very metal-deficient nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P, which was recently discovered in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. We comment on the similarities and differences between abundance trends in gas-rich dwarf galaxy systems like Leo P versus gas-poor ones like the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidals, and on the possibility of such systems hosting populations of the first stars. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and by Research Corporation through the Cottrell College Science Award.

  15. Determining the Metallicity of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs: Tools for Probing Fundamental Stellar Astrophysics, Tracing Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way and Identifying the Hosts of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. A.; Bochanski, J. J.; Bowler, B. P.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, J. A.; Lépine, S.; Rojas-Ayala, B.; Schweitzer, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present a brief overview of a splinter session on determining the metallicity of low-mass dwarfs that was organized as part of the Cool Stars 16 conference. We review contemporary spectroscopic and photometric techniques for estimating metallicity in low-mass dwarfs and discuss the importance of measuring accurate metallicities for studies of Galactic and chemical evolution using subdwarfs, creating metallicity benchmarks for brown dwarfs, and searching for extrasolar planets that are orbiting around low-mass dwarfs. In addition, we present the current understanding of the effects of metallicity on stellar evolution and atmosphere models and discuss some of the limitations that are important to consider when comparing theoretical models to data.

  16. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. I. CME impact on expected magnetospheres of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Lammer, Helmut; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Leitner, Martin; Selsis, Franck; Eiroa, Carlos; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried K; Farrugia, Charles J; Rucker, Helmut O

    2007-02-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph/Inferometer (NASA). The higher level of stellar activity of low mass M stars, as compared to solar-like G stars, as well as the closer orbital distances of their habitable zones (HZs), means that terrestrial-type exoplanets within HZs of these stars are more influenced by stellar activity than one would expect for a planet in an HZ of a solar-like star. Here we examine the influences of stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) activity on planetary environments and the role CMEs may play in the definition of habitability criterion for the terrestrial type exoplanets near M stars. We pay attention to the fact that exoplanets within HZs that are in close proximity to low mass M stars may become tidally locked, which, in turn, can result in relatively weak intrinsic planetary magnetic moments. Taking into account existing observational data and models that involve the Sun and related hypothetical parameters of extrasolar CMEs (density, velocity, size, and occurrence rate), we show that Earth-like exoplanets within close-in HZs should experience a continuous CME exposure over long periods of time. This fact, together with small magnetic moments of tidally locked exoplanets, may result in little or no magnetospheric protection of planetary atmospheres from a dense flow of CME plasma. Magnetospheric standoff distances of weakly magnetized Earth-like exoplanets at orbital distances

  17. HIGH- AND LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS FROM HIERARCHICAL GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION. HIGH LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATES WITH LOW GLOBAL EFFICIENCIES

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gomez, Gilberto C.; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Centro de RadioastronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacan 58089 (Mexico); Jappsen, A.-Katharina [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Klessen, Ralf S. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-12-20

    We investigate the properties of 'star-forming regions' in a previously published numerical simulation of molecular cloud formation out of compressive motions in the warm neutral atomic interstellar medium, neglecting magnetic fields and stellar feedback. We study the properties (density, total gas + stars mass, stellar mass, velocity dispersion, and star formation rate (SFR)) of the cloud hosting the first local, isolated 'star formation' event and compare them with those of the cloud formed by the central, global collapse event. In this simulation, the velocity dispersions at all scales are caused primarily by infall motions rather than by random turbulence. We suggest that the small-scale isolated collapses may be representative of low- to intermediate-mass star-forming regions, with gas masses (M{sub gas}) of hundreds of solar masses, velocity dispersions sigma{sub v} approx 0.7 km s{sup -1}, and SFRs approx3 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while the large-scale, massive ones may be representative of massive star-forming regions, with M{sub gas} of thousands of solar masses, sigma{sub v}approx a few km s{sup -1}, and SFRs approx3 x 10{sup -4} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We also compare the statistical distributions of the physical properties of the dense cores appearing in the central region of massive collapse with those from a recent survey of the massive star-forming region in the Cygnus X molecular cloud, finding that the observed and simulated distributions are in general very similar. However, we find that the star formation efficiency per free-fall time (SFE{sub ff}) of the high mass region, similar to that of OMC-1, is low, approx0.04. In the simulated cloud, this is not a consequence of a 'slow' SFR in a nearly hydrostatic cloud supported by turbulence, but rather of the region accreting mass at a high rate. Thus, we find that measuring a low SFE{sub ff} may be incorrectly interpreted as implying a lifetime much longer than the core's local free-fall time, and an SFR much slower than that given by the free-fall rate, if the accretion is not accounted for. We suggest that rather than requiring a low value of the SFE{sub ff} everywhere in the Galaxy, attaining a globally low specific SFR requires star formation to be a spatially intermittent process, so that most of the mass in a giant molecular cloud (GMC) is not participating in the SF process at any given time. Locally, the specific SFR of a star-forming region can be much larger than the global GMC's average.

  18. Abundance Anomaly of the 13C Isotopic Species of c-C3H2 in the Low-mass Star Formation Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Sakai, Nami; Tokudome, Tomoya; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Takano, Shuro; Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bachiller, Rafael; Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    The rotational spectral lines of c-C3H2 and two kinds of the 13C isotopic species, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 ({C}2v symmetry) and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 (Cs symmetry), have been observed in the 1–3 mm band toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527. We have detected 7, 3, and 6 lines of c-C3H2, c-{}13{{CCCH}}2, and c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2, respectively, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and 34, 6, and 13 lines, respectively, with the IRAM 30 m telescope, where seven, two, and two transitions, respectively, are observed with both telescopes. With these data, we have evaluated the column densities of the normal and 13C isotopic species. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] ratio is determined to be 310 ± 80, while the [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio is determined to be 61 ± 11. The [c-C3H2]/[c-{}13{{CCCH}}2] and [c-C3H2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratios expected from the elemental 12C/13C ratio are 60–70 and 30–35, respectively, where the latter takes into account the statistical factor of 2 for the two equivalent carbon atoms in c-C3H2. Hence, this observation further confirms the dilution of the 13C species in carbon-chain molecules and their related molecules, which are thought to originate from the dilution of 13C+ in the gas-phase C+ due to the isotope exchange reaction: {}13{{{C}}}++{CO}\\to {}13{CO}+{{{C}}}+. Moreover, the abundances of the two 13C isotopic species are different from each other. The ratio of c-{}13{{CCCH}}2 species relative to c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 is determined to be 0.20 ± 0.05. If 13C were randomly substituted for the three carbon atoms, the [c-{}13{{CCCH}}2]/[c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2] ratio would be 0.5. Hence, the observed ratio indicates that c-{{CC}}13{{CH}}2 exists more favorably. Possible origins of the different abundances are discussed. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the NRO 45 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). NRO is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan.

  19. INTEGRAL Observations of Four Neutron-Star Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: GX 3+1, GX 354-0, GX 349+2 and the Rapid Burster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinelli, R.; Frontera, F.; Virgilli, E.; Falanga, M.; Goldoni, P.; Goldwurm, A.

    2004-10-01

    We report on preliminary results of four Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) present in the INTEGRAL field of view during a ToO observation, started on 2003 February 28 and lasted about 170 ksec, of the Black Hole Candi- date XTE J1720-318 in outburst. These LMXBs include two atoll sources (GX 354-0 and GX 3+1), one Z source (GX 349+2) and the peculiar source MBX 1730-335, also known as the Rapid Burster. Key words: X-ray: binaries - stars: neutron - stars: indi- vidual: (GX 3+1, GX 354-0, GX 349+2, Rapid Burster).

  20. The Earliest Phases of Star Formation (EPoS): a Herschel key project. The thermal structure of low-mass molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launhardt, R.; Stutz, A. M.; Schmiedeke, A.; Henning, Th.; Krause, O.; Balog, Z.; Beuther, H.; Birkmann, S.; Hennemann, M.; Kainulainen, J.; Khanzadyan, T.; Linz, H.; Lippok, N.; Nielbock, M.; Pitann, J.; Ragan, S.; Risacher, C.; Schmalzl, M.; Shirley, Y. L.; Stecklum, B.; Steinacker, J.; Tackenberg, J.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The temperature and density structure of molecular cloud cores are the most important physical quantities that determine the course of the protostellar collapse and the properties of the stars they form. Nevertheless, density profiles often rely either on the simplifying assumption of isothermality or on observationally poorly constrained model temperature profiles. The instruments of the Herschel satellite provide us for the first time with both the spectral coverage and the spatial resolution that is needed to directly measure the dust temperature structure of nearby molecular cloud cores. Aims: With the aim of better constraining the initial physical conditions in molecular cloud cores at the onset of protostellar collapse, in particular of measuring their temperature structure, we initiated the guaranteed time key project (GTKP) "The Earliest Phases of Star Formation" (EPoS) with the Herschel satellite. This paper gives an overview of the low-mass sources in the EPoS project, the Herschel and complementary ground-based observations, our analysis method, and the initial results of the survey. Methods: We study the thermal dust emission of 12 previously well-characterized, isolated, nearby globules using FIR and submm continuum maps at up to eight wavelengths between 100 ?m and 1.2 mm. Our sample contains both globules with starless cores and embedded protostars at different early evolutionary stages. The dust emission maps are used to extract spatially resolved SEDs, which are then fit independently with modified blackbody curves to obtain line-of-sight-averaged dust temperature and column density maps. Results: We find that the thermal structure of all globules (mean mass 7 M?) is dominated by external heating from the interstellar radiation field and moderate shielding by thin extended halos. All globules have warm outer envelopes (14-20 K) and colder dense interiors (8-12 K) with column densities of a few 1022 cm-2. The protostars embedded in some of the globules raise the local temperature of the dense cores only within radii out to about 5000 AU, but do not significantly affect the overall thermal balance of the globules. Five out of the six starless cores in the sample are gravitationally bound and approximately thermally stabilized. The starless core in CB 244 is found to be supercritical and is speculated to be on the verge of collapse. For the first time, we can now also include externally heated starless cores in the Lsmm/Lbol vs. Tbol diagram and find that Tbol < 25 K seems to be a robust criterion to distinguish starless from protostellar cores, including those that only have an embedded very low-luminosity object. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Partially based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope, with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). APEX is a collaboration between Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The JCMT is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Association for Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada.Appendices A, B and C are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Survival of a convective core in low-mass solar-like pulsator HD 203608

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deheuvels, S.; Michel, E.; Goupil, M. J.; Marques, J. P.; Mosser, B.; Dupret, M. A.; Lebreton, Y.; Pichon, B.; Morel, P.

    2010-05-01

    Context. A 5-night asteroseismic observation of the F8V star HD 203608 was conducted in August 2006 with harps, followed by an analysis of the data, and a preliminary modeling of the star (Mosser et al. 2008). The stellar parameters were significantly constrained, but the behavior of one of the seismic indexes (the small spacing ??01) could not be fitted with the observed one, even with the best considered models. Aims: We study the possibility of improving the agreement between models and observations by changing the physical properties of the inner parts of the star (to which ??01 is sensitive). Methods: We show that, in spite of its low mass, it is possible to produce models of HD 203608 with a convective core. No such model was considered in the preliminary modeling. In practice, we obtain these models here by assuming some extra mixing at the edge of the early convective core. We optimized the model parameters using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Results: The agreement between the new best model with a convective core and the observations is much better than for the models without. All the observational parameters are fitted within 1-? observational error bars. This is the first observational evidence of a convective core in an old and low-mass star such as HD 203608. In standard models of low-mass stars, the core withdraws shortly after the ZAMS. The survival of the core until the present age of HD 203608 provides very strong constraints on the size of the mixed zone associated to the convective core. Using overshooting as a proxy to model the processes of transport at the edge of the core, we find that to reproduce both global and seismic observations, we must have ?{ov} = 0.17 ± 0.03 Hp for HD 203608. We revisit the process of the extension of the core lifetime due to overshooting in the particular case of HD 203608.

  2. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Protopapas, P., E-mail: seowony@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  3. The Variable Stars of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy - Revisited

    E-print Network

    K. Kinemuchi; H. C. Harris; Horace A. Smith; N. A. Silbermann; L. A. Snyder; A. P. LaCluyze; C. L. Clark

    2008-08-19

    We present a CCD survey of variable stars in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This survey, which has the largest areal coverage since the original variable star survey by Baade & Swope, includes photometry for 270 RR Lyrae stars, 9 anomalous Cepheids, 2 eclipsing binaries, and 12 slow, irregular red variables, as well as 30 background QSOs. Twenty-six probable double-mode RR Lyrae stars were identified. Observed parameters, including mean V and I magnitudes, V amplitudes, and periods, have been derived. Photometric metallicities of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars were calculated according to the method of Jurcsik & Kovacs, yielding a mean metallicity of = -2.19 +/- 0.03. The well known Oosterhoff intermediate nature of the RR Lyrae stars in Draco is reconfirmed, although the double-mode RR Lyrae stars with one exception have properties similar to those found in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. The period-luminosity relation of the anomalous Cepheids is rediscussed with the addition of the new Draco anomalous Cepheids.

  4. The Origin of Fluorine: Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

    E-print Network

    Abia, C; Cristallo, S; de Laverny, P

    2015-01-01

    Revised spectroscopic parameters for the HF molecule and a new CN line list in the 2.3 mu region have been recently available, allowing a revision of the F content in AGB stars. AGB carbon stars are the only observationally confirmed sources of fluorine. Nowadays there is not a consensus on the relevance of AGB stars in its Galactic chemical evolution. The aim of this article is to better constrain the contribution of these stars with a more accurate estimate of their fluorine abundances. Using new spectroscopic tools and LTE spectral synthesis, we redetermine fluorine abundances from several HF lines in the K-band in a sample of Galactic and extragalactic AGB carbon stars of spectral types N, J and SC spanning a wide range of metallicities. On average, the new derived fluorine abundances are systematically lower by 0.33 dex with respect to previous determinations. This may derive from a combination of the lower excitation energies of the HF lines and the larger macroturbulence parameters used here as well as...

  5. Period analysis of two non-Blazhko RRab stars, FN Lyr and V894 Cyg, based on Kepler photometry: evidence of low-mass companions on wider orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.-J.; Qian, S.-B.

    2014-10-01

    Long-cadence-corrected pre-search data conditioning (PDC) fluxes of FN Lyr (KIC 6936115) and V894 Cyg (KIC 9591503), observed continuously by the Kepler mission, spanning over 1470 d, are used to determine hundreds of times of maximum and minimum for the analysis of O - C residuals. The interpretation of the clear variations in the O - C diagrams is that these are caused by the light-travel-time effect as a result of additional companions. The mass functions of the companions are f (M) = (3.94 ± 0.82) × 10-6 and (2.01 ± 0.22) × 10-4 M?. Assuming that the orbital plane inclination follows a random distribution, the companions to both stars can be constrained to be substellar objects (brown dwarf or giant planet), with 89.4 and 59.4 per cent probability, respectively. Under the assumption that the orbital inclination equals 90°, the distances between the companions and the central RR Lyrae stars at periastron should be 1.03 and 0.50 au, respectively. In addition, the orbital periods are 794.8 and 1084.4 d for FN Lyr and V894 Cyg, respectively. By comparing these orbital parameters with those of B subdwarf stars in binary systems, there are strong hints that horizontal branch stars might have different evolution histories. The long-term pulsation period changes are also discussed. Based on our studies, RR Lyrae stars in binary systems are not rare, at least among binary systems with wider separations.

  6. Sulphur and zinc abundances in Galactic halo stars revisited

    E-print Network

    P. E. Nissen; C. Akerman; M. Asplund; D. Fabbian; F. Kerber; H. U. Kaufl; M. Pettini

    2007-04-25

    High resolution UVES spectra of 40 main-sequence stars with -3.3 < [Fe/H] < -1.0 are used to derive S, Fe and Zn abundances from lines in the 400 - 950 nm region. For one star we also present novel observations of the SI triplet at 1.046 micron carried out with the ESO VLT CRIRES spectrograph. Comparison of sulphur abundances from the weak and strong SI lines provides important constraints on non-LTE effects. The high sulphur abundances reported by others for some metal-poor stars are not confirmed; instead, when taking non-LTE effects into account, the Galactic halo stars distribute around a plateau at [S/Fe] = +0.2 dex with a scatter of 0.07 dex only. This indicates that sulphur in Galactic halo stars has been made by alpha-capture processes in massive SNe. The observed scatter in S/Fe is, however, much smaller than predicted from current stochastic models of the chemical evolution of the early Galaxy, suggesting that either the models or the calculated yields of massive SNe should be revised. [Zn/Fe] is close to zero for metallicities in the range -2.0 < [Fe/H] < -1.0 but increases to a level of [Zn/Fe] = +0.15 dex in the range -2.7 < [Fe/H] < -2.0. At still lower metallicities [Zn/Fe] rises steeply to a value around [Zn/Fe] = +0.5 dex at [Fe/H] = -3.2. We also examine the behaviour of S/Zn and find that departures from the solar ratio are significantly reduced at all metallicities if non-LTE corrections to the abundances of these two elements are adopted. This effect, if confirmed, would reduce the usefulness of the S/Zn ratio as a diagnostic of past star-formation activity, but would bring closer together the values measured in damped Lyman-alpha systems and in Galactic stars.

  7. A study of the motion of the star Gliese 623 with a low-mass dark companion on the basis of observations at Pulkovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakht, N. A.

    Photographic observations of the nearby star Gliese 623 (AC 48° 1595/1589) with an optically invisible companion of extremely low stellar mass have been made during the years 1979-1995 by means of 26-inch refractor at Pulkovo. The relative proper motion and relative parallax have been obtained on the basis of 89 plates (580 individual positions). The residuals with a mean error of ±0.011 arcsec have been calculated. The motion of the photocentre evoked by the companion has been estimated by means of these residuals. The following dynamic elements are chosen for the photocentric orbit: P = 3.76 years, e = 0.51, To = 1984.3. The most stable geometrical element is the great semi-axis of the photocentre which equals 0.052 ± 0.007 arcsec (m.e.). The values of i, and have shown some change for different intervals of observations and are due to systems of reference stars. The lower limit of the mass of the companion is estimated as 0.09 ± 0.03 solar masses. The positions of the main star on the each plate are given.

  8. Effects of Rotationally-Induced Mixing in Compact Binary Systems with Low-Mass Secondaries and in Single Solar-Type Stars

    E-print Network

    Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Wheeler, J Craig

    2012-01-01

    Many population synthesis and stellar evolution studies have addressed the evolution of close binary systems in which the primary is a compact remnant and the secondary is filling its Roche lobe, thus triggering mass transfer. Although tidal locking is expected in such systems, most studies have neglected the rotationally-induced mixing that may occur. Here we study the possible effects of mixing in the mass-losing stars for a range in secondary star masses and metallicities. We find that tidal locking can induce rotational mixing prior to contact and thus affect the evolution of the secondary star if the effects of the Spruit-Tayler dynamo are included both for angular momentum and chemical transport. Once contact is made, the effect of mass transfer tends to be more rapid than the evolutionary time scale, so the effects of mixing are no longer directly important, but the mass transfer strips matter to inner layers that may have been affected by the mixing. These effects are enhanced for secondaries of 1-1.2...

  9. Neutrino emission rates in highly magnetized neutron stars revisited

    E-print Network

    Mario Riquelme; Andreas Reisenegger; Olivier Espinosa; Claudio Dib

    2005-05-11

    Magnetars are a subclass of neutron stars whose intense soft-gamma-ray bursts and quiescent X-ray emission are believed to be powered by the decay of a strong internal magnetic field. We reanalyze neutrino emission in such stars in the plausibly relevant regime in which the Landau band spacing of both protons and electrons is much larger than kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature), but still much smaller than the Fermi energies. Focusing on the direct Urca process, we find that the emissivity oscillates as a function of density or magnetic field, peaking when the Fermi level of the protons or electrons lies about 3kT above the bottom of any of their Landau bands. The oscillation amplitude is comparable to the average emissivity when the Landau band spacing mentioned above is roughly the geometric mean of kT and the Fermi energy (excluding mass), i. e., at fields much weaker than required to confine all particles to the lowest Landau band. Since the density and magnetic field strength vary continuously inside the neutron star, there will be alternating surfaces of high and low emissivity. Globally, these oscillations tend to average out, making it unclear whether there will be any observable effects.

  10. The Infrared Eye of the Wide-Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope Reveals Multiple Main Sequences of Very Low Mass Stars in NGC 2808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Allard, F.; Aparicio, A.; Bellini, A.; Buonanno, R.; Monelli, M.; Pietrinferni, A.

    2012-08-01

    We use images taken with the infrared channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the multiple main sequences (MSs) of NGC 2808. Below the turnoff, the red, the middle, and the blue MS, previously detected from visual-band photometry, are visible over an interval of about 3.5 F160W magnitudes. The three MSs merge together at the level of the MS bend. At fainter magnitudes, the MS again splits into two components containing ~65% and ~35% of stars, with the most-populated MS being the bluest one. Theoretical isochrones suggest that the latter is connected to the red MS discovered in the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and hence corresponds to the first stellar generation, having primordial helium and enhanced carbon and oxygen abundances. The less-populated MS in the faint part of the near-IR CMD is helium-rich and poor in carbon and oxygen, and it can be associated with the middle and the blue MS of the optical CMD. The finding that the photometric signature of abundance anti-correlation is also present in fully convective MS stars reinforces the inference that they have a primordial origin. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTERESTS. NEW EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURES, METALLICITIES, MASSES, AND RADII OF LOW-MASS KEPLER PLANET-CANDIDATE HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, Philip S. [Current address: Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hamren, Katherine [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlawin, Everett; Lloyd, James P. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Current address: Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Covey, Kevin R., E-mail: philm@astro.caltech.edu [Hubble Fellow. (United States)

    2012-05-10

    We report stellar parameters for late-K and M-type planet-candidate host stars announced by the Kepler Mission. We obtained medium-resolution, K-band spectra of 84 cool (T{sub eff} {approx}< 4400 K) Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) from Borucki et al. We identified one object as a giant (KOI 977); for the remaining dwarfs, we measured effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) and metallicities [M/H] using the K-band spectral indices of Rojas-Ayala et al. We determine the masses (M{sub *}) and radii (R{sub *}) of the cool KOIs by interpolation onto the Dartmouth evolutionary isochrones. The resultant stellar radii are significantly less than the values reported in the Kepler Input Catalog and, by construction, correlate better with T{sub eff}. Applying the published KOI transit parameters to our stellar radius measurements, we report new physical radii for the planet candidates. Recalculating the equilibrium temperatures of the planet-candidates assuming Earth's albedo and re-radiation fraction, we find that three of the planet-candidates are terrestrial sized with orbital semimajor axes that lie within the habitable zones of their host stars (KOI 463.01, KOI 812.03, and KOI 854.01). The stellar parameters presented in this Letter serve as a resource for prioritization of future follow-up efforts to validate and characterize the cool KOI planet candidates.

  12. The near-contact binary star RZ Dra revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Zola, S.; Winiarski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the absolute parameters of RZ Dra. New CCD observations were made at the Mt. Suhora Observatory in 2007. Two photometric data sets (1990 BV and 2007 BVRI) were analysed using modern light-curve synthesis methods. Large asymmetries in the light curves may be explained in terms of a dark starspot on the primary component, an A6 type star. Due to this magnetic activity, the primary component would appear to belong to the class of Ap-stars and would show small amplitude with ? Scuti-type pulsations. With this in mind, a time-series analysis of the residual light curves was made. However, we found no evidence of pulsation behaviour in RZ Dra. Combining the solutions of our light curves and Rucinski et al. (2000)'s radial velocity curves, the following absolute parameters of the components were determined: M1 = 1.63 ± 0.03 M ?, M2 = 0.70 ± 0.02 M ?, R1 = 1.65 ± 0.02R ?, R2 = 1.15 ± 0.02 R ?, L1 = 9.72 ± 0.30 L ? and L2 = 0.74 ± 0.10 L ?. The distance to RZ Dra was calculated as 400 ± 25 pc, taking into account interstellar extinction. The orbital period of the system was studied using updated O- C information. It was found that the orbital period varied in its long-period sinusoidal form, superimposed on a downward parabola. The parabolic term shows a secular period decrease at a slow rate of 0.06 ± 0.02 s per century and is explained by the mass loss via magnetized wind of the Ap-star primary. The tilted sinusoidal form of the period variation may be considered as an apparent change and may be interpreted in terms of the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body.

  13. A Low-mass Main-sequence Star and Accretion Disk in the Very Faint X-Ray Transient M15 X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnason, R. M.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present near-simultaneous {\\text{}}{Chandra}/Hubble Space Telescope ({\\text{}}{HST}) observations of the very faint (Lx < 1036 erg s?1) X-ray transient source M15 X-3, as well as unpublished archival {\\text{}}{Chandra} observations of M15 X-3. The {\\text{}}{Chandra} observations constrain the luminosity of M15 X-3 to be <1034 erg s?1 in all observed epochs. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of curvature, and prefers a fit to a broken power law with break energy {E}{break}={2.7}-0.6+0.4 keV, and power-law indices of {{{? }}}1={1.3}-0.2+0.1 and {{{? }}}2={1.9}-0.2+0.2 over a single power law. We fit our new F438W (B), F606W (broad V), and F814W (I) HST data on the blue optical counterpart with a model for an accretion disk and a metal-poor main-sequence star. From this fit, we determine the companion to be consistent with a main-sequence star of mass {0.440}-0.060+0.035 M? in a ?4 hr orbit. X-ray irradiation of the companion is likely to be a factor in the optical emission from the system, which permits the companion to be smaller than calculated above, but larger than 0.15 M? at the 3? confidence level. M15 X-3 seems to be inconsistent with all suggested hypotheses explaining very faint transient behavior, except for magnetospherically inhibited accretion.

  14. Theoretical Modeling of Pulsating Low-mass White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric variations in some low-mass white-dwarf stars have been recently detected (Hermes et al. 2012). Such variability is though to be due to long-period nonradial pulsation g modes. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs make up a new, separate class of pulsating white dwarfs with H rich atmospheres, low effective temperatures (Teff=7800–10000 K), and low gravities (log g= 6–6.8) (Hermes et al. 2013ab). Asteroseismology of these stars can provide valuable clues about their internal structure and evolutionary status, allowing us to place constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. We present here the main results of a detailed pulsational study applied to low-mass He-core white dwarfs, based on full evolutionary models representative of these objects. The main aim of this work is to provide a solid theoretical basis from which to interpret present and future observations of variable low-mass white dwarfs.

  15. Empirical relations for cluster RR Lyrae stars revisited

    E-print Network

    G. Kovacs; A. R. Walker

    2001-03-13

    Our former study on the empirical relations between the Fourier parameters of the light curves of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars and their basic stellar parameters has been extended to considerably larger data sets. The most significant contribution to the absolute magnitude M_v comes from the period P and from the first Fourier amplitude A_1, but there are statistically significant contributions also from additional higher order components, most importantly from A_3 and in a lesser degree from the Fourier phase phi_51. When different colors are combined in reddening-free quantities, we obtain basically period-luminosity-color relations. Due to the log T_eff (B-V, log g, [Fe/H]) relation from stellar atmosphere models, we would expect some dependence also on phi_31. Unfortunately, the data are still not extensive and accurate enough to decipher clearly the small effect of this Fourier phase. However, with the aid of more accurate multicolor data on field variables, we show that this Fourier phase should be present either in V-I or in B-V or in both. From the standard deviations of the various regressions, an upper limit can be obtained on the overall inhomogeneity of the reddening in the individual clusters. This yields sigma_E(B-V)} 0.018 mag.

  16. Parent stars of extrasolar planets - XV. Host star rotation revisited with Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-07-01

    We employed published rotation periods of Kepler field stars to test whether stars hosting planets tend to rotate more slowly than stars without known planets. Spectroscopic v sin i observations of nearby stars with planets have indicated that they tend to have smaller v sin i values. We employ data for Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) from the first 16 quarters of its original mission; stellar parameters are based on the analysis of the first 17 quarters. We confirm that KOI stars rotate more slowly with much greater confidence than we had previously found for nearby stars with planets. Furthermore, we find that stars with planets of all types rotate more slowly, not just stars with giant planets.

  17. Parent Stars of Extrasolar Planets. XV. Host Star Rotation Revisited with {\\it Kepler} Data

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    We employed published rotation periods of {\\it Kepler} field stars to test whether stars hosting planets tend to rotate more slowly than stars without known planets. Spectroscopic vsini observations of nearby stars with planets have indicated that they tend to have smaller visni values. We employ data for {\\it Kepler} Objects of Interest (KOIs) from the first 16 quarters of its original mission; stellar parameters are based on the analysis of the first 17 quarters. We confirm that KOI stars rotate more slowly with much greater confidence than we had previously found for nearby stars with planets. Furthermore, we find that stars with planets of all types rotate more slowly, not just stars with giant planets.

  18. Low mass stellar evolution with WIMP capture and annihilation

    E-print Network

    Pat Scott; Joakim Edsjö; Malcolm Fairbairn

    2007-11-07

    Recent work has indicated that WIMP annihilation in stellar cores has the potential to contribute significantly to a star's total energy production. We report on progress in simulating the effects of WIMP capture and annihilation upon stellar structure and evolution near supermassive black holes, using the new DarkStars code. Preliminary results indicate that low-mass stars are the most influenced by WIMP annihilation, which could have consequences for upcoming observational programs.

  19. Radial velocity survey for planets and brown dwarf companions to very young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in ChaI with UVES at the VLT

    E-print Network

    V. Joergens

    2005-10-05

    We present results of a radial velocity (RV) survey for planets and brown dwarf (BD) companions to very young BDs and (very) low-mass stars (VLMSs) in ChaI. High-resolution echelle spectra of ChaHa1-8 and 12 (M6-M8), and B34, CHXR74, Sz23 (M2.5-M5) were taken with UVES / VLT between 2000 and 2004. The achieved precision (40 to 670 m/s) is sufficient to detect Jupiter mass planets around the targets. This first RV survey of very young BDs probes multiplicity which is a key parameter for formation in an as yet unexplored domain, in terms of age, mass, and orbital separation. We find that the subsample of ten BDs and VLMSs (M150 days, which cannot be explained by rotational modulation. An alternative explanation are giant planets / BDs of at least a few Jupiter masses orbiting with periods of several months or longer. Thus, the presented RV data indicate that orbital periods of companions to very young BDs and (V)LMSs are possibly several months or longer, and that orbital separations are > 0.2 AU. This parameter range has not been covered for all targets yet, but will be probed by follow-up observations.

  20. A Steep Faint-End Slope of the UV Luminosity Function at z~2-3: Implications for the Global Stellar Mass Density and Star Formation in Low Mass Halos

    E-print Network

    Naveen A. Reddy; Charles C. Steidel

    2008-10-15

    We use the deep ground-based optical photometry of the Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) Survey to derive robust measurements of the faint-end slope (alpha) of the UV LF at redshifts 1.92000 spectroscopic redshifts and ~31000 LBGs in 31 spatially-independent fields over a total area of 3261 arcmin^2. These data allow us to select galaxies to 0.07L* and 0.10L* at z~2 and z~3, respectively. A maximum likelihood analysis indicates steep values of alpha(z=2)=-1.73+/-0.07 and alpha(z=3)=-1.73+/-0.13. This result is robust to luminosity dependent systematics in the Ly-alpha equivalent width and reddening distributions, is similar to the steep values advocated at z>4, and implies that ~93% of the unobscured UV luminosity density at z~2-3 arises from sub-L* galaxies. With a realistic luminosity dependent reddening distribution, faint to moderately luminous galaxies account for >70% and >25% of the bolometric luminosity density and present-day stellar mass density, respectively, when integrated over 1.92 contrasts with the shallower value inferred locally, suggesting that the evolution in the faint-end slope may be dictated simply by the availability of low mass halos capable of supporting star formation at z<2. [Abridged

  1. Coronal Structure of Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Lang, Pauline; Donati, Jean-Francois; Morin, Julien; Vidotto, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the change in stellar magnetic topology across the fully-convective boundary and its effects on coronal properties. We consider both the magnitude of the open flux that influences angular momentum loss in the stellar wind and X-ray emission measure. We use reconstructed maps of the radial magnetic field at the stellar surface and the potential-field source surface method to extrapolate a 3D coronal magnetic field for a sample of early-to-mid M dwarfs. During the magnetic reconstruction process it is possible to force a solution towards field geometries that are symmetric or antisymmetric about the equator but we demonstrate that this has only a modest impact on the coronal tracers mentioned above. We find that the dipole component of the field, which governs the large-scale structure, becomes increasingly strong as the stellar mass decreases, while the magnitude of the open (wind-bearing) magnetic flux is proportional to the magnitude of the reconstructed magnetic flux. By assuming a hydrostati...

  2. THE ENIGMATIC YOUNG, LOW-MASS VARIABLE TWA 30

    E-print Network

    Looper, Dagny L.

    TWA 30 is a remarkable young (7 ± 3 Myr), low-mass (0.12 ± 0.04 M [subscript ?]), late-type star (M5 ± 1) residing 42 ± 2 pc away from the Sun in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). It shows strong outflow spectral signatures ...

  3. Silicate Dust Evolution around the Low-Mass YSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kataza, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Miyata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Sako, Shigeyuki; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi

    We have carried out mid-infrared N-band R˜ 250 spectroscopic survey of low-mass YSOs with the COMICS (COoled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer) mounted on the 8.2m Subaru Telescope. Our targets were mainly the classical T Tauri stars at Taurus TWA MBM12 and some isolated T Tauri stars focusing on the relatively old (5-10 Myr old) low-mass T Tauri stars. We detected crystalline silicates features in some of them (e.g. Honda et al. 2003 ApJ 585 L59). Our detection of crystalline silicates in the old T Tauri stars indicates that the crystalization process occurs even in a protoplanetary disk of low-mass YSOs in T Tauri phase and revealed the silicate dust evolution in the low-mass YSOs. Such crystallization processes may be analogous to those occurred in the early epoch of the solar system and may be related to the crystalline silicates observed in the cometary dust.

  4. ACCURATE LOW-MASS STELLAR MODELS OF KOI-126

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dotter, Aaron, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@dartmouth.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-10-10

    The recent discovery of an eclipsing hierarchical triple system with two low-mass stars in a close orbit (KOI-126) by Carter et al. appeared to reinforce the evidence that theoretical stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce the observational mass-radius relation for low-mass stars. We present a set of stellar models for the three stars in the KOI-126 system that show excellent agreement with the observed radii. This agreement appears to be due to the equation of state implemented by our code. A significant dispersion in the observed mass-radius relation for fully convective stars is demonstrated; indicative of the influence of physics currently not incorporated in standard stellar evolution models. We also predict apsidal motion constants for the two M dwarf companions. These values should be observationally determined to within 1% by the end of the Kepler mission.

  5. Low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, J. E.; Rappaport, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of current understanding of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), which are luminous X-ray sources composed of a late-type optical companion (mass less than about 1 solar mass) and a neutron star (or possibly a black hole). Thirty-two LMXBs have been identified with optical counterparts in the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (Brad and McClintock, 1983). It is unlikely that there are more than about 100 active LMXBs in the Galaxy, compared with about 200,000 cataclysmic variables. Topics covered in the review are: typical X-ray and optical properties; orbital periods; the nature of the compact source; accretion disks; formation; mass transfer mechanisms; and globular clusters and bright bulge X-ray sources.

  6. Very Low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS II: A Short-period Companion Orbiting an F Star with Evidence of a Stellar Tertiary And Significant Mutual Inclination

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Scott W; Barnes, Rory; Beatty, Thomas G; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia; Gary, Bruce; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Hebb, Leslie; Jiang, Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben; de Mello, Gustavo F Porto; Shappee, Benjamin J; Stassun, Keivan; Thompson, Todd A; Tofflemire, Benjamin M; Wisniewski, John P; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Agol, Eric; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cargile, Phillip A; Coban, Louis; Costello, Korena S; da Costa, Luis N; Good, Melanie L; Hua, Nelson; Kane, Stephen R; Lander, Gary R; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Oravetz, Daniel; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Roebuck, Eric J; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; Vincent, Chelsea L M; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A; Weaver, Gwendolyn M; Zhao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery via radial velocity of a short-period (P = 2.430420 \\pm 0.000006 days) companion to the F-type main sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the radial velocities indicates the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with $P > 2000$ days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T_eff = 6427 +/- 33 K, log(g) = 4.52 +/- 0.14, and [Fe/H]=-0.04 +/- 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broad-band spectral energy distribution and parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M_1=1.21 +/- 0.08 M_\\odot and R_1=1.09_{-0.13}^{+0.15} R_\\odot. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. The host star's spectrum exhibits clear Ca H and K core emission indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small v*sin(I) suggest the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary from an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner...

  7. The ACS LCID project. X. the star formation history of IC 1613: Revisiting the over-cooling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es, E-mail: carme@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of a field near the half-light radius in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-off, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ?1 Gyr. Our analysis shows that the SFH of the observed field in IC 1613 is consistent with being constant over the entire lifetime of the galaxy. These observations rule out an early dominant episode of star formation in IC 1613. We compare the SFH of IC 1613 with expectations from cosmological models. Since most of the mass is in place at early times for low-mass halos, a naive expectation is that most of the star formation should have taken place at early times. Models in which star formation follows mass accretion result in too many stars formed early and gas mass fractions that are too low today (the 'over-cooling problem'). The depth of the present photometry of IC 1613 shows that, at a resolution of ?1 Gyr, the star formation rate is consistent with being constant, at even the earliest times, which is difficult to achieve in models where star formation follows mass assembly.

  8. Silicate dust evolution in the low-mass YSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Kataza, H.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Yamashita, T.; Miyata, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Sako, S.; Onaka, T.

    We have carried out mid-infrared N-band R ˜250 spectroscopic survey of relatively old (5-10 Myr old) low-mass YSOs (mostly Classical T Tauri stars) with the COMICS (COoled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer) mounted on the 8.2m Subaru Telescope, and detected crystalline silicates features in some of them (e.g. Honda et al. 2003, ApJ, 585, L59). Our detection of crystalline silicates in old T Tauri stars indicates that the crystalization process does occur even in a protoplanetary disk of low-mass YSOs in T Tauri phase. Such crystallization processes may be analogous to those occured in the early epoch of the solar system, and may be related to the crystalline silicates observed in the cometary dust.

  9. Strong irradiation of low-mass protostars in Corona Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Johan; Jørgensen, Jes; Digit Team; Alma Cycle 0 Protostars Team

    2013-07-01

    Very young low-mass protostars are deeply embedded in cold gas and dust. These early stages of star formation often show an interesting and varied chemistry, e.g. with complex organic molecules or long carbon-chain molecules in the inner regions. The effect on the physics and chemistry from nearby luminous stars remains poorly understood. We find unexpectedly high temperatures in the R CrA region, but also in other protostars in CrA. Models suggest that the Herbig Be star R CrA is the dominant heat source in this star-forming region. Thus, also intermediate-mass stars have large effects on the physical properties in such regions. ALMA observations of H2CO can be used to trace such heating also in more distant regions.

  10. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erb, Dawn K.

    2015-07-01

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed `feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized--the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  11. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-01

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe. PMID:26156371

  12. Astrometric Orbits and Masses for Three Low-Mass Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2015-01-01

    Masses for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are best determined dynamically using binary systems . Accurate astrometry of the photocenter of the unresolved binary, combined with one observation resolving the binary, can be used to determine the orbital elements. We present data for three systems, two heretofore unknown binaries and one previously studied. The orbital periods range from 7 to 13 years, a range where astrometric orbits can be well determined. Gaia data can help with these ground-based solutions, even with its partial orbital coverage, by providing accurate astrometric data for reference stars as well as the binaries.

  13. Very low-mass members of the Lupus 3 cloud

    E-print Network

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Mundt, R; Mart\\'{\\i}, Bel\\'en L\\'opez; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Mundt, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We report on a multi-band survey for very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Lupus 3 cloud with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the ESO/MPG 2.2m telescope on La Silla Observatory (Chile). Our multiband optical photometry is combined with available 2MASS JHK photometry to identify 19 new young stars and 3 brown dwarf candidates as probable members of this star forming region. Our objects are mostly clustered around the cloud core. Stars and brown dwarfs have similar levels of H-alpha emission, probably a signature of accretion. One object, a brown dwarf candidate, exhibits a near-infrared excess, which may indicate the presence of a disk, but its H-alpha emission cannot be confirmed due to its faintness in the optical passbands. We also find two visual pairs of probable Lupus 3 members that may be wide binaries.

  14. Very low-mass members of the Lupus 3 cloud

    E-print Network

    Belén López Martí; Jochen Eislöffel; Reinhard Mundt

    2005-08-24

    We report on a multi-band survey for very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Lupus 3 cloud with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the ESO/MPG 2.2m telescope on La Silla Observatory (Chile). Our multiband optical photometry is combined with available 2MASS JHK photometry to identify 19 new young stars and 3 brown dwarf candidates as probable members of this star forming region. Our objects are mostly clustered around the cloud core. Stars and brown dwarfs have similar levels of H-alpha emission, probably a signature of accretion. One object, a brown dwarf candidate, exhibits a near-infrared excess, which may indicate the presence of a disk, but its H-alpha emission cannot be confirmed due to its faintness in the optical passbands. We also find two visual pairs of probable Lupus 3 members that may be wide binaries.

  15. The low-mass dispersed population around the Lupus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, F.; Spezzi, L.; López Martí, B.; Merín, B.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Many star forming regions are known to have associated dispersed populations, whose members are located away from known current star forming sites. Their origin is unclear, and any identification of the members through relatively short-lived signatures of youth can miss them. Aims: We aim at confirming membership of a sample of cool stars identified in a previous work in the Lupus 1, 3, and 4 clouds as candidate members. Most of them do not display near- or mid-infrared excess or any other easily recognizable signatures of youth. Methods: We use low-resolution spectroscopy in the red part of the spectrum, including the H? region, to accurately determine spectral types and probe surface gravity-sensitive features that provide reliable criteria for distinguishing cool giant stars, young stellar objects, and evolved dwarf stars. Results: Most of the candidate members of a possible dispersed population around Lupus 1 are found to be background K or early M giants. However, about half of the observed members of Lupus 3 are confirmed as young objects, including both low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. The distributed population is compared to the sample of lightly obscured members projected closer to the densest parts of the Lupus 3 star forming cloud, and the estimated ages of the members of both sets are found to be consistent with a single distribution. However, we find statistical indications (although at a low significance level) of a decrease in the frequency of infrared excesses in the distributed population. Some nongiant members are also identified with gravity-sensitive features typical of more evolved stars, and we argue that these may belong to an older population associated with the Gould Belt, similar to what is observed in the direction of other nearby star forming regions. We also confirm two additional, very low-mass members of Lupus 4. Conclusions: Although some of its members have already been known previous to this work, our results emphasize the richness of the low-mass distributed population around Lupus 3 and the existence of much less numerous dispersed populations around Lupus 1 and Lupus 4. The apparent spatial segregation as a function of the abundance of circumstellar material favors dynamical ejection from the main star forming cloud as the mechanism that gives rise to the dispersed population. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under observing program 086.C-0546(A).

  16. High Precision Dynamical Masses of Very Low Mass Binaries

    E-print Network

    Konopacky, Q M; Barman, T S; Rice, E L; Bailey, J I; White, R J; McLean, I S; Duchene, G

    2010-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] We present the results of a 3 year monitoring program of a sample of very low mass (VLM) field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the W.M. Keck II 10 m telescope. Fifteen systems have undergone sufficient orbital motion, allowing us to derive their relative orbital parameters and hence their total system mass. These measurements triple the number of masses for VLM objects. Among the 11 systems with both astrometric and spectroscopic measurements, six have sufficient radial velocity variations to allow us to obtain individual component masses. This is the first derivation of the component masses for five of these systems. Altogether, the orbital solutions of these low mass systems show a correlation between eccentricity and orbital period, consistent with their higher mass counterparts. In our primary analysis, we find that there are systematic discrepancies between our dynamical mass measurements and the...

  17. Confirmation of a Young Low-mass Quadruple in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Kevin; Todorov, Kamen

    2011-02-01

    We recently discovered a planetary-mass companion (5-10 M_Jup, ?=0.1 arcsec) to a young brown dwarf in the Taurus star- forming region through imaging with HST+WFPC2 and NIRI+ALTAIR. In the NIRI images, we serendipitously detected an additional possible substellar companion to a nearby (?=12 arcsec) young low-mass star. These four objects may comprise the first known quadruple system in which 3 members are substellar. If so, then its hierarchical configuration would suggest that the fragmentation of molecular cloud cores (i.e., the process that makes binary stars) can produce companions below 10 M_Jup. We propose to verify the companionship of the new candidate found with NIRI by repeating our previous NIRI observations and measuring its proper motion relative to those of the other 3 objects.

  18. Formation of elongated galaxies with low masses at high redshift

    E-print Network

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of elongated (triaxial or prolate) galaxies in cosmological simulations at $z\\simeq2$. These are preferentially low-mass galaxies ($M_s \\le 10^{9.5} \\ M_\\odot$), residing in dark-matter (DM) haloes with strongly elongated inner parts, a common feature of high-redshift DM haloes in the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. Feedback slows formation of stars at the centres of these halos, so that a dominant and prolate DM distribution gives rise to galaxies elongated along the DM major axis. As galaxies grow in stellar mass, stars dominate the total mass within the galaxy half-mass radius, making stars and DM rounder and more oblate. A large population of elongated galaxies produces a very asymmetric distribution of projected axis ratios, as observed in high-z galaxy surveys. This indicates that the majority of the galaxies at high redshifts are not discs or spheroids but rather galaxies with elongated morphologies.

  19. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. II. CME-Induced Ion Pick Up of Earth-like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Lammer; Herbert I. M. Lichtenegger; Yuri N. Kulikov; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; N. Terada; Nikolai V. Erkaev; Helfried K. Biernat; Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Thomas Penz; Franck Selsis

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric erosion of CO2 -rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for

  20. Search for very low-mass objects in the Galactic Halo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bareyre; S. Brehin; M. Gros; J. de Kat; M. Lachieze-Rey; B. Laurent; E. Lesquoy; C. Magneville; A. Milsztajn; L. Moscoso; F. Queinnec; C. Renault; J. Rich; M. Spiro; L. Vigroux; S. Zylberajch; R. Ansari; F. Cavalier; M. Moniez; J.-P. Beaulieu; R. Ferlet; P. Grison; A. Vidal-Madjar; J. Guibert; O. Moreau; F. Tajahmady; E. Maurice; L. Prevot; C. Gry

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a search for gravitational microlensing of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud by low mass objects in the Galactic Halo. The search uses the CCD light curves of about 82,000 stars with up to 46 measurements per night over a period of 10 months. No light curve exhibits a form that is consistent with a microlensing

  1. New Low-Mass Members of Nearby Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua; Simon, Michal; Rice, Emily; Lepine, Sebastien

    2012-08-01

    We are now ready to expand our program to identify new low-mass members of nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) to stars of mass ?0.3 M_?. This is important to: (1) complete the census of low-mass stars near the Sun, (2) provide high priority targets for disk and exoplanet studies by direct imaging, and (3) provide a well- characterized sample of nearby, young stars for detailed study of their physical and kinematic properties. Our proven technique starts with a proper motion selection algorithm, proceeds to vet the sample for indicators of youth, and requires as its last step the measurement of candidate member radial velocities (RVs). So far, we have measured more than 100 candidate RVs using CSHELL on the NASA-IRTF and PHOENIX on Gemini-South, yielding more than 50 likely new moving group members. Here we propose to continue our RV follow-up of candidate NYMG members using PHOENIX on the KPNO 4m. We aim to measure RVs and determine spectral types of 23 faint (V?15, H?9), late-type (?M4) candidates of the (beta) Pic (10 Myrs), AB Dor (70 Myrs), Tuc/Hor (30 Myrs), and TW Hydrae (8 Myrs) moving groups.

  2. Winds and Shells Around Low-Mass Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    A class of F-type supergiants lying at high galactic latitudes (the 89 Herculis or UU Herculis stars) has been known for some years. More recent evidence suggests that these objects are not young Population I objects, but instead are much older low-mass stars evolving off the tip of the asymptotic giant branch toward the regime of central stars of planetary nebulae. It is possible that these stars are already surrounded by unionized planetary nebulae, if they have experienced an extreme mass-ejection episode (or "superwind") when they were at the tip of the asymptotic giant branch. We propose to obtain high-dispersion long-wavelength IUE spectra of several 89 Hertype stars, in order to study the profiles of the Mg II doublet at 2800. The observations should allow us to detect the presence of mass outflow from the stellar atmospheres, and to search for circumstellar material. Discovery of such material would provide support for the scenario for planetary-nebula formation outlined above. This program is a continuation of one begun during the eighth year of IUE observing. During the past year, we obtained one high-dispersion long-wavelength spectrum of HR 4912, a bright 89 Her-type object. A preliminary analysis does indicate evidence for circumstellar absorption. Moreover, the chromospheric Mg II emission shows an unusual inverse P Cygni profile. This observation shows that our program is likely to provide important new information not only about mass loss from, but also about chromospheric conditions in, the atmospheres of these rare, low-mass supergiants.

  3. Parent stars of extrasolar planets - X. Lithium abundances and v sini revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gonzalez; M. K. Carlson; R. W. Tobin

    2010-01-01

    We determine Li abundances and v sini values from new spectra of 53 stars with Doppler-detected planets not included in our previous papers in this series. We also examine two sets of stars without detected planets, which together serve as our comparison sample. Using the method of comparison of Li abundances and v sini values between two sets of stars

  4. Asteroid 21 Lutetia: Low Mass, High Density

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    Asteroid 21 Lutetia: Low Mass, High Density M. Pätzold,1 * T. P. Andert,2 S. W. Asmar,3 J. D. Weiss8 Asteroid 21 Lutetia was approached by the Rosetta spacecraft on 10 July 2010. The additional on the flyby trajectory were used to determine the mass of the asteroid. Calibrating and correcting for all

  5. Very-low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from Marvels. III. A Short-period Brown Dwarf Candidate around an Active G0IV Subgiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, Jian; Barnes, Rory; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hebb, Leslie; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Lee, Brian L.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Gary, Bruce; Jiang, Peng; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T eff = 5903 ± 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 ± 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 ± 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 ± 0.041 km s-1, period P = 9.0090 ± 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 ± 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 ± 0.11 M ? for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 ± 2.5 M Jup. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 ± 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the ~1% level with a period of ~13.16 ± 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 ± 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M ? if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v rotsin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T eff. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  6. VERY-LOW-MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. III. A SHORT-PERIOD BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE AROUND AN ACTIVE G0IV SUBGIANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Bo; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Wang Ji [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, G. F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: boma@astro.ufl.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5903 {+-} 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 {+-} 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 {+-} 0.041 km s{sup -1}, period P = 9.0090 {+-} 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 {+-} 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 {+-} 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 {+-} 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the {approx}1% level with a period of {approx}13.16 {+-} 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 {+-} 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M{sub Sun} if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v{sub rot}sin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T{sub eff}. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  7. Directly Measuring the Low Mass IMF Outside the Milky Way with JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geha, Marla C.

    2014-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) parameterizes the relative number of stars formed in a single age population as a function of stellar mass. The IMF is fundamental to all calculations of star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Recent indirect estimates of the IMF, based on integrated galaxy light, suggest that the low mass IMF is not 'universal' and instead depends on galaxy properties. The majority of direct IMF studies, via counting stars, are limited to the nearby Galactic field and star clusters, which do not reflect the wide range of environments over which the IMF is routinely applied. We have recently demonstrated via optical HST/ACS photometry that the Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf galaxies have shallower IMF slopes as compared to the Milky Way over the mass range 0.5 - 0.75 M_sun. Infrared imaging is far more efficient in detecting a given low mass star, requiring a factor two less observing time as compared to the optical. However, even deep HST infrared imaging can measure the low mass IMF for only the innermost dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way. JWST provides a unique opportunity to probe the low mass IMF down to 0.3 Msun for all Milky Way dwarf galaxies and down to the hydrogen burning limit for the nearest dwarfs. JWST offers the promise of unambiguously measuring the functional form and slope of the low mass IMF in significantly different environments than the Milky Way and will directly test theories of low mass star formation.

  8. Parent Stars of Extrasolar Planets. X. Lithium Abundances and vsini Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gonzalez; M. K. Carlson; R. W. Tobin

    2009-01-01

    We determine Li abundances and vsini values from new spectra of 53 stars with\\u000aDoppler-detected planets not included in our previous papers in this series. We\\u000aalso examine two sets of stars without detected planets, which together serve\\u000aas our comparison sample. Using the method of comparison of Li abundances and\\u000avsini values between two sets of stars we introduced

  9. Transients Among Binaries with Evolved Low-Mass Companions

    E-print Network

    A. R. King; J. Frank; U. Kolb; H. Ritter

    1997-02-18

    We show that stable disk accretion should be very rare among low-mass X-ray binaries and cataclysmic variables whose evolution is driven by the nuclear expansion of the secondary star on the first giant branch. Stable accretion is confined to neutron-star systems where the secondary is still relatively massive, and some supersoft white dwarf accretors. All other systems, including all black-hole systems, appear as soft X-ray transients or dwarf novae. All long-period neutron-star systems become transient well before most of the envelope mass is transferred, and remain transient until envelope exhaustion. This complicates attempts to compare the numbers of millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk with their LMXB progenitors, and also means that the pulsar spin rates are fixed in systems which are transient rather than steady, contrary to common assumption. The long-period persistent sources Sco X-2, LMC X-2, Cyg X-2 and V395 Car must have minimum companion masses > 0.75 Msun if they contain neutron stars, and still larger masses if they contain black holes. The companion in the neutron-star transient GRO J1744-2844 must have a mass <0.87 Msun. The existence of any steady sources at all at long periods supports the ideas that (a) the accretion disks in many, if not all, LMXBs are strongly irradiated by the central source, and (b) mass transfer is thermally unstable in long-period supersoft X-ray sources.

  10. The Secular Bar-Mode Instability in Rapidly Rotating Stars Revisited

    E-print Network

    Stuart L. Shapiro

    2004-09-17

    Uniformly rotating, homogeneous, incompressible Maclaurin spheroids that spin sufficiently rapidly are secularly unstable to nonaxisymmetric, bar-mode perturbations when viscosity is present. The intuitive explanation is that energy dissipation by viscosity can drive an unstable spheroid to a stable, triaxial configuration of lower energy - a Jacobi ellipsoid. But what about rapidly rotating compressible stars? Unlike incompressible stars, which contain no internal energy and therefore immediately liberate all the energy dissipated by viscosity, compressible stars have internal energy and can retain the dissipated energy as internal heat. Now compressible stars that rotate sufficiently rapidly and also manage to liberate this dissipated energy very quickly are known to be unstable to bar-mode perturbations, like their incompressible counterparts. But what is the situation for rapidly rotating compressible stars that have very long cooling timescales, so that all the energy dissipated by viscosity is retained as heat, whereby the total energy of the star remains constant on a secular (viscous) evolution timescale? Are such stars also unstable to the nonlinear growth of bar modes, or is the viscous heating sufficient to cause them to expand, drive down the ratio of rotational kinetic to gravitational potential energy T/|W| ~ 1/R, where R is the equatorial radius, and turn off the instability before it gets underway? If the instability still arises in such stars, at what rotation rate do they become unstable, and to what final state do they evolve? We provide answers to these questions in the context of the compressible ellipsoid model for rotating stars. The results should serve as useful guides for numerical simulations in 3+1 dimensions for rotating stars containing viscosity.

  11. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  12. Winds and Shells Around Low-Mass Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    A class of metal-deficient F-type supergiants has recently been identified. They appear to be low-mass stars evolving rapidly off the asymptotic giant branch toward the regime of the central stars of planetary nebulae. All members of this class appear to be low-amplitude semiregular variables. We will obtain high-dispersion long-wavelength IUE spectra of three relatively bright members of this class, in order to study the profiles of the Mg II doublet at 2800. The observations should allow us to detect the presence of mass outflow from the stellar atmospheres, and to search for circumstellar material (an un-ionized "planetary nebula") that could be the remnant of a mass-ejection episode that occurred when the star was on the asymptotic giant branch. The observations will provide information not only on the transitory stage of evolution through which these stars are passing, but on the general question of the origin of planetary nebulae.

  13. A Unified Model of Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucinska-Church, M.; Church, M.

    2014-07-01

    We present a unified physical model of Low Mass X-ray Binaries explaining the basic Atoll and Z-track types of source. In all LMXB with luminosity above 1-2.10^{37} erg/s, we have a new fundamental result that the temperature of the Comptonizing ADC corona equals that of the neutron star, i.e. there is thermal equilibrium. This equilibrium explains the properties of the basic Banana State of Atoll sources. Below this luminosity, equilibrium breaks down, T_ADC rising towards 100 keV by an unknown heating mechanism, explaining the Island State. Above 5.10^{37} erg/s flaring begins in the GX-Atolls which we show is unstable nuclear burning. Above 1.10^{38} erg/s, LMXB are seen as Z-track sources. Flaring in these and the GX-Atolls occurs when the mass accretion rate to the neutron star falls to the critical value for unstable nuclear burning on the star. Below 2.10^{37} erg/s, a different unstable burning: X-ray bursting, takes over. We show that the Normal Branch of the Z-track consists simply of increasing mass accretion rate, as is the Banana State in Atolls. In the Horizontal Branch, a measured, strongly increasing radiation pressure of the neutron star disrupts the inner disk launching the relativistic jets seen on this branch.

  14. An Observational Perspective of Low-Mass Dense Cores I: Internal Physical and Chemical Properties

    E-print Network

    J. Di Francesco; N. J. Evans II; P. Caselli; P. C. Myers; Y. Shirley; A. Aikawa; M. Tafalla

    2006-02-17

    Low-mass dense cores represent the state of molecular gas associated with the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Such cores are called "protostellar" or "starless," depending on whether they do or do not contain compact sources of luminosity. In this chapter, the first half of the review of low-mass dense cores, we describe the numerous inferences made about the nature of starless cores as a result of recent observations, since these reveal the initial conditions of star formation. We focus on the identification of isolated starless cores and their internal physical and chemical properties, including morphologies, densities, temperatures, kinematics, and molecular abundances. These objects display a wide range of properties since they are each at different points on evolutionary paths from ambient molecular cloud material to cold, contracting, and centrally concentrated configurations with significant molecular depletions and, in rare cases, enhancements.

  15. OGLE-2005-BLG-153: MICROLENSING DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A VERY LOW MASS BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.-H.; Han, C.; Ryu, Y.-H. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Szymanski, M. K.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Szewczyk, O.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, L. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Bond, I. A. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie UMR7095, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Dominik, M.; Horne, K. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Abe, F. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Botzler, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Hearnshaw, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-01

    The mass function and statistics of binaries provide important diagnostics of the star formation process. Despite this importance, the mass function at low masses remains poorly known due to observational difficulties caused by the faintness of the objects. Here we report the microlensing discovery and characterization of a binary lens composed of very low mass stars just above the hydrogen-burning limit. From the combined measurements of the Einstein radius and microlens parallax, we measure the masses of the binary components of 0.10 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun} and 0.09 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun}. This discovery demonstrates that microlensing will provide a method to measure the mass function of all Galactic populations of very low mass binaries that is independent of the biases caused by the luminosity of the population.

  16. Updated Electron-Conduction Opacities: The Impact on Low-Mass Stellar Models

    E-print Network

    S. Cassisi; A. Y. Potekhin; A. Pietrinferni; M. Catelan; M. Salaris

    2007-03-01

    We review the theory of electron-conduction opacity, a fundamental ingredient in the computation of low-mass stellar models; shortcomings and limitations of the existing calculations used in stellar evolution are discussed. We then present new determinations of the electron-conduction opacity in stellar conditions for an arbitrary chemical composition, that improve over previous works and, most importantly, cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar evolution models (i.e., both the regime of partial and high electron degeneracy). A detailed comparison with the currently used tabulations is also performed. The impact of our new opacities on the evolution of low-mass stars is assessed by computing stellar models along both the H- and He-burning evolutionary phases, as well as Main Sequence models of very low-mass stars and white dwarf cooling tracks.

  17. SDSS J1618+3854: The Sixth Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarf Pulsator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Kepler, S. O.; Montgomery, M. H.; Hermes, J. J.; Harrold, Samuel T.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    We announce the discovery of the sixth-known pulsating extremely low-mass (ELM; ˜0.25 M?) white dwarf star (WD). SDSS J1618+3854 exhibits nonlinear pulse shapes that enable us to asteroseimically investigate the convective properties of ELM WDs for the first time. We present the light curve, its Fourier transform, and our very preliminary findings regarding convection.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Juett, Adrienne Marie, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    I present high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using instruments onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). The first ...

  19. From Canonical to Enhanced Extra Mixing in Low-Mass Red Giants: Tidally Locked Binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel A. Denissenkov; Brian Chaboyer; Ke Li

    2006-01-01

    Stellar models that incorporate simple diffusion or shear-induced mixing are used to describe canonical extra mixing in low-mass red giants of low and solar metallicity. These models are able to simultaneously explain the observed Li and CN abundance changes along the upper red giant branch (RGB) in field low-metallicity stars and match photometry, rotation, and 12C\\/13C ratios for stars in

  20. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: More cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Mallatt; Christopher J. Winchell

    2007-01-01

    This is an expanded study of the relationships among the deuterostome animals based on combined, nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes (>3925 nt.). It adds sequences from 20 more taxa to the ?45 sequences used in past studies. Seven of the new taxa were sequenced here (brittle star Ophiomyxa, lizard Anolis, turtle Chrysemys, sixgill shark Hexanchus, electric ray Narcine,

  1. REVISITING THE COSMIC STAR FORMATION HISTORY: CAUTION ON THE UNCERTAINTIES IN DUST CORRECTION AND STAR FORMATION RATE CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Inoue, Akio K., E-mail: kobayashi@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [College of General Education, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The cosmic star formation rate density (CSFRD) has been observationally investigated out to redshift z {approx_equal} 10. However, most of the theoretical models for galaxy formation underpredict the CSFRD at z {approx}> 1. Since the theoretical models reproduce the observed luminosity functions (LFs), luminosity densities (LDs), and stellar mass density at each redshift, this inconsistency does not simply imply that theoretical models should incorporate some missing unknown physical processes in galaxy formation. Here, we examine the cause of this inconsistency at UV wavelengths by using a mock catalog of galaxies generated by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We find that this inconsistency is due to two observational uncertainties: the dust obscuration correction and the conversion from UV luminosity to star formation rate (SFR). The methods for correction of obscuration and SFR conversion used in observational studies result in the overestimation of the CSFRD by {approx}0.1-0.3 dex and {approx}0.1-0.2 dex, respectively, compared to the results obtained directly from our mock catalog. We present new empirical calibrations for dust attenuation and conversion from observed UV LFs and LDs into the CSFRD.

  2. THE r-PROCESS IN PROTO-NEUTRON-STAR WIND REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Wanajo, Shinya, E-mail: shinya.wanajo@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    We examine the r-process in the neutrino-driven proto-neutron-star (PNS) wind of core-collapse supernovae in light of the recent findings of massive neutron stars in binaries as well as of an indication of neutron-richness in the PNS ejecta because of the nucleon potential corrections on neutrino opacities. To this end, a spherically symmetric, general relativistic, steady-state wind model is applied for a wide range of PNS masses between 1.2 M{sub Sun} and 2.4 M{sub Sun} with the latter reaching the causality limit. Nucleosynthesis calculations with these PNS models are performed by assuming a time evolution of electron fraction with its minimal value of Y{sub e} = 0.4, which mimics recent hydrodynamical results. The fundamental nucleosynthetic aspect of the PNS wind is found to be the production of Sr, Y, and Zr in quasi-equilibrium and of the elements with A Almost-Equal-To 90-110 by a weak r-process, which can be an explanation for the abundance signatures in r-process-poor Galactic halo stars. PNSs more massive than 2.0 M{sub Sun} can eject heavy r-process elements, however, with substantially smaller amount than what is needed to account for the solar content. PNS winds can be thus the major origin of light trans-iron elements but no more than 10% of those heavier than A {approx} 110, although they may be the sources of the low-level abundances of Sr and Ba found in numerous metal-poor stars if the maximum mass of PNSs exceeds 2.0 M{sub Sun }.

  3. Tidal evolution of close binary stars. I - Revisiting the theory of the equilibrium tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahn, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of the equilibrium tide in stars that possess a convective envelope is reexamined critically, taking recent developments into account and treating thermal convection in the most consistent way within the mixing-length approach. The weak points are identified and discussed, in particular, the reduction of the turbulent viscosity when the tidal period becomes shorter than the convective turnover time. An improved version is derived for the secular equations governing the dynamical evolution of close binaries of such type.

  4. Classical Bulges, Supermassive Black Holes, and AGN Feedback: Extension to Low-mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhankui; Mo, H. J.

    2015-04-01

    The empirical model of Lu et al. for the relation between star formation rate and halo mass growth is adopted to predict the classical bulge mass ({{M}cb})–total stellar mass ({{M}\\star }) relation for central galaxies. The assumption that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass ({{M}BH}) is directly proportional to the classical bulge mass, with the proportionality given by that for massive galaxies, predicts a {{M}BH}?{{M}\\star } relation that matches well the observed relation for different types of galaxies. In particular, the model reproduces the strong transition at {{M}\\star }={{10}10.5}?{{10}11} {{M}? }, below which {{M}BH} drops rapidly with decreasing {{M}\\star }. Our model predicts a new sequence at {{M}\\star }\\lt {{10}10.5} {{M}? }, where {{M}BH}\\propto {{M}\\star } but the amplitude is a factor of ?50 lower than the amplitude of the sequence at {{M}\\star }\\gt {{10}11} {{M}? }. If all SMBHs grow through similar quasar modes with a feedback efficiency of a few percent, then the energy produced in low-mass galaxies at redshift z? 2 can heat the circumgalactic medium up to a specific entropy level that is required to prevent excessive star formation in low-mass dark matter halos.

  5. Searching for young low mass objects using FLITECAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amanda Kathryn

    I report the discovery of a population of young brown dwarf candidates in the open star cluster IC348 and the development of a new spectroscopic classification technique using narrow band photometry. Observations were made using FLITECAM, the First Light Camera for SOFIA, at the 3-m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory. FLITECAM is a new 1--5 mum camera with an 8 arcmin field of view. I describe the design, construction, and testing of FLITECAM. Custom narrow band filters were developed to detect absorption features of water vapor (at 1.495 mum) and methane (at 1.65 mum) characteristic of brown dwarfs. These filters enable spectral classification of stars and brown dwarfs without spectroscopy. FLITECAM's narrow and broadband photometry was verified by examining the color-color and color-magnitude characteristics of stars whose spectral type and reddening was known from previous surveys. Using our narrow band filter photometry method, it was possible to identify an object measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 or better to within +/-0.1 spectral class. With this technique, very deep images of the central region of IC348 (H ˜ 20.0) have identified 18 sources as possible L or T dwarf candidates. Out of these 18, I expect that between 3--6 of these objects are statistically likely to be background stars. If confirmed as cluster members then these are very low-mass objects (˜5 MJupiter). I also describe how two additional narrow band filters can improve the contrast between M, L, and T dwarfs as well as provide a means to determine the reddening of an individual object.

  6. Formation of Low-Mass X-ray Binaries. III. A New Formation Mechanism: Direct Supernova

    E-print Network

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    1996-08-11

    We propose a new formation mechanism (direct-supernova) for low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) that does not involve any prior phase of mass transfer. Survival through the supernova (SN) explosion and shrinkage of the orbit is achieved by a kick velocity of appropriate magnitude and direction imparted to the neutron star at its birth. We present analytical population synthesis calculations of LMXBs forming via both the direct-SN and the helium-star SN mechanisms, and compare the results. We find that the direct-SN channel contributes a non-negligible fraction of the total LMXB population, depending strongly on the r.m.s. magnitude of the kick velocity. More importantly, the direct-SN mechanism provides a natural way for the formation of low-mass binary pulsars in nearly circular orbits with orbital periods in excess of about 100 days, which cannot have been formed via the helium-star SN mechanism.

  7. Revisiting the variable star population in NGC~6229 and the structure of the Horizontal Branch

    E-print Network

    Ferro, A Arellano; Bramich, D M; Giridhar, S; Ahumada, J A; Kains, N; Kuppuswamy, K

    2015-01-01

    We report an analysis of new $V$ and $I$ CCD time-series photometry of the distant globular cluster NGC 6229. The principal aims were to explore the field of the cluster in search of new variables, and to Fourier decompose the RR Lyrae light curves in pursuit of physical parameters.We found 25 new variables: 10 RRab, 5 RRc, 6 SR, 1 CW, 1 SX Phe, and two that we were unable to classify. Secular period changes were detected and measured in some favourable cases. The classifications of some of the known variables were rectified. The Fourier decomposition of RRab and RRc light curves was used to independently estimate the mean cluster value of [Fe/H] and distance. From the RRab stars we found [Fe/H]$_{\\rm UVES}$=$-1.31 \\pm 0.01{\\rm(statistical)} \\pm 0.12{\\rm(systematic)}$ ([Fe/H]$_{\\rm ZW}=-1.42$),and a distance of $30.0\\pm 1.5$ kpc, and from the RRc stars we found [Fe/H]$_{\\rm UVES}$=$-1.29\\pm 0.12$ and a distance of $30.7\\pm 1.1$ kpc, respectively. Absolute magnitudes, radii and masses are also reported for ind...

  8. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1999-01-01

    The final technical report of the NASA grant project is presented. The goals of the grant were to: (1) analyze the data from the Far-Infrared (FIR) Camera on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO); (2) acquire additional data at other wavelengths for models and (4) to develop source models for the Young stellar objects (YSOs)under study. The complete Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all sources being studied have been obtained. The FIR imaging data was processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk we have the high resolution millimeter interferometry data. In summary the results to date are: (1) the vast majority of embedded YSOs in Taurus are compact at 100 microns. The models mos consistent with our data and other observations are either dominated by disk emissions, or envelopes that have relatively steep density gradients; (2) the submillimeter/millimeter photometer suggests that models are very successful. Disk emission plays an important role and must be considered when predicting the overall emission. (3) in the two cases, where we seem to have extended emission, we have to investigate other possible source models than a Shu collapse.

  9. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained the complete SED from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all of our sources. We have the FIR imaging data, processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk, we have high resolution millimeter interferometry data.

  10. Low Mass Members in Nearby Young Moving Groups Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua; Simon, Michal; Rice, Emily; Lepine, Sebastien

    2010-08-01

    We are now ready to expand our program that identifies highly probable low-mass members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) to stars of mass ~ 0.1 Msun. This is important 1) To provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, 2) To complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs, and 3) To provide a well-characterized sample of nearby young stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity (the median distances of the (beta) Pic and AB Dor groups are ~ 35 pc with ages ~ 12 and 50 Myr respectively). Our proven technique starts with a proper motion selection algorithm, proceeds to vet the sample for indicators of youth, and requires as its last step the measurement of candidate member radial velocities (RVs). So far, we have obtained all RV measurements with the high resolution IR spectrometer at the NASA-IRTF and have reached the limits of its applicability. To identify probable new members in the south, and also those of the lowest mass, we need the sensitivity of PHOENIX at Gemini-S and NIRSPEC at Keck-II.

  11. 3D Model Atmospheres for Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Tremblay, P -E; Kilic, M; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Freytag, B; Hermes, J J

    2015-01-01

    We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering Teff = 6000-11,500 K and logg = 5-6.5 (cgs units) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., logg = 5-9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few per cent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + milli-second pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D cor...

  12. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Macintosh, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Fabrycky, D. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Hallinan, G. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail: macintosh1@llnl.gov, E-mail: konopacky@di.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: fabrycky@ucolick.org, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: barman@lowell.edu, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: gh@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: gduchene@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s{sup -1}), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at {approx}30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes {approx}<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3{sigma}. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  13. Atmospheres of low-mass planets: the "boil-off"

    E-print Network

    Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    We show that, for a low-mass planet that orbits its host star within several tenths of an AU (like the majority of the Kepler planets), the atmosphere it was able to accumulate while embedded in the proto-planetary disk may not survive unscathed after the disk disperses. This gas envelope, if more massive than a few percent of the core (with a mass below $10 M_\\oplus$), has a cooling time that is much longer than the time-scale on which the planet exits the disk. As such, it could not have contracted significantly from its original size, of order the Bondi radius. So a newly exposed proto-planet would be losing mass via a Parker wind that is energized by the stellar continuum radiation. The surface mass-loss induces a mass movement within the envelope that advects internal heat outward. As a result, the planet atmosphere rapidly cools down and contracts, until it has reached a radius of order $0.1$ Bondi radius, at which time the mass-loss effectively shuts down. Within a million years after the disk disperse...

  14. The Main Sequence Luminosity Function of Low-Mass Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical work indicates that the dynamical evolution of globular clusters of low mass and low central concentration is strongly determined by mass-loss processes, such as stellar evaporation and tidal stripping, that can eventually lead to cluster dissolution. In fact, mass loss and cluster disruption is now considered to be a viable explanation for the form of the faint end of the Milky Way globular cluster luminosity function. A clear observational demonstration of the prevalence of cluster mass-loss would have ramifications not only for the dynamical evolution of individual globular clusters and their internal stellar mass distributions, but also for the relationships between halo field and cluster stars and the properties of globular cluster systems in galaxies. Our previous WFPC2 imaging of the low-mass diffuse halo cluster Palomar 5 revealed a main sequence deficient in stars compared to other low-concentration globular clusters of much higher mass, consistent with there having been a considerable loss of stars from this system. But is Pal 5 typical of low-mass, low-concentration halo clusters? We propose to place the mass-loss scenario on a firm observational footing {or otherwise} by using WFC3 imaging to measure the main-sequence stellar mass functions of two of the lowest-mass lowest-concentration globular clusters in the Milky Way, AM-4 and Palomar 13, in order to search for analogous evidence of stellar depletion.

  15. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao-Bo; Ho, Luis C.; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Ting-Gui; Fan, Xiaohui; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Ning

    2012-08-01

    We have conducted a systematic search of low-mass black holes (BHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with broad H? emission lines, aiming at building a homogeneous sample that is more complete than previous ones for fainter, less highly accreting sources. For this purpose, we developed a set of elaborate, automated selection procedures and applied it uniformly to the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Special attention is given to AGN-galaxy spectral decomposition and emission-line deblending. We define a sample of 309 type 1 AGNs with BH masses in the range 8 × 104-2 × 106 M ? (with a median of 1.2 × 106 M ?), using the virial mass estimator based on the broad H? line. About half of our sample of low-mass BHs differs from that of Greene & Ho, with 61 of them discovered here for the first time. Our new sample picks up more AGNs with low accretion rates: the Eddington ratios of the present sample range from <~ 0.01 to ~1, with 30% below 0.1. This suggests that a significant fraction of low-mass BHs in the local universe are accreting at low rates. The host galaxies of the low-mass BHs have luminosities similar to those of L* field galaxies, optical colors of Sbc spirals, and stellar spectral features consistent with a continuous star formation history with a mean stellar age of less than 1 Gyr.

  16. A New Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary from SDSS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Cullen H.; Torres, Guillermo; Bloom, Joshua S.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2008-09-01

    We present observations of a new low-mass, double-lined eclipsing binary system discovered using repeat observations of the celestial equator from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II. Using near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy we have measured the properties of this short-period [P=0.407037(14) days] system and its two components. We find the following parameters for the two components: M1=0.272+/-0.020 Msolar, R1=0.268+/-0.010 Rsolar, M2=0.240+/-0.022 Msolar, R2=0.248+/-0.0090 Rsolar, T1=3320+/-130 K, and T2=3300+/-130 K. The masses and radii of the two components of this system agree well with theoretical expectations based on models of low-mass stars, within the admittedly large errors. Future synoptic surveys like Pan-STARRS and LSST will produce a wealth of information about low-mass eclipsing systems and should make it possible, with an increased reliance on follow-up observations, to detect many systems with low-mass and substellar companions. With the large numbers of objects for which these surveys will produce high-quality photometry, we suggest that it becomes possible to identify such systems even with sparse time sampling and a relatively small number of individual observations.

  17. SDSS J184037.78+642312.3: THE FIRST PULSATING EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of the first pulsating extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarf (WD), SDSS J184037.78+642312.3 (hereafter J1840). This DA (hydrogen-atmosphere) WD is by far the coolest and the lowest-mass pulsating WD, with T{sub eff} = 9100 {+-} 170 K and log g = 6.22 {+-} 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of {approx}0.17 M{sub Sun }. This low-mass pulsating WD greatly extends the DAV (or ZZ Ceti) instability strip, effectively bridging the log g gap between WDs and main-sequence stars. We detect high-amplitude variability in J1840 on timescales exceeding 4000 s, with a non-sinusoidal pulse shape. Our observations also suggest that the variability is multi-periodic. The star is in a 4.6 hr binary with another compact object, most likely another WD. Future, more extensive time-series photometry of this ELM WD offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a low-mass, presumably He-core WD using the tools of asteroseismology.

  18. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.

  19. Tracing Embedded Stellar Populations in Clusters and Galaxies Using Molecular Emission: Methanol as a Signature of the Low-mass End of the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2015-07-01

    Most low-mass protostars form in clusters, in particular high-mass clusters; however, how low-mass stars form in high-mass clusters and what the mass distribution is are still open questions both in our own Galaxy and elsewhere. To access the population of forming embedded low-mass protostars observationally, we propose using molecular outflows as tracers. Because the outflow emission scales with mass, the effective contrast between low-mass protostars and their high-mass cousins is greatly lowered. In particular, maps of methanol emission at 338.4 GHz (J = 70–60 A+) in low-mass clusters illustrate that this transition is an excellent probe of the low-mass population. We present here a model of a forming cluster where methanol emission is assigned to every embedded low-mass protostar. The resulting model image of methanol emission is compared to recent ALMA observations toward a high-mass cluster and the similarity is striking: the toy model reproduces observations to better than a factor of two and suggests that approximately 50% of the total flux originates in low-mass outflows. Future fine-tuning of the model will eventually make it a tool for interpreting the embedded low-mass population of distant regions within our own Galaxy and ultimately higher-redshift starburst galaxies, not just for methanol emission but also water and high-J CO.

  20. Convective radiation fluid-dynamics: formation and early evolution of ultra low-mass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchterl, G.

    2005-12-01

    The formation process of ultra low-mass objects is some kind of extension of the star formation process. The physical changes towards lower mass are discussed by investigating the collapse of cloud cores that are modelled as Bonnor-Ebert spheres. Their collapse is followed by solving the equations of fluid dynamics with radiation and a model of time-dependent convection that has been calibrated to the Sun. For a sequence of cloud-cores with 1 to 0.01 solar masses, evolutionary tracks and isochrones are shown in the mass-radius diagram, the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram and the effective temperature-surface gravity or Kiel diagram. The collapse and the early hydrostatic evolution to ages of few Ma are briefly discussed and compared to observations of objects in Upper Scorpius and the low-mass components of GG Tau.

  1. The origin of low-mass white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Schreiber, M. R. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avenida Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile); Gaensicke, B. T.; Girven, J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gomez-Moran, A. Nebot [CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique, 11 rue de l'Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-11-23

    We present white dwarf mass distributions of a large sample of post common-envelope binaries and wide white dwarf main sequence binaries and demonstrate that these distributions are statistically independent. While the former contains a much larger fraction of low-mass white dwarfs, the latter is similar to single white dwarf mass distributions. Taking into account observational biases we also show that the majority of low-mass white dwarfs are formed in close binaries.

  2. Direct Search for Low Mass Dark Matter Particles with CCDs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barreto, J [Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Cease, H.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Harrison, N.; Jones, J.; Kilminster, B [Fermilab; Molina, J [Asuncion Natl. U.; Smith, J.; Sonnenschein, A [Fermilab

    2012-05-15

    A direct dark matter search is performed using fully-depleted high-resistivity CCD detectors. Due to their low electronic readout noise (RMS ~7 eV) these devices operate with a very low detection threshold of 40 eV, making the search for dark matter particles with low masses (~5 GeV) possible. The results of an engineering run performed in a shallow underground site are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technology in the low mass region.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-C.S.I.C., Glorieta de la Astronomia, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the properties of the ICM should play an important role in the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies in clusters.

  4. Evidence for Past Mass Loss from the Low-Mass Halo Clusters AM-4 and Palomar 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamren, Katherine; Smith, G. H.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mass loss has been suggested to play a significant role in the evolution of low-mass globular clusters (GCs). Some of the Milky Way's halo stars are thought to have been ejected from GCs, and mass loss could explain the form of the Milky Way GC luminosity function’s faint end. In addition, it could explain how low-mass GCs could have been massive enough to self-enrich - and generate multiple stellar populations - before evolving into the lower-mass systems we see today. Palomar 5 was the first M < 10^4 Msolar GC in which mass loss through stellar evaporation or tidal disruption was observed. It displays a tell-tale tidal tail as well as a main sequence luminosity function (MSLF) depleted of low-mass stars. To determine whether Pal 5 is typical of most low-mass GCs we used HST data to determine the MSLFs of two even lower-mass GCs: Palomar 13 and AM-4. We find that in both cases, the luminosity function dN/dMv is flat or declining with increasing magnitude. These MSLFs coupled with the large fraction of binary stars in each cluster indicate significant past mass loss.

  5. Revealing the Physics of r Modes in Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Andersson, Nils; Haskell, Brynmor [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-09-02

    We consider the astrophysical constraints on the gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability in accreting neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries. We use recent results on superfluid and superconducting properties to infer the core temperature in these neutron stars and show the diversity of the observed population. Simple theoretical models indicate that many of these systems reside inside the r-mode instability region. However, this is in clear disagreement with expectations, especially for the systems containing the most rapidly rotating neutron stars. The inconsistency highlights the need to reevaluate our understanding of the many areas of physics relevant to the r-mode instability. We summarize the current status of our understanding, and we discuss directions for future research which could resolve this dilemma.

  6. The Role of Dwarf-Dwarf Interactions in the Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Besla, Gurtina; Patton, David R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Putman, Mary E.; Privon, George C.; Ross, Glen

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results from TiNy Titans, the first systematic study of a sample of isolated interacting dwarf galaxies and the mechanisms governing their star formation. Mergers of massive galaxies provide a significant mode of galaxy evolution; they are observed to trigger intense starbursts and significantly rearrage the gas, dust, and stars. Large volume simulations of structure formation, based in LambdaCDM cosmology, predict that mergers between low mass galaxies should occur more frequently than those between massive galaxies at all redshifts. However, the merger sequence for low mass galaxies is relatively unexplored. A few intriguing examples of dwarf-dwarf interactions exist in the literature, but the efficiency of gas removal and the enhancement of star formation in dwarfs via pre-processing (i.e. dwarf-dwarf interactions occuring before the accretion by a massive host) have never been studied for a sample of dwarfs covering a range of interaction stages. Our multiwavelength approach gathers high resolution optical, UV, and radio imaging to probe the effects of interactions on the star formation and ISM in a sample of dwarfs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that: 1) star formation is enhanced in paired dwarfs over their unpaired analogs, 2) the enhancement in star formation is more pronounced as a function of pair separation than that observed in massive galaxy pairs, 3) the dwarf-dwarf interactions contribute significantly to the population of starbursting dwarfs, and 4) the paired dwarfs still have large gas reservoirs and exhibit no signs of quenching.

  7. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    It has recently been discovered that 10 - 50% of M dwarfs host Earth-size planets in their habitable zones. Furthermore, the nearest potentially habitable super-Earths orbit M dwarfs, meaning that these systems likely represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum incident upon Earth-like planets drives the dissociation of water and CO2, the production of O2 and ozone, and may determine their ultimate habitability. At present, we lack the observational and theoretical basis to predict the energetic radiation spectrum (X-ray through UV) of an M dwarf. UV variability of low-mass exoplanet host stars, in particular the possibly sterilizing effect of flare activity, is almost completely unexplored observationally. This proposal aims to acquire the critical UV observations of low-mass host stars now, providing a treasury database for studies of exemplary nearby exoplanetary systems and potentially habitable worlds not yet discovered. Building on our successful pilot program of spectrally and temporally resolved UV radiation fields, we propose the MUSCLES Treasury Survey: a UV survey of nearby low-mass exoplanetary host stars. Using HST-COS and STIS, we will observe the 1150 - 5700A fluxes, reconstruct the important Ly-alpha emission lines, and use these data to estimate the extreme-UV (200 - 912A) irradiances incident upon exoplanetary atmospheres. The UV data will be complemented with contemporaneous X-ray and ground-based observations as well as new M dwarf atmosphere models to constrain atmospheric heating rates and provide a baseline for long-term ground-based studies of these systems.

  8. Evolutionary status of bright, low-mass x-ray sources/sup 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Webbink, R.F.; Rappaport, S.; Savonije, G.J.

    1983-07-15

    A model of bright, low-mass X-ray binaries is proposed which features a lower giant-branch star losing mass on a nuclear time scale to an accreting compact companion. Simple numerical models show that mass transfer rates > or =10/sup -9/ M/sub sun/ yr/sup -1/ are sustained at very nearly a constant rate until the envelope of the donor star is exhausted. The model predicts orbital periods in the range 1/sup d/-200/sup d/ and X-ray to optical luminosity ratios L/sub x//L/sub opt/roughly-equal200-1000 for these sources. It accounts in a natural way for the large fraction of the total galactic bulge luminosity emitted by a few bright (> or =10/sup 37/ ergs s/sup -1/) sources. It also accords very well with the observed X-ray and optical properties of the halo source Cyg X-2 and also with those of 2S 0921-63, provided this latter system contains a massive accreting white dwarf rather than a neutron star. Problems of the prior evolution of low-mass X-ray sources are also briefly delineated.

  9. The HI mass function as a probe of photoionisation feedback on low mass galaxy formation

    E-print Network

    Kim, Han-Seek; Power, C; Park, Jaehong; Lagos, C d P; Baugh, C M

    2015-01-01

    We explore the galaxy formation physics governing the low mass end of the HI mass function in the local Universe. Specifically, we predict the effects on the HI mass function of varying i) the strength of photoionisation feedback and the redshift of the end of the epoch of reionization, ii) the cosmology, iii) the supernovae feedback prescription, and iv) the efficiency of star formation. We find that the shape of the low-mass end of the HI mass function is most affected by the critical halo mass below which galaxy formation is suppressed by photoionisation heating of the intergalactic medium. We model the redshift dependence of this critical dark matter halo mass by requiring a match to the low-mass end of the HI mass function. The best fitting critical dark matter halo mass decreases as redshift increases in this model, corresponding to a circular velocity of $\\sim 50 \\, {\\rm km \\,s}^{-1}$ at $z=0$, $\\sim 30 \\, {\\rm km\\, s}^{-1}$ at $z \\sim 1$ and $\\sim 12 \\, {\\rm km \\, s}^{-1}$ at $z=6$. We find that an ev...

  10. X-rays from Quiescent Low-Mass X-ray Binary Transients

    E-print Network

    Jean-Pierre Lasota

    2000-06-16

    I argue that it is very unlikely that X-rays from quiescent black-hole low-mass X-ray binary transients are emitted by coronae of companion stars. I show that in a simple model in which these X-rays are emitted by an ADAF filling the inner part of an unsteady, dwarf-nova type disc, the X-ray luminosity is correlated with the orbital period. I predict what values of X-ray luminosities from black-hole transient systems should be observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton.

  11. Radial velocity variations in EX Lup: hints for a low-mass close companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kóspál, Ágnes; Mohler-Fischer, Maren; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Ábrahám, Péter; Curé, Michel; Henning, Thomas; Kiss, Csaba; Launhardt, Ralf; Moór, Attila; Müller, André

    2013-07-01

    EXors are low-mass pre-main sequence objects producing repetitive optical outbursts attributed to highly enhanced accretion from the circumstellar disk onto the star. One type of outburst theories requires a close stellar or sub-stellar companion that perturbs the inner part of the disk and triggers the onset of the enhanced accretion. Here, we look for a possible companion to EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class, using radial velocity (RV) observations. The RVs show large periodic variations that can be explained by the presence of a close companion in the brown dwarf mass range. Chromospheric activity or starspots are less likely to explain the observed RV curve.

  12. On the Distribution of Orbital Eccentricities for Very Low-mass Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.

    2011-06-01

    We have compiled a sample of 16 orbits for very low-mass stellar (<0.1 M sun) and brown dwarf binaries, including updated orbits for HD 130948BC and LP 415-20AB. This sample enables the first comprehensive study of the eccentricity distribution for such objects. We find that very low-mass binaries span a broad range of eccentricities from near-circular to highly eccentric (e ? 0.8), with a median eccentricity of 0.34. We have examined potential observational biases in this sample, and for visual binaries we show through Monte Carlo simulations that if we choose appropriate selection criteria then all eccentricities are equally represented (lsim 5% difference between input and output eccentricity distributions). The orbits of this sample of very low-mass binaries show some significant differences from their solar-type counterparts. They lack a correlation between orbital period and eccentricity, and display a much higher fraction of near-circular orbits (e < 0.1) than solar-type stars, which together may suggest a different formation mechanism or dynamical history for these two populations. Very low-mass binaries also do not follow the e 2 distribution of Ambartsumian, which would be expected if their orbits were distributed in phase space according to a function of energy alone (e.g., the Boltzmann distribution). We find that current numerical simulations of very low-mass star formation do not completely reproduce the observed properties of our binary sample. The cluster formation model of Bate agrees very well with the overall e distribution, but the lack of any high-e (>0.6) binaries at orbital periods comparable to our sample suggests that tidal damping due to gas disks may play too large of a role in the simulations. In contrast, the circumstellar disk fragmentation model of Stamatellos & Whitworth predicts only high-e binaries and thus is highly inconsistent with our sample. These discrepancies could be explained if multiple formation processes are responsible for producing the field population. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORBITAL ECCENTRICITIES FOR VERY LOW-MASS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We have compiled a sample of 16 orbits for very low-mass stellar (<0.1 M{sub sun}) and brown dwarf binaries, including updated orbits for HD 130948BC and LP 415-20AB. This sample enables the first comprehensive study of the eccentricity distribution for such objects. We find that very low-mass binaries span a broad range of eccentricities from near-circular to highly eccentric (e {approx} 0.8), with a median eccentricity of 0.34. We have examined potential observational biases in this sample, and for visual binaries we show through Monte Carlo simulations that if we choose appropriate selection criteria then all eccentricities are equally represented ({approx}< 5% difference between input and output eccentricity distributions). The orbits of this sample of very low-mass binaries show some significant differences from their solar-type counterparts. They lack a correlation between orbital period and eccentricity, and display a much higher fraction of near-circular orbits (e < 0.1) than solar-type stars, which together may suggest a different formation mechanism or dynamical history for these two populations. Very low-mass binaries also do not follow the e{sup 2} distribution of Ambartsumian, which would be expected if their orbits were distributed in phase space according to a function of energy alone (e.g., the Boltzmann distribution). We find that current numerical simulations of very low-mass star formation do not completely reproduce the observed properties of our binary sample. The cluster formation model of Bate agrees very well with the overall e distribution, but the lack of any high-e (>0.6) binaries at orbital periods comparable to our sample suggests that tidal damping due to gas disks may play too large of a role in the simulations. In contrast, the circumstellar disk fragmentation model of Stamatellos and Whitworth predicts only high-e binaries and thus is highly inconsistent with our sample. These discrepancies could be explained if multiple formation processes are responsible for producing the field population.

  14. Unveiling a Population of Galaxies Harboring Low-mass Black Holes with X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Greene, J. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J.; Mainieri, V.

    2013-08-01

    We report the discovery of three low-mass black hole (BH) candidates residing in the centers of low-mass galaxies at z < 0.3 in the Chandra Deep Field-South Survey. These BHs are initially identified as candidate active galactic nuclei based on their X-ray emission in deep Chandra observations. Multi-wavelength observations are used to strengthen our claim that such emission is powered by an accreting supermassive BH. While the X-ray luminosities are low at LX ~ 1040 erg s-1 (and variable in one case), we argue that they are unlikely to be attributed to star formation based on H? or UV fluxes. Optical spectroscopy from Keck and the VLT allows us to (1) measure accurate redshifts, (2) confirm their low stellar host mass, (3) investigate the source(s) of photo-ionization, and (4) estimate extinction. With stellar masses of M * < 3 × 109 M ? determined from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, the host galaxies are among the lowest mass systems known to host actively accreting BHs. We estimate BH masses M BH ~ 2 × 105 M ? based on scaling relations between BH mass and host properties for more luminous systems. In one case, a broad component of the H? emission-line profile is detected, thus providing a virial mass estimate. BHs in such low-mass galaxies are of considerable interest as the low-redshift analogs to the seeds of the most massive BHs at high redshift which have remained largely elusive to date. Our study highlights the power of deep X-ray surveys to uncover such low-mass systems.

  15. UNVEILING A POPULATION OF GALAXIES HARBORING LOW-MASS BLACK HOLES WITH X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xue, Y. Q. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 California Institute of Technology, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kakazu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Mainieri, V., E-mail: malte.schramm@ipmu.jp [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, Garching, D-85748 (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    We report the discovery of three low-mass black hole (BH) candidates residing in the centers of low-mass galaxies at z < 0.3 in the Chandra Deep Field-South Survey. These BHs are initially identified as candidate active galactic nuclei based on their X-ray emission in deep Chandra observations. Multi-wavelength observations are used to strengthen our claim that such emission is powered by an accreting supermassive BH. While the X-ray luminosities are low at L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} (and variable in one case), we argue that they are unlikely to be attributed to star formation based on H{alpha} or UV fluxes. Optical spectroscopy from Keck and the VLT allows us to (1) measure accurate redshifts, (2) confirm their low stellar host mass, (3) investigate the source(s) of photo-ionization, and (4) estimate extinction. With stellar masses of M{sub *} < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} determined from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, the host galaxies are among the lowest mass systems known to host actively accreting BHs. We estimate BH masses M{sub BH} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} based on scaling relations between BH mass and host properties for more luminous systems. In one case, a broad component of the H{alpha} emission-line profile is detected, thus providing a virial mass estimate. BHs in such low-mass galaxies are of considerable interest as the low-redshift analogs to the seeds of the most massive BHs at high redshift which have remained largely elusive to date. Our study highlights the power of deep X-ray surveys to uncover such low-mass systems.

  16. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrey, Anne; di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-01

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  17. The Metallicity Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies: New Contraints at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian; Dressler, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z approx. 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10(exp 8) M stellar mass, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10(exp 9)M stellar mass. For the portion of our sample above M is greater than 10(exp 9)M (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M* relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation.We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption.

  18. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES: NEW CONSTRAINTS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dressler, Alan, E-mail: alaina.henry@nasa.gov [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z {approx} 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. For the portion of our sample above M > 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M{sub *} relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation. We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption.

  19. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 18041808 (2007) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12481.x Near-infrared spectroscopy of the very low mass companion

    E-print Network

    Burleigh, Matt

    2007-01-01

    : spectroscopic ­ stars: low-mass, brown dwarfs ­ white dwarfs. 1 INTRODUCTION Observations of substellar-infrared spectroscopy of the very low mass companion to the hot DA white dwarf PG 1234+482 P. R. Steele,1 M. R. Burleigh We present a near-infrared spectrum of the hot (Teff 55 000 K) hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf

  20. CCD time-series photometry of the globular cluster NGC 5053: RR Lyrae, Blue Stragglers and SX Phoenicis stars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano Ferro, A.; Giridhar, Sunetra; Bramich, D. M.

    2010-02-01

    We report the results of CCD V, r and I time-series photometry of the globular cluster NGC 5053. New times of maximum light are given for the eight known RR Lyrae stars in the field of our images, and their periods are revised. Their V light curves were Fourier decomposed to estimate their physical parameters. A discussion on the accuracy of the Fourier-based iron abundances, temperatures, masses and radii is given. New periods are found for the five known SX Phe stars, and a critical discussion of their secular period changes is offered. The mean iron abundance for the RR Lyrae stars is found to be [Fe/H] ~ -1.97 +/- 0.16 and lower values are not supported by the present analysis. The absolute magnitude calibrations of the RR Lyrae stars yield an average true distance modulus of 16.12 +/- 0.04 or a distance of 16.7 +/- 0.3 kpc. Comparison of the observational colour magnitude diagram (CMD) with theoretical isochrones indicates an age of 12.5 +/- 2.0 Gyr for the cluster. A careful identification of all reported blue stragglers (BS) and their V, I magnitudes leads to the conclusion that BS12, BS22, BS23 and BS24 are not BS. On the other hand, three new BS are reported. Variability was found in seven BS, very likely of the SX Phe type in five of them, and in one red giant star. The new SX Phe stars follow established Period-Luminosity relationships and indicate a distance in agreement with the distance from the RR Lyrae stars. Based on observations collected at the Indian Astrophysical Observatory, Hanle, India. E-mail: armando@astroscu.unam.mx (AAF); giridhar@iiap.res.in (SG); dan.bramich@hotmail.co.uk (DMB)

  1. Low-mass dileptons and dropping rho meson mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Bratkovskaya; C. M. Ko

    1999-01-01

    Using the transport model, we have studied dilepton production from heavy-ion collisions at Bevalac energies. It is found that the enhanced production of low-mass dileptons observed in the experiment by the DLS collaboration cannot be explained by the dropping of hadron masses, in particular the ?-meson mass, in dense matter.

  2. Low-mass dileptons and dropping rho meson mass

    E-print Network

    E. L. Bratkovskaya; C. M. Ko

    1998-12-02

    Using the transport model, we have studied dilepton production from heavy-ion collisions at Bevalac energies. It is found that the enhanced production of low-mass dileptons observed in the experiment by the DLS collaboration cannot be explained by the dropping of hadron masses, in particular the $\\rho$-meson mass, in dense matter.

  3. Low-mass dileptons and dropping rho meson mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Bratkovskaya; C. M. Ko

    1999-01-01

    Using the transport model, we have studied dilepton production from heavy-ion collisions at Bevalac energies. It is found that the enhanced production of low-mass dileptons observed in the experiment by the DLS collaboration cannot be explained by the dropping of hadron masses, in particular the rho-meson mass, in dense matter.

  4. Concept for coring from a low-mass rover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Backes; Oussama Khatib; Antonio Diaz-Calderon; James Warren; Curtis Collins; Zensheu Chang

    2006-01-01

    Future Mars missions such as the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission may benefit from core sample acquisition from a low-mass rover where the rover cannot be assumed to be stationary during a coring operation. Manipulation from Mars rovers is currently done under the assumption that the rover acts as a stationary, stable platform for the arm. An MSR mission scenario

  5. Small Low Mass Advanced PBR's for BiModal Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Ludewig; Michael Todosow; James R. Powell

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of a low mass bi-modal reactor for use as a propulsion unit and as a heat source for generating electricity. This reactor is based on the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. It will be able to generate both thrust and electricity simultaneously. This assessment indicates that the reactor can generate approximately 6.8 (4) N of

  6. Looking for very low-mass pre-main sequence objects with SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Suzanne L.,; Covey, K. R. (Kevin R.); McGehee, P. M. (Peregrine M.)

    2001-01-01

    Determining the process(es) by which brown dwarfs form is key to understanding their intrinsic nature. If their origins are within circumstellar disks they are akin to giant planets. If, on the other hand, they coalesce from molecular cloud cores, then they share a common lineage with low mass stars. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by investigation of young (< 10 Myr) substellar objects. If brown dwarfs are small failed stars, we expect to find very low mass analogs of the Classical T Tauris, with primordial magnetic fields from the molecular cloud collapse. Accretion onto these objects leads to characteristic magnetic activity signatures such as chromospheric and coronal emission resulting in an ultraviolet excess continuum. The Orion OB1b association (m-M = 7.9, 2 Myr) provides a laboratory for following the strength and occurrence of the accretion process as a function of mass. Studies of the substellar mass function within the sigma Orionis cluster at the southern end of the association indicate that brown dwarfs are common. Based on model isochrones and the SDSS M dwarf sequence we expect the 95% completeness limit of the 'Orion' scans to correspond to 0.1 and 0.03 solar masses for the u and g bands.

  7. Investigating the Low-Mass Stellar Initial Mass Function in Draco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoudeh, Soroush; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass (?0.5 to 0.8 M?) stellar initial mass function (IMF) in three different regions of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy using archival imaging of resolved stars taken with HST/ACS and WFC3. We model the optical color-magnitude diagrams of each field assuming two different IMF models (power-law, log-normal), three different stellar evolution libraries (Padova, BaSTI, Dartmouth), and a binary star model. For the power-law model, we find that the best-fit IMF slope varies per field, and that none are in good agreement with a Salpeter IMF. All fields show more consistent log-normal parameters, which are also in reasonable agreement with values for a standard Chabrier IMF. However, there are large degeneracies between the characteristic mass and dispersion of the log-normal, that can only be reduced with data that extends to lower stellar masses. Finally, we note that application of different stellar models can lead to drastically different IMF results, particularly in the case of the power-law fit. We therefore caution that uncertainties in stellar evolution models may be the dominant sources of uncertainty in studies of the low-mass IMF.

  8. Measuring the orbital periods of low mass X-ray binaries in the X-ray band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yi

    2014-11-01

    A low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) contains either a neutron star or a black hole accreting materials from its low mass companion star. It is one of the primary astrophysical sources for studying stellar-mass compact objects and accreting phenomena. As with other binary systems, the most important parameter of an LMXB is the orbital period, which allows us to learn about the nature of the binary system and constrain the properties of the system's components, including the compact object. As a result, measuring the orbital periods of LMXBs is essential for investigating these systems even though fewer than half of them have known orbital periods. This article introduces the different methods for measuring the orbital periods in the X-ray band and reviews their application to various types of LMXBs, such as eclipsing and dipping sources, as well as pulsar LMXBs.

  9. Big Game Hunting in the Andromeda Galaxy: identifiying and weighing black holes in low mass X-ray Binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Barnard

    2004-01-01

    We have devised a new technique for identifying stellar mass black holes in low mass X-ray binaries, and have applied it to XMM-Newton observations of two X-ray sources in M31. In particular we search for low accretion rate power density spectra; these are very similar for all LMXB, whether the primary is a black hole or a neutron star. Galactic

  10. Ten Low Mass Companions from the Keck Precision Velocity Survey

    E-print Network

    Steven S. Vogt; R. Paul Butler; Geoffrey W. Marcy; Debra A. Fischer; Dimitri Pourbaix; Kevin Apps; Gregory Laughlin

    2001-10-16

    Ten new low mass companions have emerged from the Keck precision Doppler velocity survey, with minimum (msini) masses ranging from 0.8 mjup to 0.34 msun. Five of these are planet candidates with msini < 12 mjup, two are brown dwarf candidates with msini ~30 mjup, and three are low mass stellar companions. Hipparcos astrometry reveals the orbital inclinations and masses for three of the (more massive) companions, and it provides upper limits to the masses for the rest. A new class of extrasolar planet is emerging, characterized by nearly circular orbits and orbital radii greater than 1 AU. The planet HD 4208b appears to be a member of this new class. The mass distribution of extrasolar planets continues to exhibit a rapid rise from 10 mjup toward the lowest detectable masses near 1 msat.

  11. A Quadrupole mass spectrometer for resolution of low mass isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeyan Sreekumar; Thomas J. Hogan; Stephen Taylor; Phillip Turner; Christopher Knott

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative identification of low mass isotopes in the mass range 1–6 u poses certain difficulties when\\u000a attempting to achieve the required resolution with an instrument suitable for deployment within a process environment. Certain\\u000a adjacent species present in the process sample (HT and D2) require a resolution greater than 930 to achieve an accurate measurement. We demonstrate here

  12. COMPLEX MOLECULES TOWARD LOW-MASS PROTOSTARS: THE SERPENS CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Karin I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 42, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van der Marel, Nienke; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-10-10

    Gas-phase complex organic molecules are commonly detected toward high-mass protostellar hot cores. Detections toward low-mass protostars and outflows are comparatively rare, and a larger sample is the key to investigate how the chemistry responds to its environment. Guided by the prediction that complex organic molecules form in CH{sub 3}OH-rich ices and thermally or non-thermally evaporate with CH{sub 3}OH, we have identified three sight lines in the Serpens core-SMM1, SMM4, and SMM4-W-which are likely to be rich in complex organics. Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, narrow lines (FWHM of 1-2 km s{sup -1}) of CH{sub 3}CHO and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} are detected toward all sources, HCOOCH{sub 3} toward SMM1 and SMM4-W, and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH not at all. Beam-averaged abundances of individual complex organics range between 0.6% and 10% with respect to CH{sub 3}OH when the CH{sub 3}OH rotational temperature is applied. The summed complex organic abundances also vary by an order of magnitude, with the richest chemistry toward the most luminous protostar SMM1. The range of abundances compare well with other beam-averaged observations of low-mass sources. Complex organic abundances are of the same order of magnitude toward low-mass protostars and high-mass hot cores, but HCOOCH{sub 3} is relatively more important toward low-mass protostars. This is consistent with a sequential ice photochemistry, dominated by CHO-containing products at low temperatures and early times.

  13. BH Accretion in Low-Mass Galaxies Since z~1

    E-print Network

    Yong Shi; George Rieke; Jennifer Donley; Michael Cooper; Christopher Willmer; Evan Kirby

    2008-10-17

    We have selected a sample of X-ray emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in low-mass host galaxies (5e9-2e10 Msun) out to z~1. By comparing to AGNs in more massive hosts, we have found that the AGN spatial number density and the fraction of galaxies hosting AGNs depends strongly on the host mass, with the AGN host mass function peaking at intermediate mass and with the AGN fraction increasing with host mass. AGNs in low-mass hosts show strong cosmic evolution in comoving number density, the fraction of such galaxies hosting active nuclei and the comoving X-ray energy density. The integrated X-ray luminosity function is used to estimate the amount of the accreted black hole mass in these AGNs and places a strong lower limit of 12% to the fraction of local low-mass galaxies hosting black holes, though a more likely value is probably much higher (> 50%) once the heavily-obscured objects missed in current X-ray surveys are accounted for.

  14. From Canonical to Enhanced Extra Mixing in Low-Mass Red Giants: Tidally Locked Binaries

    E-print Network

    Pavel Denissenkov; Brian Chaboyer; Ke Li

    2006-01-05

    Stellar models which incorporate simple diffusion or shear induced mixing are used to describe canonical extra mixing in low mass red giants of low and solar metallicity. These models are able to simultaneously explain the observed Li and CN abundance changes along upper red giant branch (RGB) in field low-metallicity stars and match photometry, rotation and carbon isotopic ratios for stars in the old open cluster M67. The shear mixing model requires that main sequence (MS) progenitors of upper RGB stars possessed rapidly rotating radiative cores and that specific angular momentum was conserved in each of their mass shells during their evolution. We surmise that solar-type stars will not experience canonical extra mixing on the RGB because their more efficient MS spin-down resulted in solid-body rotation, as revealed by helioseismological data for the Sun. Thus, RGB stars in the old, high metallicity cluster NGC 6791 should show no evidence for mixing in their carbon isotopic ratios. We develop the idea that canonical extra mixing in a giant component of a binary system may be switched to its enhanced mode with much faster and somewhat deeper mixing as a result of the giant's tidal spin-up. This scenario can explain photometric and composition peculiarities of RS CVn binaries. The tidally enforced enhanced extra mixing might contribute to the star-to-star abundance variations of O, Na and Al in globular clusters. This idea may be tested with observations of carbon isotopic ratios and CN abundances in RS CVn binaries.

  15. THE FORMATION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM LOW-MASS POP III SEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The existence of 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} black holes (BHs) in massive galaxies by z {approx} 7 is one of the great unsolved mysteries in cosmological structure formation. One theory argues that they originate from the BHs of Pop III stars at z {approx} 20 and then accrete at the Eddington limit down to the epoch of reionization, which requires that they have constant access to rich supplies of fuel. Because early numerical simulations suggested that Pop III stars were {approx}>100 M{sub Sun }, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds considered up to now were 100-300 M{sub Sun }. However, there is a growing numerical and observational consensus that some Pop III stars were tens of solar masses, not hundreds, and that 20-40 M{sub Sun} BHs may have been much more plentiful at high redshift. However, we find that natal kicks imparted to 20-40 M{sub Sun} Pop III BHs during formation eject them from their halos and hence their fuel supply, precluding them from Eddington-limit growth. Consequently, SMBHs are far less likely to form from low-mass Pop III stars than from very massive ones.

  16. Infant mortality without gas expulsion? The rapid dispersal of virialised low mass clusters

    E-print Network

    Moeckel, Nickolas; Clarke, Cathie J; Bonnell, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Infant mortality brought about by the expulsion of a star cluster's natal gas is widely invoked to explain cluster statistics at different ages. While a well studied problem, most recent studies of gas expulsion's effect on a cluster have focused on massive clusters, with stellar counts of order $10^4$. Here we argue that the evolutionary timescales associated with the compact low-mass clusters typical of the median cluster in the Solar neighborhood are short enough that significant dynamical evolution can take place over the ages usually associated with gas expulsion. To test this we perform {\\it N}-body simulations of the dynamics of a very young star forming region, with initial conditions drawn from a large-scale hydrodynamic simulation of gravitational collapse and fragmentation. The subclusters we analyse have high local star formation efficiencies and are roughly virialised, and have populations of a few hundred stars. Over 10 Myr they expand to a similar degree as would be expected from gas expulsion ...

  17. Hot subdwarfs in (eclipsing) binaries with brown dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffenroth, Veronika; Geier, Stephan; Heber, Uli

    2014-09-01

    The formation of hot subdwarf stars (sdBs), which are core helium-burning stars located on the extended horizontal branch, is not yet understood. Many of the known hot subdwarf stars reside in close binary systems with short orbital periods of between a few hours and a few days, with either M-star or white-dwarf companions. Common-envelope ejection is the most probable formation channel. Among these, eclipsing systems are of special importance because it is possible to constrain the parameters of both components tightly by combining spectroscopic and light-curve analyses. They are called HW Virginis systems. Soker (1998) proposed that planetary or brown-dwarf companions could cause the mass loss necessary to form an sdB. Substellar objects with masses greater than >10 M_J were predicted to survive the common-envelope phase and end up in a close orbit around the stellar remnant, while planets with lower masses would entirely evaporate. This raises the question if planets can affect stellar evolution. Here we report on newly discovered eclipsing or not eclipsing hot subdwarf binaries with brown-dwarf or low-mass main-sequence companions and their spectral and photometric analysis to determine the fundamental parameters of both components.

  18. LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE INITIAL KEPLER DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J. L.; Harrison, T. E.; Ule, N. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Hoffman, D. I., E-mail: jlcough@nmsu.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    We identify 231 objects in the newly released Cycle 0 data set from the Kepler Mission as double-eclipse, detached eclipsing binary systems with T{sub eff} < 5500 K and orbital periods shorter than {approx}32 days. We model each light curve using the JKTEBOP code with a genetic algorithm to obtain precise values for each system. We identify 95 new systems with both components below 1.0 M{sub sun} and eclipses of at least 0.1 mag, suitable for ground-based follow-up. Of these, 14 have periods less than 1.0 day, 52 have periods between 1.0 and 10.0 days, and 29 have periods greater than 10.0 days. This new sample of main-sequence, low-mass, double-eclipse, detached eclipsing binary candidates more than doubles the number of previously known systems and extends the sample into the completely heretofore unexplored P > 10.0 day period regime. We find preliminary evidence from these systems that the radii of low-mass stars in binary systems decrease with period. This supports the theory that binary spin-up is the primary cause of inflated radii in low-mass binary systems, although a full analysis of each system with radial-velocity and multi-color light curves is needed to fully explore this hypothesis. Also, we present seven new transiting planet candidates that do not appear among the list of 706 candidates recently released by the Kepler team, or in the Kepler False Positive Catalog, along with several other new and interesting systems. We also present novel techniques for the identification, period analysis, and modeling of eclipsing binaries.

  19. Stellar populations in the CFHTLS. I. New constraints on the IMF at low mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheis, M.; Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Bertin, E.; Mellier, Y.; Le Fèvre, O.

    2006-02-01

    We present a stellar populations analysis of the first release of the CFHTLS (Canada-France-Hawai Telescope Legacy Survey) data. A detailed comparison between the Besançon model of the Galaxy and the first data release of the CFHTLS-Deep survey is performed by implementing the MEGACAM photometric system in this model using stellar atmosphere model libraries. The reliability of the theoretical libraries to reproduce the observed colours in the MEGACAM system is investigated. The locations of various stellar species like subdwarfs, white dwarfs, late-type and brown dwarfs, binary systems are identified. The contamination of the stellar sample by quasars and compact galaxies is quantified using spectroscopic data from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) as a function of i' magnitude and r'-i' colour. A comparison between simulated counts using the standard IMF at low masses show that the number of very low mass dwarfs may have been underestimated in previous studies. These observations favour a power law IMF following d(n)/dm propto m-? with ?=2.5 for m < 0.25 M? or ?=3.0 for m < 0.2 M? for single stars. The resulting LF is in agreement with the local LF as measured from the 5 or 25 pc samples. It is in strong disagreement with the Zheng et al. (2001) LF measured from deep HST data. We show that this discrepancy can be understood as an indication of a different IMF at low masses at early epochs of the Galaxy compared to the local thin disc IMF.

  20. The Case for a Low Mass Black Hole in the Low Mass X-ray Binary V1408 Aquilae (= 4U 1957+115)

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Sebastian; Robinson, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    There are very few confirmed black holes with a mass that could be $\\sim\\! 4\\, M_\\odot$ and no neutron stars with masses greater than $\\sim\\! 2\\, M_\\odot$, creating a gap in the observed distribution of compact star masses. Some black holes with masses between 2 and $4\\, M_\\odot$ might be hiding among other X-ray sources, whose masses are difficult to measure. We present new high-speed optical photometry of the low-mass X-ray binary V1408 Aql (= 4U 1957+115), which is a persistent X-ray source thought to contain a black hole. The optical light curve of V1408~Aql shows a nearly sinusoidal modulation at the orbital period of the system superimposed on large night-to-night variations in mean intensity. We combined the new photometry with previously-published photometry to derive a more precise orbital period, $P = 0.388893(3)$\\ d, and to better define the orbital light curve and night-to-night variations. The orbital light curve agrees well with a model in which the modulation is caused entirely by the changing ...

  1. Line-Driven Winds Revisited in the Context of Be Stars: $\\Omega$-slow Solutions with High $k$ Values

    E-print Network

    Silaj, J; Jones, C E

    2014-01-01

    The standard, or fast, solutions of m-CAK line-driven wind theory cannot account for slowly outflowing disks like the ones that surround Be stars. It has been previously shown that there exists another family of solutions --- the $\\Omega$-slow solutions --- that is characterized by much slower terminal velocities and higher mass-loss rates. We have solved the one-dimensional m-CAK hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds for this latter solution, starting from standard values of the line force parameters ($\\alpha$, $k$, and $\\delta$), and then systematically varying the values of $\\alpha$ and $k$. Terminal velocities and mass-loss rates that are in good agreement with those found in Be stars are obtained from the solutions with lower $\\alpha$ and higher $k$ values. Furthermore, the equatorial densities of such solutions are comparable to those that are typically assumed in ad hoc models. For very high values of $k$, we find that the wind solutions exhibit a new kind of behavior.

  2. The growth of galactic bulges through mergers in ? CDM haloes revisited - I. Present-day properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Jesus; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Firmani, Claudio; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We use the combined data sets of the Millennium I and II cosmological simulations to revisit the impact of mergers in the growth of bulges in central galaxies in the ? cold dark matter (?CDM) scenario. We seed galaxies within the growing CDM haloes using semi-empirical relations to assign stellar and gaseous masses, and an analytic treatment to estimate the transfer of stellar mass to the bulge of the remnant after a galaxy merger. We find that this model roughly reproduces the observed correlation between the bulge-to-total mass (B/T) ratio and stellar mass (M*) in present-day central galaxies as well as their observed demographics, although low-mass B/T < 0.1 (bulgeless) galaxies might be scarce relative to the observed abundance. In our merger-driven scenario, bulges have a composite stellar population made of (i) stars acquired from infalling satellites, (ii) stars transferred from the primary disc due to merger-induced perturbations and (iii) newly formed stars in starbursts triggered by mergers. We find that the first two are the main channels of mass assembly, with the first one being dominant for massive galaxies, creating large bulges with different stellar populations than those of the inner discs, while the second is dominant for intermediate/low-mass galaxies and creates small bulges with similar stellar populations to the inner discs. We associate the dominion of the first (second) channel to classical (pseudo) bulges, and compare the predicted fractions to observations. We emphasize that our treatment does not include other mechanisms of bulge growth such as intrinsic secular processes in the disc or misaligned gas accretion. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of the stellar and gaseous contents of the satellite as it spirals towards the central galaxy is a key ingredient in setting the morphology of the remnant galaxy, and that a good match to the observed bulge demographics occurs when this evolution proceeds closely to that of the central galaxy.

  3. Life Cycles of Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

  4. AN EMERGING CLASS OF BRIGHT, FAST-EVOLVING SUPERNOVAE WITH LOW-MASS EJECTA

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Badenes, Carles; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Simon, Joshua D., E-mail: hperets@cfa.harvard.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    A recent analysis of supernova (SN) 2002bj revealed that it was an apparently unique type Ib SN. It showed a high peak luminosity, with absolute magnitude M{sub R} {approx} -18.5, but an extremely fast-evolving light curve. It had a rise time of <7 days followed by a decline of 0.25 mag day{sup -1} in B band and showed evidence for very low mass of ejecta (<0.15 M{sub sun}). Here we discuss two additional historical events, SN 1885A and SN 1939B, showing similarly fast light curves and low ejected masses. We discuss the low mass of ejecta inferred from our analysis of the SN 1885A remnant in M31 and present for the first time the spectrum of SN 1939B. The old environments of both SN 1885A (in the bulge of M31) and SN 1939B (in an elliptical galaxy with no traces of star formation activity) strongly support old white dwarf (WD) progenitors for these SNe. We find no clear evidence for helium in the spectrum of SN 1939B, as might be expected from a helium-shell detonation on a WD, suggested to be the origin of SN 2002bj. Finally, the discovery of all the observed fast-evolving SNe in nearby galaxies suggests that the rate of these peculiar SNe is at least 1%-2% of all SNe.

  5. Rapid Rotation of Low-mass Red Giants Using APOKASC: A Measure of Interaction Rates on the Post-main-sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Ceillier, Tugdual; García-Hernández, D. A.; Troup, Nicholas W.; Mathur, Savita; García, Rafael A.; Zamora, O.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia; Nidever, David L.; Salabert, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Serenelli, Aldo; Shetrone, Matthew; Stello, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the occurrence rate of rapidly rotating (v{sin}i >10 km s?1), low-mass giant stars in the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment-Kepler (APOKASC) fields with asteroseismic mass and surface gravity measurements. Such stars are likely merger products and their frequency places interesting constraints on stellar population models. We also identify anomalous rotators, i.e., stars with 5 km s?1 < v{sin}i < 10 km s?1 that are rotating significantly faster than both angular momentum evolution predictions and the measured rates of similar stars. Our data set contains fewer rapid rotators than one would expect given measurements of the Galactic field star population, which likely indicates that asteroseismic detections are less common in rapidly rotating red giants. The number of low-mass moderate (5–10 km s?1) rotators in our sample gives a lower limit of 7% for the rate at which low-mass stars interact on the upper red giant branch because single stars in this mass range are expected to rotate slowly. Finally, we classify the likely origin of the rapid or anomalous rotation where possible. KIC 10293335 is identified as a merger product and KIC 6501237 is a possible binary system of two oscillating red giants.

  6. Search for Low Mass Exotic leptonic or bosonic structures

    E-print Network

    B. Tatischeff; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson

    2007-07-09

    Recently, several papers discussed the existence of a low mass leptonic structure. It was suggested that the $\\Sigma^{+}$ disintegration: $\\Sigma^{+}\\to$pP$^{0}$, P$^{0}\\to\\mu^{-}\\mu^{+}$ proceeds through an intermediate particle P$^{0}$ having a mass close to M$\\approx$~214.3 MeV. The present work intends to look at other available data, in order to observe the eventual existence of a small peak or shoulder, at a mass close to M=214.3 MeV, which can strengthen the existence of a state produced by two leptons of opposite electric charge.

  7. Exotic low mass narrow baryons extracted from charge exchange reactions

    E-print Network

    B. Tatischeff; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson

    2010-02-12

    This paper aims to give further evidence for the existence of low mass exotic baryons. Narrow structures in baryonic missing mass or baryonic invariant mass were observed during the last twelve years. Since their evidence is still under debate, various data, measured with incident hadrons, by different collaborations, are reanalyzed to bring evidence on these narrow exotic baryonic resonances excited in charge-exchange reactions. These structures are clearly exotic as there is no room for them in the $qqq$ configurations: their width is smaller than the widths of "classical" baryonic resonances, moreover some of the masses lie below the pion threshold mass.

  8. Photoionization Feedback in Low--Mass Galaxies at High Redshift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Dijkstra; Zoltan Haiman; Martin J. Rees; David H. Weinberg

    2003-01-01

    The cosmic ultraviolet (UV) ionizing background impacts the formation of\\u000adwarf galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z=3) by suppressing gas infall\\u000ainto galactic halos with circular velocities up to v(circ)=75 km\\/s. Using a\\u000aone-dimensional, spherically symmetric hydrodynamics code (Thoul & Weinberg\\u000a1995), we examine the effect of an ionizing background on low-mass galaxies\\u000aforming at high redshifts (z>10). We find

  9. WFCAM Survey of M31 Globular Clusters: Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    Mark B. Peacock; Thomas J. Maccarone; Christopher Z. Waters; Arunav Kundu; Stephen E. Zepf; Christian Knigge; David R. Zurek

    2008-11-03

    We investigate the relationship between Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) using UKIRT observations of M31 and existing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT catalogues. By fitting King models to these data we have estimated the structural parameters and stellar collision rates of 239 of its GCs. We show a highly significant trend between the presence of a LMXB and the stellar collision rate of a cluster. The stellar collision rate is found to be a stronger predictor of which clusters will host LMXBs than the host cluster mass. We argue that our results show that the stellar collision rate of the clusters is the fundamental parameter related to the production LMXBs. This is consistent with the formation of LMXBs through dynamical interactions with little direct dependence on the neutron star retention fraction or cluster mass.

  10. LP 400-22, A Very Low Mass and High-Velocity White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane; Oswalt, Terry D.; Smith, J. Allyn; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the identification of LP 400-22 (WD 2234+222) as a very low mass and high-velocity white dwarf. The ultraviolet GALEX and optical photometric colors and a spectral line analysis of LP 400-22 show this star to have an effective temperature of 11,080+/-140 K and a surface gravity of log g = 6.32 +/-0.08. Therefore, this is a helium-core white dwarf with a mass of 0.17 M,. The tangential velocity of this white dwarf is 414+/-43 km/s, making it one of the fastest moving white dwarfs known. We discuss probable evolutionary scenarios for this remarkable object.

  11. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Dwarfs - Clouds and Chemistry at the Bottom of the IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stars show evidence of complicated atmospheres, including a variety of molecular species and clouds. Infrared observations are one of the best probes of the physics of these objects, but up until recently these observations have been limited in studies from ground-based telescopes by atmospheric absorption and insufficient sensitivity. With the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope with its Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument we now have the capability to undertake a systematic study of the atmospheric structure and chemistry in these cool objects. The IRS Dim Suns team has compiled spectra from objects ranging from M1 dwarfs with effective temperatures 3,800K of down to T8 dwarfs with effective temperatures of 700. This talk will present these results and discuss their implications for our understanding of cool dwarf atmospheric physics and structure.

  12. Rapidly evolving light curves of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhli, P.; Hakala, P. J.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Hannikainen, D. C.; Schultz, J.

    2004-07-01

    A few Galactic Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs) have shown drastically evolving X-ray and/or optical orbital light curves. In two short-period LMXBs, MS 1603+2600 (= UW CrB, P[orb] = 111 min) and 4U 1916-053 (see e.g. Homer et al. 2001), the variations in the light curve morphology seem to be repeating in a periodic manner. We present first results of a photometric monitoring campaign of MS 1603+2600, showing evidence of a 5-day superorbital period in this yet unclassified source. The observations also unraveled optical flares, reminiscent of type I bursts, suggesting a neutron star primary.

  13. Observations of Deuterated Species toward Low-Mass Prestellar and Protostellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sakai, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Sakai, T.; Hirota, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have conducted observations of the ground-state transition lines (J = 1-0) of the fundamental deuterated species DCO+, DNC, DCN, CCD and N2D+ as well as those of H13CO+, HN13C, H13CN, CCH and N2H+ with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The target sources are the cold starless cores, TMC-1 and Lupus-1A, and the low-mass star forming cores, L1527 and IRAS15398-3359. The excitation temperatures derived from intensities of resolved hyperfine components are systematically different between DNC and HN13C. On the other hand, the excitation temperatures of DCN and H13CN are comparable to each other. Although the origin of these results is puzzling, the present result indicates that accurate evaluation of the excitation temperature is essential for deriving deuterium fractionation ratios accurately.

  14. Low-mass X-ray binaries and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasota, J. P.; Frank, J.; King, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    More than twenty years after their discovery, the nature of gamma-ray burst sources (GRBs) remains mysterious. The results from BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory show however that most of the sources of gamma-ray bursts cannot be distributed in the galactic disc. The possibility that a small fraction of sites of gamma-ray bursts is of galactic disc origin cannot however be excluded. We point out that large numbers of neutron-star binaries with orbital periods of 10 hr and M dwarf companions of mass 0.2-0.3 solar mass are a natural result of the evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The numbers and physical properties of these systems suggest that some gamma-ray burst sources may be identified with this endpoint of LMXB evolution. We suggest an observational test of this hypothesis.

  15. Low-energy Galactic centre gamma-rays from low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kluzniak, W.; Ruderman, M.; Shaham, J.; Tavani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Nonthermal processes in low-mass X-ray binaries concentrated in the Galactic bulge are proposed as the direct source of the three continuum components of the emission from the Galactic center region (GCR) and also, possibly, as the indirect source of the 511-keV electron-positron annihilation line. It is suggested that the softer power-law component of the GCR continuum arises from synchrotron emission of relativistic electrons in the strongly nonuniform magnetic field of the neutron star and, more tentatively, that the MeV bump is the result of interaction of harder gamma rays with power-law photons. The hardest power law may be due to Compton scattering of relativistic electrons or photons.

  16. The Bimodality of Galaxy Populations Revisited Through Spectral Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodré, L.; Mateus, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasi?ska, G.; Schoenell, W.; Gomes, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    We revisit the bimodal distribution of the galaxy population commonly seen in the local universe. Here we address the bimodality observed in galaxy properties in terms of spectral synthesis products, such as mean stellar ages and stellar masses, derived from the application of this powerful method to a sample of spectra extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We apply the spectral synthesis approach presented in Cid Fernandes et al. (2005) to a volume-limited sample, with magnitude limit cutoff M(r) = -20.5, containing about 50 thousand luminous galaxies from the SDSS Data Release 2. We obtain, for each galaxy, the mean age of their stars, the stellar mass and the stellar extinction. In addition, galaxies are classified according to their emission line properties in three distinct spectral classes: star-forming galaxies (with young stellar populations), passive galaxies (dominated by old stellar populations), and hosts of active nuclei. We show that the extremes of the distribution of some galaxy properties- essentially galaxy colours, 4000A break index, and mean stellar ages- are associated to star-forming galaxies at one side, and passive galaxies at another. We show that the mean light-weighted stellar age of galaxies presents the best description of the bimodality seen in the galaxy population. The stellar mass, in this view, has an additional role since most of the star-forming galaxies present in the local universe are low-mass galaxies. Our results also give support to the existence of a `downsizing' in galaxy formation, where massive galaxies seen nowadays have stellar populations formed at early times. seen nowadays have stellar populations formed at early times. Discussion. Our analysis allows to demonstrate that the bimodality of the galaxy population, commonly seen in colour-magnitude diagrams is related to the presence of a young and luminous stellar component in galaxies currently undergoing star formation, in contrast with the stellar content of passive galaxies, where old stars are the responsible for most of their luminosities. We also show that AGN-hosts have intermediate properties between star-forming and passive galaxies.

  17. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, C.

    1995-04-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed.

  18. Low-mass dilepton rate from the deconfined phase

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Mustafa, Munshi G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Thoma, Markus H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    We discuss low-mass dilepton rates ({<=}1 GeV) from the deconfined phase of QCD using both perturbative and nonperturbative models and compare them with those from lattice gauge theory and in-medium hadron gas. Our analysis suggests that the rate at very low invariant mass (M{<=}200 MeV) using the nonperturbative gluon condensate in a semiempirical way within the Green function approach dominates over the Born rate, independent of any uncertainty associated with the choice of the strong coupling in perturbation theory. On the other hand, the rate from {rho}-q interaction in the deconfined phase is important at 200 MeV {<=}M{<=} 1 GeV as it is almost of same order as the Born rate as well as the in-medium hadron gas rate. Also, the higher order perturbative rate, leaving aside its various uncertainties, from the hard-thermal-loop approximation becomes reliable at M{>=}200 MeV and also becomes comparable with the Born rate and the lattice rate for M{>=}500 MeV, constraining on the broad resonance structures in the dilepton rate at large invariant mass. We also discuss the lattice constraints on the low-mass dilepton rate. Furthermore, we discuss a realistic way to advocate the quark-hadron duality hypothesis based on the dilepton rates from quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas.

  19. Doppler disc tomography applied to low-mass AGN spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; Ingram, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler tomography can provide a powerful means of determining black hole spin when our view to the central regions are revealed and obscured by optically thick orbiting material, and can provide an independent estimate that does not suffer as many degeneracies as traditional methods. For low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN), time-dependent obscuration is expected to leave a signature in the changing spectrum of the disc emission which extends into the soft X-ray bandpass. We create a spectral model incorporating Doppler tomography and apply it to the case of the low-mass (8 × 105 M?) AGN, RX J1301.9+2747 which shows unusual timing properties in the form of short-lived flares that we argue are best explained by the orbit of a window through an optically thick wind. Modelling the phase-resolved spectrum over the course of the highest data quality flare indicates a very low spin even when we relax our constraints. This is the lowest mass AGN for which a spin has been measured and the first via this technique. We note that, as the mass and spin are very low, this appears to favour supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth by chaotic rather than constant accretion.

  20. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR VERY LOW MASS GASEOUS PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stevenson, David J., E-mail: kbatygin@cfa.harvard.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Recently, the Kepler spacecraft has detected a sizable aggregate of objects, characterized by giant-planet-like radii and modest levels of stellar irradiation. With the exception of a handful of objects, the physical nature, and specifically the average densities, of these bodies remain unknown. Here, we propose that the detected giant planet radii may partially belong to planets somewhat less massive than Uranus and Neptune. Accordingly, in this work, we seek to identify a physically sound upper limit to planetary radii at low masses and moderate equilibrium temperatures. As a guiding example, we analyze the interior structure of the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-30d and show that it is acutely deficient in heavy elements, especially compared with its solar system counterparts. Subsequently, we perform numerical simulations of planetary thermal evolution and in agreement with previous studies, show that generally, 10-20 M{sub Circled-Plus }, multi-billion year old planets, composed of high density cores and extended H/He envelopes can have radii that firmly reside in the giant planet range. We subject our results to stability criteria based on extreme ultraviolet radiation, as well as Roche-lobe overflow driven mass-loss and construct mass-radius relationships for the considered objects. We conclude by discussing observational avenues that may be used to confirm or repudiate the existence of putative low mass, gas-dominated planets.

  1. Radiation-driven evolution of low-mass x-ray binaries and the formation of millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Tavani, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1991-08-08

    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary theories which neglect the effects of disk and comparison irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, radiation from the accreting compact star in LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn off occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less; (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degeneration companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) a class of recycled MSPs can continue to vaporize the low-mass companions by a strong pulsar wind even after the accretion turn-off; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical descrepancy between the number of MSPs and their LMXB progenitors in the Galaxy. We discuss the implications of the discovery of single MSPs in low-density globular clusters and the recent measurements of short orbital timescales of four LMXBs. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Lakatos Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social sciences as…

  3. DETECTABILITY OF TRANSITING JUPITERS AND LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES IN SPARSELY SAMPLED PAN-STARRS-1 SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Trent J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Liu, Michael C.

    2009-10-20

    We present detailed simulations of the Pan-STARRS-1 (PS1) multi-epoch, multiband 3pi Survey in order to assess its potential yield of transiting planets and eclipsing binaries. This survey differs from dedicated transit surveys in that it will cover the entire northern sky but provide only sparsely sampled light curves. Since most eclipses would be detected at only a single epoch, the 3pi Survey will be most sensitive to deep eclipses (approx>0.10 mag) caused by Jupiters transiting M dwarfs and eclipsing stellar/substellar binaries. The survey will measure parallaxes for the approx4 x 10{sup 5} stars within 100 pc, which will enable a volume-limited eclipse search, reducing the number of astrophysical false positives compared with previous magnitude-limited searches. Using the best available empirical data, we constructed a model of the extended solar neighborhood that includes stars, brown dwarfs, and a realistic binary population. We computed the yield of deeply eclipsing systems using both a semianalytic and a full Monte Carlo approach. We examined statistical tests for detecting single-epoch eclipses in sparsely sampled data and assessed their vulnerability to false positives due to stellar variability. Assuming a short-period planet frequency of 0.5% for M dwarfs, our simulations predict that about a dozen transiting Jupiters around low-mass stars (M {sub *} < 0.3 M {sub sun}) within 100 pc are potentially detectable in the PS1 3pi Survey, along with approx300 low-mass eclipsing binaries (both component masses <0.5 M {sub sun}), including approx10 eclipsing field brown dwarfs. Extensive follow-up observations would be required to characterize these candidate eclipsing systems, thereby enabling comprehensive tests of structural models and novel insights into the planetary architecture of low-mass stars.

  4. REJECTING PROPOSED DENSE MATTER EQUATIONS OF STATE WITH QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A-2T8 (Canada)

    2014-11-20

    Neutrons stars are unique laboratories for discriminating between the various proposed equations of state of matter at and above nuclear density. One sub-class of neutron stars—those inside quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs)—produce a thermal surface emission from which the neutron star radius (R {sub NS}) can be measured, using the widely accepted observational scenario for qLMXBs, assuming unmagnetized H atmospheres. In a combined spectral analysis, this work first reproduces a previously published measurement of the R {sub NS}, assumed to be the same for all neutron stars, using a slightly expanded data set. The radius measured is R{sub NS}=9.4±1.2 km. On the basis of spectral analysis alone, this measured value is not affected by imposing an assumption of causality in the core. However, the assumptions underlying this R {sub NS} measurement would be falsified by the observation of any neutron star with a mass >2.6 M {sub ?}, since radii <11 km would be rejected if causality is assumed, which would exclude most of the R {sub NS} parameter space obtained in this analysis. Finally, this work directly tests a selection of dense matter equations of state: WFF1, AP4, MPA1, PAL1, MS0, and three versions of equations of state produced through chiral effective theory. Two of those, MS0 and PAL1, are rejected at the 99% confidence level, accounting for all quantifiable uncertainties, while the other cannot be excluded at >99% certainty.

  5. Lack of PAH emission toward low-mass embedded young stellar objects

    E-print Network

    V. C. Geers; E. F. van Dishoeck; K. M. Pontoppidan; F. Lahuis; A. Crapsi; C. P. Dullemond; G. A. Blake

    2008-12-18

    PAHs have been detected toward molecular clouds and some young stars with disks, but have not yet been associated with embedded young stars. We present a sensitive mid-IR spectroscopic survey of PAH features toward a sample of low-mass embedded YSOs. The aim is to put constraints on the PAH abundance in the embedded phase of star formation using radiative transfer modeling. VLT-ISAAC L-band spectra for 39 sources and Spitzer IRS spectra for 53 sources are presented. Line intensities are compared to recent surveys of Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars. The radiative transfer codes RADMC and RADICAL are used to model the PAH emission from embedded YSOs consisting of a PMS star with a circumstellar disk embedded in an envelope. The dependence of the PAH feature on PAH abundance, stellar radiation field, inclination and the extinction by the surrounding envelope is studied. The 3.3 micron PAH feature is undetected for the majority of the sample (97%), with typical upper limits of 5E-16 W/m^2. Compact 11.2 micron PAH emission is seen directly towards 1 out of the 53 Spitzer Short-High spectra, for a source that is borderline embedded. For all 12 sources with both VLT and Spitzer spectra, no PAH features are detected in either. In total, PAH features are detected toward at most 1 out of 63 (candidate) embedded protostars (PAHs emission is most likely explained by the absence of emitting carriers through a PAH abundance at least an order of magnitude lower than in molecular clouds but similar to that found in disks. Thus, most PAHs likely enter the protoplanetary disks frozen out in icy layers on dust grains and/or in coagulated form.

  6. Massive Star Feedback on the IMF

    E-print Network

    M. Robberto; J. Song; G. Mora Carrillo; S. V. W. Beckwith; R. B. Makidon; N. Panagia

    2004-10-14

    We have obtained the first measures of the mass accretion rates on stars of the Trapezium Cluster. They appear systematically lower than those of similar stars in the Taurus-Auriga association. Together with premature disk evaporation, dramatically revealed by the HST images of the Orion proplyds, this result suggests that low mass stars in a rich cluster may be ``dwarfed'' by the influence of nearby OB stars. This feedback mechanism affects the IMF, producing an excess of low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The observed frequency of low mass objects in Orion vs. Taurus seems to confirm this scenario.

  7. Kepler Studies of Low-mass Eclipsing Binaries. I. Parameters of the Long-period Binary KIC 6131659

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Gideon; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Windmiller, Gur; Ames Gregg, Trevor; Fetherolf, Tara; Wade, Richard A.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2012-12-01

    KIC 6131659 is a long-period (17.5 days) eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission. We analyzed six quarters of Kepler data along with supporting ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data to obtain accurate values for the mass and radius of both stars, namely, M 1 = 0.922 ± 0.007 M ?, R 1 = 0.8800 ± 0.0028 R ?, and M 2 = 0.685 ± 0.005 M ?, R 2 = 0.6395 ± 0.0061 R ?. There is a well-known issue with low-mass (M <~ 0.8 M ?) stars (in cases where the mass and radius measurement uncertainties are smaller than 2% or 3%) where the measured radii are almost always 5% to 15% larger than expected from evolutionary models, i.e., the measured radii are all above the model isochrones in a mass-radius plane. In contrast, the two stars in KIC 6131659 were found to sit on the same theoretical isochrone in the mass-radius plane. Until recently, all of the well-studied eclipsing binaries with low-mass stars had periods of less than about three days. The stars in such systems may have been inflated by high levels of stellar activity induced by tidal effects in these close binaries. KIC 6131659 shows essentially no evidence of enhanced stellar activity, and our measurements support the hypothesis that the unusual mass-radius relationship observed in most low-mass stars is influenced by strong magnetic activity created by the rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, short-period systems. Finally, using short cadence data, we show that KIC 6131657 has one of the smallest measured non-zero eccentricities of a binary with two main-sequence stars, where ecos ? = (4.57 ± 0.02) × 10-5. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  8. KEPLER STUDIES OF LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES. I. PARAMETERS OF THE LONG-PERIOD BINARY KIC 6131659

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Gideon; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Windmiller, Gur; Gregg, Trevor Ames; Fetherolf, Tara [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr., San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Wade, Richard A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Quinn, Samuel N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    KIC 6131659 is a long-period (17.5 days) eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission. We analyzed six quarters of Kepler data along with supporting ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data to obtain accurate values for the mass and radius of both stars, namely, M{sub 1} = 0.922 {+-} 0.007 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 0.8800 {+-} 0.0028 R{sub Sun }, and M{sub 2} = 0.685 {+-} 0.005 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 2} = 0.6395 {+-} 0.0061 R{sub Sun }. There is a well-known issue with low-mass (M {approx}< 0.8 M{sub Sun }) stars (in cases where the mass and radius measurement uncertainties are smaller than 2% or 3%) where the measured radii are almost always 5% to 15% larger than expected from evolutionary models, i.e., the measured radii are all above the model isochrones in a mass-radius plane. In contrast, the two stars in KIC 6131659 were found to sit on the same theoretical isochrone in the mass-radius plane. Until recently, all of the well-studied eclipsing binaries with low-mass stars had periods of less than about three days. The stars in such systems may have been inflated by high levels of stellar activity induced by tidal effects in these close binaries. KIC 6131659 shows essentially no evidence of enhanced stellar activity, and our measurements support the hypothesis that the unusual mass-radius relationship observed in most low-mass stars is influenced by strong magnetic activity created by the rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, short-period systems. Finally, using short cadence data, we show that KIC 6131657 has one of the smallest measured non-zero eccentricities of a binary with two main-sequence stars, where ecos {omega} (4.57 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}.

  9. Low-Mass Inflation Systems for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Webster, Mark S.; Engelbrecht, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    The use of inflatable space structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. Communication, power generation, and very-long-baseline interferometry are just three potential applications of inflatable technology. The success of inflatable structures depends on the development of an applications of inflatable technology. This paper describes two design studies performed to develop a low mass inflation system. The first study takes advantage of existing onboard propulsion gases to reduce the overall system mass. The second study assumes that there is no onboard propulsion system. Both studies employ advanced components developed for the Pluto fast flyby spacecraft to further reduce mass. The study examined four different types of systems: hydrazine, nitrogen and water, nitrogen, and xenon. This study shows that all of these systems can be built for a small space structure with masses lower than 0.5 kilograms.

  10. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Leonhardt, W.J. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Large aperture, low mass, thin vacuum windows are required to minimize beam loss in the beam lines of particle accelerators as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. This article describes the design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience of a large rectangular vacuum window, 122 cm[times]61 cm, and two circular windows of 91.4 and 96.5 cm diam. These window designs utilize a composite Kevlar 29 fabric and Mylar laminate as a window material with a typical combined thickness of 0.35 mm. Data for several material thicknesses are also presented. The windows are usually designed to withstand a pressure differential of two to three atmospheres to achieve the required factor of safety. These windows are typically used in the medium vacuum range of 10[sup [minus]4] Torr. The equations used to predict the behavior of the window material will also be discussed.

  11. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringham, Roger S.

    2005-03-01

    We have developed a much improved cavitation system for sonofusion, compared to our initial systems. The new system is a low mass 1.6 MHz unit that produces 40 watts of excess heat with an acoustic input power of 17 watts. The increase in frequency (to 1.6 MHz from 40 KHz) increases the heat, improves the performance, shows reproducible results, and indicates durability. The calorimetry is a simple in flow through system. The difference between output and input temperature at steady-state, times the flow gives the power (calories/s) output of the sonofusion reactor. The energy density of this system is of the order of commercial energy suppliers.

  12. Low mass dimuons produced in relativistic nuclear collisions.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Jörg; Gale, Charles; Renk, Thorsten; Lichard, Peter; Kapusta, Joseph I

    2008-04-25

    The NA60 experiment has measured low mass muon pair production in In-In collisions at 158A GeV with unprecedented precision. We show that these data are reproduced very well by a dynamical model with parameters scaled from fits to measurements of hadronic transverse mass spectra and Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations in Pb-Pb and Pb-Au collisions at the same energy. The data are consistent with in-medium properties of rho and omega mesons at finite temperature and density as deduced from empirical forward-scattering amplitudes. Inclusion of the vacuum decay of the rho meson after freeze-out is necessary for an understanding of the mass and transverse momentum spectrum of dimuons with M less similar 0.9 GeV/c(2). PMID:18518190

  13. Low Mass Dimuons Produced in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, Joerg; Gale, Charles [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 Canada (Canada); Renk, Thorsten [Department of Physics, PO Box 35 FIN-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64 FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lichard, Peter [Institute of Physics, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, 746 01 Opava, Czech Republic and Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3, 12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Kapusta, Joseph I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2008-04-25

    The NA60 experiment has measured low mass muon pair production in In-In collisions at 158A GeV with unprecedented precision. We show that these data are reproduced very well by a dynamical model with parameters scaled from fits to measurements of hadronic transverse mass spectra and Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations in Pb-Pb and Pb-Au collisions at the same energy. The data are consistent with in-medium properties of {rho} and {omega} mesons at finite temperature and density as deduced from empirical forward-scattering amplitudes. Inclusion of the vacuum decay of the {rho} meson after freeze-out is necessary for an understanding of the mass and transverse momentum spectrum of dimuons with M < or approx. 0.9 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. THE HOST GALAXIES OF LOW-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanfei; Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Xiao Ting [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope observations of 147 host galaxies of low-mass black holes (BHs), we systematically study the structures and scaling relations of these active galaxies. Our sample is selected to have central BHs with virial masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. The host galaxies have total I-band magnitudes of -23.2 < M{sub I} < -18.8 mag and bulge magnitudes of -22.9 < M{sub I} < -16.1 mag. Detailed bulge-disk-bar decompositions with GALFIT show that 93% of the galaxies have extended disks, 39% have bars, and 5% have no bulges at all at the limits of our observations. Based on the Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio, we conclude that the majority of the galaxies with disks are likely to contain pseudobulges and very few of these low-mass BHs live in classical bulges. The fundamental plane of our sample is offset from classical bulges and ellipticals in a way that is consistent with the scaling relations of pseudobulges. The sample has smaller velocity dispersion at fixed luminosity in the Faber-Jackson plane compared with classical bulges and elliptical galaxies. The galaxies without disks are structurally more similar to spheroidals than to classical bulges according to their positions in the fundamental plane, especially the Faber-Jackson projection. Overall, we suggest that BHs with mass {approx}< 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} live in galaxies that have evolved secularly over the majority of their history. A classical bulge is not a prerequisite to host a BH.

  15. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function appropriately in such environments consistent with NASA s exploration missions. Advanced technologies such as this show promise for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  16. The Host Galaxies of Low-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Greene, Jenny E.; Ho, Luis C.; Xiao, Ting; Barth, Aaron J.

    2011-12-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope observations of 147 host galaxies of low-mass black holes (BHs), we systematically study the structures and scaling relations of these active galaxies. Our sample is selected to have central BHs with virial masses of ~105-106 M ?. The host galaxies have total I-band magnitudes of -23.2 < MI < -18.8 mag and bulge magnitudes of -22.9 < MI < -16.1 mag. Detailed bulge-disk-bar decompositions with GALFIT show that 93% of the galaxies have extended disks, 39% have bars, and 5% have no bulges at all at the limits of our observations. Based on the Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio, we conclude that the majority of the galaxies with disks are likely to contain pseudobulges and very few of these low-mass BHs live in classical bulges. The fundamental plane of our sample is offset from classical bulges and ellipticals in a way that is consistent with the scaling relations of pseudobulges. The sample has smaller velocity dispersion at fixed luminosity in the Faber-Jackson plane compared with classical bulges and elliptical galaxies. The galaxies without disks are structurally more similar to spheroidals than to classical bulges according to their positions in the fundamental plane, especially the Faber-Jackson projection. Overall, we suggest that BHs with mass <~ 106 M ? live in galaxies that have evolved secularly over the majority of their history. A classical bulge is not a prerequisite to host a BH. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11130.

  17. Multiplicity of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sandrine; van der Bliek, Nicole; Brandvig, Ben; Bouvier, Jerome; Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, Greg; Woodward, Chick

    2005-08-01

    Theories on star formation have treated the formation of low mass, intermediate mass and high mass stars distinctly. However it is not at all clear that there is a difference in the formation of these three groups. In fact, as many stars form in clusters, it is very likely that stars of different masses actually form and evolve together. We are conducting a photometric and spectroscopic study of multiples around Herbig Ae/Be (HAEBE) stars, to investigate the nature of the companions. HAEBE stars are PMS stars of intermediate mass, spanning the mass range between low-mass T Tauri stars and high mass stars. Hence, they fill an important parameter space in addressing the question of whether high mass and low-mass stars form the same way. Here we propose to obtain high resolution AO imaging to search for multiples amongst Herbig Ae/Be stars, continuing the work by Bouvier & Corporon (2001).

  18. 24 STELLAR REMNANTS White Dwarf Stars

    E-print Network

    Sitko, Michael L.

    1 24 STELLAR REMNANTS White Dwarf Stars The first white dwarf star (Sirius B) was discovered of Sirius A&B X-ray image #12;2 The white dwarf stars are the endpoints of the evolution of low-mass stars numbers of white dwarfs exist. They may be among the most populous stars in the Galaxy, and recent deep

  19. The very low mass multiple system LHS\\,1070 -- a testbed for model atmospheres for the lower end of the main sequence

    E-print Network

    Rajpurohit, A S; Schultheis, M; Leinert, Ch; Allard, F; Homeier, D; Ratzka, T; Abraham, P; Moster, B; Witte, S; Ryde, N

    2012-01-01

    LHS1070 is a nearby multiple system of low mass stars. It is an important source of information for probing the low mass end of the main sequence, down to the hydrogen-burning limit. The primary of the system is a mid-M dwarf and two components are late-M to early L dwarfs, at the star-brown dwarf transition. Hence LHS1070 is a valuable object to understand the onset of dust formation in cool stellar atmospheres.This work aims at determining the fundamental stellar parameters of LHS1070 and to test recent model atmospheres: BT-Dusty,BT-Settl, DRIFT, and MARCS models.Unlike in previous studies, we have performed a chi^2-minimization comparing well calibrated optical and infrared spectra with recent cool star synthetic spectra leading to the determination of the physical stellar parameters Teff, radius, and log g for each of the three components of LHS1070.

  20. Radiative feedback and the low efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass haloes at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Klypin, Anatoly; Klimek, Elizabeth S.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Churchill, Christopher W.; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2014-08-01

    Any successful model of galaxy formation needs to explain the low rate of star formation in the small progenitors of today's galaxies. This inefficiency is necessary for reproducing the low stellar-to-virial mass fractions, suggested by current abundance matching models. A possible driver of this low efficiency is the radiation pressure exerted by ionizing photons from massive stars. The effect of radiation pressure in cosmological, zoom-in galaxy formation simulations is modelled as a non-thermal pressure that acts only in dense and optically thick star-forming regions. We also include photoionization and photoheating by massive stars. The full photoionization of hydrogen reduces the radiative cooling in the 104-4.5 K regime. The main effect of radiation pressure is to regulate and limit the high values of gas density and the amount of gas available for star formation. This maintains a low star formation rate of ˜1 M? yr-1 in haloes with masses about 1011 M? at z ? 3. Infrared trapping and photoionization/photoheating processes are secondary effects in this mass range. The galaxies residing in these low-mass haloes contain only ˜0.6 per cent of the total virial mass in stars, roughly consistent with abundance matching. Radiative feedback maintains an extended galaxy with a rising circular velocity profile.

  1. Compulsory Deep Mixing of 3He and CNO Isotopes in the Envelopes of low-mass Red Giants

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Dearborn, D P; Lattanzio, J C

    2007-03-20

    Three-dimensional stellar modeling has enabled us to identify a deep-mixing mechanism that must operate in all low mass giants. This mixing process is not optional, and is driven by a molecular weight inversion created by the {sup 3}He({sup 3}He,2p){sup 4}He reaction. In this paper we characterize the behavior of this mixing, and study its impact on the envelope abundances. It not only eliminates the problem of {sup 3}He overproduction, reconciling stellar and big bang nucleosynthesis with observations, but solves the discrepancy between observed and calculated CNO isotope ratios in low mass giants, a problem of more than 3 decades standing. This mixing mechanism operates rapidly once the hydrogen burning shell approaches the material homogenized by the surface convection zone. In agreement with observations, Pop I stars between 0.8 and 2.0 M{sub {circle_dot}} develop {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios of 14.5 {+-} 1.5, while Pop II stars process the carbon to ratios of 4.0 {+-} 0.5. In stars less than 1.25 M{sub {circle_dot}}, this mechanism also destroys 90% to 95% of the {sup 3}He produced on the main sequence.

  2. Vigintiphobia revisited.

    PubMed

    Watchko, Jon F

    2005-06-01

    In this review the historical tenets and evidence-based clinical research in support of a bilirubin exchange threshold of >20 mg/dL for the healthy term neonate are revisited. In addition, a hypothesis is ventured that recent cases of kernicterus are related in part to changes in population factors coupled with genetic predispositions that have unmasked an unappreciated potential for marked neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:15930239

  3. Revisiting Lasswell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Farr; Jacob S. Hacker; Nicole Kazee

    2008-01-01

    This article continues the line of argument and historical interpretation we offered in “The Policy Scientist of Democracy:\\u000a The Discipline of Harold D. Lasswell” by way of a response to Ronald Brunner’s “The Policy Scientist of Democracy Revisited.”\\u000a Problems regarding Lasswell’s capacious vision of the policy scientist and vagaries surrounding “democracy,” do not diminish\\u000a the importance of the questions Lasswell

  4. Leo P: An Unquenched Very Low-Mass Galaxy

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M; Salzer, John J; Rhode, Katherine L; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Girardi, Léo; Haynes, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. The HI and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo~P to be 1.62+/-0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ~0.4 Mpc from the loose association of dwarfs that includes Sextans A, Sextans B, Antlia, and NGC 3109. The star responsible for ionizing the HII region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass >25 Msun. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper-end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rate...

  5. Enhanced Dust Emission in the HL Tau Disc: A Low-Mass Companion in Formation?

    E-print Network

    Greaves, J S; Rice, W K M; Muxlow, T W B

    2008-01-01

    We have imaged the disc of the young star HL Tau using the VLA at 1.3 cm, with 0.08" resolution (as small as the orbit of Jupiter). The disc is around half the stellar mass, assuming a canonical gas-mass conversion from the measured mass in large dust grains. A simulation shows that such discs are gravitationally unstable, and can fragment at radii of a few tens of AU to form planets. The VLA image shows a compact feature in the disc at 65 AU radius (confirming the `nebulosity' of Welch et al. 2004), which is interpreted as a localised surface density enhancement representing a candidate proto-planet in its earliest accretion phase. If correct, this is the first image of a low-mass companion object seen together with the parent disc material out of which it is forming. The object has an inferred gas plus dust mass of approximately 14 M(Jupiter), similar to the mass of a proto-planet formed in the simulation. The disc instability may have been enhanced by a stellar flyby: the proper motion of the nearby star X...

  6. Enhanced Dust Emission in the HL Tau Disc: A Low-Mass Companion in Formation?

    E-print Network

    J. S. Greaves; A. M. S. Richards; W. K. M. Rice; T. W. B. Muxlow

    2008-09-24

    We have imaged the disc of the young star HL Tau using the VLA at 1.3 cm, with 0.08" resolution (as small as the orbit of Jupiter). The disc is around half the stellar mass, assuming a canonical gas-mass conversion from the measured mass in large dust grains. A simulation shows that such discs are gravitationally unstable, and can fragment at radii of a few tens of AU to form planets. The VLA image shows a compact feature in the disc at 65 AU radius (confirming the `nebulosity' of Welch et al. 2004), which is interpreted as a localised surface density enhancement representing a candidate proto-planet in its earliest accretion phase. If correct, this is the first image of a low-mass companion object seen together with the parent disc material out of which it is forming. The object has an inferred gas plus dust mass of approximately 14 M(Jupiter), similar to the mass of a proto-planet formed in the simulation. The disc instability may have been enhanced by a stellar flyby: the proper motion of the nearby star XZ Tau shows it could have recently passed the HL Tau disc as close as ~600 AU.

  7. No evidence for multiple stellar populations in the low-mass Galactic globular cluster E 3

    E-print Network

    Salinas, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M~1.4 x 10^4 M_sun) globular cluster E 3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue CN absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multi stellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E 3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found.

  8. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  9. Low Mass Standard Model Higgs Limit at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Keung, Justin

    2010-10-01

    The searches for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs Boson at the Fermilab Tevatron by the CDF and D0 experiments are presented. Their state of the art techniques, including maximizing Higgs signal acceptance, reducing background through b-jet ID, and with Multi-Variate discrimination between signal and background, are elucidated. The two experiments are able to achieve a sensitivity of three to five times SM cross section ({sigma}{sub SM}) at the benchmark mass point of m{sub H} = 115 GeV/c{sup 2} using the main search channels WH {yields} lvbb, ZH {yields} vvbb, and ZH {yields} llbb, and on combining all the channels from CDF and D0, the observed (expected) limit is 1.56 (1.45) x {sigma}{sub SM}. The present expected limit is 1.8 x {sigma}{sub SM} or below for the entire low mass range, and sensitivity projections at present anticipate in Tevatron Run II a 3{sigma} sensitivity achievement for m{sub H} = 115 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. Tidal Streams and Low Mass Companions of M31

    E-print Network

    Robert Braun; David Thilker

    2003-12-04

    We have imaged the extended HI environment of M31 with an unprecedented combination of high resolution and sensitivity. We detect a number of distinct High Velocity Cloud components associated with M31. A sub-set of the features within 30 kpc appear to be tidal in origin. A filamentary ``halo'' component is concentrated at the M31 systemic velocity and appears to extend into a ``bridge'' connecting M31 and M33. This may represent condensation in coronal gas. A population of discrete clouds is detected out to radii of about 150 kpc. Discrete cloud line-widths are correlated with HI mass and are consistent with a 100:1 ratio of dark to HI mass. These may be the gaseous counterparts of low-mass dark-matter satellites. The combined distribution of M31's HVC components can be characterized by a spatial Gaussian of 55 kpc dispersion and yields an N_HI distribution function which agrees well with that of low red-shift QSOs.

  11. The Chiral Restoration Transition of QCD and Low Mass Dileptons

    E-print Network

    R. Rapp; J. Wambach; H. van Hees

    2009-01-21

    Recent developments in the evaluation of vector-meson spectral functions in hot and dense matter are discussed with emphasis on connections to the chiral phase transition in QCD. Model independent approaches including chiral low-density expansions, lattice QCD, chiral and QCD sum rules are put into context with model predictions for in-medium vector-spectral function utilizing effective Lagrangians. Hadronic many-body calculations predict a strong broadening (and little mass shift) of the $\\rho$ spectral function which rapidly increases close to the expected phase boundary of hadronic and quark-gluon matter. Pertinent dilepton rates appear to degenerate with perturbative quark-antiquark annihilation in the Quark-Gluon Plasma, suggestive for chiral symmetry restoration. Applications to low-mass dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions result in quantitative agreement with recent high-quality data at the CERN-SPS. Thermal radiation from temperatures around $T_c$ consistently reproduces the experimental dilepton excess observed at masses above 1 GeV as well. The interpretation of dilepton sources at high transverse momentum appears to be more involved.

  12. White dwarf spins from low-mass stellar evolution models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. L. Suijs; N. Langer; A. J. T. Poelarends; S.-C. Yoon; A. Heger; F. Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prediction of the spins of the compact remnants is a fundamental goal of the theory of stellar evolution. Aims: Here, we confront the predictions for white dwarf spins from evolutionary models, including rotation with observational constraints. Methods: We perform stellar evolution calculations for stars in the mass range 1... 3 {M}_&sun;, including the physics of rotation, from the

  13. Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about stars including star statistics, and a star gallery. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  14. On the corotation torque for low-mass eccentric planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendyke, Stephen M.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of high-resolution 2D simulations of low-mass planets on fixed eccentric orbits embedded in protoplanetary discs. The aim of this study is to determine how the strength of the sustained, non-linear corotation torque experienced by embedded planets varies as a function of orbital eccentricity, disc parameters and planetary mass. In agreement with previous work we find that the corotation torque diminishes as orbital eccentricity, e, increases. Analysis of the time-averaged streamlines in the disc demonstrates that the width of the horseshoe region narrows as the eccentricity increases, and we suggest that this narrowing largely explains the observed decrease in the corotation torque. We employ three distinct methods for estimating the strength of the unsaturated corotation torque from our simulations, and provide an empirical fit to these results. We find that a simple model where the corotation torque, ?C, decreases exponentially with increasing eccentricity [i.e. ?C ? exp (-e/ef)] provides a good global fit to the data with an e-folding eccentricity, ef, that scales linearly with the disc scale height at the planet location. We confirm that this model provides a good fit for planet masses of 5 and 10 M? in our simulations. The formation of planetary systems is likely to involve significant planet-planet interactions that will excite eccentric orbits, and this is likely to influence disc-driven planetary migration through modification of the corotation torque. Our results suggest that high fidelity models of planetary formation should account for these effects.

  15. Structure and evolution of low mass W UMa type systems

    E-print Network

    Lifang Li; Zhanwen Han; Fenghui Zhang

    2004-03-15

    The structure and evolution of low mass W UMa type contact binaries are discussed by employing Eggleton's stellar evolution code. Assuming that these systems completely satisfy Roche geometry, we calculate the relative radii of both components of contact binaries in different contact depth between inner and outer Roche lobes. We obtain a radius grid of contact binaries, and can ensure the surfaces of two components lying on an equipotential surface by interpolation using this radius grid when we follow the evolution of the contact binaries. We assume that the energy transfer takes place in the different regions of the common envelope to investigate the effects of the region of energy transfer on the structure and evolution of contact binaries. We find that the region of energy transfer has significant influence on the structure and evolution of contact binaries, and conclude that the energy transfer may occur in the outermost layers of the common convective envelope for W-type systems, and this transfer takes place in the deeper layers of the common envelope for A-type systems. Meanwhile, if we assume that the energy transfer takes place in the outermost layers for our model with low total mass, and find that our model steadily evolves towards a system with a smaller mass ratio and a deeper envelope, suggesting that some A-type W UMa systems with low total mass could be considered as the later evolutionary stages of W-subtype systems, and that the surface temperature of the secondary excesses that of the primary during the time when the primary expands rapidly, or the secondary contracts rapidly, suggesting that W-subtype systems may be caused by expansion of the primary, or by the contraction of the secondary.

  16. Discovery of Pulsations, Including Possible Pressure Modes, in Two New Extremely Low Mass, He-core White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Brown, Warren R.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Bell, Keaton J.; Harrold, Samuel T.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of the second and third pulsating extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 (hereafter J1112) and SDSS J151826.68+065813.2 (hereafter J1518). Both have masses < 0.25 M ? and effective temperatures below 10, 000 K, establishing these putatively He-core WDs as a cooler class of pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere WDs (DAVs, or ZZ Ceti stars). The short-period pulsations evidenced in the light curve of J1112 may also represent the first observation of acoustic (p-mode) pulsations in any WD, which provide an exciting opportunity to probe this WD in a complimentary way compared to the long-period g-modes that are also present. J1112 is a T eff =9590 ± 140 K and log g =6.36 ± 0.06 WD. The star displays sinusoidal variability at five distinct periodicities between 1792 and 2855 s. In this star, we also see short-period variability, strongest at 134.3 s, well short of the expected g-modes for such a low-mass WD. The other new pulsating WD, J1518, is a T eff =9900 ± 140 K and log g =6.80 ± 0.05 WD. The light curve of J1518 is highly non-sinusoidal, with at least seven significant periods between 1335 and 3848 s. Consistent with the expectation that ELM WDs must be formed in binaries, these two new pulsating He-core WDs, in addition to the prototype SDSS J184037.78+642312.3, have close companions. However, the observed variability is inconsistent with tidally induced pulsations and is so far best explained by the same hydrogen partial-ionization driving mechanism at work in classic C/O-core ZZ Ceti stars.

  17. DISCOVERY OF PULSATIONS, INCLUDING POSSIBLE PRESSURE MODES, IN TWO NEW EXTREMELY LOW MASS, He-CORE WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Bell, Keaton J.; Harrold, Samuel T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We report the discovery of the second and third pulsating extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 (hereafter J1112) and SDSS J151826.68+065813.2 (hereafter J1518). Both have masses < 0.25 M{sub Sun} and effective temperatures below 10, 000 K, establishing these putatively He-core WDs as a cooler class of pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere WDs (DAVs, or ZZ Ceti stars). The short-period pulsations evidenced in the light curve of J1112 may also represent the first observation of acoustic (p-mode) pulsations in any WD, which provide an exciting opportunity to probe this WD in a complimentary way compared to the long-period g-modes that are also present. J1112 is a T{sub eff} =9590 {+-} 140 K and log g =6.36 {+-} 0.06 WD. The star displays sinusoidal variability at five distinct periodicities between 1792 and 2855 s. In this star, we also see short-period variability, strongest at 134.3 s, well short of the expected g-modes for such a low-mass WD. The other new pulsating WD, J1518, is a T{sub eff} =9900 {+-} 140 K and log g =6.80 {+-} 0.05 WD. The light curve of J1518 is highly non-sinusoidal, with at least seven significant periods between 1335 and 3848 s. Consistent with the expectation that ELM WDs must be formed in binaries, these two new pulsating He-core WDs, in addition to the prototype SDSS J184037.78+642312.3, have close companions. However, the observed variability is inconsistent with tidally induced pulsations and is so far best explained by the same hydrogen partial-ionization driving mechanism at work in classic C/O-core ZZ Ceti stars.

  18. Intermediate to low-mass stellar content of Westerlund 1

    E-print Network

    Wolfgang Brandner; J. Simon Clark; Andrea Stolte; Rens Waters; Ignacio Negueruela; Simon P. Goodwin

    2007-11-10

    We have analysed near-infrared NTT/SofI observations of the starburst cluster Westerlund 1, which is among the most massive young clusters in the Milky Way. A comparison of colour-magnitude diagrams with theoretical main-sequence and pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks yields improved extinction and distance estimates of A_Ks = 1.13+-0.03 mag and d = 3.55+-0.17 kpc (DM = 12.75+-0.10 mag). The pre-main sequence population is best fit by a Palla & Stahler isochrone for an age of 3.2 Myr, while the main sequence population is in agreement with a cluster age of 3 to 5 Myr. An analysis of the structural parameters of the cluster yields that the half-mass radius of the cluster population increases towards lower mass, indicative of the presence of mass segregation. The cluster is clearly elongated with an eccentricity of 0.20 for stars with masses between 10 and 32 Msun, and 0.15 for stars with masses in the range 3 to 10 Msun. We derive the slope of the stellar mass function for stars with masses between 3.4 and 27 Msun. In an annulus with radii between 0.75 and 1.5 pc from the cluster centre, we obtain a slope of Gamma = -1.3. Closer in, the mass function of Westerlund 1 is shallower with Gamma = -0.6. The extrapolation of the mass function for stars with masses from 0.08 to 120 Msun yields an initial total stellar mass of ~52,000 Msun, and a present-day mass of 20,000 to 45,000 Msun (about 10 times the stellar mass of the Orion Nebula Cluster, and 2 to 4 times the mass of the NGC 3603 young cluster), indicating that Westerlund 1 is the most massive starburst cluster identified to date in the Milky Way.

  19. Testing the Universality of the Fundamental Metallicity Relation at High Redshift Using Low-mass Gravitationally Lensed Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Sirio; Jones, Tucker; Ellis, Richard S.; Richard, Johan

    2013-08-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of nine low-mass star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 3 which are gravitationally lensed by foreground clusters. We used Triplespec, an echelle spectrograph at the Palomar 200 inch telescope that is very effective for this purpose as it samples the entire near-infrared spectrum simultaneously. By measuring the flux of nebular emission lines, we derive gas-phase metallicities and star formation rates, and by fitting the optical to infrared spectral energy distributions we obtain stellar masses. Taking advantage of the high magnification due to strong lensing, we are able to probe the physical properties of galaxies with stellar masses in the range 7.8 < log M/M ? < 9.4 whose star formation rates are similar to those of typical star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We compare our results with the locally determined relation between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate. Our data are in excellent agreement with this relation, with an average offset lang?log (O/H)rang = 0.01 ± 0.08, suggesting a universal relationship. Remarkably, the scatter around the fundamental metallicity relation is only 0.24 dex, smaller than that observed locally at the same stellar masses, which may provide an important additional constraint for galaxy evolution models.

  20. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringham, Roger

    2006-02-01

    We are using one of the most remarkable pulsing systems that nature offers for producing transient high-energy densities and I have been fortunate enough to be involved with it for over 20 years. Over time, we have increased the frequency of our piezo cavitation drivers and are now at 1.6 MHz and find that our results are the same. Even better, the Qx/reactor g, the energy density, is drastically increased when compared to our 40 and 20 kHz piezo systems.1-3 The cost is decreased by at least an order of magnitude and the durability is greatly increased. All Q values in this paper are dQ/dt J/s or W. The systems differ in several ways because of the 40 times increase in frequency. These 1.6 MHz systems produce more sonoluminescence (SL), and more but smaller bubbles and an energy density in the collapsing bubble system that is the same magnitude as the 40 kHz systems.4,5. In one cycle those small bubbles, initially a few 100 nm in diameter, that are resonance size for the 1.6 MHz input will grow isothermally. After the acoustic wave passes into its positive pressure phase the bubbles collapse violently keeping a portion of their energy. In the final stage of collapse the energy densities are literally astronomical. The collapse process produces from the bubble a jet that implants deuterons into a target foil. The time frame for this 1.6 MHz system is 40 times faster than for the 40 kHz system. The number of deuterons (protons) in the jet drops from 109 to 105 but the deuteron high density remains the same. The 1.6 MHz low mass (LM), device (weighing 20 g) produces the same excess heat, Qx, as the 40 kHz system (weighing 3 kg). The calorimetry is a D2O or H2O flow-through system measuring its Tin and Tout with a DT value probably a little lower than the true value. The flow of D2O is measured at 60 ml/min or 1 ml/s. The total errors in the Qx measurements are in the order of 2 W. These values range up to 40 W depending on acoustic input, temperature, pressure, cavitating liquid, and target.

  1. The Origin of Black Hole Spin in Galactic Low-mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragos, T.; McClintock, J. E.

    2015-02-01

    Galactic field black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are believed to form in situ via the evolution of isolated binaries. In the standard formation channel, these systems survived a common envelope phase, after which the remaining helium core of the primary star and the subsequently formed BH are not expected to be highly spinning. However, the measured spins of BHs in LMXBs cover the whole range of spin parameters. We propose here that the BH spin in LMXBs is acquired through accretion onto the BH after its formation. In order to test this hypothesis, we calculated extensive grids of detailed binary mass-transfer sequences. For each sequence, we examined whether, at any point in time, the calculated binary properties are in agreement with their observationally inferred counterparts of 16 Galactic LMXBs. The "successful" sequences give estimates of the mass that the BH has accreted since the onset of Roche-Lobe overflow. We find that in all Galactic LMXBs with measured BH spin, the origin of the spin can be accounted for by the accreted matter, and we make predictions about the maximum BH spin in LMXBs where no measurement is yet available. Furthermore, we derive limits on the maximum spin that any BH can have depending on current properties of the binary it resides in. Finally we discuss the implication that our findings have on the BH birth-mass distribution, which is shifted by ~1.5 M ? toward lower masses, compared to the currently observed one.

  2. On the existence of low-mass dark matter and its direct detection.

    PubMed

    Bateman, James; McHardy, Ian; Merle, Alexander; Morris, Tim R; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) is an elusive form of matter which has been postulated to explain astronomical observations through its gravitational effects on stars and galaxies, gravitational lensing of light around these, and through its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This indirect evidence implies that DM accounts for as much as 84.5% of all matter in our Universe, yet it has so far evaded all attempts at direct detection, leaving such confirmation and the consequent discovery of its nature as one of the biggest challenges in modern physics. Here we present a novel form of low-mass DM ? that would have been missed by all experiments so far. While its large interaction strength might at first seem unlikely, neither constraints from particle physics nor cosmological/astronomical observations are sufficient to rule out this type of DM, and it motivates our proposal for direct detection by optomechanics technology which should soon be within reach, namely, through the precise position measurement of a levitated mesoscopic particle which will be perturbed by elastic collisions with ? particles. We show that a recently proposed nanoparticle matter-wave interferometer, originally conceived for tests of the quantum superposition principle, is sensitive to these collisions, too. PMID:25622565

  3. Mass-ratio distribution of extremely low-mass white dwarf binaries

    E-print Network

    Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the masses of the components of binary systems is very useful to constrain the possible scenarios that could lead to their existence. While it is sometimes possible to determine the mass of the primary star, for single-lined spectroscopic binaries it is not trivial to have good estimates of the mass of the secondary. If a large enough sample of such binaries is available, it is possible, however, to use statistical methods to determine the mass ratio distribution, and thus, the secondary mass distribution. Recently, Andrews et al. (2014) studied the mass distribution of companions to extremely low-mass white dwarfs, using a sample of binaries from the ELM WD Survey. I reanalyse the same sample, using two different methods: in the first one, I assume some functional form for the mass distribution, while in the second, I apply an inversion method. I show that the resulting companion-mass distribution can be as well approximated by either a uniform distribution or a Gaussian distribution. The mass ratio ...

  4. Evidence for Blow-out in the Low-mass Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg I

    E-print Network

    Ott, J; Brinks, E; Van Dyk, S D; Dirsch, B; Klein, U; Ott, Juergen; Walter, Fabian; Brinks, Elias; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Dirsch, Boris; Klein, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    We present radio and optical observations of Holmberg I (HoI), a member of the M81 group of galaxies (distance 3.6Mpc). HoI is a low-mass, low surface- brightness dwarf galaxy. High-resolution multi-array VLA HI observations reveal a supergiant shell (diameter: 1.7 kpc) which covers about half the optical extent of HoI and which comprises 75% of the total HI content (total HI mass: 1.1 10^8 M_o). We set a tentative upper limit to the dark matter content of < 3.1 10^8 M_o. The HI data are complemented by deep, optical UBV(RI)_c and Halpha observations obtained at the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope. We find M_HI/L_B = 1.1 M_o/L_B_o. The total visible (stars plus gas) mass of HoI adds up to 2.4 10^8 M_o. This leads to a total mass of < 5.5 10^8 M_o. The origin of HoI's peculiar HI morphology is discussed in terms of a supergiant shell created by strong stellar winds and supernova explosions (energy: equiv. 20-260 type II SN; age: 80+-20 Myr). The morphological center of HoI is offset by 0.75 kpc with respect to...

  5. ORBITAL PERIOD AND OUTBURST LUMINOSITY OF TRANSIENT LOW MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y. X.; Yu, W. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, T. P. [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Li, X. D., E-mail: wenfei@shao.ac.c [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the maximal luminosity of X-ray outburst and the orbital period in transient low mass X-ray binaries (or soft X-ray transients) observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in the past decade. We find that the maximal luminosity (3-200 keV) in Eddington units generally increases with increasing orbital period, which does not show a luminosity saturation but in general agrees with theoretical prediction. The peak luminosities in ultra-compact binaries might be higher than those with an orbital period of 2-4 hr, but more data are needed to make this claim. We also find that there is no significant difference in the 3-200 keV peak outburst luminosity between neutron star (NS) systems and black hole (BH) systems with orbital periods above 4 hr; however, there might be a significant difference at smaller orbital periods where only NS systems are observed and radiatively inefficient accretion flow is expected to work at low luminosities for BH accreters.

  6. Discovery And Characterization of Wide Binary Systems With a Very Low Mass Component

    E-print Network

    Baron, Frédérique; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Gagné, Jonathan; Davison, Cassy L; Malo, Lison; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Reylé, Céline

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 14 low-mass binary systems containing mid-M to mid-L dwarf companions with separations larger than 250 AU. We also report the independent discovery of 9 other systems with similar characteristics that were recently discovered in other studies. We have identified these systems by searching for common proper motion sources in the vicinity of known high proper motion stars, based on a cross-correlation of wide area near-infrared surveys (2MASS, SDSS, and SIMP). An astrometric follow-up, for common proper motion confirmation, was made with SIMON and/or CPAPIR at the OMM 1.6 m and CTIO 1.5 m telescopes for all the candidates identified. A spectroscopic follow-up was also made with GMOS or GNIRS at Gemini to determine the spectral types of 11 of our newly identified companions and 10 of our primaries. Statistical arguments are provided to show that all of the systems we report here are very likely to be physical binaries. One of the new systems reported features a brown dwarf companion: L...

  7. On the Existence of Low-Mass Dark Matter and its Direct Detection

    E-print Network

    James Bateman; Ian McHardy; Alexander Merle; Tim R. Morris; Hendrik Ulbricht

    2014-05-21

    Dark Matter (DM) is an elusive form of matter which has been postulated to explain astronomical observations through its gravitational effects on stars and galaxies, gravitational lensing of light around these, and through its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This indirect evidence implies that DM accounts for as much as 84.5% of all matter in our Universe, yet it has so far evaded all attempts at direct detection, leaving such confirmation and the consequent discovery of its nature as one of the biggest challenges in modern physics. Here we present a novel form of low-mass DM $\\chi$ that would have been missed by all experiments so far. While its large interaction strength might at first seem unlikely, neither constraints from particle physics nor cosmological/astronomical observations are sufficient to rule out this type of DM, and it motivates our proposal for direct detection by optomechanics technology which should soon be within reach, namely, through the precise position measurement of a levitated mesoscopic particle which will be perturbed by elastic collisions with $\\chi$ particles. We show that a recently proposed nanoparticle matter-wave interferometer, originally conceived for tests of the quantum superposition principle, is sensitive to these collisions, too.

  8. On the Existence of Low-Mass Dark Matter and its Direct Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, James; McHardy, Ian; Merle, Alexander; Morris, Tim R.; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) is an elusive form of matter which has been postulated to explain astronomical observations through its gravitational effects on stars and galaxies, gravitational lensing of light around these, and through its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This indirect evidence implies that DM accounts for as much as 84.5% of all matter in our Universe, yet it has so far evaded all attempts at direct detection, leaving such confirmation and the consequent discovery of its nature as one of the biggest challenges in modern physics. Here we present a novel form of low-mass DM ? that would have been missed by all experiments so far. While its large interaction strength might at first seem unlikely, neither constraints from particle physics nor cosmological/astronomical observations are sufficient to rule out this type of DM, and it motivates our proposal for direct detection by optomechanics technology which should soon be within reach, namely, through the precise position measurement of a levitated mesoscopic particle which will be perturbed by elastic collisions with ? particles. We show that a recently proposed nanoparticle matter-wave interferometer, originally conceived for tests of the quantum superposition principle, is sensitive to these collisions, too.

  9. {beta} PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUPS: LIKELY NEW LOW-MASS MEMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Lepine, Sebastien, E-mail: jschlied@ic.sunysb.ed, E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.ed, E-mail: lepine@amnh.or [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We present results from our continuing program to identify new, low-mass, members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) using a proper motion selection algorithm and various observational techniques. We have three goals: (1) to provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, (2) to complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs down to {approx}0.1 M{sub sun}, and thus (3) provide a well-characterized sample of nearby (median distances at least twice as close as the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions), young (8-50 Myr) stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity. Our program proceeds as follows: we apply the selection algorithm to a proper motion catalog where initial selection cuts of candidate members are based on the mean motion of known NYMG members and the proper motions and photometric distances of the candidates. NYMG membership is investigated further using possible signs of youth, including H{alpha} emission and X-ray flux, and then verified through radial velocity measurements. We identify TYC 1766-1431-1 (M3), TYC 1208-468-1 and 2 (K3), TYC 7558-655-1 (K5), and PM I04439+3723W and E (M3) as likely members of the {beta} Pictoris moving group (BPMG) and TYC 1741-2117-1N and S (K7), TYC 1752-63-1 (K7), TYC 523-573-1 (K7), and TYC 4943-192-1 (M0) as likely members of the AB Doradus moving group (ABDMG). We also rule out the membership of several BPMG and ABDMG candidates. To date our program has identified 16 new NYMG members of spectral type K3 or later.

  10. ? Pictoris and AB Doradus Moving Groups: Likely New Low-mass Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Lépine, Sébastien; Simon, Michal

    2010-07-01

    We present results from our continuing program to identify new, low-mass, members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) using a proper motion selection algorithm and various observational techniques. We have three goals: (1) to provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, (2) to complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs down to ~0.1 M sun, and thus (3) provide a well-characterized sample of nearby (median distances at least twice as close as the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions), young (8-50 Myr) stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity. Our program proceeds as follows: we apply the selection algorithm to a proper motion catalog where initial selection cuts of candidate members are based on the mean motion of known NYMG members and the proper motions and photometric distances of the candidates. NYMG membership is investigated further using possible signs of youth, including H? emission and X-ray flux, and then verified through radial velocity measurements. We identify TYC 1766-1431-1 (M3), TYC 1208-468-1 and 2 (K3), TYC 7558-655-1 (K5), and PM I04439+3723W and E (M3) as likely members of the ? Pictoris moving group (BPMG) and TYC 1741-2117-1N and S (K7), TYC 1752-63-1 (K7), TYC 523-573-1 (K7), and TYC 4943-192-1 (M0) as likely members of the AB Doradus moving group (ABDMG). We also rule out the membership of several BPMG and ABDMG candidates. To date our program has identified 16 new NYMG members of spectral type K3 or later.

  11. SEARCH FOR VERY LOW-MASS BROWN DWARFS AND FREE-FLOATING PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Goldman, Bertrand; Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg (Germany); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hofstetter, Lorne W., E-mail: quanz@astro.phys.ethz.c [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The number of low-mass brown dwarfs and even free floating planetary-mass objects in young nearby star-forming (SF) regions and associations is continuously increasing, offering the possibility to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function in greater detail. In this paper, we present six new candidates for (very) low-mass objects in the Taurus SF region one of which was recently discovered in parallel by Luhman et al. The underlying data we use is part of a new database from a deep near-infrared survey at the Calar Alto observatory. The survey is more than 4 mag deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey and covers currently approx1.5 deg{sup 2}. Complementary optical photometry from Sloan Digital Sky Survey were available for roughly 1.0 deg{sup 2}. After selection of the candidates using different color indices, additional photometry from Spitzer/IRAC was included in the analysis. In greater detail, we focus on two very faint objects for which we obtained J-band spectra. Based on comparison with reference spectra, we derive a spectral type of L2 +- 0.5 for one object, making it the object with the latest spectral type in Taurus known today. From models, we find the effective temperature to be 2080 +- 140 K and the mass 5-15 Jupiter masses. For the second source, the J-band spectrum does not provide definite proof of the young, low-mass nature of the object, as the expected steep water vapor absorption at 1.33 mum is not present in the data. We discuss the probability that this object might be a background giant or carbon star. If it were a young Taurus member, however, a comparison to theoretical models suggests that it lies close to or even below the deuterium burning limit (<13 M{sub Jup}) as well. A first proper motion analysis for both objects shows that they are good candidates for being Taurus members.

  12. On the baryonic contents of low mass galaxies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2012-07-16

    The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation is an important observational constraint on cosmological and galactic models. However, it is critical to keep in mind that in observations only stars, molecular, and atomic gas are counted, while the contribution of the ionized gas is almost universally missed. The ionized gas is, however, expected to be present in the gaseous disks of dwarf galaxies simply because they are exposed to the cosmic ionizing background and to the stellar radiation that manages to escape from the central regions of the galactic disks into their outer layers. Such an expectation is, indeed, born out both bymore »cosmological numerical simulations and by simple analytical models.« less

  13. ON THE BARYONIC CONTENTS OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation is an important observational constraint on cosmological and galactic models. However, it is critical to keep in mind that in observations only stars and molecular and atomic gas are counted, while the contribution of the ionized gas is almost universally missed. The ionized gas is, however, expected to be present in the gaseous disks of dwarf galaxies simply because they are exposed to the cosmic ionizing background and to the stellar radiation that manages to escape from the central regions of the galactic disks into their outer layers. Such an expectation is, indeed, born out both by cosmological numerical simulations and by simple analytical models.

  14. Intermediate to low-mass stellar content of Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandner, W.; Clark, J. S.; Stolte, A.; Waters, R.; Negueruela, I.; Goodwin, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed near-infrared NTT/SofI observations of the starburst cluster Westerlund 1, which is among the most massive young clusters in the Milky Way. A comparison of colour-magnitude diagrams with theoretical main-sequence and pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks yields improved extinction and distance estimates of AKs = 1.13 ± 0.03 mag and d = 3.55 ± 0.17 kpc (DM = 12.75 ± 0.10 mag). The pre-main sequence population is best fit by a Palla & Stahler isochrone for an age of 3.2 Myr, while the main sequence population is in agreement with a cluster age of 3 to 5 Myr. An analysis of the structural parameters of the cluster yields that the half-mass radius of the cluster population increases towards lower mass, indicative of the presence of mass segregation. The cluster is clearly elongated with an eccentricity of 0.20 for stars with masses between 10 and 32 M_?, and 0.15 for stars with masses in the range 3 to 10 M_?. We derive the slope of the stellar mass function for stars with masses between 3.4 and 27 M_?. In an annulus with radii between 0.75 and 1.5 pc from the cluster centre, we obtain a slope of ? = -1.3. Closer in, the mass function of Westerlund 1 is shallower with ? = -0.6. The extrapolation of the mass function for stars with masses from 0.08 to 120 M_? yields an initial total stellar mass of ?52 000 M_?, and a present-day mass of 20 000 to 45 000 M_? (about 10 times the stellar mass of the Orion nebula cluster, and 2 to 4 times the mass of the NGC 3603 young cluster), indicating that Westerlund 1 is the most massive starburst cluster identified to date in the Milky Way. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and retrieved from the ESO archive (Prog ID 67.C-0514).

  15. Results of Coring from a Low Mass Rover Paul Backes, Daniel Helmick , Max Bajracharya

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Results of Coring from a Low Mass Rover Paul Backes, Daniel Helmick , Max Bajracharya Jet for coring from a low-mass rover has been developed to enable core sample acquisition where a planetary rover Odometry, is used to measure rover slip during coring and the slip is accommodated through corresponding

  16. A Photometric Study of Young Stars in the (lambda) Orionis Star-Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Christopher J.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    1999-08-01

    With 11 OB stars centered in an unobscured ring of clouds littered with low-mass pre-main sequence stars, the (lambda) Orionis star- forming region is an excellent laboratory for studying the effects of massive stars on low-mass star formation. We propose a BVRI photometric survey of the entire star-forming region with the wide-field 0.9m/Mosaic imager. The goals of the photometry will be (1) to identify young stellar candidates throughout the region via pre-main sequence loci in the color-magnitude diagram and (2) to derive ages and masses by comparison with pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. The ages will allow us to deduce the sequence of star formation in the region, while the masses will reveal the spatial dependence of the initial mass function. Together, these results allow us to determine the influence of the OB stars on the formation of low- mass stars.

  17. A Statistical Analysis of SEEDS and Other High-contrast Exoplanet Surveys: Massive Planets or Low-mass Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Turner, Edwin L.; Mede, Kyle; Spiegel, David S.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Wisniewski, John P.; Abe, L.; Biller, B.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Currie, T.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hashimoto, J.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Inutsuka, S.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martín, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2014-10-01

    We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (? And b, two ~60 M J brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD-35 2722B). For some analyses we add a currently unpublished set of SEEDS observations, including the detections GJ 504b and GJ 758B. We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of all stellar ages using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most of the integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis of the distribution function derived from radial-velocity planets, finding model-dependent values of ~30-100 AU. Finally, we model the entire substellar sample, from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ~5 M J, with a single power-law distribution. We find that p(M, a)vpropM -0.65 ± 0.60 a -0.85 ± 0.39 (1? errors) provides an adequate fit to our data, with 1.0%-3.1% (68% confidence) of stars hosting 5-70 M J companions between 10 and 100 AU. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  18. Comparison Between Extrasolar Planets and Low-Mass Secondaries

    E-print Network

    T. Mazeh; S. Zucker

    2000-08-04

    This paper compares the statistical features of the sample of discovered extrasolar planets with those of the secondaries in nearby spectroscopic binaries, in order to enable us to distinguish between the two populations. Based on 32 planet candidates discovered until March 2000, we find that their eccentricity and period distribution are surprisingly similar to those of the binary population, while their mass distribution is remarkably different. The mass distributions definitely support the idea of two distinct populations, suggesting the planet candidates are indeed extrasolar planets. The transition between the two populations probably occurs at 10--30 Jupiter masses. We point out a possible negative correlation between the orbital period of the planets and the metallicity of their parent stars, which holds only for periods less than about 100 days. These short-period systems are characterized by circular or almost circular orbits.

  19. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  20. Neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter and gravitational physics. Observations of neutron stars from sources such as radio pulsars, low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray bursts and thermally-emitting neutron stars are setting bounds to neutron star masses, radii, rotation rates, temperatures and ages. Mass measurements constrain the equation of state at the highest densities and set firm bounds to the highest possible density of cold matter. Radii constrain the equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density and yield information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are in remarkable agreement with observational bounds.

  1. High-precision acoustic helium signatures in 18 low-mass low-luminosity red giants. Analysis from more than four years of Kepler observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, E.; De Ridder, J.; García, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. High-precision frequencies of acoustic modes in red giant stars are now available thanks to the long observing length and high quality of the light curves provided by the NASA Kepler mission, thus allowing the interior of evolved cool low-mass stars to be probed with an unprecedented level of detail. Aims: We characterize the acoustic signature of the helium second ionization zone in a sample of 18 low-mass low-luminosity red giants by exploiting new mode-frequency measurements derived from more than four years of Kepler observations. Methods: We analyzed the second frequency differences of radial acoustic modes in all the stars of the sample by using the Bayesian code Diamonds. Results: We find clear acoustic glitches due to the signature of helium second ionization in all the stars of the sample. We could measure the acoustic depth and the characteristic width of the acoustic glitches with a precision level on average around ~2% and ~8%, respectively. We find good agreement with theoretical predictions and existing measurements from the literature. Finally, we derive the amplitude of the glitch signal at ?max for the second differences and for the frequencies with an average precision of ~6%, obtaining values in the range 0.14-0.24 ?Hz and 0.08-0.33 ?Hz, respectively, which can be used to investigate the helium abundance in the stars. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Very Low Mass Objects in the Coronet Cluster: The Realm of the Transition Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Juhász, Attila; Bouwman, Jeroen; Garmire, Gordon; Garmire, Audrey

    2008-11-01

    We present optical and IR spectra of a set of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Coronet cluster (aged ~1 Myr), obtained with the multifiber spectrograph FLAMES on the VLT and with the IRS instrument on Spitzer. Most of the objects had been selected via their X-ray emission in a deep Chandra survey. The optical spectra reveal spectral types between M1 and M7.5, confirm the youth of the objects (via Li ?6708 absorption), and show the presence of accretion (via H?) and shocks (via forbidden line emission). The IRS spectra, together with IR photometry from the IRAC/MIPS instruments on Spitzer and 2MASS, confirm the presence of IR excesses characteristic of disks around ~70% of the objects. Half of the disks do not exhibit any silicate emission or present flat features characteristic of large grains (>6 ?m). The rest of the disks show silicate emission with indications of amorphous and crystalline silicate grains a few microns in size. About 50% of the objects with disks do not show near-IR excess emission, corresponding to the presence of ``transitional'' disks, according to their classical definition. This is a very high fraction for such a young cluster. The large number of ``transitional'' disks suggests lifetimes comparable to the lifetimes of typical optically thick disks. Therefore, these disks may not be in a short-lived phase, intermediate between Class II and Class III objects. The median SED of the disks in the Coronet cluster is also closer to a flat disk than observed for the disks around solar-type stars in regions with similar age. The differences in the disk morphology and evolution in the Coronet cluster could be related to the fact that these objects have very late spectral types compared to the solar-type stars in other cluster studies. Finally, the optical spectroscopy reveals that one of the X-ray sources is produced by a Herbig-Haro object in the cloud. Based on ESO program 079.C-0235.

  3. Evidence for Blow-out in the Low-mass Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg I

    E-print Network

    Juergen Ott; Fabian Walter; Elias Brinks; Schuyler D. Van Dyk; Boris Dirsch; Ulrich Klein

    2001-10-05

    We present radio and optical observations of Holmberg I (HoI), a member of the M81 group of galaxies (distance 3.6Mpc). HoI is a low-mass, low surface- brightness dwarf galaxy. High-resolution multi-array VLA HI observations reveal a supergiant shell (diameter: 1.7 kpc) which covers about half the optical extent of HoI and which comprises 75% of the total HI content (total HI mass: 1.1 10^8 M_o). We set a tentative upper limit to the dark matter content of < 3.1 10^8 M_o. The HI data are complemented by deep, optical UBV(RI)_c and Halpha observations obtained at the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope. We find M_HI/L_B = 1.1 M_o/L_B_o. The total visible (stars plus gas) mass of HoI adds up to 2.4 10^8 M_o. This leads to a total mass of < 5.5 10^8 M_o. The origin of HoI's peculiar HI morphology is discussed in terms of a supergiant shell created by strong stellar winds and supernova explosions (energy: equiv. 20-260 type II SN; age: 80+-20 Myr). The morphological center of HoI is offset by 0.75 kpc with respect to the dynamical center. Within the interior of the shell the light distribution is exponential with a rather shallow gradient and blue optical colors. Beyond a radius corresponding to an HI column density of 10^21 cm^-2, the putative star formation (SF) threshold, the disk becomes considerably redder and the slope for the exponential light distribution steepens. It is speculated that a generation of stars (age 15-30 Myr) is the result of secondary SF on the rim of the shell. Based on the global morphology and velocity dispersion as well as the location of the HII regions we find evidence for ram pressure within the M81 group. Finally, we discuss the likelihood of HoI having lost some of its interstellar material to the intergalactic medium (''blow-out'' scenario).

  4. Population synthesis of classical low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haaften, L. M.; Nelemans, G.; Voss, R.; van der Sluys, M. V.; Toonen, S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We model the present-day population of classical low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with neutron star accretors, which have hydrogen-rich donor stars. Their population is compared with that of hydrogen-deficient LMXBs, known as ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs). We model the observable LMXB population and compare it to observations. We model the Galactic Bulge because it contains a well-observed population and it is the target of the Galactic Bulge Survey. Methods: We combine the binary population synthesis code SeBa with detailed LMXB evolutionary tracks to model the size and properties of the present-day LMXB population in the Galactic Bulge. Whether sources are persistent or transient, and what their instantaneous X-ray luminosities are, is predicted using the thermal-viscous disk instability model. Results: We find a population of ~2.1 × 103 LMXBs with neutron star accretors. Of these about 15-40 are expected to be persistent (depending on model assumptions), with luminosities higher than 1035 erg s-1. About 7-20 transient sources are expected to be in outburst at any given time. Within a factor of two these numbers are consistent with the observed population of bright LMXBs in the Bulge. This gives credence to our prediction of the existence of a population of ~1.6 × 103 LMXBs with low donor masses that have gone through the period minimum, and have present-day mass transfer rates below 10-11 M? yr-1. Conclusions: Even though the observed population of hydrogen-rich LMXBs in the Bulge is larger than the observed population of (hydrogen-deficient) UCXBs, the latter have a higher formation rate. While UCXBs may dominate the total LMXB population at the present time, the majority would be very faint or may have become detached and produced millisecond radio pulsars. In that case UCXBs would contribute significantly more to the formation of millisecond radio pulsars than hydrogen-rich LMXBs.

  5. SN 2009md: another faint supernova from a low-mass progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Ergon, M.; Eldridge, J. J.; Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Sollerman, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Agnoletto, I.; Arcavi, I.; Benetti, S.; Botticella, M.-T.; Bufano, F.; Campillay, A.; Crockett, R. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Kankare, E.; Leloudas, G.; Maguire, K.; Mattila, S.; Maund, J. R.; Salgado, F.; Stephens, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Turatto, M.

    2011-10-01

    We present adaptive optics imaging of the core-collapse supernova (SN) 2009md, which we use together with archival Hubble Space Telescope data to identify a coincident progenitor candidate. We find the progenitor to have an absolute magnitude of V=-4.63+0.3-0.4 mag and a colour of V-I= 2.29+0.25-0.39 mag, corresponding to a progenitor luminosity of log L/L?˜ 4.54 ± 0.19 dex. Using the stellar evolution code STARS, we find this to be consistent with a red supergiant progenitor with M= 8.5+6.5-1.5 M?. The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2009md is similar to that of the class of sub-luminous Type IIP SNe; in this paper we compare the evolution of SN 2009md primarily to that of the sub-luminous SN 2005cs. We estimate the mass of 56Ni ejected in the explosion to be (5.4 ± 1.3) × 10-3 M? from the luminosity on the radioactive tail, which is in agreement with the low 56Ni masses estimated for other sub-luminous Type IIP SNe. From the light curve and spectra, we show the SN explosion had a lower energy and ejecta mass than the normal Type IIP SN 1999em. We discuss problems with stellar evolutionary models, and the discrepancy between low observed progenitor luminosities (log L/L?˜4.3-5 dex) and model luminosities after the second dredge-up for stars in this mass range, and consider an enhanced carbon burning rate as a possible solution. In conclusion, SN 2009md is a faint SN arising from the collapse of a progenitor close to the lower mass limit for core collapse. This is now the third discovery of a low-mass progenitor star producing a low-energy explosion and low 56Ni ejected mass, which indicates that such events arise from the lowest end of the mass range that produces a core-collapse SN (7-8 M?).

  6. The evolution of low-mass close binary systems with a compact component. II - Systems captured by angular momentum losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylyser, E. H. P.; Savonije, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents numerical calculations simulating the evolution of low-mass, interacting close binary systems in which mass-exchange is started from a 1.0-2.0 solar mass-losing component towards an accreting compact companion. The range of initial periods of these systems has been chosen to: (1) result in the capture of the system by angular momentum losses, and (2) cover a large part of the possible evolutionary paths of short-period cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Such an investigation extends the initial donor star mass to higher values than in previous similar studies. The systemic characteristics at different evolutionary stages of the mass exchange phase are in good agreement with results obtained in previous work. It is argued that the observed spread in mass transfer rates for a given orbital period is, by means of the process of magnetic braking, largely related to the spread in the moments of inertia of the mass-losing component in these systems. This reflects the natural distribution of initial periods (after termination of the spiral-in phase) of their progenitor systems.

  7. LOW-MASS TERTIARY COMPANIONS TO SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. I. COMMON PROPER MOTION SURVEY FOR WIDE COMPANIONS USING 2MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Peter R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 3003, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy, E-mail: peter.allen@fandm.edu [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We report the first results of a multi-epoch search for wide (separations greater than a few tens of AU), low-mass tertiary companions of a volume-limited sample of 118 known spectroscopic binaries within 30 pc of the Sun, using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog and follow-up observations with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes. Note that this sample is not volume complete but volume limited, and, thus, there is incompleteness in our reported companion rates. We are sensitive to common proper motion companions with separations from roughly 200 AU to 10,000 AU ({approx}10'' {yields} {approx} 10'). From 77 sources followed-up to date, we recover 11 previously known tertiaries, 3 previously known candidate tertiaries, of which 2 are spectroscopically confirmed and 1 rejected, and 3 new candidates, of which 2 are confirmed and 1 rejected. This yields an estimated wide tertiary fraction of 19.5{sup +5.2}{sub -3.7}%. This observed fraction is consistent with predictions set out in star formation simulations where the fraction of wide, low-mass companions to spectroscopic binaries is >10%.

  8. The chemistry of warm cores in low-mass star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Z. M. A.-H.

    Nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) can potentially be used in a large variety of applications such as electrochemical electrodes, tribology, cold cathodes, and corrosion resistance. A thorough knowledge of the electrical properties of NCD films is therefore critical to understand and predict their performance in various applications. In the present work the electrical properties of NCD films were analysed using Impedance Spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurements. Impedance Spectroscopy permits to identify and single out the conduction paths within the films tested. Such conduction paths can be through grain interiors and/or grain boundaries. Hall measurements, carried out on Boron doped NCD, permits determination of the mobility of the films. Specific treatments were devised to enhance the properties of the NCD films studied. Detonation nanodiamond (DND) is becoming an increasingly interesting material. It is already used as abrasive material or component for coatings [1], but its potential applications can extend far beyond these. It is therefore essential to understand the structure and electrical properties of DND in order to exploit the full potential of this material. In the present work, electrical properties of DND were studied using Impedance Spectroscopy. The results obtained suggest that DND could be used to manufacture devices able to work as Ammonia detectors. Another major area of study in this work was ultra-violet diamond photodetectors. Using high quality CVD single-crystal diamond, UV photodetection devices were built using standard lithographic techniques. Following the application of heat treatments, the photoconductive properties of these devices were highly enhanced. The devices represent the state-of-the-art UV diamond photodetectors.

  9. TITANIUM AND VANADIUM CHEMISTRY IN LOW-MASS DWARF STARS Katharina Lodders

    E-print Network

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    and water (H2O) and metal hydride (FeH and CrH) bands increase in strength in optical and near-IR spectra (FeH and CrH) bands marks the transition from M to L dwarfs (Kirkpatrick et al. 1999, 2000; Martin et

  10. Massive star archeology in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.

  11. Low mass SN IA and the late light curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Hand, K. P.

    1995-01-01

    The late bolometric light curves of type Ia supernovae, when measured accurately over several years, show an exponential decay with a 56d half-life over a drop in luminosity of 8 magnitudes (10 half-lives). The late-time light curve is thought to be governed by the decay of Co56, whose 77d half-life must then be modified to account for the observed decay time. Two mechanisms, both relying upon the positron fraction of the Co56 decay, have been proposed to explain this modification. One explanation requires a large amount of emission at infra-red wavelengths where it would not be detected. The other explanation has proposed a progressive transparency or leakage of the high energy positrons (Colgate, Petschek and Kriese). For the positrons to leak out of the expanding nebula at the required rate necessary to produce the modified 56d exponential, the mass of the ejecta from a one foe (1051 erg in kinetic energy) explosion must be small, Mejec = 0.4M(circle dot) with Mejec (proportional to) KE0.5. Thus, in this leakage explanation, any reasonable estimate of the total energy of the explosion requires that the ejected mass be very much less than the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4M(circle dot). This is very difficult to explain with the 'canonical' Chandrasekhar-mass thermonuclear explosion that disintegrates the original white dwarf star. This result leads us to pursue alternate mechanisms of type Ia supernovae. These mechanisms include sub-Chandrasekhar thermonuclear explosions and the accretion induced collapse of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We will summarize the advantages and disadvantages of both mechanisms with considerable detail spent on our new accretion induced collapse simulations. These mechanisms lead to lower Ni56 production and hence result in type Ia supernovae with luminosities decreased down to (approximately) 50% that predicted by the 'standard' model.

  12. The Baryon Content of Extremely Low Mass Dwarf Galaxies

    E-print Network

    M. Geha; M. R. Blanton; M. Masjedi; A. A. West

    2006-08-14

    We investigate the gas content and baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship for extremely low luminosity dwarf galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -13.5 > Mr > -16. The sample is selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and consists of 101 galaxies for which we have obtained follow-up HI observations using the Arecibo Observatory and Green Bank Telescope. This represents the largest homogeneous sample of dwarfs at low luminosities with well-measured HI and optical properties. The sample spans a range of environments, from dense groups to truly isolated galaxies. The average neutral gas fraction is f_gas=0.6, significantly exceeding that of typical gas-rich galaxies at higher luminosities. Dwarf galaxies are therefore less efficient at turning gas into stars over their lifetimes. The strong environmental dependence of the gas fraction distribution demonstrates that while internal processes can reduce the gas fractions to roughly f_gas=0.4, external processes are required to fully remove gas from a dwarf galaxy. The average rotational velocity of our sample is vrot=50 km/s. Including more massive galaxies from the literature, we fit a baryonic Tully-Fisher slope of M_baryon \\propto vrot^(3.70+/- 0.15). This slope compares well with CDM models that assume an equal baryon to dark matter ratio at all masses. While gas stripping or other processes may modify the baryon to dark matter ratio for dwarfs in the densest environments, the majority of dwarf galaxies in our sample have not preferentially lost significant baryonic mass relative to more massive galaxies.

  13. GT2318+620 - a Galactic Low-Mass X-Ray Binary or a Radio Loud AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhli, P.; Hakala, P. J.; Casares, J.; Shahbaz, T.; Vuori, M.; Charles, P. A.

    1998-12-01

    GT2318+620 is a variable radio source exhibiting a jet-like feature on both sides of an unresolved core (Taylor et al., Nature 351, 1991), and it is possibly associated with an UHURU X-ray source. A red 20th magnitude star coincident with the radio core was identified as the optical counterpart. Based on a neutral hydrogen absorption spectrum and the red color Taylor et al. classified the source as a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary. However, our imaging of GT2318+620 with the Nordic Optical Telescope in subarcsecond seeing conditions uncovered a red (V-I = 2.5) resolved source suggesting that the optical counterpart might be the host galaxy of a radio loud AGN. We present the results of recent optical photometry and spectroscopy as well as infrared photometry of GT2318+620 and discuss their implications on the nature of this source.

  14. TRACING COLD H I GAS IN NEARBY, LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Petersen, Eric A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); West, Andrew A., E-mail: warren@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: walter@mpia.de, E-mail: eapeter2@illinois.edu, E-mail: Baerbel.Koribalski@csiro.au, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (H I) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array-ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T {approx}< 1400 K) H I from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc beam{sup -1}. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total H I mass and nine magnitudes in M{sub B} . We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low-dispersion (<6 km s{sup -1}) component of the spectrum. Most H I spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km s{sup -1}. Cold H I is found in 23 of 27 ({approx}85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality-control cuts. The cold H I contributes {approx}20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm H I. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold H I emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions of <6 km s{sup -1}), are found primarily beyond the optical radius of the host galaxy. The cold H I is typically found in localized regions and is generally not coincident with the very highest surface density peaks of the global H I distribution (which are usually areas of recent star formation). We find a lower limit for the mass fraction of cold-to-total H I gas of only a few percent in each galaxy.

  15. ON THE HORSESHOE DRAG OF A LOW-MASS PLANET. I. MIGRATION IN ISOTHERMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S., E-mail: jules.casoli@cea.f, E-mail: frederic.masset@cea.f, E-mail: jules.casoli@cea.f [Also at ICF-UNAM, Av. Universidad s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos, C.P. 62210 (Mexico)

    2009-09-20

    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formalism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horseshoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feedback on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width of the horseshoe region, we provide an adequate definition of the width that needs to be used in horseshoe drag estimates. We then consider the case of locally isothermal disks, in which the temperature is constant in time but depends on the distance to the star. The horseshoe drag appears to be different from the case of a globally isothermal disk. The difference, which is due to the driving of vortensity in the vicinity of the planet, is intimately linked to the topology of the flow. We provide a descriptive interpretation of these effects, as well as a crude estimate of the dependency of the excess on the temperature gradient.

  16. Sound-triggered collapse of stably oscillating low-mass cores in a two-phase interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ui-Han; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2015-05-01

    Inspired by Barnard 68, a Bok globule, that undergoes stable oscillations, we perform multiphase hydrodynamic simulations to analyse the stability of Bok globules. We show that a high-density soft molecular core, with an adiabatic index ? = 0.7 embedded in a warm isothermal diffuse gas, must have a small density gradient to retain the stability. Despite being stable, the molecular core can still collapse spontaneously as it will relax to develop a sufficiently large density gradient after tens of oscillations, or a few 107 yr. However, during its relaxation, the core may abruptly collapse triggered by the impingement of small-amplitude, long-wavelength (˜6-36 pc) sound waves in the warm gas. This triggered collapse mechanism is similar to a sonoluminescence phenomenon, where underwater ultrasounds can drive air bubble coalescence. The collapse configuration is found to be different from both inside-out and outside-in models of low-mass star formation; none the less the mass flux is close to the prediction of the inside-out model. The condition and the efficiency for this core collapse mechanism are identified. Generally speaking, a broad-band resonance condition must be met, where the core oscillation frequency and the wave frequency should match each other within a factor of several. A consequence of our findings predicts the possibility of propagating low-mass star formation, for which collapse of cores, within a mass range short of one order of magnitude, takes place sequentially tracing the wavefront across a region of few tens of pc over 107 yr.

  17. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED PULSATING LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS: AN EXTENSION OF THE ZZ CETI INSTABILITY STRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Van Grootel, V.; Dupret, M.-A. [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l'Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)] [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l'Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P., E-mail: valerie.vangrootel@ulg.ac.be [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, C.P. 6128, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    In light of the exciting discovery of g-mode pulsations in extremely low-mass, He-core DA white dwarfs, we report on the results of a detailed stability survey aimed at explaining the existence of these new pulsators as well as their location in the spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. To this aim, we calculated some 28 evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses and chemical layering. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/{alpha} = 1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We pulsated the models with the nonadiabatic code MAD, which incorporates a detailed treatment of time-dependent convection. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes, including MAD, to account properly for the red edge of the strip, we resurrect the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. We thus estimated the location of that edge by requiring that the thermal timescale in the driving region-located at the base of the H convection zone-be equal to the critical period beyond which l = 1 g-modes cease to exist. Using this approach, we find that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip, including the low-gravity, low-temperature regime where the three new pulsators are found. We also account for the relatively long periods observed in these stars, and thus conclude that they are true ZZ Ceti stars, but with low masses.

  18. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 391, L74L78 (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00559.x Enhanced dust emission in the HL Tau disc: a low-mass companion

    E-print Network

    Tittley, Eric

    2008-01-01

    emission in the HL Tau disc: a low-mass companion in formation? J. S. Greaves,1 A. M. S. Richards,2 W. K. M form 2007 December 21 ABSTRACT We have imaged the disc of the young star HL Tau using the Very Large star XZ Tau shows it could have recently passed the HL Tau disc as close as 600 au. Key words

  19. New Extinction and Mass Estimates of the Low-mass Companion 1RXS 1609 B with the Magellan AO System: Evidence of an Inclined Dust Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Barman, Travis S.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2015-07-01

    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system to image the 11 Myr substellar companion 1RXS 1609 B at the bluest wavelengths to date (z? and Ys). Comparison with synthetic spectra yields a higher temperature than previous studies of {T}{eff}=2000+/- 100 {{K}} and significant dust extinction of {A}V={4.5}-0.7+0.5 mag. Mass estimates based on the DUSTY tracks gives 0.012–0.015 {M}? , making the companion likely a low-mass brown dwarf surrounded by a dusty disk. Our study suggests that 1RXS 1609 B is one of the ?25% of Upper Scorpius low-mass members harboring disks, and it may have formed like a star and not a planet out at ?320 AU. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. New Extinction and Mass Estimates of the Low-mass Companion 1RXS 1609 B with the Magellan AO System: Evidence of an Inclined Dust Disk

    E-print Network

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Males, Jared R; Barman, Travis S; Morzinski, Katie M; Follette, Katherine B; Bailey, Vanessa P; Rodigas, Timothy J; Hinz, Philip; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system to image the 11 Myr substellar companion 1RXS 1609 B at the bluest wavelengths to date (z' and Ys). Comparison with synthetic spectra yields a higher temperature than previous studies of $T_\\mathrm{eff}=2000\\pm100\\mathrm{K}$ and significant dust extinction of $A_V=4.5^{+0.5}_{-0.7}$ mag. Mass estimates based on the DUSTY tracks gives 0.012-0.015 Msun, making the companion likely a low-mass brown dwarf surrounded by a dusty disk. Our study suggests that 1RXS 1609 B is one of the 25% of Upper Scorpius low-mass members harboring disks, and it may have formed like a star and not a planet out at 320 AU.

  1. ASCA Observation of MS 1603.6+2600 (=UW Coronae Borealis): a Dipping Low-Mass X-ray Binary in the Outer Halo?

    E-print Network

    Koji Mukai; Alan P. Smale; Caroline K. Stahle; Eric M. Schlegel; Rudy Wijnands

    2001-07-18

    MS 1603.6+2600 is a high-latitude X-ray binary with a 111 min orbital period, thought to be either an unusual cataclysmic variable or an unusual low-mass X-ray binary. In an ASCA observation in 1997 August, we find a burst, whose light curve suggests a Type I (thermonuclear flash) origin. We also find an orbital X-ray modulation in MS 1603.6+2600, which is likely to be periodic dips, presumably due to azimuthal structure in the accretion disk. Both are consistent with this system being a normal low-mass X-ray binary harboring a neutron star, but at a great distance. We tentatively suggest that MS 1603.6+2600 is located in the outer halo of the Milky Way, perhaps associated with the globular cluster Palomar 14, 11 degrees away from MS 1603.6+2600 on the sky at an estimated distance of 73.8 kpc.

  2. ASCA Observation of MS 1603.6+2600 (=UW Coronae Borealis): A Dipping Low-Mass X-ray Binary in the Outer Halo?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Koji; Smale, Alan; Stahle, Caroline K.; Schlegel, Eric M.; Wijnands, Rudy; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    MS 1603.6+2600 is a high-latitude X-ray binary with a 111 min orbital period, thought to be either an unusual cataclysmic variable or an unusual low-mass X-ray binary. In an ASCA observation in 1997 August, we find a burst whose light curve suggests a Type 1 (thermonuclear flash) origin. We also find an orbital X-ray modulation in MS 1603.6+2600, which is likely to be periodic dips, presumably due to azimuthal structure in the accretion disk. Both are consistent with this system being a normal low-mass X-ray binary harboring a neutron star, but at a great distance. We tentatively suggest that MS 1603.6+2600 is located in the outer halo of the Milky Way, perhaps associated with the globular cluster Palomar 14, 11 deg away from MS 1603.6+2600 on the sky at an estimated distance of 73.8 kpc.

  3. Passive Apaptive Damping for High Stiffness-low Mass Materials Incorporating Negative Stiffness Elements 

    E-print Network

    Cha, Gene

    2013-11-07

    High stiffness / low mass materials or structures reduce structure weight in transportation, but show little inherent damping. A new composite material that exhibits high stiffness and high damping might reduce issues with ...

  4. Low-mass dark matter search results from full exposure of PandaX-I experiment

    E-print Network

    PandaX Collaboration; Xiang Xiao; Xun Chen; Andi Tan; Yunhua Chen; Xiangyi Cui; Deqing Fang; Changbo Fu; Karl L. Giboni; Haowei Gong; Guodong Guo; Ming He; Xiangdong Ji; Yonglin Ju; Siao Lei; Shaoli Li; Qing Lin; Huaxuan Liu; Jianglai Liu; Xiang Liu; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Yugang Ma; Yajun Mao; Kaixuan Ni; Kirill Pushkin; Xiangxiang Ren; Michael Schubnell; Manbin Shen; Yuji Shi; Scott Stephenson; Hongwei Wang; Jiming Wang; Meng Wang; Siguang Wang; Xuming Wang; Zhou Wang; Shiyong Wu; Mengjiao Xiao; Pengwei Xie; Binbin Yan; Yinghui You; Xionghui Zeng; Tao Zhang; Li Zhao; Xiaopeng Zhou; Zhonghua Zhu

    2015-05-11

    We report the results of a weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search using the full 80.1\\;live-day exposure of the first stage of the PandaX experiment (PandaX-I) located in the China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory. The PandaX-I detector has been optimized for detecting low-mass WIMPs, achieving a photon detection efficiency of 9.6\\%. With a fiducial liquid xenon target mass of 54.0\\,kg, no significant excess event were found above the expected background. A profile likelihood analysis confirms our earlier finding that the PandaX-I data disfavor all positive low-mass WIMP signals reported in the literature under standard assumptions. A stringent bound on the low mass WIMP is set at WIMP mass below 10\\,GeV/c$^2$, demonstrating that liquid xenon detectors can be competitive for low-mass WIMP searches.

  5. Spatial distribution of stars and brown dwarfs in ? Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, José A.

    2008-01-01

    I have re-visited the spatial distribution of stars and high-mass brown dwarfs in the ? Orionis (? Ori) cluster (~3Ma, ~360pc). The input was a catalogue of 340 cluster members and candidates at separations less than 30arcmin to ? Ori AB. Of them, 70 per cent have features of extreme youth. I fitted the normalized cumulative number of objects counting from the cluster centre to several power-law, exponential and King radial distributions. The cluster seems to have two components: a dense core that extends from the centre to r ~ 20arcmin and a rarified halo at larger separations. The radial distribution in the core follows a power law proportional to r1, which corresponds to a volume density proportional to r-2. This is consistent with the collapse of an isothermal spherical molecular cloud. The stars more massive than 3.7Msolar concentrate, however, towards the cluster centre, where there is also an apparent deficit of very low mass objects (M < 0.16Msolar). Last, I demonstrated through Monte Carlo simulations that the cluster is azimuthally asymmetric, with a filamentary overdensity of objects that runs from the cluster centre to the Horsehead Nebula.

  6. The Formation of Low-mass Helium White Dwarfs in Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, Alina G.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a large number of low-mass (<0.30;M?) helium white dwarfs (He WDs)1 have been discovered as a result of several surveys campaigns as WASP, ELM, Kepler or SDSS. The far majority of them have as companion another compact object. There appears to be discrepancies between current theoretical modelling of low -mass He WDs and a number of key observational cases indicating that some details of their formation scenario remains to be understood.

  7. Grief revisited.

    PubMed

    Ng, B Y

    2005-06-01

    The article serves to examine the cultural influences on attitudes towards the deceased and bereaved, as well as on the practice of mourning, and to revisit normal and pathological variants of grief. Grief is a subjective state of psychological and physiological reaction to the loss of a loved one. Reaction to the loss is experienced internally in a uniform manner across cultures. However, mourning, the voluntary social expression of the loss, varies from culture to culture. Rituals provide a standardised mode of behaviour, which helps to relieve the sense of uncertainty or loss. There were reports of ghost sightings involving foreign tourists in the 6 worst-hit southern provinces in Thailand following the tsunami tragedy. This phenomenon of "mass hallucinations" is understandable from the cultural perspective. New models of grief have been developed to account for the individuality and diversity of grief and to encompass the social, behavioural and spiritual dimensions of loss as well as those of the psychological and physical. Clinically, the duration of grief reactions varies widely, depending on the nature of the loss and the connection to the deceased. In the case of the tsunami tragedy, with relatives missing, homes swept away and familiar neighbourhoods turned into wastelands, many victims are likely to have complicated grief. Traumatic grief, which includes a prominent component of separation distress characterised by yearning and searching and frequent "bittersweet" recollections of the deceased, has been associated with long-term dysfunction. Grief work utilising the traumatic grief treatment protocol appears to be a promising intervention. PMID:16021224

  8. New Abundansec From Very Old Stars

    E-print Network

    Hansen, T; Christlieb, N; Yong, D; Beers, T C; Andersen, J

    2015-01-01

    Metal-poor stars hold the fossil record of the Galactic chemical evolution and nucleosynthesis processes that took place at the earliest times in the history of our Galaxy. From detailed abundance studies of low mass, extremely metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] capture. The sample includes some of the most metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] capture elements, and also a number of stars enhanced in carbon. The so called CEMP (carbon enhanced metal-poor) stars, these stars make up ~20% of the stars with [Fe/H] < -3, and 80% of the stars with [Fe/H] < -4.5. The progenitors of CEMP stars is still ...

  9. Ultraviolet emission lines in young low-mass galaxies at z ? 2: physical properties and implications for studies at z > 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Richard, Johan; Siana, Brian; Charlot, Stéphane; Freeman, William R.; Gutkin, Julia; Wofford, Aida; Robertson, Brant; Amanullah, Rahman; Watson, Darach; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2014-12-01

    We present deep spectroscopy of 17 very low mass (M? ? 2.0 × 106-1.4 × 109 M?) and low luminosity (MUV ? -13.7 to -19.9) gravitationally lensed galaxies in the redshift range z ? 1.5-3.0. Deep rest-frame ultraviolet spectra reveal large equivalent width emission from numerous emission lines (N IV], O III], C IV, Si III], C III]) which are rarely seen in individual spectra of more massive star-forming galaxies. C III] is detected in 16 of 17 low-mass star-forming systems with rest-frame equivalent widths as large as 13.5 Å. Nebular C IV emission is present in the most extreme C III] emitters, requiring an ionizing source capable of producing a substantial component of photons with energies in excess of 47.9 eV. Photoionization models support a picture whereby the large equivalent widths are driven by the increased electron temperature and enhanced ionizing output arising from metal-poor gas and stars (0.04-0.13 Z?), young stellar populations (6-50 Myr), and large ionization parameters (log U = -2.16 to -1.84). The young ages implied by the emission lines and continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs) indicate that the extreme line emitters in our sample are in the midst of a significant upturn in their star formation activity. The low stellar masses, blue UV colours, and large specific star formation rates of our sample are similar to those of typical z ? 6 galaxies. Given the strong attenuation of Ly? in z ? 6 galaxies, we suggest that C III] is likely to provide our best probe of early star-forming galaxies with ground-based spectrographs and one off the most efficient means of confirming z ? 10 galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  10. Evidence from Quasi-Periodic Oscillations for a Millisecond Pulsar in the Low Mass X-Ray Binary 4U 0614+091

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, E.; Kaaret, P.; Tavani, M.; Barret, D.; Bloser, P.; Grindlay, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) near 1 kHz from the low mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+091 in observations with RXTE. The observations span several months and sample the source over a large range of X-ray luminosity. In every interval QPOs are present above 400 Hz with fractional RMS amplitudes from 3 to 12% over the full PCA band. At high count rates, two high frequency QPOs are detected simultaneously. The difference of their frequency centroids is consistent with a constant value of 323 Hz in all observations. During one interval a third signal is detected at 328 +/- 2 Hz. This suggests the system has a stable 'clock' which is most likely the neutron star with spin period 3.1 msec. Thus, our observations of 4U 0614+091 and those of 4U 1728-34 provide the first evidence for millisecond pulsars within low-mass X-ray binary systems and reveal the 'missing-link' between millisecond radiopulsars and the late stages of binary evolution in low mass X-ray binaries. The constant difference of the high frequency QPOs sug,,ests a beat-frequency interpretation. In this model, the high frequency QPO is associated with the Keplerian frequency of the inner accretion disk and the lower frequency QPO is a 'beat' between the differential rotation frequency of the inner disk and the spinning neutron star. Assuming the high frequency QPO is a Keplerian orbital frequency for the accretion disk, we find a maximum mass of 1.9 solar mass and a maximum radius of 17 km for the neutron star.

  11. TiNy Titans: The Role of Dwarf–Dwarf Interactions in Low-mass Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, S.; Besla, G.; Patton, D.; Johnson, K.; Kallivayalil, N.; Putman, M.; Privon, G.; Ross, G.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce TiNy Titans (TNT), the first systematic study of star formation and the subsequent processing of the interstellar medium in interacting dwarf galaxies. Here we present the first results from a multiwavelength observational program based on a sample of 104 dwarf galaxy pairs selected from a range of environments within the spectroscopic portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and caught in various stages of interaction. The TNT dwarf pairs span mass ratios of M*,1/M*,2 < 10, projected separations <50 kpc, and pair member masses of 7 < log({{M}*}/{{M}? }) < 9.7. The dwarf–dwarf merger sequence, as defined by TNT at z = 0, demonstrates conclusively and for the first time that the star formation enhancement observed for massive galaxy pairs also extends to the dwarf mass range. Star formation is enhanced in paired dwarfs in otherwise isolated environments by a factor of 2.3 (±0.7) at pair separations <50 kpc relative to unpaired analogs. The enhancement decreases with increasing pair separation and extends out to pair separations as large as 100 kpc. Starbursts, defined by H? EQW >100 Å, occur in 20% of the TNT dwarf pairs, regardless of environment, compared to only 6%–8% of the matched unpaired dwarfs. Starbursts can be triggered throughout the merger (i.e., out to large pair separations) and not just approaching coalescence. Despite their enhanced star formation and triggered starbursts, most TNT dwarf pairs have similar gas fractions relative to unpaired dwarfs of the same stellar mass. Thus, there may be significant reservoirs of diffuse, non-star-forming neutral gas surrounding the dwarf pairs, or the gas consumption timescales may be long in the starburst phase. The only TNT dwarf pairs with low gas fractions (fgas\\lt 0.4) and the only dwarfs, either paired or unpaired, with H? EQW < 2 Å are found near massive galaxy hosts. We conclude that dwarf–dwarf interactions are significant drivers of galaxy evolution at the low-mass end, but ultimately environment is responsible for the quenching of star formation. This preliminary study is a precursor to an ongoing high-resolution H i and optical imaging program to constrain the spatial distribution of star formation and gas throughout the course of the dwarf–dwarf merger sequence.

  12. Bayesian peak bagging analysis of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, E.; De Ridder, J.; García, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Non-radial oscillations, observed in thousands of red giants by the space missions CoRoT and Kepler, allow us to greatly improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution in cool low-mass stars. The currently available Kepler light curves contain an outstanding amount of information, but a detailed analysis of the individual oscillation modes in the observed power spectra, also known as peak bagging, is computationally demanding and challenging to perform on a large number of targets. Aims: Our intent is to perform for the first time a peak bagging analysis on a sample of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed by Kepler for more than four years. This allows us to provide high-quality asteroseismic measurements that can be exploited for an intensive testing of the physics used in stellar structure models, stellar evolution, and pulsation codes, as well as for refining existing asteroseismic scaling relations in the red giant branch regime. Methods: For this purpose, powerful and sophisticated analysis tools are needed. We exploit the Bayesian code Diamonds, using an efficient nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm, to perform both a fast fitting of the individual oscillation modes and a peak detection test based on the Bayesian evidence. Results: We find good agreement for the parameters estimated in the background fitting phase with those given in the literature. We extract and characterize a total of 1618 oscillation modes, providing the largest set of detailed asteroseismic mode measurements ever published. We report on the evidence of a change in regime observed in the relation between linewidths and effective temperatures of the stars occurring at the bottom of the red giant branch. We show the presence of a linewidth depression or plateau around ?max for all the red giants of the sample. Lastly, we show a good agreement between our measurements of maximum mode amplitudes and existing maximum amplitudes from global analyses provided in the literature, proving that amplitude scaling relations can be used as empirical tools to improve and simplify the future peak bagging analysis on a larger sample of evolved stars.

  13. Implementation of the frequency-modulated sideband search method for gravitational waves from low mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Letizia Sammut; Christopher Messenger; Andrew Melatos; Benjamin J. Owen

    2013-11-06

    We describe the practical implementation of the sideband search, a search for periodic gravitational waves from neutron stars in binary systems. The orbital motion of the source in its binary system causes frequency-modulation in the combination of matched filters known as the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic. The sideband search is based on the incoherent summation of these frequency-modulated $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic sidebands. It provides a new detection statistic for sources in binary systems, called the $\\mathcal{C}$-statistic. The search is well suited to low-mass X-ray binaries, the brightest of which, called Sco X-1, is an ideal target candidate. For sources like Sco X-1, with well constrained orbital parameters, a slight variation on the search is possible. The extra orbital information can be used to approximately demodulate the data from the binary orbital motion in the coherent stage, before incoherently summing the now reduced number of sidebands. We investigate this approach and show that it improves the sensitivity of the standard Sco X-1 directed sideband search. Prior information on the neutron star inclination and gravitational wave polarization can also be used to improve upper limit sensitivity. We estimate the sensitivity of a Sco X-1 directed sideband search on 10 days of LIGO data and show that it can beat previous upper limits in current LIGO data, with a possibility of constraining theoretical upper limits using future advanced instruments.

  14. Big Game Hunting in the Andromeda Galaxy: identifiying and weighing black holes in low mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.

    2004-07-01

    We have devised a new technique for identifying stellar mass black holes in low mass X-ray binaries, and have applied it to XMM-Newton observations of two X-ray sources in M31. In particular we search for low accretion rate power density spectra; these are very similar for all LMXB, whether the primary is a black hole or a neutron star. Galactic neutron star LMXB exhibit these distinctive PDS at very low luminosities ( ˜ 1036 erg s-1) while black hole LMXB can exhibit them at luminosities > 1038 erg s-1! Following the work of van der Klis (1994), we assume a maximum accretion rate (as a fraction of the Eddington limit) for low accretion rate PDS that is constant for all LMXB, and obtain an empirical value of ˜ 10% Eddington. We have so far discovered two candidate black hole binaries in M31, exhibiting low accretion rate PDS at up to 3×1038 and 5×1037 erg s-1. If we assume that they are at <10% Eddington, they have minimum masses of 20 and 4 M? respectively. Furthermore, any LMXB exhibiting a low accretion rate power density spectrum at a luminosity > 5×1037 erg s-1 is likely to have a black hole primary.

  15. The Discovery of a Second Luminous Low Mass X-Ray Binary System in the Globular Cluster M15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Angelini, Lorella

    2001-01-01

    Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory we have discovered a second bright X-ray source in the globular cluster M15 that is 2.7" to the west of AC211, the previously known low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in this system. Prior to the 0.5" imaging capability of Chandra this second source could not have been resolved from AC211. The luminosity and spectrum of this new source, which we call M15-X2, are consistent with it also being a LMXB system. This is the first time that two LMXBs have been seen to be simultaneously active in a globular cluster. The new source, M15-X2, is coincident with a 18th U magnitude very blue star. The discovery of a second LMXB in M15 clears up a long standing puzzle where the X-ray and optical properties of AC211 appear consistent with the central source being hidden behind an accretion disk corona, and yet also showed a luminous X-ray burst suggesting the neutron star is directly visible. This discovery suggests instead that the X-ray burst did not come from AC211, but rather from the newly discovered X-ray source. We discuss the implications of this discovery for X-ray observations of globular clusters in nearby galaxies.

  16. New evolutionary sequences for extremely low-mass white dwarfs. Homogeneous mass and age determinations and asteroseismic prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, Leandro G.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.

    2013-09-01

    Context. The number of detected extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf stars has increased drastically in recent years, thanks to the results of many surveys. In addition, some of these stars have been found to exhibit pulsations, making them potential targets for asteroseismology. Aims: We provide a fine and homogeneous grid of evolutionary sequences for helium (He) core white dwarfs for the whole range of their expected masses (0.15 ? M?/M? ? 0.45), including the mass range for ELM white dwarfs (M?/M? ? 0.20). The grid is appropriate for mass and age determination of these stars, as well as for studying their adiatabic pulsational properties. Methods: White dwarf sequences have been computed by performing full evolutionary calculations that consider the main energy sources and processes of chemical abundance changes during white dwarf evolution. Realistic initial models for the evolving white dwarfs have been obtained by computing the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M? ZAMS star and a 1.4 M? neutron star for various initial orbital periods. To derive cooling ages and masses for He-core white dwarfs, we perform a least square fitting of the M(Teff,g) and Age(Teff,g) relations provided by our sequences by using a scheme that takes into account the time spent by models in different regions of the Teff - g plane. This is particularly useful when multiple solutions for cooling age and mass determinations are possible in the case of CNO-flashing sequences. We also explore in a preliminary way the adiabatic pulsational properties of models near the critical mass for the development of CNO flashes (~0.2 M?). This is motivated by the discovery of pulsating white dwarfs with stellar masses near this threshold value. Results: We obtain reliable and homogeneous mass and cooling age determinations for 58 very low-mass white dwarfs, including three pulsating stars. Also, we find substantial differences in the period spacing distributions of g-modes for models with stellar masses near ~ 0.2 M?, which could be used as a seismic tool to distinguish stars that have undergone CNO flashes in their early cooling phase from those that have not. Finally, for an easy application of our results, we provide a reduced grid of values useful to obtain the masses and ages of He-core white dwarfs. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe tracks and the data presented in the middle and lower panels of Figs. 5, 6 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A19

  17. Low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J1421-613 observed by MAXI GSC and Swift XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serino, Motoko; Shidatsu, Megumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Kennea, Jamie A.; Fukushima, Kosuke; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2015-04-01

    Monitor of All sky X-ray Image (MAXI) discovered a new outburst of an X-ray transient source named MAXI J1421-613. Because of the detection of three X-ray bursts from the source, it was identified as a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary. The results of data analyses of the MAXI GSC (Gas Slit Camera) and the Swift XRT (X-Ray Telescope) follow-up observations suggest that the spectral hardness remained unchanged during the first two weeks of the outburst. All the XRT spectra in the 0.5-10 keV band can be well explained by thermal Comptonization of multi-color disk blackbody emission. The photon index of the Comptonized component is ? 2, which is typical of low-mass X-ray binaries in the low/hard state. Since X-ray bursts have a maximum peak luminosity, it is possible to estimate the (maximum) distance from its observed peak flux. The peak flux of the second X-ray burst, which was observed by the GSC, is about 5 photons cm-2 s-1. By assuming a blackbody spectrum of 2.5 keV, the maximum distance to the source is estimated as 7 kpc. The position of this source is contained by the large error regions of two bright X-ray sources detected with Orbiting Solar Observatory-7 (OSO-7) in the 1970s. Besides this, no past activities at the XRT position are reported in the literature. If MAXI J1421-613 is the same source as (one of) these, the outburst observed with MAXI may have occurred after a quiescence of 30-40 years.

  18. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for