Sample records for low-mass stars revisited

  1. Gravitational waves from low mass neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.

    2010-05-01

    Low mass neutron stars may be uniquely strong sources of gravitational waves. The neutron star crust can support large deformations for low mass stars. This is because of the star’s weaker gravity. We find maximum ellipticities ? (fractional difference in moments of inertia) that are 1000 times larger, and maximum quadrupole moments Q22 over 100 times larger, for low mass stars than for 1.4M? neutron stars. Indeed, we calculate that the crust can support an ? as large as 0.005 for a minimum mass neutron star. A 0.12M? star, that is maximally strained and rotating at 100 Hz, will produce a characteristic gravitational wave strain of h0=2.1×10-24 at a distance of 1 kpc. The gravitational wave detector Advanced LIGO should be sensitive to such objects through out the Milky Way Galaxy. A low mass neutron star could be uniquely identified from a large observed spin down rate and its discovery would have important implications for general relativity, supernova mechanisms, and possibly nucleosynthesis.

  2. The origin of low mass stars.

    PubMed

    Wilking, B A

    1997-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that most low mass stars in the Galaxy (< 5 M [symbol: see text]) form alongside massive stars in clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds. Once their parental gas is removed, the fate of these clusters is to disperse and blend into the field population of the galactic disk. The distribution of stellar masses in the solar neighborhood, called the Initial Mass Function, is discussed in the context of the origin of low mass stars. Arguments based on the production rate of field stars are presented that point to giant molecular clouds as the primary birth sites for low mass stars. The role of observations of molecular clouds at millimeter and infrared wavelengths in confirming this picture is reviewed. Millimeter-wave observations have revealed that molecular clouds consist of low-density gas interspersed with high-density cores. Near-infrared images of these clouds indicate that stars form preferentially in these cores, with the number of young stars roughly scaling with the mass of the core. Molecular-line and near-infrared observations which characterize star formation in the nearest giant molecular cloud complex in Orion are presented. The implications for the Sun forming in a cluster environment are briefly discussed. PMID:9150571

  3. Nearby Low-Mass Hypervelocity Stars

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Carlin, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Hypervelocity stars are those that have speeds exceeding the escape speed and are hence unbound from the Milky Way. We investigate a sample of low-mass hypervelocity candidates obtained using data from the high-precision SDSS Stripe 82 catalogue, which we have combined with spectroscopy from the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory. We find four good candidates, but without metallicities it is difficult to pin-down their distances and therefore total velocities. Our best candidate has a significant likelihood that it is escaping the Milky Way for a wide-range of metallicities.

  4. Evolutionary models of rotating low mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Luiz Themystokliz Sanctos

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated the combined effects of rotation and internal angular momentum redistribution on the structure and evolution of low mass stars, from the pre-main sequence to the main sequence phase. As a tool for that study, the ATON stellar evolutionary code (Mazzitelli 1989; Ventura et al. 1998) has been modified in order to include those effects. Rotation was implemented according to the equipotential technique developed by Kippenhahn & Thomas (1970) and later improved by Endal & Sofia (1976). Angular momentum redistribution in radiative regions was modeled through an advection-diffusion partial differential equation based on the framework originally introduced by Chaboyer & Zahn (1992), which is based on the sole assumption of stronger turbulent transport in the horizontal direction than in the vertical one. The diffusion coefficient of this equation is obtained from characteristic lengths and velocities of typical rotation-induced hydrodynamical instabilities. This improved code was used to compute a series of rotating low mass stellar models (with masses ranging from 1.2Modot down to 0.6 Modot). Regarding the structural (hydrostatic) effects of rotation, the general features of these models show that rotating stars behave as if they were non-rotating stars of slightly lower masses, in accordance with previous results by other researchers. A study of this mass-lowering effect for the considered range of masses shows that rotation decreases lithium depletion while the star is fully convective but increases it as soon as the star develops a radiative core. The net effect is a enhanced lithium depletion, in disagreement with observational data which suggest that faster rotators in young open clusters experience less lithium depletion. Angular momentum redistribution in the considered models is very effective in smoothing their internal angular velocity profile as soon as the star reaches the zero age main sequence, but fails to reproduce the flat solar rotation rate obtained from helioseismology, indicating that, in the Sun, angular momentum transport is more efficient than current models. The internal angular momentum transport also contributes to a still higher lithium depletion than the models computed with only the structural effects of rotation, thus suggesting that other physical phenomena must play a role regarding both lithium depletion and the rotation profile evolution of these stars. References: Chaboyer B., Zahn J.-P., 1992, A&A 253, 173 Endal A. S., Sofia S., 1976, ApJ 210, 184 Kippenhahn R., Thomas H.-C., 1970, in: Stellar Rotation, Arne Sletteback (ed.), D. Reidel, p. 20 Mazzitelli I., 1989, ApJ 340, 249 Ventura P., Zeppieri A., Mazzitelli I., D'Antona F., 1998, A&A 334, 953

  5. Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Hajime Sotani; Kei Iida; Kazuhiro Oyamatsu; Akira Ohnishi

    2014-03-31

    Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and the gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equation-of-state parameter that characterizes the structure of low-mass neutron stars. This parameter, which plays a key role in connecting the mass-radius relation of the laboratory nuclei to that of the celestial objects, could be constrained from future observations of low-mass neutron stars.

  6. Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass, M_?) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as a function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equation-of-state parameter that characterizes the structure of low-mass neutron stars. This parameter, which plays a key role in connecting the mass-radius relation of the laboratory nuclei to that of the celestial objects, could be constrained from future observations of low-mass neutron stars.

  7. The rotational evolution of young low mass stars

    E-print Network

    Jerome Bouvier

    2007-12-18

    Star-disk interaction is thought to drive the angular momentum evolution of young stars. In this review, I present the latest results obtained on the rotational properties of low mass and very low mass pre-main sequence stars. I discuss the evidence for extremely efficient angular momentum removal over the first few Myr of pre-main sequence evolution and describe recent results that support an accretion-driven braking mechanism. Angular momentum evolution models are presented and their implication for accretion disk lifetimes discussed.

  8. Detectability of Habitable Planets around Very Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martioli, E.; Martín, E. L.; Cabrera, J.; Solano, E.; Tata, R.

    2014-10-01

    We present observations of 18 very low-mass stars with Kepler light curves available in the public archive, where we performed a search for transits and characterized the photometric variability to estimate the effects of stellar activity in the detectability of habitable planets around stars at the cool end of the stellar mass distribution.

  9. Convection in low mass stars By FRANCESCA DANTONA

    E-print Network

    D'Antona, Francesca

    Convection in low mass stars By FRANCESCA DANTONA Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio, Italy I review the two main aspects of convection modeling important for the stellar structure: i that the Lithium test can be safely used as an age indicator. 1. Modeling Convection: MLT and FST models

  10. Compact Stars in low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Sk. Monowar Hossein; Sajahan Molla; Md. Abdul Kayum Jafry; Mehedi Kalam

    2014-08-13

    We propose a model for compact stars in low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) namely KS 1731-260, EXO 1745-248 and 4U 1608-52. Here we investigate the physical phenomena of a compact star in the LMXBs. Using our model, we have calculated central density, surface density, mass(M) and red-shift for the above mentioned compact stars, which is very much consistent with the reported data. We also obtain the possible equation of state(EOS) of the stars which is physically acceptable.

  11. Resolving the Discrepancy of Low-Mass Stars with IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Observed properties of low-mass stars (M < 0.8 solar msses) have been found to be in disagreement with stellar models, the observed radii being inflated and the observed temperatures being too low. To study this discrepancy, we are observing a sample of low-mass eclipsing binaries using the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory as well as the LCOGT network to increase the number of well-characterized systems. We are also using IGRINS, a new high resolution (R=40,000) IR (H+K) spectrograph on the 2.7-m HJST, to measure the fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, R, M, abundances, activity) of a sample of eclipsing binaries consisting of two low-mass components. Finally, to calibrate these eclipsing binaries, we are observing a temperature calibration sample of single M dwarfs with precise temperature measurements from interferometry and a metallicity calibration sample of M dwarfs in wide binaries with solar-type stars. Relationships between these parameters will help us better understand the discrepancy between models and observed properties of low-mass stars.

  12. Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Sotani, Hajime; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and the gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equat...

  13. The APOGEE Low-Mass Star Ancillary Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Cullen; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Terrien, Ryan; Crepp, Justin R.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Fred; Allende-Prieto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    As a high-resolution, near-infrared, fiber-fed instrument, APOGEE presents a unique opportunity to obtain multi-epoch radial velocity measurements of a large number of low-mass stars. These observations will reveal unseen companions, improving our understanding of stellar multiplicity at the bottom of the Main Sequence, and may even identify candidate sub-stellar companions. These same data contains an unprecedented wealth of information about the kinematics, rotation, and metallicities of these stars. I will describe the status of our Ancillary Science program, and ongoing efforts to get the best possible radial velocity precision from the APOGEE data.

  14. Angular Momentum Transport within Evolved Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, Matteo; Mankovich, Christopher; Bildsten, Lars; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Paxton, Bill

    2014-06-01

    Asteroseismology of 1.0-2.0 M ? red giants by the Kepler satellite has enabled the first definitive measurements of interior rotation in both first ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars and those on the helium burning clump. The inferred rotation rates are 10-30 days for the ?0.2 M ? He degenerate cores on the RGB and 30-100 days for the He burning core in a clump star. Using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Evolution code, we calculate state-of-the-art stellar evolution models of low mass rotating stars from the zero-age main sequence to the cooling white dwarf (WD) stage. We include transport of angular momentum due to rotationally induced instabilities and circulations, as well as magnetic fields in radiative zones (generated by the Tayler-Spruit dynamo). We find that all models fail to predict core rotation as slow as observed on the RGB and during core He burning, implying that an unmodeled angular momentum transport process must be operating on the early RGB of low mass stars. Later evolution of the star from the He burning clump to the cooling WD phase appears to be at nearly constant core angular momentum. We also incorporate the adiabatic pulsation code, ADIPLS, to explicitly highlight this shortfall when applied to a specific Kepler asteroseismic target, KIC8366239.

  15. The formation of the first galaxies and the transition to low-mass star formation

    E-print Network

    Thomas H. Greif; Dominik R. G. Schleicher; Jarrett L. Johnson; Anne-Katharina Jappsen; Ralf S. Klessen; Paul C. Clark; Simon C. O. Glover; Athena Stacy; Volker Bromm

    2009-10-20

    The formation of the first galaxies at redshifts z ~ 10-15 signaled the transition from the simple initial state of the universe to one of ever increasing complexity. We here review recent progress in understanding their assembly process with numerical simulations, starting with cosmological initial conditions and modelling the detailed physics of star formation. In this context we emphasize the importance and influence of selecting appropriate initial conditions for the star formation process. We revisit the notion of a critical metallicity resulting in the transition from primordial to present-day initial mass functions and highlight its dependence on additional cooling mechanisms and the exact initial conditions. We also review recent work on the ability of dust cooling to provide the transition to present-day low-mass star formation. In particular, we highlight the extreme conditions under which this transition mechanism occurs, with violent fragmentation in dense gas resulting in tightly packed clusters.

  16. Searching for low mass objects around nearby dMe radio stars

    E-print Network

    J. C. Guirado; E. Ros; D. L. Jones; W. Alef; J. M. Marcaide; R. A. Preston

    2002-07-01

    Nearby M-dwarfs are best suited for searches of low mass companions. VLBI phase-referencing observations with sensitive telescopes are able to detect radio star flux-densities of tenths of mJy as well as to position the star on the sky with submilliarcsecond precision. We have initiated a long-term observational program, using EVN telescopes in combination with NASA DSN dishes, to revisit the kinematics of nearby, single M dwarfs. The precision of the astrometry allows us to search for possible companions with masses down to 1 Jupiter mass. In this contribution we report preliminary results of the first observation epochs, in which we could detect some of the radio stars included in our program.

  17. Searching for low mass objects around nearby dMe radio stars

    E-print Network

    Guirado, J C; Jones, D L; Alef, W; Marcaide, J M; Preston, R A

    2002-01-01

    Nearby M-dwarfs are best suited for searches of low mass companions. VLBI phase-referencing observations with sensitive telescopes are able to detect radio star flux-densities of tenths of mJy as well as to position the star on the sky with submilliarcsecond precision. We have initiated a long-term observational program, using EVN telescopes in combination with NASA DSN dishes, to revisit the kinematics of nearby, single M dwarfs. The precision of the astrometry allows us to search for possible companions with masses down to 1 Jupiter mass. In this contribution we report preliminary results of the first observation epochs, in which we could detect some of the radio stars included in our program.

  18. Pulsation in extremely low-mass helium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. S.; Saio, H.

    2014-02-01

    We explore the stability of extremely low-mass stars (M < 0.25 M ?) across a wide range of composition, effective temperature, and luminosity. We identify the instability boundaries associated with radial oscillations. These are a strong function of both composition and radial order (0 <= n <= 13). The classical blue edge shifts to higher effective temperature and luminosity with decreasing hydrogen abundance. Higher-order modes are more easily excited, and small islands of instability develop. Short-period oscillations have been discovered in the low-mass pre-white dwarf component of the eclipsing binary J0247-25. If its envelope is depleted in hydrogen, J0247-25B is unstable to intermediate-order p modes. Driving is by the classical ? mechanism operating in the second helium ionization zone. The observed periods, temperature and luminosity of J0247-25B require an envelope hydrogen abundance 0.2 <= X <= 0.3.

  19. Extreme Coronal Mass Ejections in Young Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, A. N.; Stassun, K. G.; Matt, S. P.; Hughes, W. J.; McGregor, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Two long-standing questions in the study of young, low-mass stars are: (1) What are the mechanisms that govern the observed order-of-magnitude decrease of stellar angular momentum during pre-main-sequence evolution, and (2) What are the physical drivers of X-ray production in these stars at up to 104 times the solar value? Application of solar flare models to the most powerful X-ray flares observed among T Tauri stars in Orion suggests that the flares are produced by magnetic loop structures with lengths of up to tens of stellar radii. We present new results demonstrating that, for the majority of these stars, the extremely large flaring structures are not anchored to or stabilized by circumstellar disks. Given the energy and size scales involved, mass losses (e.g., via stellar coronal mass ejections -- CMEs -- associated with these flares) at such large effective lever arms could shed substantial angular momentum. To begin estimating the attendant angular momentum losses of such extreme CMEs in young stars, we have assembled from the solar literature a database of ˜10,000 X-ray flares and CMEs, from which we determine for the first time the empirical relationship between solar X-ray flare energy and CME ejected mass. Finally, we demonstrate how our flare flux/CME mass relationship can be used to estimate stellar angular momentum loss via extreme CMEs in young stars.

  20. Efficiencies of Low-Mass Star and Star Cluster Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Matzner; Christopher F. McKee

    2000-01-01

    Using a quantitative model for bipolar outflows driven by hydromagnetic\\u000aprotostellar winds, we calculate the efficiency of star formation assuming that\\u000aavailable gas is either converted into stars or ejected in outflows. We\\u000aestimate the efficiency of a single star formation event in a protostellar\\u000acore, finding 25%-70% for cores with various possible degrees of flattening.\\u000aThe core mass function

  1. Review on low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    E-print Network

    G. Chabrier; I. Baraffe; F. Allard; P. H. Hauschildt

    2005-09-27

    In this review, we examine the successes and weaknesses of modern low-mass star and brown dwarf theory.(1) We first focus on the mechanical (equation of state) and thermal (atmosphere) properties and on the evolution. We then examine the current shortcomings of the theory and we discuss recent observational analysis which have suggested discrepancies between models and observations.(2) We then examine the stellar and brown dwarf IMF and suggest that a power-law above the average thermal Jeans mass (about 1 Msol) rolling over a lognormal form below this limit adequately reproduces the observations of field and young cluster stellar and brown dwarf distributions. This yields a reasonably accurate estimate of the stellar and brown dwarf Galactic census. Finally (3) we argue that the combination of turbulence driven fragmentation at large scale and gravity at small scales provides an appealing solution for the general star and brown dwarf formation mechanism. It also provides a physical ground for the aforementioned power-law + lognormal form for the IMF, whereas a series of different power laws lacks such a physical motivation. At last, we argue that the deuterium-burning limit as the distinction between stars and planets has no physical foundation in this modern star formation scheme. Opacity limited fragmentation extending down to a few (< 10) jupiter masses, due to shocks, anisotropy or magnetic fields, provides a much more robust limit, even though difficult to determine accurately. Therefore, the various "direct" detections of exoplanets claimed recently in the literature are most likely regular low-mass brown dwarfs and the direct detection of an extrasolar planet remains for now elusive.

  2. Improving PARSEC models for very low mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Girardi, Léo; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Barbieri, Mauro; Kong, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Many stellar models present difficulties in reproducing basic observational relations of very low mass stars (VLMS), including the mass-radius relation and the optical colour-magnitudes of cool dwarfs. Here, we improve PARSEC (PAdova-TRieste Stellar Evolution Code) models on these points. We implement the T- ? relations from PHOENIX BT-Settl model atmospheres as the outer boundary conditions in the PARSEC code, finding that this change alone reduces the discrepancy in the mass-radius relation from 8 to 5 per cent. We compare the models with multiband photometry of clusters Praesepe and M67, showing that the use of T- ? relations clearly improves the description of the optical colours and magnitudes. But anyway, using both Kurucz and PHOENIX model spectra, model colours are still systematically fainter and bluer than the observations. We then apply a shift to the above T- ? relations, increasing from 0 at Teff = 4730 K to ˜14 per cent at Teff = 3160 K, to reproduce the observed mass-radius relation of dwarf stars. Taking this experiment as a calibration of the T- ? relations, we can reproduce the optical and near-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams of low-mass stars in the old metal-poor globular clusters NGC 6397 and 47 Tuc, and in the intermediate-age and young solar-metallicity open clusters M67 and Praesepe. Thus, we extend PARSEC models using this calibration, providing VLMS models more suitable for the lower main-sequence stars over a wide range of metallicities and wavelengths. Both sets of models are available on PARSEC webpage.

  3. Low mass stellar companions around four giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?lmaz, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Sato, B.; Selam, S. O.; Galeev, A. I.; Keskin, V.; Izumiura, H.; Irtuganov, E. N.; Kambe, E.; Özavc?, ?.; Melnikov, S. S.; Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Okada, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present three low-mass and one solar mass companions found around four intermediate-mass giants HD1695, HD120235, HD145316 and HD200004 from precise radial velocity measurements using the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT150) at the TÜB?TAK National Observatory of Turkey (TUG). The stellar parameters, which are effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (logg) and metallicity ([Fe/H]), as well as rotational velocity (vsini) are obtained from spectral analysis. From the estimated stellar masses, the orbital parameters of the companions are also derived. We find two types of Keplerian solutions for the companion of HD120235: (1) periods 5522 days and eccentricity of e?0.93, and (2) periods 1566 days and eccentricity of e?0.83. From the abundances analysis HD1695 is found to be a metal-rich star with [Fe/H]>0.1, while HD200004 is a metal poor star with [Fe/H]<-0.2. The other two stars, HD120235 and HD145316, have solar-like abundances with [Fe/H]?0.0. Our stellar parameters and orbital solutions show that all of these stars are evolved intermediate-mass giants.

  4. Old, Low-Mass, Metal-Rich (SMR) Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.; Lebreton, Y.; Soubiran, C.; Friel, E. D.

    After a short introduction on the origin of the name SMR (super-metal-rich) stars we discuss a sample of about 100 nearby G and K subgiants and dwarfs, which metallicities range between +0.10dex and +0.40dex with respect to that of the Sun. All of them have Hipparcos parallaxes and well determined radial velocities, and have undergone one or more high resolution detailed spectroscopic analyses. The convective zone of these slightly evolved, or unevolved, low mass stars is sufficiently developed to prevent diffusion effects of chemical elements, and to avoid the Am - Ap phenomenon. We therefore can assume that in these stars the chemical composition of the atmosphere does reflect their initial chemical composition. We know also that their metal enrichement is tightly bound to the nature of the nucleosynthesis which has acted in supernova explosions and in intermediate mass stars having reached the AGB phase. Cayrel de Strobel (1987, A&AJ 8,141) tried to attribute a "turn-off age" to the slightly evolved stars in a sample of 30 SMR stars: she found an indication that SMR stars were in the mean older than solar metal normal disk-stars and has interpreted her result as a more chemical uniformity in the present interstellar medium with respect to the older, less mixed interstellar medium. Two important contributions by Feltzing and Gustafsson (1998, A&AS 129, 237) and Barbuy and Grenon (1990, in "Bulges of Galaxies": ESO/CTIO Workshop) have tripled the number of unevolved or slightly evolved SMR stars, possessing a detailed analysis. The Hipparcos parallaxes (1997, ESA-SP-1200, The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues) and the radial velocities (1997 Mayor private communication) and a grid of internal struture models (1998 Lebreton private communication) computed with up-to-date physics and with the appropriate Z and Y (in assuming a linear relationship between Z and Y), have allowed us to determine the age and the space velocities of the presented sample of SMR stars with a much better precision than before. We show that in the mean the SMR phenomenon persists throughout the life of the thick and thin-disk populations, and that many SMR stars belong to the old thick-disk population because of their rather high space velocity.

  5. Can newly born neutron star collapse to low-mass black hole?

    E-print Network

    Can newly born neutron star collapse to low-mass black hole? K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro by Brown and Bethe, there is no possibility of the delayed collapse of NS to low-mass black hole. After Brown and Bethe [1] suggested low-mass black holes (BHs) from the delayed col- lapses of neutron stars

  6. A Case Study of Low-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Jonathan J.; Welch, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article synthesizes observational data from an extensive program aimed toward a comprehensive understanding of star formation in a low-mass star-forming molecular cloud. New observations and published data spanning from the centimeter wave band to the near-infrared reveal the high- and low-density molecular gas, dust, and pre-main-sequence stars in L1551. The total cloud mass of ~160 Msolar contained within 0.9 pc has a dynamical timescale, tdyn=1.1 Myr. Thirty-five pre-main-sequence stars with masses from ~0.1 to 1.5 Msolar are selected to be members of the L1551 association constituting a total of 22+/-5 Msolar of stellar mass. The observed star formation efficiency, SFE=12%, while the total efficiency, SFEtot, is estimated to fall between 9% and 15%. L1551 appears to have been forming stars for several tdyn, with the rate of star formation increasing with time. Star formation has likely progressed from east to west, and there is clear evidence that another star or stellar system will form in the high column density region to the northwest of L1551 IRS 5. High-resolution, wide-field maps of L1551 in CO isotopologue emission display the structure of the molecular cloud at 1600 AU physical resolution. The 13CO emission clearly reveals the disruption of the ambient cloud by outflows in the line core and traces the interface between regions of outflow and quiescent gas in the line wings. Kinetic energy from outflows is being deposited back into the cloud on a physical scale ?peak~0.05 pc at a rate, E?input~0.05 Lsolar. The remaining energy afforded by the full mechanical luminosity of outflow in L1551 destroys the cloud or is otherwise lost to the greater interstellar medium. The C18O emission is optically thin and traces well the turbulent velocity structure of the cloud. The total turbulent energy is close to what is expected from virial equilibrium. The turbulent velocities exist primarily on small scales in the cloud, and the energy spectrum of turbulent fluctuations, E(k)~k-?, is derived by various methods to have ?~1-2. The turbulent dissipation rate estimated using the results of current numerical simulations is E?diss~E?input. This study reveals that stellar feedback is a significant factor in the evolution of the L1551 cloud.

  7. Naked T Tauri stars - the low-mass pre-main sequence unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The search for low-mass premain-sequence (PMS) stars associated with X-ray sources in regions of star formation is discussed. The survey to date has revealed at least 30 low-mass PMS stars in the Tau-Aur region, and a comparable number in Oph. These stars are the naked T Tau stars, unveiled versions of the well-known classical T Tau stars. The properties of these newly discovered PMS stars and their relation to the classical T Tau stars are discussed, and it is concluded that the naked T Tau stars are the true low-mass PMS stars, and that the observable characteristics defining the classical T Tau stars are due to the interaction of an underlying, fairly normal star with a dominant circumstellar environment. The impact the naked T Tau stars are likely to have on models of the PMS evolution of low-mass stars is considered. 24 references.

  8. The naked T Tauri stars - The low-mass pre-main sequence unveiled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    1987-01-01

    The search for low-mass premain-sequence (PMS) stars associated with X-ray sources in regions of star formation is discussed. The survey to date has revealed at least 30 low-mass PMS stars in the Tau-Aur region, and a comparable number in Oph. These stars are the naked T Tau stars, unveiled versions of the well-known classical T Tau stars. The properties of these newly discovered PMS stars and their relation to the classical T Tau stars are discussed, and it is concluded that the naked T Tau stars are the true low-mass PMS stars, and that the observable characteristics defining the classical T Tau stars are due to the interaction of an underlying, fairly normal star with a dominant circumstellar environment. The impact the naked T Tau stars are likely to have on models of the PMS evolution of low-mass stars is considered.

  9. Archival Study of the Effects of Massive Stars on Low-mass Star Formation and Disk Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Hester; Keely Snider; Barbara Whitney

    2006-01-01

    Most low-mass stars form in close proximity to massive stars, but we lack a good understanding of how those massive stars modify the way low-mass stars and their disks form and evolve. We request Archival support to address three fundamental questions: (1) To what extent is low-mass star formation triggered by massive stars? (2) Does continuing expansion of H II

  10. Neutron star formation in theoretical supernovae. Low mass stars and white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The presupernova evolution of stars that form semi-degenerate or strongly degenerate O + Ne + Mg cores is discussed. For the 10 to 13 Msub solar stars, behavior of off-center neon flashes is crucial. The 8 to 10 m/sub solar stars do not ignite neon and eventually collapse due to electron captures. Properties of supernova explosions and neutron stars expected from these low mass progenitors are compared with the Crab nebula. The conditions for which neutron stars form from accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in clsoe binary systems is also examined.

  11. An optical spectroscopic HR diagram for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Orion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Riddick; P. F. Roche; P. W. Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The masses and temperatures of young low mass stars and brown dwarfs in star-\\u000aforming regions are not yet well established because of uncertainties in the\\u000aage of individual objects and the spectral type vs. temperature scale\\u000aappropriate for objects with ages of only a few Myr. Using multi-object optical\\u000aspectroscopy, 45 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Trapezium

  12. The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

  13. Evolutionary implications of the new triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate for low mass stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Dotter; Bill Paxton

    2009-01-01

    Context: Ogata et al. (2009, Progr. Theor. Phys., 122, 1055) presented a theoretical determination of the ^4He(alphaalpha,gamma)12C, or triple-alpha, nuclear reaction rate. Their rate differs from the NACRE rate by many orders of magnitude at temperatures relevant for low mass stars. Aims: We explore the evolutionary implications of adopting the OKK triple-alpha reaction rate in low mass stars and compare

  14. Revisiting XENON100's constraints (and signals?) for low-mass dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although observations made with the CoGeNT and CDMS experiments have been interpreted as possible signals of low-mass ( ? 7–10 GeV) dark matter particles, constraints from the XENON100 collaboration appear to be incompatible with this hypothesis, at least at face value. In this paper, we revisit XENON100's constraint on dark matter in this mass range, and consider how various uncertainties and assumptions made might alter this conclusion. We also note that while XENON100's two nuclear recoil candidates each exhibit very low ratios of ionization-to-scintillation signals, making them difficult to attribute to known electronic or neutron backgrounds, they are consistent with originating from dark matter particles in the mass range favored by CoGeNT and CDMS. We argue that with lower, but not implausible, values for the relative scintillation efficiency of liquid xenon (L{sub eff}), and the suppression of the scintillation signal in liquid xenon at XENON100's electric field (S{sub nr}), these two events could consistently arise from dark matter particles with a mass and cross section in the range favored by CoGeNT and CDMS. If this interpretation is correct, we predict that the LUX experiment, with a significantly higher light yield than XENON100, should observe dark matter induced events at an observable rate of ? 3–24 per month.

  15. Finding X-ray Coronal Cycles in Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Maurice; Guenther, Hans Moritz; Auchettl, Katie

    2015-01-01

    We seek to increase the number of stars known to have an X-ray coronal cycle. Four stars (including the Sun) are known to experience periodic long-term coronal flux variability but the statistics are not superb. In this analysis, we analyze four stellar sources that have been observed frequently by Chandra and XMM-Newton over the last ~11 years. These four sources were the brightest among numerous stellar point sources within the Chandra Deep Field South. Solar flares can dramatically increase the flux measured for our stars on short time intervals and, in observations with insufficient time coverage, can be confused for the maximum of the stars' magnetic cycles (if they have one). We have discarded times where solar proton flares are detected in the data. We utilize an APEC model, which represents the coronal plasma, to fit our stellar spectra. As our sources are very faint, we do not subtract the background, but instead we fit the background and source spectra simultaneously. We use the chi-squared statistic to evaluate the confidence of our fits. We present four light curves which suggest that a long-term X-ray flux variability similar to our Sun (the solar X-ray flux can vary by a factor of 10 over ~11 years) is not present in these stellar sources. None of our stars experienced a flux variability exceeding a factor of 3 over an 11 year time scale but one of the four stars in our sample exhibits short term variability over a one year period. However, our stellar sources are too faint to conclusively state that the flux remains constant throughout all epochs.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense AS-SURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  16. Numerical Results on Low Mass Star and Brown Dwarf Multiplicity

    E-print Network

    Eduardo Delgado-Donate; Cathie Clarke

    2004-12-17

    We have undertaken a series of hydrodynamic + N-body simulations in order to explore the properties of young stars. Our results suggest that the IMF may be sensitive to environment in its substellar region, with more brown dwarfs being formed where clusters are denser or more compact. We find that multiple stars are a natural outcome of collapsing turbulent flows, with a high incidence of N > 2 multiples. We find a positive correlation of multiplicity with primary mass but a companion frequency that decreases with age. Binary brown dwarfs are rarely formed, in conflict with observations. Brown dwarfs as companions are predominantly found orbiting binaries or triples at large separations.

  17. Low Mass Star Formation in Perseus: Large Field Mapping at 1mm with Bolocam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Enoch; A. I. Sargent; S. Golwala; J. Glenn; N. J. Evans II; K. E. Young

    2003-01-01

    The earliest stages of low mass star formation, enshrouded in dense cores of dust and gas, are most easily studied at long wavelengths from the far-infrared to millimeter. SIRTF will provide unparalleled sensitivity in the 4-160 micron range, but coverage at longer wavelengths is necessary to developing a more complete picture of star formation in molecular clouds. As a complement

  18. From Very Low Mass Stars to Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, France; Barman, Travis S.; Paillet, Jimmy; Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2004-12-01

    We have modeled, using the atmosphere code Phoenix, the photosphere structures and spectral distribution of brown dwarfs and of all known Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs) to this day. Since EGPs are often brighter, more massive and larger than telluric planets, they will be more readily detected in the future transit surveys (COROT, KEPLER, SIMS, Eddington), and be the most directly observable using current technology (e.g. by nulling interferometry with the GENIE experiment). In this paper we summarize the spectral properties of EGPs as a function of their orbital distance, phase as viewed from the earth, mass and age, and type of primary star. We establish the most favorable observation conditions (i.e. maximum luminosity contrast of the planet to the primary star). We also explore uncertainties tied to the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and the presence of cloud layers, and study constraining cases such as HD209458b, OGLE-TR56b and Jupiter.

  19. The First Stars: A Low-Mass Formation Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system under photodissociating feedback. We start from cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, self-consistently following the formation of a minihalo at z = 15 and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities. The simulations resolve scales as small as approx. 1 AU, corresponding to gas densities of 10(exp 16)/cu cm. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we evolve the stellar system for the next 5000 yr. We find that this emerging stellar group accretes at an unusually low rate compared with minihalos which form at earlier times (z = 20-30), or with lower baryonic angular momentum. The stars in this unusual system will likely reach masses ranging from <1Stellar Mass to approx. 5 Stellar Mass by the end of their main-sequence lifetimes, placing them in the mass range for which stars will undergo an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Based upon the simulation, we predict the rare existence of Population III stars that have survived to the present day and have been enriched by mass overflow from a previous AGB companion.

  20. The First Stars: A Low-Mass Formation Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, Athena

    2014-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system under photodissociating feedback. We start from cosmological initial conditions at z=100, self-consistently following the formation of a minihalo at z=15 and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities. The simulations resolve scales as small as ~ 1 AU, corresponding to gas densities of 10^16 cm^-3. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we evolve the stellar system for the next 5000 years. We find that this emerging stellar group accretes at an unusually low rate compared with minihalos which form at earlier times (z=20-30), or with lower baryonic angular momentum. The stars in this unusual system will likely reach masses ranging from < 1 M_sol to ~ 5 M_sol by the end of their main-sequence lifetimes, placing them in the mass range for which stars will undergo an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Based upon the simulation, we predict the existence of Populatio III stars that have survived to the present day and have been enriched by mass overflow from a previous AGB companion.

  1. The First Stars: A Low-mass Formation Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2014-04-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system under photodissociating feedback. We start from cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, self-consistently following the formation of a minihalo at z = 15 and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities. The simulations resolve scales as small as ~1 AU, corresponding to gas densities of 1016 cm-3. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we evolve the stellar system for the next 5000 yr. We find that this emerging stellar group accretes at an unusually low rate compared with minihalos which form at earlier times (z = 20-30), or with lower baryonic angular momentum. The stars in this unusual system will likely reach masses ranging from <1 M ? to ~5 M ? by the end of their main-sequence lifetimes, placing them in the mass range for which stars will undergo an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Based upon the simulation, we predict the rare existence of Population III stars that have survived to the present day and have been enriched by mass overflow from a previous AGB companion.

  2. Membership and Multiplicity among Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Pleiades Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Martín; W. Brandner; J. Bouvier; K. L. Luhman; J. Stauffer; G. Basri; M. R. Zapatero Osorio; D. Barrado y Navascués

    2000-01-01

    We present near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of very low mass stars and brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades open cluster. The membership status of these objects is assessed using color-magnitude diagrams, lithium and spectral types. Eight objects out of 45 appear to be nonmembers. A search for companions among 34 very low mass Pleiades members (M<=0.09 Msolar) in high

  3. Spectroscopy and photometry for low-mass stars in Praesepe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Scott D.; Stauffer, John R.; Prosser, Charles F.; Herter, Terry

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained spectral types, H alpha equivalent widths, and optical photometry for a small sample of late K and M dwarf candidate members of the Praesepe open cluster. At least for the small sample of stars we have observed, all of the Paesepe members later than M2 have H alpha in emission. The chromospheric activity of the Praesepe satrs is essentially the same as that for Hyades members of the same mass, as expected since the two clusters are thought to be the same age.

  4. Evolution of Low-Mass Population III Stars

    E-print Network

    Takuma Suda; Masayuki Y. Fujimoto; Naoki Itoh

    2007-06-19

    We present the evolutionary models of metal-free stars in the mass range from 0.8 to 1.2 Msun with up-to-date input physics. The evolution is followed to the onset of hydrogen mixing into a convection, driven by the helium flash at red giant or asymptotic giant branch phase. The models of mass M >= 0.9 Msun undergo the central hydrogen flash, triggered by the carbon production due to the 3-alpha reactions. We find that the border of the off-center and central ignition of helium core flash falls between 1.1 and 1.2 Msun; the models of mass M conduction and radiation compete, is shown to be important since it affects the thermal state in the helium core and influences the red giant branch evolution. It is also found that the non-resonant term of 3-alpha reactios plays an important role, although it has negligible effect in the evolution of stars of younger populations. We compare our models with the computations by several other sets of authors, to confirm the good agreement except for one study which finds the helium ignition much closer to the center with consequences important for subsequent evolution.

  5. Low-Mass Star Surveys with the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; PTF Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a fully-automated, wide-field survey aimed at a systematic exploration of the optical transient sky. The survey is performed using a 7.26 square degree camera installed on the 48 inch Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Observatory; colors and light curves for detected transients are obtained with the automated Palomar 60 inch telescope. In the standard 60 s exposures the survey reaches a depth of R=20.6 (5-sigma, median seeing). Each PTF field contains tens of thousands of stars, including several thousand M-dwarfs. As of the beginning of 2011 the PTF survey has collected more than 25 epochs on over 6000 square degrees of the sky, and more than 100 epochs on 750 square degrees. Few-millimag long-term photometric precisions are achieved on the brighter targets. Ongoing PTF stellar science programs include a search for transiting planets around 100,000 M-dwarfs, a rotation and activity study in open clusters, the monitoring for outbursts and a search for transiting planets in young stellar regions, galactic structure measurements, and a variety of other stellar variability programs.

  6. RADIUS-DEPENDENT ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION IN LOW-MASS STARS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, Ansgar [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Mohanty, Subhanjoy, E-mail: Ansgar.Reiners@phys.uni-goettingen.de [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-10

    Angular momentum evolution in low-mass stars is determined by initial conditions during star formation, stellar structure evolution, and the behavior of stellar magnetic fields. Here we show that the empirical picture of angular momentum evolution arises naturally if rotation is related to magnetic field strength instead of to magnetic flux and formulate a corrected braking law based on this. Angular momentum evolution then becomes a strong function of stellar radius, explaining the main trends observed in open clusters and field stars at a few Gyr: the steep transition in rotation at the boundary to full convection arises primarily from the large change in radius across this boundary and does not require changes in dynamo mode or field topology. Additionally, the data suggest transient core-envelope decoupling among solar-type stars and field saturation at longer periods in very low mass stars. For solar-type stars, our model is also in good agreement with the empirical Skumanich law. Finally, in further support of the theory, we show that the predicted age at which low-mass stars spin down from the saturated to unsaturated field regimes in our model corresponds remarkably well to the observed lifetime of magnetic activity in these stars.

  7. Probing the Formation of the First Low-Mass Stars with Stellar Archaeology

    E-print Network

    Anna Frebel; Jarrett L. Johnson; Volker Bromm

    2007-06-04

    We investigate the conditions under which the first low-mass stars formed in the universe by confronting theoretical predictions governing the transition from massive Population III to low-mass Population II stars with recent observational C and/or O abundance data of metal-poor Galactic stars. Based on an existing theory, we introduce a new "observer-friendly" function, the transition discriminant D_trans, which provides empirical constraints as well as a powerful comparison between the currently available data of metal-poor halo stars and theoretical predictions of the formation of the first low-mass stars (<1 M_sun). Specifically, we compare the empirical stellar results with the theory that fine-structure lines of C and O dominate the transition from Pop III to Pop II in the early universe. We find the observational data for halo objects as well as for dSph galaxies and globular clusters to be consistent with this theory. An explanation for the observed lack of metal-poor stars in dSph galaxies and globular clusters is also suggested. Finally, we predict that any star to be found with [Fe/H]<-4 should have enhanced C and/or O abundances. The high C and O abundances of the two most iron-poor stars are in line with our prediction.

  8. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph [Physics Department, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Norman, Colin [Physics Department, Johns Hopkins University, 2400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: norman@stsci.edu

    2009-07-20

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  9. The low-mass classic Algol-type binary UU Leo revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui

    2013-12-01

    New multi-color photometry of the eclipsing binary UU Leo, acquired from 2010 to 2013, was carried out by using the 60-cm and 85-cm telescopes at the Xinglong station, which is administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, the photometric solution was derived from BVR light curves. The results imply that UU Leo is a semi-detached Algol-type binary, with a mass ratio of q = 0.100(±0.002). The change in orbital period was reanalyzed based on all available eclipsing times. The O - C curve could be described by an upward parabola superimposed on a quasi-sinusoidal curve. The period and semi-amplitudes are Pmod = 54.5(±1.1) yr and A = 0.0273d(±0.0015d), which may be attributed to the light-time effect via the presence of an invisible third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +4.64(±0.14) × 10-7d yr-1, which may be interpreted by the conserved mass being transferred from the secondary to the primary. With mass being transferred, the low-mass Algol-type binary UU Leo may evolve into a binary system with a main sequence star and a helium white dwarf.

  10. Southern wide very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in resolved binary and multiple systems

    E-print Network

    José Antonio Caballero

    2007-06-10

    The results of the Koenigstuhl survey in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. I have searched for common-proper motion companions to 173 field very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types > M5.0V and magnitudes J 100 AU) with late-type components at 5.0+/-1.8 % and the frequency of field wide late-type binaries with mass ratios q > 0.5 at 1.2+/-0.9 %. These values represent a key diagnostic of evolution history and low-mass star and brown-dwarf formation scenarios. Additionally, the proper motions of 76 field very low-mass dwarfs are measured here for the first time.

  11. TITANIUM AND VANADIUM CHEMISTRY IN LOW-MASS DWARF STARS Katharina Lodders

    E-print Network

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    TITANIUM AND VANADIUM CHEMISTRY IN LOW-MASS DWARF STARS Katharina Lodders Planetary Chemistry The equilibrium gas and condensation chemistry of titanium and vanadium in M, L, and T dwarf atmos- pheres are stable. Vanadium condenses into solid solution with Ti-bearing condensates (as observed in meteorites

  12. Relativistic Astrophysics in Black Hole and Low-Mass Neutron Star X-ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During the five-year period, our study of "Relativistic Astrophysics in Black Hole and Low-Mass Neutron Star X-ray Binaries" has been focused on the following aspects: observations, data analysis, Monte-Carlo simulations, numerical calculations, and theoretical modeling. Most of the results of our study have been published in refereed journals and conference presentations.

  13. Evolution of low-mass star and brown dwarf eclipsing binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Chabrier; Jose Gallardo; Isabelle Baraffe

    2007-01-01

    Context: We examine the evolution of low-mass star and brown dwarf eclipsing binaries. These objects are rapid rotators and are believed to shelter large magnetic fields. Aims: We suggest that reduced convective efficiency, due to fast rotation and large field strengths, and\\/or to magnetic spot coverage of the radiating surface significantly affect their evolution, leading to a reduced heat flux

  14. Large-scale ? 2 -dynamo in low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Chabrier; M. Küker

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model based on three dimensional mean-field magnetohydrodynamics computations for the gen- eration of large scale magnetic fields in fully convective objects like low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and possibly gaseous plan- ets. The dynamo process is of type and thus differs from the shell-dynamo at work in more massive stars. The dynamo is found to become supercritical for

  15. Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russel J. White; Gibor Basri

    2003-01-01

    We present high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the HIRES spectrograph on the W. M. Keck I Telescope of seven low-mass T Tauri stars (LMTTs) and brown dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga. The observed Li I 6708 Å absorption, low surface gravity signatures, and radial velocities confirm that all are members of the Taurus star-forming region; no new spectroscopic binaries are identified. Four

  16. The low-mass star and sub-stellar populations of the 25 Orionis group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Juan José; Briceño, César; Mateu, Cecilia; Hernández, Jesús; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.; Allen, Lori

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of a survey of the low-mass star and brown dwarf population of the 25 Orionis group. Using optical photometry from the CIDA (Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía `Francisco J. Duarte', Mérida, Venezuela) Deep Survey of Orion, near-IR photometry from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy and low-resolution spectroscopy obtained with Hectospec at the MMT telescope, we selected 1246 photometric candidates to low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with estimated masses within 0.02 ? M/M? ? 0.8 and spectroscopically confirmed a sample of 77 low-mass stars as new members of the cluster with a mean age of ˜7 Myr. We have obtained a system initial mass function of the group that can be well described by either a Kroupa power-law function with indices ?3 = -1.73 ± 0.31 and ?2 = 0.68 ± 0.41 in the mass ranges 0.03 ? M/M? ? 0.08 and 0.08 ? M/M? ? 0.5, respectively, or a Scalo lognormal function with coefficients m_c=0.21^{+0.02}_{-0.02} and ? = 0.36 ± 0.03 in the mass range 0.03 ? M/M? ? 0.8. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of this numerous candidate sample, we have confirmed the east-west elongation of the 25 Orionis group observed in previous works, and rule out a possible southern extension of the group. We find that the spatial distributions of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in 25 Orionis are statistically indistinguishable. Finally, we found that the fraction of brown dwarfs showing IR excesses is higher than for low-mass stars, supporting the scenario in which the evolution of circumstellar discs around the least massive objects could be more prolonged.

  17. Studies of low-mass star formation with the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates are made of the far-infrared and submillimeter continuum and line emission from regions of low mass star formation. The intensity of this emission is compared with the sensitivity of the large deployable reflector (LDR), a large space telescope designed for this wavelength range. The proposed LDR is designed to probe the temperature, density, chemical structure, and the velocity field of the collapsing envelopes of these protostars. The LDR is also designed to study the accretion shocks on the cores and circumstellar disks of low-mass protostars, and to detect shock waves driven by protostellar winds.

  18. Ultra low-mass star and substellar formation in sigma Orionis

    E-print Network

    J. A. Caballero

    2005-11-07

    The nearby young sigma Orionis cluster (~360 pc, ~3 Ma) is becoming one of the most important regions for the study of ultra low-mass star formation and its extension down to the mass regimes of the brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects. Here, I introduce the sigma Orionis cluster and present three studies that the JOVIAN group is developing: a pilot programme of near-infrared adaptive-optics imaging, intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy of a large sample of stars of the cluster and a study of the mass function down to the planetary-mass domain. This paper is a summary of the content of four posters that I presented in the Ultra low-mass star formation and evolution Workshop, as single author or on behalf of different collaborations.

  19. Probing the circumstellar environments of very young low-mass stars using water masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Vogel, S. N.; Myers, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The VLA is used to search nearby very young low-mass stars for water maser emission. The sample consists of 26 low-luminosity IRAS sources embedded in dense molecular cores, a class of sources suspected to be newly forming low-mass stars on the order of a few hundred thousand years old. Three sources were detected. High spatial resolution maps show the region of maser emission is generally confined to an area smaller than about 0.5 arcsec near the star, and the velocities of individual components span intervals ranging from 20 to 40 km/s. It is inferred from the fact that the maser velocities are too large to be due to gravitational motions in at least two of the sources that the masers are associated with the winds from the young low-mass stars. A comparison of the high spatial resolution maser data to lower-resolution CO data shows no evidence for higher collimation close to the star; the stellar wind cavity appears to have similar collimation at 10 exp 15 cm as at 10 exp 7 to 10 exp 18 cm.

  20. Current Advances in the Methodology and Computational Simulation of the Formation of Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Richard I. Klein; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka; Paolo Padoan; Kohji Tomisaka

    2006-03-27

    Developing a theory of low-mass star formation ($\\sim 0.1$ to 3~M$_{\\odot}$) remains one of the most elusive and important goals of theoretical astrophysics. The star-formation process is the outcome of the complex dynamics of interstellar gas involving non-linear interactions of turbulence, gravity, magnetic field and radiation. The evolution of protostellar condensations, from the moment they are assembled by turbulent flows to the time they reach stellar densities, spans an enormous range of scales, resulting in a major computational challenge for simulations. Since the previous Protostars and Planets conference, dramatic advances in the development of new numerical algorithmic techniques have been successfully implemented on large scale parallel supercomputers. Among such techniques, Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics have provided frameworks to simulate the process of low-mass star formation with a very large dynamic range. It is now feasible to explore the turbulent fragmentation of molecular clouds and the gravitational collapse of cores into stars self-consistently within the same calculation. The increased sophistication of these powerful methods comes with substantial caveats associated with the use of the techniques and the interpretation of the numerical results. In this review, we examine what has been accomplished in the field and present a critique of both numerical methods and scientific results. We stress that computational simulations should obey the available observational constraints and demonstrate numerical convergence. Failing this, results of numerical simulations do not advance our understanding of low-mass star formation.

  1. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2014-07-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M < 0.5 M?), pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1 - ?)-N compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where ? is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N ? 0.45 ± 0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by Spruit & Weiss for main-sequence stars with the same ?, where N ˜ 0.2-0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and zero-age main-sequence K-dwarfs have radii inflated by ˜10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrically measured radii; low-mass M-type PMS stars, that are still on their Hayashi tracks, are inflated by up to ˜40 per cent. If this were attributable to starspots alone, we estimate that an effective spot coverage of 0.35 < ? < 0.51 is required. Alternatively, global inhibition of convective flux transport by dynamo-generated fields may play a role. However, we find greater consistency with the starspot models when comparing the loci of active young stars and inactive field stars in colour-magnitude diagrams, particularly for the highly inflated PMS stars, where the large, uniform temperature reduction required in globally inhibited convection models would cause the stars to be much redder than observed.

  2. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-mass Shield Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Simones, Jacob E.; Salzer, John J.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Elson, Ed C.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ˜10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. A HYBRID SCENARIO FOR THE FORMATION OF BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Shantanu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Vorobyov, Eduard I., E-mail: basu@uwo.ca, E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at [Institute of Astrophysics, The University of Vienna, Vienna, 1180 (Austria)

    2012-05-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08-0.35 M{sub Sun }, and have ejection velocities 0.8 {+-} 0.35 km s{sup -1}, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very low mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto-brown-dwarfs, disk formation and the low velocity dispersion of low-mass objects are naturally explained, while it is also consistent with the observation of isolated low-mass clumps that are ejection products. We conclude that clump ejection and the formation of isolated low-mass stellar and substellar objects is a common occurrence, with important implications for understanding the initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the formation of stars in all environments and epochs.

  4. Timescales for Low-Mass Star Formation in Extragalactic Environments: Implications for the Stellar IMF

    E-print Network

    Manda Banerji; Serena Viti; David A. Williams; Jonathan M. C. Rawlings

    2008-10-20

    We investigate the physical and chemical conditions necessary for low-mass star formation in extragalactic environments by calculating various characteristic timescales associated with star formation for a range of initial conditions. The balance of these timescales indicates whether low-mass star formation is enhanced or inhibited under certain physical conditions. In this study, we consider timescales for free-fall, cooling, freeze-out, desorption, chemistry and ambipolar diffusion and their variations with changes in the gas density, metallicity, cosmic ray ionisation rate and FUV radiation field strength. We find that extragalactic systems with high FUV radiation field strengths and high cosmic ray fluxes considered at a range of metallicities, are likely to have enhanced low-mass star formation unless the magnetic pressure is sufficient to halt collapse. Our results indicate that this is only likely to be the case for high-redshift galaxies approaching solar metallicities. Unless this is true for all high-redshift sources, this study finds little evidence for a high-mass biased IMF at high redshifts.

  5. Investigating the Properties of Low-Mass Stars Using Spectra of Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluns, Kyle; West, A. A.; Dhital, S.; Massey, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a study designed to characterize wide, low-mass (< 0.5 M_Sun) binaries identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We examine the SDSS database level completeness (for identifying visual binaries) and analyze the pairs that both have individual SDSS spectra. A comprehensive by-eye examination reveals that a significant fraction of the sources within 1" of the primary stellar source are misclassified as duplicate detections and, hence, are omitted from the photometric primary catalog in the SDSS database. This discrepancy has a noticeable effect on estimates of the binary fraction, mass function, luminosity function, and other studies that rely on large, photometric samples of low-mass stars. Due to their coeval nature, binaries with at least one low-mass component are important for calibrating the age-activity relation and the relative metallicity scales. Better defined stellar ages and metallicities allow for a proper analysis of stellar and Galactic evolution using ubiquitous low-mass stars. We constructed a spectroscopic sample of wide binaries, for which there is at least one low-mass component and an individual spectrum for each star. Each binary was verified using measurements of their common proper motions and a chance alignment probability calculated from a six-dimensional model of the Milky Way. The orbital separation of the binary components provides an extra age constraint due to mechanisms that destroy wide binaries during thin-disk dynamical heating. We evaluate the behavior of the magnetic activity in coeval systems, with a specific focus on the dependence of activity on orbital separation and location in the Galactic disk. The preliminary results of our analysis will help calibrate the age-activity relation in M dwarfs. In addition, we calibrate the relative metallicity scale for metal poor K and M dwarfs using a modified index based on TiO and CaH molecular band features.

  6. On the Correlation between the Magnetic Activity Levels, Metallicities, and Radii of Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Morales, Mercedes

    2007-05-01

    The recent increase in the number of radius measurements of very low mass stars from eclipsing binaries and interferometry of single stars has raised more questions about what could be causing the discrepancy between the observed radii and those predicted by models. The two main explanations being proposed are a correlation between the radii of the stars and either their activity levels or their metallicities. This paper presents a study of such correlations using all the data published to date. The study also investigates correlations between the radius deviations from the models and the masses of the stars. There is no clear correlation between activity level and radius for the single stars in the sample. These single stars are slow rotators, with typical velocities vrotsini<3.0 km s-1. A clear correlation however exists in the case of the faster rotating members of binaries. This result is based on the X-ray emission levels of the stars. There also appears to be an increase in the deviation of the radii of single stars from the models as a function of metallicity, as previously indicated by Berger et al. The stars in binaries do not seem to follow the same trend. Finally, the Baraffe et al. models reproduce well the radius observations below 0.30-0.35 Msolar, where the stars become fully convective, although this result is preliminary since almost all the sample stars in that mass range are slow rotators and metallicities have not been measured for most of them. The results indicate that stellar activity and metallicity play an important role in determining the radius of very low mass stars, at least above 0.35 Msolar.

  7. Asymmetric Dark Matter May Alter the Evolution of Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Andrew R. Zentner; Andrew P. Hearin

    2011-11-18

    We study energy transport by asymmetric dark matter in the interiors of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Our motivation is to explore astrophysical signatures of asymmetric dark matter, which otherwise may not be amenable to conventional indirect dark matter searches. In viable models, the additional cooling of very-low mass stellar cores can alter stellar properties. Asymmetric dark matter with mass 4 brown dwarfs. Such light dark matter is of particular interest given results from the DAMA, CoGeNT, and CRESST dark matter searches. We discuss possibilities for observing dark matter effects in stars in the solar neighborhood, globular clusters, and, of particular promise, local dwarf galaxies, among other environments, as well as exploiting these effects to constrain dark matter properties.

  8. Evolutionary Models for Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Dusty Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chabrier; I. Baraffe; F. Allard; P. Hauschildt

    2000-01-01

    We present evolutionary calculations for very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs based on synthetic spectra and nongray atmosphere models which include dust formation and opacity, i.e., objects with Teff<~2800 K. The interior of the most massive brown dwarfs is shown to develop a conductive core after ~2 Gyr which slows down their cooling. Comparison is made in optical and infrared

  9. Herschel Photometry of Disks around Low-mass Stars in the R CrA Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Paul M.; Henning, Thomas; Liu, Yao; Wolf, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    We report photometric results from a subset of a Herschel-PACS program to observe cool dust in disks around low-mass stars as a complement to our earlier program to measure far-infrared emission from brown dwarfs. In this latest study we observed five low-mass objects in the nearby R Corona Australis region and detected at least three at 70 ?m. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code we have investigated the disk masses and geometry based on detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling, and we compare these new results to those from our earlier larger sample of brown dwarfs. In particular, our SED analysis for these five objects shows again that disk geometries of brown dwarfs or low-mass stars are generally similar to their higher mass counterparts like T Tauri disks, but the range of disk mass extends to well below the value found in T Tauri stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. THE RADIUS DISCREPANCY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SINGLE VERSUS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spada, F. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Demarque, P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Kim, Y.-C. [Yonsei University Observatory and Astronomy Department, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sills, A., E-mail: fspada@aip.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-10-20

    A long-standing issue in the theory of low-mass stars is the discrepancy between predicted and observed radii and effective temperatures. In spite of the increasing availability of very precise radius determinations from eclipsing binaries and interferometric measurements of radii of single stars, there is no unanimous consensus on the extent (or even the existence) of the discrepancy and on its connection with other stellar properties (e.g., metallicity, magnetic activity). We investigate the radius discrepancy phenomenon using the best data currently available (accuracy ?< 5%). We have constructed a grid of stellar models covering the entire range of low-mass stars (0.1-1.25 M{sub ?}) and various choices of the metallicity and mixing length parameter, ?. We used an improved version of the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code, implementing surface boundary conditions based on the most up-to-date PHOENIX atmosphere models. Our models are in good agreement with others in the literature and improve and extend the low mass end of the Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Our calculations include rotation-related quantities, such as moments of inertia and convective turnover timescales, useful in studies of magnetic activity and rotational evolution of solar-like stars. Consistent with previous works, we find that both binaries and single stars have radii inflated by about 3% with respect to the theoretical models; among binaries, the components of short orbital period systems are found to be the most deviant. We conclude that both binaries and single stars are comparably affected by the radius discrepancy phenomenon.

  11. The Radius Discrepancy in Low-mass Stars: Single versus Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, F.; Demarque, P.; Kim, Y.-C.; Sills, A.

    2013-10-01

    A long-standing issue in the theory of low-mass stars is the discrepancy between predicted and observed radii and effective temperatures. In spite of the increasing availability of very precise radius determinations from eclipsing binaries and interferometric measurements of radii of single stars, there is no unanimous consensus on the extent (or even the existence) of the discrepancy and on its connection with other stellar properties (e.g., metallicity, magnetic activity). We investigate the radius discrepancy phenomenon using the best data currently available (accuracy <~ 5%). We have constructed a grid of stellar models covering the entire range of low-mass stars (0.1-1.25 M ?) and various choices of the metallicity and mixing length parameter, ?. We used an improved version of the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code, implementing surface boundary conditions based on the most up-to-date PHOENIX atmosphere models. Our models are in good agreement with others in the literature and improve and extend the low mass end of the Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Our calculations include rotation-related quantities, such as moments of inertia and convective turnover timescales, useful in studies of magnetic activity and rotational evolution of solar-like stars. Consistent with previous works, we find that both binaries and single stars have radii inflated by about 3% with respect to the theoretical models; among binaries, the components of short orbital period systems are found to be the most deviant. We conclude that both binaries and single stars are comparably affected by the radius discrepancy phenomenon.

  12. The formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars by disc fragmentation

    E-print Network

    Dimitris Stamatellos; Anthony P. Whitworth

    2008-09-29

    We suggest that a high proportion of brown dwarfs are formed by gravitational fragmentation of massive, extended discs around Sun-like stars. We argue that such discs should arise frequently, but should be observed infrequently, precisely because they fragment rapidly. By performing an ensemble of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we show that such discs typically fragment within a few thousand years to produce mainly brown dwarfs (including planetary-mass brown dwarfs) and low-mass hydrogen-burning stars. Subsequently most of the brown dwarfs are ejected by mutual interactions. We analyse the properties of these objects that form by disc fragmentation, and compare them with observations.

  13. Brown dwarfs and low-mass stars in the Pleiades and Praesepe:- Membership and binarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Pinfield; P. D. Dobbie; R. F. Jameson; I. A. Steele; H. R. A. Jones; A. C. Katsiyannis

    2003-01-01

    We present near infrared J-, H- and K-band photometry and optical\\u000aspectroscopy of low-mass star and brown dwarf (BD) candidates in the Pleiades\\u000aand Praesepe open clusters. We find that Pleiades stars with K=10.5--13 are\\u000arather redder than the NextGen isochrones. We also identify this effect amongst\\u000aalphaPer sources from the literature, but find no evidence of it for field

  14. Distributed Low-mass Star Formation in the IRDC G34.43+00.24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Arce, Héctor G.; Kassis, Marc; Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Finn, Susanna C.; Offner, Stella; Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Guzmán, Andrés E.; Rathborne, Jill M.

    2014-08-01

    We have used deep near-infrared observations with adaptive optics to discover a distributed population of low-mass protostars within the filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G34.43+00.24. We use maps of dust emission at multiple wavelengths to determine the column density structure of the cloud. In combination with an empirically verified model of the magnitude distribution of background stars, this column density map allows us to reliably determine overdensities of red sources that are due to embedded protostars in the cloud. We also identify protostars through their extended emission in the K band, which comes from excited H2 in protostellar outflows or reflection nebulosity. We find a population of distributed low-mass protostars, suggesting that low-mass protostars may form earlier than, or contemporaneously with, high-mass protostars in such a filament. The low-mass protostellar population may also produce the narrow line-width SiO emission observed in some clouds without high-mass protostars. Finally, we use a molecular line map of the cloud to determine the virial parameter per unit length along the filament and find that the highest mass protostars form in the most bound portion of the filament, as suggested by theoretical models.

  15. REEVALUATING THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS, MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: Gregory.A.Feiden.GR@Dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We examine the agreement between the observed and theoretical low-mass (<0.8 M{sub Sun }) stellar main-sequence mass-radius relationship by comparing detached eclipsing binary (DEB) data with a new, large grid of stellar evolution models. The new grid allows for a realistic variation in the age and metallicity of the DEB population, characteristic of the local galactic neighborhood. Overall, our models do a reasonable job of reproducing the observational data. A large majority of the models match the observed stellar radii to within 4%, with a mean absolute error of 2.3%. These results represent a factor of two improvement compared to previous examinations of the low-mass mass-radius relationship. The improved agreement between models and observations brings the radius deviations within the limits imposed by potential starspot-related uncertainties for 92% of the stars in our DEB sample.

  16. Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs: Observations and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, J.; Matt, S. P.; Mohanty, S.; Scholz, A.; Stassun, K. G.; Zanni, C.

    This chapter aims at providing the most complete review of both the emerging concepts and the latest observational results regarding the angular momentum evolution of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. In the time since Protostars and Planets V (Reipurth et al., 2007) (PPV), there have been major developments in the availability of rotation-period measurements at multiple ages and in different star-forming environments that are essential for testing theory. In parallel, substantial theoretical developments have been carried out in the last few years, including the physics of the star-disk interaction, numerical simulations of stellar winds, and the investigation of angular momentum transport processes in stellar interiors. This chapter reviews both the recent observational and theoretical advances that prompted the development of renewed angular momentum evolution models for cool stars and brown dwarfs. While the main observational trends of the rotational history of low-mass objects seem to be accounted for by these new models, a number of critical open issues remain that are outlined in this review.

  17. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-Mass SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; Haynes, Martha P; Simones, Jacob E; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Elson, Ed C; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the HI ALFALFA survey based on their low HI mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star-formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star-formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star-formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply...

  18. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main sequence stars

    E-print Network

    Jackson, R J

    2014-01-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M<0.5Msun), pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1-beta)^{-N} compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where beta is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N \\simeq 0.45+/-0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by the models of Spruit & Weiss (1986) for main sequence stars with the same beta, where N \\sim 0.2 to 0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally-locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and ZAMS K-dwarfs have radii inflated by \\sim 10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrica...

  19. First Results from the CHARA Array. IV. The Interferometric Radii of Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Berger, D H; Brummelaar, T A; Gies, D R; Henry, T J; McAlister, H A; Merand, A; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the angular diameters of six M dwarfs with the CHARA Array, a long-baseline optical interferometer located at Mount Wilson Observatory. Spectral types range from M1.0 V to M3.0 V and linear radii from 0.38 to 0.69 Rsun. These results are consistent with the seven other M-dwarf radii measurements from optical interferometry and with those for sixteen stars in eclipsing binary systems. We compare all directly measured M dwarf radii to model predictions and find that current models underestimate the true stellar radii by up to 15-20%. The differences are small among the metal-poor stars but become significantly larger with increasing metallicity. This suggests that theoretical models for low mass stars may be missing some opacity source that alters the computed stellar radii.

  20. First Results from the CHARA Array. IV. The Interferometric Radii of Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    D. H. Berger; D. R. Gies; H. A. McAlister; T. A. ten Brummelaar; T. J. Henry; J. Sturmann; L. Sturmann; N. H. Turner; S. T. Ridgway; J. P. Aufdenberg; A. Merand

    2006-02-06

    We have measured the angular diameters of six M dwarfs with the CHARA Array, a long-baseline optical interferometer located at Mount Wilson Observatory. Spectral types range from M1.0 V to M3.0 V and linear radii from 0.38 to 0.69 Rsun. These results are consistent with the seven other M-dwarf radii measurements from optical interferometry and with those for sixteen stars in eclipsing binary systems. We compare all directly measured M dwarf radii to model predictions and find that current models underestimate the true stellar radii by up to 15-20%. The differences are small among the metal-poor stars but become significantly larger with increasing metallicity. This suggests that theoretical models for low mass stars may be missing some opacity source that alters the computed stellar radii.

  1. Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in NGC 2024: Constraints on the Substellar Mass Function

    E-print Network

    J. L. Levine; A. Steinhauer; R. J. Elston; E. A. Lada

    2006-04-13

    We present results from a near-infrared spectroscopic study of candidate brown dwarfs and low mass stars in the young cluster NGC 2024. Using FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 2.1m and 4m telescopes, we have obtained spectra of ~70 new members of the cluster and classified them via the prominent J and H band water absorption features. Derived spectral types range from ~M1 to later than M8 with typical classification errors of 0.5-1 subclasses. By combining these spectral types with JHK photometry, we place these objects on the H-R diagram and use pre-main sequence evolutionary models to infer masses and ages. The mean age for this low mass population of NGC 2024 is 0.5 Myr and derived masses range from ~0.7-0.02 solar masses with 23 objects falling below the hydrogen-burning limit. The logarithmic mass function rises to a peak at ~0.2 solar masses before turning over and declining into the substellar regime. There is a possible secondary peak at ~0.035 solar masses however the errors are also consistent with a flat IMF in this region. The ratio of brown dwarfs to stars is similar to that found in the Trapezium but roughly twice the ratio found in IC 348, leading us to conclude that the substellar IMF in young clusters may be dependent on the local star forming environment.

  2. Cyg X-3: a low-mass black hole or a neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Miko?ajewska, Joanna; Belczy?ski, Krzysztof

    2013-02-01

    Cyg X-3 is a highly interesting accreting X-ray binary, emitting from the radio to high-energy gamma-rays. It consists of a compact object wind-fed by a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, but the masses of the components and the mass-loss rate have been a subject of controversies. Here, we determine its masses, inclination and the mass-loss rate using our derived relationship between the mass-loss rate and the mass for WR stars of the WN type, published infrared and X-ray data, and a relation between the mass-loss rate and the binary period derivative (observed to be >0 in Cyg X-3). Our obtained mass-loss rate is almost identical to that from two independent estimates and consistent with other ones, which strongly supports the validity of this solution. The found WR and compact-object masses are 10.3+ 3.9- 2.8 and 2.4+ 2.1- 1.1 M?, respectively. Thus, our solution still allows for the presence of either a neutron star or a black hole, but the latter only with a low mass. However, the radio, infrared and X-ray properties of the system suggest that the compact object is a black hole. Such a low-mass black hole could be formed via accretion-induced collapse or directly from a supernova.

  3. Dust Heating By Low-mass Stars in Massive Galaxies at z< 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisawa, M.; Morishita, T.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Ichikawa, T.; Fukui, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data and multi-wavelength photometric catalog, we investigated the dust temperature of passively evolving and star-forming galaxies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.0 in the CANDELS fields. We estimated the stellar radiation field by low-mass stars from the stellar mass and surface brightness profile of these galaxies and then calculated their steady-state dust temperature. At first, we tested our method using nearby early-type galaxies with the deep far-IR data by the Herschel Virgo cluster survey and confirmed that the estimated dust temperatures are consistent with the observed temperatures within the uncertainty. We then applied the method to galaxies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.0, and found that most passively evolving galaxies with {{M}star}\\gt {{10}10} {{M}? } have relatively high dust temperatures of {{T}dust}\\gt 20 K, for which the formation efficiency of molecular hydrogen on the surface of dust grains in the diffuse ISM is expected to be very low from the laboratory experiments. The fraction of passively evolving galaxies strongly depends on the expected dust temperature at all redshifts and increases rapidly increasing temperature around {{T}dust}˜ 20 K. These results suggest that the dust heating by low-mass stars in massive galaxies plays an important role in the continuation of their passive evolution because the lack of the shielding effect of the molecular hydrogen on the UV radiation can prevent the gas cooling and formation of new stars.

  4. Investigating Low-Mass Binary Stars And Brown Dwarfs with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gregory Nathan

    The mass of a star at formation determines its subsequent evolution and demise. Low-mass stars are the most common products of star formation and their long main-sequence lifetimes cause them to accumulate over time. Star formation also produces many substellar-mass objects known as brown dwarfs, which emerge from their natal molecular clouds and continually cool as they age, pervading the Milky Way. Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs exhibit a wide range of physical characteristics and their abundance make them ideal subjects for testing formation and evolution models. I have examined a pair of pre-main sequence spectroscopic binaries and used radial velocity variations to determine orbital solutions and mass ratios. Additionally, I have employed synthetic spectra to estimate their effective temperatures and place them on theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. From this analysis I discuss the formation and evolution of young binary systems and place bounds on absolute masses and radii. I have also studied the late-type T dwarfs revealed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This includes the exemplar T8 subdwarf Wolf 1130C, which has the lowest inferred metallicity in the literature and spectroscopic traits consistent with old age. Comparison to synthetic spectra implies that the dispersion in near-infrared colors of late-type T dwarfs is a result of age and/or thin sulfide clouds. With the updated census of the L, T, and Y dwarfs we can now study specific brown dwarf subpopulations. Finally, I present a number of future studies that would develop our understanding of the physical qualities of T dwarf color outliers and disentangle the tracers of age and atmospheric properties.

  5. Rotational Velocities And Radii Of Low-mass Pre-main Sequence Stars In NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Rhode, K. L.; Picard, T. M.

    2007-05-01

    Stellar radii and rotational velocities are crucial fundamental parameters which constrain theoretical models describing pre-main sequence (PMS) evolution. We have obtained high dispersion spectra for a sample of low-mass PMS stars in NGC 2264 (age 2 - 4 Myr) in order to measure v sin i values. Our sample includes 75 stars brighter than V=17.0 for which accurate rotation periods are known from photometric monitoring. By combining rotation periods with measured projected rotational velocities, we can determine the radius for these stars to within a factor of sin i. This method has only been employed for two clusters of T Tauri stars so far; the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) with an age 1 Myr (Rhode et al. 2001, AJ 122, 3258), and IC 348 with an age 1.5 Myr (Nordhagen et al. 2006, AJ 132, 1555). We compare the minimum stellar radius (R sin i) for each star to the radius derived from bolometric luminosities and effective temperatures. These results are discussed in the context of angular momentum evolution by comparing the mean radii of the stars in this cluster with those in the ONC and IC 348.

  6. An X-ray survey of low-mass stars in Trumpler 16 with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Aims: We identify and characterize low-mass stars in the 3 Myr old Trumpler 16 region by means of a deep Chandra X-ray observation, and study their optical and near-IR properties. We compare the X-ray activity of Trumpler 16 stars with the known characteristics of Orion and Cygnus OB2 stars. Methods: We analyzed a 88.4 ks Chandra ACIS-I observation pointed at the center of Trumpler 16. Because of diffuse X-ray emission, source detection was performed using the PWDetect code for two different energy ranges: 0.5-8.0 keV and 0.9-8.0 keV. Results were merged into a single final list. We positionally correlated X-ray sources with optical and 2MASS catalogs. Source events were extracted with the IDL-based routine ACIS-Extract. X-ray variability was characterized using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and spectra were fitted by using XSPEC. The X-ray spectra of early-type, massive stars were analyzed individually. Results: Our list of X-ray sources consists of 1035 entries, 660 of which have near-IR counterparts and are probably associated with Trumpler 16 members. From near-IR, color-color, and color-magnitude diagrams we compute individual masses of stars and their Av values. The cluster median extinction is Av = 3.6 mag, while OB-type stars appear less absorbed, having Av = 2.0 mag. About 15% of the near-IR counterparts show disk-induced excesses. X-ray variability is found in 77 sources, and typical X-ray spectral parameters are N_H˜ 5.37 × 1021 cm-2 and kT˜ 1.95 keV. The OB stars appear, softer with a median kT˜ 0.65 keV. The median X-ray luminosity is 6.3 × 1030 {erg s-1}, while variable sources show a larger median Lx value of 13 × 1030 {erg s-1}. OB-stars have an even higher median Lx of 80 × 1030 {erg s-1}, about 10 times that of the low-mass stars. Conclusions: The Trumpler 16 region has a very rich population of low-mass X-ray emitting stars. A large fraction of its circumstellar disks have survived the intense radiation field of its massive stars. Stars with masses 1.5-2.5 M_? display X-ray activity similar to the Cyg OB2 stars, but much less intense than observed for Orion nebula cluster members. Full Tables [see full textsee full text]-[see full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. The effect of star-spots on the ages of low-mass stars determined from the lithium depletion boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    In a coeval group of low-mass stars, the luminosity of the sharp transition between stars that retain their initial lithium and those at slightly higher masses in which Li has been depleted by nuclear reactions, the lithium depletion boundary (LDB), has been advanced as an almost model-independent means of establishing an age scale for young stars. Here, we construct polytropic models of contracting pre-main sequence stars (PMS) that have cool, magnetic star-spots blocking a fraction ? of their photospheric flux. Star-spots slow the descent along Hayashi tracks, leading to lower core temperatures and less Li destruction at a given mass and age. The age, ?LDB, determined from the luminosity of the LDB, LLDB, is increased by a factor of (1 - ?)-E compared to that inferred from unspotted models, where E ? 1 + dlog ?LDB/dlog LLDB and has a value ˜0.5 at ages <80 Myr, decreasing to ˜0.3 for older stars. Spotted stars have virtually the same relationship between K-band bolometric correction and colour as unspotted stars, so this relationship applies equally to ages inferred from the absolute K magnitude of the LDB. Low-mass PMS stars do have star-spots, but the appropriate value of ? is highly uncertain with a probable range of 0.1 < ? < 0.4. For the smaller ? values, our result suggests a modest systematic increase in LDB ages that is comparable with the maximum levels of theoretical uncertainty previously claimed for the technique. The largest ? values would however increase LDB ages by 20-30 per cent and demand a re-evaluation of other age estimation techniques calibrated using LDB ages.

  8. The Role of Environment in the Formation of Low Mass Stars: Lessons from the Orion Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megeath, S. Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Low mass stars form in diverse environmental conditions, and understanding how these conditions influence the fragmentation and collapse of the molecular gas into stars is of key interest. The Orion molecular clouds are a remarkable laboratory for studying low mass star formation across the full range of environments, from crowded clusters containing massive stars, to moderate sized groups ofintermediate and low mass stars, and finally to relatively isolated low mass star formation. We present results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey, or HOPS, a study of over 300 protostar in the Orionclouds with the Herschel, Spitzer, Hubble and APEX telescopes. These data provide the means to identify young stars and protostars, determine the properties of the protostars, and map the column density of the dense gas in their surroundings. We examine how the properties of the protostars depend on the local environment, as traced by the surface densities of YSOs and gas, and we discuss the implications for our understanding of low mass star formation.

  9. The Secondary Star in Cataclysmic Variables and Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    D. A. Smith; V. S. Dhillon

    1998-08-20

    We critically re-examine the available data on the spectral types, masses and radii of the secondary stars in cataclysmic variables (CVs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), using the new catalogue of Ritter & Kolb (1998) as a starting point. We find there are 55 reliable spectral type determinations and only 14 reliable mass determinations of CV secondary stars (10 and 5, respectively, in the case of LMXBs). We derive new spectral type-period, mass-radius, mass-period and radius-period relations, and compare them with theoretical predictions. We find that CV secondary stars with orbital periods shorter than 7-8 hours are, as a group, indistinguishable from main sequence stars in detached binaries. We find it is not valid, however, to estimate the mass from the spectral type of the secondary star in CVs or LMXBs. We find that LMXB secondary stars show some evidence for evolution, with secondary stars which are slightly too large for their mass. We show how the masses and radii of the secondary stars in CVs can be used to test the validity of the disrupted magnetic braking model of CV evolution, but we find that the currently available data are not sufficiently accurate or numerous to allow such an analysis. As well as considering secondary star masses, we also discuss the masses of the white dwarfs in CVs, and find mean values of M_1 = 0.69+/-0.13 M_sun below the period gap, and M_1 = 0.80+/-0.22 M_sun above the period gap.

  10. Chemical limit cycles for models of a region of low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Dyson, J. E.; Hartquist, T. W.; Williams, D. A.

    1988-12-01

    Barnard 5 (B5) is a nearby, clumpy region in which low-mass star formation is occurring. The authors have calculated the chemical evolution for three variants of the dynamics of B5. In all of these models, interclump gas collapses to produce clumps which are dispersed by the stars which form; molecular gas cycles repeatedly between clump and interclump phases and during the dispersal interval may mix with ionized gas in the stellar winds. The authors find that the general chemical structure attains an approximate limit cycle in each of these models. During each dynamical cycle in each model, the molecular abundances vary substantially as functions of time; the time variations differ markedly between the models. The results of high resolution mapping of chemical abundances in B5, which because of its proximity is an ideal source for such studies, should be a good test of these calculations.

  11. Angular Momentum Transfer in Star-Discs Encounters: The Case of Low-Mass Discs

    E-print Network

    S. Pfalzner

    2003-10-27

    A prerequisite for the formation of stars and planetary systems is that angular momentum is transported in some way from the inner regions of the accretion disc. Tidal effects may play an important part in this angular momentum transport. Here the angular momentum transfer in an star-disc encounter is investigated numerically for a variety of encounter parameters in the case of low mass discs. Although good agreement is found with analytical results for the entire disc, the loss {\\it inside} the disc can be up to an order of magnitude higher than previously assumed. The differences in angular momentum transport by secondaries on a hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptical path are shown, and it is found that a succession of distant encounters might be equally, if not more, successful in removing angular momentum than single close encounter.

  12. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. PMID:22547243

  13. High and Low Metallicity Models of Extremely Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Lorne A.

    2011-05-01

    We present our latest generation of evolutionary models for very low-luminosity stars (near the ends of their respective Main Sequences) and for Brown Dwarfs. These results have been computed for a wide range of metallicities which includes extremely old subdwarfs (0.0001 < Z < 0.02). Using sophisticated atmospheric models from the Allard-Hauschildt library, we precompute an extensive grid of outer boundary conditions and then interpolate this grid as the models are being calculated. Using very sophisticated input physics such as the OPAL opacities, the Alexander and Ferguson low-temperature opacities, and our own equation of state which is largely derived from that of the SCVH low-temperature EOS, we have calculated the evolution of low-mass stars and Brown Dwarfs ranging from 0.001 to 0.5 solar masses. The physical properties of these models will be presented and the observational implications will be discussed briefly.

  14. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Allard, F; Homeier, D; Freytag, B

    2012-06-13

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. PMID:22547243

  15. The effect of magnetic activity on low-mass stars in eclipsing binaries

    E-print Network

    Morales, J C; Ribas, I; Jordi, C; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, analyses of eclipsing binary systems have unveiled differences between the observed fundamental properties of low-mass stars and those predicted by stellar structure models. Particularly, radius and effective temperatures computed from models are ~ 5-10% lower and ~ 3-5% higher than observed, respectively. These discrepancies have been attributed to different factors, notably to the high levels of magnetic activity present on these stars. In this paper, we test the effect of magnetic activity both on models and on the observational analysis of eclipsing binaries using a sample of such systems with accurate fundamental properties. Regarding stellar models, we have found that unrealistically high spot coverages need to be assumed to reproduce the observations. Tests considering metallicity effects and missing opacities on models indicate that these are not able to explain the radius discrepancies observed. With respect to the observations, we have tested the effect of several spot distributions...

  16. The Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars in Chamaleon-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, J.; Sz?cs, L.; Henning, Th.; Linz, H.; Pascucci, I.; Joergens, V.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are expected to be planet birthplaces. The potential for forming one or more planets of various masses is essentially driven by the initial mass of the disks, a crucial parameter for any planet formation theory. Constraining the masses of disks is of great interest for low-mass stars, which are expected to harbor less massive disks. Aims: We present and analyze Herschel/PACS observations of disk-bearing M-type stars that belong to the young ~2 Myr old Chamaleon-I star-forming region, to better constrain the properties of the circumstellar material and the stellar mass dependence of these parameters. Methods: We used the radiative transfer code RADMC to successfully model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 17 M-type stars detected at PACS wavelengths. Our modeling strategy is carefully designed so that we search for the most probable disks parameters among a large grid of models, via Bayesian inference, which is an approach that has already proven successful. Results: Based on the modeling results, we first discuss the relatively low detection rates of M5 and later spectral type stars with respect to the PACS sensitivity, and argue that their disks masses, or flaring indices, are likely to be low (Mdisk ~ 10-5 M?, ? ~ 1.1). For M0 to M3 stars, we find a relatively broad range of disk masses (10-4-10-3 M?), scale heights, and flaring indices. Via a parametrization of dust stratification, we can reproduce the peak fluxes of the 10 ?m emission feature observed with Spitzer/IRS, and find that disks around M-type stars may display signs of dust sedimentation. We discuss a tentative correlation between the strength of the 10 ?m emission feature and the parametrized stratification. Conclusions: The Herschel/PACS observations of low-mass stars in Cha-I provide new constraints on their disk properties, overall suggesting that disk parameters for early M-type stars are comparable to those for more massive stars (e.g., comparable scale height and flaring angles). However, regions of the disks emitting at about 100 ?m may still be in the optically thick regime, preventing direct determination of disk masses. Thus the modeled disk masses should be considered as lower limits. Nevertheless, we are able to extend the wavelength coverage of SED models and start characterizing effects, such as dust sedimentation, an effort leading the way towards ALMA observations of these low-mass stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 1, 2, and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Anglada-Escude, Guillem [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  18. Accreting Neutron Stars in Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    E-print Network

    Frederick K. Lamb; Stratos Boutloukos

    2007-06-28

    Using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RossiXTE), astronomers have discovered that disk-accreting neutron stars with weak magnetic fields produce three distinct types of high-frequency X-ray oscillations. These oscillations are powered by release of the binding energy of matter falling into the strong gravitational field of the star or by the sudden nuclear burning of matter that has accumulated in the outermost layers of the star. The frequencies of the oscillations reflect the orbital frequencies of gas deep in the gravitational field of the star and/or the spin frequency of the star. These oscillations can therefore be used to explore fundamental physics, such as strong-field gravity and the properties of matter under extreme conditions, and important astrophysical questions, such as the formation and evolution of millisecond pulsars. Observations using RossiXTE have shown that some two dozen neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems have the spin rates and magnetic fields required to become millisecond radio-emitting pulsars when accretion ceases, but that few have spin rates above about 600 Hz. The properties of these stars show that the paucity of spin rates greater than 600 Hz is due in part to the magnetic braking component of the accretion torque and to the limited amount of angular momentum that can be accreted in such systems. Further study will show whether braking by gravitational radiation is also a factor. Analysis of the kilohertz oscillations has provided the first evidence for the existence of the innermost stable circular orbit around dense relativistic stars that is predicted by strong-field general relativity. It has also greatly narrowed the possible descriptions of ultradense matter.

  19. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  20. THE LOW-MASS INTERACTING BINARY SYSTEM OO Aql REVISITED: A NEW QUADRUPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Icli, T.; Kocak, D.; Boz, G. C.; Yakut, K. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Ege, 35100, Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2013-05-15

    In this study we present photometric and spectroscopic variation analysis and an orbital period study of a low-mass interacting system OO Aql. Simultaneous solution of the light and radial velocity curves provides us with the determination of a new set of stellar physical parameters for the primary and the secondary companion, M{sub 1} = 1.05(2) M{sub Sun }, M{sub 2} = 0.89(2) M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 1.38(2) R{sub Sun }, R{sub 2} = 1.28(2) R{sub Sun }, log (L{sub 1}/L{sub Sun }) = 0.258, and log (L{sub 2}/L{sub Sun }) = 0.117, and the separation of the components was determined to be a = 3.333(16) R{sub Sun }. Newly obtained parameters yield the distance of the system as 136(8) pc. Analyses of the mid-eclipse times indicate a period increase of (P/ P-dot )=4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} yr that can be interpreted in terms of the mass transfer (dM/dt) = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} from the less massive component to the more massive component. Our new solution confirmed that OO Aql is a multiple system in the form of AB + C + D. We found initial astrophysical parameters for the component of the system and its current age to be 8.6 Gyr using a non-conservative stellar evolution model (EV-TWIN code).

  1. Radial velocities of very low mass stars and candidate brown dwarf members of the Hyades and Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Liebert, James; Giampapa, Mark; Macintosh, Bruce; Reid, Neill; Hamilton, Donald

    1994-01-01

    We have determined H alpha equivalent widths and radial velocities with 1 sigma accuracies of approximately 5 km s(exp -1) for approximately 20 candidate very low mass members of the Hyades and Pleiades clusters. The radial velocities for the Hyades sample suggest that nearly all of these stars are indeed highly probable members of the Hyades. The faintest stars in the Hyades sample have masses of order 0.1 solar mass. We also obtained radial velocities for four candidate very low mass members of the Pleiades and two objects that are candidate BD Pleiads. All of these stars have apparent V magnitudes fainter than the Hyades stars we observed, and the resultant radial velocity accuracy is worse. We believe that the three brighter stars are indeed likely very low mass stellar members of the Pleiades, whereas the status of the two brown dwarf candidates is uncertain. The Hyades stars we have observed and the three Pleiades very low mass stars are the lowest mass members of any open cluster whose membership has been confirmed by radial velocities and whose chromospheric activity has been measured. We see no change in chromospheric activity at the boundary where stars are expected to become fully convective (M approximately equals 0.3 solar mass) in either cluster. In the Pleiades, however, there may be a decrease in chromospheric activity for stars with (V-I)(sub K) greater than 3.5 (M less than or equal to 0.1 solar mass).

  2. Evolutionary scenarios for low-mass stars and substellar brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Several investigations into the evolution of very low mass (VLM) stars and substellar brown dwarfs (SBDs) were conducted. The first is a numerical simulation of the evolution of optically visible protostars accreting mass from a disk. It is suggested that rotation, not deuterium burning, is simultaneously responsible for forming the disk and optically revealing the central protostar. It is assumed that the accretion energy can be radiated by either a boundary layer (BL) or the protostellar photosphere, or some combination thereof. The BL mechanism fits the observations better and indicates that T Tauri stars are accreting. Second, the evolution of isolated VLM stars and SBDs is computed for two sets of atmospheric (grain) opacities. These results are compared with other recent models and observations. The influence of a white dwarf's radiation flux on the evolution of a SBD companion is considered. Larger opacities significantly increase the radii of SBDs, but the thermal bath does not. The thermal bath increases substantially the SBD temperature and luminosity at a given age. Inclusion of both effects increases the mass range of the possible SBD companion of G29-38 significantly over previous work. As a step toward improving the equation of state for VLM stars and SBDs, internal energies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the One-Component Plasma are re-examined.

  3. An IRAS Hires study of low mass star formation in the Taurus molecular ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan; Surace, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    The Taurus molecular cloud supposedly has no star clusters but only isolated star formation. However, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) shows us that a small star cluster is currently forming in Taurus. Most of the sources are deeply embedded and are probably low-mass protostars. We use High Resolution (HiRes) images of the IRAS data from the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to look for additional infrared members of the cluster. We also investigate the question of whether the infrared emission matches predictions for protostellar sources by examining whether the dust emission is resolved on scales of one arcminute (approx. 10(exp 17) cm). With the exception of a luminous visible star, HD 29647, we find that the sources L1527, TMC1A, TMC1, TMC1C, tMR1, and IC2087 are unresolved in the HiRes images at 60 microns. Further analysis of IC2087 shows that it is unresolved at all four IRAS wavelengths.

  4. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Laerhoven, C.; Barnes, R.; Greenberg, R.

    2014-07-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity. Planets orbiting low-mass stars can be very old, due to the longevity of such stars, so they may be rendered sterile to life in this way. However, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf (Teff = 2670 K) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for current habitability.

  5. A Pulsation Search among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very-low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters ? Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  6. Low-Mass Star Forming Cores in the GF9 Filament

    E-print Network

    Ray S. Furuya; Yoshimi Kitamura; Hiroko Shinnaga

    2008-04-30

    We carried out an unbiased mapping survey of dense molecular cloud cores traced by the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) inversion lines in the GF9 filament which contains an extremely young low-mass protostar GF9-2 (Furuya et al. 2006, ApJ, 653, 1369). The survey was conducted using the Nobeyama 45m telescope over a region of ~1.5 deg with an angular resolution of 73". The large-scale map revealed that the filament contains at least 7 dense cores, as well as 3 possible ones, located at regular intervals of ~0.9 pc. Our analysis shows that these cores have kinetic temperatures of $\\lesssim$ 10 K and LTE-masses of 1.8 -- 8.2 Msun, making them typical sites of low-mass star formation. All the identified cores are likely to be gravitationally unstable because their LTE-masses are larger than their virial masses. Since the LTE-masses and separations of the cores are consistent with the Jeans masses and lengths, respectively, for the low-density ambient gas, we argue that the identified cores have formed via the gravitational fragmentation of the natal filamentary cloud.

  7. A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

  8. Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in NGC 2024: Constraints on the Substellar Mass Function

    E-print Network

    Levine, J L; Lada, E A; Steinhauer, A

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a near-infrared spectroscopic study of candidate brown dwarfs and low mass stars in the young cluster NGC 2024. Using FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 2.1m and 4m telescopes, we have obtained spectra of ~70 new members of the cluster and classified them via the prominent J and H band water absorption features. Derived spectral types range from ~M1 to later than M8 with typical classification errors of 0.5-1 subclasses. By combining these spectral types with JHK photometry, we place these objects on the H-R diagram and use pre-main sequence evolutionary models to infer masses and ages. The mean age for this low mass population of NGC 2024 is 0.5 Myr and derived masses range from ~0.7-0.02 solar masses with 23 objects falling below the hydrogen-burning limit. The logarithmic mass function rises to a peak at ~0.2 solar masses before turning over and declining into the substellar regime. There is a possible secondary peak at ~0.035 solar masses however the errors are also consistent with a flat IMF i...

  9. Magnetic fields and star formation in low-mass Magellanic-type and peculiar galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurusik, W.; Drzazga, R. T.; Jableka, M.; Chy?y, K. T.; Beck, R.; Klein, U.; We?gowiec, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We investigate how magnetic properties of Magellanic-type and perturbed objects are related to star-forming activity, galactic type, and mass. Methods: We present radio and magnetic properties of five Magellanic-type and two peculiar low-mass galaxies observed at 4.85 and/or 8.35 GHz with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. The sample is extended to 17 objects by including five Magellanic-type galaxies and five dwarf ones. Results: The distribution of the observed radio emission of low-mass galaxies at 4.85/8.35 GHz is closely connected with the galactic optical discs, which are independent for unperturbed galaxies and those which show signs of tidal interactions. The strengths of total magnetic field are within 5-9 ?G, while the ordered fields reach 1-2 ?G, and both these values are larger than in typical dwarf galaxies and lower than in spirals. The magnetic field strengths in the extended sample of 17 low-mass galaxies are well correlated with the surface density of star formation rate (correlation coefficient of 0.87) and manifest a power-law relation with an exponent of 0.25 ± 0.02 extending a similar relation found for dwarf galaxies. We claim that the production of magnetic energy per supernova event is very similar for all the various galaxies. It constitutes about 3% (1049 erg) of the individual supernovae energy release. We show that the total magnetic field energy in galaxies is almost linearly related to the galactic gas mass, which indicates equipartition of the magnetic energy and the turbulent kinetic energy of the interstellar medium. The Magellanic-type galaxies fit very well with the radio-infrared relation constructed for surface brightness of galaxies of various types, including bright spirals and interacting objects (with a slope of 0.96 ± 0.03 and correlation coefficient of 0.95). We found that the typical far-infrared relation based on luminosity of galaxies is tighter and steeper but more likely to inherit a partial correlation from a tendency that larger objects are also more luminous. Conclusions: The estimated values of thermal fractions, radio spectral indices, and magnetic field strengths of the Magellanic-type galaxies are between the values determined for grand-design spirals and dwarf galaxies. The confirmed magnetic field-star formation and radio-infrared relations for low-mass galaxies point to similar physical processes that must be at work in all galaxies. More massive, larger galaxies have usually stronger magnetic fields and larger global star formation rates, but we show that their values of magnetic energy release per supernova explosion are still similar to those of dwarf galaxies. Based on observations with the 100-m telescope at Effelsberg operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) on behalf of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.

  10. Search for low-mass PMS companions around X-ray selected late B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Le Mignant, D.; North, P.; Krautter, J.

    2001-06-01

    We have observed 49 X-ray-detected bright late B-type dwarfs to search for close low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) companions using the European Southern Observatory's ADONIS (Adaptive Optics Near Infrared System) instrument. We announce the discovery of 21 new companions in 9 binaries, 5 triple, 4 quadruple system and 1 system consisting of five stars. The detected new companions have K magnitudes between 6.5m and 17.3m and angular separations ranging from 0.12 arcsec to 14.1 arcsec (18-2358 AU). Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO programme No.~62.I-0477, and Swiss 70~cm photometric telescope).

  11. A Search for Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    E-print Network

    C. L. Slesnick; J. M. Carpenter; L. A. Hillenbrand

    2004-11-19

    We are conducting a U,B,R,I monitoring program to identify pre-main sequence stars and brown dwarfs in a 12.5x12.2 square degree region of the Upper Scorpius OB association (5-10 Myr). We will use these data in combination with a follow-up spectroscopy survey to derive the low mass IMF in Upper Sco and to explore the prevalence of 5-10 Myr circumstellar disks. We will also analyze the spatial distribution of association members as a function of stellar mass, from which we will be able to place constraints on brown dwarf formation scenarios. We expect to identify 700-1800 previously unknown pre-main sequence objects in Upper Sco with M brown dwarfs at 5-10 Myr.

  12. Multi-fibre optical spectroscopy of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Upper Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Dobbie, P. D.; Hambly, N. C.

    2011-03-01

    Context. Knowledge of the mass function in open clusters constitutes one way to critically examine the formation mechanisms proposed to explain the existence of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Aims: The aim of the project is to determine as accurately as possible the shape of the mass function across the stellar/substellar boundary in the young (5 Myr) and nearby (d = 145 pc) Upper Sco association. Methods: We have obtained multi-fibre intermediate-resolution (R ~ 1100) optical (~5750-8800 Å) spectroscopy of 94 photometric and proper motion selected low-mass star and brown dwarf candidates in Upper Sco with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Results: We have estimated the spectral types and measured the equivalent widths of youth (H?) and gravity (Na I and K I) diagnostic features to confirm the spectroscopic membership of about 95% of the photometric and proper motion candidates extracted from 6.5 square degrees surveyed in Upper Sco by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Galactic Clusters Survey (GCS). We also detect lithium in the spectra with the highest signal-to-noise, consolidating our conclusions about their youth. Furthermore, we derive an estimate of the efficiency of the photometric and proper motion selections used in our earlier studies using spectroscopic data obtained for a large number of stars falling into the instrument's field-of-view. We have estimated the effective temperatures and masses for each new spectroscopic member using the latest evolutionary models available for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Combining the current optical spectroscopy presented here with near-infrared spectroscopy obtained for the faintest photometric candidates, we confirm the shape and slope of our earlier photometric mass function. The luminosity function drawn from the spectroscopic sample of 113 USco members peaks at around M6 and is flat at later spectral type. We may detect the presence of the M7/M8 gap in the luminosity function as a result of the dust properties in substellar atmospheres. The mass function may peak at 0.2 M? and is quite flat in the substellar regime. We observe a possible excess of cool low-mass brown dwarfs compared to IC 348 and the extrapolation of the field mass functions, supporting the original hypothesis that Upper Sco may possess an excess of brown dwarfs compared to other young regions. Conclusions: This result shows that the selection of photometric candidates based on five band photometry available from the UKIDSS GCS and complemented partially by proper motions can lead to a good representation of the spectroscopic mass function. Based on observations obtained with the AAOmega spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Observatory.Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table B.1 and optical spectra are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/527/A24

  13. A NEW TWIST IN THE EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Denissenkov, Pavel A., E-mail: pavelden@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    We show that the evolutionary track of a low-mass red giant should make an extended zigzag on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram just after the bump luminosity if fast internal rotation and enhanced extra mixing in the radiative zone bring the temperature gradient close to the adiabatic one. This can explain both the location and peculiar surface chemical composition of Li-rich K giants studied by Kumar et al. We also discuss a striking resemblance between the photometric and composition peculiarities of these stars and giant components of RS CVn binaries. We demonstrate that the observationally constrained values of the temperature gradient in the Li-rich K giants agree with the required rate of extra mixing only if the turbulence that is believed to be responsible for this extra mixing is highly anisotropic, with its associated transport coefficients in the horizontal direction strongly dominating over those in the vertical direction.

  14. Isotropic star in low-mass X-ray binaries and X-ray pulsars

    E-print Network

    Mehedi Kalam; Sk. Monowar Hossein; Sajahan Molla

    2014-10-01

    We present a model for compact stars in the low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) and X-ray pulsars using a metric given by John J. Matese and Patrick G. Whitman \\citep{Matese and Whitman1980}. Here the field equations are reduced to a system of two algebraic equations considering the isotropic pressure. Compact star candidates 4U 1820-30(radius=10km) in LMXBs, and Her X-1(radius=7.7km), SAX J 1808.4-3658(SS1)(radius=7.07km) and SAX J 1808.4-3658(SS2)(radius=6.35km) in X-ray pulsars satisfy all the energy conditions, TOV-equation and stability condition. From our model, we have derived mass($M$), central density($\\rho_{0}$), suface density($\\rho_{b}$), central pressure($p_{0}$), surface pressure($p_{b}$) and surface red-shift($Z_{s}$) of the above mentioned stars, which are very much consistant with the observed/reported datas\\citep{N. K. Glendenning1997,Gondek2000}. We have also observe the adiabatic index($\\gamma$>4/3) of the above steller objects.

  15. Class I methanol masers in low-mass star formation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, S. V.; Slysh, V. I.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Bergman, P.; Kurtz, S.; Hofner, P.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2012-07-01

    Four Class I maser sources were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz toward chemically rich outflows in the regions of low-mass star formation NGC 1333I4A, NGC 1333I2A, HH25, and L1157. One more maser was found at 36 GHz toward a similar outflow, NGC 2023. Flux densities of the newly detected masers are no more than 18 Jy, being much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation. The brightness temperatures of the strongest peaks in NGC 1333I4A, HH25, and L1157 at 44 GHz are higher than 2000 K, whereas that of the peak in NGC 1333I2A is only 176 K. However, a rotational diagram analysis showed that the latter source is also a maser. The main properties of the newly detected masers are similar to those of Class I methanol masers in regions of massive star formation. The former masers are likely to be an extension of the latter maser population toward low luminosities of both the masers and the corresponding YSOs.

  16. Rapid X-Ray Variability of Neutron Stars in Low-Mass Binary Systems

    E-print Network

    Frederick K. Lamb; M. Coleman Miller; Dimitrios Psaltis

    1998-02-07

    The dramatic discovery with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite of remarkably coherent $\\sim$300--1200 Hz oscillations in the X-ray brightness of some sixteen neutron stars in low-mass binary systems has spurred theoretical modeling of these oscillations and investigation of their implications for the neutron stars and accretion flows in these systems. High-frequency oscillations are observed both during thermonuclear X-ray bursts and during intervals of accretion-powered emission and appear to be a characteristic feature of disk-accreting neutron stars with weak magnetic fields. In this review we focus on the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) seen in the accretion-powered emission. We first summarize the key properties of these kilohertz QPOs and then describe briefly the models that have been proposed to explain them. The existing evidence strongly favors beat-frequency models. We mention several of the difficulties encountered in applying the magnetospheric beat-frequency model to the kilohertz QPOs. The most fully developed and successful model is the sonic-point beat-frequency model. We describe the work on this model in some detail. We then discuss observations that could help to distinguish between models. We conclude by noting some of the ways in which study of the kilohertz QPOs may advance our understanding of dense matter and strong gravitational fields.

  17. Direct imaging search for planets around low-mass stars and spectroscopic characterization of young exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan Peter

    Low--mass stars between 0.1--0.6 M? are the most abundant members our galaxy and may be the most common sites of planet formation, but little is known about the outer architecture of their planetary systems. We have carried out a high-contrast adaptive imaging search for gas giant planets between 1--13 MJup around 122 newly identified young M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood ( ? 35 pc). Half of our targets are younger than 145 Myr, and 90% are younger than 580 Myr. After removing 39 resolved stellar binaries, our homogeneous sample of 83 single young M dwarfs makes it the largest imaging search for planets around low--mass stars to date. Our H- and K- band coronagraphic observations with Subaru/HiCIAO and Keck/NIRC2 achieve typical contrasts of 9--13 mag and 12--14 mag at 100, respectively, which corresponds to limiting masses of ˜1--10 M Jup at 10--30 AU for most of our sample. We discovered four brown dwarfs with masses between 25--60 MJup at projected separations of 4--190 AU. Over 100 candidate planets were discovered, nearly all of which were found to be background stars from follow-up second epoch imaging. Our null detection of planets nevertheless provides strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. Assuming circular orbits and a logarithmically-flat power law distribution in planet mass and semi--major axis of the form d 2N=(dloga dlogm) infinity m0 a0, we measure an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 8.8% and 12.6% for 1--13 MJup companions between 10--100 AU for hot start and cold start evolutionary models, respectively. For massive gas giant planets in the 5--13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799, GJ 504, and beta Pictoris, we find that fewer than 5.3% (7.8%) of M dwarfs harbor these planets between 10--100 AU for a hot start (cold start) formation scenario. Our best constraints are for brown dwarf companions; the frequency of 13--75 MJup companions between (de--projected) physical separations of 10--100 AU is 2.1+2.1-1.2 %. Altogether, our results show that gas giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. If disk instability is a viable way to form planets, our constraints for the most common type of star imply that overall it is an inefficient mechanism.

  18. Combined effects of tidal and rotational distortions on the equilibrium configuration of low-mass, pre-main sequence stars

    E-print Network

    Landin, N R; Vaz, L P R; 10.1051/0004-6361:20078403

    2009-01-01

    In close binary systems, rotation and tidal forces of the component stars deform each other and destroy their spherical symmetry. We present new models for low-mass, pre-main sequence stars that include the combined distortion effects of tidal and rotational forces on the equilibrium configuration of stars. We investigate the effects of interaction between tides and rotation on the stellar structure and evolution. The Kippenhahn & Thomas (1970) approximation, along with the Clairaut-Legendre expansion for the gravitational potential of a self-gravitating body, is used to take the distortion effects into account. We obtained values of internal structure constants for low-mass, pre-main sequence stars from stellar evolutionary models that consider the combined effects of rotation and tidal forces due to a companion star. We also derived a new expression for the rotational inertia of a tidally and rotationally distorted star. Our distorted models were successfully used to analyze the eclipsing binary system ...

  19. Runaway Heating by R-Modes of Neutron Stars in Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Levin

    1999-01-01

    Recently Andersson et al. and Bildsten have independently suggested that an r-mode instability might be responsible for stalling the neutron star spin-up in strongly accreting low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). We show that if this does occur, there are two possibilities for the resulting neutron star evolution. If the r-mode damping is a decreasing function of temperature, then the star undergoes

  20. Ages of evolved low mass stars: Central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, W. J.; Rodrigues, T. S.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2013-03-01

    We have developed several methods to estimate the ages of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN), which are based either on observed nebular properties or on data from the stars themselves. Our goal is to derive the age distribution of these stars and compare the results with empirical distributions for CSPN and white dwarfs. We have initially developed three methods based on nebular abundances, using (i) an age-metallicity relation which is also a function of the galactocentric distance; (ii) an age-metallicity relation obtained for the galactic disk, and (iii) the central star masses derived from the observed nitrogen abundances. In this work we present two new, more accurate methods, which are based on kinematic properties: (I) in this method, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae around the galactic centre at their galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the galactic rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars; (II) we determine directly the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars, as well as the velocity dispersions, and use the dispersion-age relation by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. These methods were applied to two large samples of galactic CSPN. We conclude that most CSPN in the galactic disk have ages under 5 Gyr, and that the age distribution is peaked around 1 to 3 Gyr.

  1. The temperature and chronology of heavy-element synthesis in low-mass stars.

    PubMed

    Neyskens, P; Van Eck, S; Jorissen, A; Goriely, S; Siess, L; Plez, B

    2015-01-01

    Roughly half of the heavy elements (atomic mass greater than that of iron) are believed to be synthesized in the late evolutionary stages of stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 solar masses. Deep inside the star, nuclei (mainly iron) capture neutrons and progressively build up (through the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process) heavier elements that are subsequently brought to the stellar surface by convection. Two neutron sources, activated at distinct temperatures, have been proposed: (13)C and (22)Ne, each releasing one neutron per ?-particle ((4)He) captured. To explain the measured stellar abundances, stellar evolution models invoking the (13)C neutron source (which operates at temperatures of about one hundred million kelvin) are favoured. Isotopic ratios in primitive meteorites, however, reflecting nucleosynthesis in the previous generations of stars that contributed material to the Solar System, point to higher temperatures (more than three hundred million kelvin), requiring at least a late activation of (22)Ne (ref. 1). Here we report a determination of the s-process temperature directly in evolved low-mass giant stars, using zirconium and niobium abundances, independently of stellar evolution models. The derived temperature supports (13)C as the s-process neutron source. The radioactive pair (93)Zr-(93)Nb used to estimate the s-process temperature also provides, together with the pair (99)Tc-(99)Ru, chronometric information on the time elapsed since the start of the s-process, which we determine to be one million to three million years. PMID:25567282

  2. Class I methanol masers in low-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, S. V.; Kurtz, S.; Bergman, P.

    2013-02-01

    Results of observations of Class I methanol masers in regions of low-mass star formation (MMIL) are summarized and analyzed. Four masers were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz towards "chemically active" bipolar outflows in the low-mass star-forming regions NGC1333 I4A, NGC 1333 I2A, HH 25, and L1157. Another maser was found at 36 GHz towards a similar outflow in NGC 2023. Thus, all the detected MMILs are associated with chemically active outflows. The brightness temperatures of the strongest 44-GHz maser spots in NGC 1333 I4A, HH 25, and L1157 exceed 2000 K, whereas the brightness temperature in NGC 1333 I2A is only 176 K, although a rotational-diagram analysis shows that this last source is also amaser. The flux densities of the newly detectedmasers are no higher than 18 Jy, and are much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation (MMIH). The MMIL luminosities match the maser luminosity-protostar luminosity relation established earlier for MMIHs. No MMIL variability was detected in 2004-2011. The radial velocities of the newly detected masers are close to the systemic velocities of the associated regions, except for NGC 2023, where the maser radial velocity is lower than the systemic velocity by approximately 3.5 km/s. Thus, the main MMILproperties are similar to those of MMIHs. MMILs are likely to be an extension of the MMIH population toward lower luminosities of both the masers and the associated young stellar objects. The results of VLA observations of MMILs can be explained using a turbulent-cloud model, which predicts that compact maser spots can arise in extended sources because the coherence lengths along some directions randomly appear to be longer than the mean coherence length in a turbulent velocity field. However, one must assume that the column density of methanol towardM1, the strongest maser in L1157, is appreciably higher than the mean column density of the clump B0a where the maser arises. The shape of the maser lines in L1157, forming double profiles with a red asymmetry, may indicate that the masers arise in collapsing clumps. However, although this model may be correct for L1157, it is specific to this source, since none of the other masers observed exhibited a double profile.

  3. Sonic-Point Model for High-Frequency QPOs in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    M. Coleman Miller; Frederick K. Lamb; Dimitrios Psaltis

    1997-02-11

    Quasi-periodic brightness oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies in the range 300-1200 Hz have been detected from at least nine neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Here we summarize the sonic-point model for these brightness oscillations, which we present in detail elsewhere. If the sonic-point interpretation of kilohertz QPOs is confirmed, measurements of kilohertz QPO frequencies in low-mass X-ray binaries will provide new bounds on the masses and radii of neutron stars in these systems and new constraints on the equation of state of matter at high densities.

  4. The effects of rotation on the surface composition and yields of low mass AGB stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.

    Over the past 20 years, stellar evolutionary models have been strongly improved in order to reproduce with reasonable accuracy both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Notwithstanding, the majority of these models do not take into account macroscopic phenomena, like rotation and/or magnetic fields. Their explicit treatment could modify stellar physical and chemical properties. One of the most interesting problems related to stellar nucleosynthesis is the behavior of the s-process spectroscopic indexes ([hs/ls] and [Pb/hs]) in Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. In this contribution we show that, for a fixed metallicity, rotation can lead to a spread in the [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] in low-mass AGB stars. In particular, we demonstrate that the Eddington-Sweet and the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instabilities may have enough time to smear the 13C-pocket (the major neutron source) and the 14N-pocket (the major neutron poison). In fact, a different overlap between these pockets leads to a different neutrons-to-seeds ratio, with important consequences on the corresponding s-process distributions. Possible consequences on the chemical evolution of Galactic globular clusters are discussed.

  5. Miniature MMIC Low Mass/Power Radiometer Modules for the 180 GHz GeoSTAR Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Tanner, Alan; Pukala, David; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and demonstrated miniature 180 GHz Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) radiometer modules that have low noise temperature, low mass and low power consumption. These modules will enable the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) of the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) Mission for atmospheric temperature and humidity profiling. The GeoSTAR instrument has an array of hundreds of receivers. Technology that was developed included Indium Phosphide (InP) MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and second harmonic MMIC mixers and I-Q mixers, surface mount Multi-Chip Module (MCM) packages at 180 GHz, and interferometric array at 180 GHz. A complete MMIC chip set for the 180 GHz receiver modules (LNAs and I-Q Second harmonic mixer) was developed. The MMIC LNAs had more than 50% lower noise temperature (NT=300K) than previous state-of-art and MMIC I-Q mixers demonstrated low LO power (3 dBm). Two lots of MMIC wafers were processed with very high DC transconductance of up to 2800 mS/mm for the 35 nm gate length devices. Based on these MMICs a 180 GHz Multichip Module was developed that had a factor of 100 lower mass/volume (16x18x4.5 mm3, 3g) than previous generation 180 GHz receivers.

  6. Low Mass Star Formation in Perseus: Large Field Mapping at 1mm with Bolocam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, M. L.; Sargent, A. I.; Golwala, S.; Glenn, J.; Evans, N. J., II; Young, K. E.

    2003-12-01

    The earliest stages of low mass star formation, enshrouded in dense cores of dust and gas, are most easily studied at long wavelengths from the far-infrared to millimeter. SIRTF will provide unparalleled sensitivity in the 4-160 micron range, but coverage at longer wavelengths is necessary to developing a more complete picture of star formation in molecular clouds. As a complement to the SIRTF Legacy program "From Molecular Cores to Planet-forming Disks", we have carried out a flux-limited survey of approximately 6.5 square degrees of the Perseus molecular cloud at 1.1 mm using Bolocam, a new large format bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). At millimeter wavelengths dust emission is generally optically thin and thus a good tracer of mass, while emission at infrared wavelengths is more strongly dependent on temperature and density. We will present preliminary results from this survey and discuss general characteristics of the Perseus cloud, such as the spatial distribution of dust cores, and mass statistics. Results from recent CSO/SHARCII 350 micron images of a few of the newly identified pre-protostellar and protostellar candidates will also be presented. This work is funded in part by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  7. Identifying low-mass members of nearby star clusters using proper motion & color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Mark A.

    I present a combined kinematic and photometric search for new, low-mass (m ? 0.2 M? ) members of nearby (d < 300 pc) star clusters. Using both proper motion and color criteria, a total of 33 low-mass objects have been newly recognized as members of the Taurus, Praesepe, and Pleiades clusters. In addition, 18 potential cluster members are noted, and 4 members are recovered from previous member searches. Multi-epoch imaging was performed using i-band Megacam observations unique to this study, combined with archival CFH telescope data in the optical I and Z bands. Near-infrared detections were also acquired from the 2MASS survey. The imaging data were processed using the Pan-STARRS IPP data pipeline software in order to provide high-precision relative astrometry, from which proper motions were extracted. Low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from the IRTF telescope gives confirmation on the membership status of the selected candidates. The addition of proper motion criteria to complement the often-used color selection allows for a more effective identification of low-mass cluster members whose broadband spectral features are similar to the bulk of galactic field objects lying along the line-of-sight. Culling the candidates using proper motion also significantly reduces the amount of candidates that require spectroscopic follow-up, even in the NIR color-space with the highest levels of field contamination. Comparison of the search results to a galactic field model by Robin et al. (2003) provides strong evidence that brighter member candidates in Taurus (i < 17) found to be of mid-M spectral types are highly likely to be clusters members rather than field dwarfs. While the addition of new members to the Praesepe and Pleiades clusters are minor compared to the current known population, there is suggestive evidence that the mass function of Taurus is significantly lacking in mid-M dwarfs, and in fact may actually resemble the mass functions of other similarly-aged clusters. The successful application of this search technique using the IPP software is significant, as the Pan-STARRS survey program is conducting regular imaging of 75% of the total sky over the next 3-4 years.

  8. Low-mass galaxy assembly in simulations: regulation of early star formation by radiation from massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Klypin, Anatoly; Colín, Pedro; Ceverino, Daniel; Arraki, Kenza S.; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent success in forming realistic present-day galaxies, simulations still form the bulk of their stars earlier than observations indicate. We investigate the process of stellar mass assembly in low-mass field galaxies, a dwarf and a typical spiral, focusing on the effects of radiation from young stellar clusters on the star formation (SF) histories. We implement a novel model of SF with a deterministic low efficiency per free-fall time, as observed in molecular clouds. Stellar feedback is based on observations of star-forming regions, and includes radiation pressure from massive stars, photoheating in H II regions, supernovae and stellar winds. We find that stellar radiation has a strong effect on the formation of low-mass galaxies, especially at z > 1, where it efficiently suppresses SF by dispersing cold and dense gas, preventing runaway growth of the stellar component. This behaviour is evident in a variety of observations but had so far eluded analytical and numerical models without radiation feedback. Compared to supernovae alone, radiation feedback reduces the SF rate by a factor of ˜100 at z ? 2, yielding rising SF histories which reproduce recent observations of Local Group dwarfs. Stellar radiation also produces bulgeless spiral galaxies and may be responsible for excess thickening of the stellar disc. The galaxies also feature rotation curves and baryon fractions in excellent agreement with current data. Lastly, the dwarf galaxy shows a very slow reduction of the central dark matter density caused by radiation feedback over the last ˜7 Gyr of cosmic evolution.

  9. A census of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the ? Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Rebolo, R.; Martín, E. L.; Hambly, N. C.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The knowledge of the initial mass function (IMF) in open clusters constitutes one way of constraining the formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, along with the frequency of multiple systems and the properties of disks. Aims: The aim of the project is to determine the shape of the mass function in the low-mass and substellar regimes in the ? Orionis cluster (~3 Myr, ~352 pc, solar metallicity) as accurately as possible and compare it with the results in other clusters. Methods: We have analysed the near-infrared photometric data from the fourth data release (DR4) of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Suvey (UKIDSS) Galactic clusters survey (GCS) to derive the cluster luminosity and mass functions, evaluate the extent of the cluster, and study the distribution and variability of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs down to the deuterium-burning limit. Results: We have recovered most of the previously published members and found a total of 287 candidate members within the central 30 arcmin in the 0.5-0.009 M? mass range, including new objects not previously reported in the literature. This new catalogue represents a homogeneous dataset of brown dwarf member candidates over the central 30 arcmin of the cluster. The expected photometric contamination by field objects with similar magnitudes and colours to ? Orionis members is ~15%. We present evidence of variability at the 99.5% confidence level over ~yearly timescales in 10 member candidates that exhibit signs of youth and the presence of disks. The level of variability is low (?0.3 mag) and does not impact the derivation of the cluster luminosity and mass functions. Furthermore, we find a possible dearth of brown dwarfs within the central five arcmin of the cluster, which is not caused by a lower level of photometric sensitivity around the massive, O-type multiple star ? Ori in the GCS survey. Using state-of-the-art theoretical models, we derived the luminosity and mass functions within the central 30 arcmin from the cluster centre, with completeness down to J = 19 mag, corresponding to masses ranging from 0.5 M? down to the deuterium-burning mass boundary (~0.013 M?). Conclusions: The mass function of ? Orionis in this mass interval shows a power law index ? = 0.5±0.2 (when expressed as dN/dM ? M-?), which agrees with the one derived for the 3-5 Myr cluster Upper Sco (based on similar data obtained with the GCS) in the same mass range. This work is based in part on data obtained as part of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the UK. Appendices are only available at http://www.aanda.org

  10. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. II. SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS

    E-print Network

    Fegley Jr., Bruce

    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. II. SULFUR to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in giant planets, brown dwarfs, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs, brown dwarfs, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs)--are ideal environments for the formation of molecules

  11. Relativistic iron emission lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries as probes of neutron star radii

    E-print Network

    Edward M. Cackett; Jon M. Miller; Sudip Bhattacharyya; Jonathan E. Grindlay; Jeroen Homan; Michiel van der Klis; M. Coleman Miller; Tod E. Strohmayer; Rudy Wijnands

    2007-10-26

    Using Suzaku observations of three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (Ser X-1, 4U 1820-30 and GX 349+2) we have found broad, asymmetric, relativistic Fe K emission lines in all three objects. These Fe K lines can be well fit by a model for lines from a relativistic accretion disk ('diskline'), allowing a measurement of the inner radius of the accretion disk, and hence an upper limit on the neutron star radius. These upper limits correspond to 14.5 - 16.5 km for a 1.4 M(solar) neutron star. The inner disk radii we measure with Fe K lines are in good agreement with the inner disk radii implied by kHz QPOs observed in both 4U 1820-30 and GX 349+2, supporting the inner disk nature of kHz QPOs. Additionally, the Fe K lines observed in these neutron stars are narrower than those in the black holes that are thought to be close to maximally spinning, as one would expect if inferences for spin are robust.

  12. Statistics of Low-Mass Companions to Stars: Implications for Their Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Black, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more significant results from observational astronomy over the past few years has been the detection, primarily via radial velocity studies, of low-mass companions (LMCs) to solar-like stars. The commonly held interpretation of these is that the majority are "extrasolar planets" whereas the rest are brown dwarfs, the distinction made on the basis of apparent discontinuity in the distribution of M sin i for LMCs as revealed by a histogram. We report here results from statistical analysis of M sin i, as well as of the orbital elements data for available LMCs, to rest the assertion that the LMCs population is heterogeneous. The outcome is mixed. Solely on the basis of the distribution of M sin i a heterogeneous model is preferable. Overall, we find that a definitive statement asserting that LMCs population is heterogeneous is, at present, unjustified. In addition we compare statistics of LMCs with a comparable sample of stellar binaries. We find a remarkable statistical similarity between these two populations. This similarity coupled with marked populational dissimilarity between LMCs and acknowledged planets motivates us to suggest a common origin hypothesis for LMCs and stellar binaries as an alternative to the prevailing interpretation. We discuss merits of such a hypothesis and indicate a possible scenario for the formation of LMCs.

  13. Determination of mass and orbital parameters of a low-mass star HD 213597B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Deshpande, Rohit; Dixit, Vaibhav; Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Anandarao, B. G.; Hebb, Leslie; Janardhan, P.

    2014-08-01

    HD 213597 is an eclipsing binary system which was detected by the STEREO spacecraft and was speculated to host a low-mass stellar companion. We used high-resolution spectroscopy with the 10-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope and the 1.2-m telescope in Mount Abu for radial velocity (RV) measurements of this source. We performed aperture photometry for this star on the STEREO archival data and thereby confirm the transit signature. We also did follow-up ground-based photometry with a 10-inch telescope from Mt Abu. The spectroscopic RV semi-amplitude of the primary (33.39 km s-1) indicates that the secondary is an M dwarf making the system a short period F+M eclipsing binary. These RVs along with the inclination derived from our combined photometric analysis (i = 84.9°), enable us to estimate the mass of the secondary as MB ˜ 0.286 M? and radius as RB ˜ 0.344 R? using an estimated mass MA ˜ 1.3 M? and radius RB ˜ 1.97 R? of the primary. Our spectral analysis returned the following parameters: Teff = 6625 ± 121 K, [Fe/H] = -0.095 ± 0.08 and log g = 3.72 ± 0.22 for the primary. When log g is constrained to a value of 3.96, we derive Teff = 6753 ± 52 K and [Fe/H] = -0.025 ± 0.05.

  14. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Disks in Lupus

    E-print Network

    Allen, P R; Myers, P C; Megeath, S T; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Fazio, G G

    2007-01-01

    Using the Infrared Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, we have obtained images of the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 \\micron. We present photometry in these bands for the 41 previously known members that are within our images. In addition, we have identified 19 possible new members of the cloud based on red 3.6-8.0 \\micron colors that are indicative of circumstellar disks. We have performed optical spectroscopy on 6 of these candidates, all of which are confirmed as young low-mass members of Lupus 3. The spectral types of these new members range from M4.75 to M8, corresponding to masses of 0.2-0.03 $M_\\odot$ for ages of $\\sim1$ Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. We also present optical spectroscopy of a candidate disk-bearing object in the vicinity of the Lupus 1 cloud, 2M 1541-3345, which Jayawardhana & Ivanov recently classified as a young brown dwarf ($M\\sim0.03$ $M_\\odot$) with a spectral type of M8. In co...

  15. THE Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign DOUBLET AS AN AGE INDICATOR IN LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Lepine, Sebastien; Rice, Emily [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Fielding, Drummond [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tomasino, Rachael, E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: lepine@amnh.org, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: dfieldi1@jhu.edu, E-mail: tomas1r@cmich.edu [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We investigate the use of the gravity sensitive neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at 8183 Angstrom-Sign and 8195 Angstrom-Sign (Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign doublet) as an age indicator for M dwarfs. We measured the Na doublet equivalent width (EW) in giants, old dwarfs, young dwarfs, and candidate members of the {beta} Pic moving group using medium-resolution spectra. Our Na 8200 A doublet EW analysis shows that the feature is useful as an approximate age indicator in M-type dwarfs with (V - K{sub s}) {>=} 5.0, reliably distinguishing stars older and younger than 100 Myr. A simple derivation of the dependence of the Na EW on temperature and gravity supports the observational results. An analysis of the effects of metallicity shows that this youth indicator is best used on samples with similar metallicity. The age estimation technique presented here becomes useful in a mass regime where traditional youth indicators are increasingly less reliable, is applicable to other alkali lines, and will help identify new low-mass members in other young clusters and associations.

  16. PSR J1756-2251: a pulsar with a low-mass neutron star companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdman, R. D.; Stairs, I. H.; Kramer, M.; Janssen, G. H.; Bassa, C. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Demorest, P. B.; Cognard, I.; Desvignes, G.; Theureau, G.; Burgay, M.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Possenti, A.

    2014-09-01

    The pulsar PSR J1756-2251 resides in a relativistic double neutron star binary system with a 7.67-h orbit. We have conducted long-term precision timing on more than 9 yr of data acquired from five telescopes, measuring five post-Keplerian parameters. This has led to several independent tests of general relativity (GR), the most constraining of which shows agreement with the prediction of GR at the 4 per cent level. Our measurement of the orbital decay rate disagrees with that predicted by GR, likely due to systematic observational biases. We have derived the pulsar distance from parallax and orbital decay measurements to be 0.73_{-0.24}^{+0.60} kpc (68 per cent) and <1.2 kpc (95 per cent upper limit), respectively; these are significantly discrepant from the distance estimated using Galactic electron density models. We have found the pulsar mass to be 1.341 ± 0.007 M?, and a low neutron star (NS) companion mass of 1.230 ± 0.007 M?. We also determined an upper limit to the spin-orbit misalignment angle of 34° (95 per cent) based on a system geometry fit to long-term profile width measurements. These and other observed properties have led us to hypothesize an evolution involving a low mass-loss, symmetric supernova progenitor to the second-formed NS companion, as is thought to be the case for the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B. This would make PSR J1756-2251 the second compact binary system providing concrete evidence for this type of NS formation channel.

  17. Explaining observations of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Chugunov, Andrey I.; Kantor, Elena M.

    2014-09-01

    In a previous paper [M. E. Gusakov, A. I. Chugunov, and E. M. Kantor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 151101 (2014)], we introduced a new scenario that explains the existence of rapidly rotating warm neutron stars (NSs) observed in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs). Here it is described in more detail. The scenario takes into account the interaction between superfluid inertial modes and the normal (quadrupole) m=2 r mode, which can be driven unstable by the Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz (CFS) mechanism. This interaction can only occur at some fixed "resonance" stellar temperatures; it leads to formation of the "stability peaks" which stabilize a star in the vicinity of these temperatures. We demonstrate that a NS in LMXB spends a substantial fraction of time on the stability peak, that is, in the region of stellar temperatures and spin frequencies that has been previously thought to be CFS unstable with respect to excitation of r modes. We also find that the spin frequencies of NSs are limited by the CFS instability of normal (octupole) m=3 r mode rather than by m=2 r mode. This result agrees with the predicted value of the cutoff spin frequency ˜730 Hz in the spin distribution of accreting millisecond x-ray pulsars. In addition, we analyze evolution of a NS after the end of the accretion phase and demonstrate that millisecond pulsars can be born in LMXBs within our scenario. Besides millisecond pulsars, our scenario also predicts a new class of LMXB descendants—hot and rapidly rotating nonaccreting NSs ("hot widows"/HOFNARs). Further comparison of the proposed theory with observations of rotating NSs can impose new important constraints on the properties of superdense matter.

  18. THE INTERIOR STRUCTURE CONSTANTS AS AN AGE DIAGNOSTIC FOR LOW-MASS, PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE DETACHED ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dotter, Aaron, E-mail: Gregory.A.Feiden.GR@Dartmouth.edu, E-mail: aaron.dotter@gmail.com [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-03-10

    We propose a novel method for determining the ages of low-mass, pre-main-sequence stellar systems using the apsidal motion of low-mass detached eclipsing binaries. The apsidal motion of a binary system with an eccentric orbit provides information regarding the interior structure constants of the individual stars. These constants are related to the normalized stellar interior density distribution and can be extracted from the predictions of stellar evolution models. We demonstrate that low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars undergoing radiative core contraction display rapidly changing interior structure constants (greater than 5% per 10 Myr) that, when combined with observational determinations of the interior structure constants (with 5%-10% precision), allow for a robust age estimate. This age estimate, unlike those based on surface quantities, is largely insensitive to the surface layer where effects of magnetic activity are likely to be most pronounced. On the main sequence, where age sensitivity is minimal, the interior structure constants provide a valuable test of the physics used in stellar structure models of low-mass stars. There are currently no known systems where this technique is applicable. Nevertheless, the emphasis on time domain astronomy with current missions, such as Kepler, and future missions, such as LSST, has the potential to discover systems where the proposed method will be observationally feasible.

  19. A 2MASS all-sky survey for very low mass stars and brown dwarf candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Beichman, C.; Reid, I. N.; Monet, D. G.; Dahn, C. C.

    1995-12-01

    Several important ground-- and HST--based surveys in recent years have defined the shapes of the stellar luminosity function (LF) and initial mass function (IMF) of low mass stars in the Galactic disk with greater precision. While the LF and IMF have been shown to peak near 0.3 solar masses, and decline to about 0.1--0.15 solar masses, all of the surveys lack enough detections below 0.15 solar masses for the slope beyond that point to be well determined. The faintest magnitude bins are also of critical importance because of the possibility that young brown dwarfs may exist at these detectable luminosities, before they fade out. 2MASS offers the opportunity to search most of the sky in a complete, unbiased way for very low luminosity stars in the solar neighborhood, and for any brown dwarfs of similar or lower luminosity. This survey offers two advantages over "deeper" pencil-beam surveys of limited area: (1) much larger numbers of stellar objects near the mass limit could be found, and (2) these will be closer, brighter, and hence more amenable to the follow-up observations critical to determining their luminosities, other parameters, and evolutionary state. The red star candidate list for each 2MASS field will be produced by pairing up point sources identified in the two databases our group has access to -- 2MASS and the POSS--II Schmidt plates measured with the U.S. Naval Observatory Precision Measuring Machine (PMM) at Flagstaff. These include a blue (IIIaJ) magnitude, a red (IIIaF) magnitude, and in some cases a near--infrared (IV-N) magnitude. Thus the goal is to produce a catalogue of candidates in each field with B,R,I,J,H,K magnitudes or limits, and a positional accuracy of 0.25 arc seconds. The catalogue will include measured proper motions for candidates detected and measured by the PMM on earlier POSS plates. The prototype camera observations with the KPNO 1.3--m at high Galactic latitude fields are being analyzed as a test of the sensitivity and accuracy of the all-sky survey.

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star formation activity.

  1. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). II. A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF GJ 3629 SEPARATED BY 0.''2

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of a 0.''2 companion to the young M dwarf GJ 3629 as part of our high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets around low-mass stars with the Keck-II and Subaru telescopes. Two epochs of imaging confirm that the pair is comoving and reveal signs of orbital motion. The primary exhibits saturated X-ray emission which, together with its UV photometry from GALEX, points to an age younger than {approx}300 Myr. At these ages the companion lies below the hydrogen burning limit with a model-dependent mass of 46 {+-} 16 M{sub Jup} based on the system's photometric distance of 22 {+-} 3 pc. Resolved YJHK photometry of the pair indicates a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 for GJ 3629 B. With a projected separation of 4.4 {+-} 0.6 AU and an estimated orbital period of 21 {+-} 5 yr, GJ 3629 AB is likely to yield a dynamical mass in the next several years, making it one of only a handful of brown dwarfs to have a measured mass and an age constrained from the stellar primary.

  2. Discovery of a Wide Substellar Companion to a Nearby Low-Mass Star

    E-print Network

    Jacqueline Radigan; David Lafrenière; Ray Jayawardhana; René Doyon

    2008-08-11

    We report the discovery of a wide (135+/-25 AU), unusually blue L5 companion 2MASS J17114559+4028578 to the nearby M4.5 dwarf G 203-50 as a result of a targeted search for common proper motion pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Adaptive Optics imaging with Subaru indicates that neither component is a nearly equal mass binary with separation > 0.18", and places limits on the existence of additional faint companions. An examination of TiO and CaH features in the primary's spectrum is consistent with solar metallicity and provides no evidence that G 203-50 is metal poor. We estimate an age for the primary of 1-5 Gyr based on activity. Assuming coevality of the companion, its age, gravity and metallicity can be constrained from properties of the primary, making it a suitable benchmark object for the calibration of evolutionary models and for determining the atmospheric properties of peculiar blue L dwarfs. The low total mass (M_tot=0.21+/-0.03 M_sun), intermediate mass ratio (q=0.45+/-0.14), and wide separation of this system demonstrate that the star formation process is capable of forming wide, weakly bound binary systems with low mass and BD components. Based on the sensitivity of our search we find that no more than 2.2% of early-to-mid M dwarfs (9.0 0.06 M_sun.

  3. TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF STARS IN AND AROUND THE LAGOON NEBULA. I. ROTATION PERIODS OF 290 LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN NGC 6530

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Calen B.

    We have conducted a long-term, wide-field, high-cadence photometric monitoring survey of ~50,000 stars in the Lagoon Nebula H II region. This first paper presents rotation periods for 290 low-mass stars in NGC 6530, the ...

  4. Dynamics and multiplicity of brown dwarfs and young, low mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacky, Quinn Morgan

    This thesis addresses the formation and evolution of very low mass (VLM) stellar objects using their multiplicity and dynamics. First, we surveyed thirteen VLM [Special characters omitted.] objects in the Taurus star-forming region using near-infrared speckle imaging techniques on the W.M. Keck 10 m telescope. Of these thirteen, five were found to be binary. These new systems have properties that differ significantly from older field VLM binaries in that the young systems have wider separations and lower mass ratios, supporting the idea that VLM binaries undergo significant dynamical evolution ~5-10 Myr after their formation. Second, we present a pilot study for our dynamics work in which we completed a five year monitoring campaign of the close binary TWA 5Aab in the TW Hydrae association, using speckle and adaptive optics on the Keck telescopes. Our observations allowed us to determine this system's astrometric orbit. We calculate a total mass of 0.71 ± 0.14 [Special characters omitted.] (D/44 pc) 3 for this system. Finally, we present the results of a 3 year monitoring program of a sample of 26 VLM field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Keck telescope. By combining astrometry and spectroscopy, degeneracies in orbital parameters can be resolved and individual component masses can be obtained. We present relative orbits for 15 of these systems, which allow us to derive the total system mass. In addition, we find the absolute orbits for 6 systems in our sample, which allows us to derive individual masses. We compare our dynamical mass measurements to the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models and find that there are systematic discrepancies, where both models considered either underpredict or overpredict the correct mass. The discrepancies are a function of spectral type, with late M through mid L systems tending to have their masses underpredicted, while one T type system has its mass overpredicted. These discrepancies imply that either the temperatures predicted by evolutionary and atmosphere models are inconsistent for an object of a given mass, or the mass-radius relationship or cooling timescales predicted by the evolutionary models are incorrect.

  5. Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the TW Hydrae association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Gong, Munan; Allers, Katelyn N.; Brown, Joanna M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted Herschel/PACS observations of five very low-mass stars or brown dwarfs located in the TW Hya association with the goal of characterizing the properties of disks in the low stellar mass regime. We detected all five targets at 70 ?m and 100 ?m and three targets at 160 ?m. Our observations, combined with previous photometry from 2MASS, WISE, and SCUBA-2, enabled us to construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with extended wavelength coverage. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyzed the observed SEDs of the five detected objects with a hybrid fitting strategy that combines the model grids and the simulated annealing algorithm and evaluated the constraints on the disk properties via the Bayesian inference method. The modeling suggests that disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are generally flatter than their higher mass counterparts, but the range of disk mass extends to well below the value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both groups. The inferred disk properties (i.e., disk mass, flaring, and scale height) in the low stellar mass regime are consistent with previous findings from large samples of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars. We discuss the dependence of disk properties on their host stellar parameters and find a significant correlation between the Herschel far-IR fluxes and the stellar effective temperatures, probably indicating that the scaling between the stellar and disk masses (i.e., Mdisk ? M?) observed mainly in low-mass stars may extend down to the brown dwarf regime. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Star Formation in Low Mass Magnetized Cores: The Formation of Disks and Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Dennis F.

    2012-10-01

    Protostellar discs are generally thought to drive molecular outflows and jets observed in star forming regions, but there has been some debate as to how they form. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. Recently it has been argued that the magnetic brake is so strong that early protostellar disks cannot form. We have performed 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of collapsing Bonnor-Ebert spheres, employing sink particles within an AMR grid and using a cooling function to model radiative cooling of the gas. This allows us to follow the formation and early evolution of the accretion disc (2-8)×10^4 years further into the Class 0 phase of its evolution. We form a rotationally dominated disc with a radius of 100 AU embedded inside a transient, unstable, flattened, rotating structure extending out to 2000 AU. The inner disc becomes unstable to a warping instability due to the magnetic structure of the outflow, warping 30 deg with respect to the rotation-axis by the end of the simulation. The disc is unstable to a Parker instability and sheds magnetic loops, degrading the orientation of the mean threading field. This reduces and locally reverses the magnetic braking torque of the large scale field back upon the disc. The reduction of magnetic braking allows a nearly Keplerian disc to form and may be the key way in which low mass stellar systems produce rotationally dominated discs. We discuss the relevance of our disc misalignment concerning the formation of mis-aligned hot Jupiters. Protostellar outflows are implicated in clearing mass from collapsing cores, and limiting the final mass of newly formed stars. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. The simulations generate outflows which are precessing, kinked, contain internal shocks and extend to a scale of 0.1 pc end-to-end. Our disc-wind theory describes magneto-centrifugal driving throughout the outflow bubble. The bulk properties of the outflow agree well with observations. The outflow has two components, a larger low speed wind (vr < 1.5 km/s) dominated by a toroidal magnetic field B?, and an inner centrifugally driven jet dominated by Bp with speeds up to 20 km/s. The ratio of mass flux from the disk surface compared to accretion in the disk is measured to be Mout/Min ? 0.1 from the inner component, whereas in the outer component Mout/Min ?1.0. The jet is misaligned and precesses as the disc warps by 30 deg with respect to the z-axis. We measure star formation efficiencies of ?core = 0.63 (and growing), higher than theoretical predictions of ?core = 0.29-0.39 and observations ?core = 0.33. These new results reported in this thesis, show that disks can form in strongly magnetized media, in agreement with the observations - and that outflows are not as efficient in clearing away collapsing gas as has been assumed in various theoretical models. Both of these results have important implications for disk formation, and the origin of the IMF, as described in this work.

  7. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (gsim1 M Jup) around 122 newly identified nearby (lsim40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M ?) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M Jup at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M Jup; L0+2-1; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64+30-23 M Jup; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M Jup; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M Jup; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M Jup planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799 and ? Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M Jup) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8+2.4-1.5%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. This work was also based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. The T Tauri Phase Down to Nearly Planetary Masses: Echelle Spectra of 82 Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhanjoy Mohanty; Ray Jayawardhana; Gibor Basri

    2005-01-01

    Using the largest high-resolution spectroscopic sample to date of young, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, we investigate disk accretion in objects ranging from just above the hydrogen-burning limit all the way to nearly planetary masses. Our 82 targets span spectral types from M5 to M9.5, or masses from 0.15 Msolar down to about 15 jupiters. They are confirmed

  9. Evolutionary models for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs: Uncertainties and limits at very young ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Baraffe; G. Chabrier; F. Allard; P. H. Hauschildt

    2002-01-01

    We analyse pre-Main Sequence evolutionary tracks for low mass stars with masses m <= 1.4 Msun based on the Baraffe et al. (\\\\cite{Bar98}) input physics. We also extend the recent Chabrier et al. (2000) evolutionary models based on dusty atmosphere to young brown dwarfs down to one mass of Jupiter. We analyse current theoretical uncertainties due to molecular line lists,

  10. Fluorine in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

    E-print Network

    C. Abia; A. Recio-Blanco; P. de Laverny; S. Cristallo; I. Dominguez; O. Straniero

    2008-12-16

    A reanalysis of the fluorine abundance in three Galactic AGB carbon stars (TX Psc, AQ Sgr and R Scl) has been performed from the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3358 $\\mu$m. High-resolution (R$\\sim 50000$) and high signal to noise spectra obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph and the VLT telescope or from the NOAO archive (for TX Psc) have been used. Our abundance analysis uses the latest generation of MARCS model atmospheres for cool carbon rich stars. Using spectral synthesis in LTE we derive for these stars fluorine abundances that are systematically lower by $\\sim 0.8$ dex in average with respect to the sole previous estimates by Jorissen, Smith & Lambert (1992). The possible reasons of this discrepancy are explored. We conclude that the difference may rely on the blending with C-bearing molecules (CN and C$_2$) that were not properly taken into account in the former study. The new F abundances are in better agreement with the prediction of full network stellar models of low mass AGB stars. These models also reproduce the $s$-process elements distribution in the sampled stars. This result, if confirmed in a larger sample of AGB stars, might alleviate the current difficulty to explain the largest [F/O] ratios found by Jorissen et al. In particular, it may not be necessary to search for alternative nuclear chains affecting the production of F in AGB stars.

  11. H_alpha emission fluxes and lithium abundances of low mass stars in the young open cluster IC 4665

    E-print Network

    E. L. Martin; D. Montes

    1996-05-08

    As part of a long term effort to understand pre-main sequence Li burning, we have obtained high resolution spectroscopic observations of 14 late type stars (G0--M1) in the young open cluster IC~4665. Most of the stars have \\ha filled-in and \\li absorption, as expected for their young age. From the equivalent widths of \\ha emission excess (obtained using the spectral subtraction technique) and the \\lii feature, we have derived \\ha emission fluxes and photospheric Li abundances. The mean Li abundance of IC~4665 solar-type stars is log N(Li)=3.1; the same as in other young clusters ($\\alpha$~Per, Pleiades) and T Tauri stars. Our results support the conclusions from previous works that PMS Li depletion is very small for masses $\\sim$ 1 \\msun . Among the IC 4665 late-G and early K-type stars, there is a spread in Li abundances of about one order of magnitude. The Li-poor IC~4665 members have low \\ha excess and vsin{\\it i}$\\le$10. Hence, the Li-activity-rotation connection which has been clearly established in the Pleiades also seems to hold in IC 4665. One M-type IC~4665 star that we have observed does not show Li, implying a very efficient Li depletion as observed in $\\alpha$~Per stars of the same spectral type. The level of chromospheric activity and Li depletion among the low mass stars of IC 4665 is similar to that in the Pleiades. In fact, we note that the Li abundance distributions in several young clusters ($\\alpha$~Per, Pleiades, IC~2391, IC~4665) and in post T Tauri stars are strikingly similar. This result suggests that \\ha emission and Li abundance not well correlated with age for low mass stars between 20 and 100 Myr old. We argue that a finer age indicator, the ``LL-clock", would be the luminosity at

  12. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori: A Critical Test of Magnetic Evolution Models for Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Torres, Guillermo; Pavlovski, Kresimir; Feiden, Gregory A; Sabby, Jeffrey A; Bruntt, Hans; Clausen, Jens Viggo

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 Ori. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low-mass stars and ascribed to the effects of magnetic activity and/or spots. We show that models from the Dartmouth series that incorporate magnetic fields are able to match the observations with plausible field strengths of 1-2 kG, consistent with a rough estimate we derive for that star.

  13. Vaporizing neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries and the statistics of millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Tavani, M. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1991-08-08

    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and msec pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary which neglect the effects of disk and companion irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, irradiation from the accreting compact star LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn of occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) the lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less: (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degenerate companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) the recycled msec pulsar can continue to vaporize the low-mass companion star even after the accretion turn-off produced by a strong pulsar wind; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical discrepancy between the number of MSP's and their LMXB progenitors. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Gautschy, A.; Han, Z.; Serenelli, A. M.; Panei, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33-Msolar white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. The evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation are also fully accounted for by computing the conservative binary evolution of an initially 2.5-Msolar Population I star with a 1.25-Msolar companion, and with period Pi= 3 d. Evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. We find that chemical diffusion induces the occurrence of an additional hydrogen thermonuclear flash, which leads to stellar models with thin hydrogen envelopes. As a result, a fast cooling is encountered at advanced stages of evolution. In addition, we explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarf models. As compared with their helium-core counterparts, low-mass oxygen-core white dwarfs are characterized by a pulsational spectrum much more featured, an aspect which could eventually be used for distinguishing both types of stars, if low-mass white dwarfs were in fact found to pulsate as ZZ Ceti-type variables. Finally, we perform a non-adiabatic pulsational analysis on the resulting carbon/oxygen low-mass white dwarf models.

  15. The Specific Star Formation Rate and Stellar Mass Fraction of Low-mass Central Galaxies in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Reese, V.; Colín, P.; González-Samaniego, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Firmani, C.; Velázquez, H.; Ceverino, D.

    2011-08-01

    By means of cosmological N-body + hydrodynamics simulations of galaxies in the context of the ? cold dark matter (?CDM) scenario we explore the specific star formation rates (SSFR = SFR/Ms , Ms is the stellar mass) and stellar mass fractions (Fs ? Ms /Mh , Mh is the halo mass) for sub-M* field galaxies at different redshifts (0 <~ z <~ 1.5). Distinct low-mass halos (2.5 <~ Mh /1010 M sun <~ 50 at z = 0) were selected for the high-resolution re-simulations. The Hydrodynamics Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code was used and some variations of the sub-grid parameters were explored. Most simulated galaxies, specially those with the highest resolutions, have significant disk components and their structural and dynamical properties are in reasonable agreement with observations of sub-M* field galaxies. However, the SSFRs are 5-10 times smaller than the averages of several (compiled and homogenized here) observational determinations for field blue/star-forming galaxies at z < 0.3 (at low masses, most observed field galaxies are actually blue/star forming). This inconsistency seems to remain even at z ~ 1-1.5, although it is less drastic. The Fs of simulated galaxies increases with Mh as semi-empirical inferences show. However, the values of Fs at z ? 0 are ~5-10 times larger in the simulations than in the inferences; these differences increases probably to larger factors at z ~ 1-1.5. The inconsistencies reported here imply that simulated low-mass galaxies (0.2 <~ Ms /109 M sun <~ 30 at z = 0) assembled their stellar masses much earlier than observations suggest. Our results confirm the predictions found by means of ?CDM-based models of disk galaxy formation and evolution for isolated low-mass galaxies, and highlight that our understanding and implementation of astrophysics into simulations and models are still lacking vital ingredients.

  16. Atmospheric Erosion Caused by Stellar Coronal Plasma Flows on Terrestrial Exoplanets within Close-In Habitable Zones of Low Mass Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lammer; N. Terada; Yu. N. Kulikov; H. I. M. Lichtenegger; M. L. Khodachenko; T. Penz

    2008-01-01

    Since low mass M stars show a higher level of stellar activity compared to solar-like stars, and because of the closer orbital distance of their habitable zones compared to that of the Solar System, terrestrial exoplanets within M star habitable zones are expected to be much more strongly influenced by stellar winds and dense plasma ejected from the host star

  17. Rotation of low-mass stars - A new probe of stellar evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Pinsonneault; Steven D. Kawaler; P. Demarque

    1990-01-01

    Models of stars of various masses and rotational parameters were developed and compared with observations of stars in open clusters of various ages in order to analyze the evolution of rotating stars from the early premain sequence to an age of 1.7 x 10 to the 9th yrs. It is shown that, for stars older than 10 to the 8th

  18. MINERVA-Red: A Census of Planets Orbiting the Nearest Low-mass Stars to the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Cullen; Johnson, John; Plavchan, Peter; Sliski, David; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Barnes, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recent results from Kepler and ground-based exoplanet surveys suggest that low-mass stars host numerous small planets. Since low-mass stars are intrinsically faint at optical wavelengths, obtaining the Doppler precision necessary to detect these companions remains a challenge for existing instruments. We describe MINERVA-Red, a project to use a dedicated, robotic, near-infrared optimized 0.7 meter telescope and a specialized Doppler spectrometer to carry out an intensive, multi-year campaign designed to reveal the planetary systems orbiting some of the closest stars to the Sun. The MINERVA-Red cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph is optimized for the 'deep red', between 800 nm and 900 nm, where these stars are relatively bright. The instrument is very compact and designed for the ultimate in Doppler precision by using single-mode fiber input. We describe the spectrometer and the status of the MINERVA-Red project, which is expected to begin routine operations at Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins, Arizona, in 2015.

  19. DISCOVERY OF A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO A METAL-RICH F STAR WITH THE MARVELS PILOT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Lee, Brian; Cuong Nguyen, Duy; Morehead, Robert C.; Wan Xiaoke; Zhao Bo; Liu Jian; Guo Pengcheng; Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 326711-2055 (United States); Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Scott Gaudi, B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Niedzielski, Andrzej [Torun Center for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100, Torun (Poland); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Stassun, Keivan G.; Gary, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wolszczan, Alex [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barnes, Rory, E-mail: scfleming@astro.ufl.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion orbiting the metal-rich, main sequence F star TYC 2949-00557-1 during the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) pilot project. The host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6135 {+-} 40 K, logg = 4.4 {+-} 0.1, and [Fe/H] = 0.32 {+-} 0.01, indicating a mass of M = 1.25 {+-} 0.09 M{sub sun} and R = 1.15 {+-} 0.15 R{sub sun}. The companion has an orbital period of 5.69449 {+-} 0.00023 days and straddles the hydrogen burning limit with a minimum mass of 64 M{sub J} , and thus may be an example of the rare class of brown dwarfs orbiting at distances comparable to those of 'Hot Jupiters'. We present relative photometry that demonstrates that the host star is photometrically stable at the few millimagnitude level on time scales of hours to years, and rules out transits for a companion of radius {approx}>0.8 R{sub J} at the 95% confidence level. Tidal analysis of the system suggests that the star and companion are likely in a double synchronous state where both rotational and orbital synchronization have been achieved. This is the first low-mass companion detected with a multi-object, dispersed, fixed-delay interferometer.

  20. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. I. A LOW-MASS RATIO STELLAR COMPANION TO TYC 4110-01037-1 IN A 79 DAY ORBIT

    E-print Network

    Stassun, Keivan

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical among binary systems with solar-like (T [subscript eff] [< over ~] 6000 K) primary stars. Our analysis of TYC ...

  1. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Flores-Fajardo; C. Morisset; G. Stasinska; L. Binette

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the question of the ionization of the diffuse medium in late-type galaxies, by studying NGC 891, the prototype of edge-on spiral galaxies. The most important challenge for the models considered so far was the observed increase of [O III]\\/Hbeta, [O II]\\/Hbeta and [N II]\\/Halpha with increasing distance to the galactic plane. We propose a scenario based on the

  2. Radial velocities of very low mass stars and candidate brown dwarf members of the Hyades and Pleiades, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Liebert, James; Giampapa, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We have determined H alpha equivalent widths and radial velocities with 1 sigma accuracies of approximately 5 km/s for approximately 20 candidate very low mass members of the Pleiades cluster and for a few proposed very low mass members of the Hyades. Most of the Pleiades targets were selected from the recent Hambly, Hawkins, and Jameson proper motion survey, where they were identified as probable Pleiades brown dwarfs with an age spread from 3 to 70 Myr. Our spectroscopic data and a reinterpretation of the photometric data confirm that these objects are indeed likely Pleiades members; however, we believe that they more likely have masses slightly above the hydrogen burning mass limit and that there is no firm evidence for an age spread amongst these stars. All of the very low mass Pleiades and Hyades members show H alpha in emission. However, the ratio of H alpha flux to biometric flux in the Pleiades shows a maximum near M(sub Bol) approximately equal to 9.5 (M approximately equal to 0.3 solar mass) and a sharp decrease to lower masses. This break occurs at the approximate mass where low mass stars are expected to become fully convective, and it is tempting to assume that the decrease in H alpha flux is caused by some change in the behavior of stellar dynamos at this mass. We do not see a similar break in activity at this mass in the Hyades. We discuss possible evolutionary explanations for this difference in the H alpha activity between the two clusters.

  3. A Model for Twin Kilohertz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    X. -D. Li; C. -M. Zhang

    2005-10-31

    We suggest a plausible interpretation for the twin kiloHertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. We identify the upper kHz QPO frequencies to be the rotational frequency and the lower kHz QPOs the standing kink modes of loop oscillations at the inner edge of the accretion disk, respectively. Taking into account the interaction between the neutron star magnetic field and the disk, this model naturally relates the twin QPO frequencies with the star's spin frequencies. We have applied the model to four X-ray sources with kHz QPOs detected simultaneously and known spin frequencies.

  4. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE {lambda} ORIONIS CLUSTER. II. DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE AND LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones de AstronomIa, Apdo. Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Morales-Calderon, Maria [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Estelar y Exoplanetas (LAEX), Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB, INTA-CSIC), LAEFF, P.O. Box 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la canada, Madrid (Spain); Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Five Colleges Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01027 (United States); Luhman, K. L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stauffer, J., E-mail: hernandj@cida.v, E-mail: muzerol@stsci.ed [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-10-20

    We present IRAC/MIPS Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the solar-type and the low-mass stellar population of the young ({approx}5 Myr) {lambda} Orionis cluster. Combining optical and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we identify 436 stars as probable members of the cluster. Given the distance (450 pc) and the age of the cluster, our sample ranges in mass from 2 M{sub sun} to objects below the substellar limit. With the addition of the Spitzer mid-infrared data, we have identified 49 stars bearing disks in the stellar cluster. Using spectral energy distribution slopes, we place objects in several classes: non-excess stars (diskless), stars with optically thick disks, stars with 'evolved disks' (with smaller excesses than optically thick disk systems), and 'transitional disk' candidates (in which the inner disk is partially or fully cleared). The disk fraction depends on the stellar mass, ranging from {approx}6% for K-type stars (R{sub C} - J < 2) to {approx}27% for stars with spectral-type M5 or later (R{sub C} - J>4). We confirm the dependence of disk fraction on stellar mass in this age range found in other studies. Regarding clustering levels, the overall fraction of disks in the {lambda} Orionis cluster is similar to those reported in other stellar groups with ages normally quoted as {approx}5 Myr.

  5. Rotation of low-mass stars - A new probe of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Demarque, P.

    1990-01-01

    Models of stars of various masses and rotational parameters were developed and compared with observations of stars in open clusters of various ages in order to analyze the evolution of rotating stars from the early premain sequence to an age of 1.7 x 10 to the 9th yrs. It is shown that, for stars older than 10 to the 8th yrs and less massive than 1.1 solar mass, the surface rotation rates depend most strongly on the properties of the angular momentum loss. The trends of the currently available observations suggest that the rotation periods are a good indicator of the field-star ages.

  6. Breathing in Low Mass Galaxies: A Study of Episodic Star Formation

    E-print Network

    G. S. Stinson; J. J. Dalcanton; T. Quinn; T. Kaufmann; J. Wadsley

    2007-05-31

    We simulate the collapse of isolated dwarf galaxies using SPH + N-Body simulations including a physically motivated description of the effects of supernova feedback. As the gas collapses and stars form, the supernova feedback disrupts enough gas to temporarily quench star formation. The gas flows outward into a hot halo, where it cools until star formation can continue once more and the cycle repeats. The star formation histories of isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies exhibit similar episodic bursts of star formation. We examine the mass dependence of the stellar velocity dispersions and find that they are no less than half the velocity of the halos measured at the virial radius.

  7. Observations of suspected low-mass post-T Tauri stars and their evolutionary status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, R.; Walter, F. M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Finkenzeller, U.; Herbig, G. H.; Odell, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a study of five X-ray discovered weak emission pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex are presented. All are of spectral type K7-M0, and about 1-2 mag above the main sequence. One is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, the first spectroscopic binary PMS star to be confirmed. The ages, masses, and radii of these stars as determined by photometry and spectroscopy are discussed. The difference in emission strength between these and the T Tauri stars is investigated, and it is concluded that these 'post-T Tauri' stars do indeed appear more evolved than the T Tauri stars, although there is no evidence of any significant difference in ages.

  8. From Stars to Super-Planets: The Low-Mass IMF in the Young Cluster IC348

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Najita, Joan R.; Tiede, Glenn P.; Carr, John S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative method for the spectral classification of late-type objects. Using photometric indices, constructed from HST/NICMOS narrow-band imaging, that measure the strength of the 1.9 micron water band, we determine the spectral type and reddening for every M-type star in the field, thereby separating cluster members from the interloper population. Due to the efficiency of our spectral classification technique, our study is complete from approximately 0.7 solar mass to 0.015 solar mass. The mass function derived for the cluster in this interval, dN/d log M alpha M(sup 0.5), is similar to that obtained for the Pleiades, but appears significantly more abundant in brown dwarfs than the mass function for companions to nearby sun-like stars. This provides compelling observational evidence for different formation and evolutionary histories for substellar objects formed in isolation vs. as companions. Because our determination of the IMF is complete to very low masses, we can place interesting constraints on the role of physical processes such as fragmentation in the star and planet formation process and the fraction of dark matter in the Galactic halo that resides in substellar objects.

  9. Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the TW Hya association

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yao; Gong, Munan; Allers, Katelyn N; Brown, Joanna M; Kraus, Adam L; Liu, Michael C; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted Herschel/PACS observations of five very low-mass stars or brown dwarfs located in the TW Hya association with the goal of characterizing the properties of disks in the low stellar mass regime. We detected all five targets at $70\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and $100\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and three targets at $160\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$. Our observations, combined with previous photometry from 2MASS, WISE, and SCUBA-2, enabled us to construct SEDs with extended wavelength coverage. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyzed the observed SEDs of the five detected objects with a hybrid fitting strategy that combines the model grids and the simulated annealing algorithm and evaluated the constraints on the disk properties via the Bayesian inference method. The modelling suggests that disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are generally flatter than their higher mass counterparts, but the range of disk mass extends to well below the value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both...

  10. Testing Stellar Evolution Models: Absolute Dimensions of the Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary Star V651 Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Allison; Torres, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate values of several key quantities for the low-mass, 0.9968096 day period, double-lined eclipsing binary V651 Cas. We determine accurate values for the masses, radii and temperatures of the primary and secondary as follows: M = 0.8553(81) solar masses, R = 0.957(17) solar radii, and effective temperature = 5733(100) K for the primary component, and M = 0.7564(48) solar masses, R = 0.771(15) solar radii, and effective temperature = 5113(105) for the secondary component, with formal uncertainties shown in parentheses. A comparison with the stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program suggests an age of 11(1) Gyr for a best-fit metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.2. While the isochrone mentioned correctly reproduces the measured radii and temperatures of the stars within the current uncertainties, we note that the secondary radius appears marginally larger and the temperature marginally cooler than models would predict. This is consistent with similar discrepancies found for other low-mass stars, generally accredited to surface activity. With further improvement in the measurement errors, and a spectroscopic measure of the metallicity, V651 Cas should be a valuable system for understanding the effects of magnetic activity on the global structure of low-mass stars and for providing guidance to improve stellar evolution models.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  11. Young Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in IC 348

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Luhman

    1999-01-01

    I present new results from a continuing program to identify and characterize\\u000athe low-mass stellar and substellar populations in the young cluster IC 348\\u000a(1-10~Myr). Optical spectroscopy has revealed young objects with spectral types\\u000aas late as M8.25. The intrinsic J-H and H-K colors of these sources are\\u000adwarf-like, whereas the R-I and I-J colors appear intermediate between the\\u000acolors

  12. Scientist and observational astronomer with expertise/interests in: Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs Search for extra-solar planets

    E-print Network

    (astrometric, photometric) Double/multiple stars Data Mining Stellar spectroscopy Career Experience SeniorScientist and observational astronomer with expertise/interests in: Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs Metallicity Fraction and Period Distribution of Nearby Disk and Halo Stars" (Archival Research program). $905

  13. Angular momentum evolution of low-mass pre-main sequence stars via extreme coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, A. N.; Matt, S. P.; Stassun, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    The angular momentum evolution of cool stars during the pre-main sequence phase of stellar evolution remains a major outstanding problem. Multiple processes are likely involved in the transfer of mass and angular momentum within and out of the star+disk system. The role of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), energetic events which shed mass and magnetic flux in the Sun, has yet to be fully explored in the context of pre-main sequence stars. It is well established that young, solar-type stars exhibit X-ray activity levels up to four orders of magnitude higher than the present-day Sun, suggesting that CMEs associated with these extreme X-ray flares could be an important process for expelling mass and angular momentum. We present a novel approach to modeling the CMEs of low-mass pre-main sequence stars that uses a solar-calibrated CME model and observed X-ray flare rates for young stars. We derive mass loss rates via stellar CMEs and calculate their attendant angular momentum losses during the pre-main sequence phase. While we find the mass loss rates to be modest, ˜10 % of steady-state stellar wind values from the literature, the angular momentum losses can be substantial, potentially counteracting the effects of initial stellar spin-up due to contraction in tens of Myr.

  14. Low-mass supernovae in the early Galactic halo: source of the double r/s-process enriched halo stars?

    E-print Network

    Albert A. Zijlstra

    2003-12-18

    Several stars at the low-metallicity extreme of the Galactic halo ([Fe/H]=-2.5) show strong enhancements of both s-process and r-process elements. The presence of s-process elements in main-sequence stars is explained via mass transfer from an AGB companion star in a binary system. r-Process elements originate in type-II supernovae and also require mass transfer. It is however unclear how pollution by both an AGB star and a supernova could have occured. Here I show that the initial--final-mass relation steepens at low metallicity, due to low mass-loss efficiency. This may cause the degenerate cores of low-Z, high-mass AGB stars to reach the Chandresekhar mass, leading to an Iben & Renzini-type-1.5 supernova. Such supernovae can explain both the enhancement patterns and the metallicity dependence of the double-enhanced halo stars. Reduced mass loss efficiency predicts more massive remnants in metal-poor globular clusters. The evidence for a high M/L population in the cores of globular clusters is briefly discussed.

  15. The T Tauri Phase Down to Nearly Planetary Masses: Echelle Spectra of 82 Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Subhanjoy Mohanty; Ray Jayawardhana; Gibor Basri

    2005-02-08

    Using the largest high-resolution spectroscopic sample to date of young, very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs), we investigate disk accretion in objects ranging from just above the hydrogen-burning limit all the way to nearly planetary masses. Our 82 targets span spectral types from M5 to M9.5, or masses from 0.15 Msun down to ~15 Jupiters. They are confirmed members of the rho Oph, Taurus, Cha I, IC 348, R CrA, Upper Sco and TW Hydrae regions, with ages = M6.5). We find that: (1) classical T Tauri-like disk-accretion persists in the BD domain down to nearly the deuterium-burning limit; (2) in addition to H-alpha, permitted emission lines of CaII, OI and HeI are also good accretion indicators, as in CTTs; (3) the CaII 8662A flux is an excellent quantitative measure of the accretion rate (Mdot) in VLMS and BDs(as in CTTs); (4) Mdot diminishes as M^2 -- our measurements support previous findings of this correlation, and extend it to the entire range of sub-stellar masses; (5) the accretor fraction among VLMS and BDs decreases substantially with age, as in higher-mass stars; (6) at any given age, the VLMS and BD accretor fraction is comparable to that in higher-mass stars; and (7) a number of sources with IR disk excesses do not evince measurable accretion, with the incidence of such a mismatch increasing with age: this implies that disks in the low mass regime can persist beyond the main accretion phase, and parallels the transition from the classical to post-T Tauri stage in more massive stars. These strong similarities at young ages, between higher-mass stars and low-mass bodies close to and below the hydrogen-burning limit, are consistent with a common formation mechanism in the two mass regimes. (abridged)

  16. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Emily L.; Mclean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Barman, T.; Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: erice@amnh.org

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only {approx}M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R {approx} 2000) and high (R {approx} 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  17. The low-mass end of the fundamental relation for gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise; Richard, Johan; Hjorth, Jens; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Laursen, Peter; Limousin, Marceau; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Grillo, Claudio; Ebeling, Harald

    2012-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectra of 13 galaxies in the redshift range 1 ? z ? 6, which are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters. Spectroscopic redshifts are measured for nine galaxies, while three sources have redshifts determined from continuum breaks in their spectra. The stellar masses of the galaxies span four orders of magnitude between 107 and 1011 M? and have luminosities at 1500 Å rest frame between 0.004 and 9L* after correcting for the magnification. This allows us to probe a variety of galaxy types from young, low-mass starburst galaxies to massive evolved galaxies. The lensed galaxies with stellar masses less than 1010 M? have a large scatter compared to the fundamental relation between stellar mass, star formation rates and oxygen abundances. We provide a modified fit to the fundamental relation for low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies with a weaker dependence of the metallicity on either the star formation rate or stellar mass compared to low-redshift, high-mass and high-metallicity Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. Based on data from the X-shooter GTO observations collected at the European Southern Observatory VLT/Kuyuen telescope, Paranal, Chile, under programme IDs: 084.B-0351(D), 086.A-0674(A), 086.A-0674(B), 087.A-0432(A) and 087.A-0432(B). Based on HST general observer pro-grammes GO-10491, GO-11103 and GO-12166.

  18. Habitable zones around low mass stars and the search for extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Kasting, J F

    1997-06-01

    Habitable planets are likely to exist around stars not too different from the Sun if current theories about terrestrial climate evolution are correct. Some of these planets may have evolved life, and some of the inhabited planets may have evolved O2-rich atmospheres. Such atmospheres could be detected spectroscopically on planets around nearby stars using a space-based interferometer to search for the 9.6 micron band of O3. Planets with O2-rich atmospheres that lie within the habitable zone around their parent star are, in all probability, inhabited. PMID:9150578

  19. Constraining the Low-Mass Slope of the Star Formation Sequence at 0.5?z?2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn; Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Henry, Alaina L.; Skelton, Rosalind; Fumagalli, Mattia; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbe, Ivo; Nelson, Erica; Rigby, Jane R.; 3D-HST Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of data from deep extragalactic surveys have revealed a picture where star-forming galaxies follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This observed star formation sequence encapsulates information about feedback, gas density and gas accretion rates over cosmic time. I will present a self-consistent empirical study measuring the slope of this relation for a complete sample of galaxies selected from the 3D-HST photometric catalogs at 0.5?z?2.5, using deep photometry in the CANDELS fields. Probing a factor of ten lower in stellar mass than previous high-redshift studies, we show that the slope of the star formation rate - stellar mass relation is mass-dependent; we measure a steep slope of order unity out to z=2.5 for low mass galaxies, and a slope that becomes increasingly flatter with time at the highest masses. These observations of the star formation sequence help reconcile existing tensions with theoretical galaxy formation models.

  20. A NEW METHOD TO IDENTIFY NEARBY, YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: drodrigu@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    We describe a new method to identify young, late-type stars within {approx}150 pc of the Earth that employs visual or near-infrared (NIR) data and the GALEX GR4/5 database. For spectral types later than K5, we demonstrate that the ratio of GALEX near-ultraviolet to visual and NIR emission is larger for stars with ages between 10 and 100 Myr than for older, main-sequence stars. A search in regions of the sky encompassing the TW Hya and Scorpius-Centaurus Associations has returned 54 high-quality candidates for follow up. Spectroscopic observations of 24 of these M1-M5 objects reveal Li 6708 A absorption in at least 17 systems. Because GALEX surveys have covered a significant fraction of the sky, this methodology should prove valuable for future young star studies.

  1. A New Method to Identify Nearby, Young, Low-mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, David R; Zuckerman, B; Kastner, Joel H

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new method to identify young, late-type stars within ~150 pc of the Earth that employs visual or near-infrared data and the GALEX GR4/5 database. For spectral types later than K5, we demonstrate that the ratio of GALEX near-ultraviolet (NUV) to visual and near-IR emission is larger for stars with ages between 10 and 100 Myr than for older, main sequence stars. A search in regions of the sky encompassing the TW Hya and Scorpius-Centaurus Associations has returned 54 high-quality candidates for followup. Spectroscopic observations of 24 of these M1-M5 objects reveal Li 6708 angstrom absorption in at least 17 systems. Because GALEX surveys have covered a significant fraction of the sky, this methodology should prove valuable for future young star studies.

  2. X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Krauss, Miriam Ilana

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

  3. Exomoon habitability and tidal evolution in low-mass star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollinger, Rhett R.

    Current technology and theoretical methods are allowing for the detection of sub-Earth sized extrasolar planets. In addition, the detection of massive moons orbiting extrasolar planets ("exomoons'') has become feasible and searches are currently underway. Several extrasolar planets have now been discovered in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent star. This naturally leads to questions about the habitability of moons around planets in the HZ. Red dwarf stars present interesting targets for habitable planet detection. Compared to the Sun, red dwarfs are smaller, fainter, lower mass, and much more numerous. Due to their low luminosities, the HZ is much closer to the star than for Sun-like stars. For a planet-moon binary in the HZ, the close proximity of the star presents dynamical restrictions on the stability of the moon, forcing it to orbit close to the planet to remain gravitationally bound. Under these conditions the effects of tidal heating, distortion torques, and stellar perturbations become important considerations to the habitability of an exomoon. Utilizing an evolution model that considers both dynamical and tidal interactions, I performed a computational investigation into long-term evolution of exomoon systems. My study focused on satellite systems in the HZ of red dwarf stars and the dependence of exomoon habitability on the mass of the central star. Results show that dwarf stars with masses less than about 0.2 solar masses cannot host habitable exomoons within the stellar HZ due to extreme tidal heating in the moon. These results suggest that a host planet could be located outside the stellar HZ to where higher tidal heating rates could act to promote habitability for an otherwise uninhabitable moon. Perturbations from a central star may continue to have deleterious effects in the HZ up to about 0.5 solar masses, depending on the host planet's mass and its location in the HZ. In cases with lower intensity tidal heating, stellar perturbations may have a positive influence on exomoon habitability by promoting long-term heating rates above a minimum for habitable terrestrial environments. In addition to heating concerns, torques due to tidal and spin distortion can lead to the relatively rapid inward spiraling of a moon. The effects of torque and stability constraints also make it unlikely that long-term resonances between two massive moons will develop in the HZs around red dwarf stars. My study showed that moons in the circumstellar HZ are not necessarily habitable by definition. In addition, the HZ for an exomoon may extend beyond the HZ for an exoplanet. Therefore, an extended model is required when considering exomoon habitability in comparison to exoplanet habitability.

  4. STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF A YOUNG SUPER-STAR CLUSTER IN NGC 4038/39: DIRECT DETECTION OF LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Greissl, Julia; Meyer, Michael R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Christopher, Micol H.; Scoville, Nick Z., E-mail: jgreissl@as.arizona.ed [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-02-20

    We present an analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of a young massive star cluster in the overlap region of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/39 using population synthesis models. Our goal is to model the cluster population as well as provide rough constraints on its initial mass function (IMF). The cluster shows signs of youth, such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines in the near-infrared. Late-type absorption lines are also present which are indicative of late-type stars in the cluster. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars or red supergiants alone. Thus, we interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages, which is feasible since the 1'' spectrum encompasses a physical region of {approx}90 pc and radii of super-star clusters (SSCs) are generally measured to be a few parsecs. One cluster is young (<= 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second cluster is older (6 Myr-18 Myr) and is needed to reproduce the overall depth of the late-type absorption features in the spectrum. Both are required to accurately reproduce the near-infrared spectrum of the object. Thus, we have directly detected PMS objects in an unresolved SSC for the first time using a combination of population synthesis models and PMS tracks. This analysis serves as a testbed of our technique to constrain the low-mass IMF in young SSCs as well as an exploration of the star formation history of young UC H II regions.

  5. An infrared/optical imaging survey for brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars in the Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory Ronald

    In this survey to discover very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Pleiades star cluster, ~1290 square arcminutes were imaged at the infrared J and K bands, and ~510 square arcminutes at the optical I-band. Lick Observatory and the Gemini 2-channel camera were used for the infrared imaging, and Keck Observatory and the LRIS camera were used for the I-band data. The estimated completeness limits for the 5-sigma source extraction and photometry were J ~ 17.5, KS ~ 16.5, and IC > 21.5-the latter magnitude ``limit'' being fainter than any extracted JK source that was actually measured in the LRIS I-band images. Through analysis of color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, Pleiades brown dwarf candidates (BDCs) could be relatively easily discriminated from other objects in the fields imaged. Outside the smaller coverage of the LRIS images, published I-band magnitudes for 7 previously- identified BDCs were used to complement my corresponding JK photometry. Two of the published BDCs are now shown here to instead be galaxies, very likely. A total of 12 BDCs are identified in this survey. Of these, 4 are previously- unidentified discoveries for this dissertation, including 2 of the 3 faintest, reddest objects found here. Two BDCs were measured for lithium absorption in their spectra, and one showed lithium, confirming it as a brown dwarf, and the other was depleted, indicating it is instead a very low mass star. The range of inferred/calculated masses for the 12 BDCs is 0.093-0.034 Msolar , and the published or inferred spectral types range M6-L0.5. If all 12 BDCs are Pleiades cluster members, 9 would be brown dwarfs, and 3 would be very low mass stars. For a power-law mass function of the form dN/dM = cM-?, this survey finds that over the range 0.1 > Msolar > 0.04 Msolar , a mass function index of ? ~ 0.5 is derived (with the caveat of low-N statistics), consistent with the VLM/BD mass functions recently published for two large Pleiades surveys.

  6. Long duration X-ray flash from low mass population III stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Suwa, Yudai; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Recent numerical simulations suggest that the typical mass of a Population III (Pop III) star become ~ 40Msolar. We investigate if a Pop III star can raise a gamma ray burst (GRB) by considering the jet propagation in the stellar envelope for a 40Msolar Pop III model. We find that a relativistic jet launched from the central black hole pierces the stellar envelope, although a Pop III star has a large envelope since the mass loss is not expected for zero metallicity stars. Thus, a Pop III star can be the progenitor of a GRB. We predict that GRBs from 40Msolar Pop III progenitors have much longer duration ~ 105 sec, slightly lower luminosity ~6×1050 erg/sec and much softer spectrum peak energy ~ 5 keV than the local long GRBs. Therefore, observationally, we regard a Pop III GRB as a long duration X-ray flash. We can observe such Pop III GRBs using the future detector Lobster.

  7. The Rotation of Low-Mass Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    E-print Network

    Robert D. Mathieu

    2003-03-10

    Major photometric monitoring campaigns of star-forming regions in the past decade have provided rich rotation period distributions of pre-main-sequence stars. The rotation periods span more than an order of magnitude in period, with most falling between 1 and 10 days. Thus the broad rotation period distributions found in 100 Myr clusters are already established by an age of 1 Myr. The most rapidly rotating stars are within a factor of 2-3 of their critical velocities; if angular momentum is conserved as they evolve to the ZAMS, these stars may come to exceed their critical velocities. Extensive efforts have been made to find connections between stellar rotation and the presence of protostellar disks; at best only a weak correlation has been found in the largest samples. Magnetic disk-locking is a theoretically attractive mechanism for angular momentum evolution of young stars, but the links between theoretical predictions and observational evidence remain ambiguous. Detailed observational and theoretical studies of the magnetospheric environments will provide better insight into the processes of pre-main-sequence stellar angular momentum evolution.

  8. Supernova dust formation and the grain growth in the early universe: the critical metallicity for low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaki, Gen; Marassi, Stefania; Nozawa, Takaya; Yoshida, Naoki; Schneider, Raffaella; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the condition for the formation of low-mass second-generation stars in the early Universe. It has been proposed that gas cooling by dust thermal emission can trigger fragmentation of a low-metallicity star-forming gas cloud. In order to determine the critical condition in which dust cooling induces the formation of low-mass stars, we follow the thermal evolution of a collapsing cloud by a one-zone semi-analytic collapse model. Earlier studies assume the dust amount in the local Universe, where all refractory elements are depleted on to grains, and/or assume the constant dust amount during gas collapse. In this paper, we employ the models of dust formation and destruction in early supernovae to derive the realistic dust compositions and size distributions for multiple species as the initial conditions of our collapse calculations. We also follow accretion of heavy elements in the gas phase on to dust grains, i.e. grain growth, during gas contraction. We find that grain growth well alters the fragmentation property of the clouds. The critical conditions can be written by the gas metallicity Zcr and the initial depletion efficiency fdep,0 of gas-phase metal on to grains, or dust-to-metal mass ratio, as (Zcr/10-5.5 Z?) = (fdep,0/0.18)-0.44 with small scatters in the range of Zcr = [0.06-3.2] × 10-5 Z?. We also show that the initial dust composition and size distribution are important to determine Zcr.

  9. IUE observations of rapidly rotating low-mass stars in young clusters - The relation between chromospheric activity and rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    1990-01-01

    If the rapid spindown of low-mass stars immediately following their arrival on the ZAMS results from magnetic braking by coronal winds, an equally sharp decline in their chromospheric emission may be expected. To search for evidence of this effect, the IUE spacecraft was used to observe the chromospheric Mg II emission lines of G-M dwarfs in the nearby IC 2391, Alpha Persei, Pleiades, and Hyades clusters. Similar observations were made of a group of X-ray-selected 'naked' T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga. The existence of a decline in activity cannot be confirmed from the resulting data. However, the strength of the chromospheric emission in the Mg II lines of the cluster stars is found to be correlated with rotation rate, being strongest for the stars with the shortest rotation periods and weakest for those with the longest periods. This provides indirect support for such an evolutionary change in activity. Chromospheric activity may thus be only an implicit function of age.

  10. Black hole-like hysteresis and accretion states in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; Fender, R. P.; Motta, S. E.; Belloni, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    We have systematically studied a large sample of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) monitored by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (50 sources; 10000+ observations). We find that the hysteresis patterns between Compton-dominated and thermal-dominated states, typically observed in black hole LMXBs, are also common in neutron star systems. These patterns, which also sample intermediate states, are found when looking at the evolution of both X-ray colour and fast variability of 10 systems accreting below ˜30 per cent of the Eddington luminosity (LEdd). We show that hysteresis does not require large changes in luminosity and it is the natural form that state transitions take at these luminosities. At higher accretion rates, neutron stars do not show hysteresis, and they remain in a thermal-dominated, low-variability state, characterized by flaring behaviour and fast colour changes. Only at luminosities close to LEdd, are high variability levels seen again, in correspondence to an increase in the fractional contribution of the Comptonization component. We compare this behaviour with that observed in LMXBs harbouring black holes, showing that the spectral, timing and multiwavelength properties of a given source can be determined by its location in the fast variability-luminosity diagram, which, therefore, provides a common framework for neutron star and black hole accretion states.

  11. Lithium abundances along the RGB: FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra of a large sample of low-mass Bulge stars

    E-print Network

    Lebzelter, Thomas; Busso, Maurizio; Schultheis, Mathias; Aringer, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Context: A small number of K-type giants on the red giant branch (RGB) is known to be very rich in lithium (Li). This fact is not accounted for by standard stellar evolution theory. The exact phase and mechanism of Li enrichment is still a matter of debate. Aims: Our goal is to probe the abundance of Li along the RGB, from its base to the tip, to confine Li-rich phases that are supposed to occur on the RGB. Methods: For this end, we obtained medium-resolution spectra with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT in GIRAFFE mode for a large sample of 401 low-mass RGB stars located in the Galactic bulge. The Li abundance was measured in the stars with a detectable Li 670.8 nm line by means of spectral synthesis with COMARCS model atmospheres. Results: Thirty-one stars with a detectable Li line were identified, three of which are Li-rich according to the usual criterion ($\\log\\epsilon({\\rm Li})>1.5$). The stars are distributed all along the RGB, not concentrated in any particular phase of the red giant evolution (e.g....

  12. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Flores-Fajardo; C. Morisset; G. Stasinska; L. Binette

    2011-01-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]\\/Halpha,

  13. Evolution and nucleosynthesis in low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cristallo

    2007-01-01

    People usually smile when astrophysicists assert that we are sons of the stars, but human life confirms this sentence: about 65% of the mass of our body is made up of oxygen, carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry, nitrogen is an essential part of amino acids and nucleic acids, calcium is a major

  14. Formation of the first low-mass stars from cosmological initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljevi?, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2014-05-01

    We simulate the formation of a metal-poor (10-2 Z?) stellar cluster in one of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe, specifically a high-redshift atomic cooling halo (z ˜ 14). This is the first calculation that resolves the formation of individual metal-enriched stars in simulations starting from realistic cosmological initial conditions. We follow the evolution of a single dense clump among several in the parent halo. The clump forms a cluster of ˜40 stars and sub-stellar objects within 7000 yr and could continue forming stars ˜5 times longer. Protostellar dust heating has a negligible effect on the star formation efficiency, at least during the early evolutionary stages, but it moderately suppresses gaseous fragmentation and brown dwarf formation. We observe fragmentation in thin gaseous filaments and sustained accretion in larger, rotating structures as well as ejections by binary interactions. The stellar initial mass function above 0.1 M?, evaluated after ˜104 yr of fragmentation and accretion, seems in agreement with the recent measurement in ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal Galactic satellites of Geha et al. L116

  15. Planetary protection in the extreme environments of low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jardine, M.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Lang, P.; Russell, A. J. B.

    2014-08-01

    Recent results showed that the magnetic field of M-dwarf (dM) stars, currently the main targets in searches for terrestrial planets, is very different from the solar one, both in topology as well as in intensity. In particular, the magnetised environment surrounding a planet orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of dM stars can differ substantially to the one encountered around the Earth. These extreme magnetic fields can compress planetary magnetospheres to such an extent that a significant fraction of the planet's atmosphere may be exposed to erosion by the stellar wind. Using observed surface magnetic maps for a sample of 15 dM stars, we investigate the minimum degree of planetary magnetospheric compression caused by the intense stellar magnetic fields. We show that hypothetical Earth-like planets with similar terrestrial magnetisation (~1 G) orbiting at the inner (outer) edge of the HZ of these stars would present magnetospheres that extend at most up to 6.1 (11.7) planetary radii. To be able to sustain an Earth-sized magnetosphere, the terrestrial planet would either need to orbit significantly farther out than the traditional limits of the HZ; or else, if it were orbiting within the life-bearing region, it would require a minimum magnetic field ranging from a few G to up to a few thousand G.

  16. Radiative feedback by low-mass stars in the first generation

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hueckstaedt, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcconkie, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The survival of cosmological minihalos in both ionizing and Lyman-Werner (LW) UV fields from nearby and distant sources has attracted recent attention for its role in regulating the rise of stellar populations at high red-shifts. Numerical models suggest that the first stars form in isolation in small dark matter halos of {approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z {approx} 20-30 and that they are very massive, 25-500 M{sub {circle_dot}}. These stars form large H II regions 2.5-5 kpc in radius capable of engulfing nearby halos. With the rise of Population III stars throughout the cosmos also comes a global LW background that sterilizes mini-halos of H{sub 2}, delaying or preventing new star formation in them. At high redshifts, ionizaing radiation is therefore relatively local while LW photons can originate from many megaparsects away because their energies lie below the ionization limit of H.

  17. Predicting Lyman-alpha and Mg II Fluxes from Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Rolph, Kristina; Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    A star's UV emission can greatly affect the atmospheric chemistry and physical properties of closely orbiting planets with the potential for severe mass loss. In particular, the Lyman-alpha emission line at 1216 A, which dominates the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum, is a major source of photodissociation of important atmospheric molecules such as water and methane. The intrinsic flux of Lyman-alpha, however, cannot be directly measured due to the absorption of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium and contamination by geocoronal emission. To date, reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyman-alpha line based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra has been accomplished for a few dozen nearby stars, 28 of which have also been observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Our investigation provides a correlation between published intrinsic Lyman-alpha and GALEX FUV and near-ultraviolet (NUV) chromospheric fluxes for K and M stars. The negative correlations between the ratio of the Lyman-alpha to the GALEX fluxes reveal how the relative strength of Lyman-alpha compared to the broadband fluxes weakens as the FUV and NUV excess flux increase. We also correlate GALEX fluxes with the strong near-ultraviolet Mg II h+k spectral emission lines formed at lower chromospheric temperatures than Lyman-alpha. The reported correlations provide estimates of intrinsic Lyman-alpha and Mg II fluxes for the thousands of K and M stars in the GALEX all-sky surveys. These will constrain new stellar upper-atmosphere models for cool stars and provide realistic inputs to models describing exoplanetary photochemistry and atmospheric evolution in the absence of ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  18. Evolution, Nucleosynthesis, and Yields of Low-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars at Different Metallicities. II. The FRUITY Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Domínguez, I.; Abia, C.; Di Rico, G.; Quintini, M.; Bisterzo, S.

    2011-12-01

    By using updated stellar low-mass stars models, we systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this paper, we present a database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields (FRUITY). An interactive Web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up (TDU) episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 <=M/M ? <= 3.0 and metallicities 1 × 10-3 <= Z <= 2 × 10-2, is discussed. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parameterization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the TDU efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find good agreement with observations.

  19. EVOLUTION, NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND YIELDS OF LOW-MASS ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS AT DIFFERENT METALLICITIES. II. THE FRUITY DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Cristallo, S.; Dominguez, I.; Abia, C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Di Rico, G.; Quintini, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Bisterzo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    By using updated stellar low-mass stars models, we systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In this paper, we present a database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables and Yields (FRUITY). An interactive Web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up (TDU) episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 {<=}M/M{sub Sun} {<=} 3.0 and metallicities 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {<=} Z {<=} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, is discussed. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parameterization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynthesis scenario is checked by comparing the theoretical [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] ratios to those obtained from the available abundance analysis of s-enhanced stars. On the average, the variation with the metallicity of these spectroscopic indexes is well reproduced by theoretical models, although the predicted spread at a given metallicity is substantially smaller than the observed one. Possible explanations for such a difference are briefly discussed. An independent check of the TDU efficiency is provided by the C-stars luminosity function. Consequently, theoretical C-stars luminosity functions for the Galactic disk and the Magellanic Clouds have been derived. We generally find good agreement with observations.

  20. New Debris Disks Around Young, Low-Mass Stars Discovered with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Werner, M. W.; Chen, C. H.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Su, K. Y. L.; Stauffer, J. R.; Song, I.

    2009-06-01

    We present 24 ?m and 70 ?m Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of 70 A through M-type dwarfs with estimated ages from 8 Myr to 1.1 Gyr, as part of a Spitzer guaranteed time program, including a re-analysis of some previously published source photometry. Our sample is selected from stars with common youth indicators such as lithium abundance, X-ray activity, chromospheric activity, and rapid rotation. We compare our MIPS observations to empirically derived Ks -[24] colors as a function of the stellar effective temperature to identify 24 ?m and 70 ?m excesses. We place constraints or upper limits on dust temperatures and fractional infrared luminosities with a simple blackbody dust model. We confirm the previously published 70 ?m excesses for HD 92945, HD 112429, and AU Mic, and provide updated flux density measurements for these sources. We present the discovery of 70 ?m excesses for five stars: HD 7590, HD 10008, HD 59967, HD 73350, and HD 135599. HD 135599 is also a known Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) excess source, and we confirm the excess at 24 ?m. We also present the detection of 24 ?m excesses for 10 stars: HD 10008, GJ 3400A, HD 73350, HD 112429, HD 123998, HD 175742, AT Mic, BO Mic, HD 358623 and Gl 907.1. We find that large 70 ?m excesses are less common around stars with effective temperatures of less than 5000 K (3.7+7.6 -1.1%) than around stars with effective temperatures between 5000 K and 6000 K (21.4+9.5 -5.7%), despite the cooler stars having a younger median age in our sample (12 Myr vs. 340 Myr). We find that the previously reported excess for TWA 13A at 70 ?m is due to a nearby background galaxy, and the previously reported excess for HD 177724 is due to saturation of the near-infrared photometry used to predict the mid-infrared stellar flux contribution. In the Appendix, we present an updated analysis of dust grain removal timescales due to grain-grain collisions and radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, stellar wind drag, and planet-dust dynamical interaction. We find that drag forces can be important for disk dynamics relative to grain-grain collisions for L IR/L * < 10-4, and that stellar wind drag is more important than P-R drag for K and M dwarfs, and possibly for young (<1 Gyr) G dwarfs as well.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). IV. (Bowler+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, B. P.; Liu, M. C.; Shkolnik, E. L.; Tamura, M.

    2015-02-01

    We carried out our observations at the Keck II 10m telescope with the facility near-infrared imaging camera NIRC2 using natural guide star adaptive optics (NGS-AO) between 2010 August and 2013 August (table 3). Our NGS-AO observations at the 8.2m Subaru Telescope were obtained with the AO188 adaptive optics system coupled with the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) imaging instrument. (2 data files).

  2. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories. PMID:20016595

  3. Molecular opacities for low-mass metal-poor AGB stars undergoing the Third Dredge Up

    E-print Network

    S. Cristallo; O. Straniero; M. T. Lederer; B. Aringer

    2007-06-14

    The concomitant overabundances of C, N and s-process elements are commonly ascribed to the complex interplay of nucleosynthesis, mixing and mass loss taking place in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. At low metallicity, the enhancement of C and/or N may be up to 1000 times larger than the original iron content and significantly affects the stellar structure and its evolution. For this reason, the interpretation of the already available and still growing amount of data concerning C-rich metal-poor stars belonging to our Galaxy as well as to dwarf spheroidal galaxies would require reliable AGB stellar models for low and very low metallicities. In this paper we address the question of calculation and use of appropriate opacity coefficients, which take into account the C enhancement caused by the third dredge up. A possible N enhancement, caused by the cool bottom process or by the engulfment of protons into the convective zone generated by a thermal pulse and the subsequent huge third dredge up, is also considered. Basing on up-to-date stellar models, we illustrate the changes induced by the use of these opacity on the physical and chemical properties expected for these stars.

  4. The ultraviolet radiation environment in the habitable zones around low-mass exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Parke Loyd, R. O.

    2014-11-01

    The EUV (200-911 Å), FUV (912-1750 Å), and NUV (1750-3200 Å) spectral energy distribution of exoplanet host stars has a profound influence on the atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. The stellar EUV radiation drives atmospheric heating, while the FUV (in particular, Ly ?) and NUV radiation fields regulate the atmospheric chemistry: the dissociation of H2O and CO2, the production of O2 and O3, and may determine the ultimate habitability of these worlds. Despite the importance of this information for atmospheric modeling of exoplanetary systems, the EUV/FUV/NUV radiation fields of cool (K and M dwarf) exoplanet host stars are almost completely unconstrained by observation or theory. We present observational results from a Hubble Space Telescope survey of M dwarf exoplanet host stars, highlighting the importance of realistic UV radiation fields for the formation of potential biomarker molecules, O2 and O3. We conclude by describing preliminary results on the characterization of the UV time variability of these sources.

  5. Millimeter continuum measurements of circumstellar dust around very young low-mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Chandler, C. J.; Andre, P.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the question of disk formation during the protostar phase. We build on the results of Keene and Masson (1990) whose analysis of L1551 showed the millimeter continuum emission comes from both an unresolved circumstellar component, i.e., a disk and an extended cloud core. We model the dust continuum emission from the cloud core and show how it is important at 1.3 mm but negligible at 2.7 mm. Combining new 2.7 mm Owens Valley Interferometer data of IRAS-Dense cores with data from the literature we conclude that massive disks are also seen toward a number of other sources. However, 1.3 mm data from the IRAM 30 m telescope for a larger sample shows that massive disks are relatively rare, occurring around perhaps 5% of young embedded stars. This implies that either massive disks occur briefly during the embedded phase or that relatively few young stars form massive disks. At 1.3 mm the median flux of IRAS-Dense cores is nearly the same as T Tauri stars in the sample of Beckwith et al. (1990). We conclude that the typical disk mass during the embedded phase is nearly the same or less than the typical disk mass during the T Tauri phase.

  6. Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low-mass Clusters of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.

    2014-09-01

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages <= 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the lap103 M ? clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  7. Nonequilibrium iron oxide formation in some low-mass post-asymptotic giant branch stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Using experimental evidence that under highly oxidizing conditions gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite) and Fe3O4 display refractory behavior, it is proposed that very low C/O ratios, that could be unique to evolving AGB stars, induce nonequilibrium formation of ferromagnetic iron oxide grains along with chondritic dust. The oxides are preferentially fractionated from chondritic dust in the stellar magnetic field which could account for the observed extreme iron underabundance in their photosphere. A search for the 1-2.5-micron IR absorption feature, or for diagnostic magnetite and maghemite IR absorption features, could show the validity of the model proposed.

  8. Accurate Alpha Abundance and C/O of Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyette, Mark; Muirhead, Philip; Mann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate methods for measuring elemental abundances in M dwarf stars from high resolution (R>25,000), near-infrared spectra. With synthetic spectra from the BT-Settl model atmosphere library, we identify NIR features sensitive to enhancement of alpha elements (C, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ti) in M dwarfs. We also describe a method for measuring the amount of oxygen not bound in CO from molecular and atomic features in the NIR Y-band that, when combined with recently published methods of measuring carbon abundance in M dwarfs from K-band spectra, provides the ratio of carbon to oxygen (C/O). The ratio of carbon to oxygen is an important parameter for determining interior structures of exoplanets and processes that drive planet formation as evidenced by recent studies of the super Earth 55 Cnc e. We outline a potential observing program to empirically calibrate these methods via a sample of M dwarfs with widely-separated (5''-1500''), but associated, F, G or K-type binary companions. Once calibrated, we will apply these methods to a survey of nearby M dwarfs, including many stars that will be observed by NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).

  9. Mass loss and yield uncertainty in low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars

    E-print Network

    Richard J. Stancliffe; C. Simon Jeffery

    2006-11-30

    We investigate the uncertainty in surface abundances and yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We apply three different mass loss laws to a 1.5 solar mass star of metallicity Z=0.008 at the beginning of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase. Efficient third dredge-up is found even at very low envelope mass, contrary to previous simulations with other evolution codes. We find that the yield of carbon is uncertain by about 15% and for most other light elements the yield is uncertain at the level of 20-80%. For iron group elements the uncertainty varies from around 30% for the more abundant species to over a factor of two for the less abundant radioactive species, like iron-60. The post-AGB surface abundances for this mass and metallicity are much more uncertain due to the dilution of dredged-up material in differing envelope masses in the later stages of the models. Our results are compared to known planetary nebula (PN) and post-AGB abundances. We find that the models are mostly consistent with observations but we are unable to reproduce observations of some of the isotopes.

  10. THE LUMINOSITY AND MASS FUNCTIONS OF LOW-MASS STARS IN THE GALACTIC DISK. II. THE FIELD

    E-print Network

    Bochanski, John J.

    We report on new measurements of the luminosity function (LF) and mass function (MF) of field low-mass dwarfs derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 photometry. The analysis incorporates ~15 million low-mass ...

  11. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perger, M.; Lodieu, N.; Martín, E. L.; Barrado Y Navascués, D.

    2011-07-01

    The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models. Based on data of the UKIRT (operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the U.K.) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS).Supported by the Marie Curie Research Training Network `CONSTELLATION' under grant no. MRTN-CT-2006-035890.

  12. Temperatures and Radii of Low-Mass Dwarf Stars Estimated from Near Infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    We present estimates of the temperatures and radii of M dwarfs targeted by the MEarth transiting planet survey. The fundamental properties of M dwarfs are difficult to constrain by direct measurement, and we instead use empirical relationships that are based on the strengths of near infrared spectral features. We establish our relationships for radius and temperature using cool dwarfs with interferometric measurements. Our calibrations use the equivalent widths of H-band spectral features as tracers of these parameters and have an accuracy of 0.03 solar radii and 60 K for late K to mid M dwarfs. We validate our method by comparing our inferred stellar parameters to absolute magnitudes, which we calculate using 2MASS magnitudes and parallaxes from Dittmann et al. (2014). We also identify candidate over-luminous objects within our sample, which may be binaries or young stars.

  13. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Ciesla, Fred J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our Solar System. Here we suggest that the water content of primitive bodies in many planetary systems may actually be much higher, as carbonaceous chondrites have lost some of their original water due to heating from short-lived radioisotopes that drove parent body alteration. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of Habitable Zone planets and planetary system architecture which could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model predicted tren...

  14. Relativistic Astrophysics in Black Hole and Low-Mass Neutron Star Binaries LTSA98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Wei

    2000-01-01

    My group, in close collaboration with Dr. Zhang's group at University of Alabama-Huntsville, have been systematically analyzing and re-analyzing a substantial amount of archival data from previous and ongoing X-ray missions, in order to study possible relativistic effects around stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. Our effort has been focused primarily on the data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We carefully studied interesting quasi-periodic X-ray variability in newly discovered black hole candidates (XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1550-564), which, as we had proposed earlier, could be caused by general relativistic process (e.g., frame dragging) around the central black hole. We also discovered an intriguing temporal correlation between X-ray photons at different energies that is associated with the quasi-periodic signals of interest. The results provided new insights into the physical origin of the phenomena. Furthermore, we studied the spectral lines of black hole candidates which provide another avenue for studying general relativistic processes around black holes. The lines-may originate in the relativistic jets (which could be powered by the spin of the black hole) or in the disk around the black hole, as in the cases of 4U 1630-47 and GX 339-4 (two well-known black hole candidates), and may thus be distorted or shifted due to relativistic effects. Of course, neutron star systems were not forgotten either. After examining the properties of newly discovered fast quasi-periodic variability (at kiloHertz) associated with such systems, we proposed a relativistic model to explain the origin of the signals. We have also started to use new great observatories in orbit (such as Chandra and XMM-Newton) to observe the sources that are of interest to us. Finally, interesting results were also been obtained from our collaborations with other groups who are interested in some of the same objects. Such collaborative efforts have greatly enhanced the project and will likely continue in the future.

  15. Fe-bump instability: the excitation of pulsations in subdwarf B and other low-mass stars

    E-print Network

    C. S. Jeffery; H. Saio

    2006-06-26

    We consider the excitation of radial and non-radial oscillations in low-mass B stars by the iron-bump opacity mechanism. The results are significant for the interpretation of pulsations in subdwarf B stars, helium-rich subdwarfs and extreme helium stars, including the EC14026 and PG1716 variables. We demonstrate that, for radial oscillations, the driving mechanism becomes effective by increasing the contrast between the iron-bump opacity and the opacity from other sources. The location of the iron-bump instability boundary depends on the mean molecular weight in the envelope and also on the radial order of the oscillation. A bluer instability boundary is provided by increasing the iron abundance alone, explaining the observed EC14026 variables, and by higher radial order oscillations. We show that the coolest EC14026 variables may vary in the fundamental radial mode, but the hottest variables must be of higher radial order. In considering non-radial oscillations, we demonstrate that g-modes of high radial order and low spherical degree (l<4) may be excited in some blue horizontal branch stars with near-normal composition (Z=0.02). Additional iron enhancement extends the g-mode instability zone to higher effective temperatures and also creates a p-mode instability zone. With sufficient iron, the p-mode and g-mode instability zones overlap, allowing a small region where the EC14026 and PG1716-type variability can be excited simultaneously. However its location is roughly 5000 K too low compared with the observed boundary between EC14026 and PG1716 variables.

  16. Magnetic Field Topology in Low-Mass Stars: Spectropolarimetric Observations of M Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Phan-Bao, N; Donati, J -F; Johns-Krull, C M; Martín, E L

    2009-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We report here our mapping of the magnetic field topology of the M4 dwarf G 164-31 (or Gl 490B), which is expected to be fully convective, based on time series data collected from 20 hours of observations spread over 3 successive nights with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our tomographic imaging technique applied to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles reveals an axisymmetric large-scale poloidal magnetic field on the M4 dwarf. We then apply a synthetic spectrum fitting technique for measuring the average magnetic flux on the star. The flux measured in G 164-31 is Bf = 3.2+-0.4 kG, which is significantly greater than the average value of 0.68 kG determined from the imaging technique. The difference indicates that a significant fraction of the stellar magnetic energy is stored in small-scale structures at the surface of G 164-31. Our H_alpha emission light curve shows evidence for rotational modulation suggesting the presence of localized structure in the chromospher...

  17. Common Patterns in the Evolution between the Luminous Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binary Subclasses

    E-print Network

    Fridriksson, Joel K; Remillard, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701-462 was the first source seen to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1 -- three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16-year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701-462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701-462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be c...

  18. Astrometric confirmation of young low-mass binaries and multiple systems in the Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Neuhäuser, R.; Bedalov, A.; Roell, T.; Seifahrt, A.; Mugrauer, M.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The star-forming regions in Chamaeleon (Cha) are one of the nearest (distance ~ 165 pc) and youngest (age ~ 2 Myr) conglomerates of recently formed stars and the ideal target for population studies of star formation. Aims: We investigate a total of 16 Cha targets that have been suggested, but not confirmed, to be binaries or multiple systems in previous literature. Methods: We used the adaptive optics instrument Naos-Conica (NACO) at the Very Large Telescope Unit Telescope (UT) 4 / YEPUN of the Paranal Observatory, at 2-5 different epochs, in order to obtain relative and absolute astrometric measurements, as well as differential photometry in the J, H, and K band. On the basis of known proper motions and these observations, we analyse the astrometric results in our proper motion diagram (PMD: angular separation / position angle versus time), to eliminate possible (non-moving) background stars, establish co-moving binaries and multiples, and search for curvature as indications for orbital motion. Results: All previously suggested close components are co-moving and no background stars are found. The angular separations range between 0.07 and 9 arcsec, corresponding to projected distances between the components of 6-845 AU. Thirteen stars are at least binaries and the remaining three (RX J0919.4-7738, RX J0952.7-7933, VW Cha) are confirmed high-order multiple systems with up to four components. In 13 cases, we found significant slopes in the PMDs, which are compatible with orbital motion whose periods (estimated from the observed gradients in the position angles) range from 60 to 550 years. However, in only four cases there are indications of a curved orbit, the ultimate proof of a gravitational bond. Conclusions: A statistical study based on the 2MASS catalogue confirms the high probability of all 16 stellar systems being gravitationally bound. Most of the secondary components are well above the mass limit of hydrogen burning stars (0.08 M?), and have masses twice as high as this value or more. Massive primary components appear to avoid the simultaneous formation of equal-mass secondary components, while extremely low-mass secondary components are hard to find for both high and low mass primaries owing to the much higher dynamic range and the faintness of the secondaries. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under program IDs 076.C-0292(A), 078.C-0535(A), 080.C-0424(A), 082.C-0489(A), 084.C-0364(B), 086.C-0638(A) & 086.C-0600(B), the Hubble Space Telescope under program ID GO-8716 and data obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility from the Paranal Observatory under program IDs 075.C-0042(A), 076.C-0579(A), 278.C-5070(A) and from the Hubble Space Telescope under programme IDs SNAP-7387, GO-11164. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF STARS IN AND AROUND THE LAGOON NEBULA. I. ROTATION PERIODS OF 290 LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN NGC 6530

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Calen B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: henderson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We have conducted a long-term, wide-field, high-cadence photometric monitoring survey of {approx}50,000 stars in the Lagoon Nebula H II region. This first paper presents rotation periods for 290 low-mass stars in NGC 6530, the young cluster illuminating the nebula, and for which we assemble a catalog of infrared and spectroscopic disk indicators, estimated masses and ages, and X-ray luminosities. The distribution of rotation periods we measure is broadly uniform for 0.5 days < P < 10 days; the short-period cutoff corresponds to breakup. We observe no obvious bimodality in the period distribution, but we do find that stars with disk signatures rotate more slowly on average. The stars' X-ray luminosities are roughly flat with rotation period, at the saturation level (log L{sub X} /L{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To -3.3). However, we find a significant positive correlation between L{sub X} /L{sub bol} and corotation radius, suggesting that the observed X-ray luminosities are regulated by centrifugal stripping of the stellar coronae. The period-mass relationship in NGC 6530 is broadly similar to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), but the slope of the relationship among the slowest rotators differs from that in the ONC and other young clusters. We show that the slope of the period-mass relationship for the slowest rotators can be used as a proxy for the age of a young cluster, and we argue that NGC 6530 may be slightly younger than the ONC, making it a particularly important touchstone for models of angular momentum evolution in young, low-mass stars.

  20. A SEARCH FOR IRON EMISSION LINES IN THE CHANDRA X-RAY SPECTRA OF NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    E-print Network

    Cackett, E. M.

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, ...

  1. Dust emission from star-forming regions. III - The Rho Ophiuchus cloud - Where are the low-mass protostars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, P. G.; Sievers, A.; Zylka, R.; Haslam, C. G. T.; Kreysa, E.; Lemke, R.

    1992-11-01

    The dust emission of the densest part of the Rho Oph cloud as indicated by CO-18 and DCO(+) line emission has been surveyed, and three structureless cores of densities of about 4 x 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6/cu cm and masses of 15, 3, and 1 solar mass have been found along with another core of about 15 solar masses, which contains four high-density (about 10 exp 8/cu cm) condensations with masses ranging from 0.3 to 3 solar masses. These could be the low-mass counterparts of the more massive isothermal protostars detected previously in the cloud core associated with NGC 2024. The following picture of low-to-medium mass star formation emerges: structureless static cores with densities of 4 x 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6/cu cm, which could be stabilized against collapse by magnetic fields, form the first evolutionary stage. When collapse takes place, about one-third of the core mass goes into isothermal condensations, which contract on free-fall time scales of 4 x 10 exp 4 yr and become outflow sources prior to the formation of a central stellar core. The short lifetime explains why isothermal protostars are so rare.

  2. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. III. IRON, MAGNESIUM, AND SILICON

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, Channon [Current address: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA, Houston, TX 77058-1113 (United States); Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce, E-mail: visscher@lpi.usra.ed, E-mail: lodders@wustl.ed, E-mail: bfegley@wustl.ed [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States)

    2010-06-20

    We use thermochemical equilibrium calculations to model iron, magnesium, and silicon chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), and low-mass stars. The behavior of individual Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of temperature, pressure, and metallicity. Our equilibrium results are thus independent of any particular model atmosphere. The condensation of Fe metal strongly affects iron chemistry by efficiently removing Fe-bearing species from the gas phase. Monatomic Fe is the most abundant Fe-bearing gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs, and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Mg- and Si-bearing gases are effectively removed from the atmosphere by forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) cloud formation. Monatomic Mg is the dominant magnesium gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Silicon monoxide (SiO) is the most abundant Si-bearing gas in the deep atmospheres of brown dwarfs and EGPs, whereas SiH{sub 4} is dominant in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas giant planets. Several other Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases become increasingly important with decreasing effective temperature. In principle, a number of Fe, Mg, and Si gases are potential tracers of weather or diagnostic of temperature in substellar atmospheres.

  3. Rotational Velocities and Chromospheric\\/Coronal Activity of Low-Mass Stars in the Young Open Clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Stauffer; Lee W. Hartmann; Charles F. Prosser; Sofia Randich; Suchitra Balachandran; Brian M. Patten; Theodore Simon; Mark Giampapa

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution, moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra for approximately 80 candidate low-mass members of the nearby, very young open clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602. Most of the stars observed are confirmed as cluster members based on a combination of photometric and spectroscopic criteria. We provide radial velocities, rotational velocities, and H alpha equivalent widths for these stars. From

  4. Upper Bounds on r-Mode Amplitudes from Observations of Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod

    2013-01-01

    We present upper limits on the amplitude of r-mode oscillations and gravitational-radiation-induced spin-down rates in low-mass X-ray binary neutron stars, under the assumption that the quiescent neutron star luminosity is powered by dissipation from a steady-state r-mode. For masses <2M solar mass we find dimensionless r-mode amplitudes in the range from about 1×10(exp-8) to 1.5×10(exp-6). For the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar sources with known quiescent spin-down rates, these limits suggest that approx. less than 1% of the observed rate can be due to an unstable r-mode. Interestingly, the source with the highest amplitude limit, NGC 6440, could have an r-mode spin-down rate comparable to the observed, quiescent rate for SAX J1808-3658. Thus, quiescent spin-down measurements for this source would be particularly interesting. For all sources considered here, our amplitude limits suggest that gravitational wave signals are likely too weak for detection with Advanced LIGO. Our highest mass model (2.21M solar mass) can support enhanced, direct Urca neutrino emission in the core and thus can have higher r-mode amplitudes. Indeed, the inferred r-mode spin-down rates at these higher amplitudes are inconsistent with the observed spin-down rates for some of the sources, such as IGR J00291+5934 and XTE J1751-305. In the absence of other significant sources of internal heat, these results could be used to place an upper limit on the masses of these sources if they were made of hadronic matter, or alternatively it could be used to probe the existence of exotic matter in them if their masses were known.

  5. UPPER BOUNDS ON r-MODE AMPLITUDES FROM OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodifar, Simin [Department of Physics, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Strohmayer, Tod [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present upper limits on the amplitude of r-mode oscillations and gravitational-radiation-induced spin-down rates in low-mass X-ray binary neutron stars, under the assumption that the quiescent neutron star luminosity is powered by dissipation from a steady-state r-mode. For masses <2 M{sub Sun} we find dimensionless r-mode amplitudes in the range from about 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} to 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}. For the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar sources with known quiescent spin-down rates, these limits suggest that {approx}< 1% of the observed rate can be due to an unstable r-mode. Interestingly, the source with the highest amplitude limit, NGC 6440, could have an r-mode spin-down rate comparable to the observed, quiescent rate for SAX J1808-3658. Thus, quiescent spin-down measurements for this source would be particularly interesting. For all sources considered here, our amplitude limits suggest that gravitational wave signals are likely too weak for detection with Advanced LIGO. Our highest mass model (2.21 M{sub Sun }) can support enhanced, direct Urca neutrino emission in the core and thus can have higher r-mode amplitudes. Indeed, the inferred r-mode spin-down rates at these higher amplitudes are inconsistent with the observed spin-down rates for some of the sources, such as IGR J00291+5934 and XTE J1751-305. In the absence of other significant sources of internal heat, these results could be used to place an upper limit on the masses of these sources if they were made of hadronic matter, or alternatively it could be used to probe the existence of exotic matter in them if their masses were known.

  6. A WIDELY SEPARATED, HIGHLY OCCLUDED COMPANION TO THE NEARBY LOW-MASS T TAURI STAR TWA 30

    SciTech Connect

    Looper, Dagny L.; Pitts, Mark A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bochanski, John J.; Burgasser, Adam J. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building 37-664B, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Mohanty, Subhanjoy [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, P.O. Box 270171, 500 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); West, Andrew A., E-mail: dagny@ifa.hawaii.ed [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We report the discovery of TWA 30B, a wide ({approx}3400 AU), co-moving M dwarf companion to the nearby ({approx}42 pc) young star TWA 30. Companionship is confirmed from their statistically consistent proper motions and radial velocities (RVs), as well as a chance alignment probability of only 0.08%. Like TWA 30A, the spectrum of TWA 30B shows signatures of an actively accreting disk (H I and alkali line emission) and forbidden emission lines tracing outflowing material ([O I], [O II], [O III], [S II], and [N II]). We have also detected [C I] emission in the optical data, marking the first such detection of this line in a pre-main-sequence star. Negligible RV shifts in the emission lines relative to the stellar frame of rest ({Delta}V {approx}< 30 km s{sup -1}) indicate that the outflows are viewed in the plane of the sky and that the corresponding circumstellar disk is viewed edge-on. Indeed, TWA 30B appears to be heavily obscured by its disk, given that it is 5 mag fainter than TWA 30A at K band despite having a slightly earlier spectral type (M4 versus M5). The near-infrared spectrum of TWA 30B also evinces an excess that varies on day timescales, with colors that follow classical T Tauri tracks as opposed to variable reddening (as is the case for TWA 30A). Multi-epoch data show this excess to be well modeled by a black body component with temperatures ranging from 630 to 880 K and emitting areas that scale inversely with the temperature. The variable excess may arise from disk structure such as a rim or a warp at the inner disk edge located at a radial distance of {approx}3-5 R{sub sun}. As the second and third closest actively accreting and outflowing stars to the Sun (after TWA 3), TWA 30AB presents an ideal system for a detailed study of star and planetary formation processes at the low-mass end of the hydrogen-burning spectrum.

  7. The SLoWPoKES catalog of low-mass ultra-wide binaries: A cool stars resource for testing fundamental properties and for constraining binary formation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, S.; West, A. A.; Stassun, K. G.; Law, N. M.

    2013-02-01

    We present results from the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES) catalog of ultra-wide (103-105.5 AU), low-mass (K5-M7) common proper motion binaries. We constructed a Galactic model, based on empirical stellar number density and 3D velocity distributions, to select bona fide pairs with probability of chance alignment < 5 %, making SLoWPoKES an efficient sample for followup observations. Our initial catalog contains 1342 disk dwarf, subdwarf, and white dwarf-red dwarf systems and is the largest collection of low-mass, wide binaries ever assembled. The diversity - in mass, metallicity, age, and evolutionary states - of SLoWPoKES pairs makes it a valuable resource of coeval laboratories to examine and constrain the physical properties of low-mass stars. SLoWPoKES pairs show signatures of two (or more) formation modes in the distribution of the physical separation and higher-order multiplicity. Neither dynamical dissipation of primordial triples/quadruples or dynamical capture of ejected stars can explain the observed populations by itself. We use follow-up spectroscopic observations to recalibrate the metallicity-sensitive ?{TiO/CaH} index by assuming that both members of the binary system have the same composition. Our new formulation is a significantly better tracer of absolute metallicity, particularly for the early-type M dwarfs. The catalogs are publicly available on a custom data visualization portal.

  8. CAN THE GROWTH OF DUST GRAINS IN LOW-METALLICITY STAR-FORMING CLOUDS AFFECT THE FORMATION OF METAL-POOR LOW-MASS STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, Takaya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: takaya.nozawa@ipmu.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    The discovery of a low-mass star with such a low metallicity as {<=}4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Z{sub Sun} reveals the critical role of dust in the formation of extremely metal-poor stars. In this Letter, we explore the effect of the growth of dust grains through accretion of gaseous refractory elements in very low metallicity pre-stellar cores on cloud fragmentation induced by dust emission cooling. Employing a simple model of grain growth in a gravitationally collapsing gas, we show that Fe and Si grains can grow efficiently at hydrogen densities of {approx_equal} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} in the clouds with metal abundances of -5 {approx}< [Fe, Si/H] {approx}< -3. The critical metal number abundances, above which the grain growth could induce the fragmentation of the gas clouds, are estimated to be A{sub crit} {approx_equal} 10{sup -9}-10{sup -8}, unless the initial grain radius is too large ({approx}>1 {mu}m) or the sticking probability is too small ({approx}<0.01). We find that even if the initial dust-to-gas mass ratio is well below the minimum value required for the dust-induced fragmentation, the grain growth increases the dust mass high enough to cause the gas to fragment into sub-solar mass clumps. We suggest that as long as the critical metal abundance is satisfied, grain growth could play an important role in the formation of low-mass stars with metallicity as low as 10{sup -5} Z{sub Sun }.

  9. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. I. A LOW-MASS RATIO STELLAR COMPANION TO TYC 4110-01037-1 IN A 79 DAY ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ge, Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang, Liang [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Esposito, Massimiliano; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Porto De Mello, G. F. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: jwisnie@u.washington.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical among binary systems with solar-like (T{sub eff} {approx}< 6000 K) primary stars. Our analysis of TYC 4110-01037-1 reveals it to be a moderately aged ({approx}<5 Gyr) solar-like star having a mass of 1.07 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun} and radius of 0.99 {+-} 0.18 R{sub Sun }. We analyze 32 radial velocity (RV) measurements from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey as well as 6 supporting RV measurements from the SARG spectrograph on the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo telescope obtained over a period of {approx}2 years. The best Keplerian orbital fit parameters were found to have a period of 78.994 {+-} 0.012 days, an eccentricity of 0.1095 {+-} 0.0023, and a semi-amplitude of 4199 {+-} 11 m s{sup -1}. We determine the minimum companion mass (if sin i = 1) to be 97.7 {+-} 5.8 M{sub Jup}. The system's companion to host star mass ratio, {>=}0.087 {+-} 0.003, places it at the lowest end of observed values for short period stellar companions to solar-like (T{sub eff} {approx}< 6000 K) stars. One possible way to create such a system would be if a triple-component stellar multiple broke up into a short period, low q binary during the cluster dispersal phase of its lifetime. A candidate tertiary body has been identified in the system via single-epoch, high contrast imagery. If this object is confirmed to be comoving, we estimate it would be a dM4 star. We present these results in the context of our larger-scale effort to constrain the statistics of low-mass stellar and brown dwarf companions to FGK-type stars via the MARVELS survey.

  10. Planets around Low-mass Stars. III. A Young Dusty L Dwarf Companion at the Deuterium-burning Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 (?52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R ? 3800) 1.5-2.4 ?m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the ~120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 ± 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I ?6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of ~10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where "hot-start" evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, ? And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is ?12-13 M Jup or ?22-27 M Jup if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M Jup if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition (?1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr) planetary companions. Altogether, the low mass, low temperature, and red colors of 2MASS 0122-2439 B make it a bridge between warm planets like ? Pic b and cool, very dusty ones like HR 8799 bcde. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J., E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 ( Almost-Equal-To 52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 3800) 1.5-2.4 {mu}m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the {approx}120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 {+-} 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I {lambda}6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of {approx}10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, {kappa} And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is Almost-Equal-To 12-13 M{sub Jup} or Almost-Equal-To 22-27 M{sub Jup} if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M{sub Jup} if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition ( Almost-Equal-To 1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr) planetary companions. Altogether, the low mass, low temperature, and red colors of 2MASS 0122-2439 B make it a bridge between warm planets like {beta} Pic b and cool, very dusty ones like HR 8799 bcde.

  12. Organic Chemistry of Low-Mass Star-Forming Cores. I. 7 mm Spectroscopy of Chamaeleon MMSl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, Martn A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Wirtstroem, Eva S.; Smith, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Observations are presented of emission lines from organic molecules at frequencies 32-50 GHz in the vicinity of Chamaeleon MMS1. This chemically rich dense cloud core harbors an extremely young, very low luminosity protostellar object and is a candidate first hydrostatic core. Column densities are derived and emission maps are presented for species including polyynes, cyanopolyynes, sulphuretted carbon chains, and methanol. The polyyne emission peak lies about 5000 AU from the protostar, whereas methanol peaks about 15,000 AU away. Averaged over the telescope beam, the molecular hydrogen number density is calculated to be 10(exp 6) / cubic cm and the gas kinetic temperature is in the range 5-7 K. The abundances of long carbon chains are very large and are indicative of a nonequilibrium carbon chemistry; C6H and HC7N column densities are 5.9(sup +2.9) (sub -1.3) x 10(exp 11) /cubic cm and 3.3 (sup +8.0)(sub -1.5) x 10(exp 12)/sq cm, respectively, which are similar to the values found in the most carbon-chain-rich protostars and prestellar cores known, and are unusually large for star-forming gas. Column density upper limits were obtained for the carbon chain anions C4H(-) and C6H(-), with anion-to-neutral ratios [C4H(-)]/[C4H] < 0.02% and [C6H(-l)]/[C6H] < 10%, consistent with previous observations in interstellar clouds and low-mass protostars. Deuterated HC,3 and c-C3H2 were detected. The [DC3N]/[HC,N] ratio of approximately 4% is consistent with the value typically found in cold interstellar gas.

  13. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects. IV. Accretion in low-mass stars and substellar objects in Lupus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Manara, C. F.; Spezzi, L.; Stelzer, B.; Frasca, A.; Biazzo, K.; Covino, E.; Randich, S.; Rigliaco, E.; Testi, L.; Comerón, F.; Cupani, G.; D'Elia, V.

    2014-01-01

    We present VLT/X-shooter observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and substellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star-forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2 M?, but mostly with 0.1 M?star. Based on observations collected at the European Souther Observatory at Paranal, under programs 084.C-0269(A), 085.C-0238(A), 086.C-0173(A), 087.C-0244(A) and 089.C-0143(A).Tables 1-4 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Episodic Accretion at Early Stages of Evolution of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs: A Solution for the Observed Luminosity Spread in HR Diagrams?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Baraffe; G. Chabrier; J. Gallardo

    2009-01-01

    We present evolutionary models for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs taking into account episodic phases of accretion at early stages of the evolution, a scenario supported by recent large surveys of embedded protostars. An evolution including short episodes of vigorous accretion (\\\\dot{M}>= 10^{-4} M_&sun; yr^{-1}) followed by longer quiescent phases (\\\\dot{M}< 10^{-6} M_&sun; yr^{-1}) can explain the observed luminosity

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rotation, Disks, and X-rays Among Low-Mass Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan; Ardila, D.; Matt, S.; Feigelson, E.

    2006-12-01

    Two fundamental outstanding questions in the study of young, low-mass stars are (1) the evolution of angular momentum, and (2) the origin of X-ray emission. Indeed, low-mass stars are observed to decrease their angular momentum content by nearly an order of magnitude during the first ˜100 Myr. These stars are also observed to produce X-rays at levels up to 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the present-day Sun. However, the physical processes governing angular momentum loss and X-ray production during the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase remain poorly understood. Circumstellar disks are thought to regulate stellar rotation via magnetic star-disk interaction. Stellar magnetic fields, possibly driven by rotation, may also be implicated in the production of X-rays, which may in turn affect disk ionization and thus the efficiency of star-disk coupling. Finally, all of these stellar properties - rotation, disks, X-rays - are dependent in varying degrees on stellar mass. Using a sample of 400 PMS stars with known rotation periods, disk tracers from Spitzer, and X-ray luminosities from Chandra, we perform a multivariate statistical analysis on the relationships among these manifold mutually correlated variables. Our aim is to discern the fundamental relationship between disks and stellar rotation, and between rotation and X-ray emission. Here we report preliminary results.

  16. Searching for Proto-clusters in a Quiescent GIant Molecular Cloud: A Survey for Low Mass Stars and Protostars in Maddalena's Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megeath, Tom; Ashby, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    We propose an IRAC and MIPS survey toward recently identified dense cores in Maddalena's cloud, a unique, quiescent giant molecular cloud. To date, no sites of star formation have been identified in this 100,000 solar mass cloud; however, our detection of massive (~ 500 solar mass) dense cores suggests that the formation of entire clusters of stars is imminent. At a distance of 2 kpc, it is possible that isolated, low mass pre-main sequence stars and protostars remain undetected this cloud. IRAC and MIPS will be able to detect any T-Tauri star down to the hydrogen burning limit, as well as one solar luminosity protostars too faint to have been detected with MSX and IRAS. We will also observe the cool dust in the dense cores using the MIPS 70 and 160 micron bands. With these data, we can map the dust temperature and column density in the dense cores with twice the angular resolution of our millimeter-wave maps. We will use the dust map to study the density structure of the dense cores and compare the density structure to active cluster forming cores. With this data, we will determine whether low mass star formation has started toward the dense cores, giving us a rare glimpse at what appears to be the first stages of cluster formation.

  17. Surveys for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs: Solar Neighbourhood and intermediate-age clusters Alpha Per and Collinder 359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.

    The gravitational collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds form stars over a large range of masses. Stars spend most of their lifetime on the so-called main-sequence in hydrostatic equilibrium, as the nuclear fusion energy supports the star against gravitational collapse. However, objects with masses lower than 0.072 M at solar metallicity will never reach core temperatures and pressures high enough to fuse hydrogen. Hence, these objects, termed "brown dwarfs", cool off inexorably as they age and reach very low luminosities, hampering their detection. As a consequence, brown dwarfs remained elusive for some 30 years after their first theoretical prediction. The advent of wide-field arrays, all-sky surveys, and large telescopes have now led to the discovery of hundreds of brown dwarfs as isolated objects in the solar neighbourhood, as companions to low-mass stars, in young open clusters, and in star-forming regions. The number of stars per unit of mass, known as the Initial Mass Function (hereafter IMF), is of prime importance in understanding star formation processes. Following the pioneering study by Salpeter in 1955, the stellar IMF has been investigated during the last decades in various environments and over a wide mass range to look into its possible dependence on time and place. Many questions were, however, raised regarding the shape of the IMF at the high-mass and low-mass ends. On the one hand, high-mass stars are not so numerous and have extremely short lifetimes. On the other hand, low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are faint and difficult to detect. To address some of the crucial issues including a possible turn-over in the IMF at the hydrogen burning limit, young open clusters and star-forming regions have been extensively targeted as they represent a coeval population of stars of similar metallicity at a given distance within a small area in the sky. Brown dwarfs are amenable for detailed analysis in young clusters because they are intrinsically brighter when younger. Most studies carried out in the Pleiades, ? Per, Trapezium Cluster, IC348, and ? Orionis indicate that the mass function rises from high-mass down to a solar mass, more slowly down to a maximum around 0.1-0.2 M before declining into the substellar regime. A recent wide-field survey conducted in the low-density Taurus region revealed a dearth of brown dwarfs, suggesting that the IMF might indeed vary with the environment. Three independent surveys are discussed in this thesis, aimed at finding brown dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood and in young open clusters to contribute to the understanding of the low-mass end of the mass function. First, we describe a search for nearby old low-mass stars and brown dwarfs using proper motion as the primary selection criterion. Second, we present a wide-field near-infrared survey of ? Per, a Pleiades analogue cluster. Finally, we report an optical survey of a pre-main-sequence cluster, Collinder 359, along with infrared follow-up observations.

  18. Detection of Nine M8.0-L0.5 Binaries: The Very Low Mass Binary Population and its Implications for Brown Dwarf and VLM Star Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laird M. Close; Nick Siegler; Melanie Freed; Beth Biller

    2003-01-01

    Use of the highly sensitive Hokupa'a\\/Gemini curvature wavefront sensor has\\u000aallowed direct adaptive optics (AO) guiding on very low mass (VLM) stars with\\u000aSpT=M8.0-L0.5. A survey of 39 such objects detected 9 VLM binaries. Most of\\u000athese systems are tight (separation <5 AU) and have similar masses (Delta\\u000aKs<0.8 mag; 0.85

  19. Membership, binarity and accretion among very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs of the Sigma Orionis cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Kenyon; R. D. Jeffries; Tim Naylor; J. M. Oliveira; P. F. L. Maxted

    2004-01-01

    Intermediate resolution (R=7000) spectroscopy is presented for 76\\u000aphotometrically selected very low mass (0.04

  20. On the Identification of High Mass Star Forming Regions using IRAS: Contamination by Low-Mass Protostars

    E-print Network

    Tyler L. Bourke; A. R. Hyland; Garry Robinson

    2005-04-22

    We present the results of a survey of a small sample (14) of low-mass protostars (L_IR < 10^3 Lsun) for 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission performed using the ATNF Parkes radio telescope. No new masers were discovered. We find that the lower luminosity limit for maser emission is near 10^3 Lsun, by comparison of the sources in our sample with previously detected methanol maser sources. We examine the IRAS properties of our sample and compare them with sources previously observed for methanol maser emission, almost all of which satisfy the Wood & Churchwell criterion for selecting candidate UCHII regions. We find that about half of our sample satisfy this criterion, and in addition almost all of this subgroup have integrated fluxes between 25 and 60 microns that are similar to sources with detectable methanol maser emission. By identifying a number of low-mass protostars in this work and from the literature that satisfy the Wood & Churchwell criterion for candidate UCHII regions, we show conclusively for the first time that the fainter flux end of their sample is contaminated by lower-mass non-ionizing sources, confirming the suggestion by van der Walt and Ramesh & Sridharan.

  1. Destruction of wide binary stars in low-mass elliptical galaxies: implications for initial mass function estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the effects of destruction of wide binaries in the nuclei of the lower mass giant elliptical galaxies. We show that the numbers of barium stars and extrinsic S stars should be dramatically reduced in these galaxies compared to what is seen in the largest elliptical galaxies. Given that the extrinsic S stars show strong Wing-Ford band and Na I D absorption, we argue that the recent claims of different initial mass functions from the most massive elliptical galaxies versus lower mass ellipticals may be the result of extrinsic S stars, rather than bottom-heavy initial mass function.

  2. THE MASS AND RADIUS OF THE NEUTRON STAR IN THE BULGE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY KS 1731-260

    SciTech Connect

    Oezel, Feryal; Guever, Tolga [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gould, Andrew, E-mail: fozel@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: tguver@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: gould@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    Measurements of neutron star masses and radii are instrumental in determining the equation of state of their interiors, understanding the dividing line between neutron stars and black holes, and obtaining accurate statistics of source populations in the Galaxy. We report here on the measurement of the mass and radius of the neutron star in the low-mass X-ray binary KS 1731-260. The analysis of the spectroscopic data on multiple thermonuclear bursts yields well-constrained values for the apparent angular area and the Eddington flux of the source, both of which depend in a distinct way on the mass and radius of the neutron star. The binary KS 1731-260 is in the direction of the Galactic bulge, allowing a distance estimate based on the density of stars in that direction. Making use of the Han and Gould model, we determine the probability distribution over the distance to the source, which is approximately flat between 7 and 9 kpc. Combining these measurements, we place a strong upper bound on the radius of the neutron star, R {<=} 12.5 km, while confining its mass to M {<=} 2.1 M{sub Sun }.

  3. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland)] [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  4. The {sup 13}C(?,n){sup 16}O reaction as a neutron source for the s-process in AGB low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Trippella, O.; Busso, M. [INFN and University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M.R.; Romano, S.; Spartà, R. [INFN and University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Kiss, G. G. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Rogachev, G. V.; Avila, M.; Koshchiy, E.; Kuchera, A.; Santiago, D. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Maiorca, E. [INAF - Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Palmerini, S. [Departamento de Fìsica Teòrica y del Cosmsos, Universidad de Granada,Granada (Spain)

    2014-05-09

    The {sup 13}C(?,n){sup 16}O reaction is considered to be the most important neutron source for producing the main component of the s-process in low mass stars. In this paper we focus our attention on two of the main open problems concerning its operation as a driver for the slow neutron captures. Recently, a new measurement of the {sup 13}C(?,n){sup 16}O reaction rate was performed via the Trojan Horse Method greatly increasing the accuracy. Contemporarily, on the modelling side, magnetic mechanisms were suggested to justify the production of the {sup 13}C pocket, thus putting the s-process in stars on safe physical ground. These inputs allow us to reproduce satisfactorily the solar distribution of elements.

  5. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores: III: Low Mass Star Formation in a Small Group, L1251B

    E-print Network

    Jeong-Eun Lee; James Di Francesco; Shih-Ping Lai; Tyler L. Bourke; Neal J. Evans II; Bill Spiesman; Philip C. Myers; Lori E. Allen; Timothy Y. Brooke; Alicia Porras; Zahed Wahhaj

    2006-05-18

    We present a comprehensive study of a low-mass star-forming region,L1251B, at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. L1251B, where only one protostar, IRAS 22376+7455, was known previously, is confirmed to be a small group of protostars based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The most luminous source of L1251B is located 5" north of the IRAS position. A near-infrared bipolar nebula, which is not associated with the brightest object and is located at the southeast corner of L1251B, has been detected in the IRAC bands. OVRO and SMA interferometric observations indicate that the brightest source and the bipolar nebula source in the IRAC bands are deeply embedded disk sources.Submillimeter continuum observations with single-dish telescopes and the SMA interferometric observations suggest two possible prestellar objects with very high column densities. Outside of the small group, many young stellar object candidates have been detected over a larger region of 12' x 12'. Extended emission to the east of L1251B has been detected at 850 micron; this "east core" may be a site for future star formation since no point source has been detected with IRAC or MIPS. This region is therefore a possible example of low-mass cluster formation, where a small group of pre- and protostellar objects (L1251B) is currently forming, alongside a large starless core (the east core).

  6. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) Lower mass galaxies quench earlier than higher mass galaxies; (2) Inside of virial radius there is no correlation between a satellite's current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; (3) There are hints of systematic differences in quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  7. SHORT-DURATION LENSING EVENTS. I. WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS? FREE-FLOATING LOW-MASS OBJECTS? OR HIGH-VELOCITY STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Rosanne [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Short-duration lensing events tend to be generated by low-mass lenses or by lenses with high transverse velocities. Furthermore, for any given lens mass and speed, events of short duration are preferentially caused by nearby lenses (mesolenses) that can be studied in detail, or else by lenses so close to the source star that finite-source-size effects may be detected, yielding information about both the Einstein ring radius and the surface of the lensed star. Planets causing short-duration events may be in orbits with any orientation, and may have semimajor axes smaller than 1 AU, or they may reach the outer limits of their planetary systems, in the region corresponding to the solar system's Oort Cloud. They can have masses larger than Jupiter's or smaller than Pluto's. Lensing therefore has a unique potential to expand our understanding of planetary systems. A particular advantage of lensing is that it can provide precision measurements of system parameters, including the masses of and projected separation between star and planet. We demonstrate how the parameters can be extracted and show that a great deal can be learned. For example, it is remarkable that the gravitational mass of nearby free-floating planet-mass lenses can be measured by complementing observations of a photometric event with deep images that detect the planet itself. A fraction of short events may be caused by high-velocity stars located within a kiloparsec. Many high-velocity lenses are likely to be neutron stars that received large natal kicks. Other high-speed stars may be members of the halo population. Still others may be hypervelocity stars that have been ejected from the Galactic center, or runaway stars escaped from close binaries, possibly including the progenitor binaries of Type Ia supernovae.

  8. A WIDELY SEPARATED, HIGHLY OCCLUDED COMPANION TO THE NEARBY LOW-MASS T TAURI STAR TWA 30

    E-print Network

    Looper, Dagny L.

    We report the discovery of TWA 30B, a wide (~3400 AU), co-moving M dwarf companion to the nearby (~42 pc) young star TWA 30. Companionship is confirmed from their statistically consistent proper motions and radial velocities ...

  9. The bottom magnetic field and magnetosphere evolution of neutron star in low mass X-ray binary

    E-print Network

    C. M. Zhang; Y. Kojima

    2005-10-31

    The accretion induced neutron star magnetic field evolution is studied through considering the accretion flow to drag the field lines aside and dilute the polar field strength, and as a result the equatorial field strength increases and is buried inside the crust. The main conclusions of model are as follows: (i) the polar field decays with increasing the accreted mass; (ii) The bottom magnetic field strength of about $10^8$ G can occur when neutron star magnetosphere radius approaches the star radius, which depends on the accretion rate as $\\mdot^{1/2}$; (iii) The neutron star magnetosphere radius decreases with accretion until it reaches the star radius, and its evolution is little influenced by the initial field and the accretion rate after accreting $\\sim 0.01 \\ms$, which implies that the magnetosphere radii of neutron stars in LMXBs would be homogeneous for Z sources and Atoll sources if they accreted the comparable masses. As an extension, the physics effects of the possible strong magnetic zone in the X-ray neutron stars and recycled pulsars are discussed. Moreover, The strong magnetic fields in the binary pulsars PSR 1831-00 and PSR 1718-19 after accreting about half solar mass in the binary accretion phase, $8.7\\times10^{10}$ G and $1.28\\times10^{12}$ G, respectively, can be explained through considering the incomplete frozen flow in the polar zone. As a model's expectation, the existence of the low magnetic field ($\\sim 3\\times 10^{7}$ G) neutron stars or millisecond pulsars is suggested.

  10. On the origin of the IMF: First detection of a low-mass star ejected from a triple stellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loinard, L.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Rodriguez, M.

    2002-12-01

    Using high-resolution, multi-epoch VLA observations, we have detected orbital motions in several low-luminosity protobinary systems in the Taurus and rho-Ophiuchus molecular complexes. The masses obtained from Kepler's third law are of the order of 0.5 to 1 Msun, as would have been expected for such low-mass protostars. In addition, in one of the sources studied (a triple system in Taurus), one of the three component appears to have been recently ejected from the system. During the first 15 of the 20 years covered by the observations, this component has been on a closed elliptical orbit with a velocity of a few km/s, but in the last 5 years, it has started to spiral out at high speed (20 km/s). Such an ejection is not unexpected in a triple system, because such systems are thought to exhibit chaotic behaviours. However, this is the first time that it is detected directly. The implications for the IMF will be discussed

  11. The helium-core mass at the helium flash in low-mass red giant stars observations and theory

    E-print Network

    Catelan, M

    1995-01-01

    The method developed by Raffelt (1990a,b,c) to estimate a possible increase in the standard values of the helium-core mass at the tip of the red giant branch, \\Mc, from properties of the color-magnitude diagrams of Galactic globular clusters is employed. In the present study, we revise and update Raffelt's database, including also constraints from RR Lyrae pulsation, and find that a small increase, by \\Delta\\Mc \\approx 0.01\\pm 0.015 \\Msun, cannot be ruled out with the present data and evolutionary models. Our new upper limits on \\Delta\\Mc are less restrictive than those previously obtained by Raffelt, as are the corresponding constraints on novel astroparticle phenomena which may affect the evolution of low-mass red giants. Within the estimated uncertainties, however, the standard values of \\Mc may also be acceptable. Raffelt's method does not rule out a low envelope helium abundance in globular cluster giants, though again the standard values are compatible with the available constraints. The influence of a ...

  12. Critical Test of the Self-Similar Cosmological Paradigm: Anomalously Few Planets Orbiting Low-Mass Red Dwarf Stars

    E-print Network

    Robert L. Oldershaw

    2012-04-02

    The incidence of planetary systems orbiting red dwarf stars with masses less than 0.4 solar masses provides a crucial observational test for the Self-Similar Cosmological paradigm. The discrete self-similarity of the paradigm mandates the prediction of anomalously few planetary systems associated with these lowest mass red dwarf stars, in contrast to conventional astrophysical assumptions. Ongoing observational programs are rapidly collecting the data necessary for testing this prediction and preliminary results are highly encouraging. A definitive verdict on the prediction should be available in the near future.

  13. A SURVEY OF H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, AND CO ICE FEATURES TOWARD BACKGROUND STARS AND LOW-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS USING AKARI

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, J. A. [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France); Fraser, H. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Aikawa, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Pontoppidan, K. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sakon, I., E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0003 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 19 molecular clouds made using the AKARI satellite, and the data reduction pipeline written to analyze those observations. The 2.5-5 ?m spectra of 30 objects—22 field stars behind quiescent molecular clouds and 8 low-mass young stellar objects in cores—were successfully extracted using the pipeline. Those spectra are further analyzed to calculate the column densities of key solid phase molecular species, including H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and OCN{sup –}. The profile of the H{sub 2}O ice band is seen to vary across the objects observed and we suggest that the extended red wing may be an evolutionary indicator of both dust and ice mantle properties. The observation of 22 spectra with fluxes as low as < 5 mJy toward background stars, including 15 where the column densities of H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} were calculated, provides valuable data that could help to benchmark the initial conditions in star-forming regions prior to the onset of star formation.

  14. A search for iron emission lines in the Chandra X-ray spectra of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    E. M. Cackett; J. M. Miller; J. Homan; M. van der Klis; W. H. G. Lewin; M. Mendez; J. Raymond; D. Steeghs; R. Wijnands

    2008-09-18

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, recent observations with Suzaku and XMM-Newton have revealed broad asymmetric iron line profiles in 4 neutron star LMXBs, confirming an inner disk origin for these lines in neutron star systems. Here, we present a search for iron lines in 6 neutron star LMXBs. For each object we have simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations at 2 separate epochs, allowing for both a high resolution spectrum, as well as broadband spectral coverage. Out of the six objects in the survey, we only find significant iron lines in two of the objects, GX 17+2 and GX 349+2. However, we cannot rule out that there are weak, broad lines present in the other sources. The equivalent width of the line in GX 17+2 is consistent between the 2 epochs, while in GX 349+2 the line equivalent width increases by a factor of ~3 between epochs as the source flux decreases by a factor of 1.3. This suggests that the disk is highly ionized, and the line is dominated by recombination emission. We find that there appears to be no specific locations in the long-term hardness-intensity diagrams where iron emission lines are formed, though more sources and further observations are required.

  15. X-ray Properties of Low-Mass Pre-Main Sequence Stars in the Orion Trapezium Cluster

    E-print Network

    Schulz, Norbert S; Guenther, Moritz; Testa, Paola; Canizares, Claude R

    2015-01-01

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings (HETG) Orion Legacy Project (HOLP) is the first comprehensive set of observations of a very young massive stellar cluster which provides high resolution X-ray spectra of very young stars over a wide mass range (0.7 - 2.3 Msun). In this paper, we focus on the six brightest X-ray sources with T Tauri stellar counterparts which are well-characterized at optical and infra-red wavelengths. All stars show column densities which are substantially smaller than expected from optical extinction indicating that the sources are located on the near side of the cluster with respect to the observer as well as that these stars are embedded in more dusty environments. Stellar X-ray luminosities are well above $10^{31}$ erg/s, in some cases exceeding $10^{32}$ erg/s for a substantial amount of time. The stars during these observations show no flares but are persistently bright. The spectra can be well fit with two temperature plasma components of 10 MK and 40 MK, of which the latte...

  16. Cooling of the crust in the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29

    E-print Network

    Edward M. Cackett; Rudy Wijnands; Jon M. Miller; Edward F. Brown; Nathalie Degenaar

    2008-09-24

    In quasi-persistent neutron star transients, long outbursts cause the neutron star crust to be heated out of thermal equilibrium with the rest of the star. During quiescence, the crust then cools back down. Such crustal cooling has been observed in two quasi-persistent sources: KS 1731-260 and MXB 1659-29. Here we present an additional Chandra observation of MXB 1659-29 in quiescence, which extends the baseline of monitoring to 6.6 yr after the end of the outburst. This new observation strongly suggests that the crust has thermally relaxed, with the temperature remaining consistent over 1000 days. Fitting the temperature cooling curve with an exponential plus constant model we determine an e-folding timescale of 465 +/- 25 days, with the crust cooling to a constant surface temperature of kT = 54 +/- 2 eV (assuming D=10 kpc). From this, we infer a core temperature in the range 3.5E7-8.3E7 K (assuming D=10 kpc), with the uncertainty due to the surface composition. Importantly, we tested two neutron star atmosphere models as well as a blackbody model, and found that the thermal relaxation time of the crust is independent of the chosen model and the assumed distance.

  17. Photometric study to understand the ambiguity between accretion and chromospheric activity present in low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, O. A.

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a photometric study of a sample of pre-main sequence and TTauri stars in a spectral range between G-K and some early M of masses from 0.5 to 3 M_?, in associations near the Sun (20-200 pc). We measured the excess of the UV band and found that for stars of spectral type early M and late K, the UV band increases considerably. There are two possible scenarios for such an increase: (1) Chromospheric activity, because the stars have radiative and convective cores, giving rise to magnetic activity which generates this excess present in the continuum and (2) the processes of accretion present in stars that have a disk of gas and dust, which they accrete to them by means of the magnetic lines field. Because of the ambiguity in the two effects (since they affect the same emission lines) it is difficult to distinguish which dominates. We propose that an excess of 0.2 magnitudes in the U band for our sample allows us to determine if both processes are at work, or if chromospheric activity dominates, since accretion stops at a very early age, 10 million years.

  18. Companions to white dwarfs - Very low-mass stars and the brown dwarf candidate GD 165B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Zuckerman; E. E. Becklin

    1992-01-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) for star formation at the bottom of the main sequence is estimated by measuring the number of low-luminosity companions to white dwarfs. A histogram of the number of companions versus luminosity indicates that the IMF is flat or increasing with decreasing stellar mass down to, at least, 0.1 solar mass. It is shown that GD

  19. WASP 1628+10 - an EL CVn-type binary with a very low mass stripped red giant star and multiperiodic pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Marsh, T. R.; Catalán, S.; Mahtani, D. P.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The star 1SWASP J162842.31+101416.7 (WASP 1628+10) is one of several EL CVn-type stars recently identified using the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) data base, i.e. an eclipsing binary star in which an A-type dwarf star (WASP 1628+10 A) eclipses the remnant of a disrupted red giant star (WASP 1628+10 B). We have measured the masses, radii and luminosities of the stars in WASP 1628+10 using photometry obtained in three bands (u', g', r') with the ULTRACAM instrument and medium-resolution spectroscopy. The properties of the remnant are well matched by models for stars in a rarely observed state evolving to higher effective temperatures at nearly constant luminosity prior to becoming a very low mass white dwarf composed almost entirely of helium, i.e. we confirm that WASP 1628+10 B is a precursor of a helium white dwarf (pre-He-WD). WASP 1628+10 A appears to be a normal A2 V star with a mass of 1.36 ± 0.05 M?. By fitting models to the spectrum of this star around the H? line we find that it has an effective temperature Teff, A = 7500 ± 200 K and a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.3 ± 0.3. The mass of WASP 1628+10 B is only 0.135 ± 0.02 M?. The effective temperature of this pre-He-WD is approximately 9200 K. The ULTRACAM photometry of WASP 1628+10 shows variability at several frequencies around 40 cycles d-1, which is typical for ? Sct-type pulsations often observed in early A-type stars like WASP 1628+10 A. We also observe frequencies near 114 and 129 cycles d-1, much higher than the frequencies normally seen in ? Sct stars. Additional photometry through the primary eclipse will be required to confirm that these higher frequencies are due to pulsations in WASP 1628+10 B. If confirmed, this would be only the second known example of a pre-He-WD showing high-frequency pulsations.

  20. The Chamaeleon II low-mass star-forming region: radial velocities, elemental abundances, and accretion properties ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.; Alcalá, J. M.; Covino, E.; Frasca, A.; Getman, F.; Spezzi, L.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Knowledge of radial velocities, elemental abundances, and accretion properties of members of star-forming regions is important for our understanding of stellar and planetary formation. While infrared observations reveal the evolutionary status of the disk, optical spectroscopy is fundamental to acquire information on the properties of the central star and on the accretion characteristics. Aims: Existing 2MASS archive data and the Spitzer c2d survey of the Chamaeleon II dark cloud have provided disk properties of a large number of young stars. We complement these data with optical spectroscopy with the aim of providing physical stellar parameters and accretion properties. Methods: We use FLAMES/UVES and FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations of 40 members of the Chamaeleon II star-forming region to measure radial velocities through cross-correlation technique, lithium abundances by means of curves of growth, and for a suitable star elemental abundances of Fe, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Ni using the code MOOG. From the equivalent widths of the H?, H?, and the He i ?5876, ?6678, ?7065 Å emission lines, we estimate the mass accretion rates, ?acc, for all the objects. Results: We derive a radial velocity distribution for the Chamaeleon II stars, which is peaked at ?Vrad? = 11.4 ± 2.0 km s-1. We find dependencies of ?acc ? M?1.3 and of ?acc ? Age-0.82 in the ~0.1-1.0 M? mass regime, as well as a mean mass accretion rate for Chamaeleon II of ?acc ~ 7-5+26 × 10-10 M? yr-1. We also establish a relationship between the He i ?7065 Å line emission and the accretion luminosity. Conclusions: The radial velocity distributions of stars and gas in Chamaeleon II are consistent. The spread in ?acc at a given stellar mass is about one order of magnitude and can not be ascribed entirely to short timescale variability. Analyzing the relation between ?acc and the colors in Spitzer c2d and 2MASS bands, we find indications that the inner disk changes from optically thick to optically thin at ?acc ~ 10-10 M? yr-1. Finally, the disk fraction is consistent with the age of Chamaeleon II. Based on FLAMES (GIRAFFE+UVES) observations collected at the Very Large Telescope (VLT; Paranal, Chile). Program 076.C-0385(A).Tables 5-7, and Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Star/Galaxy Separation Revisited : Into the Zone of Avoidance

    E-print Network

    A. Naim

    1997-01-29

    The problem of automated separation of stars and galaxies on photographic plates is revisited with two goals in mind : First, to separate galaxies from everything else (as opposed to most previous work, in which galaxies were lumped together with all other non-stellar images). And second, to search optically for galaxies at low Galactic latitudes (an area that has been largely avoided in the past). This paper demonstrates how an artificial neural network can be trained to achieve both goals on Schmidt plates of the Digitised Sky Survey. Here I present the method while its application to large numbers of plates is deferred to a later paper. Analysis is also provided of the way in which the network operates and the results are used to counter claims that it is a complicated and incomprehensible tool.

  2. Completion of a SCUBA survey of Lynds dark clouds and implications for low-mass star formation

    E-print Network

    Anja E. Visser; John S. Richer; Claire J. Chandler

    2002-09-04

    We have carried out a survey of optically-selected dark clouds using the bolometer array SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, at 850 microns wavelength. The survey covers a total of 0.5 square degrees and is unbiased with reference to cloud size, star formation activity, or the presence of infrared emission. Several new protostars and starless cores have been discovered; the protostars are confirmed through the detection of their accompanying outflows in CO(2-1) emission. The survey is believed to be complete for Class 0 and Class I protostars, and yields two important results regarding the lifetimes of these phases. First, the ratio of Class 0 to Class protostars in the sample is roughly unity, very different from the 1:10 ratio that has previously been observed for the rho Ophiuchi star-forming region. Assuming star formation to be a homogeneous process in the dark clouds, this implies that the Class 0 lifetime is similar to the Class I phase, which from infrared surveys has been established to be approximately 200,000 yr. It also suggests there is no rapid initial accretion phase in Class 0 objects. A burst of triggered star formation some 100,000 yr ago can explain the earlier results for rho Ophiuchus. Second, the number of starless cores is approximately twice that of the total number of protostars, indicating a starless core lifetime of approximately 800,000 yr. These starless cores are therefore very short-lived, surviving only two or three free-fall times. This result suggests that, on size scales of 10,000 AU at least, the dynamical evolution of starless cores is probably not controlled by magnetic processes.

  3. Candidate hypervelocity stars of spectral type G and K revisited

    E-print Network

    Ziegerer, E; Heber, U; Irrgang, A; Gaensicke, B T; Geier, S

    2015-01-01

    Hypervelocity stars (HVS) move so fast that they are unbound to the Galaxy. When they were first discovered in 2005, dynamical ejection from the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the Galactic Centre (GC) was suggested as their origin. The two dozen HVSs known today are young massive B stars, mostly of 3-4 solar masses. Recently, 20 HVS candidates of low mass were discovered in the Segue G and K dwarf sample, but none of them originates from the GC. We embarked on a kinematic analysis of the Segue HVS candidate sample using the full 6D phase space information based on new proper motion measurements. Their orbital properties can then be derived by tracing back their trajectories in different mass models of our Galaxy. We present the results for 14 candidate HVSs, for which proper motion measurements were possible. Significantly lower proper motions than found in the previous study were derived. Considering three different Galactic mass models we find that all stars are bound to the Galaxy. We confirm that the s...

  4. Long-duration X-Ray Flash and X-Ray-rich Gamma-Ray Bursts from Low-mass Population III Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Suwa, Yudai; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Recent numerical simulations suggest that Population III (Pop III) stars were born with masses not larger than ~100 M ? and typically ~40 M ?. By self-consistently considering the jet generation and propagation in the envelope of these low-mass Pop III stars, we find that a Pop III blue supergiant star has the possibility of giving rise to a gamma-ray burst (GRB) even though it keeps a massive hydrogen envelope. We evaluate observational characteristics of Pop III GRBs and predict that Pop III GRBs have a duration of ~105 s in the observer frame and a peak luminosity of ~5 × 1050 erg s-1. Assuming that the E p-L p (or E p-E ?, iso) correlation holds for Pop III GRBs, we find that the spectrum peak energy falls at approximately a few keV (or ~100 keV) in the observer frame. We discuss the detectability of Pop III GRBs by future satellite missions such as EXIST and Lobster. If the E p-E ?, iso correlation holds, we have the possibility to detect Pop III GRBs at z ~ 9 as long-duration X-ray-rich GRBs by EXIST. Conversely, if the E p-L p correlation holds, we have the possibility to detect Pop III GRBs up to z ~ 19 as long-duration X-ray flashes by Lobster.

  5. Spectral Softening Between Outburst and Quiescence In The Neutron Star Low-Mass X-Ray Binary SAX J1750.8-2900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jessamyn L.; Linares, Manuel; Homan, Jeroen; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2015-03-01

    Tracking the spectral evolution of transiently accreting neutron stars between outburst and quiescence probes relatively poorly understood accretion regimes. Such studies are challenging because they require frequent monitoring of sources with luminosities below the thresholds of current all-sky X-ray monitors. We present the analysis of over 30 observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1750.8-2900 taken across four years with the X-ray telescope aboard Swift. We find spectral softening with decreasing luminosity both on long (˜1 yr) and short (˜days to week) timescales. As the luminosity decreases from 4 × 1036 erg s-1 to ˜ 1× {{10}35} erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV), the power law photon index increases from 1.4 to 2.9. Although not statistically required, our spectral fits allow an additional soft component that displays a decreasing temperature as the luminosity decreases from 4 × 1036 to 6 × 1034 erg s-1. Spectral softening exhibited by SAX J1750.8-2900 is consistent both with accretion emission whose spectral shape steepens with decreasing luminosity and also with being dominated by a changing soft component, possibly associated with accretion onto the neutron star surface, as the luminosity declines.

  6. Kilohertz Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Sources and Their Relation to the Neutron Star Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Campana

    2000-05-01

    Starting from the observation that kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) occur in a very narrow range of X-ray luminosities in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, we try to link the kHz QPO observability to variations of the neutron star magnetospheric radius, in response to changing mass inflow rate. At low luminosities, the drop-off of kHz QPO activity may be explained by the onset of the centrifugal barrier, when the magnetospheric radius reaches the corotation radius. At the opposite side, at higher luminosities, the magnetospheric radius may reach the neutron star and the vanishing of the magnetosphere may lead to the stopping of the kHz QPO activity. If we apply these constraints, the magnetic fields of atoll [B approximately 0.3-1x108 G for Aql X-1] and Z [B approximately 1-8x108 G for Cyg X-2] sources can be derived. These limits naturally apply in the framework of beat-frequency models but can also work in the case of general relativistic models. PMID:10790076

  7. A Search for Very Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Young sigma Orionis Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. S. Bejar; M. R. Zapatero Osorio; R. Rebolo

    1999-01-01

    We present a CCD-based photometric survey covering 870 sq. arcmin in a young\\u000astellar cluster around the young multiple star sigma Orionis. Our survey\\u000alimiting R, I, and Z magnitudes are 23.2, 21.8, and 21.0, respectively. From\\u000aour colour-magnitude diagrams, we have selected 49 faint objects, which\\u000asmoothly extrapolate the photometric sequence defined by more massive known\\u000amembers. Adopting the

  8. A CHANGE IN THE QUIESCENT X-RAY SPECTRUM OF THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY MXB 1659-29

    SciTech Connect

    Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Brown, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Cumming, A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fridriksson, J. K.; Wijnands, R. [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, J., E-mail: ecackett@wayne.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The quasi-persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29 went into quiescence in 2001, and we have followed its quiescent X-ray evolution since. Observations over the first 4 yr showed a rapid drop in flux and temperature of the neutron star atmosphere, interpreted as cooling of the neutron star crust which had been heated during the 2.5 yr outburst. However, observations taken approximately 1400 and 2400 days into quiescence were consistent with each other, suggesting the crust had reached thermal equilibrium with the core. Here we present a new Chandra observation of MXB 1659-29 taken 11 yr into quiescence and 4 yr since the last Chandra observation. This new observation shows an unexpected factor of {approx}3 drop in count rate and change in spectral shape since the last observation, which cannot be explained simply by continued cooling. Two possible scenarios are that either the neutron star temperature has remained unchanged and there has been an increase in the column density, or, alternatively the neutron star temperature has dropped precipitously and the spectrum is now dominated by a power-law component. The first scenario may be possible given that MXB 1659-29 is a near edge-on system, and an increase in column density could be due to build-up of material in, and a thickening of, a truncated accretion disk during quiescence. But, a large change in disk height may not be plausible if standard accretion disk theory holds during quiescence. Alternatively, the disk may be precessing, leading to a higher column density during this latest observation.

  9. Quark-Novae in Low-Mass X-ray Binaries with massive neutron stars: A universal model for short-hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Rachid Ouyed; Jan E. Staff; Prashanth Jaikumar

    2011-01-16

    We show that several features reminiscent of short-hard Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) arise naturally when Quark-Novae occur in low-mass X-ray binaries born with massive neutron stars (> 1.6M_sun) and harboring a circumbinary disk. Near the end of the first accretion phase, conditions are just right for the explosive conversion of the neutron star to a quark star (Quark-Nova). In our model, the subsequent interaction of material from the neutron star's ejected crust with the circumbinary disk explains the duration, variability and near-universal nature of the prompt emission in short-hard GRBs. We also describe a statistical approach to ejecta break-up and collision to obtain the photon spectrum in our model, which turns out remarkably similar to the empirical Band function (Band 1993). We apply the model to the fluence and spectrum of GRB 000727, GRB 000218, and GRB980706A obtaining excellent fits. Extended emission (spectrum and duration) is explained by shock-heating and ablation of the white dwarf by the highly energetic ejecta. Depending on the orbital separation when the Quark-Nova occurs, we isolate interesting regimes within our model when both prompt and extended emission can occur. We find that the spectrum can carry signatures typical of Type Ib/c SNe although these should appear less luminous than normal type Ib/c SNe. Late X-ray activity is due to accretion onto the quark star as well as its spin-down luminosity. Afterglow activity arise from the expanding shell of material from the shock-heated expanding circumbinary disk. We find a correlation between the duration and spectrum of short-hard GRBs as well as modest hard-to-soft time evolution of the peak energy.

  10. Age-Related Observations of Low Mass Pre-Main and Young Main Sequence Stars (Invited Review)

    E-print Network

    Lynne A. Hillenbrand

    2008-12-06

    This overview summarizes the age dating methods available for young sub-solar mass stars. Pre-main sequence age diagnostics include the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, spectroscopic surface gravity indicators, and lithium depletion; asteroseismology is also showing recent promise. Near and beyond the zero-age main sequence, rotation period or vsini and activity (coronal and chromospheric) diagnostics along with lithium depletion serve as age proxies. Other authors in this volume present more detail in each of the aforementioned areas. Herein, I focus on pre-main sequence HR diagrams and address the questions: Do empirical young cluster isochrones match theoretical isochrones? Do isochrones predict stellar ages consistent with those derived via other independent techniques? Do the observed apparent luminosity spreads at constant effective temperature correspond to true age spreads? While definitive answers to these questions are not provided, some methods of progression are outlined.

  11. Timing Spectroscopy of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Low-Mass X-Ray Neutron Star Binaries.

    PubMed

    Titarchuk; Osherovich; Kuznetsov

    1999-11-10

    Precise simultaneous measurements of the frequencies of the two kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (referred in the literature as upper and lower kHz QPOs) cast doubts on the validity of the simple beat-frequency interpretation and some of the modifications introduced to explain the results of the varying frequency difference. A new model explains the variation of the frequency difference, suggesting that the upper kHz QPO, namely nuh, is an upper hybrid frequency of the Keplerian oscillator under the influence of the Coriolis force and the lower kHz QPO is the Keplerian frequency nuK. Such an oscillator has two branches characterized by a high frequency nuh ( approximately 1 kHz) and by a low frequency nuL ( approximately 50 Hz). The frequency nuL depends strongly on the angle delta between the normal to the neutron star disk and Omega-the angular velocity of the magnetosphere surrounding the neutron star. In the lower part of the QPO spectrum ( approximately 10 Hz), this model identifies the frequency of radial viscous oscillations nuV (previously called "extra noise component") and the break frequency nub, which is associated with the diffusive process in the transition region (the innermost part of the disk). According to this model, all frequencies (namely nuh, nuL, nub, and nuV) have specific dependences on nuK. This Letter focuses on the verification of the predicted relations. For the source 4U 1728-34, the best theoretical fit is obtained for delta=8&fdg;3+/-1&fdg;0, which is slightly larger than the value of delta=5&fdg;5+/-0&fdg;5 previously found for Scorpius X-1. In addition, we show that the theoretically derived power-law relation nub~nu1.61V is consistent with the recent observations of other atoll and Z-sources. PMID:10525471

  12. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. I. CME Impact on Expected Magnetospheres of Earth-Like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Helmut Lammer; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; Martin Leitner; Franck Selsis; Carlos Eiroa; Arnold Hanslmeier; Helfried K. Biernat; Charles J. Farrugia; Helmut O. Rucker

    2007-01-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph\\/Inferometer (NASA). The higher

  13. NLTE in a Hot Hydrogen Star: Auer & Mihalas Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, J.; Rutten, R. J.; Lanz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We pay tribute to two landmark papers published by Auer & Mihalas in 1969. They modeled hot-star NLTE-RE hydrogen-only atmospheres, using two simplified hydrogen atoms: ApJ 156, 157: H I levels 1, 2 and c, Lyman ? the only line ApJ 156, 681: H I levels 1, 2, 3 and c, Balmer ? the only line and computed LTE and NLTE models with the single line turned on and off. The results were extensively analyzed in the two papers. Any student of stellar line formation should take these beautiful papers to heart. The final exercise in Rutten's lecture notes ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' asks the student to work through five pages of questions concerning diagrams from the first paper alone! That exercise led to the present work in which we recompute the Auer-Mihalas hot-hydrogen-star models with TLUSTY, adding results from a complete hydrogen atom for comparison. Our motivation for this Auer-Mihalas re-visitation is twofold: 1. to add diagnostic diagrams to the ones published by Auer & Mihalas, in particular B?, J?, S? graphs to illustrate the role of the radiation field, and radiative heating & cooling graphs to illustrate the radiative energy budget, 2. to see the effect of adding the rest of the hydrogen atom.

  14. Radial and rotational velocities of young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association and the rho Ophiuchi cloud core

    E-print Network

    Ryuichi Kurosawa; Tim J. Harries; S. P. Littlefair

    2006-09-02

    We present the results of a radial velocity (RV) survey of 14 brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low-mass (VLM) stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (UScoOB) and 3 BD candidates in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud core. We obtained high-resolution echelle spectra at the Very Large Telescope using Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at two different epochs for each object, and measured the shifts in their RVs to identify candidates for binary/multiple systems in the sample. The average time separation of the RV measurements is 21.6d, and our survey is sensitive to the binaries with separation < 0.1 au. We found that 4 out of 17 objects (or 24^{+16}_{-13} per cent by fraction) show a significant RV change in 4-33d time scale, and are considered as binary/multiple `candidates.' We found no double-lined spectroscopic binaries in our sample, based on the shape of cross-correlation curves. The RV dispersion of the objects in UScoOB is found to be very similar to that of the BD and VLM stars in Chamaeleon I (Cha I). We also found the distribution of the mean rotational velocities (v sin i) of the UScoOB objects is similar to that of the Cha I, but the dispersion of v sin i is much larger than that of the Cha I objects.

  15. Testing Model Atmospheres for Young Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Infrared: Evidence for Significantly Underestimated Dust Opacities

    E-print Network

    Tottle, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We test state-of-the-art model atmospheres for young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the infrared, by comparing the predicted synthetic photometry over 1.2-24 {\\mu}m to the observed photometry of M-type spectral templates in star-forming regions. We find that (1) in both early and late young M types, the model atmospheres imply effective temperatures (Teff) several hundred Kelvin lower than predicted by the standard Pre-Main Sequence spectral type-Teff conversion scale (where the latter is based on theoretical evolutionary models). It is only in the mid-M types that the two temperature estimates agree. (2) The Teff discrepancy in the early M types (corresponding to stellar masses above 0.6 Msol at a few Myr) probably arises from remaining uncertainties in the treatment of atmospheric convection. The agreement in the mid-M types implies a reasonably good atmospheric modeling of H2O opacities, which dominate in the infrared at these spectral types. Conversely, the Teff discrepancy in the late M types is...

  16. The influence of turbulence during magnetized core collapse and its consequences on low-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Ciardi, A.; Fromang, S.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Theoretical and numerical studies of star formation have shown that a magnetic field can greatly influence both disk formation and its fragmentation, with even relatively low magnetic field strengths being able to prevent these processes. However, very few studies have investigated the combined effects of magnetic field and turbulence. Aims: We study the collapse of turbulent, magnetized prestellar cores, focusing on the effects of magnetic diffusion, and misalignment between rotation axis and magnetic field, on the formation of disks, fragmentation, and the generation of outflows. Methods: We performed three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh, numerical simulations of magnetically super-critical collapsing dense cores of 5 M? using the magneto-hydrodynamic code Ramses. A turbulent velocity field is imposed as initial conditions, characterized by a Kolmogorov power spectrum. Different levels of turbulence (a laminar case, as well as subsonic and supersonic cases) and magnetization (from weak to strong magnetization) are investigated, as are three realizations for the turbulent velocity field. Results: The turbulent velocity field imposed as initial conditions contains a non-zero angular momentum, which is responsible for a misalignment of the rotation axis with respect to the initial magnetic field, and an effective turbulent diffusivity in the vicinity of the core. Both effects are responsible for a significant decrease in the magnetic braking, and they facilitate the formation of early massive disks. These disks can fragment even with ? ~ 5 at late times, in contrast to simulations of 1 M? cores, where fragmentation is prevented for these values of ?. Slow asymmetric outflows are always launched, and they carry a mass comparable to that of the adiabatic first core. Conclusions: Because of turbulence-induced misalignment and magnetic diffusivity, massive disk formation is possible; nevertheless, their mass and size are much more reduced than for disks formed in unmagnetized collapsing cores. We find that for ? ? 5 fragmentation can occur.

  17. LONG-DURATION X-RAY FLASH AND X-RAY-RICH GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM LOW-MASS POPULATION III STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Suwa, Yudai [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sakamoto, Takanori [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Recent numerical simulations suggest that Population III (Pop III) stars were born with masses not larger than {approx}100 M {sub Sun} and typically {approx}40 M {sub Sun }. By self-consistently considering the jet generation and propagation in the envelope of these low-mass Pop III stars, we find that a Pop III blue supergiant star has the possibility of giving rise to a gamma-ray burst (GRB) even though it keeps a massive hydrogen envelope. We evaluate observational characteristics of Pop III GRBs and predict that Pop III GRBs have a duration of {approx}10{sup 5} s in the observer frame and a peak luminosity of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}. Assuming that the E {sub p}-L {sub p} (or E {sub p}-E {sub {gamma},iso}) correlation holds for Pop III GRBs, we find that the spectrum peak energy falls at approximately a few keV (or {approx}100 keV) in the observer frame. We discuss the detectability of Pop III GRBs by future satellite missions such as EXIST and Lobster. If the E {sub p}-E {sub {gamma},iso} correlation holds, we have the possibility to detect Pop III GRBs at z {approx} 9 as long-duration X-ray-rich GRBs by EXIST. Conversely, if the E {sub p}-L {sub p} correlation holds, we have the possibility to detect Pop III GRBs up to z {approx} 19 as long-duration X-ray flashes by Lobster.

  18. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XIII. KOI-189 b and KOI-686 b: two very low-mass stars in long-period orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. F.; Montagnier, G.; Leconte, J.; Bonomo, A. S.; Deleuil, M.; Almenara, J. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Bruno, G.; Damiani, C.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the radial-velocity follow-up of two Kepler planetary transiting candidates (KOI-189 and KOI-686) carried out with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. These data promptly discard these objects as viable planet candidates and show that the transiting objects are in the regime of very low-mass stars, where a strong discrepancy between observations and models persists for the mass and radius parameters. By combining the SOPHIE spectra with the Kepler light curve and photometric measurements found in the literature, we obtain a full characterization of the transiting companions, their orbits, and their host stars. The two companions are in significantly eccentric orbits with relatively long periods (30 days and 52.5 days), which makes them suitable objects for a comparison with theoretical models, since the effects invoked to understand the discrepancy with observations are weaker for these orbital distances. KOI-189 b has a mass M = 0.0745 ± 0.0033 M? and a radius R = 0.1025 ± 0.0024 R?. The density of KOI-189 b is significantly lower than expected from theoretical models for a system of its age. We explore possible explanations for this difference. KOI-189 b is the smallest hydrogen-burning star with such a precise determination of its fundamental parameters. KOI-686 b is larger and more massive (M = 0.0915 ± 0.0043 M?; R = 0.1201 ± 0.0033 R?), and its position in the mass-radius diagram agrees well with theoretical expectations. Based on observations collected with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France (programs 11A.PNP.MOUT and 11B.PNP.MOUT).Tables 1, 2, and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN {nu}{sub max} AND AGE t FROM ZAMS TO RGB-TIP FOR LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. K.; Gai, N., E-mail: tyk450@163.com, E-mail: ning.gai@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2013-07-10

    Stellar age is an important quantity in astrophysics, which is useful for many fields both in the universe and galaxies. It cannot be determined by direct measurements, but can only be estimated or inferred. We attempt to find a useful indicator of stellar age, which is accurate from the zero-age main sequence to the tip of red giant branch for low-mass stars. Using the Yale Rotation and Evolution Code (YREC), a grid of stellar models has been constructed. Meanwhile, the frequency of maximum oscillations' power {nu}{sub max} and the large frequency separation {Delta}{nu} are calculated using the scaling relations. For the stars, the masses of which are from 0.8 M{sub Sun} to 2.8 M{sub Sun }, we can obtain the {nu}{sub max} and stellar age by combing the scaling relations with the four sets of grid models (YREC, Dotter et al., Marigo et al., and YY isochrones). We find that {nu}{sub max} is tightly correlated and decreases monotonically with the age of the star from the main sequence to the red giant evolutionary stages. Moreover, we find that the line shapes of the curves in the Age versus {nu}{sub max} diagram, which is plotted by the four sets of grid models, are consistent for red giants with masses from 1.1 M{sub Sun} to 2.8 M{sub Sun }. For red giants, the differences of correlation coefficients between Age and {nu}{sub max} for different grid models are minor and can be ignored. Interestingly, we find two peaks that correspond to the subgiants and bump of red giants in the Age versus {nu}{sub max} diagram. By general linear least-squares, we make the polynomial fitting and deduce the relationship between log(Age) and log({nu}{sub max}) in red giants' evolutionary state.

  20. Spectral Energy Distributions of Young Stars in IC 348: The Role of Disks in Angular Momentum Evolution of Young, Low-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Blanc, Thompson S Le; Stassun, Keivan G

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these 'disk-locking' (DL) theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and they spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the SEDs of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of disks. For each star, we match the observed spectral energy distribution, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 \\mum, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed sta...

  1. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN IC 348: THE ROLE OF DISKS IN ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION OF YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these 'disk-locking' theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 {mu}m, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the disk-locked state to the disk-released state must occur more rapidly than the stellar contraction timescale.

  2. BANYAN. V. A Systematic All-Sky Survey for New Very Late-Type Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Nearby Young Moving Groups

    E-print Network

    Gagné, Jonathan; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) catalog, consisting of 228 new late-type (M4-L6) candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs) with an expected false-positive rate of ~ 13%. This sample includes 79 new candidate young brown dwarfs and 22 planetary-mass objects. These candidates were identified through the first systematic all-sky survey for late-type low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in YMGs. We cross-matched the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs outside of the galactic plane to build a sample of 98 970 potential $\\geq$ M5 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and calculated their proper motions with typical precisions of 5-15 mas yr$^{-1}$. We selected highly probable candidate members of several YMGs from this sample using the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II). We used the most probable statistical distances inferred from BANYAN II to estimate the spectral type and mass of these candidate YMG members. We used this unique sample to show tentative signs of mass segrega...

  3. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects: IV -- Accretion in low-mass stars and sub-stellar objects in Lupus

    E-print Network

    Alcalá, J M; Manara, C F; Spezzi, L; Stelzer, B; Frasca, A; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Randich, S; Rigliaco, E; Testi, L; Comerón, F; Cupani, G; D'Elia, V

    2013-01-01

    We present X-Shooter/VLT observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2Msun, but mostly with 0.1Msun < Mstar < 0.5Msun. Our aim is twofold: firstly, analyse the relationship between excess-continuum and line emission accretion diagnostics, and, secondly, to investigate the accretion properties in terms of the physical properties of the central object. The accretion luminosity (Lacc), and from it the accretion rate (Macc), is derived by modelling the excess emission, from the UV to the near-IR, as the continuum emission of a slab of hydrogen. The flux and luminosity (Ll) of a large number of emission lines of H, He, CaII, etc., observed simultaneously in the range from ~330nm to 2500nm, were computed. The luminosity of all the lines is well correlated with Lacc. We provide empirical relationships between Lacc and the luminosity of 39 emission lines, which have a lower dispersion as comp...

  4. Characterization of Low-mass, Wide-separation Substellar Companions to Stars in Upper Scorpius: Near-infrared Photometry and Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Lachapelle, François-René; Gagné, Jonathan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Janson, Markus; Helling, Christiane; Witte, Soeren

    2015-01-01

    We present new 0.9-2.45 $\\mu$m spectroscopy ($R \\sim 1000$), and $Y$, $J$, $H$, $K_s$, $L^\\prime$ photometry, obtained at Gemini North, of three low-mass brown dwarf companions on wide orbits around young stars of the Upper Scorpius OB association: HIP 78530 B, [PGZ2001] J161031.9-191305 B, and GSC 06214-00210 B. We use these data to assess the companions' spectral type, temperature, surface gravity and mass, as well as the ability of the BT-Settl and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models to reproduce the spectral features of young substellar objects. For completeness, we also analyze the archival spectroscopy and photometry of the Upper Scorpius planetary mass companion 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Based on a comparison with model spectra we find that the companions, in the above order, have effective temperatures of 2700, 2500, 2300 and 1700 K. These temperatures are consistent with our inferred spectral types, respectively M7 $\\beta$, M9 $\\gamma$, M9 $\\gamma$, and L4 $\\gamma$. From bolometric luminosities estimated ...

  5. The effect of accretion on the measurement of neutron star mass and radius in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutanen, Juri; Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J. E.; Latvala, Outi-Marja; Galloway, Duncan K.; Kuulkers, Erik; Suleimanov, Valery F.

    2014-08-01

    Spectral measurements of thermonuclear (type I) X-ray bursts from low-mass X-ray binaries have been used to measure neutron star (NS) masses and radii. A number of systematic issues affect such measurements and have raised concerns as to the robustness of the methods. We present analysis of the X-ray emission from bursts observed from 4U 1608-52 at various persistent fluxes. We find a strong dependence of the burst properties on the flux and spectral hardness of the persistent emission before burst. Bursts occurring during the low accretion rate (hard) state exhibit evolution of the blackbody normalization consistent with the theoretical predictions of NS atmosphere models. However, bursts occurring during the high accretion rate (soft) state show roughly constant normalization, which is inconsistent with the NS atmosphere models and therefore these bursts cannot be easily used to determine NS parameters. We analyse the hard-state burst to put the lower limit on the NS radius R in 4U 1608-52 of 12 km (for masses 1.0-2.4 M?). We constrain R to be between 13 and 16 km for masses 1.2-1.6 M?. The best agreement with the theoretical NS mass-radius relations is achieved for source distances in the range 3.1-3.7 kpc. We expect that the radius limit will be 10 per cent lower if spectral models including rapid rotation are used instead.

  6. New evolutionary models for pre-main sequence and main sequence low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit

    E-print Network

    Baraffe, I; Allard, F; Chabrier, G

    2015-01-01

    We present new models for low-mass stars down to the hydrogen-burning limit that consistently couple atmosphere and interior structures, thereby superseding the widely used BCAH98 models. The new models include updated molecular linelists and solar abundances, as well as atmospheric convection parameters calibrated on 2D/3D radiative hydrodynamics simulations. Comparison of these models with observations in various colour-magnitude diagrams for various ages shows significant improvement over previous generations of models. The new models can solve flaws that are present in the previous ones, such as the prediction of optical colours that are too blue compared to M dwarf observations. They can also reproduce the four components of the young quadruple system LkCa 3 in a colour-magnitude diagram with one single isochrone, in contrast to any presently existing model. In this paper we also highlight the need for consistency when comparing models and observations, with the necessity of using evolutionary models and...

  7. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). I. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-10

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2.''4 ({approx}120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0{sup +2}{sub -1}. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of {approx}10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 {+-} 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the {approx}50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the {approx}200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 {+-} 6 M{sub Jup} for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages.

  8. Eclipsing Binaries as Astrophysical Laboratories: CM Draconis - Accurate Absolute Physical Properties of Low Mass Stars and an Independent Estimate of the Primordial Helium Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCook, G. P.; Guinan, E. F.; Saumon, D.; Kang, Y. W.

    1997-05-01

    CM Draconis (Gl 630.1; Vmax = +12.93) is an important eclipsing binary consisting of two dM4.5e stars with an orbital period of 1.2684 days. This binary is a high velocity star (s= 164 km/s) and the brighter member of a common proper motion pair with a cool faint white dwarf companion (LP 101-16). CM Dra and its white dwarf companion were once considered by Zwicky to belong to a class of "pygmy stars", but they turned out to be ordinary old, cool white dwarfs or faint red dwarfs. Lacy (ApJ 218,444L) determined the first orbital and physical properties of CM Dra from the analysis of his light and radial velocity curves. In addition to providing directly measured masses, radii, and luminosities for low mass stars, CM Dra was also recognized by Lacy and later by Paczynski and Sienkiewicz (ApJ 286,332) as an important laboratory for cosmology, as a possible old Pop II object where it may be possible to determine the primordial helium abundance. Recently, Metcalfe et al.(ApJ 456,356) obtained accurate RV measures for CM Dra and recomputed refined elements along with its helium abundance. Starting in 1995, we have been carrying out intensive RI photoelectric photometry of CM Dra to obtain well defined, accurate light curves so that its fundamental properties can be improved, and at the same time, to search for evidence of planets around the binary from planetary transit eclipses. During 1996 and 1997 well defined light curves were secured and these were combined with the RV measures of Metcalfe et al. (1996) to determine the orbital and physical parameters of the system, including a refined orbital period. A recent version of the Wilson-Devinney program was used to analyze the data. New radii, masses, mean densities, Teff, and luminosities were found as well as a re-determination of the helium abundance (Y). The results of the recent analyses of the light and RV curves will be presented and modelling results discussed. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-9315365 and AST-9528506 which we gratefully acknowledge.

  9. THE FREQUENCY OF LOW-MASS EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, S. J. [Anglo-Australian Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping 1710 (Australia); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL 10 9AB (United Kingdom); Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of NSW, 2052 (Australia); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington DC 20015-1305 (United States); Marcy, G. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Carter, B. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: otoole@aao.gov.au

    2009-08-20

    We report first results from the Anglo-Australian Telescope Rocky Planet Search-an intensive, high-precision Doppler planet search targeting low-mass exoplanets in contiguous 48 night observing blocks. On this run, we targeted 24 bright, nearby and intrinsically stable Sun-like stars selected from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search's main sample. These observations have already detected one low-mass planet reported elsewhere (HD 16417b), and here we reconfirm the detection of HD 4308b. Further, we have Monte Carlo simulated data from this run on a star-by-star basis to produce robust detection constraints. These simulations demonstrate clear differences in the exoplanet detectability functions from star to star due to differences in sampling, data quality and intrinsic stellar stability. They reinforce the importance of star-by-star simulation when interpreting the data from Doppler planet searches. These simulations indicate that for some of our target stars we are sensitive to close-orbiting planets as small as a few Earth masses. The two low-mass planets present in our 24-star sample indicate that the exoplanet minimum mass function at low masses is likely to be a flat {alpha} {approx} -1 (for dN/dM {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}}) and that between 15% {+-} 10% (at {alpha} = -0.3) and 48% {+-} 34% (at {alpha} = -1.3) of stars host planets with orbital periods of less than 16 days and minimum masses greater than 3 M {sub +}.

  10. Constraints on First-Stars Models From Observations of Local Low-Mass Dwarf Galaxies and Galactic Metal-Poor Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Long Yan; Venkatesan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The first metal-free stars in the universe had hard ionizing photon spectra and unique element yields from their supernovae, leaving signatures in the reionization of the intergalactic medium and in the metal enrichment of gas in the early universe. Here, we examine the metal abundances in a variety of systems in the local universe, from very metal-poor Galactic halo stars to ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and compare them with the latest theoretical models of massive stars with and without rotation. We confirm the similar abundance patterns found in the ultra-faint dwarfs and metal-poor halo stars by recent studies, and find new trends of interest in a variety of individual elements spanning metallicity values of [Fe/H] from about -2 to -5. We also compare our results with the abundances found in the very metal-deficient nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P, which was recently discovered in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. We comment on the similarities and differences between abundance trends in gas-rich dwarf galaxy systems like Leo P versus gas-poor ones like the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidals, and on the possibility of such systems hosting populations of the first stars. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and by Research Corporation through the Cottrell College Science Award.

  11. Daily multiwavelength Swift monitoring of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4: evidence for accretion and reprocessing during quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.; Brown, E. F.; D'Angelo, C.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted the first long-term (60 d), multiwavelength (optical, ultraviolet, UV, and X-ray) simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4 with daily Swift observations from 2012 June to August, with the goal of understanding variability in the low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 during quiescence. We found Cen X-4 to be highly variable in all energy bands on time-scales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent variability a factor of 22 drop in the X-ray count rate in only 4 d. The X-ray, UV and optical (V band) emission are correlated on time-scales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index ? about 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen neutron star (NS) atmosphere (kT = 59-80 eV) and a power law (with spectral index ? = 1.4-2.0), with the spectral shape remaining constant as the flux varies. Both components vary in tandem, with each responsible for about 50 per cent of the total X-ray flux, implying that they are physically linked. We conclude that the X-rays are likely generated by matter accreting down to the NS surface. Moreover, based on the short time-scale of the correlation, we also unambiguously demonstrate that the UV emission cannot be due to either thermal emission from the stream impact point, or a standard optically thick, geometrically thin disc. The spectral energy distribution shows a small UV emitting region, too hot to arise from the accretion disc, that we identified as a hotspot on the companion star. Therefore, the UV emission is most likely produced by reprocessing from the companion star, indeed the vertical size of the disc is small and can only reprocess a marginal fraction of the X-ray emission. We also found the accretion disc in quiescence to likely be UV faint, with a minimal contribution to the whole UV flux.

  12. Evolution of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars. IV. Constraining Mass loss and Lifetimes of Low Mass, Low Metallicity AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Bressan, Alessandro; Gullieuszik, Marco; Weisz, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dolphin, Andrew; Aringer, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    The evolution and lifetimes of thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars suffer from significant uncertainties. In this work, we analyze the numbers and luminosity functions of TP-AGB stars in six quiescent, low metallicity ([Fe/H] <~ -0.86) galaxies taken from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury sample, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry in both optical and near-infrared filters. The galaxies contain over 1000 TP-AGB stars (at least 60 per field). We compare the observed TP-AGB luminosity functions and relative numbers of TP-AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars, N TP-AGB/N RGB, to models generated from different suites of TP-AGB evolutionary tracks after adopting star formation histories derived from the HST deep optical observations. We test various mass-loss prescriptions that differ in their treatments of mass loss before the onset of dust-driven winds (pre-dust). These comparisons confirm that pre-dust mass loss is important, since models that neglect pre-dust mass loss fail to explain the observed N TP-AGB/N RGB ratio or the luminosity functions. In contrast, models with more efficient pre-dust mass loss produce results consistent with observations. We find that for [Fe/H] <~ -0.86, lower mass TP-AGB stars (M <~ 1 M ?) must have lifetimes of ~0.5 Myr and higher masses (M <~ 3 M ?) must have lifetimes <~ 1.2 Myr. In addition, assuming our best-fitting mass-loss prescription, we show that the third dredge-up has no significant effect on TP-AGB lifetimes in this mass and metallicity range. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. HIGH- AND LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS FROM HIERARCHICAL GRAVITATIONAL FRAGMENTATION. HIGH LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATES WITH LOW GLOBAL EFFICIENCIES

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gomez, Gilberto C.; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Centro de RadioastronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacan 58089 (Mexico); Jappsen, A.-Katharina [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Klessen, Ralf S. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-12-20

    We investigate the properties of 'star-forming regions' in a previously published numerical simulation of molecular cloud formation out of compressive motions in the warm neutral atomic interstellar medium, neglecting magnetic fields and stellar feedback. We study the properties (density, total gas + stars mass, stellar mass, velocity dispersion, and star formation rate (SFR)) of the cloud hosting the first local, isolated 'star formation' event and compare them with those of the cloud formed by the central, global collapse event. In this simulation, the velocity dispersions at all scales are caused primarily by infall motions rather than by random turbulence. We suggest that the small-scale isolated collapses may be representative of low- to intermediate-mass star-forming regions, with gas masses (M{sub gas}) of hundreds of solar masses, velocity dispersions sigma{sub v} approx 0.7 km s{sup -1}, and SFRs approx3 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while the large-scale, massive ones may be representative of massive star-forming regions, with M{sub gas} of thousands of solar masses, sigma{sub v}approx a few km s{sup -1}, and SFRs approx3 x 10{sup -4} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We also compare the statistical distributions of the physical properties of the dense cores appearing in the central region of massive collapse with those from a recent survey of the massive star-forming region in the Cygnus X molecular cloud, finding that the observed and simulated distributions are in general very similar. However, we find that the star formation efficiency per free-fall time (SFE{sub ff}) of the high mass region, similar to that of OMC-1, is low, approx0.04. In the simulated cloud, this is not a consequence of a 'slow' SFR in a nearly hydrostatic cloud supported by turbulence, but rather of the region accreting mass at a high rate. Thus, we find that measuring a low SFE{sub ff} may be incorrectly interpreted as implying a lifetime much longer than the core's local free-fall time, and an SFR much slower than that given by the free-fall rate, if the accretion is not accounted for. We suggest that rather than requiring a low value of the SFE{sub ff} everywhere in the Galaxy, attaining a globally low specific SFR requires star formation to be a spatially intermittent process, so that most of the mass in a giant molecular cloud (GMC) is not participating in the SF process at any given time. Locally, the specific SFR of a star-forming region can be much larger than the global GMC's average.

  14. Characterization of Low-mass, Wide-separation Substellar Companions to Stars in Upper Scorpius: Near-infrared Photometry and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, François-René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Janson, Markus; Helling, Christiane; Witte, Soeren

    2015-03-01

    We present new 0.9-2.45 ?m spectroscopy (R˜ 1000 ), and Y, J, H, Ks, {{L}\\prime } photometry, obtained at Gemini North, of three low-mass brown dwarf companions on wide orbits around young stars of the Upper Scorpius OB association: HIP 78530 B, [PGZ 2001] J161031.9-191305 B, and GSC 06214-00210 B. We use these data to assess the companions’ spectral type, temperature, surface gravity, and mass, as well as the ability of the BT-SETTL and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models to reproduce the spectral features of young substellar objects. For completeness, we also analyze the archival spectroscopy and photometry of the Upper Scorpius planetary mass companion 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Based on a comparison with model spectra we find that the companions, in the above order, have effective temperatures of 2700 ± 100, 2500 ± 200, 2300 ± 100, and 1700 ± 100 K. These temperatures are consistent with our inferred spectral types, respectively M7 ?, M9 ?, M9 ?, and L4 ?, obtained from spectral indices and comparisons with templates. From bolometric luminosities estimated from atmosphere model spectra adjusted to our photometry, and using evolution models at 5-10 Myr, we estimate masses of 21-25, 28-70, 14-17, and 7-12 MJup, respectively. [PGZ 2001] J161031.9-191305 B appears significantly overluminous for its inferred temperature, which explains its higher mass estimate. Synthetic spectra based on the BT-Settl and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models generally offer a good fit to our observed spectra, although our analysis has highlighted a few problems. For example, the best fits in the individual near-infrared bands occur at different model temperatures. Also, temperature estimates based on a comparison of the broadband magnitudes and colors of the companions to synthetic magnitudes from the models are systematically lower than the temperature estimates based on a comparison with synthetic spectra.

  15. Measurement of the Radius of Neutron Stars with High Signal-to-noise Quiescent Low-mass X-Ray Binaries in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by "normal matter" equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ~10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS>0.5 M ?). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R_NS =9.1^{+ 1.3}_{- 1.5} \\,km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  16. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). I. A Substellar Companion to the Young M Dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-07-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2farcs4 (~120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0+2 -1. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of ~10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 ± 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the ~50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the ~200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 ± 6 M Jup for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H2X-3R4 (Canada); Servillat, Mathieu [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Webb, Natalie A., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter-present in the core of NSs-is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R{sub NS}, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of {approx}10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M{sub NS}>0.5 M{sub Sun }). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R{sub NS} value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R{sub NS}, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R{sub NS}=9.1{sup +1.3}{sub -1.5} km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R{sub NS} equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF DUST CONTINUUM EMISSION AT 340 GHz FROM THE LOW-MASS T TAURI STAR FN TAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Motohide [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoshimi, E-mail: momose@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2010-03-20

    FN Tau is a rare example of a very low-mass T Tauri star that exhibits a spatially resolved nebulosity in near-infrared scattering light. To directly derive the parameters of a circumstellar disk around FN Tau, observations of dust continuum emission at 340 GHz are carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). A point-like dust continuum emission was detected with a synthesized beam of {approx}0.''7 in FWHM. From the analysis of the visibility plot, the radius of the emission is estimated to be <=0.''29, corresponding to 41 AU. This is much smaller than the radius of the nebulosity, 1.''85 for its brighter part at 1.6 {mu}m. The 340 GHz continuum emission observed with the SMA and the photometric data at lambda <= 70 {mu}m are explained by a power-law disk model whose outer radius and mass are 41 AU and (0.24-5.9) x 10{sup -3} M{sub sun}, respectively, if the exponent of dust mass opacity (beta) is assumed to be 0-2. The disk model cannot fully reproduce the flux density at 230 GHz obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, suggesting that there is another extended 'halo' component that is missed in the SMA observations. By requiring the halo not to be detected with the SMA, the lower limit to the size of the halo is evaluated to be between 174 AU and 574 AU, depending on the assumed beta value. This size is comparable to the near-infrared nebulosity, implying that the halo unseen with the SMA corresponds to the origin of the near-infrared nebulosity. The halo can contain mass comparable to or at most 8 times greater than that of the inner power-law disk, but its surface density should be lower than that at the outer edge of the power-law disk by more than 1 order of magnitude. The physical nature of the halo is unclear, but it may be the periphery of a flared circumstellar disk that is not described well in terms of a power-law disk model, or a remnant of a protostellar envelope having flattened structure.

  19. The Earliest Phases of Star Formation (EPoS): a Herschel key project. The thermal structure of low-mass molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launhardt, R.; Stutz, A. M.; Schmiedeke, A.; Henning, Th.; Krause, O.; Balog, Z.; Beuther, H.; Birkmann, S.; Hennemann, M.; Kainulainen, J.; Khanzadyan, T.; Linz, H.; Lippok, N.; Nielbock, M.; Pitann, J.; Ragan, S.; Risacher, C.; Schmalzl, M.; Shirley, Y. L.; Stecklum, B.; Steinacker, J.; Tackenberg, J.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The temperature and density structure of molecular cloud cores are the most important physical quantities that determine the course of the protostellar collapse and the properties of the stars they form. Nevertheless, density profiles often rely either on the simplifying assumption of isothermality or on observationally poorly constrained model temperature profiles. The instruments of the Herschel satellite provide us for the first time with both the spectral coverage and the spatial resolution that is needed to directly measure the dust temperature structure of nearby molecular cloud cores. Aims: With the aim of better constraining the initial physical conditions in molecular cloud cores at the onset of protostellar collapse, in particular of measuring their temperature structure, we initiated the guaranteed time key project (GTKP) "The Earliest Phases of Star Formation" (EPoS) with the Herschel satellite. This paper gives an overview of the low-mass sources in the EPoS project, the Herschel and complementary ground-based observations, our analysis method, and the initial results of the survey. Methods: We study the thermal dust emission of 12 previously well-characterized, isolated, nearby globules using FIR and submm continuum maps at up to eight wavelengths between 100 ?m and 1.2 mm. Our sample contains both globules with starless cores and embedded protostars at different early evolutionary stages. The dust emission maps are used to extract spatially resolved SEDs, which are then fit independently with modified blackbody curves to obtain line-of-sight-averaged dust temperature and column density maps. Results: We find that the thermal structure of all globules (mean mass 7 M?) is dominated by external heating from the interstellar radiation field and moderate shielding by thin extended halos. All globules have warm outer envelopes (14-20 K) and colder dense interiors (8-12 K) with column densities of a few 1022 cm-2. The protostars embedded in some of the globules raise the local temperature of the dense cores only within radii out to about 5000 AU, but do not significantly affect the overall thermal balance of the globules. Five out of the six starless cores in the sample are gravitationally bound and approximately thermally stabilized. The starless core in CB 244 is found to be supercritical and is speculated to be on the verge of collapse. For the first time, we can now also include externally heated starless cores in the Lsmm/Lbol vs. Tbol diagram and find that Tbol < 25 K seems to be a robust criterion to distinguish starless from protostellar cores, including those that only have an embedded very low-luminosity object. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Partially based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope, with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). APEX is a collaboration between Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The JCMT is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Association for Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada.Appendices A, B and C are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Protopapas, P., E-mail: seowony@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  1. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EPOCH OF POPULATION III STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: muratov@umich.edu [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the transition from primordial Population III (Pop III) star formation to normal Pop II star formation in the first galaxies using new cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We find that while the first stars seed their host galaxies with metals, they cannot sustain significant outflows to enrich the intergalactic medium, even assuming a top-heavy initial mass function. This means that Pop III star formation could potentially continue until z Almost-Equal-To 6 in different unenriched regions of the universe, before being ultimately shut off by cosmic reionization. Within an individual galaxy, the metal production and stellar feedback from Pop II stars overtake Pop III stars in 20-200 Myr, depending on galaxy mass.

  2. Survival of a convective core in low-mass solar-like pulsator HD 203608

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deheuvels, S.; Michel, E.; Goupil, M. J.; Marques, J. P.; Mosser, B.; Dupret, M. A.; Lebreton, Y.; Pichon, B.; Morel, P.

    2010-05-01

    Context. A 5-night asteroseismic observation of the F8V star HD 203608 was conducted in August 2006 with harps, followed by an analysis of the data, and a preliminary modeling of the star (Mosser et al. 2008). The stellar parameters were significantly constrained, but the behavior of one of the seismic indexes (the small spacing ??01) could not be fitted with the observed one, even with the best considered models. Aims: We study the possibility of improving the agreement between models and observations by changing the physical properties of the inner parts of the star (to which ??01 is sensitive). Methods: We show that, in spite of its low mass, it is possible to produce models of HD 203608 with a convective core. No such model was considered in the preliminary modeling. In practice, we obtain these models here by assuming some extra mixing at the edge of the early convective core. We optimized the model parameters using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Results: The agreement between the new best model with a convective core and the observations is much better than for the models without. All the observational parameters are fitted within 1-? observational error bars. This is the first observational evidence of a convective core in an old and low-mass star such as HD 203608. In standard models of low-mass stars, the core withdraws shortly after the ZAMS. The survival of the core until the present age of HD 203608 provides very strong constraints on the size of the mixed zone associated to the convective core. Using overshooting as a proxy to model the processes of transport at the edge of the core, we find that to reproduce both global and seismic observations, we must have ?{ov} = 0.17 ± 0.03 Hp for HD 203608. We revisit the process of the extension of the core lifetime due to overshooting in the particular case of HD 203608.

  3. The Variable Stars of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy - Revisited

    E-print Network

    K. Kinemuchi; H. C. Harris; Horace A. Smith; N. A. Silbermann; L. A. Snyder; A. P. LaCluyze; C. L. Clark

    2008-08-19

    We present a CCD survey of variable stars in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This survey, which has the largest areal coverage since the original variable star survey by Baade & Swope, includes photometry for 270 RR Lyrae stars, 9 anomalous Cepheids, 2 eclipsing binaries, and 12 slow, irregular red variables, as well as 30 background QSOs. Twenty-six probable double-mode RR Lyrae stars were identified. Observed parameters, including mean V and I magnitudes, V amplitudes, and periods, have been derived. Photometric metallicities of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars were calculated according to the method of Jurcsik & Kovacs, yielding a mean metallicity of = -2.19 +/- 0.03. The well known Oosterhoff intermediate nature of the RR Lyrae stars in Draco is reconfirmed, although the double-mode RR Lyrae stars with one exception have properties similar to those found in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. The period-luminosity relation of the anomalous Cepheids is rediscussed with the addition of the new Draco anomalous Cepheids.

  4. THIRTY NEW LOW-MASS SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Hebb, Leslie; Cameron, Andrew C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Neill Reid, I., E-mail: shkolnik@dtm.ciw.ed, E-mail: Andrew.Cameron@st-and.ac.u, E-mail: leslie.hebb@vanderbilt.ed, E-mail: mliu@ifa.hawaii.ed, E-mail: inr@stsci.ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2010-06-20

    As part of our search for young M dwarfs within 25 pc, we acquired high-resolution spectra of 185 low-mass stars compiled by the NStars project that have strong X-ray emission. By cross-correlating these spectra with radial velocity standard stars, we are sensitive to finding multi-lined spectroscopic binaries. We find a low-mass spectroscopic binary fraction of 16% consisting of 27 SB2s, 2 SB3s, and 1 SB4, increasing the number of known low-mass spectroscopic binaries (SBs) by 50% and proving that strong X-ray emission is an extremely efficient way to find M-dwarf SBs. WASP photometry of 23 of these systems revealed two low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBs), bringing the count of known M-dwarf EBs to 15. BD-22 5866, the ESB4, was fully described in 2008 by Shkolnik et al. and CCDM J04404+3127 B consists of two mid-M stars orbiting each other every 2.048 days. WASP also provided rotation periods for 12 systems, and in the cases where the synchronization time scales are short, we used P{sub rot} to determine the true orbital parameters. For those with no P{sub rot}, we used differential radial velocities to set upper limits on orbital periods and semimajor axes. More than half of our sample has near-equal-mass components (q > 0.8). This is expected since our sample is biased toward tight orbits where saturated X-ray emission is due to tidal spin-up rather than stellar youth. Increasing the samples of M-dwarf SBs and EBs is extremely valuable in setting constraints on current theories of stellar multiplicity and evolution scenarios for low-mass multiple systems.

  5. Discovery of a correlation between the frequency of the mHz quasi-periodic oscillations and the neutron-star temperature in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Ming; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego

    2014-12-01

    We detected millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in an XMM-Newton observation of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. These QPOs have been interpreted as marginally stable burning on the neutron-star surface. At the beginning of the observation the QPO was at around 8 mHz, together with a possible second harmonic. About 12 ks into the observation a type I X-ray burst occurred and the QPO disappeared; the QPO reappeared ˜25 ks after the burst and it was present until the end of the observation. We divided the observation into four segments to study the evolution of the spectral properties of the source during intervals with and without mHz QPO. We find that the temperature of the neutron-star surface increases from the QPO segment to the non-QPO segment, and vice versa. We also find a strong correlation between the frequency of the mHz QPO and the temperature of a blackbody component in the energy spectrum representing the temperature of neutron-star surface. Our results are consistent with previous results that the frequency of the mHz QPO depends on the variation of the heat flux from the neutron-star crust, and therefore supports the suggestion that the observed QPO frequency drifts could be caused by the cooling of deeper layers.

  6. Discovery of a Brown Dwarf Very Close to the Sun: A Methane-rich Brown Dwarf Companion to the Low-Mass Star SCR 1845-6357

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Biller; M. Kasper; L. M. Close; W. Brandner; S. Kellner

    2006-01-01

    We present VLT\\/NACO SDI images of the very nearby star SCR 1845-6357 (hereafter SCR 1845). SCR 1845 is a recently discovered M8.5 star just 3.85 pc from the Sun. Using the capabilities of the unique SDI device, we discovered a substellar companion to SCR 1845 at a separation of 4.5 AU (1.170\\

  7. A revisit to agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars

    E-print Network

    J. A. Caballero; L. Dinis

    2008-07-06

    We study the spatial structure and sub-structure of regions rich in Hipparcos stars with blue B_T-V_T colours. These regions, which comprise large stellar complexes, OB associations, and young open clusters, are tracers of on-going star formation in the Galaxy. The DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) data clustering algorithm is used to look for spatial overdensities of early-type stars. Once an overdensity, "agglomerate", is identified, we carry out a data and bibliographic compilation of their star member candidates. The actual membership in agglomerate of each early-type star is studied based on its heliocentric distance, proper motion, and previous spectro-photometric information. We identify 35 agglomerates of early-type Hipparcos stars. Most of them are associated to previously known clusters and OB associations. The previously unknown P Puppis agglomerate is subject of a dedicated study with Virtual Observatory tools. It is actually a new, nearby, young open cluster (d ~ 470 pc, age ~ 20 Ma) with a clear radial density gradient. We list P Puppis and other six agglomerates (including NGC 2451 A, vdBH 23, and Trumpler 10) as new sites for substellar searches because of their youth, closeness, and spatial density. We investigate in detail the sub-structure in the Orion, CMa-Pup and Pup-Vel OB complexes ("super-agglomerates"). We confirm or discover some stellar overdensities in the Orion complex, like the 25 Ori group, the Horsehead region (including the sigma Orionis cluster), and the eta Orionis agglomerate. Finally, we derive accurate parallactic distances to the Pleiades, NGC 2451 A, and IC 2391, describe several field early-type stars at d < 200 pc, and discuss the incompleteness of our search.

  8. Large-scale Star Formation Triggering in the Low-mass Arp 82 System: A Nearby Example of Galaxy Downsizing Based on UV/Optical/Mid-IR Imaging

    E-print Network

    Mark Hancock; Beverly J. Smith; Curtis Struck; Mark L. Giroux; Philip N. Appleton; Vassilis Charmandaris; William T. Reach

    2006-10-13

    As part of our Spitzer Spirals, Bridges, and Tails project to help understand the effects of galaxy interactions on star formation, we analyze GALEX ultraviolet, SARA optical, and Spitzer infrared images of the interacting galaxy pair Arp 82 (NGC 2535/6) and compare to a numerical simulation of the interaction. We investigate the multiwavelength properties of several individual star forming complexes (clumps). Using optical and UV colors, EW(Halpha), and population synthesis models we constrain the ages of the clumps and find that the median clump age is about 12 Myr. The clumps have masses ranging from a few times 10^6 to 10^9 solar masses. In general, the clumps in the tidal features have similar ages to those in the spiral region, but are less massive. The 8 micron and 24 micron luminosities are used to estimate the far-infrared luminosities and the star formation rates of the clumps. The total clump star formation rate is 2.0+/-0.8 solar masses per year, while the entire Arp 82 system is forming stars at a rate of 4.9+/-2.0 solar masses per year. We find, for the first time, stars in the HI arc to the southeast of the NGC 2535 disk. Population synthesis models indicate that all of the observed populations have young to intermediate ages. We conclude that although the gas disks and some old stars may have formed early-on, the progenitors are late-type or low surface brightness and the evolution of these galaxies was halted until the recent encounter.

  9. Very low-luminosity Class I/Flat outflow sources in sigma Orionis: Clues to alternative formation mechanisms for very low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Basmah; Whelan, E.; Thompson, M.; Vorobyov, E.; Lodieu, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical through sub-millimetre multi-wavelength study of two very low-luminosity Class I/Flat systems, Mayrit 1701117 and Mayrit 1082188, in the sigma Orionis cluster. We performed moderate resolution (R 1000) optical ( 0.4-0.9mu) spectroscopy with the TWIN spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope. The spectra for both sources show prominent emission in accretion- and outflow-associated lines. The mean accretion rate measured from multiple line diagnostics is 6.4x10^{-10} Msun/yr for Mayrit 1701117, and 2.5x10^{-10} Msun/yr for Mayrit 1082188. The outflow mass loss rates for the two systems are similar and estimated to be 1x10^{-9} Msun/yr. The activity rates are within the range observed for low-mass Class I protostars. We obtained sub-millimetre continuum observations with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) bolometer at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Both objects are detected at a >5-sigma level in the SCUBA-2 850mu band. The bolometric luminosity of the targets as measured from the observed spectral energy distribution over 0.8-850mu is 0.18+/-0.04 Lsun for Mayrit 1701117, and 0.16+/-0.03 Lsun for Mayrit 1082188, and is in the very low-mass range. The total dust+gas mass derived from sub-millimetre fluxes is 36 M_Jup and 22 M_Jup for Mayrit 1701117 and Mayrit 1082188, respectively. There is the possibility that some of the envelope material might be dissipated by the strong outflows driven by these sources, resulting in a final mass of the system close to or below the sub-stellar limit. Given the membership of these objects in a relatively evolved cluster of 3 Myr of age, we consider an alternate formation mechanism in the context of the `hybrid' model of disk fragmentation, followed by ejection of a gaseous clump.

  10. THE MASS AND THE RADIUS OF THE NEUTRON STAR IN THE TRANSIENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SAX J1748.9-2021

    SciTech Connect

    Guever, Tolga [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Oezel, Feryal [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We use time-resolved spectroscopy of thermonuclear X-ray bursts observed from SAX J1748.9-2021 to infer the mass and the radius of the neutron star in the binary. Four X-ray bursts observed from the source with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer enable us to measure the angular size and the Eddington limit on the neutron star surface. Combined with a distance measurement to the globular cluster NGC 6440, in which SAX J1748.9-2021 resides, we obtain two solutions for the neutron star radius and mass, R = 8.18 {+-} 1.62 km and M = 1.78 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} or R = 10.93 {+-} 2.09 km and M = 1.33 {+-} 0.33 M{sub Sun }.

  11. Sulphur and zinc abundances in Galactic halo stars revisited

    E-print Network

    P. E. Nissen; C. Akerman; M. Asplund; D. Fabbian; F. Kerber; H. U. Kaufl; M. Pettini

    2007-04-25

    High resolution UVES spectra of 40 main-sequence stars with -3.3 < [Fe/H] < -1.0 are used to derive S, Fe and Zn abundances from lines in the 400 - 950 nm region. For one star we also present novel observations of the SI triplet at 1.046 micron carried out with the ESO VLT CRIRES spectrograph. Comparison of sulphur abundances from the weak and strong SI lines provides important constraints on non-LTE effects. The high sulphur abundances reported by others for some metal-poor stars are not confirmed; instead, when taking non-LTE effects into account, the Galactic halo stars distribute around a plateau at [S/Fe] = +0.2 dex with a scatter of 0.07 dex only. This indicates that sulphur in Galactic halo stars has been made by alpha-capture processes in massive SNe. The observed scatter in S/Fe is, however, much smaller than predicted from current stochastic models of the chemical evolution of the early Galaxy, suggesting that either the models or the calculated yields of massive SNe should be revised. [Zn/Fe] is close to zero for metallicities in the range -2.0 < [Fe/H] < -1.0 but increases to a level of [Zn/Fe] = +0.15 dex in the range -2.7 < [Fe/H] < -2.0. At still lower metallicities [Zn/Fe] rises steeply to a value around [Zn/Fe] = +0.5 dex at [Fe/H] = -3.2. We also examine the behaviour of S/Zn and find that departures from the solar ratio are significantly reduced at all metallicities if non-LTE corrections to the abundances of these two elements are adopted. This effect, if confirmed, would reduce the usefulness of the S/Zn ratio as a diagnostic of past star-formation activity, but would bring closer together the values measured in damped Lyman-alpha systems and in Galactic stars.

  12. Period analysis of two non-Blazhko RRab stars, FN Lyr and V894 Cyg, based on Kepler photometry: evidence of low-mass companions on wider orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.-J.; Qian, S.-B.

    2014-10-01

    Long-cadence-corrected pre-search data conditioning (PDC) fluxes of FN Lyr (KIC 6936115) and V894 Cyg (KIC 9591503), observed continuously by the Kepler mission, spanning over 1470 d, are used to determine hundreds of times of maximum and minimum for the analysis of O - C residuals. The interpretation of the clear variations in the O - C diagrams is that these are caused by the light-travel-time effect as a result of additional companions. The mass functions of the companions are f (M) = (3.94 ± 0.82) × 10-6 and (2.01 ± 0.22) × 10-4 M?. Assuming that the orbital plane inclination follows a random distribution, the companions to both stars can be constrained to be substellar objects (brown dwarf or giant planet), with 89.4 and 59.4 per cent probability, respectively. Under the assumption that the orbital inclination equals 90°, the distances between the companions and the central RR Lyrae stars at periastron should be 1.03 and 0.50 au, respectively. In addition, the orbital periods are 794.8 and 1084.4 d for FN Lyr and V894 Cyg, respectively. By comparing these orbital parameters with those of B subdwarf stars in binary systems, there are strong hints that horizontal branch stars might have different evolution histories. The long-term pulsation period changes are also discussed. Based on our studies, RR Lyrae stars in binary systems are not rare, at least among binary systems with wider separations.

  13. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M?, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R?, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  14. Revised metallicity classes for low-mass stars: dwarfs (dM), subdwarfs (sdM), extreme subdwarfs (esdM), and ultra subdwarfs (usdM)

    E-print Network

    Sebastien Lepine; R. Michael Rich; Michael M. Shara

    2007-07-20

    The current classification system of M stars on the main sequence distinguishes three metallicity classes (dwarfs - dM, subdwarfs - sdM, and extreme subdwarfs - esdM). The spectroscopic definition of these classes is based on the relative strength of prominent CaH and TiO molecular absorption bands near 7000A, as quantified by three spectroscopic indices (CaH2, CaH3, and TiO5). We re-examine this classification system in light of our ongoing spectroscopic survey of stars with proper motion \\mu > 0.45 "/yr, which has increased the census of spectroscopically identified metal-poor M stars to over 400 objects. Kinematic separation of disk dwarfs and halo subdwarfs suggest deficiencies in the current classification system. Observations of common proper motion doubles indicates that the current dM/sdM and sdM/esdM boundaries in the [TiO5,CaH2+CaH3] index plane do not follow iso-metallicity contours, leaving some binaries inappropriately classified as dM+sdM or sdM+esdM. We propose a revision of the classification system based on an empirical calibration of the TiO/CaH ratio for stars of near solar metallicity. We introduce the parameter \\zeta_{TiO/CaH} which quantifies the weakening of the TiO bandstrength due to metallicity effect, with values ranging from \\zeta_{TiO/CaH}=1 for stars of near-solar metallicity to \\zeta_{TiO/CaH}~0 for the most metal-poor (and TiO depleted) subdwarfs. We redefine the metallicity classes based on the value of the parameter \\zeta_{TiO/CaH}; and refine the scheme by introducing an additional class of ultra subdwarfs (usdM). We introduce sequences of sdM, esdM, and usdM stars to be used as formal classification standards.

  15. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: muratov@umich.edu [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  16. Revisiting NGC 3109: A Systematic Blue Massive Stars Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Norberto; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Evans, Chris; Garcia, Miriam; Herrero, Artemio; Bresolin, Fabio

    2013-06-01

    In the last years thoughtful quantitative analyses of extragalactic blue massive stars have shown not only that these studies are doable even at large distances (e.g. ˜2 Mpc away), but also essential for a better understanding of host galaxies and stellar evolution, in environments with different metallicities. Carrying out a systematic analysis is mandatory. We present in this work the tools and the FASTWIND stellar grids designed for overcoming this issue, measuring stellar parameters and chemical abundances. We have applied these techniques to the complete sample of blue massive stars observed in NGC 3109, a low metallicity irregular galaxy at 1.3 Mpc, by the ARAUCARIA project and presented by Evans et al. (2007). We report the first systematic quantitative analysis in this galaxy, together with the stellar parameters and the evolution stages of these objects. The chemical composition obtained will shed new light about the chemical composition and distribution along NGC 3109.

  17. A Possible Signature of Lense-Thirring Precession in Dipping and Eclipsing Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Jeroen

    2012-12-01

    Relativistic Lense-Thirring precession of a tilted inner accretion disk around a compact object has been proposed as a mechanism for low-frequency (~0.01-70 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the light curves of X-ray binaries. A substantial misalignment angle (~15°-20°) between the inner-disk rotation axis and the compact-object spin axis is required for the effects of this precession to produce observable modulations in the X-ray light curve. A consequence of this misalignment is that in high-inclination X-ray binaries the precessing inner disk will quasi-periodically intercept our line of sight to the compact object. In the case of neutron-star systems, this should have a significant observational effect, since a large fraction of the accretion energy is released on or near the neutron-star surface. In this Letter, I suggest that this specific effect of Lense-Thirring precession may already have been observed as ~1 Hz QPOs in several dipping/eclipsing neutron-star X-ray binaries.

  18. Chemistry of Low Mass Substellar Objects

    E-print Network

    Katharina Lodders; Bruce Fegley, Jr

    2006-01-17

    "Brown dwarfs" is the collective name for objects more massive than giant planets such as Jupiter but less massive than M dwarf stars. This review gives a brief description of the classification and chemistry of low mass dwarfs. The current spectral classification of stars includes L and T dwarfs that encompass the coolest known stars and substellar objects. The relatively low atmospheric temperatures and high total pressures in substellar dwarfs lead to molecular gas and condensate chemistry. The chemistry of elements such as C, N, O, Ti, V, Fe, Cr, and the alkali elements play a dominant role in shaping the optical and infrared spectra of the "failed" stars. Chemical diagnostics for the subclassifications are described.

  19. Improved kinematics for brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in ChaI and a discussion of brown dwarf formation

    E-print Network

    V. Joergens

    2005-11-14

    We present a precise kinematic study of very young brown dwarfs (BDs) in the ChaI cloud based on radial velocities (RVs) measured with UVES / VLT. This is compared to the kinematics of T Tauri stars (TTS) in the same field, based on both own measurements and on RVs from the literature. More UVES spectra were taken compared with a former paper (Joergens & Guenther 2001), and the reduction of the spectra was improved, while studying the literature for RVs of T Tauri stars in ChaI led to a cleaned and enlarged sample of T Tauri stars. The result is an improved empirical RV distribution of BDs as well as of TTS in ChaI. We found that nine BDs/VLMSs (M6-M8) in ChaI have a RV dispersion of 0.9 km/s measured in terms of a standard deviation. This is consistent with the dispersion measured earlier in terms of fwhm of 2.1 km/s. The studied sample of 25 TTS (G2-M5) has a dispersion of 1.3 km/s (standard deviation). The RV dispersion of the BDs is consistent within the errors with that of TTS, which is in line with the finding of no mass dependence in some theoretical models of the ejection-scenario for the formation of brown dwarfs. In contrast to current N-body simulations, we did not find a high-velocity tail for the BDs RVs. We found hints suggesting different kinematics for binaries compared to predominantly single objects in ChaI. The global RV dispersion for ChaI members (1.24 km/s) is significantly lower than for Taurus members (2.0 km/s), despite higher stellar density in ChaI showing that a fundamental increase in velocity dispersion with stellar density of the star-forming region is not established observationally. The RVs of BDs observed in ChaI are less dispersed than predicted by existing models for the ejection-scenario.

  20. THE INFRARED EYE OF THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE REVEALS MULTIPLE MAIN SEQUENCES OF VERY LOW MASS STARS IN NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M., E-mail: milone@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2012-08-01

    We use images taken with the infrared channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the multiple main sequences (MSs) of NGC 2808. Below the turnoff, the red, the middle, and the blue MS, previously detected from visual-band photometry, are visible over an interval of about 3.5 F160W magnitudes. The three MSs merge together at the level of the MS bend. At fainter magnitudes, the MS again splits into two components containing {approx}65% and {approx}35% of stars, with the most-populated MS being the bluest one. Theoretical isochrones suggest that the latter is connected to the red MS discovered in the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and hence corresponds to the first stellar generation, having primordial helium and enhanced carbon and oxygen abundances. The less-populated MS in the faint part of the near-IR CMD is helium-rich and poor in carbon and oxygen, and it can be associated with the middle and the blue MS of the optical CMD. The finding that the photometric signature of abundance anti-correlation is also present in fully convective MS stars reinforces the inference that they have a primordial origin.

  1. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D., E-mail: mbdeaton@wsu.edu, E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ?} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ?} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ?} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ?} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ? 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ?} ? 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  2. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTERESTS. NEW EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURES, METALLICITIES, MASSES, AND RADII OF LOW-MASS KEPLER PLANET-CANDIDATE HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, Philip S. [Current address: Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hamren, Katherine [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlawin, Everett; Lloyd, James P. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Current address: Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Covey, Kevin R., E-mail: philm@astro.caltech.edu [Hubble Fellow. (United States)

    2012-05-10

    We report stellar parameters for late-K and M-type planet-candidate host stars announced by the Kepler Mission. We obtained medium-resolution, K-band spectra of 84 cool (T{sub eff} {approx}< 4400 K) Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) from Borucki et al. We identified one object as a giant (KOI 977); for the remaining dwarfs, we measured effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) and metallicities [M/H] using the K-band spectral indices of Rojas-Ayala et al. We determine the masses (M{sub *}) and radii (R{sub *}) of the cool KOIs by interpolation onto the Dartmouth evolutionary isochrones. The resultant stellar radii are significantly less than the values reported in the Kepler Input Catalog and, by construction, correlate better with T{sub eff}. Applying the published KOI transit parameters to our stellar radius measurements, we report new physical radii for the planet candidates. Recalculating the equilibrium temperatures of the planet-candidates assuming Earth's albedo and re-radiation fraction, we find that three of the planet-candidates are terrestrial sized with orbital semimajor axes that lie within the habitable zones of their host stars (KOI 463.01, KOI 812.03, and KOI 854.01). The stellar parameters presented in this Letter serve as a resource for prioritization of future follow-up efforts to validate and characterize the cool KOI planet candidates.

  3. The M-dwarfs in Multiples (MinMs) survey - I. Stellar multiplicity among low-mass stars within 15 pc

    E-print Network

    Ward-Duong, K; De Rosa, R J; Bulger, J; Rajan, A; Goodwin, S P; Parker, Richard J; McCarthy, D W; Kulesa, C

    2015-01-01

    We present a large-scale, volume-limited companion survey of 245 late-K to mid-M (K7-M6) dwarfs within 15 pc. Infrared adaptive optics (AO) data were analysed from the Very Large Telescope, Subaru Telescope, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and MMT Observatory to detect close companions to the sample from $\\sim$1 au to 100 au, while digitised wide-field archival plates were searched for wide companions from $\\sim$100 au to 10,000 au. With sensitivity to the bottom of the main sequence over a separation range of 3 au to 10,000 au, multiple AO and wide-field epochs allow us to confirm candidates with common proper motions, minimize background contamination, and enable a measurement of comprehensive binary statistics. We detected 65 co-moving stellar companions and find a companion star fraction of $23.5 \\pm 3.2$ per cent over the 3 au to 10,000 au separation range. The companion separation distribution is observed to rise to a higher frequency at smaller separations, peaking at closer separations than measured f...

  4. THE BINARY FRACTION OF LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Justin M. [Franklin and Marshall College, 415 Harrisburg Avenue, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: brown.justin.michael@gmail.com [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass ({<=}0.45 M{sub sun}) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is {<=}30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.

  5. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, J. C.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.; San José-García, I.; Karska, A.; Visser, R.; Santangelo, G.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Outflows are an important part of the star formation process as both the result of ongoing active accretion and one of the main sources of mechanical feedback on small scales. Water is the ideal tracer of these effects because it is present in high abundance for the conditions expected in various parts of the protostar, particularly the outflow. Aims: We constrain and quantify the physical conditions probed by water in the outflow-jet system for Class 0 and I sources. Methods: We present velocity-resolved Herschel HIFI spectra of multiple water-transitions observed towards 29 nearby Class 0/I protostars as part of the WISH guaranteed time key programme. The lines are decomposed into different Gaussian components, with each component related to one of three parts of the protostellar system; quiescent envelope, cavity shock and spot shocks in the jet and at the base of the outflow. We then use non-LTE radex models to constrain the excitation conditions present in the two outflow-related components. Results: Water emission at the source position is optically thick but effectively thin, with line ratios that do not vary with velocity, in contrast to CO. The physical conditions of the cavity and spot shocks are similar, with post-shock H2 densities of order 105 - 108 cm-3 and H2O column densities of order 1016 - 1018 cm-2. H2O emission originates in compact emitting regions: for the spot shocks these correspond to point sources with radii of order 10-200 AU, while for the cavity shocks these come from a thin layer along the outflow cavity wall with thickness of order 1-30 AU. Conclusions: Water emission at the source position traces two distinct kinematic components in the outflow; J shocks at the base of the outflow or in the jet, and C shocks in a thin layer in the cavity wall. The similarity of the physical conditions is in contrast to off-source determinations which show similar densities but lower column densities and larger filling factors. We propose that this is due to the differences in shock properties and geometry between these positions. Class I sources have similar excitation conditions to Class 0 sources, but generally smaller line-widths and emitting region sizes. We suggest that it is the velocity of the wind driving the outflow, rather than the decrease in envelope density or mass, that is the cause of the decrease in H2O intensity between Class 0 and I sources. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgReduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A21

  6. Contribution of Low Mass Galaxies to Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lauren M.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Brooks, Alyson; Pontzen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Here we quantify the abundance of faint galaxies at high redshifts and their ionizing photon budget using a complete sample of ~ 10,000 simulated galaxies from the Vulcan simulation, a new state of the art cosmological simulation of a 25Mpc per side volume, with unprecedented spatial resolution. Their predicted population is consistent with the most recent observations of the UV luminosity function up to z ~ 8. In addition, we measure the fraction of photons that can escape their host halo and ionize neutral hydrogen in the IGM. With the uniform resolution of our simulation we have ~ 100 systems with reliable morphologies, and therefore realistic distributions of young stars (sources) relative to the neutral hydrogen (absorbers). With this model, we predict the contribution of low mass galaxies to reionization, in line with the theory that star forming galaxies are a major source of ionizing photons, especially if there is an underlying faint population undetectable by current surveys.

  7. Low mass stellar evolution with WIMP capture and annihilation

    E-print Network

    Pat Scott; Joakim Edsjö; Malcolm Fairbairn

    2007-11-07

    Recent work has indicated that WIMP annihilation in stellar cores has the potential to contribute significantly to a star's total energy production. We report on progress in simulating the effects of WIMP capture and annihilation upon stellar structure and evolution near supermassive black holes, using the new DarkStars code. Preliminary results indicate that low-mass stars are the most influenced by WIMP annihilation, which could have consequences for upcoming observational programs.

  8. Radial velocity survey for planets and brown dwarf companions to very young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in ChaI with UVES at the VLT

    E-print Network

    V. Joergens

    2005-10-05

    We present results of a radial velocity (RV) survey for planets and brown dwarf (BD) companions to very young BDs and (very) low-mass stars (VLMSs) in ChaI. High-resolution echelle spectra of ChaHa1-8 and 12 (M6-M8), and B34, CHXR74, Sz23 (M2.5-M5) were taken with UVES / VLT between 2000 and 2004. The achieved precision (40 to 670 m/s) is sufficient to detect Jupiter mass planets around the targets. This first RV survey of very young BDs probes multiplicity which is a key parameter for formation in an as yet unexplored domain, in terms of age, mass, and orbital separation. We find that the subsample of ten BDs and VLMSs (M150 days, which cannot be explained by rotational modulation. An alternative explanation are giant planets / BDs of at least a few Jupiter masses orbiting with periods of several months or longer. Thus, the presented RV data indicate that orbital periods of companions to very young BDs and (V)LMSs are possibly several months or longer, and that orbital separations are > 0.2 AU. This parameter range has not been covered for all targets yet, but will be probed by follow-up observations.

  9. Iron-line and continuum variations in the XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Ming; Méndez, Mariano; Sanna, Andrea; Homan, Jeroen; Belloni, Tomaso; Hiemstra, Beike

    2014-05-01

    We used six simultaneous XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer plus five Suzaku observations to study the continuum spectrum and the iron emission line in the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. We modelled the spectra with two thermal components (representing the accretion disc and boundary layer), a Comptonized component (representing a hot corona), and either a Gaussian or a relativistic line component to model an iron emission line at ˜6.5 keV. For the relativistic line component, we used either the DISKLINE, LAOR or KYRLINE model, the latter for three different values of the spin parameter. The fitting results for the continuum are consistent with the standard truncated disc scenario. We also find that the flux and equivalent width of the iron line first increase and then decrease as the flux of the Comptonized component increases. This could be explained either by changes in the ionization state of the accretion disc where the line is produced by reflection, or by light bending of the emission from the Comptonized component if the height at which this component is produced changes with mass accretion rate.

  10. Methanol emission from low mass protostars

    E-print Network

    S. Maret; C. Ceccarelli; A. G. G. M. Tielens; E. Caux; B. Lefloch; A. Faure; A. Castets; D. R. Flower

    2005-07-15

    We present observations of methanol lines in a sample of Class 0 low mass protostars. Using a 1-D radiative transfer model, we derive the abundances in the envelopes. In two sources of the sample, the observations can only be reproduced by the model if the methanol abundance is enhanced by about two order of magnitude in the inner hot region of the envelope. Two other sources show similar jumps, although at a lower confidence level. The observations for the other three sources are well reproduced with a constant abundance, but the presence of a jump cannot be ruled out. The observed methanol abundances in the warm gas around low mass protostars are orders of magnitude higher than gas phase chemistry models predict. Hence, in agreement with other evidences, this suggest that the high methanol abundance reflects recent evaporation of ices due to the heating by the newly formed star. The observed abundance ratios of CH3 OH, H2 CO, and CO are in good agreement with grain surface chemistry models. However, the absolute abundances are more difficult to reproduce and may point towards the presence of multiple ice components in these regions.

  11. ACCURATE LOW-MASS STELLAR MODELS OF KOI-126

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dotter, Aaron, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@dartmouth.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-10-10

    The recent discovery of an eclipsing hierarchical triple system with two low-mass stars in a close orbit (KOI-126) by Carter et al. appeared to reinforce the evidence that theoretical stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce the observational mass-radius relation for low-mass stars. We present a set of stellar models for the three stars in the KOI-126 system that show excellent agreement with the observed radii. This agreement appears to be due to the equation of state implemented by our code. A significant dispersion in the observed mass-radius relation for fully convective stars is demonstrated; indicative of the influence of physics currently not incorporated in standard stellar evolution models. We also predict apsidal motion constants for the two M dwarf companions. These values should be observationally determined to within 1% by the end of the Kepler mission.

  12. THE ENIGMATIC YOUNG, LOW-MASS VARIABLE TWA 30

    E-print Network

    Looper, Dagny L.

    TWA 30 is a remarkable young (7 ± 3 Myr), low-mass (0.12 ± 0.04 M [subscript ?]), late-type star (M5 ± 1) residing 42 ± 2 pc away from the Sun in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). It shows strong outflow spectral signatures ...

  13. The CO/SiO radiative instability in cool star atmospheres revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Muchmore, D. O.

    1994-09-01

    We revisit the formation of radiative instabilities in cool star atmospheres and compare our results with those given by Muchmore, Nuth, & Stencel. We have considered the combined influence of CO and SiO molecules and have computed models for a grid of effective temperatures and geometrical dilution factors for the stellar radiation. Our results are based on the analysis of the energy balance of gas elements with prescribed thermodynamic properties. Our results show that radiative instabilities are most likely primarily caused by CO, whereas SiO is expected to play only a minor role, except when the CO density is reduced compared to Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) values or the CO band can be assumed to be optically thick. The onset of radiative instabilities is expected to be strongly modified when dynamic phenomena such as stochastic shocks are present. Our results provide strong evidence that dust formation can most likely occur via a radiative instability alone. Therefore, we present a revised version of the Muchmore et al. dust formation paradigm, which also considers hydrodynamic cooling. The new paradigm is particularly relevant in cases where dust is formed relatively close to the stellar photosphere.

  14. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

  15. NA62 Low Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, V.

    2014-06-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims at a precision measurement of the ultra-rare decay K^+ rightarrow ?^+?bar?. A low mass (˜ 1.8%X0) spectrometer, whose construction is ongoing, has been designed to track charged kaon decays products. The system operates in vacuum, and will be operative in October 2014, when the first physics run is scheduled. The straw detector is made of 4 stations, each equipped with 1792 straws, arranged in 4 views (X, Y, U and V). A high aperture magnet (MNP33), placed between the second and the third chamber, provides a 0.36T dipole vertical B-field, required to measure the momentum of the charged particles. A 64-straws prototype was constructed in 2010. It was used as test bench for electronics commissioning and detector characterization. Time resolution and space-time relation were measured. A first test with a full chamber and final beam setup was performed in November 2012.

  16. Low-mass companions to Bright Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Wolszczan, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Deka, B.; Górecka, M.; Kowalik, K.

    2014-04-01

    Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae (APN) are formed by bipolar outflows through various mechanism like fast rotation (Blackman et al. 2001), magnetic field (Regos & Tout 1995) or binarity (Harpaz & Soker 1994; Soker 1996; Livio & Soker 2002). The binary scenario seems currently to be best supported by observations as the most efficient in producing the observed APN (De Marco et al. 2004; Soker 2006). Detailed studies of disk formation in binaries leading to APN were presented for instance in Reyes-Ruiz & Lopez (1999), Blackman et al. (2001) and Nordhaus & Blackman (2006). To estimate relative efficiently of the various channels of APN production properties of the population of stars to become AGB stars have to be known. Here our RV search for planets around evolved stars the Penn State-Torun Centre for Astronomy Planet Search (PTPS), whose primary, long-term goal is to improve our understanding of the evolution of planetary systems around aging stars (Niedzielski et al. 2007; Niedzielski & Wolszczan 2008) may be of some help. 1036 stars are monitored within PTPS with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET, Ramsey et al. 1998) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS, Tull et al. 1998) for RV variations using the high precision iodine-cell technique since 2004. The sample is mainly composed of evolved low- and intermediate- mass single or SB1 stars: 449 giants (including 343 clump giants) and 297 subgiants but it also contains 151 slightly evolved dwarfs. All SB1 and SB2 stellar-mass binaries have been identified in the sample. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of 348 stars, mostly giants has been completed by Zieli?Ñski et al. (2012). Similar analyses for 403 giants and subgiants (Niedzielski et. al. in prep.) and 146 dwarf (Deka et al. in prep.) are in preparation. In addition to stellar atmospheric parameters the spectroscopic studies deliver masses and luminosities (through fits to evolutionary tracks) as well as ages required for further considerations on planetary systems evolution - the main goal of PTPS. The sample was optimized for HET and HRS. It contains relatively bright stars with V in the range of 9-12 mag, randomly distributed over the northern hemisphere. After 2-3 epochs or precise RV HET observations all stars with amplitudes exceeding the HET/HRS PSF FWHM - 5 km s-1 (SB1) or below 5?ERV - ˜ 20-50 m s (single) were rejected from further monitoring. Stars with significant cross-correlation profile variations were identified as SB2 and also excluded. All remaining 300 stars are systematically monitored in search for low-mass companions. Over a dozen stars with planetary-mass companions have already been discovered (Niedzielski et al. 2007, 2009a, b; Gettel et al. 2012a, b; Nowak et al. 2013). Here I will present our new results concerning the most luminous giants with log(L/LSun)> 2, presumably post Horizontal Branch stars.

  17. The Pulsating Low-Mass He-Core White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Romero, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery of many low-mass (? 0.45 M?) white dwarf (WD) stars — expected to harbor He cores— in the field of the Milky Way and in several galactic globular and open clusters. Recently, three pulsating objects of this kind have been discovered: SDSS J184037.78+642312.3, J111215.82+111745.0, and J151826.68+065813.2. Motivated by these very exciting findings, and in view of the valuable asteroseismological potential of these objects, we present here the main outcomes of a detailed theoretical study on the seismic properties of low-mass He-core WDs based on fully evolutionary models representative of them. This study is aimed at providing a theoretical basis from which to interpret present and future observations of variable low-mass WDs.

  18. Testing the correlation between low mass planets and debris disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The number of dusty debris disks has increased across all spectral types through recent infrared surveys. This has provided greater overlap with stars known to host extrasolar planets via RV surveys. New studies have therefore investigated how the different properties of host stars, exoplanets, and debris disks may be correlated, with the objective of giving empirical support to competing theories of planet formation and evolution. One such emerging correlation is that stars with only low mass planets are more likely to host prominent debris disks than stars that have at least one giant planet. If true, then M dwarfs should have abundant debris disks given that they more frequently have low mass planetary systems. However, the information needed to critically test these ideas is lacking. For most systems, the presence of an outer planet with >30 Earth masses has not been observationally tested, nor are there many M dwarf debris disks available for detailed scrutiny. Here we propose to use STIS coronagraphy to image for the first time the debris disks around three nearby stars in optical scattered light. Searching for sharp dust belt structures indirectly tests for the existence of outer planets that are otherwise undetectable by RV or adaptive optics planet searches. Moreover, two of our target stars are the most recently discovered M dwarf debris disks, both closer to the Sun than AU Mic. The scattered light observations of these two targets would present a major advance in characterizing how M dwarf debris disks co-evolve with planets under different stellar environments.

  19. Canonical Extra Mixing in Low-Mass Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denissenkov, Pavel A.; VandenBerg, Don A.

    2003-08-01

    We have used the latest observational data on the evolutionary variations of the surface chemical composition in low-mass metal-poor stars, both in the field and in globular clusters, to constrain the basic properties of extra mixing in upper red giant branch (RGB) stars. Two different models of extra mixing have been incorporated into a stellar evolution code: a parametrical diffusion model and a model with rotation-induced turbulent diffusion. Application of the first model to the interpretation of the observed variations of the surface abundances of Li, C, and N and of the isotopic ratio 12C/13C in field stars has revealed that, for the majority of upper RGB stars, the depth and rate of extra mixing do not appear to vary appreciably from star to star. Furthermore, comparisons of our calculations with the results obtained by other authors show that at least the extra mixing depth does not seem to depend strongly on metallicity. Therefore, we propose to call this universal nonconvective mixing process ``canonical extra mixing.'' We also put forward the hypothesis that some of the upper RGB stars may be experiencing ``enhanced extra mixing,'' which is much faster (by a factor of ~100) and somewhat deeper than canonical extra mixing. This could explain the phenomenon of Li-rich giants. Enhanced extra mixing could also contribute to the O-Na and Mg-Al anticorrelations that are seen in some globular cluster red giants. A possible mechanism of extra mixing in upper RGB stars may be turbulent diffusion or/and meridional circulation induced by rotation. In this case, enhanced extra mixing requires rotational velocities that are ~10 times as fast as those that are sufficient for the occurrence of canonical extra mixing. Observations do not exclude this possibility because (1) the dispersion in the surface rotational velocities of field Li-rich giants span a range of a factor of ~10 and (2) the extremely fast rotation of blue horizontal branch stars in globular clusters may require that their RGB precursors had been spun up appreciably by an external source. Star-to-star abundance variations in globular clusters may well have been produced as the result of both evolutionary and primordial processes. In the primordial scenario, the nuclearly processed material that is accreted by low-mass main-sequence stars may have originated primarily in earlier generations of massive asymptotic giant branch stars that had undergone hot bottom burning of their envelopes and partly in mass-losing upper RGB stars that had been just a bit more massive than the present-day main-sequence turnoff stars and had experienced extra mixing in the past.

  20. DETECTION OF LOW-MASS-RATIO STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    O- and B-type stars are often found in binary systems, but the low binary mass-ratio regime is relatively unexplored due to observational difficulties. Binary systems with low mass ratios may have formed through fragmentation of the circumstellar disk rather than molecular cloud core fragmentation. We describe a new technique sensitive to G- and K-type companions to early B stars, a mass ratio of roughly 0.1, using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra. We apply this technique to a sample of archived VLT/CRIRES observations of nearby B stars in the CO bandhead near 2300 nm. While there are no unambiguous binary detections in our sample, we identify HIP 92855 and HIP 26713 as binary candidates warranting follow-up observations. We use our non-detections to determine upper limits to the frequency of FGK stars orbiting early B-type primaries.

  1. The low mass white dwarf companion to Beta Crateris

    E-print Network

    M. R. Burleigh; M. A. Barstow; K. J. Schenker; A. I. Sills; G. A. Wynn; P. D. Dobbie; S. A. Good

    2001-06-26

    We present FUSE H Lyman series spectroscopy of the hot white dwarf companion to the 4th magnitude A1III star Beta Crateris, which shows that is has an unusually low mass, 0.43Msun, and has almost certainly evolved through binary interaction. This system could be a long-sought remnant of Algol-type evolution, although radial velocity measurements appear to show that the pair are not close. Instead, micro-variations in Beta Crt's proper motion as measured by Hipparcos suggests that the period could be as high as 10 years. However, a low mass white dwarf in a system with a period >3 years is difficult to explain by conventional models for binary evolution. We speculate on alternative models for the evolution of this system which involve an eccentric binary or multiple components.

  2. Population models of low-mass binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    I review the current understanding of the formation and evolutionary history of binaries with low-mass companions, focusing on systems that contain a white dwarf, or a component that will evolve into a white dwarf. I will highlight the potential and pitfalls of binary catalogues emerging from exoplanet transit searches, and review the state of the art of population models for low-mass binaries.

  3. Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. II. CME-Induced Ion Pick Up of Earth-like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Lammer; Herbert I. M. Lichtenegger; Yuri N. Kulikov; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; N. Terada; Nikolai V. Erkaev; Helfried K. Biernat; Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Thomas Penz; Franck Selsis

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric erosion of CO2 -rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for

  4. Confirmation of a Young Low-mass Quadruple in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Kevin; Todorov, Kamen

    2011-02-01

    We recently discovered a planetary-mass companion (5-10 M_Jup, ?=0.1 arcsec) to a young brown dwarf in the Taurus star- forming region through imaging with HST+WFPC2 and NIRI+ALTAIR. In the NIRI images, we serendipitously detected an additional possible substellar companion to a nearby (?=12 arcsec) young low-mass star. These four objects may comprise the first known quadruple system in which 3 members are substellar. If so, then its hierarchical configuration would suggest that the fragmentation of molecular cloud cores (i.e., the process that makes binary stars) can produce companions below 10 M_Jup. We propose to verify the companionship of the new candidate found with NIRI by repeating our previous NIRI observations and measuring its proper motion relative to those of the other 3 objects.

  5. Inertial waves in differentially rotating low-mass starsand tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenel, M.; Baruteau, C.; Mathis, S.; Rieutord, M.

    2014-12-01

    Star-planet tidal interactions may result in the excitation of inertial waves in the convective region of stars. Their dissipation plays a prominent role in the long-term orbital evolution of short-period planets. If the star is assumed to be rotating as a solid-body, the waves' Doppler-shifted frequency is restricted to [-2 ?, 2 ?] (? being the angular velocity of the star) and they can propagate in the entire convective region. However, turbulent convection can sustain differential rotation with an equatorial acceleration (as in the Sun) or deceleration that may modify waves propagation. We thus explore the properties of inertial modes of oscillation in a conically differentially rotating background flow whose angular velocity depends on the latitudinal coordinate only, close to what is expected in the external convective envelope of low-mass stars. We find that their frequency range is broadened by differential rotation, and that they may propagate only in a restricted part of the envelope. In some cases, inertial waves form shear layers around short-period attractor cycles. In others, they exhibit a remarkable behavior when a turning surface or a corotation layer exists in the star. We discuss how all these cases can impact tidal dissipation in stars.

  6. New Low-Mass Members of Nearby Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua; Simon, Michal; Rice, Emily; Lepine, Sebastien

    2012-08-01

    We are now ready to expand our program to identify new low-mass members of nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) to stars of mass ?0.3 M_?. This is important to: (1) complete the census of low-mass stars near the Sun, (2) provide high priority targets for disk and exoplanet studies by direct imaging, and (3) provide a well- characterized sample of nearby, young stars for detailed study of their physical and kinematic properties. Our proven technique starts with a proper motion selection algorithm, proceeds to vet the sample for indicators of youth, and requires as its last step the measurement of candidate member radial velocities (RVs). So far, we have measured more than 100 candidate RVs using CSHELL on the NASA-IRTF and PHOENIX on Gemini-South, yielding more than 50 likely new moving group members. Here we propose to continue our RV follow-up of candidate NYMG members using PHOENIX on the KPNO 4m. We aim to measure RVs and determine spectral types of 23 faint (V?15, H?9), late-type (?M4) candidates of the (beta) Pic (10 Myrs), AB Dor (70 Myrs), Tuc/Hor (30 Myrs), and TW Hydrae (8 Myrs) moving groups.

  7. Possibility of s-wave pion condensates in neutron stars revisited

    E-print Network

    A. Ohnishi; D. Jido; T. Sekihara; K. Tsubakihara

    2009-09-05

    We examine possibilities of pion condensation with zero momentum (s-wave condensation) in neutron stars by using the pion-nucleus optical potential U and the relativistic mean field (RMF) models. We use low-density phenomenological optical potentials parameterized to fit deeply bound pionic atoms or pion-nucleus elastic scatterings. Proton fraction (Y_p) and electron chemical potential (mu_e) in neutron star matter are evaluated in RMF models. We find that the s-wave pion condensation hardly takes place in neutron stars and especially has no chance if hyperons appear in neutron star matter and/or b_1 parameter in U has density dependence.

  8. Methanol abundance in low mass protostars

    E-print Network

    S. Maret

    2004-11-12

    Methanol lines observations of a sample of low mass Class 0 protostars are presented. Using a 1D radiative transfer model, I show that several protostars have large abundance jumps in the inner hot and dense region of envelopes, probably because of thermal grain mantle evaporation. These abundances are compared with a grain surface chemistry model.

  9. Asteroid 21 Lutetia: Low Mass, High Density

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    Asteroid 21 Lutetia: Low Mass, High Density M. Pätzold,1 * T. P. Andert,2 S. W. Asmar,3 J. D. Weiss8 Asteroid 21 Lutetia was approached by the Rosetta spacecraft on 10 July 2010. The additional on the flyby trajectory were used to determine the mass of the asteroid. Calibrating and correcting for all

  10. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.

    2004-04-01

    We report new chemical abundances of 23 bright red giant members of the globular cluster M3, based on high-resolution (R~45,000) spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope. The observations, which involve the use of multislits in the HIRES Keck I spectrograph, are described in detail. Combining these data with a previously reported small sample of M3 giants obtained with the Lick 3 m telescope, we compare metallicities and [X/Fe] ratios for 28 M3 giants with a 35-star sample in the similar-metallicity cluster M13, and with Galactic halo field stars having [Fe/H]<-1. For elements having atomic number A>=A(Si), we derive little difference in [X/Fe] ratios in the M3, M13, or halo field samples. All three groups exhibit C depletion with advancing evolutionary state beginning at the level of the red giant branch ``bump,'' but the overall depletion of about 0.7-0.9 dex seen in the clusters is larger than that associated with the field stars. The behaviors of O, Na, Mg, and Al are distinctively different among the three stellar samples. Field halo giants and subdwarfs have a positive correlation of Na with Mg, as predicted from explosive or hydrostatic carbon burning in Type II supernova sites. Both M3 and M13 show evidence of high-temperature proton-capture synthesis from the ON, NeNa, and MgAl cycles, while there is no evidence for such synthesis among halo field stars. But the degree of such extreme proton-capture synthesis in M3 is smaller than it is in M13: the M3 giants exhibit only modest deficiencies of O and corresponding enhancements of Na, less extreme overabundances of Al, fewer stars with low Mg and correspondingly high Na, and no indication that O depletions are a function of advancing evolutionary state, as has been claimed for M13. We have also considered NGC 6752, for which Mg isotopic abundances have been reported by Yong et al. Giants in NGC 6752 and M13 satisfy the same anticorrelation of O abundances with the ratio (25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg, which measures the relative contribution of rare to abundant isotopes of Mg. This points to a scenario in which these abundance ratios arose in the ejected material of 3-6 Msolar cluster stars, material that was then used to form the atmospheres of the presently evolving low-mass cluster stars. It also suggests that the low oxygen abundance seen among the most evolved M13 giants arose in hot bottom O-to-N processing in these same intermediate-mass cluster stars. Thus, mixing is required by the dependence of some abundance ratios on luminosity, but an earlier nucleosynthesis process in a hotter environment than giants or main-sequence stars is required by the variations previously seen in stars near the main sequence. The nature and the site of the earlier process is constrained but not pinpointed by the observed Mg isotopic ratio. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.

  11. VERY-LOW-MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. III. A SHORT-PERIOD BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE AROUND AN ACTIVE G0IV SUBGIANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Bo; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Wang Ji [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, G. F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: boma@astro.ufl.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5903 {+-} 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 {+-} 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 {+-} 0.041 km s{sup -1}, period P = 9.0090 {+-} 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 {+-} 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 {+-} 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 {+-} 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the {approx}1% level with a period of {approx}13.16 {+-} 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 {+-} 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M{sub Sun} if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v{sub rot}sin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T{sub eff}. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  12. Very-low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from Marvels. III. A Short-period Brown Dwarf Candidate around an Active G0IV Subgiant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, Jian; Barnes, Rory; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hebb, Leslie; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Lee, Brian L.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Gary, Bruce; Jiang, Peng; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T eff = 5903 ± 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 ± 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 ± 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 ± 0.041 km s-1, period P = 9.0090 ± 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 ± 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 ± 0.11 M ? for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 ± 2.5 M Jup. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 ± 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the ~1% level with a period of ~13.16 ± 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 ± 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M ? if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v rotsin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T eff. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  13. Discovery of a Cool, Low-Mass, Extra-solar Planet by Gravitational Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, D. P.; PLANET Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    We present photometry from the PLANET, OGLE, and MOA Collaborations which reveals the first discovery of a low-mass extra-solar planet by the gravitational microlensing method. The newly discovered planet orbits a low-mass star in the Galactic bulge, and its most probable mass is smaller than the mass of any other planet found orbiting a main sequence star, although the error bars on the planetary mass overlap with those of GL 876 d. The separation of the newly discovered planet from its host star is about 3 AU, and so it represents the first of a class of cool, low-mass planets that are currently detectable only by the gravitational microlensing method. This discovery appears to support a prediction of the core-accretion model for planet formation.

  14. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. V. A LOW ECCENTRICITY BROWN DWARF FROM THE DRIEST PART OF THE DESERT, MARVELS-6b

    SciTech Connect

    De Lee, Nathan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang Liang [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ghezzi, Luan [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [H L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: nathan.delee@vanderbilt.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-06-15

    We describe the discovery of a likely brown dwarf (BD) companion with a minimum mass of 31.7 {+-} 2.0 M{sub Jup} to GSC 03546-01452 from the MARVELS radial velocity survey, which we designate as MARVELS-6b. For reasonable priors, our analysis gives a probability of 72% that MARVELS-6b has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.072 M{sub Sun }, and thus it is a high-confidence BD companion. It has a moderately long orbital period of 47.8929{sup +0.0063}{sub -0.0062} days with a low eccentricity of 0.1442{sup +0.0078}{sub -0.0073}, and a semi-amplitude of 1644{sup +12}{sub -13} m s{sup -1}. Moderate resolution spectroscopy of the host star has determined the following parameters: T{sub eff} = 5598 {+-} 63, log g = 4.44 {+-} 0.17, and [Fe/H] = +0.40 {+-} 0.09. Based upon these measurements, GSC 03546-01452 has a probable mass and radius of M{sub *} = 1.11 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} and R{sub *} = 1.06 {+-} 0.23 R{sub Sun} with an age consistent with less than {approx}6 Gyr at a distance of 219 {+-} 21 pc from the Sun. Although MARVELS-6b is not observed to transit, we cannot definitively rule out a transiting configuration based on our observations. There is a visual companion detected with Lucky Imaging at 7.''7 from the host star, but our analysis shows that it is not bound to this system. The minimum mass of MARVELS-6b exists at the minimum of the mass functions for both stars and planets, making this a rare object even compared to other BDs. It also exists in an underdense region in both period/eccentricity and metallicity/eccentricity space.

  15. Effect of low mass dark matter particles on the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Taoso, Marco [IFIC-CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Ed. Instituts, Apt. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Iocco, Fabio [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago 75014, Paris (France); Meynet, Georges; Eggenberger, Patrick [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Bertone, Gianfranco [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago 75014, Paris (France); Institute fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    We study the effect of dark matter (DM) particles in the Sun, focusing, in particular, on the possible reduction of the solar neutrinos flux due to the energy carried away by DM particles from the innermost regions of the Sun, and to the consequent reduction of the temperature of the solar core. We find that in the very low-mass range between 4 and 10 GeV, recently advocated to explain the findings of the DAMA and CoGent experiments, the effects on neutrino fluxes are detectable only for DM models with a very small, or vanishing, self-annihilation cross section, such as the so-called asymmetric DM models, and we study the combination of DM masses and spin-dependent cross sections which can be excluded with current solar neutrino data. Finally, we revisit the recent claim that DM models with large self-interacting cross sections can lead to a modification of the position of the convective zone, alleviating or solving the solar composition problem. We show that when the 'geometric' upper limit on the capture rate is correctly taken into account, the effects of DM are reduced by orders of magnitude, and the position of the convective zone remains unchanged.

  16. A Revisit to the Guest Star of A.D. 185

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.-L.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    The guest star of A.D. 185 is possibly the earliest recorded supernova, and the radio source RCW 86 is believed to be its remnant. However, a restudy of ancient Chinese literature suggests that RCW 86 is unrelated to the guest star, which probably had a visible duration of only 7 months and appeared between ? and ? Centauri, instead of the previously proposed 20-month duration and a location between ? and ? Centauri.

  17. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  18. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: More cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Mallatt; Christopher J. Winchell

    2007-01-01

    This is an expanded study of the relationships among the deuterostome animals based on combined, nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes (>3925 nt.). It adds sequences from 20 more taxa to the ?45 sequences used in past studies. Seven of the new taxa were sequenced here (brittle star Ophiomyxa, lizard Anolis, turtle Chrysemys, sixgill shark Hexanchus, electric ray Narcine,

  19. OGLE-2005-BLG-153: MICROLENSING DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A VERY LOW MASS BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.-H.; Han, C.; Ryu, Y.-H. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Szymanski, M. K.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Szewczyk, O.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, L. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Bond, I. A. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie UMR7095, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Dominik, M.; Horne, K. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Abe, F. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Botzler, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Hearnshaw, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-01

    The mass function and statistics of binaries provide important diagnostics of the star formation process. Despite this importance, the mass function at low masses remains poorly known due to observational difficulties caused by the faintness of the objects. Here we report the microlensing discovery and characterization of a binary lens composed of very low mass stars just above the hydrogen-burning limit. From the combined measurements of the Einstein radius and microlens parallax, we measure the masses of the binary components of 0.10 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun} and 0.09 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun}. This discovery demonstrates that microlensing will provide a method to measure the mass function of all Galactic populations of very low mass binaries that is independent of the biases caused by the luminosity of the population.

  20. Identification of Very Low Mass Brown Dwarfs in IC348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Moraux, Estelle; Bouvier, Jerome; Bouy, Herve

    2010-08-01

    We propose to perform near-infrared low resolution spectroscopic follow-up observations with NIRI/Gemini North of 15 planetary mass brown dwarf (BD) candidates in IC 348 (300pc, 3Myr). The sample was identified from a wide-field deep photometric survey using MegaCam and WIRCam/CFHT. The proposed observations will allow us to confirm the membership of the candidates via the study of spectral youth indicators, to derive the spectral types and reddening, and assess the low mass nature of the confirmed sources by placing them in a H-R diagram. This will represent an unprecendent sample to eventually achieving a complete census of the low-mass population in IC 348, ideally suited to constrain the stellar, substellar and planet formation processes. Over the last decade, a number of large deep surveys (UKIDSS, GDPS, C2d, GOODS, PanSTARR, and more modestly the one we present here) have lead to some of the most important discoveries in the field of substellar star formation. The outcoming samples usually require follow-up time on 8m-class telescopes, without which the time, money and expertise invested in these large programs are not returned. An observatory like Gemini provides a unique opportunity to obtain these follow-up observations and achieve the final scientific goals of these surveys.

  1. Low mass companions searches using high dynamic range imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuzit, J.-L.; Chauvin, G.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Marchal, L.; Mayor, M.; Ménard, F.; Mouillet, D.; Perrier, C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    We present results obtained with different adaptive optics systems (ADONIS, PUEO, NAOS), in either imaging or coronagraphic modes, in the frame of several surveys aimed at searching for very low mass stars and substellar objects around nearby M dwarfs as well as in young closeby associations. For the M dwarfs of the solar neighborhood, we have obtained a very accurate mass-luminosity relation that we can compare to the prediction of recent stellar structure models. We also present multiplicity statistics of M dwarfs (binary fraction, period and mass ratio distribution), which are crucial constraints for stellar formation scenarii. We also discuss results obtained on two young closeby associations, MBM12 and Tucana-Horologium.

  2. New low-mass member candidates of Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perger, M.; Lodieu, N.; Martín, E. L.; Barrado, D.

    A widely used tool to characterise the formation of stars is the initial mass function (IMF). It has been suggested that it departs significantly from the universal form in Taurus. To bring them into agreement, about 330 new low-mass members need to be identified. We aim to find those objects in an area located 5 deg to the north of the main clouds. We analysed the already known Taurus members and found in our UKIDSS GCS-based data sample 253 objects showing similar characteristics. 43 of those new member candidates were observed spectroscopically. 11 of them show strong signs for membership to the region. Since we observed only 17% of our selection, we would expect up to 65 objects in our hunting ground. Those numbers indicate a possible unknown population of Taurus away from the main clouds. The answer to whether the IMF of Taurus is different might be located in its off-cloud parts.

  3. Aspherical supernova explosions and formation of compact black hole low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Xiang-Dong Li

    2007-10-30

    It has been suggested that black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries (BHLMXBs) with short orbital periods may have evolved from BH binaries with an intermediate-mass secondary, but the donor star seems to always have higher effective temperatures than measured in BHLMXBs (Justham, Rappaport & Podsiadlowski 2006). Here we suggest that the secondary star is originally an intermediate-mass ($\\sim 2-5 M_{\\sun}$) star, which loses a large fraction of its mass due to the ejecta impact during the aspherical SN explosion that produced the BH. The resulted secondary star could be of low-mass ($\\la 1 M_{\\sun}$). Magnetic braking would shrink the binary orbit, drive mass transfer between the donor and the BH, producing a compact BHLMXB.

  4. On the Nature of Collinder 121: Insights from the Low-Mass Pre-Main Sequence

    E-print Network

    Ben Burningham; Tim Naylor; R. D. Jeffries; C. R. Devey

    2003-08-28

    We present a VI photometric catalogue towards the open cluster Cr 121. XMM-Newton and ROSAT data are used to discover a low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) along this sight-line. de Zeeuw et al (1999) identified Cr 121 as a moving group, using HIPPARCOS data, at a distance of 592 pc. We reject the scenario that these low-mass PMS stars are associated with that association. By considering the higher mass main sequence stellar membership of the groups along this sight-line, the density of low-mass PMS stars and their age spread we argue that the low-mass PMS stars are associated with a young, compact cluster at a distance of 1050 pc. This is consistent with the original description of Cr 121 (Collinder, 1931), and we argue that this distant compact cluster should retain its original designation. The moving group detected by de Zeeuw et al (1999) resembles a foreground association and we agree with Eggen (1981) that this should be called CMa OB2. This study demonstrates that although the de Zeeuw et al (1999) census of OB associations is an invaluable resource for studying local star formation, it must be interpreted in the context other data when considering structure over distances of the same order as the limits of the Hipparcos parallaxes.

  5. ROSAT Observations of Low Mass Disk Galaxies: No Evidence of Baryonic Blow Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, Gregory D.; Eriksen, James

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that galctic winds associated with star formation in low mass disk galaxies can be an effective means of relocating cold disk gas to a warm tenuous halo, we have obtained long exposure ROSAT PSPC observations of three such galaxies.

  6. X-ray spectroscopy of low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Juett, Adrienne Marie, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    I present high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using instruments onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). The first ...

  7. Chemistry in low-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions

    PubMed Central

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2006-01-01

    When interstellar clouds collapse to form new stars and planets, the surrounding gas and dust become part of the infalling envelopes and rotating disks, thus providing the basic material from which new solar systems are formed. Instrumentation to probe the chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions has only recently become available. The results of a systematic program to study the abundances in solar-mass protostellar and protoplanetary regions are presented. Surveys at submillimeter and infrared wavelengths reveal a rich chemistry, including simple and complex (organic) gases, ices, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and silicates. Each of these species traces different aspects of the physical and chemical state of the objects as they evolve from deeply embedded protostars to pre-main sequence stars with planet-forming disks. Quantitative information on temperatures, densities, and abundances is obtained through molecular excitation and radiative transfer models as well as from analysis of solid-state line profiles. The chemical characteristics are dominated by freeze-out in the coldest regions and ice evaporation in the warmer zones. In the surface layers of disks, UV radiation controls the chemistry. The importance of complementary laboratory experiments and calculations to obtain basic molecular data is emphasized. PMID:16894165

  8. Triggered star formation in Bright-Rimmed Clouds: The Eagle Nebula revisited

    E-print Network

    J. Miao; G. J. White; R. P. Nelson; M. A. Thompson; L. K. Morgan

    2006-03-09

    A three dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamical (SPH) model has been extended to study the radiative driven implosion effect of massive stars on the dynamical evolutions of surrounding molecular clouds. The new elements in the upgraded code are the inclusion of Lyman continuum in the incident radiation flux and the treatment of hydrogen ionisation process; introducing ionisation heating & recombination cooling effects; and adding a proper description of the magnetic and turbulent pressures to the internal pressure of the molecular cloud. The application of this newly developed model to the structure of the middle Eagle Nebula finger suggests that the shock induced by the ionising radiation at the front side of the head precedes an ionisation front moving towards the center of the core, and that the core at the fingertip is at transition stage evolving toward a state of induced star formation. The dynamical evolution of the velocity field of the simulated cloud structure is discussed to illustrate the role of the self-gravity and the different cloud morphologies which appear at different stages in the evolutionary process of the cloud. The modelled gas evaporation rate is consistent with that of current other models and the density, temperature and chemical profiles are agreement with the observed values. The relative lifetimes of different simulated cloud morphologies suggests a possible answer to the question of why more bright-rimmed clouds are observed to possess a flat-core than an elongated-core morphology. [Abridged

  9. SP-100 low mass shield design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The shielding considerations for an unmanned space reactor system are somewhat different from those for a terrestrial reactor. An unmanned operation in space implies that only a shadow shield, rather than a 4..pi.. one, is required to protect payload hardware that typically can tolerate 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ times more radiation than can a human crew. On the other hand, the system mass, of which the radiation shield can be a significant fraction, is a severe constraint for space reactors and not normally a problem with terrestrial ones. The object of this paper is to briefly summarize advancements made on various aspects of low mass shield design for space reactors, including materials and their arrangements, geometric factors and their potential impact on system design optimization, and proposed new configuration concepts for further mass reduction.

  10. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: more cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, Jon; Winchell, Christopher J

    2007-06-01

    This is an expanded study of the relationships among the deuterostome animals based on combined, nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes (>3925 nt.). It adds sequences from 20 more taxa to the approximately 45 sequences used in past studies. Seven of the new taxa were sequenced here (brittle star Ophiomyxa, lizard Anolis, turtle Chrysemys, sixgill shark Hexanchus, electric ray Narcine, Southern Hemisphere lamprey Geotria, and Atlantic hagfish Myxine for 28S), and the other 13 were from GenBank and the literature (from a chicken, dog, rat, human, three lungfishes, and several ray-finned fishes, or Actinopterygii). As before, our alignments were based on secondary structure but did not account for base pairing in the stems of rRNA. The new findings, derived from likelihood-based tree-reconstruction methods and by testing hypotheses with parametric bootstrapping, include: (1) brittle star joins with sea star in the echinoderm clade, Asterozoa; (2) with two hagfishes and two lampreys now available, the cyclostome (jawless) fishes remain monophyletic; (3) Hexanchiform sharks are monophyletic, as Hexanchus groups with the frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus; (4) turtle is the sister taxon of all other amniotes; (5) bird is closer to the lizard than to the mammals; (6) the bichir Polypterus is in a monophyletic Actinopterygii; (7) Zebrafish Danio is the sister taxon of the other two teleosts we examined (trout and perch); (8) the South American and African lungfishes group together to the exclusion of the Australian lungfish. Other findings either upheld those of the previous rRNA-based studies (e.g., echinoderms and hemichordates group as Ambulacraria; orbitostylic sharks; batoids are not derived from any living lineage of sharks) or were obvious (monophyly of mammals, gnathostomes, vertebrates, echinoderms, etc.). Despite all these findings, the rRNA data still fail to resolve the relations among the major groups of deuterostomes (tunicates, Ambulacraria, cephalochordates and vertebrates) and of gnathostomes (chondrichthyans, lungfishes, coelacanth, actinopterygians, amphibians, and amniotes), partly because tunicates and lungfishes are rogue taxa that disrupt the tree. Nonetheless, parametric bootstrapping showed our RNA-gene data are only consistent with these dominant hypotheses: (1) deuterostomes consist of Ambulacraria plus Chordata, with Chordata consisting of tunicates and 'vertebrates plus cephalochordates'; and (2) lungfishes are the closest living relatives of tetrapods. PMID:17276090

  11. Classical Bulges, Supermassive Black Holes, and AGN Feedback: Extension to Low-mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhankui; Mo, H. J.

    2015-04-01

    The empirical model of Lu et al. for the relation between star formation rate and halo mass growth is adopted to predict the classical bulge mass ({{M}cb})–total stellar mass ({{M}\\star }) relation for central galaxies. The assumption that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass ({{M}BH}) is directly proportional to the classical bulge mass, with the proportionality given by that for massive galaxies, predicts a {{M}BH}?{{M}\\star } relation that matches well the observed relation for different types of galaxies. In particular, the model reproduces the strong transition at {{M}\\star }={{10}10.5}?{{10}11} {{M}? }, below which {{M}BH} drops rapidly with decreasing {{M}\\star }. Our model predicts a new sequence at {{M}\\star }\\lt {{10}10.5} {{M}? }, where {{M}BH}\\propto {{M}\\star } but the amplitude is a factor of ?50 lower than the amplitude of the sequence at {{M}\\star }\\gt {{10}11} {{M}? }. If all SMBHs grow through similar quasar modes with a feedback efficiency of a few percent, then the energy produced in low-mass galaxies at redshift z? 2 can heat the circumgalactic medium up to a specific entropy level that is required to prevent excessive star formation in low-mass dark matter halos.

  12. MAPPING THE LOCAL HALO: STATISTICAL PARALLAX ANALYSIS OF SDSS LOW-MASS SUBDWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, John J. [Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Ave., Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Savcheva, Antonia; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L., E-mail: jbochans@haverford.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    We present a statistical parallax study of nearly 2000 M subdwarfs with photometry and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Statistical parallax analysis yields the mean absolute magnitudes, mean velocities, and velocity ellipsoids for homogenous samples of stars. We selected homogeneous groups of subdwarfs based on their photometric colors and spectral appearance. We examined the color-magnitude relations of low-mass subdwarfs and quantified their dependence on the newly refined metallicity parameter, {zeta}. We also developed a photometric metallicity parameter, {delta}{sub (g-r)}, based on the g - r and r - z colors of low-mass stars and used it to select stars with similar metallicities. The kinematics of low-mass subdwarfs as a function of color and metallicity were also examined and compared to main-sequence M dwarfs. We find that the SDSS subdwarfs share similar kinematics to the inner halo and thick disk. The color-magnitude relations derived in this analysis will be a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing low-mass metal-poor subdwarfs in future surveys such as Gaia and LSST, making them important and plentiful tracers of the stellar halo.

  13. A SPITZER SEARCH FOR SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; McLeod, B., E-mail: mkilic@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The formation scenarios for single low-mass (M < 0.45 M{sub sun}) white dwarfs (WDs) include enhanced mass loss from a metal-rich progenitor star or a common envelope phase of a solar-like star with a close-in massive planet or a brown dwarf. Both scenarios suggest that low-mass WDs may have planets. Here, we present a Spitzer IRAC search for substellar and planetary mass companions to 14 low-mass WDs. One of our targets, HS 1653+7753, displays near- and mid-infrared flux excess. However, follow-up MMT observations show that this excess is due to a nearby resolved source, which is mostly likely a background object. Another target, PG 2257+162, shows flux excess compatible with a late-type stellar companion. We do not detect substellar companions to any of the remaining targets. In addition, eight of these stars do not show any radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar mass companions including other WDs. We conclude that a significant fraction of the low-mass WDs in our sample do not have stellar or massive brown dwarf companions.

  14. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1999-01-01

    The final technical report of the NASA grant project is presented. The goals of the grant were to: (1) analyze the data from the Far-Infrared (FIR) Camera on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO); (2) acquire additional data at other wavelengths for models and (4) to develop source models for the Young stellar objects (YSOs)under study. The complete Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all sources being studied have been obtained. The FIR imaging data was processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk we have the high resolution millimeter interferometry data. In summary the results to date are: (1) the vast majority of embedded YSOs in Taurus are compact at 100 microns. The models mos consistent with our data and other observations are either dominated by disk emissions, or envelopes that have relatively steep density gradients; (2) the submillimeter/millimeter photometer suggests that models are very successful. Disk emission plays an important role and must be considered when predicting the overall emission. (3) in the two cases, where we seem to have extended emission, we have to investigate other possible source models than a Shu collapse.

  15. The Circumstellar Environment of Low Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained the complete SED from 10 microns out to 1.3 mm for all of our sources. We have the FIR imaging data, processed to reveal the maximum angular resolution possible, which allows us to model the disk. To model the disk, we have high resolution millimeter interferometry data.

  16. MODEL ATMOSPHERES OF VERY LOW MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    France Allard; Peter H. Hauschildt; David R. Alexander; Sumner Starrfield

    1997-01-01

    As progressively cooler stellar and substellar objects are discovered, the presence first of molecules and then of condensed particulates greatly complicates the understanding of their physical properties. Accurate model atmospheres that include these processes are the key to establishing their atmospheric parameters. They play a crucial role in determining structural characteristics by setting the surface conditions of model interiors and

  17. MINERVA: A Dedicated Observatory for Detection of Nearby Low-Mass Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrady, Nate; Johnson, John; Wright, Jason; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Blake, Cullen; Swift, Jonathan; Eastman, Jason D.; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed L.; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Bottom, Michael; Zhao, Ming; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of low-mass planets around GKM stars requires sub-meter-per-second radial velocity precision. Stellar noise sources (starspots, oscillations, and granulation) necessitate high cadence observations. MINERVA is a dedicated observatory for velocimetric detection of low mass exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. Our array of four robotic 0.7-meter PlaneWave telescopes feeds a purpose-built, temperature-stabilized, iodine cell spectrometer from Callaghan Innovation. We will monitor bright, sun-like stars within 100 pc every clear night from Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins, Arizona. Each telescope is also equipped with an Andor CCD for followup photometry and education use. Commissioning is underway on the site and science observations will begin in early 2015.

  18. Low Mass Members in Nearby Young Moving Groups Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua; Simon, Michal; Rice, Emily; Lepine, Sebastien

    2010-08-01

    We are now ready to expand our program that identifies highly probable low-mass members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) to stars of mass ~ 0.1 Msun. This is important 1) To provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, 2) To complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs, and 3) To provide a well-characterized sample of nearby young stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity (the median distances of the (beta) Pic and AB Dor groups are ~ 35 pc with ages ~ 12 and 50 Myr respectively). Our proven technique starts with a proper motion selection algorithm, proceeds to vet the sample for indicators of youth, and requires as its last step the measurement of candidate member radial velocities (RVs). So far, we have obtained all RV measurements with the high resolution IR spectrometer at the NASA-IRTF and have reached the limits of its applicability. To identify probable new members in the south, and also those of the lowest mass, we need the sensitivity of PHOENIX at Gemini-S and NIRSPEC at Keck-II.

  19. The Low-Mass Content of the Hyades stellar cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Bertrand; Roeser, Siegfried; Schilbach, Elena; Henning, Thomas; Olczak, Christoph; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2013-07-01

    The Hyades cluster is an ideal target to study the dynamical evolution of a star cluster over the entire mass range due to its intermediate age and proximity to the Sun. We extend the Hyades mass function towards lower masses into the brown dwarf regime and use the full three-dimensional spatial information to characterize the dynamical evolution of the cluster. In addition, once binaries are identified, the new members will allow us to characterize the evolution of ultra-cool dwarfs at an age of 650 Myr. We perform a kinematic and photometric selection using the PPMXL and Pan-STARRS1 sky surveys, to search for cluster members up to 30 pc from the cluster centre. We determine our detection efficiency and field star contamination rate to derive the cluster luminosity and mass function. A minimum spanning tree algorithm is used to quantify the mass segregation. As likeliest candidates, we discover 43 new Hyades member candidates with mass estimates below 0.43 Msun, and double the number of low-mass member candidates. The cluster is significantly mass segregated. The extension of the mass function towards lower masses provides an even clearer signature than estimated before.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Young Binaries with Low-Mass Secondaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana; Grinin, Vladimir; Sotnikova, Nataliya

    2012-04-01

    The model of a young star with a low-mass secondary component (q = M2/M1 <= 0.1) accreting matter from a circumbinary (CB) disc is considered. It is assumed that the orbit and the CB disc can be coplanar and non-coplanar. The model parameters were varied within the following ranges: the component mass ratioq ranged from 0.1 to 0.003, the eccentricity e varied from 0 to 0.7, the inclination of the orbit plane to the CB disc ranged from 0 to 10 degrees, and the parameter that defines the viscosity of the system was also varied. A number of hydrodynamics models of such a system have been calculated by the SPH method and then the variations of the circumstellar extinction and phase brightness curves were determined. The calculated brightness curves differ in shape and amplitude and it depends on the model parameters and the orientation of the system relative to the observer. The results were used to analyze the cyclic activity of UX Ori type stars.

  1. Low-mass Visual Companions to Nearby G-dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2011-02-01

    A complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20'', 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to a companion frequency of 0.13 ± 0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by an alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions—a necessary step toward reaching unbiased multiplicity statistics over the full range of orbital periods and, eventually, understanding the origin of multiple systems.

  2. The Active Contact Binary Ty UMa Revisited: is It a Quadruple Star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Hu, S.-M.; Guo, D.-F.; Jiang, Y.-G.; Gao, Y.-G.; Chen, X.; Odell, Andrew P.

    2015-04-01

    TY UMa is an F-type eclipsing binary star. Four-color light curves and radial velocities of this system were presented and simultaneously analyzed using the W-D code. It is found that TY UMa is a W-subtype shallow contact binary system (f=13.4%) with a mass ratio of q = 2.523. In order to explain the asymmetric light curve of this binary, a dark spot on the less massive component was employed. Our newly determined 31 times of minimum light, including those collected from the literature, have been used to analyze orbital period changes of TY UMa. The complicated period variation could be sorted into a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt\\=\\+5.18(+/- 0.21)× {{10}-7} days yr-1, a 51.7 yr periodic modulation (A3 = 0.0182 days), and a very small amplitude cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.0 yr (A4 = 0.0015 days). The long-term increase of the period can be explained by mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. The Applegate mechanism may impossibly explain the two cyclic components in the period. The two cyclic variations are very likely caused by the light travel time effect of third and fourth components, suggesting that TY UMa is a quadruple system.

  3. Binary Star Orbits. III. Revisiting the Remarkable Case of Tweedledum and Tweedledee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; McAlister, Harold A.

    2010-07-01

    Two of the most challenging objects for optical interferometry in the middle of the last century were the close components (FIN 332) of the wide visual binary STF2375 (= WDS 18455+0530 = HIP 92027 = ADS 11640). Each component of the wide pair was found to have subcomponents of approximately the same magnitude, position angle, and separation and, hence, were designated by the tongue-in-cheek monikers "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" by the great visual interferometrist William S. Finsen in 1953. They were later included in a list of "Double Stars that Vex the Observer" by W.H. van den Bos in 1958. While speckle interferometry has reaped a rich harvest investigating the close inteferometric binaries of Finsen, the "Tweedles" have continued to both fascinate and exasperate due to both the great similarity of the close pairs and the inherent 180° ambiguity associated with interferometry. Detailed analysis of all published observations of the system has revealed several errors which are here corrected, allowing for determination of these orbital elements which resolve the quadrant ambiguity. A unique software filter was developed which allowed subarrays from archival ICCD speckle data from 1982 to be re-reduced. Those data, combined with new and unpublished observations obtained in 2001-2009 from NOAO 4 m telescopes, the Mount Wilson 100 inch telescope and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 61 inch telescope as well as high-quality unresolved measures all allow for the correct orbits to be determined. Co-planarity of the multiple system is also investigated.

  4. Low-mass substellar candidates in NGC 2264

    E-print Network

    Tim Kendall; Jerome Bouvier; Estelle Moraux; David James

    2004-07-16

    NGC 2264 is a young (3 Myr), populous star forming region for which our optical studies have revealed a very high density of potential brown dwarf (BD) candidates - 236 in less than 1 sq. deg. - from the substellar limit down to 20 Mjup. Candidate BD were first selected using wide field (I,z) band imaging with CFHT/12K, by reference to current theoretical isochrones. Subsequently, around 50% of the I,z sample were found to have near-infrared (2MASS) photometry, allowing further selection by comparison with the location of DUSTY isochrones in colour-colour diagrams involving combinations of IJHK colours. After rejection of objects with only upper limits to J, six candidates were selected from the I-K,J-H diagram which afforded the best separation of candidate and field objects; of these, 2 also lie close to the model predictions in the I-J,I-K and I-J,H-K plots. After dereddening, all six remain probable very low-mass NGC 2264 members, in spite of their low Av, while a different group of objects are shown to be highly reddened background giants. A further three brighter (at $I$) objects selected by their I-J,I-K colours, lie at the substellar limit and are likely cluster objects, as are 2 intermediate mass objects selected by their I-K and H-K colours. These objects potentially constitute a hitherto unknown population of young, low-mass BD in this region; only slighty deeper observations could reveal a new laboratory for the study of near-planetary-mass objects.

  5. Modeling water emission from low-mass protostellar envelopes

    E-print Network

    T. A. van Kempen; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; M. R. Hogerheijde; J. K. Joergensen

    2008-05-06

    Within low-mass star formation, water vapor plays a key role in the chemistry and energy balance of the circumstellar material. The Herschel Space Observatory will open up the possibility to observe water lines originating from a wide range of excitation energies.Our aim is to simulate the emission of rotational water lines from envelopes characteristic of embedded low-mass protostars. A large number of parameters that influence the water line emission are explored: luminosity, density,density slope and water abundances.Both dust and water emission are modelled using full radiative transfer in spherical symmetry. The temperature profile is calculated for a given density profile. The H2O level populations and emission profiles are in turn computed with a non-LTE line code. The results are analyzed to determine the diagnostic value of different lines, and are compared with existing observations. Lines can be categorized in: (i) optically thick lines, including ground-state lines, mostly sensitive to the cold outer part; (ii) highly excited (E_u>200-250 K) optically thin lines sensitive to the abundance in the hot inner part; and (iii) lines which vary from optically thick to thin depending on the abundances. Dust influences the emission of water significantly by becoming optically thick at the higher frequencies, and by pumping optically thin lines. A good physical model of a source, including a correct treatment of dust, is a prerequisite to infer the water abundance structure and possible jumps at the evaporation temperature from observations. The inner warm (T>100 K) envelope can be probed byhighly-excited lines, while a combination of excited and spectrally resolved ground state lines probes the outer envelope. Observations of H218O lines, although weak, provide even stronger constraints on abundances.

  6. Evolution of Low Mass Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St?pie?, K.; Gazeas, K.

    2012-06-01

    VFTS 682, a very massive and very hot Wolf-Rayet (WR) star recently discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud near the famous star cluster R136, might be providing us with a glimpse of a missing link in our understanding of Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRBs), including dark GRBs. It is likely its properties result from chemically homogeneous evolution (CHE), believed to be a key process for a massive star to become a GRB. It is also heavily obscured by dust extinction, which could make it a dark GRB upon explosion. Using Spitzer data we investigate the properties of interstellar dust in the vicinity of R136, and argue that its high obscuration is not unusual for its environment and that it could indeed be a slow runaway (``walkaway'') from R136. Unfortunately, based on its current mass loss rate, VFTS 682 is unlikely to become a GRB, because it will lose too much angular momentum at its death. If it were to become a GRB, it probably would also not be dark, either escaping or destroying its surrounding dusty region. Nevertheless, it is a very interesting star, deserving further studies, and being one of only three presently identified WR stars (two others in the Small Magellanic Cloud) that seems to be undergoing CHE.

  7. BINARY STAR ORBITS. III. REVISITING THE REMARKABLE CASE OF TWEEDLEDUM AND TWEEDLEDEE

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20392-5420 (United States); McAlister, Harold A., E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mi, E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mi, E-mail: hal@chara.gsu.ed [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Two of the most challenging objects for optical interferometry in the middle of the last century were the close components (FIN 332) of the wide visual binary STF2375 (= WDS 18455+0530 = HIP 92027 = ADS 11640). Each component of the wide pair was found to have subcomponents of approximately the same magnitude, position angle, and separation and, hence, were designated by the tongue-in-cheek monikers 'Tweedledum and Tweedledee' by the great visual interferometrist William S. Finsen in 1953. They were later included in a list of 'Double Stars that Vex the Observer' by W.H. van den Bos in 1958. While speckle interferometry has reaped a rich harvest investigating the close inteferometric binaries of Finsen, the 'Tweedles' have continued to both fascinate and exasperate due to both the great similarity of the close pairs and the inherent 180{sup 0} ambiguity associated with interferometry. Detailed analysis of all published observations of the system has revealed several errors which are here corrected, allowing for determination of these orbital elements which resolve the quadrant ambiguity. A unique software filter was developed which allowed subarrays from archival ICCD speckle data from 1982 to be re-reduced. Those data, combined with new and unpublished observations obtained in 2001-2009 from NOAO 4 m telescopes, the Mount Wilson 100 inch telescope and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 61 inch telescope as well as high-quality unresolved measures all allow for the correct orbits to be determined. Co-planarity of the multiple system is also investigated.

  8. Low mass asymptotic giant branch evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzio, J. C.

    Becker and Iben (1979, 1980) have studied the evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars as a function of mass and composition for M equal to or greater than 3 solar masses. The results of calculations such as those conducted by Becker and Iben may be used to provide input data for calculations of synthetic AGB star populations. However, these calculations fail to produce C stars at the low luminosities required by the observations. A possible reason for this situation is the lack of input data for masses in the approximate range from 1 to 3 solar masses in the synthetic AGB populations. A critical parameter is the initial mass MH(1) of the hydrogen-exhausted core at the first (major) thermal pulse. The primary objective of the present investigation is the determination of MH(1) as a function of composition and mass (between 1 and 3 solar masses). The obtained results are presented in a graph.

  9. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Macintosh, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Fabrycky, D. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Hallinan, G. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail: macintosh1@llnl.gov, E-mail: konopacky@di.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: fabrycky@ucolick.org, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: barman@lowell.edu, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: gh@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: gduchene@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s{sup -1}), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at {approx}30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes {approx}<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3{sigma}. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  10. Deuterated water in low-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutens, Audrey; Vastel, Charlotte; Chess Collaboration; Wish Collaboration; Hexos Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In addition to its dominant role in the cooling of warm gas and in the oxygen chemistry, water is a primordial species in the emergence of life, and comets may have brought a large fraction to Earth to form the oceans. Observations of deuterated water are an important complement for studies of H2O to understand how water forms and how it has evolved from cold prestellar cores to protoplanetary disks and consequently oceans for the Earth's specific, but probably not isolated, case. Several deuterated water transitions were observed with the Herschel/HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared) instrument towards three low-mass protostars: IRAS 16293-2422, NGC1333 IRAS4A and NGC1333 IRAS4B. In the first source, both HDO and D2O lines are detected, thanks to the unbiased spectral survey carried out by the CHESS key program (Vastel et al. 2010, Coutens et al. 2013a). In the framework of a collaboration between the CHESS, WISH and HEXOS programs, two HDO key lines were observed towards the two other protostars. In addition, complementary observations were carried out with several ground-based single-dish telescopes (IRAM-30m, JCMT, APEX). We used the non-LTE RATRAN spherical model (Hogerheijde & van der Tak 2000) to determine the HDO abundance distribution throughout the protostellar envelope. An abundance jump at 100 K is required to reproduce the line profiles. Indeed, water molecules trapped in the icy grain mantles thermally desorb in the hot corinos, the inner warm regions of the protostellar envelopes. We also obtain that it is necessary to add a water-rich external absorbing layer to reproduce the absorbing components of the HDO and D2O fundamental transitions in all sources (Coutens et al. 2012, 2013a,b). The results derived for the different sources will be then presented and discussed.

  11. Mountains and R-Modes in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I discuss Low-Mass X-ray Binaries as sources of gravitational waves and review theoretical work on the signal expected from "mountains" on the neutron star and unstable modes. In particular I will focus on the r-mode instability and discuss how X-ray data can be used to aid gravitational wave detection and to constrain the physical mechanisms at work in the stellar interior.

  12. Low-mass Eclipsing Binaries To Refine Barnes-Evans-like Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, P. J.

    2007-08-01

    The relation of the surface brightness, a parameter related to the apparent magnitude and the angular diameter of a star, with a colour index was first calibrated by Wesselink (1969) and later refined by Barnes & Evans (1976). This calibration has a very wide range of applicability amongst which is the evaluation of various stellar parameters. In this work, we use a number of low-mass eclipsing binaries whose parameters have been accurately determined to refine the Barnes-Evans-like relation F[V ]- (I[c]-K) introduced by Amado et al. (1999), a relation more suitable for the low temperature of cool stars.

  13. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    E-print Network

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes, or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth only hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Here we focus on searches for black holes with masses of 10^4-10^6 solar masses that are found at galaxy centers. We will refer to black holes in this mass range as "low-mass" black holes, since they are at the low-mass end of supermassive black holes. We review the searches for low-mass black holes to date and show tentative evidence, from the number of low-mass black holes that are ...

  14. Building the low-mass end of the red sequence with local post-starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, O. Ivy; Schawinski, K.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K.; Nichol, R.; Lintott, C.; Keel, W.; Darg, D.; Bamford, S.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2011-05-01

    We present a study of local post-starburst galaxies (PSG) using the photometric and spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the results from the Galaxy Zoo project. We find that 74% of the local PSG are of indeterminate morphology. These local PSG also occupy a well-defined space within the color-stellar mass diagram, most notably in the low-mass end of the green valley below the transition mass described by Kauffmann et al. to be the mass division between low-mass star-forming galaxies and high-mass passively-evolving bulge-dominated galaxies. Our analysis suggests that it is likely that a local PSG will quickly transform into low-mass early-type galaxies as the stellar morphologies of the green PSG largely resemble that of the early-type galaxies within the same mass range. We propose that the current populations of PSG represent one population of galaxies which are rapidly transitioning from the blue cloud to the red sequence and subsequently, contributing towards the build-up of the low-mass end of the red sequence. This finding is consistent with the idea of downsizing where the build-up of smaller galaxies occurs at later epochs.

  15. Lense-Thirring Precession and QPOs in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    Luigi Stella; Mario Vietri

    1997-09-10

    We show in this Letter that relativistic dragging of inertial frames around fast rotating collapsed stars is substantial and can give rise to observable effects. We apply this to the kHz quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) sources, low mass X-ray binaries (LMXRBs) containing an accreting neutron star. Within the beat frequency model, both the Keplerian frequency of the innermost region of the accretion disk (~0.3-1.2 kHz) and the neutron star spin frequency (~0.3-0.4 kHz) are directly observed. From these the Lense-Thirring precession frequency (tens of Hz) of the same material in the innermost disk regions which gives rise to the kHz QPOs is determined within a factor of ~4, depending on the neutron star equation of state. The classical contribution from neutron star oblateness decreases the precession frequency slightly. The broad peaks at frequencies ~20-40 Hz in the power spectra of the Atoll-sources 4U1728-34, 4U0614+091 and KS1731-260 and their variations with the higher kHz QPO frequency are well matched by Lense-Thirring precession of material in the innermost disk region. We also suggest that the ~15-50 Hz horizontal branch QPOs of GX5-1 and GX17+2 (and likewise other Z-type low mass X-ray binaries) arise from the same mechanism.

  16. FORMATION OF MILLISECOND PULSARS FROM INTERMEDIATE- AND LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yong [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Xiangdong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-09-01

    We present a systematic study of the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries consisting of an accreting neutron star of mass 1.0-1.8 M{sub Sun} and a donor star of mass 1.0-6.0 M{sub Sun }. In our calculations we take into account physical processes such as unstable disk accretion, radio ejection, bump-induced detachment, and outflow from the L{sub 2} point. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results. (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period-donor mass plane increases with increasing neutron star mass. This may help explain why some millisecond pulsars with orbital periods longer than {approx}60 days seem to have less massive white dwarfs than expected. Alternatively, some of these wide binary pulsars may be formed through mass transfer driven by planet/brown-dwarf-involved common envelope evolution. (2) Some of the pulsars in compact binaries might have evolved from intermediate-mass X-ray binaries with anomalous magnetic braking. (3) The equilibrium spin periods of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries are in general shorter than the observed spin periods of binary pulsars by more than one order of magnitude, suggesting that either the simple equilibrium spin model does not apply or there are other mechanisms/processes spinning down the neutron stars.

  17. The Mass Distribution of Companions to Low-mass White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring the masses of companions to single-line spectroscopic binary stars is (in general) not possible because of the unknown orbital plane inclination. Even when the mass of the visible star can be measured, only a lower limit can be placed on the mass of the unseen companion. However, since these inclination angles should be isotropically distributed, for a large enough, unbiased sample, the companion mass distribution can be deconvolved from the distribution of observables. In this work, we construct a hierarchical probabilistic model to infer properties of unseen companion stars given observations of the orbital period and projected radial velocity of the primary star. We apply this model to three mock samples of low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M <~ 0.45 M ?) and a sample of post-common-envelope binaries. We use a mixture of two Gaussians to model the WD and neutron star (NS) companion mass distributions. Our model successfully recovers the initial parameters of these test data sets. We then apply our model to 55 WDs in the extremely low-mass (ELM) WD Survey. Our maximum a posteriori model for the WD companion population has a mean mass ?WD = 0.74 M ?, with a standard deviation ?WD = 0.24 M ?. Our model constrains the NS companion fraction f NS to be <16% at 68% confidence. We make samples from the posterior distribution publicly available so that future observational efforts may compute the NS probability for newly discovered LMWDs.

  18. THE SURVEY OF H I IN EXTREMELY LOW-MASS DWARFS (SHIELD)

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, John M.; Engstrom, Eric; Allan, John; Erny, Grace; Fliss, Palmer; Smith, AnnaLeigh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We present first results from the Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas contents and dynamics of galaxies with H I masses in the 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun} range detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We describe the survey motivation and concept demonstration using Very Large Array imaging of six low-mass galaxies detected in early ALFALFA data products. We then describe the primary scientific goals of SHIELD and present preliminary EVLA and WIYN 3.5 m imaging of the 12 SHIELD galaxies. With only a few exceptions, the neutral gas distributions of these extremely low-mass galaxies are centrally concentrated. In only one system have we detected H I column densities higher than 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Despite this, the stellar populations of all of these systems are dominated by blue stars. Further, we find ongoing star formation as traced by H{alpha} emission in 10 of the 11 galaxies with H{alpha} imaging obtained to date. Taken together these results suggest that extremely low-mass galaxies are forming stars in conditions different from those found in more massive systems. While detailed dynamical analysis requires the completion of data acquisition, the most well-resolved system is amenable to meaningful position-velocity analysis. For AGC 749237, we find well-ordered rotation of 30 km s{sup -1} at {approx}40'' distance from the dynamical center. At the adopted distance of 3.2 Mpc, this implies the presence of a {approx}>1 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} dark matter halo and a baryon fraction {approx}<0.1.

  19. SDSS J184037.78+642312.3: THE FIRST PULSATING EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of the first pulsating extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarf (WD), SDSS J184037.78+642312.3 (hereafter J1840). This DA (hydrogen-atmosphere) WD is by far the coolest and the lowest-mass pulsating WD, with T{sub eff} = 9100 {+-} 170 K and log g = 6.22 {+-} 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of {approx}0.17 M{sub Sun }. This low-mass pulsating WD greatly extends the DAV (or ZZ Ceti) instability strip, effectively bridging the log g gap between WDs and main-sequence stars. We detect high-amplitude variability in J1840 on timescales exceeding 4000 s, with a non-sinusoidal pulse shape. Our observations also suggest that the variability is multi-periodic. The star is in a 4.6 hr binary with another compact object, most likely another WD. Future, more extensive time-series photometry of this ELM WD offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a low-mass, presumably He-core WD using the tools of asteroseismology.

  20. Prized results from HARPS. Low-mass/habitable/transiting planets orbiting M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfils, Xavier; Bouchy, François; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Gillon, M.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2013-04-01

    Searching for planets around stars with different masses probes the outcome of planetary formation for different initial conditions. The low-mass M dwarfs are also the most frequent stars in our Galaxy and potentially therefore, the most frequent planet hosts. This has motivated our search for planets around M dwarfs with HARPS. That observing program has now run for almost a decade and detected most of the known low-mass planets orbiting M dwarfs (m sin i < 20 M?), including the least massive (GJ581e, msini = 1.9 M?) and the first potentially habitable planets (GJ581c&d GJ667Cc, GJ163c). This proceeding shortly reviews the detections made with HARPS, reports on the occurrence of planets around M dwarfs and how they mesh up with planet formation theory. It also highlights our sensitivity to low-mass habitable planets, the first direct measure of ??, and the recent detection of a transiting planet the size of Uranus.

  1. Absolute visual magnitudes of low-mass X-ray binaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Paradijs, J.; McClintock, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    We have derived absolute visual magnitudes for 18 low-mass X-ray binaries using various methods (membership of a stellar system with known distance, Eddington luminosity X-ray standard candle, and absolute magnitude of the secondary star). A simple model for the optical emission is presented in which the X rays from the central source are reprocessed in an accretion disk of standard shape; this model implies that the optical luminosity, L_V_, scales with the X-ray luminosity, L_X_, and the outer radius of the accretion disk, R, approximately as L_V_{prop.to}L_X_^1/2^R. The absolute visual magnitudes of active low-mass X-ray binaries are found to range between ~5 and ~-5. This large range is the consequence of the large range in the X-ray luminosity and size of the accretion disk.

  2. Anisotropic illumination of a circumbinary disk in the presence of a low-mass companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, T. V.; Grinin, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    The model of a young star with a protoplanetary disk and a low-mass companion ( q ? 0.1) moving in a circular orbit inclined to the disk plane is considered. Hydrodynamic models of such a system have been calculated by the SPH method. The perturbations in the disk caused by the orbital motion of the companion are shown to lead to a strong dependence of the disk illumination conditions on azimuth (because of extinction variations between the star and the disk surface) and, as a result, to the appearance of a large-scale asymmetry in the disk images. Calculations show that the dependence of the disk illumination on azimuth is stronger in the central part of the disk than on the periphery. The bright and dark (shadow) regions are located asymmetrically relative to the line of nodes. The sizes of these regions and their positions on the disk depend on model parameters and orbital phase. During the orbital motion, the bright and dark regions do not follow the companion but execute small-amplitude oscillations relative to some direction. The model properties described above open up new possibilities for detecting low-mass companions in the vicinity of young stars. Stars with protoplanetary disks seen face-on or at low inclinations i are best suited for this purpose.

  3. CCS and NH3 emission associated with low-mass young stellar objects

    E-print Network

    I. de Gregorio-Monsalvo; J. F. Gomez; O. Suarez; T. B. H. Kuiper; L. F. Rodriguez; E. Jimenez-Bailon

    2005-12-27

    In this work we present a sensitive and systematic single-dish survey of CCS emission (complemented with ammonia observations) at 1 cm, toward a sample of low- and intermediate-mass young star forming regions known to harbor water maser emission, made with NASA's 70 m antenna at Robledo de Chavela, Spain. Out of the 40 star forming regions surveyed in the CCS(2_{1}-1_{0}) line, only 6 low-mass sources show CCS emission: one transitional object between pre-stellar and protostellar Class 0 phase (GF9-2), three Class 0 protostars (L1448-IRS3, L1448C, and B1-IRS), a Class I source (L1251A), and a young T Tauri star (NGC2071-North). Since CCS is considered an ``early-time'' (intensity (higher in regions with CCS), but not with its integrated intensity. This tendency found may suggest that the narrower ammonia line widths in the less turbulent medium associated with younger cores may compensate for the differences in ammonia peak intensity, rendering differences in integrated intensity negligible. From the CCS detection rate we derive a lifetime of this molecule of ~(0.7-3) x 10E+4 yr in low-mass star forming regions.

  4. Direct Search for Low Mass Dark Matter Particles with CCDs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barreto, J [Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Cease, H.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Harrison, N.; Jones, J.; Kilminster, B [Fermilab; Molina, J [Asuncion Natl. U.; Smith, J.; Sonnenschein, A [Fermilab

    2012-05-15

    A direct dark matter search is performed using fully-depleted high-resistivity CCD detectors. Due to their low electronic readout noise (RMS ~7 eV) these devices operate with a very low detection threshold of 40 eV, making the search for dark matter particles with low masses (~5 GeV) possible. The results of an engineering run performed in a shallow underground site are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technology in the low mass region.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-C.S.I.C., Glorieta de la Astronomia, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the properties of the ICM should play an important role in the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies in clusters.

  6. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND {rho} OPHIUCHI

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoc Phan-Bao [Department of Physics, HCMIU, Vietnam National University Administrative Building, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, HCM (Viet Nam); Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen, E-mail: pbngoc@hcmiu.edu.vn, E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and {rho} Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 {yields} 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M{sub J}, which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10{sup -10} M{sub sun}. These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M{sub J} in {rho} Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  7. The Role of Dwarf-Dwarf Interactions in the Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Besla, Gurtina; Patton, David R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Putman, Mary E.; Privon, George C.; Ross, Glen

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results from TiNy Titans, the first systematic study of a sample of isolated interacting dwarf galaxies and the mechanisms governing their star formation. Mergers of massive galaxies provide a significant mode of galaxy evolution; they are observed to trigger intense starbursts and significantly rearrage the gas, dust, and stars. Large volume simulations of structure formation, based in LambdaCDM cosmology, predict that mergers between low mass galaxies should occur more frequently than those between massive galaxies at all redshifts. However, the merger sequence for low mass galaxies is relatively unexplored. A few intriguing examples of dwarf-dwarf interactions exist in the literature, but the efficiency of gas removal and the enhancement of star formation in dwarfs via pre-processing (i.e. dwarf-dwarf interactions occuring before the accretion by a massive host) have never been studied for a sample of dwarfs covering a range of interaction stages. Our multiwavelength approach gathers high resolution optical, UV, and radio imaging to probe the effects of interactions on the star formation and ISM in a sample of dwarfs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that: 1) star formation is enhanced in paired dwarfs over their unpaired analogs, 2) the enhancement in star formation is more pronounced as a function of pair separation than that observed in massive galaxy pairs, 3) the dwarf-dwarf interactions contribute significantly to the population of starbursting dwarfs, and 4) the paired dwarfs still have large gas reservoirs and exhibit no signs of quenching.

  8. Detection of an Extrasolar Planet Candidate in Habitable Zone of a Low-Mass Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte, Sophie; Bochanski, J. J.; Willman, B.; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.; Law, N. M.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of 58 low-mass stars surveyed by the Kepler Space Telescope. Our initial study was a search for eclipses in a sample of candidate M dwarf - white dwarf binary stars. The stars were observed in the Kepler wide-band visual filter nearly continuously over 300 days, at a cadence of 29.5 minutes. The resulting light curves were used to measure the rotation periods for each star in our sample, and identified other transient features, such as flares. The typical signal-to-noise ratio in our sample is 500 or more. During the course of our investigation, one star exhibited signs of a periodic transit. We observed a 1.2% transit signal occurring every 76 days, suggesting a planetary companion with an orbital semi-major axis of ~ 0.3 AU. We have obtained follow-up observations of the host star, including ground-based adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy. We detail our efforts to characterize the planetary candidate and host star. We gratefully acknowledge the support NSF grant AST-1151462.

  9. Correlations in the QPO Frequencies of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries and the Relativistic Precession Model

    E-print Network

    Luigi Stella; Mario Vietri; Sharon Morsink

    1999-07-26

    A remarkable correlation between the centroid frequencies of quasi periodic oscillations, QPOs, (or peaked noise components) from low mass X-ray binaries, has been recently discovered by Psaltis, Belloni and van der Klis (1999). This correlation extends over nearly 3 decades in frequency and encompasses both neutron star and black hole candidate systems. We discuss this result in the light of the relativistic precession model, which has been proposed to interpret the kHz QPOs as well as some of the lower frequency QPOs of neutron star low mass X-ray binaries of the Atoll and Z classes. Unlike other models the relativistic precession model does not require the compact object to be a neutron star and can be applied to black hole candidates as well. We show that the predictions of the relativistic precession model match both the value and dependence of the correlation to a very good accuracy without resorting to additional assumptions.

  10. The low-mass Initial Mass Function in the young cluster NGC 6611

    E-print Network

    J. M. Oliveira; R. D. Jeffries; J. Th. van Loon

    2008-10-24

    NGC 6611 is the massive young cluster (2-3 Myr) that ionises the Eagle Nebula. We present very deep photometric observations of the central region of NGC 6611 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and the following filters: ACS/WFC F775W and F850LP and NIC2 F110W and F160W, loosely equivalent to ground-based IZJH filters. This survey reaches down to I ~ 26 mag. We construct the Initial Mass Function (IMF) from ~ 1.5 Msun well into the brown dwarf regime (down to ~ 0.02 Msun). We have detected 30-35 brown dwarf candidates in this sample. The low-mass IMF is combined with a higher-mass IMF constructed from the groundbased catalogue from Oliveira et al. (2005). We compare the final IMF with those of well studied star forming regions: we find that the IMF of NGC 6611 more closely resembles that of the low-mass star forming region in Taurus than that of the more massive Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We conclude that there seems to be no severe environmental effect in the IMF due to the proximity of the massive stars in NGC 6611.

  11. THE FREQUENCY OF LOW-MASS EXOPLANETS. III. TOWARD {eta}{sub +} AT SHORT PERIODS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Horner, J. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of NSW, NSW 2052 (Australia); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington DC 20015-1305 (United States); O'Toole, Simon J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Carter, B. D., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2011-09-01

    Determining the occurrence rate of 'super-Earth' planets (m sin i < 10 M{sub +}) is a critically important step on the path toward determining the frequency of Earth-like planets ({eta}{sub +}), and hence the uniqueness of our solar system. Current radial-velocity surveys, achieving precisions of 1 m s{sup -1}, are now able to detect super-Earths and provide meaningful estimates of their occurrence rate. We present an analysis of 67 solar-type stars from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search specifically targeted for very high precision observations. When corrected for incompleteness, we find that the planet occurrence rate increases sharply with decreasing planetary mass. Our results are consistent with those from other surveys: in periods shorter than 50 days, we find that 3.0% of stars host a giant (msin i > 100 M{sub +}) planet, and that 17.4% of stars host a planet with msin i < 10 M{sub +}. The preponderance of low-mass planets in short-period orbits is in conflict with formation simulations in which the majority of super-Earths reside at larger orbital distances. This work gives a hint as to the size of {eta}{sub +}, but to make meaningful predictions on the frequency of terrestrial planets in longer, potentially habitable orbits, low-mass terrestrial planet searches at periods of 100-200 days must be made an urgent priority for ground-based Doppler planet searches in the years ahead.

  12. On the evolutionary status of bright, low-mass X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbink, R. F.; Rappaport, S.; Savonije, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A model of bright, low-mass X-ray binaries is proposed which features a lower giant-branch star losing mass on a nuclear time scale to an accreting compact companion. Simple numerical models show that mass transfer rates equal to or greater than 10 to the -9th solar masses per yr are sustained at very nearly a constant rate until the envelope of the donor star is exhausted. The model predicts orbital periods in the range 1-200 days and X-ray to optical luminosity ratios Lx/Lopt = 200-1000 for these sources. It accounts in a natural way for the large fraction of the total galactic bulge luminosity emitted by a few bright (10 to the 37th erg/s or greater) sources. It also accords very well with the observed X-ray and optical properties of the halo source Cyg X-2 and also with those of 2S 0921-63, provided this latter system contains a massive accreting white dwarf rather than a neutron star. Problems of the prior evolution of low-mass X-ray sources are also briefly delineated.

  13. M dwarfs in the local Milky Way: The field low-mass stellar luminosity and mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochanski, John J., Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two- Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low- mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  14. Revisiting CoRoT RR Lyrae stars: detection of period doubling and temporal variation of additional frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, R.; Benk?, J. M.; Paparó, M.; Chapellier, E.; Poretti, E.; Baglin, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Kolenberg, K.; Guggenberger, E.; Le Borgne, J.-F.

    2014-10-01

    Context. High-precision, space-based photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler have revealed new and surprising phenomena in classical variable stars. Such discoveries were the period doubling in RR Lyrae stars and the frequent occurrence of additional periodicities some of which can be explained by radial overtone modes, but others are discordant with the radial eigenfrequency spectrum. Aims: We search for signs of period doubling in CoRoT RR Lyrae stars. The occurrence of this dynamical effect in modulated RR Lyrae stars might help us to gain more information about the mysterious Blazhko effect. The temporal variability of the additional frequencies in representatives of all subtypes of RR Lyrae stars is also investigated. Methods: We preprocess CoRoT light curves by applying trend and jump correction and outlier removal. Standard Fourier technique is used to analyze the frequency content of our targets and follow the time-dependent phenomena. Results: The most comprehensive collection of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars, including new discoveries is presented and analyzed. We found alternating maxima and in some cases half-integer frequencies in four CoRoT Blazhko RR Lyrae stars, as clear signs of the presence of period doubling. This reinforces that period doubling is an important ingredient for understanding the Blazhko effect - a premise we derived previously from the Kepler RR Lyrae sample. As expected, period doubling is detectable only for short time intervals in most modulated RRab stars. Our results show that the temporal variability of the additional frequencies in all RR Lyrae subtypes is ubiquitous. The ephemeral nature and the highly variable amplitude of these variations suggest a complex underlying dynamics of and an intricate interplay between radial and possibly nonradial modes in RR Lyrae stars. The omnipresence of additional modes in all types of RR Lyrae - except in non-modulated RRab stars - implies that asteroseismology of these objects should be feasible in the near future. The CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programs, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain.Follow-up observations were obtained at Piszkés-tet?, the Mountain Station of Konkoly Observatory.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A100

  15. Detection of a very low mass companion to the astrometric binary Gliese 105A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golimowski, D. A.; Nakajima, T.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Oppenheimer, B. R.

    1995-01-01

    Optical coronagraph images of the high proper motion astrometric binary Gl 105A reveal a very red companion, Gl 105C, located 3.27 arcsecs from Gl 105A at P.A. 287 deg. At this location, it is not clear whether Gl 105C can fully account for the astrometric perturbation of Gl 105A. Aperture photometry gives I(sub C) = 12.6 and R(sub C) - I(sub C) = 3.7 for Gl 105C, indicating that it is a very low mass M dwarf. Using the observed I(sub C), an empirical M(sub I) versus I-K relation, and an assumed distance of 8.2 pc to Gl 105A, M(sub K) = 9.7 is derived for Gl 105C. An empirical mass-M(sub K) relation for low-mass stars suggest a mass of 0.084 solar mass for Gl 105C, which is just above the minimum mass for stable hydrogen burning. Gl 105C was not detected in previous K-band searches; its detection demonstrates the usefulness of optical coronagraphy for identifying very low mass objects.

  16. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrey, Anne; di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-01

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  17. UNVEILING A POPULATION OF GALAXIES HARBORING LOW-MASS BLACK HOLES WITH X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xue, Y. Q. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 California Institute of Technology, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kakazu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Mainieri, V., E-mail: malte.schramm@ipmu.jp [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, Garching, D-85748 (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    We report the discovery of three low-mass black hole (BH) candidates residing in the centers of low-mass galaxies at z < 0.3 in the Chandra Deep Field-South Survey. These BHs are initially identified as candidate active galactic nuclei based on their X-ray emission in deep Chandra observations. Multi-wavelength observations are used to strengthen our claim that such emission is powered by an accreting supermassive BH. While the X-ray luminosities are low at L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} (and variable in one case), we argue that they are unlikely to be attributed to star formation based on H{alpha} or UV fluxes. Optical spectroscopy from Keck and the VLT allows us to (1) measure accurate redshifts, (2) confirm their low stellar host mass, (3) investigate the source(s) of photo-ionization, and (4) estimate extinction. With stellar masses of M{sub *} < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} determined from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, the host galaxies are among the lowest mass systems known to host actively accreting BHs. We estimate BH masses M{sub BH} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} based on scaling relations between BH mass and host properties for more luminous systems. In one case, a broad component of the H{alpha} emission-line profile is detected, thus providing a virial mass estimate. BHs in such low-mass galaxies are of considerable interest as the low-redshift analogs to the seeds of the most massive BHs at high redshift which have remained largely elusive to date. Our study highlights the power of deep X-ray surveys to uncover such low-mass systems.

  18. Unveiling a Population of Galaxies Harboring Low-mass Black Holes with X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Greene, J. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J.; Mainieri, V.

    2013-08-01

    We report the discovery of three low-mass black hole (BH) candidates residing in the centers of low-mass galaxies at z < 0.3 in the Chandra Deep Field-South Survey. These BHs are initially identified as candidate active galactic nuclei based on their X-ray emission in deep Chandra observations. Multi-wavelength observations are used to strengthen our claim that such emission is powered by an accreting supermassive BH. While the X-ray luminosities are low at LX ~ 1040 erg s-1 (and variable in one case), we argue that they are unlikely to be attributed to star formation based on H? or UV fluxes. Optical spectroscopy from Keck and the VLT allows us to (1) measure accurate redshifts, (2) confirm their low stellar host mass, (3) investigate the source(s) of photo-ionization, and (4) estimate extinction. With stellar masses of M * < 3 × 109 M ? determined from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, the host galaxies are among the lowest mass systems known to host actively accreting BHs. We estimate BH masses M BH ~ 2 × 105 M ? based on scaling relations between BH mass and host properties for more luminous systems. In one case, a broad component of the H? emission-line profile is detected, thus providing a virial mass estimate. BHs in such low-mass galaxies are of considerable interest as the low-redshift analogs to the seeds of the most massive BHs at high redshift which have remained largely elusive to date. Our study highlights the power of deep X-ray surveys to uncover such low-mass systems.

  19. Star Clusters Sterrenstelsels & Kosmos

    E-print Network

    Weijgaert, Rien van de

    Star Clusters Sterrenstelsels & Kosmos deel 2 1 #12;Types of star clusters 2 #12;Open or Galactic Clusters · "Open" or Galactic clusters are low mass, relatively small (~10 pc diameter) clusters of stars in the Galactic disk containing stars · The Pleiades cluster is a good example of an open cluster

  20. THE METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES: NEW CONSTRAINTS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.; Finlator, Kristian [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dressler, Alan, E-mail: alaina.henry@nasa.gov [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present abundance measurements from 26 emission-line-selected galaxies at z {approx} 0.6-0.7. By reaching stellar masses as low as 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, these observations provide the first measurement of the intermediate-redshift mass-metallicity (MZ) relation below 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. For the portion of our sample above M > 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} (8/26 galaxies), we find good agreement with previous measurements of the intermediate-redshift MZ relation. Compared to the local relation, we measure an evolution that corresponds to a 0.12 dex decrease in oxygen abundances at intermediate redshifts. This result confirms the trend that metallicity evolution becomes more significant toward lower stellar masses, in keeping with a downsizing scenario where low-mass galaxies evolve onto the local MZ relation at later cosmic times. We show that these galaxies follow the local fundamental metallicity relation, where objects with higher specific (mass-normalized) star formation rates (SFRs) have lower metallicities. Furthermore, we show that the galaxies in our sample lie on an extrapolation of the SFR-M{sub *} relation (the star-forming main sequence). Leveraging the MZ relation and star-forming main sequence (and combining our data with higher-mass measurements from the literature), we test models that assume an equilibrium between mass inflow, outflow, and star formation. We find that outflows are required to describe the data. By comparing different outflow prescriptions, we show that momentum, driven winds can describe the MZ relation; however, this model underpredicts the amount of star formation in low-mass galaxies. This disagreement may indicate that preventive feedback from gas heating has been overestimated, or it may signify a more fundamental deviation from the equilibrium assumption.

  1. Concept for coring from a low-mass rover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Backes; Oussama Khatib; Antonio Diaz-Calderon; James Warren; Curtis Collins; Zensheu Chang

    2006-01-01

    Future Mars missions such as the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission may benefit from core sample acquisition from a low-mass rover where the rover cannot be assumed to be stationary during a coring operation. Manipulation from Mars rovers is currently done under the assumption that the rover acts as a stationary, stable platform for the arm. An MSR mission scenario

  2. A new class of pulsating white dwarf of extremely low mass: the fourth and fifth members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Gianninas, A.; Winget, D. E.; Brown, Warren R.; Harrold, Samuel T.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Castanheira, Barbara G.

    2013-12-01

    We report the discovery of two new pulsating extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J161431.28+191219.4 (hereafter J1614) and SDSS J222859.93+362359.6 (hereafter J2228). Both WDs have masses <0.25 M? and thus likely harbour helium cores. Spectral fits indicate these are the two coolest pulsating WDs ever found. J1614 has Teff = 8880 ± 170 K and log g = 6.66 ± 0.14, which corresponds to a ˜0.19 M? WD. J2228 is considerably cooler, with a Teff = 7870 ± 120 K and log g = 6.03 ± 0.08, which corresponds to an ˜0.16 M? WD, making it the coolest and lowest mass pulsating WD known. There are multiple ELM WDs with effective temperatures between the warmest and coolest known ELM pulsators that do not pulsate to observable amplitudes, which questions the purity of the instability strip for low-mass WDs. In contrast to the CO-core ZZ Ceti stars, which are believed to represent a stage in the evolution of all such WDs, ELM WDs may not all evolve as a simple cooling sequence through an instability strip. Both stars exhibit long-period variability (1184-6235 s) consistent with non-radial g-mode pulsations. Although ELM WDs are preferentially found in close binary systems, both J1614 and J2228 do not exhibit significant radial-velocity variability, and are perhaps in low-inclination systems or have low-mass companions. These are the fourth and fifth pulsating ELM WDs known, all of which have hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, establishing these objects as a new class of pulsating WD.

  3. ROSAT observations of quiescent low mass disk galaxies: No evidence of baryonic blow out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, Gregory D.; Eriksen, James; Schombert, James M.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that galactic winds associated with star formation in low mass disk galaxies can be an effective means of relocating cold disk gas to a warm tenuous halo, we have obtained long exposure ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of three such galaxies. The sensitivity of the PSPC to the presence of an extended, approximately 0.15 KEV halo of 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas, is quite high for the exposure times we used. We failed to detect this halo in all three cases and the observed x-ray luminosity of the galaxy is two orders of magnitude less than the hypothetical case in which the mass of gas that has been expelled by previous generations of star formation is equal to the stellar mass of the galaxy itself. This limit is much less than the actual mass of cold gas in these galaxies. Thus, we were unable to verify directly the presence of significant galactic winds in these three galaxies either because they are not operative, because their halos are not sufficiently massive to aid in the retention of this gas, or because the amount of injected gas is just a small percentage of the cold disk gas. If the latter reason is emblematic of low mass galaxies then we would not expect the detection of halos. We also report here the serendipitous detection of Abell 1560, a distance class 7 cluster of unknown redshift.

  4. Stars : the end of a star

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    What happens during the death of a star? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the final processes of stars. Here students read about low-mass, medium-mass, and massive stars. Low-mass stars produce white dwarfs. A pop-up window describes how white dwarfs form. Medium-mass stars produce neutron stars and supernova. Pop-up information explains the supernova process. Massive stars undergo carbon burning. An interactive lab activity presents students the opportunity to predict temperature, pressure, and gravity changes that occur during carbon fusion. In a final lab activity, students compare initial star size with the type of death that occurs. Activity questions about star death are provided for each star size and are recordable and printable. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  5. The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. I. Very low-mass planets around HD 20794, HD 85512, and HD 192310

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pepe; C. Lovis; D. Ségransan; W. Benz; F. Bouchy; X. Dumusque; M. Mayor; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos; S. Udry

    2011-01-01

    Context. In 2009 we started an intense radial-velocity monitoring of a few nearby, slowly-rotating and quiet solar-type stars within the dedicated HARPS-Upgrade GTO program. Aims: The goal of this campaign is to gather very-precise radial-velocity data with high cadence and continuity to detect tiny signatures of very-low-mass stars that are potentially present in the habitable zone of their parent stars.

  6. Measuring the orbital periods of low mass X-ray binaries in the X-ray band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yi

    2014-11-01

    A low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) contains either a neutron star or a black hole accreting materials from its low mass companion star. It is one of the primary astrophysical sources for studying stellar-mass compact objects and accreting phenomena. As with other binary systems, the most important parameter of an LMXB is the orbital period, which allows us to learn about the nature of the binary system and constrain the properties of the system's components, including the compact object. As a result, measuring the orbital periods of LMXBs is essential for investigating these systems even though fewer than half of them have known orbital periods. This article introduces the different methods for measuring the orbital periods in the X-ray band and reviews their application to various types of LMXBs, such as eclipsing and dipping sources, as well as pulsar LMXBs.

  7. Evolutionary tracks of millisecond pulsars with low-mass companions

    E-print Network

    Ficek, Filip; Klu?niak, W?odek

    2015-01-01

    We consider the evolution of millisecond radio pulsars in binary systems with a main-sequence or evolved stellar companion. Evolution of non-accreting binary systems with "eclipsing" milisecond pulsars was described by Klu\\'zniak, Czerny & Ray (1992) who predicted that systems like the one containing the Terzan 5 PSR 1744-24A will in the future become accreting low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), while PSR 1957+20 may evaporate its companion. The model presented in the current paper gives similar results for these two objects and allows to obtain diverse evolutionary tracks of millisecond pulsars with low mass companions (black widows). Our results suggest that the properties of many black widow systems can be explained by an ablation phase lasting a few hundred million years. Some of these sources may regain Roche lobe contact in a comparable time, and become LMXBs.

  8. Mosquitoes survive raindrop collisions by virtue of their low mass

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Shankles, Peter G.; Madhavan, Nihar M.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of insect flight, adaptations to complex flight conditions such as wind and rain are poorly understood. Mosquitoes thrive in areas of high humidity and rainfall, in which raindrops can weigh more than 50 times a mosquito. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we here show that free-flying mosquitoes can survive the high-speed impact of falling raindrops. High-speed videography of those impacts reveals a mechanism for survival: A mosquito’s strong exoskeleton and low mass renders it impervious to falling drops. The mosquito’s low mass causes raindrops to lose little momentum upon impact and so impart correspondingly low forces to the mosquitoes. Our findings demonstrate that small fliers are robust to in-flight perturbations. PMID:22665779

  9. A Quadrupole mass spectrometer for resolution of low mass isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeyan Sreekumar; Thomas J. Hogan; Stephen Taylor; Phillip Turner; Christopher Knott

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative identification of low mass isotopes in the mass range 1–6 u poses certain difficulties when\\u000a attempting to achieve the required resolution with an instrument suitable for deployment within a process environment. Certain\\u000a adjacent species present in the process sample (HT and D2) require a resolution greater than 930 to achieve an accurate measurement. We demonstrate here

  10. The Host Galaxies of Low-mass Black Holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Fei Jiang; Jenny E. Greene; Luis C. Ho; Ting Xiao; Aaron J. Barth

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope observations of 147 host galaxies of low-mass black holes (BHs), we systematically study the structures and scaling relations of these active galaxies. Our sample is selected to have central BHs with virial masses of ~105-106 M &sun;. The host galaxies have total I-band magnitudes of --23.2 < MI < --18.8 mag and bulge magnitudes of --22.9

  11. Structure and evolution of low-mass W UMa type systems -- II. with angular momentum loss

    E-print Network

    L. Li; Z. Han; F. Zhang

    2004-12-03

    In a preceding paper, using Eggleton's evolution code we have discussed the structure and evolution of low-mass W UMa type contact binaries without angular momentum loss (AML). The models exhibit cyclic behavior about a state of marginal contact on a thermal time-scale. Part of the time of each cycle is spent in contact and part in a semi-detached state. According to observations, W UMa systems suffer AML. We present the models of low-mass contact binaries with AML due to gravitational wave radiation (GR) or magnetic stellar wind (MSW) are presented. We find that gravitational radiation cannot prevent the cyclic evolution of W UMa systems, and the effect of gravitational radiation on the cyclic behavior of contact binary evolution is almost negligible. We also find that the most likely AML mechanism for W UMa systems is magnetic braking, and that magnetic braking effects can increase the period of the cyclic evolution, and shorten the fraction of the time spent in the poor thermal contact state. If W UMa stars do not undergo cyclic evolution, and their angular momentum loss is caused simultaneously by MSW of both components, we find that the value of the parameter, $\\lambda$, should be taken a larger value in comparison with those derived from observations of single stars. This indicates that the AML efficiency in W UMa systems may be lowered in comparison with non-contact stars because of the less mass contained in the convective envelopes of the components in W UMa systems. If W UMa systems lose their angular momentum at a constant rate. An angular momentum rate of $\\frac{{\\rm dln}J}{{\\rm d}t}\\approx 1.6\\times 10^{-9} {\\rm yr^{-1}}$ can prevent the cyclic behaviour of the model, and the model can keep in good contact with an essentially constant depth of contact.

  12. Simulation of protoplanetary disk images with embedded low-mass companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana; Grinin, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    We consider the model of an young star with a protoplanetary disk and a low-mass companion (q = M1:M2 <= 0.1), which is moving on a circular orbit, slightly inclined to the disk plane (<= 30 deg). Periodic perturbations in the circumstellar disk caused by the orbital motion of the companion produce streams of matter and density waves. The inner part of the disk is warped because of the inclination of the companion orbit to the disk plane. For studies of these phenomena we calculated the set of the hydrodynamic models of such a system for the wide range of the parameters with SPH method. It was shown the non-axial symmetric distribution of matter led to the strong dependence of illumination conditions of the disk on the azimuth and, therefore, to the appearance of large-scale asymmetry in disks images. Near the inner boundary of the disk the images represent the streams of matter, which move with the companion. Outer part of the disk has the bright and dark domains, located not symmetrical with respect to the line of nodes. The sizes and locations of the domains depend on the model parameters as well as on the phase of the orbital period. The bright and dark domains do not follow the companion, but make small amplitude oscillations with respect to the some direction. The properties of the described model open new opportunities of searching low-mass companions in the vicinity of young stars. The stars with protoplanetary disks, which are observed face-on or under the small inclination angle i, are the best ones for this purpose.

  13. THE FORMATION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM LOW-MASS POP III SEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The existence of 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} black holes (BHs) in massive galaxies by z {approx} 7 is one of the great unsolved mysteries in cosmological structure formation. One theory argues that they originate from the BHs of Pop III stars at z {approx} 20 and then accrete at the Eddington limit down to the epoch of reionization, which requires that they have constant access to rich supplies of fuel. Because early numerical simulations suggested that Pop III stars were {approx}>100 M{sub Sun }, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) seeds considered up to now were 100-300 M{sub Sun }. However, there is a growing numerical and observational consensus that some Pop III stars were tens of solar masses, not hundreds, and that 20-40 M{sub Sun} BHs may have been much more plentiful at high redshift. However, we find that natal kicks imparted to 20-40 M{sub Sun} Pop III BHs during formation eject them from their halos and hence their fuel supply, precluding them from Eddington-limit growth. Consequently, SMBHs are far less likely to form from low-mass Pop III stars than from very massive ones.

  14. ORBITAL SOLUTIONS FOR TWO YOUNG, LOW-MASS SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES IN OPHIUCHUS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, V.; Prato, L.; Wasserman, L. H. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rodgers, B., E-mail: viviana@lowell.edu, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu, E-mail: lhw@lowell.edu, E-mail: brodgers@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Gemini South, AURA/Chile, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We report the orbital parameters for ROXR1 14 and RX J1622.7-2325Nw, two young, low-mass, and double-lined spectroscopic binaries recently discovered in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. Accurate orbital solutions were determined from over a dozen high-resolution spectra taken with the Keck II and Gemini South telescopes. These objects are T Tauri stars with mass ratios close to unity and periods of {approx}5 and {approx}3 days, respectively. In particular, RX J1622.7-2325Nw shows a non-circularized orbit with an eccentricity of 0.30, higher than any other short-period pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binary known to date. We speculate that the orbit of RX J1622.7-2325Nw has not yet circularized because of the perturbing action of a {approx}1'' companion, itself a close visual pair. A comparison of known young spectroscopic binaries (SBs) and main-sequence (MS) SBs in the eccentricity-period plane shows an indistinguishable distribution of the two populations, implying that orbital circularization occurs in the first 1 Myr of a star's lifetime. With the results presented in this paper we increase by {approx}4% the small sample of PMS spectroscopic binary stars with known orbital elements.

  15. Infant mortality without gas expulsion? The rapid dispersal of virialised low mass clusters

    E-print Network

    Moeckel, Nickolas; Clarke, Cathie J; Bonnell, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Infant mortality brought about by the expulsion of a star cluster's natal gas is widely invoked to explain cluster statistics at different ages. While a well studied problem, most recent studies of gas expulsion's effect on a cluster have focused on massive clusters, with stellar counts of order $10^4$. Here we argue that the evolutionary timescales associated with the compact low-mass clusters typical of the median cluster in the Solar neighborhood are short enough that significant dynamical evolution can take place over the ages usually associated with gas expulsion. To test this we perform {\\it N}-body simulations of the dynamics of a very young star forming region, with initial conditions drawn from a large-scale hydrodynamic simulation of gravitational collapse and fragmentation. The subclusters we analyse have high local star formation efficiencies and are roughly virialised, and have populations of a few hundred stars. Over 10 Myr they expand to a similar degree as would be expected from gas expulsion ...

  16. LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE INITIAL KEPLER DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J. L.; Harrison, T. E.; Ule, N. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Lopez-Morales, M. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Hoffman, D. I., E-mail: jlcough@nmsu.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    We identify 231 objects in the newly released Cycle 0 data set from the Kepler Mission as double-eclipse, detached eclipsing binary systems with T{sub eff} < 5500 K and orbital periods shorter than {approx}32 days. We model each light curve using the JKTEBOP code with a genetic algorithm to obtain precise values for each system. We identify 95 new systems with both components below 1.0 M{sub sun} and eclipses of at least 0.1 mag, suitable for ground-based follow-up. Of these, 14 have periods less than 1.0 day, 52 have periods between 1.0 and 10.0 days, and 29 have periods greater than 10.0 days. This new sample of main-sequence, low-mass, double-eclipse, detached eclipsing binary candidates more than doubles the number of previously known systems and extends the sample into the completely heretofore unexplored P > 10.0 day period regime. We find preliminary evidence from these systems that the radii of low-mass stars in binary systems decrease with period. This supports the theory that binary spin-up is the primary cause of inflated radii in low-mass binary systems, although a full analysis of each system with radial-velocity and multi-color light curves is needed to fully explore this hypothesis. Also, we present seven new transiting planet candidates that do not appear among the list of 706 candidates recently released by the Kepler team, or in the Kepler False Positive Catalog, along with several other new and interesting systems. We also present novel techniques for the identification, period analysis, and modeling of eclipsing binaries.

  17. Evidence of early disk-locking among low-mass members of the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.; Melo, C. H. F.; Pasquini, L.; Randich, S.; Bouvier, J.; Delfosse, X.

    2009-12-01

    Context: We present new high-resolution spectroscopic observations for 91 pre-main sequence stars in the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC) with masses in the range 0.10-0.25~M_? carried out with the multi-fiber spectrograph flames attached to the UT2 at the Paranal Observatory. Aims: Our aim is to better understand the disk-locking scenario in very low-mass stars. Methods: We have derived radial velocities, projected rotational velocities, and full width at 10% of the H? emission peak. Using published measurements of infrared excess (?(I_C-K)), as disk tracer and equivalent width of the nead-infrared Ca II line ?8542, mid-infrared difference [3.6]-[8.0] ?m derived by Spitzer data, and 10% H? width as diagnostic of the level of accretion, we looked for any correlation between projected angular rotational velocity divided by the radius (v sin i/R) and presence of disk and accretion. Results: For 4 low-mass stars, the cross-correlation function is clearly double-lined, indicating that the stars are SB2 systems. The distribution of rotation periods derived from our v sin i measurements is unimodal with a peak of a few days, in agreement with previous results for M<0.25~M_?. The photometric periods were combined with our v sin i to derive the equatorial velocity and the distribution of rotational axes. Our < sin i> is lower than the one expected for a random distribution, as previously found. We find no evidence of a population of fast rotators close to the break-up velocity. A clear correlation between v sin i/R and ?(I_C-K) has been found. While a spread in the rotation rates is seen for stars with no circumstellar disk (?(I_C-K)<0.3), stars with a circumstellar disk (?(I_C-K)>0.3) show an abrupt drop in their rotation rates by a factor of ~5. On the other hand, only a partial correlation between v sin i and accretion is observed when other indicators are used. The X-ray coronal activity level (log L_X/L_bol) shows no dependence on v sin i/R, suggesting that all stars are in a saturated regime limit. The critical velocity is probably below our v sin i detection limit of 9 km s-1. Conclusions: The ONC low-mass stars in our sample, close to the hydrogen burning limit, at present do not seem to be locked, but the clear correlation we find between rotation and infrared color excess suggests that they were locked once. In addition, the percentage of accretors seems to scale inversely to the stellar mass. Based on the flames Science Verification proposal 60.A-9145(A) and the flames proposal 76.C-0524(A). Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARY NSVS 02502726

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: jhyoon@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: slkim@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained BVRI photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by Cakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modeled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of -5.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} day yr{sup -1} or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yr and 0.0011 days, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-time effect due to the presence of an unseen third body, or as the combination of this effect and angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind braking. Individual masses and radii of both components are determined to be M{sub 1} = 0.689 {+-} 0.016 M{sub Sun }, M{sub 2} = 0.341 {+-} 0.009 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 0.707 {+-} 0.007 R{sub Sun }, and R{sub 2} = 0.657 {+-} 0.008 R{sub Sun }. The results are very different from those of Cakirli et al. with the primary's radius (0.674 {+-} 0.006 R{sub Sun }) smaller the secondary's (0.763 {+-} 0.007 R{sub Sun }). We compared the physical parameters presented in this paper with current low-mass stellar models and found that the measured values of the primary star are best fitted to a 79 Myr isochrone. The primary is in good agreement with the empirical mass-radius relation from low-mass binaries, but the secondary is oversized by about 85%.

  19. Physical Properties of the Low-mass Eclipsing Binary NSVS 02502726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2013-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained BVRI photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by Çakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modeled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of -5.9 × 10-7 day yr-1 or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yr and 0.0011 days, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-time effect due to the presence of an unseen third body, or as the combination of this effect and angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind braking. Individual masses and radii of both components are determined to be M 1 = 0.689 ± 0.016 M ?, M 2 = 0.341 ± 0.009 M ?, R 1 = 0.707 ± 0.007 R ?, and R 2 = 0.657 ± 0.008 R ?. The results are very different from those of Çakirli et al. with the primary's radius (0.674 ± 0.006 R ?) smaller the secondary's (0.763 ± 0.007 R ?). We compared the physical parameters presented in this paper with current low-mass stellar models and found that the measured values of the primary star are best fitted to a 79 Myr isochrone. The primary is in good agreement with the empirical mass-radius relation from low-mass binaries, but the secondary is oversized by about 85%.

  20. Life Cycles of Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

  1. Radial Velocity Detectability of Low Mass Extrasolar Planets in Close Orbits

    E-print Network

    Raman Narayan; Andrew Cumming; D. N. C. Lin

    2004-09-30

    Detection of Jupiter mass companions to nearby solar type stars with precise radial velocity measurements is now routine, and Doppler surveys are moving towards lower velocity amplitudes. The detection of several Neptune-mass planets with orbital periods less than a week has been reported. The drive toward the search for close-in Earth-mass planets is on the agenda. Successful detection or meaningful upper limits will place important constraints on the process of planet formation. In this paper, we quantify the statistics of detection of low-mass planets in-close orbits, showing how the detection threshold depends on the number and timing of the observations. In particular, we consider the case of a low-mass planet close to but not on the 2:1 mean motion resonance with a hot jupiter. This scenario is a likely product of the core-accretion hypothesis for planet formation coupled with migration of jupiters in the protoplanetary disk. It is also advantageous for detection because the orbital period is well-constrained. Detection of few Earth mass rocky cores will require ~ 1 m/s velocity precision, and most importantly, a much better understanding of stellar radial velocity jitter.

  2. Lack of PAH emission toward low-mass embedded young stellar objects

    E-print Network

    V. C. Geers; E. F. van Dishoeck; K. M. Pontoppidan; F. Lahuis; A. Crapsi; C. P. Dullemond; G. A. Blake

    2008-12-18

    PAHs have been detected toward molecular clouds and some young stars with disks, but have not yet been associated with embedded young stars. We present a sensitive mid-IR spectroscopic survey of PAH features toward a sample of low-mass embedded YSOs. The aim is to put constraints on the PAH abundance in the embedded phase of star formation using radiative transfer modeling. VLT-ISAAC L-band spectra for 39 sources and Spitzer IRS spectra for 53 sources are presented. Line intensities are compared to recent surveys of Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars. The radiative transfer codes RADMC and RADICAL are used to model the PAH emission from embedded YSOs consisting of a PMS star with a circumstellar disk embedded in an envelope. The dependence of the PAH feature on PAH abundance, stellar radiation field, inclination and the extinction by the surrounding envelope is studied. The 3.3 micron PAH feature is undetected for the majority of the sample (97%), with typical upper limits of 5E-16 W/m^2. Compact 11.2 micron PAH emission is seen directly towards 1 out of the 53 Spitzer Short-High spectra, for a source that is borderline embedded. For all 12 sources with both VLT and Spitzer spectra, no PAH features are detected in either. In total, PAH features are detected toward at most 1 out of 63 (candidate) embedded protostars (<~ 2%), even lower than observed for class II T Tauri stars with disks (11-14%). Assuming typical class I stellar and envelope parameters, the absence of PAHs emission is most likely explained by the absence of emitting carriers through a PAH abundance at least an order of magnitude lower than in molecular clouds but similar to that found in disks. Thus, most PAHs likely enter the protoplanetary disks frozen out in icy layers on dust grains and/or in coagulated form.

  3. GRO J1744-28: Last Gasps of a Dying Low-mass X-ray Binary

    E-print Network

    D. Q. Lamb; M. Coleman Miller; R. E. Taam

    1996-04-16

    We argue that the bursting, transient X-ray source GRO J1744-28 is a binary consisting of a very low-mass ($M \\approx 0.2 M_\\sun$), highly evolved giant star that is transferring mass by Roche lobe overflow onto a high-mass ($M \\approx 1.8 M_\\sun$) neutron star. We explore a picture in which the bursts are due to thermonuclear flashes in matter that has accreted onto the neutron star. We attribute the unusually hard spectra of the bursts and the high burst rate compared to normal Type I X-ray burst sources -- indeed the existence of unstable nuclear burning itself -- to the unusually strong surface magnetic field, $ B_s \\approx 1 \\times 10^{13}$ G, of the neutron star.

  4. Oxygen isotopic ratios in first dredge-up red giant stars and nuclear reaction rate uncertainties revisited

    E-print Network

    J. A. Stoesz; F. Herwig

    2002-12-05

    We describe a general yet simple method to analyse the propagation of nuclear reaction rate uncertainties in a stellar nucleosynthesis and mixing context. The method combines post-processing nucleosynthesis and mixing calculations with a Monte Carlo scheme. With this approach we reanalyze the dependence of theoretical oxygen isotopic ratio predictions in first dredge-up red giant branch stars in a systematic way. Such predictions are important to the interpretation of pre-solar Al_2 O_3 grains from meteorites. The reaction rates with uncertainties were taken from the NACRE compilation (Angulo etal., 1999). We include seven reaction rates in our systematic analysis of stellar models with initial masses from 1 to 3 M_sun. We find that the uncertainty of reaction rate for reaction O18(p,alpha)N15 typically causes an error in the theoretical O16/O18 ratio of about +20/-5 per cent. The error of the O16/O17 prediction is +-10 to 40 per cent depending on the stellar mass, and is persistently dominated by the comparatively small uncertainty of the O16(p,gamma)F17 reaction. With the new estimates on reaction rate uncertainties by the NACRE compilation, the p-capture reactions O17(p,alpha)N14 and O17(p,gamma)F18 have virtually no impact on theoretical predictions for stellar mass 1.5 M_sun, where core mixing and subsequent envelope mixing interact. In these cases where core mixing complicates post-dredge-up surface abundances, uncertainty in other reactions have a secondary but noticeable effect on surface abundances.

  5. LOW-MASS SUPPRESSION OF THE SATELLITE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION DUE TO THE SUPERSONIC BARYON-COLD-DARK-MATTER RELATIVE VELOCITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Dvorkin, Cora [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We study the effect of the supersonic baryon-cold-dark-matter (CDM) flow, which has recently been shown to have a large effect on structure formation during the dark ages 10 {approx}< z {approx}< 1000, on the abundance of luminous, low-mass satellite galaxies around galaxies like the Milky Way. As the supersonic baryon-CDM flow significantly suppresses both the number of halos formed and the amount of baryons accreted onto such halos of masses 10{sup 6} < M{sub halo}/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 8} at z {approx}> 10, a large effect results on the stellar luminosity function before reionization. As halos of these masses are believed to have very little star formation after reionization due to the effects of photoheating by the ultraviolet background, this effect persists to the present day. We calculate that the number of low-mass 10{sup 6} < M{sub halo}/M{sub Sun} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} halos that host luminous satellite galaxies today is typically suppressed by 50%, with values ranging up to 90% in regions where the initial supersonic velocity is high. We show that this previously ignored cosmological effect resolves some of the tension between the observed and predicted number of low-mass satellites in the Milky Way, reducing the need for other mass-dependent star-formation suppression before reionization.

  6. LP 400-22, A Very Low Mass and High-Velocity White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane; Oswalt, Terry D.; Smith, J. Allyn; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the identification of LP 400-22 (WD 2234+222) as a very low mass and high-velocity white dwarf. The ultraviolet GALEX and optical photometric colors and a spectral line analysis of LP 400-22 show this star to have an effective temperature of 11,080+/-140 K and a surface gravity of log g = 6.32 +/-0.08. Therefore, this is a helium-core white dwarf with a mass of 0.17 M,. The tangential velocity of this white dwarf is 414+/-43 km/s, making it one of the fastest moving white dwarfs known. We discuss probable evolutionary scenarios for this remarkable object.

  7. LP 400-22, A very low-mass and high-velocity white dwarf

    E-print Network

    Adela Kawka; Stephane Vennes; Terry D. Oswalt; J. Allyn Smith; Nicole M. Silvestri

    2006-05-05

    We report the identification of LP 400-22 (WD 2234+222) as a very low-mass and high-velocity white dwarf. The ultraviolet GALEX and optical photometric colors and a spectral line analysis of LP 400-22 show this star to have an effective temperature of 11080+/-140 K and a surface gravity of log g = 6.32+/-0.08. Therefore, this is a helium core white dwarf with a mass of 0.17 M_solar. The tangential velocity of this white dwarf is 414+/-43 km/s, making it one of the fastest moving white dwarfs known. We discuss probable evolutionary scenarios for this remarkable object.

  8. Magnetic field in a low-mass protostar disk - Millimeter polarimetry of IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamura, Motohide; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Yamashita, Takuya; Duncan, William D.; Hough, James H.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the millimeter polarization of IRAS 16293-2422, a low-mass protostar candidate embedded in the east streamer of the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud. The source has a linear polarization at 1.1 mm of (2.8 +/- 0.5) percent at a position angle of 144 deg +/- 5 deg with a 19 arcsec beam. If this polarization is due to thermal emission from magnetically aligned nonspherical grains in a dust disk around the central (proto)star, then the magnetic field threads across the disk at a position angle of 54 deg +/- 5 deg projected on the sky. This direction is the same as that of the minor axis of the elongated circumstellar gas disk (of scale 1600 AU) and of the direction of one of the quadratic outflows. There is no positive evidence for a twisted magnetic field in the dust disk, which constrains the hydromagnetic models for molecular outflows, at least for this source.

  9. Mass-ratio distribution of extremely low-mass white dwarf binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Knowing the masses of the components of binary systems is very useful for constraining the possible scenarios that could lead to their existence. While it is sometimes possible to determine the mass of the primary star, it is challenging to obtain good mass estimates of the secondary of a single-line spectroscopic binary. If the sample of such binaries is large enough, however, it is possible to use statistical methods to determine the mass-ratio distribution, and thus, the mass distribution of the secondary. Recently, the mass distribution of companions to extremely low-mass white dwarfs was studied using a sample of binaries from the ELM WD Survey. I reanalyse the same sample with two different methods: in the first one, I assume some functional form for the mass distribution, while in the second, I apply an inversion method. I show that the resulting companion-mass distribution can be as well approximated by either a uniform or a Gaussian distribution. The mass-ratio distribution derived from the inversion method without assuming any a priori functional form shows some additional fine-grain structure, although, given the small sample, it is difficult to claim that this structure is statistically significant. I conclude that it is not yet possible to fully constrain the distribution of the mass of the companions to extremely low-mass white dwarfs, although it appears that the probability to have a neutron star in one of the systems is indeed very low. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Low-mass dilepton rate from the deconfined phase

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Mustafa, Munshi G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Thoma, Markus H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    We discuss low-mass dilepton rates ({<=}1 GeV) from the deconfined phase of QCD using both perturbative and nonperturbative models and compare them with those from lattice gauge theory and in-medium hadron gas. Our analysis suggests that the rate at very low invariant mass (M{<=}200 MeV) using the nonperturbative gluon condensate in a semiempirical way within the Green function approach dominates over the Born rate, independent of any uncertainty associated with the choice of the strong coupling in perturbation theory. On the other hand, the rate from {rho}-q interaction in the deconfined phase is important at 200 MeV {<=}M{<=} 1 GeV as it is almost of same order as the Born rate as well as the in-medium hadron gas rate. Also, the higher order perturbative rate, leaving aside its various uncertainties, from the hard-thermal-loop approximation becomes reliable at M{>=}200 MeV and also becomes comparable with the Born rate and the lattice rate for M{>=}500 MeV, constraining on the broad resonance structures in the dilepton rate at large invariant mass. We also discuss the lattice constraints on the low-mass dilepton rate. Furthermore, we discuss a realistic way to advocate the quark-hadron duality hypothesis based on the dilepton rates from quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas.

  11. Photometric variability of a young, low-mass brown dwarf

    E-print Network

    M. R. Zapatero Osorio; J. A. Caballero; V. J. S. Bejar; R. Rebolo

    2003-06-19

    We report differential I-band and J-band photometry of S Ori 45, a cool (M8.5), young (1-8 Myr) brown dwarf of the sigma Orionis cluster with a likely mass estimated at around 20 times the mass of Jupiter. We detect variability (amplitudes ranging from 34 to 81 mmag) and observe a modulation at a period of 2.5-3.6 h in both optical and near-infrared light curves. The most recent optical data set, however, presents a modulation at the very short period of 46.4+/-1.5 min, which remains a mystery. The origin of the 2.5-3.6 h modulation is analized in terms of various scenarios: inhomogeneous features (dust clouds or magnetically induced dark spots) co-rotating with the object's surface, and presence of an unseen very low-mass companion that is steadily transferring mass to the primary. Because of the very young age of the object and its persistent strong Halpha emission, the possible presence of an accreting disk is also discussed. If the period of a few hours is related to rotation, our results suggest that sigma Orionis low-mass brown dwarfs are rotating faster than more massive cluster brown dwarfs at a rate consistent with their theoretically inferred masses and radii, implying that all of these objects have undergone similar angular momentum evolution.

  12. Doppler disc tomography applied to low-mass AGN spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; Ingram, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler tomography can provide a powerful means of determining black hole spin when our view to the central regions are revealed and obscured by optically thick orbiting material, and can provide an independent estimate that does not suffer as many degeneracies as traditional methods. For low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN), time-dependent obscuration is expected to leave a signature in the changing spectrum of the disc emission which extends into the soft X-ray bandpass. We create a spectral model incorporating Doppler tomography and apply it to the case of the low-mass (8 × 105 M?) AGN, RX J1301.9+2747 which shows unusual timing properties in the form of short-lived flares that we argue are best explained by the orbit of a window through an optically thick wind. Modelling the phase-resolved spectrum over the course of the highest data quality flare indicates a very low spin even when we relax our constraints. This is the lowest mass AGN for which a spin has been measured and the first via this technique. We note that, as the mass and spin are very low, this appears to favour supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth by chaotic rather than constant accretion.

  13. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, C.

    1995-04-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed.

  14. SUBSTELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY YOUNG CLUSTERS. VII. THE SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Clark, Paul [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Muzic, Koraljka, E-mail: as110@st-andrews.ac.uk [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, 19001 Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-01

    The abundance of brown dwarfs (BDs) in young clusters is a diagnostic of star formation theory. Here we revisit the issue of determining the substellar initial mass function (IMF) based on a comparison between NGC 1333 and IC348, two clusters in the Perseus star-forming region. We derive their mass distributions for a range of model isochrones, varying distances, extinction laws, and ages with comprehensive assessments of the uncertainties. We find that the choice of isochrone and other parameters have significant effects on the results, thus we caution against comparing IMFs obtained using different approaches. For NGC 1333, we find that the star/BD ratio R is between 1.9 and 2.4 for all plausible scenarios, consistent with our previous work. For IC348, R is found to be between 2.9 and 4.0, suggesting that previous studies have overestimated this value. Thus the star-forming process generates about 2.5-5 substellar objects per 10 stars. The derived star/BD ratios correspond to a slope of the power-law mass function of ? = 0.7-1.0 for the 0.03-1.0 M{sub ?} mass range. The median mass in these clusters—the typical stellar mass—is between 0.13 and 0.30 M{sub ?}. Assuming that NGC 1333 is at a shorter distance than IC348, we find a significant difference in the cumulative distribution of masses between the two clusters, resulting from an overabundance of very low mass objects in NGC 1333. Gaia astrometry will constrain the cluster distances better and will lead to a more definitive conclusion. Furthermore, the star/BD ratio is somewhat larger in IC348 compared with NGC 1333, although this difference is still within the margins of error. Our results indicate that environments with higher object density may produce a larger fraction of very low mass objects, in line with predictions for BD formation through gravitational fragmentation of filaments falling into a cluster potential.

  15. Radiation-driven evolution of low-mass x-ray binaries and the formation of millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Tavani, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1991-08-08

    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary theories which neglect the effects of disk and comparison irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, radiation from the accreting compact star in LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn off occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less; (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degeneration companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) a class of recycled MSPs can continue to vaporize the low-mass companions by a strong pulsar wind even after the accretion turn-off; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical descrepancy between the number of MSPs and their LMXB progenitors in the Galaxy. We discuss the implications of the discovery of single MSPs in low-density globular clusters and the recent measurements of short orbital timescales of four LMXBs. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XI. V1191 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming (China); Soonthornthum, B., E-mail: zhuly@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand/Ministry of Science and Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-10-15

    Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI){sub c} bands obtained on one night in 2009 for the short-period close-binary system V1191 Cygni are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Van Hamme code shows that V1191 Cyg is a W-type overcontact binary system and suggests that it has a high degree of overcontact (f = 68.6%) with very low mass ratio, implying that it is at the late stage of overcontact evolution. The absolute parameters of V1191 Cyg are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of light minimum with others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 26.7 years and an amplitude of 0.023 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (dP/dt = +4.5({+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}). The cyclic period oscillation may be caused by the magnetic activity cycles of either of the components or the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body with a mass of m{sub 3} = 0.77 M{sub sun} and an orbital radius of a{sub 3} = 7.6 AU, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. The secular orbital period increase can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With the period increases, V1191 Cyg will evolve from its present low mass ratio, high filled overcontact state to a rapidly rotating single star when its orbital angular momentum is less than three times the total spin angular momentum. V1191 Cyg is too blue for its orbital period and it is an unusual W-type overcontact system with such a low mass ratio and high fill-out overcontact configuration, which is worth monitoring continuously in the future.

  17. DETECTABILITY OF TRANSITING JUPITERS AND LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES IN SPARSELY SAMPLED PAN-STARRS-1 SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Trent J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Liu, Michael C.

    2009-10-20

    We present detailed simulations of the Pan-STARRS-1 (PS1) multi-epoch, multiband 3pi Survey in order to assess its potential yield of transiting planets and eclipsing binaries. This survey differs from dedicated transit surveys in that it will cover the entire northern sky but provide only sparsely sampled light curves. Since most eclipses would be detected at only a single epoch, the 3pi Survey will be most sensitive to deep eclipses (approx>0.10 mag) caused by Jupiters transiting M dwarfs and eclipsing stellar/substellar binaries. The survey will measure parallaxes for the approx4 x 10{sup 5} stars within 100 pc, which will enable a volume-limited eclipse search, reducing the number of astrophysical false positives compared with previous magnitude-limited searches. Using the best available empirical data, we constructed a model of the extended solar neighborhood that includes stars, brown dwarfs, and a realistic binary population. We computed the yield of deeply eclipsing systems using both a semianalytic and a full Monte Carlo approach. We examined statistical tests for detecting single-epoch eclipses in sparsely sampled data and assessed their vulnerability to false positives due to stellar variability. Assuming a short-period planet frequency of 0.5% for M dwarfs, our simulations predict that about a dozen transiting Jupiters around low-mass stars (M {sub *} < 0.3 M {sub sun}) within 100 pc are potentially detectable in the PS1 3pi Survey, along with approx300 low-mass eclipsing binaries (both component masses <0.5 M {sub sun}), including approx10 eclipsing field brown dwarfs. Extensive follow-up observations would be required to characterize these candidate eclipsing systems, thereby enabling comprehensive tests of structural models and novel insights into the planetary architecture of low-mass stars.

  18. Kepler Studies of Low-mass Eclipsing Binaries. I. Parameters of the Long-period Binary KIC 6131659

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Gideon; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Windmiller, Gur; Ames Gregg, Trevor; Fetherolf, Tara; Wade, Richard A.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2012-12-01

    KIC 6131659 is a long-period (17.5 days) eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission. We analyzed six quarters of Kepler data along with supporting ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data to obtain accurate values for the mass and radius of both stars, namely, M 1 = 0.922 ± 0.007 M ?, R 1 = 0.8800 ± 0.0028 R ?, and M 2 = 0.685 ± 0.005 M ?, R 2 = 0.6395 ± 0.0061 R ?. There is a well-known issue with low-mass (M <~ 0.8 M ?) stars (in cases where the mass and radius measurement uncertainties are smaller than 2% or 3%) where the measured radii are almost always 5% to 15% larger than expected from evolutionary models, i.e., the measured radii are all above the model isochrones in a mass-radius plane. In contrast, the two stars in KIC 6131659 were found to sit on the same theoretical isochrone in the mass-radius plane. Until recently, all of the well-studied eclipsing binaries with low-mass stars had periods of less than about three days. The stars in such systems may have been inflated by high levels of stellar activity induced by tidal effects in these close binaries. KIC 6131659 shows essentially no evidence of enhanced stellar activity, and our measurements support the hypothesis that the unusual mass-radius relationship observed in most low-mass stars is influenced by strong magnetic activity created by the rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, short-period systems. Finally, using short cadence data, we show that KIC 6131657 has one of the smallest measured non-zero eccentricities of a binary with two main-sequence stars, where ecos ? = (4.57 ± 0.02) × 10-5. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  19. Low-Mass Inflation Systems for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Webster, Mark S.; Engelbrecht, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    The use of inflatable space structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. Communication, power generation, and very-long-baseline interferometry are just three potential applications of inflatable technology. The success of inflatable structures depends on the development of an applications of inflatable technology. This paper describes two design studies performed to develop a low mass inflation system. The first study takes advantage of existing onboard propulsion gases to reduce the overall system mass. The second study assumes that there is no onboard propulsion system. Both studies employ advanced components developed for the Pluto fast flyby spacecraft to further reduce mass. The study examined four different types of systems: hydrazine, nitrogen and water, nitrogen, and xenon. This study shows that all of these systems can be built for a small space structure with masses lower than 0.5 kilograms.

  20. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Leonhardt, W.J. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Large aperture, low mass, thin vacuum windows are required to minimize beam loss in the beam lines of particle accelerators as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. This article describes the design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience of a large rectangular vacuum window, 122 cm[times]61 cm, and two circular windows of 91.4 and 96.5 cm diam. These window designs utilize a composite Kevlar 29 fabric and Mylar laminate as a window material with a typical combined thickness of 0.35 mm. Data for several material thicknesses are also presented. The windows are usually designed to withstand a pressure differential of two to three atmospheres to achieve the required factor of safety. These windows are typically used in the medium vacuum range of 10[sup [minus]4] Torr. The equations used to predict the behavior of the window material will also be discussed.

  1. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function appropriately in such environments consistent with NASA s exploration missions. Advanced technologies such as this show promise for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  2. Radiative feedback and the low efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass haloes at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Klypin, Anatoly; Klimek, Elizabeth S.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Churchill, Christopher W.; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2014-08-01

    Any successful model of galaxy formation needs to explain the low rate of star formation in the small progenitors of today's galaxies. This inefficiency is necessary for reproducing the low stellar-to-virial mass fractions, suggested by current abundance matching models. A possible driver of this low efficiency is the radiation pressure exerted by ionizing photons from massive stars. The effect of radiation pressure in cosmological, zoom-in galaxy formation simulations is modelled as a non-thermal pressure that acts only in dense and optically thick star-forming regions. We also include photoionization and photoheating by massive stars. The full photoionization of hydrogen reduces the radiative cooling in the 104-4.5 K regime. The main effect of radiation pressure is to regulate and limit the high values of gas density and the amount of gas available for star formation. This maintains a low star formation rate of ˜1 M? yr-1 in haloes with masses about 1011 M? at z ? 3. Infrared trapping and photoionization/photoheating processes are secondary effects in this mass range. The galaxies residing in these low-mass haloes contain only ˜0.6 per cent of the total virial mass in stars, roughly consistent with abundance matching. Radiative feedback maintains an extended galaxy with a rising circular velocity profile.

  3. Compulsory Deep Mixing of 3He and CNO Isotopes in the Envelopes of low-mass Red Giants

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Dearborn, D P; Lattanzio, J C

    2007-03-20

    Three-dimensional stellar modeling has enabled us to identify a deep-mixing mechanism that must operate in all low mass giants. This mixing process is not optional, and is driven by a molecular weight inversion created by the {sup 3}He({sup 3}He,2p){sup 4}He reaction. In this paper we characterize the behavior of this mixing, and study its impact on the envelope abundances. It not only eliminates the problem of {sup 3}He overproduction, reconciling stellar and big bang nucleosynthesis with observations, but solves the discrepancy between observed and calculated CNO isotope ratios in low mass giants, a problem of more than 3 decades standing. This mixing mechanism operates rapidly once the hydrogen burning shell approaches the material homogenized by the surface convection zone. In agreement with observations, Pop I stars between 0.8 and 2.0 M{sub {circle_dot}} develop {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios of 14.5 {+-} 1.5, while Pop II stars process the carbon to ratios of 4.0 {+-} 0.5. In stars less than 1.25 M{sub {circle_dot}}, this mechanism also destroys 90% to 95% of the {sup 3}He produced on the main sequence.

  4. Evolutionary Signatures in the Formation of Low-Mass Protostars. II. Toward Reconciling Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J., II; Terebey, Susan; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Young, Chadwick H.

    2010-02-01

    A long-standing problem in low-mass star formation is the "luminosity problem," whereby protostars are underluminous compared to the accretion luminosity expected both from theoretical collapse calculations and arguments based on the minimum accretion rate necessary to form a star within the embedded phase duration. Motivated by this luminosity problem, we present a set of evolutionary models describing the collapse of low-mass, dense cores into protostars. We use as our starting point the evolutionary model following the inside-out collapse of a singular isothermal sphere as presented by Young & Evans. We calculate the radiative transfer of the collapsing core throughout the full duration of the collapse in two dimensions. From the resulting spectral energy distributions, we calculate standard observational signatures (L bol, T bol, L bol/L smm) to directly compare to observations. We incorporate several modifications and additions to the original Young & Evans model in an effort to better match observations with model predictions; we include (1) the opacity from scattering in the radiative transfer, (2) a circumstellar disk directly in the two-dimensional radiative transfer, (3) a two-dimensional envelope structure, taking into account the effects of rotation, (4) mass-loss and the opening of outflow cavities, and (5) a simple treatment of episodic mass accretion. We find that scattering, two-dimensional geometry, mass-loss, and outflow cavities all affect the model predictions, as expected, but none resolve the luminosity problem. On the other hand, we find that a cycle of episodic mass accretion similar to that predicted by recent theoretical work can resolve this problem and bring the model predictions into better agreement with observations. Standard assumptions about the interplay between mass accretion and mass loss in our model give star formation efficiencies consistent with recent observations that compare the core mass function and stellar initial mass function. Finally, the combination of outflow cavities and episodic mass accretion reduces the connection between observational class and physical stage to the point where neither of the two commonly used observational signatures (T bol and L bol/L smm) can be considered reliable indicators of physical stage.

  5. Enhanced Dust Emission in the HL Tau Disc: A Low-Mass Companion in Formation?

    E-print Network

    Greaves, J S; Rice, W K M; Muxlow, T W B

    2008-01-01

    We have imaged the disc of the young star HL Tau using the VLA at 1.3 cm, with 0.08" resolution (as small as the orbit of Jupiter). The disc is around half the stellar mass, assuming a canonical gas-mass conversion from the measured mass in large dust grains. A simulation shows that such discs are gravitationally unstable, and can fragment at radii of a few tens of AU to form planets. The VLA image shows a compact feature in the disc at 65 AU radius (confirming the `nebulosity' of Welch et al. 2004), which is interpreted as a localised surface density enhancement representing a candidate proto-planet in its earliest accretion phase. If correct, this is the first image of a low-mass companion object seen together with the parent disc material out of which it is forming. The object has an inferred gas plus dust mass of approximately 14 M(Jupiter), similar to the mass of a proto-planet formed in the simulation. The disc instability may have been enhanced by a stellar flyby: the proper motion of the nearby star X...

  6. Enhanced Dust Emission in the HL Tau Disc: A Low-Mass Companion in Formation?

    E-print Network

    J. S. Greaves; A. M. S. Richards; W. K. M. Rice; T. W. B. Muxlow

    2008-09-24

    We have imaged the disc of the young star HL Tau using the VLA at 1.3 cm, with 0.08" resolution (as small as the orbit of Jupiter). The disc is around half the stellar mass, assuming a canonical gas-mass conversion from the measured mass in large dust grains. A simulation shows that such discs are gravitationally unstable, and can fragment at radii of a few tens of AU to form planets. The VLA image shows a compact feature in the disc at 65 AU radius (confirming the `nebulosity' of Welch et al. 2004), which is interpreted as a localised surface density enhancement representing a candidate proto-planet in its earliest accretion phase. If correct, this is the first image of a low-mass companion object seen together with the parent disc material out of which it is forming. The object has an inferred gas plus dust mass of approximately 14 M(Jupiter), similar to the mass of a proto-planet formed in the simulation. The disc instability may have been enhanced by a stellar flyby: the proper motion of the nearby star XZ Tau shows it could have recently passed the HL Tau disc as close as ~600 AU.

  7. DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XIII. DZ PISCIUM WITH INTRINSIC LIGHT VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, 235000 Huaibei, Anhui Province (China); Qian, S.-B. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming (China); Zhang, L.-Y. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Guizhou University, 550025 Guiyang (China); Soonthornthum, B., E-mail: yygcn@163.com, E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand/Ministry of Science and Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7({+-} 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC{sub 2} in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P{sub mod} = 11.89({+-} 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064({+-} 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43({+-}0.17) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J{sub spin}/J{sub orb} > 1/3.

  8. Brightness oscillations in models of young binary systems with low-mass secondary components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, T. V.; Grinin, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.

    2010-07-01

    We consider a model for the cyclic brightness variations of a young star with a low-mass companion that accretes matter from the remnants of a protostellar cloud. At small inclinations of the binary orbit to the line of sight, the streams of matter and the density waves excited in the circumbinary disk can screen the primary component of the binary from the observer. To study these phenomena, we have computed grids of hydrodynamic models for binary systems by the SPH method based on which we have calculated the phase light curves for the different orientations of the orbit. The model parameters were varied within the following ranges: the component mass ratio q = 0.01-0.1 and the eccentricity e = 0-0.5. We adopted optical grain characteristics typical of circumstellar dust. Our computations have shown that the brightness oscillations with orbital phase can have a complex structure. The amplitudes and shapes of the light curves depend strongly on the inclination of the binary orbit and its orientation relative to the observer and on the accretion rate. The results of our computations are used to analyze the cyclic activity of UX Ori stars.

  9. Discovery of Two New Thermally Bloated Low-Mass White Dwarfs Among the Kepler Binaries

    E-print Network

    Rappaport, S; Levine, A; Sanchis-Ojeda, R; Gandolfi, D; Nowak, G; Palle, E; Prsa, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new low-mass, thermally bloated, hot white dwarfs among the Kepler sample of eclipsing binaries. These are KIC 9164561 and KIC 10727668 with orbital periods of 1.2670 and 2.3058 days, respectively. The current primary in both systems is an A star of about 2 Msun. This brings the number of similar binaries among the Kepler sample to six, and the two new systems have the shortest orbital periods among them. The white dwarf in KIC 9164561 has the largest thermal bloating, compared to its cold degenerate radius, of about a factor of 14. We utilize RV measurements of the A star in KIC 9164561 to determine the white dwarf mass rather accurately: 0.197 +/- 0.005 Msun. The mass of the white dwarf in KIC 10727668 is based on the Doppler boosting signal in the Kepler photometry, and is less accurately determined to be 0.266 +/- 0.035 Msun. Based on the inferred radii and effective temperatures of these two white dwarfs we are able to make an independent theoretical estimate of their masse...

  10. THE FIRST FLUORINE ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN EXTRAGALACTIC ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Abia, C.; Cristallo, S.; Dominguez, I. [Dpto. Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Cunha, K.; Smith, V. V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); De Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A. [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS (UMR 6202), Cassiopee, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Straniero, O., E-mail: cabia@ugr.es [INAF-Osservatorio di Collurania, 64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2011-08-10

    Fluorine ({sup 19}F) abundances (or upper limits) are derived in six extragalactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars from the HF(1-0) R9 line at 2.3358 {mu}m in high-resolution spectra. The stars belong to the Local Group galaxies, Large Magellanic Cloud, Small Magellanic Cloud, and Carina dwarf spheroidal, spanning more than a factor of 50 in metallicity. This is the first study to probe the behavior of F with metallicity in intrinsic extragalactic C-rich AGB stars. Fluorine could be measured only in four of the target stars, showing a wide range in F enhancements. Our F abundance measurements together with those recently derived in Galactic AGB carbon stars show a correlation with the observed carbon and s-element enhancements. The observed correlations, however, display a different dependence on the stellar metallicity with respect to theoretical predictions in low-mass, low-metallicity AGB models. We briefly discuss the possible reasons for this discrepancy. If our findings are confirmed in a larger number of metal-poor AGBs, the issue of F production in AGB stars will need to be revisited.

  11. A SuperWASP Benchmark Eclipsing Binary with a Very Low-Mass Secondary in the Brown Dwarf Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Hebb, Leslie; Faedi, Francesca; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Pollacco, Don

    2012-08-01

    We will obtain eclipse light curves of a newly discovered eclipsing binary composed of a Sun-like primary with a secondary companion which can be either a very low mass M-dwarf (less than ~0.15 Msun) or a brown dwarf. The objects orbit each other with a period of ~14.3 days in an eccentric orbit, which as been confirmed with a high- precision radial velocity curve for the system. Therefore, these eclipse light curves will allow us to constrain the radii of the eclipsing components and orbital inclination of the system. Furthermore, the depth of the secondary eclipse which can only be observed in the near-infrared, directly constrains the temperature ratio between the components. In combination with the the masses derived from the radial velocity curve, our light curve analysis will unveil the true nature of the secondary. Whether it is a very-low mass star or a brown dwarf, direct measurements of the fundamental properties (masses, radii and temperatures) of such objects are very scarce and will provide key tests to current evolutionary models. Thus, we request two nights with FLAMINGOS at the KPNO 2.1m to observe a complete secondary eclipse of the system at near-infrared wavelengths in order to fully characterize the very low-mass component of the system.

  12. PULSATIONS IN HYDROGEN BURNING LOW-MASS HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfadt, Justin D. R. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: jdrs@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2010-07-20

    Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M {approx}< 0.20 M {sub sun} undergo several Gyr of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of 2. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low-mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as their luminosity is related (via stable hydrogen burning) to the hydrogen envelope mass, which eliminates one model parameter.

  13. Searching for Low Mass Dark Portal at the LHC

    E-print Network

    Haipeng An; Ran Huo; Lian-Tao Wang

    2012-12-10

    Light dark matter with mass smaller than about 10 GeV is difficult to probe from direct detection experiments. In order to have the correct thermal relic abundance, the mediator of the interaction between dark matter and the Standard Model (SM) should also be relatively light, $\\sim 10^2$ GeV. If such a light mediator couples to charged leptons, it would already be strongly constrained by direct searches at colliders. In this work, we consider the scenario of a leptophobic light $Z'$ vector boson as the mediator, and study the the prospect of searching for it at the 8 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To improve the reach in the low mass region, we perform a detailed study of the processes that the $Z'$ is produced in association with jet, photon, $W^\\pm$ and $Z^0$. We show that in the region where the mass of $Z'$ is between 80 and 400 GeV, the constraint from associated production can be comparable or even stronger than the known monojet and dijet constraints. Searches in these channels can be complementary to the monojet search, in particular if the $Z'$ couplings to quarks ($g_{Z'}$) and dark matter ($g_D$) are different. For $g_D light $Z'$, $M_{Z'} \\sim 100 $ GeV. This region, which cannot be covered by the mono-jet search, can be covered by the resonance searches described in this paper.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-IR spectroscopy of low-mass binaries and brown dwarfs (Mace, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, G. N.

    2014-05-01

    The mass of a star at formation determines its subsequent evolution and demise. Low-mass stars are the most common products of star formation and their long main-sequence lifetimes cause them to accumulate over time. Star formation also produces many substellar-mass objects known as brown dwarfs, which emerge from their natal molecular clouds and continually cool as they age, pervading the Milky Way. Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs exhibit a wide range of physical characteristics and their abundance make them ideal subjects for testing formation and evolution models. I have examined a pair of pre-main sequence spectroscopic binaries and used radial velocity variations to determine orbital solutions and mass ratios. Additionally, I have employed synthetic spectra to estimate their effective temperatures and place them on theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. From this analysis I discuss the formation and evolution of young binary systems and place bounds on absolute masses and radii. I have also studied the late-type T dwarfs revealed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This includes the exemplar T8 subdwarf Wolf 1130C, which has the lowest inferred metallicity in the literature and spectroscopic traits consistent with old age. Comparison to synthetic spectra implies that the dispersion in near-infrared colors of late-type T dwarfs is a result of age and/or thin sul de clouds. With the updated census of the L, T, and Y dwarfs we can now study specific brown dwarf subpopulations. Finally, I present a number of future studies that would de