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Sample records for lps-induced inducible nitric

  1. Pulmonary surfactant inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Miles, P R; Bowman, L; Rao, K M; Baatz, J E; Huffman, L

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were 1) to report that pulmonary surfactant inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (. NO) production by rat alveolar macrophages, 2) to study possible mechanisms for this effect, and 3) to determine which surfactant component(s) is responsible. NO produced by the cells in response to LPS is due to an inducible. NO synthase (iNOS). Surfactant inhibits LPS-induced. NO formation in a concentration-dependent manner;. NO production is inhibited by approximately 50 and approximately 75% at surfactant levels of 100 and 200 microg phospholipid/ml, respectively. The inhibition is not due to surfactant interference with the interaction of LPS with the cells or to disruption of the formation of iNOS mRNA. Also, surfactant does not seem to reduce. NO formation by directly affecting iNOS activity or by acting as an antioxidant or radical scavenger. However, in the presence of surfactant, there is an approximately 80% reduction in the amount of LPS-induced iNOS protein in the cells. LPS-induced. NO production is inhibited by Survanta, a surfactant preparation used in replacement therapy, as well as by natural surfactant. NO formation is not affected by the major lipid components of surfactant or by two surfactant-associated proteins, surfactant protein (SP) A or SP-C. However, the hydrophobic SP-B inhibits. NO formation in a concentration-dependent manner;. NO production is inhibited by approximately 50 and approximately 90% at SP-B levels of 1-2 and 10 microgram/ml, respectively. These results show that lung surfactant inhibits LPS-induced. NO production by alveolar macrophages, that the effect is due to a reduction in iNOS protein levels, and that the surfactant component responsible for the reduction is SP-B. PMID:9887071

  2. Lycopene inhibits LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Yadav, Prem Narayan; Reyes, Marynell

    2007-01-01

    Lycopene is a fat-soluble red-orange carotenoid found primarily in tomatoes and tomato-derived products, including tomato sauce, tomato paste, and ketchup, and other dietary sources, including dried apricots, guava, watermelon, papaya, and pink grapefruit. In this study, we have demonstrated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Treatment with lycopene (10 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production (40% compared with the control). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that lycopene treatment decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. These results suggest that lycopene has anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting iNOS proteins and mRNA expressions in mouse macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression were not affected by treatment with lycopene. PMID:17995901

  3. Melampolides from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius and their inhibitory activity of lps-induced nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Seon A; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Min Hee; Hwang, Ji Sang; Park, Jeong Sook; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Kun; Lee, Myung Koo; Lee, Heesoon; Kim, Wook; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2008-02-01

    Two new melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 8beta-epoxyangeloyloxy-9alpha-ethoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (1) and 8beta-angeloyloxy-9alpha-ethoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (2), were isolated from the leaves of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolia (POEPP. et ENDL.) H. Robinson] along with eleven known melampolides, allo-schkuhriolide (3), enhydrin (4), polymatin A (5), fluctuanin (6), 8beta-angeloyloxy-9alpha-acetoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (7), 8beta-angeloyloxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (8), 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester (9), uvedalin (10), polymatin B (11), 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester (12), and sonchifolin (13). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. All isolates were evaluated for inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:18239309

  4. A rhodium(III) complex inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production and angiogenic activity in cellulo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Juan; Lin, Sheng; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Vong, Chi Teng; Hoi, Pui Man; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Metal-containing complexes have arisen as viable alternatives to organic molecules as therapeutic agents. Metal complexes possess a number of advantages compared to conventional carbon-based compounds, such as distinct geometries, interesting electronic properties, variable oxidation states and the ability to arrange different ligands around the metal centre in a precise fashion. Meanwhile, nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammation. We herein report a novel cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex as an inhibitor of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Experiments suggested that the inhibition of NO production in cells by complex 1 was mediated through the down-regulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. Furthermore, complex 1 inhibited angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as revealed by an endothelial tube formation assay. This study demonstrates that kinetically inert rhodium(III) complexes may be potentially developed as effective anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:25046384

  5. Geniposide suppresses LPS-induced nitric oxide, PGE2 and inflammatory cytokine by downregulating NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qinghai; Cao, Jinjun; Fang, Li; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Zhengxiang; Ran, Jihua; Zheng, Xinchuan; Li, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yu; Ge, Di; Zhang, Hongming; Wang, Li; Ran, Ying; Fu, Jianfeng

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory responses are important to host immune reactions, but uncontrolled inflammatory mediators may aid in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory diseases. Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside found in the herb gardenia, is believed to have broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory effects in murine models but its mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the action of this compound in murine macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as the stimulation of macrophages by LPS is known to induce inflammatory reactions. We determined the effect of geniposide on LPS-induced production of the inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the mRNA and protein expression of the NO and PGE2 synthases, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, and the mRNA and protein expression of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1 activity were assayed. To understand the action of geniposide on the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, we studied the effect of NF-κB and MAPK inhibitors on the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2 and TNF-α. Our findings clearly showed that geniposide mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the LPS-induced NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways in macrophages, which subsequently reduces overexpression of the inducible enzymes iNOS and COX-2 and suppresses the expression and release of the inflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-6, NO and PGE2. Thus, geniposide shows promise as a therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24735815

  6. Hypericum triquetrifolium—Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; AbouAtta, Bernadette Soudah; Basha, Walid; Hmade, Alaa; Kmail, Abdalsalam; Khasib, Said; Said, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Based on knowledge from traditional Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Hypericum triquetrifolium by measuring the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukine-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human monocytic cells, THP-1. The effects were assessed by measuring the levels of secretory proteins and mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion and the expression of iNOS in THP-1 cells. Cells were treated with 5 μg lipopolysaccharide/ml (LPS) in the presence and absence of increasing concentrations of extracts from the aerial parts of H. triquetrifolium. During the entire experimental period, we used extract concentrations (up to 250 μg mL−1) that had no cytotoxic effects, as measured with MTT and LDH assays. Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced NO release, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced transcription of iNOS and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the expression and release of TNF-α. No significant effects were observed on the release of IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that H. triquetrifolium probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and iNOS expressions. PMID:18955363

  7. Hypericum triquetrifolium-Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Saad, Bashar; Abouatta, Bernadette Soudah; Basha, Walid; Hmade, Alaa; Kmail, Abdalsalam; Khasib, Said; Said, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Based on knowledge from traditional Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Hypericum triquetrifolium by measuring the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukine-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human monocytic cells, THP-1. The effects were assessed by measuring the levels of secretory proteins and mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion and the expression of iNOS in THP-1 cells. Cells were treated with 5 μg lipopolysaccharide/ml (LPS) in the presence and absence of increasing concentrations of extracts from the aerial parts of H. triquetrifolium. During the entire experimental period, we used extract concentrations (up to 250 μg mL(-1)) that had no cytotoxic effects, as measured with MTT and LDH assays. Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced NO release, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced transcription of iNOS and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the expression and release of TNF-α. No significant effects were observed on the release of IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that H. triquetrifolium probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and iNOS expressions. PMID:18955363

  8. Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nan; Hauck, Cathy; Yum, Man-Yu; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Widrlechner, Mark P.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Murphy, Patricia A.; Dixon, Philip M.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Birt, Diane F.

    2009-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions were applied to RAW264.7 mouse macrophages and the ethanol extracts significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production at 30 μg/mL without affecting cell viability. Extracts from different accessions of P. vulgaris were screened for anti-inflammatory activity to identify accessions with the greatest activity. The inhibition of PGE2 and NO production by selected extracts was dose-dependent, with significant effects seen at concentrations as low as 10 μg/mL. Fractionation of ethanol extracts from the active accession, Ames 27664, suggested fractions 3 and 5 as possible major contributors to the overall activity. Rosmarinic acid (RA) content in P. vulgaris was found to independently inhibit inflammatory response, but it only partially explained the extracts' activity. LPS-induced cyclooxyginase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression were both attenuated by P. vulgaris ethanol extracts, while RA only inhibited COX-2 expression. PMID:19919113

  9. Pheophytin a Inhibits Inflammation via Suppression of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide Synthase-2, Prostaglandin E2, and Interleukin-1β of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Chang, Yu-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a serious health issue worldwide that induces many diseases such as sepsis. There has been a vast search for potentially effective drugs to decrease mortality from sepsis. Pheophytin a is a chlorophyll-related compound derived from green tea. We found that pre-treatment with pheophytin a suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages. NO synthase-2 (NOS2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels were repressed by pre-treatment with pheophytin a at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Pheophytin a inhibited NOS2 promoter activity, but not its mRNA stability, through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). This suppression was reversed by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126). Pheophytin a reduced signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT-1) activation, without an obvious influence on activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). These results suggest that pheophytin a functions by down-regulating the transcriptional levels of inflammatory mediators and blocking the ERK and STAT-1 pathways. PMID:25501336

  10. Caffeine prevents LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Ryu, Su-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2016-03-25

    Caffeine is a white crystalline xanthine alkaloid found in the seeds of coffee plants and leaves of the tea bush. In this study, we evaluated whether caffeine exerts anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of caffeine in the presence or absence of LPS. Caffeine decreased the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide (NO). Caffeine treatment also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6 and IL-12, and decreased both IL-6 secretion and phosphorylated p38MAPK expression in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Caffeine inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, caffeine inhibited LPS-induced NO production in zebrafish. These results suggest that caffeine may suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells by regulating NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. PMID:26852703

  11. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future. PMID:23797659

  12. Antioxidant, inhibition of α-glucosidase and suppression of nitric oxide production in LPS-induced murine macrophages by different fractions of Actinidia arguta stem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehak; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Mihae; Kim, Jaehun; Kim, Daeho; Kim, Sunpyo; Kim, Gur-Yoo; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    In traditional systems of medicine, fruits, leaves, and stems of Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. have been used to treat various inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the proximate composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic potential of A. arguta stem. Phenolic composition of hot water extract and its sub-fractions was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent method. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Anti-inflammatory activity of different fractions was investigated through the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/ml) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, inhibition of α-glucosidase activity of hot water extract was determined using p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as a substrate. Ethyl acetate (557.23 mg GAE/g) fraction contains higher level of total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a strong activity for ethyl acetate (IC50 of 14.28 μg/ml) and n-butanol fractions (IC50 of 48.27 μg/ml). Further, ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited NO production in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than other fractions (nitrite level to 32.14 μM at 200 μg/ml). In addition, hot water extract of A. arguta stem exhibited appreciable inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 of 1.71 mg/ml. The obtained results have important consequence of using A. arguta stem toward the development of effective anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25473361

  13. Trapa japonica Pericarp Extract Reduces LPS-Induced Inflammation in Macrophages and Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Son, Sangkeun; Seo, Il-Bok; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that chloroform fraction (CF) from TJP ethanolic extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular ROS in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes was reduced, as evidenced by western blot. Our results indicate that CF exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) and NF-κB signaling. Similarly we also evaluated the effects of CF on LPS-induced acute lung injury. Male Balb/c mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or CF 1 h before intranasal instillation of LPS. Eight hours after LPS administration, the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The results indicated that CF inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner. It was also observed that CF attenuated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the protective effect of CF on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice might relate to the suppression of excessive inflammatory responses in lung tissue. Thus, it can be suggested that CF might be a potential therapeutic agent for ALI. PMID:27007369

  14. Inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production by transduced Tat-arginine deiminase fusion protein in Raw 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Yeom Pyo; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kang, Hye Won; Shin, Min Jae; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Mi Jin; Jang, Sang Ho; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Won, Moo Ho; Min, Bon-Hong; Cho, Sung-Woo; Lee, Kil Soo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2009-05-31

    Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-degrading enzyme, has anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities and is capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO). Modulation of nitric oxide (NO) production is considered a promising approach for the treatment of various diseases including cancer, inflammation and neuronal disorders. In this study, an ADI gene was fused with an HIV-1 Tat peptide in a bacterial expression vector to produce an genetic in-frame Tat-ADI fusion protein. When added exogenously to the culture media, the expressed and purified Tat-ADI fusion proteins were efficiently transduced into macrophage Raw 264.7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, transduced Tat-ADI fusion proteins markedly increased cell viability in cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This increase in viability was mediated by an inhibition of NO production. These results suggest that this Tat-ADI fusion protein can be used in protein therapies of NO-related disorders such as cancer, inflammation and neuronal diseases. PMID:19470243

  15. Cordycepin inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory and matrix degradation in the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lu; Han, Xiuguo; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin is a component of the extract obtained from Cordyceps militaris and has many biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease that is closely related to the inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. The effect of cordycepin on NP cells in relation to inflammation and degeneration has not yet been studied. In our study, we used a rat NP cell culture and an intervertebral disc (IVD) organ culture model to examine the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression and the production of matrix degradation enzymes (MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5) and oxidative stress-associated factors (nitric oxide and PGE2). We found a protective effect of cordycepin on NP cells and IVDs against LPS-induced matrix degradation and macrophage infiltration. In addition, western blot and luciferase assay results demonstrated that pretreatment with cordycepin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, the results of our research suggest that cordycepin could exert anti-inflammatory and anti-degenerative effects on NP cells and IVDs by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Therefore, cordycepin may be a potential treatment for IDD in the future. PMID:27190710

  16. The protective effect of melatonin on neural stem cell against LPS-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Kang, So Mang; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for tissue regeneration has several limitations in the fact that transplanted cells could not survive for a long time. For solving these limitations, many studies have focused on the antioxidants to increase survival rate of neural stem cells (NSCs). Melatonin, an antioxidant synthesized in the pineal gland, plays multiple roles in various physiological mechanisms. Melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. To determine the effect of melatonin on NSCs which is in LPS-induced inflammatory stress state, we first investigated nitric oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity using Griess reagent assays, LDH assay, and neurosphere counting. Also, we investigated the effect of melatonin on NSCs by measuring the mRNA levels of SOX2, TLX, and FGFR-2. In addition, western blot analyses were performed to examine the activation of PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling in LPS-treated NSCs. In the present study, we suggested that melatonin inhibits NO production and protects NSCs against LPS-induced inflammatory stress. In addition, melatonin promoted the expression of SOX2 and activated the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling under LPS-induced inflammation condition. Based on our results, we conclude that melatonin may be an important factor for the survival and proliferation of NSCs in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:25705693

  17. TIIA attenuates LPS-induced mouse endometritis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaopei; Fu, Kaiqiang; Li, Weishi; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jifang; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-11-01

    Endometritis is one of the main diseases that harms the dairy cow industry. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA), a fat-soluble alkaloid isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of TIIA on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of TIIA on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. TIIA was intraperitoneally injected 1 h before and 12 h after perfusion of LPS into the uterus. A histological examination was then performed, and the concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) in the uterine tissue were determined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a homogenate of the uterus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The extent of phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 was detected by Western blotting. TIIA markedly reduced the infiltration of neutrophils, suppressed MPO activity and the concentration of NO, and attenuated the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Furthermore, TIIA inhibited the phosphorylation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that TIIA has strong anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. PMID:26426600

  18. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Hyun Soo; Baek, Seung-Il; Choi, Nam Song; Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating LPS-Induced Inflammation in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lykhmus, Olena; Mishra, Nibha; Koval, Lyudmyla; Kalashnyk, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Uspenska, Kateryna; Komisarenko, Serghiy; Soreq, Hermona; Skok, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-inflammation, one of the pathogenic causes of neurodegenerative diseases, is regulated through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway via the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR). We previously showed that either bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or immunization with the α7(1–208) nAChR fragment decrease α7 nAChRs density in the mouse brain, exacerbating chronic inflammation, beta-amyloid accumulation and episodic memory decline, which mimic the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the LPS and antibody effects in the brain, we employed an in vivo model of acute LPS-induced inflammation and an in vitro model of cultured glioblastoma U373 cells. Here, we report that LPS challenge decreased the levels of α7 nAChR RNA and protein and of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) RNA and activity in distinct mouse brain regions, sensitized brain mitochondria to the apoptogenic effect of Ca2+ and modified brain microRNA profiles, including the cholinergic-regulatory CholinomiRs-132/212, in favor of anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic ones. Adding α7(1–208)-specific antibodies to the LPS challenge prevented elevation of both the anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic miRNAs while supporting the resistance of brain mitochondria to Ca2+ and maintaining α7 nAChR/AChE decreases. In U373 cells, α7-specific antibodies and LPS both stimulated interleukin-6 production through the p38/Src-dependent pathway. Our findings demonstrate that acute LPS-induced inflammation induces the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the brain, that α7 nAChR down-regulation limits this pathway, and that α7-specific antibodies aggravate neuroinflammation by inducing the pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 and dampening anti-inflammatory miRNAs; however, these antibodies may protect brain mitochondria and decrease the levels of pro-apoptotic miRNAs, preventing LPS-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:27013966

  20. Neuropilin-2 contributes to LPS-induced corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianling; Sun, Junfeng; Du, Lingling; Du, Haitao; Wang, Liyuan; Mai, Jieying; Zhang, Fengmin; Liu, Ping

    2016-02-01

    Neuropilin-2 (NP2), a high-affinity kinase-deficient co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, is involved in embryonic vessel development, tumor growth, tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. However, the pathological role of NP2 in other disorders, particularly under inflammatory lymphangiogenic conditions, remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of NP2 in inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in vivo using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced corneal neovascularization mouse model and in vitro using a macrophage-mouse lymphatic endothelial cell (mLEC) co-culture system. In the mouse model of LPS-induced inflammatory corneal neovascularization, NP2 and VEGFR-3 expression were rapidly up-regulated after LPS stimulation, and microRNA-mediated knockdown of NP2 significantly inhibited the up-regulation of VEGFR-3. Moreover, NP2 knockdown specifically inhibited the increase in the number of corneal lymphatic vessels but did not influence the increase in the number of blood vessels or macrophage recruitment induced by LPS. In a macrophage-LEC co-culture system, LPS up-regulated VEGFR-3 expression and induced mLEC migration and proliferation, and NP2 knockdown inhibited the up-regulation of VEGFR-3 expression and mLEC migration but not proliferation. Taken together, these results suggested that NP2 might be involved in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis via the regulation of VEGFR-3 expression during corneal inflammation. Therefore, NP2-targeted therapy might be a promising strategy for selective inhibition of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis in corneal inflammatory diseases, transplant immunology and oncology. PMID:26500194

  1. Carabrol suppresses LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase expression by inactivation of p38 and JNK via inhibition of I-{kappa}B{alpha} degradation in RAW 264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hwa Jin; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Da Yeon; Jung, Hyeyoun; Kim, Mi-Ran; Moon, Dong-Cheul; Kim, Keun Il; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2010-01-15

    Carabrol, isolated from Carpesium macrocephalum, showed anti-inflammatory potential in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. In present study, carabrol demonstrated the inhibitory activity on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta}, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha}. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 were reduced by carabrol. Molecular analysis revealed that these suppressive effects were correlated with the inactivation of p38 and JNK via inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation. Immunoblotting showed that carabrol suppressed LPS-induced degradation of I-{kappa}B{alpha} and decreased nuclear translocation of p65. Taken together, these results suggest that carabrol can be a modulator of pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

  2. The Effect of the Aerial Part of Lindera akoensis on Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Ping; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Huang, Hui-Chi; Chen, Yu-Chang; Chang, Chi-I; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chien, Shih-Chang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Four new secondary metabolites, 3α-((E)-Dodec-1-enyl)-4β-hydroxy-5β-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1), linderinol (6), 4′-O-methylkaempferol 3-O-α-l-(4″-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (11) and kaempferol 3-O-α-l-(4″-Z-p-coumaroyl) rhamnoside (12) with eleven known compounds—3-epilistenolide D1 (2), 3-epilistenolide D2 (3), (3Z,4α,5β)-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene)-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (4), (3E,4β,5β)-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene)-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (5), matairesinol (7), syringaresinol (8), (+)-pinoresinol (9), salicifoliol (10), 4″-p-coumaroylafzelin (13), catechin (14) and epicatechin (15)—were first isolated from the aerial part of Lindera akoensis. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. All of the compounds isolated from Lindera akoensis showed that in vitro anti-inflammatory activity decreases the LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cell, with IC50 values of 4.1–413.8 μM. PMID:23624606

  3. Amelioration of LPS-induced inflammation response in microglia by AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Chen; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Cheng, Yi-Fang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Huang, Chun-Fang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Cheng, Ching-Yi; Chen, Han-Min

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis via modulating metabolism of glucose, lipid, and protein. In addition to energy modulation, AMPK has been demonstrated to associate with several important cellular events including inflammation. The results showed that ENERGI-F704 identified from bamboo shoot extract was nontoxic in concentrations up to 80 μM and dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr-172) in microglia BV2 cells. Our findings also showed that the treatment of BV2 with ENERGI-F704 ameliorated the LPS-induced elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α production. In addition, ENERGI-F704 reduced increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), respectively. Moreover, ENERGI-F704 decreased activated nuclear translocation and protein level of NF-κB. Inhibition of AMPK with compound C restored decreased NF-κB translocation by ENERGI-F704. In conclusion, ENERGI-F704 exerts inhibitory activity on LPS-induced inflammation through manipulating AMPK signaling and exhibits a potential therapeutic agent for neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:25025067

  4. Amelioration of LPS-Induced Inflammation Response in Microglia by AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chen; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Cheng, Yi-Fang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Huang, Chun-Fang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Cheng, Ching-Yi; Chen, Han-Min

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis via modulating metabolism of glucose, lipid, and protein. In addition to energy modulation, AMPK has been demonstrated to associate with several important cellular events including inflammation. The results showed that ENERGI-F704 identified from bamboo shoot extract was nontoxic in concentrations up to 80 μM and dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr-172) in microglia BV2 cells. Our findings also showed that the treatment of BV2 with ENERGI-F704 ameliorated the LPS-induced elevation of IL-6 and TNF-α production. In addition, ENERGI-F704 reduced increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), respectively. Moreover, ENERGI-F704 decreased activated nuclear translocation and protein level of NF-κB. Inhibition of AMPK with compound C restored decreased NF-κB translocation by ENERGI-F704. In conclusion, ENERGI-F704 exerts inhibitory activity on LPS-induced inflammation through manipulating AMPK signaling and exhibits a potential therapeutic agent for neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:25025067

  5. Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungbeom; Jung, Eunsun; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2011-10-01

    Although (-)-α-bisabolol, a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, is often used as a cosmetic soothing supplement, little is known about its mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate anti-inflammatory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol and its mechanisms of action. In this study, we found that (-)-α-bisabolol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes was reduced, as evidenced by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays for COX-2 and iNOS. To assess the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory property of (-)-α-bisabolol, its effects on the activity of AP-1 and NF-κB promoters were examined. LPS-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-κB promoters was significantly reduced by (-)-α-bisabolol. Consistently, (-)-α-bisabolol reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκBα. In addition, while LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 was attenuated by (-)-α-bisabolol, significant changes in the level of phosphorylated JNK were not observed. Our results indicate that (-)-α-bisabolol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 (ERK and p38) signaling. PMID:21771629

  6. LPS induces pulp progenitor cell recruitment via complement activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; Jeanneau, C; Laurent, P; About, I

    2015-01-01

    Complement system, a major component of the natural immunity, has been recently identified as an important mediator of the dentin-pulp regeneration process through STRO-1 pulp cell recruitment by the C5a active fragment. Moreover, it has been shown recently that under stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, a complex component of the Gram-positive bacteria cell wall, human pulp fibroblasts are able to synthesize all proteins required for complement activation. However, Gram-negative bacteria, which are also involved in tooth decay, are known as powerful activators of complement system and inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Gram-negative bacteria-induced complement activation on the pulp progenitor cell recruitment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacteria. Our results show that incubating pulp fibroblasts with LPS induced membrane attack complex formation and C5a release in serum-free fibroblast cultures. The produced C5a binds to the pulp progenitor cells' membrane and induces their migration toward the LPS stimulation chamber, as revealed by the dynamic transwell migration assays. The inhibition of this migration by the C5aR-specific antagonist W54011 indicates that the pulp progenitor migration is mediated by the interaction between C5a and C5aR. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct interaction between the recruitment of progenitor pulp cells and the activation of complement system generated by pulp fibroblast stimulation with LPS. PMID:25359783

  7. Endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency attenuates LPS-induced vascular dysfunction and hypotension☆

    PubMed Central

    Chuaiphichai, Surawee; Starr, Anna; Nandi, Manasi; Channon, Keith M.; McNeill, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) is thought to be a key mediator of the vascular dysfunction and severe hypotension in patients with endotoxaemia and septic shock. The contribution of NO produced directly in the vasculature by endothelial cells to the hypotension seen in these conditions, vs. the broader systemic increase in NO, is unclear. To determine the specific role of endothelium derived NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular dysfunction we administered LPS to mice deficient in endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the essential co-factor for NO production by NOS enzymes. Mice deficient in endothelial BH4 production, through loss of the essential biosynthesis enzyme Gch1 (Gch1fl/flTie2cre mice) received a 24 hour challenge with LPS or saline control. In vivo LPS treatment increased vascular GTP cyclohydrolase and BH4 levels in aortas, lungs and hearts, but this increase was significantly attenuated in Gch1fl/flTie2cre mice, which were also partially protected from the LPS-induced hypotension. In isometric tension studies, in vivo LPS treatment reduced the vasoconstriction response and impaired endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatations in mesenteric arteries from wild-type mice, but not in Gch1fl/flTie2cre mesenteric arteries. Ex vivo LPS treatment decreased vasoconstriction response to phenylephrine in aortic rings from wild-type and not in Gch1fl/flTie2cre mice, even in the context of significant eNOS and iNOS upregulation. These data provide direct evidence that endothelial cell NO has a significant contribution to LPS-induced vascular dysfunction and hypotension and may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of systemic inflammation and patients with septic shock. PMID:26276526

  8. Endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency attenuates LPS-induced vascular dysfunction and hypotension.

    PubMed

    Chuaiphichai, Surawee; Starr, Anna; Nandi, Manasi; Channon, Keith M; McNeill, Eileen

    2016-02-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) is thought to be a key mediator of the vascular dysfunction and severe hypotension in patients with endotoxaemia and septic shock. The contribution of NO produced directly in the vasculature by endothelial cells to the hypotension seen in these conditions, vs. the broader systemic increase in NO, is unclear. To determine the specific role of endothelium derived NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular dysfunction we administered LPS to mice deficient in endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the essential co-factor for NO production by NOS enzymes. Mice deficient in endothelial BH4 production, through loss of the essential biosynthesis enzyme Gch1 (Gch1(fl/fl)Tie2cre mice) received a 24hour challenge with LPS or saline control. In vivo LPS treatment increased vascular GTP cyclohydrolase and BH4 levels in aortas, lungs and hearts, but this increase was significantly attenuated in Gch1(fl/fl)Tie2cre mice, which were also partially protected from the LPS-induced hypotension. In isometric tension studies, in vivo LPS treatment reduced the vasoconstriction response and impaired endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatations in mesenteric arteries from wild-type mice, but not in Gch1(fl/fl)Tie2cre mesenteric arteries. Ex vivo LPS treatment decreased vasoconstriction response to phenylephrine in aortic rings from wild-type and not in Gch1(fl/fl)Tie2cre mice, even in the context of significant eNOS and iNOS upregulation. These data provide direct evidence that endothelial cell NO has a significant contribution to LPS-induced vascular dysfunction and hypotension and may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of systemic inflammation and patients with septic shock. PMID:26276526

  9. Oleuropein suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cell and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Su-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-02-25

    Oleuropein is one of the primary phenolic compounds present in olive leaf. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein was investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 and a zebrafish model. The inhibitory effect of oleuropein on LPS-induced NO production in macrophages was supported by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, our enzyme immunoassay showed that oleuropein suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Oleuropein inhibited the translocation of p65 by suppressing phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B-α (IκB-α). Oleuropein also decreased activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, which are associated with LPS-induced inflammation, and its downstream gene of AP-1. Furthermore, oleuropein inhibited LPS-stimulated NO generation in a zebrafish model. Taken together, our results demonstrated that oleuropein could reduce inflammatory responses by inhibiting TLR and MAPK signaling, and may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25613688

  10. Tigecycline prevents LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Yagnik, Radhi M; Benzeroual, Kenza E

    2013-03-01

    Pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic mediators have been involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Tigecycline (Tig), a glycylcycline antibiotic and an analog of Minocycline, is shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects that are distinct from its anti-microbial activity. Its neuroprotective mechanism is unknown. In this study, we investigated the direct protective mechanisms of tigecycline against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results showed that tigecycline significantly attenuated the expression and the release of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), as well as nitric oxide (NO) levels in LPS-induced PC12 cells. In addition, tigecycline dose-dependently decreased cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity. This later finding corroborated the results of decreased pro-apoptotic Bad, and increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression thus, confirming a neuroprotective effect of the drug in differentiated PC12 cells induced with LPS. The findings of our study suggest new targets for tigecycline and support the potential for tigecycline to be investigated as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23200736

  11. Morin hydrate augments phagocytosis mechanism and inhibits LPS induced autophagic signaling in murine macrophage.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Rekha; Paul, Souren; Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-10-01

    Morin, a natural flavonoid that is the primary bioactive constituent of the family Moraceae, has been found to be associated with many therapeutic properties. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activities of increasing concentration of morin hydrate in vitro. Three different concentrations of morin hydrate (5, 10, and 15μM) were used to evaluate their effect on splenocyte proliferation, phagocytic activity of macrophages, cytokine secretion and complement inhibition. We also evaluated the role of morin hydrate on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced autophagy. Our study demonstrated that morin hydrate elicited a significant increase in splenocyte proliferation, phagocytic capacity and suppressed the production of cytokines and nitric oxide in activated macrophages. Humoral immunity measured by anti-complement activity showed an increase in inhibition of the complement system after the addition of morin hydrate, where morin hydrate at 15μM concentration induced a significant inhibition. Depending on our results, we can also conclude that morin hydrate protects macrophages from LPS induced autophagic cell death. Our findings suggest that morin hydrate represents a structurally diverse class of flavonoid and this structural variability can profoundly affect its cell-type specificity and its biological activities. Supplementation of immune cells with morin hydrate has an upregulating and immunoprotective effect that shows potential as a countermeasure to the immune dysfunction and suggests an interesting use in inflammation related diseases. PMID:25068824

  12. Enforced expression of miR-125b attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhongliang; Gu, Yutong; Wang, Chunhong; Zhang, Jie; Shan, Shan; Gu, Xia; Wang, Kailing; Han, Yang; Ren, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Despite decades of research, few therapeutic strategies for clinical ARDS have emerged. Recent evidence implicated a potential role of miR-125b in development of ALI. Here we evaluated the miR-125b-based strategy in treatment of ARDS using the murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. We found that up-regulation of miR-125b expression maintained the body weight and survival of ALI mice, and significantly reduced LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation as reflected by reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts, proinflammatory cytokines, as well as chemokines in BAL fluid. Further, enforced expression of miR-125b resulted in remarkable reversal of LPS-induced increases in lung permeability as assessed by reductions in total protein, albumin and IgM in BAL fluid, and ameliorated the histopathology changes of lung in LPS-induced ALI mice. Of interest, serum miR-125b expression was also decreased and inversely correlated with the disease severity in patients with ARDS. Our findings strongly demonstrated that enforced expression of miR-125b could effectively ameliorate the LPS-induced ALI, suggesting a potential application for miR-125b-based therapy to treat clinical ARDS. PMID:25004393

  13. Capsaicin attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production by upregulation of LXR?.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Luo, Kang; Li, Yan; Chen, Quan; Tang, Dan; Wang, Deming; Xiao, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Here, we investigated the role of LXR? in capsaicin mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Results revealed that capsaicin inhibits LPS-induced IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, capsaicin increases LXR? expression through PPAR? pathway. Inhibition of LXR? activation by siRNA diminished the inhibitory action of capsaicin on LPS-induced IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? production. Additionally, LXR? siRNA abrogated the inhibitory action of capsaicin on p65 NF-?B protein expression. Thus, we propose that the anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin are LXR? dependent, and LXR? may potentially link the capsaicin mediated PPAR? activation and NF-?B inhibition in LPS-induced inflammatory response. PMID:26093270

  14. Erlotinib protects against LPS-induced Endotoxicity because TLR4 needs EGFR to signal

    PubMed Central

    De, Sarmishtha; Zhou, Hao; DeSantis, David; Croniger, Colleen M.; Li, Xiaoxia; Stark, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Several components of the canonical pathway of response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are required for the EGF-dependent activation of NFκB. Conversely, the ability of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) to activate NFκB in response to LPS is impaired by down regulating EGF receptor (EGFR) expression or by using the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. The LYN proto-oncogene (LYN) is required for signaling in both directions. LYN binds to the EGFR upon LPS stimulation, and erlotinib impairs this association. In mice, erlotinib blocks the LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ameliorates LPS-induced endotoxity, revealing that EGFR is essential for LPS-induced signaling in vivo. PMID:26195767

  15. Erlotinib protects against LPS-induced endotoxicity because TLR4 needs EGFR to signal.

    PubMed

    De, Sarmishtha; Zhou, Hao; DeSantis, David; Croniger, Colleen M; Li, Xiaoxia; Stark, George R

    2015-08-01

    Several components of the canonical pathway of response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are required for the EGF-dependent activation of NFκB. Conversely, the ability of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) to activate NFκB in response to LPS is impaired by down regulating EGF receptor (EGFR) expression or by using the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. The LYN proto-oncogene (LYN) is required for signaling in both directions. LYN binds to the EGFR upon LPS stimulation, and erlotinib impairs this association. In mice, erlotinib blocks the LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ameliorates LPS-induced endotoxity, revealing that EGFR is essential for LPS-induced signaling in vivo. PMID:26195767

  16. AS-703026 Inhibits LPS-Induced TNFα Production through MEK/ERK Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Wu, Yonghong; Li, Manxiang; Qiu, Xiaojuan; Bai, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by intense lung infiltrations of immune cells (macrophages and monocytes). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates macrophages/monocytes, leading to production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and other cytokines, which cause subsequent lung damages. In the current study, our results demonstrated that AS-703026, a novel MEK/ERK inhibitor, suppressed LPS-induced TNFα mRNA expression and protein secretion in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, and in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Meanwhile, TNFα production in LPS-stimulated COPD patents’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was also repressed by AS-703026. At the molecular level, we showed that AS-703026 blocked LPS-induced MEK/ERK activation in above macrophages/monocytes. However, restoring ERK activation in AS-703026-treated RAW 264.7 cells by introducing a constitutive-actively (CA)-ERK1 only partially reinstated LPS-mediated TNFα production. Meanwhile, AS-703026 could still inhibit TNFα response in ERK1/2-depleted (by shRNA) RAW 264.7 cells. Significantly, we found that AS-703026 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation in above macrophages and COPD patients’ PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of AS-703026 inhibited LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in BALB/c mice. Together, we show that AS-703026 in vitro inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production in macrophages/monocytes, and in vivo protects mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Thus, it could be further studied as a useful anti-inflammatory therapy for COPD patients. PMID:26381508

  17. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2(-/-) mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2(-/-) mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:26615818

  18. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J.; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2−/− mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2−/− mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials. PMID:26615818

  19. Effects of kramecyne on LPS induced chronic inflammation and gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Pérez-Ramos, Julia; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical Research Krameria cytisoides is used for the treatment of inflammation, stomach pain, and gastric ulcers. The active ingredient from this plant is a peroxide, kramecyne (KACY) which has anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of KACY in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic chronic inflammation in mice for 60 days, using dexamethasone (DEX) as the positive control, vehicle (the LPS group) as the negative control and the control group (mice without inflammation). KACY did not affect survival, body weight or relative organ weight in mice but it: decreased nitric oxide (NO) production by 68%; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) by 67%; increased release of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (2.0-fold), and reduced production of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 (2.0-fold), IL-1β (2.4-fold), and TNF-α (2.0-fold). Furthermore, the gastroprotective effects of KACY in mice were evaluated in an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The results showed that KACY at 50 and 100 mg/kg exerted gastroprotective effects with similar activity to 50 mg/kg ranitidine. In gastric tissues, KACY decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) but increased the catalase (CAT) activity. KACY have potential for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases due its similar activity to that of DEX. It also has gastroprotective effects. PMID:26109468

  20. Protective effect of taraxasterol against LPS-induced endotoxic shock by modulating inflammatory responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Xiong, Huanzhang; Li, Hongyu; Cheng, Yao

    2014-02-01

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene, was isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Taraxacum officinale. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of taraxasterol on murine model of endotoxic shock and the mechanism of its action. Mice were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg of taraxasterol prior to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Survival of mice was monitored twice a day for 7 days. To further understand the mechanism, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and mediator nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) as well as histology of lungs were examined. The results showed that taraxasterol significantly improved mouse survival and attenuated tissue injury of the lungs in LPS-induced endotoxemic mice. Further studies revealed that taraxasterol significantly reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE₂ levels in sera from mice with endotoxic shock. These results indicate that taraxasterol has a protective effect on murine endotoxic shock induced by LPS through modulating inflammatory cytokine and mediator secretion. This finding might provide a new strategy for the treatment of endotoxic shock and associated inflammation. PMID:24286370

  1. Low-Level Laser Therapy Attenuates LPS-Induced Rats Mastitis by Inhibiting Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Yueqiang; HE, Xianjing; HAO, Dandan; YU, Debin; LIANG, Jianbin; QU, Yanpeng; SUN, Dongbo; YANG, Bin; YANG, Keli; WU, Rui; WANG, Jianfa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1β and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm2). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease of the expression of CD62L and increase of the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection. PMID:25452258

  2. Albendazole and colchicine modulate LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators by liver macrophages.

    PubMed

    Viktorov, A V; Yurkiv, V A

    2011-10-01

    Colchicine and albendazole inhibited LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and NO in a primary culture of rat Kupffer cells. Both agents potentiated the stimulating effect of this toxin on prostaglandin E2 secretion. The amount of prostaglandin D2 remained unchanged under these conditions. PMID:22485207

  3. EFFECTS OF SYSTEMIC NEUTROPHIL DEPLETION ON LPS-INDUCED AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Systemic Neutrophil Depletion on LPS-induced Airway Disease
    Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, David A. Schwartz
    Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Dept of Medicine ? Duke University Medical Center
    * National Health and E...

  4. Phytoncide Extracted from Pinecone Decreases LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukyung; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Hai Chon; Petriello, Michael C; Kim, Bae Yong; Do, Jeong Tae; Lim, Dae-Seog; Lee, Hong Gu; Han, Sung Gu

    2016-03-28

    Mastitis is a prevalent inflammatory disease that remains one of the main causes of poor quality of milk. Phytoncides are naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compounds derived from plants and trees. To determine if treatment with phytoncide could decrease the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses, mammary alveolar epithelial cells (MAC-T) were pretreated with phytoncide (0.02% and 0.04% (v/v)) followed by LPS treatment (1 and 25 μg/ml). The results demonstrated that phytoncide downregulated LPSinduced pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Additionally, LPS-induced activation of ERK1/2, p38, and Akt was attenuated by phytoncide. Treatment of cells with known pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), and Akt (LY294002) confirmed the association of these signaling pathways with the observed alterations in COX-2 expression. Moreover, phytoncide attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation and superoxide production, and, finally, treatment with phytoncide increased Nrf2 activation. Results suggest that phytoncide can decrease LPS-induced inflammation in MAC-T cells. PMID:26608166

  5. Modulation of LPS induced inflammatory response by Lawsonyl monocyclic terpene from the marine derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asif; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Narsinh L; Naik, Deepak; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2013-02-01

    In continuing research for compounds with immunosuppressive activity, Lawsonone (1), a novel Lawsonyl derivative isolated from marine-derived bacteria Streptomyces sp. was evaluated for its potent immunosuppressive activity on immune system. The effect of Lawsonone (1) was elucidated on the immune cells (splenocytes and macrophages) collected from BALB/c mice. Study was carried out to find the effect of Lawsonone (1) on Con-A and LPS stimulated splenocyte proliferation, LPS-induced NO, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in macrophages. Furthermore, the effect of Lawsonone (1) on T-cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) and total B-cell (CD19) population was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results obtained in the present study showed that Lawsonone (1) inhibited the proliferation of both T and B splenocytes. It inhibited the nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) production in LPS-stimulated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis indicated the prominent inhibition of CD4, CD8 and CD19 cell populations in the spleen of mice treated with the variable doses of Lawsonone (1), with the maximum inhibition at the lowest dose (0.1μM). Taken together, the present results suggest that Lawsonone (1) may act as a potent molecule for immunosuppression and anti-inflammation, supporting its immunopharmacologic application to modify the immune system. PMID:22975588

  6. Effects of voluntary wheel running on LPS-induced sickness behavior in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Greene, Ryan M; Johnson, Stephanie J; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with LPS causes exaggerated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged mice. Regular moderate intensity exercise has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects that may protect against inappropriate neuroinflammation and sickness in aged mice. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running would attenuate LPS-induced sickness behavior and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in ~22-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Mice were housed with a running wheel (VWR), locked-wheel (Locked), or no wheel (Standard) for 10 weeks, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with LPS across a range of doses (0.02, 0.08, 0.16, 0.33 mg/kg). VWR mice ran on average 3.5 km/day and lost significantly more body weight and body fat, and increased their forced exercise tolerance compared to Locked and Shoebox mice. VWR had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia, adipsia, weight-loss, or reductions in locomotor activity at any LPS dose when compared to Locked and Shoebox groups. LPS induced sickness behavior in a dose-dependent fashion (0.33>0.02 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours post-injection (0.33 mg/kg LPS or Saline) we found a LPS-induced upregulation of whole brain TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA, and increased IL-1β and IL-6 in the spleen and liver; these effects were not attenuated by VWR. We conclude that VWR does not reduce LPS-induced exaggerated or prolonged sickness behavior in aged animals, or 24h post-injection (0.33 mg/kg LPS or Saline) brain and peripheral proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. The necessity of the sickness response is critical for survival and may outweigh the subtle benefits of exercise training in aged animals. PMID:23277090

  7. Sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides suppress LPS-induced NO production via JNK and NF-κB inactivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Lee, Jung-Suck; Kim, Se-Kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Bahk, Young Yil; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2014-01-01

    Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-α in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-κB activation. PMID:25387351

  8. DUOX-Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for LPS-Induced Neutrophilic Response in the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sandra; Linderholm, Angela; Harper, Richart

    2015-01-01

    Oxidant production from DUOX1 has been proposed to lead to neutrophil recruitment into the airways when lung homeostasis is compromised. The objective of this study was to determine whether DUOX-derived hydrogen peroxide is required for LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment, using a functional DUOX knock out mouse model. We found that LPS induced profound neutrophilic lung inflammation in both Duoxa+/+ and Duoxa-/- mice between 3h and 24h. Duoxa-/- mice had significantly higher neutrophil influx 24h after LPS instillation despite similar cytokine levels (KC, MIP-2, or TGF-α) between the two groups. These findings suggest that LPS-TLR-4-induced KC or MIP-2 cytokine induction and subsequent neutrophil recruitment in the airway does not require DUOX-derived hydrogen peroxide from airway epithelium. PMID:26148206

  9. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alleviate oxidative stress and decreases Nrf-2/HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Reem M; Rashd, Laila A; Hashem, Khalid S; Soliman, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Translocation of the master regulator of antioxidant-response element-driven antioxidant gene, nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf-2) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and triggering the transcription of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) to counteract the oxidative stress is a key feature in D-galactoseamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GALN/LPS) induced hepatotoxicity. We mainly aimed to study the effect of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles on Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway whereas; it has previously shown to have an antioxidant effect in liver models. Administration of CeO2 nanoparticles significantly decreased the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 with a concomitant decrement in the gene expression of HO-1 as it reveals a powerful antioxidative effect as indicated by the significant increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In synchronization, a substantial decrement in the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TBARS and percentage of DNA fragmentation was established. These results were confirmed by histopathology examination which showed a severe degeneration, haemorrhages, widened sinusoids and focal leukocyte infiltration in D-GALN/LPS treatment and these features were alleviated with CeO2 administration. In conclusion, CeO2 is a potential antioxidant that can effectively decrease the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 into the nucleus and decrease HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26211586

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates LPS-induced lung vascular leak: role of PAK1.

    PubMed

    Birukova, Anna A; Xing, Junjie; Fu, Panfeng; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Fortune, Jennifer A; Klibanov, Alexander M; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2010-11-01

    Increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the models of sepsis, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) suggest its potential role in the modulation of acute lung injury. We have recently described ANP-protective effects against thrombin-induced barrier dysfunction in pulmonary endothelial cells (EC). The current study examined involvement of the Rac effector p21-activated kinase (PAK1) in ANP-protective effects in the model of lung vascular permeability induced by bacterial wall LPS. C57BL/6J mice or ANP knockout mice (Nppa(-/-)) were treated with LPS (0.63 mg/kg intratracheal) with or without ANP (2 μg/kg iv). Lung injury was monitored by measurements of bronchoalveolar lavage protein content, cell count, Evans blue extravasation, and lung histology. Endothelial barrier properties were assessed by morphological analysis and measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. ANP treatment stimulated Rac-dependent PAK1 phosphorylation, attenuated endothelial permeability caused by LPS, TNF-α, and IL-6, decreased LPS-induced cell and protein accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and suppressed Evans blue extravasation in the murine model of acute lung injury. More severe LPS-induced lung injury and vascular leak were observed in ANP knockout mice. In rescue experiments, ANP injection significantly reduced lung injury in Nppa(-/-) mice caused by LPS. Molecular inhibition of PAK1 suppressed the protective effects of ANP treatment against LPS-induced lung injury and endothelial barrier dysfunction. This study shows that the protective effects of ANP against LPS-induced vascular leak are mediated at least in part by PAK1-dependent signaling leading to EC barrier enhancement. Our data suggest a direct role for ANP in endothelial barrier regulation via modulation of small GTPase signaling. PMID:20729389

  11. Impact of LPS-induced cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis inhibited by earthworm extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping-Chun; Tien, Yun-Chen; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Pai, Peiying; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Chen, Tung-Sheng; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Ju, Da-Tong; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Dilong is an earthworm extract with a dense nutritional content, widely used in Chinese herbal medicine to remove stasis and stimulate wound healing. Earthworm extracts are traditionally used by indigenous people throughout the world. How this Dilong inhibits Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis is still unclear. This study investigates the Dilong extract effect on LPS-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. LPS (1 ?g/ml) administration for 24 h induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Cell apoptosis was detected using MTT, LDH, TUNEL assay and JC-1 staining. Western blot analysis was used to detect pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins. Dilong extract totally blocked the LPS impact, leading to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, stabilized the mitochondria membrane and down-regulated the extrinsic and intrinsic pro-apoptotic proteins, TNF-?, active caspase-8, t-Bid, Bax, active caspase-9 and active caspase-3. Dilong could potentially serve as a cardio protective agent against LPS-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis. PMID:25249212

  12. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA) by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a) to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b) to compare anti-inflammatory properties of High-Rosmarinic-Acid Mentha spicata (HRAM) with wild-type control M. spicata (CM), and c) to quantify the relative contributions of RA and three of its hepatic metabolites [ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA), coumaric acid (CO)] to anti-inflammatory activity of HRAM. Methods HRAM and CM were incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, liver microsomes (from male rat) and NADPH. Concentrations of RA, CA, CO, and FA in simulated digest of HRAM (HRAMsim) and CM (CMsim) were determined (HPLC) and compared with concentrations in aqueous extracts of HRAM and CM. Cartilage explants (porcine) were cultured with LPS (0 or 3 ?g/mL) and test article [HRAMsim (0, 8, 40, 80, 240, or 400 ?g/mL), or CMsim (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/mL), or RA (0.640 ?g/mL), or CA (0.384 ?g/mL), or CO (0.057 ?g/mL) or FA (0.038 ?g/mL)] for 96 h. Media samples were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1? (IL-1), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), nitric oxide (NO) and cell viability (differential live-dead cell staining). Results RA concentration of HRAMsim and CMsim was 49.3 and 0.4 ?g/mL, respectively. CA, FA and CO were identified in HRAMsim but not in aqueous extract of HRAM. HRAMsim (? 8 ?g/mL) inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 and NO; HRAMsim (? 80 ?g/mL) inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. RA inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. No anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effects of RA metabolites on cartilage explants were identified. Conclusions Our biological extraction procedure produces a substance which is similar in composition to post-hepatic products. HRAMsim is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced inflammation in cartilage explants, and effects are primarily independent of RA. Further research is needed to identify bioactive phytochemical(s) in HRAMsim. PMID:20459798

  13. Piperine mediates LPS induced inflammatory and catabolic effects in rat intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Kang; Hu, Yiqin; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Piperine is an exact of the active phenolic component from Black pepper. It has been reported to have many biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease closely relate to inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. This study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of piperine in rat intervertebral disc using in vitro and ex vivo analyzes. We demonstrated that piperine could inhibit LPS induced expression and production of inflammatory factors and catabolic proteases in NP cells culture model. It significantly inhibited multiple inflammatory factors and oxidative stress-associated genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS), MMPs (MMP-3, MMP-13), ADAMTS (ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5) mRNA expression and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, piperine could reverse the LPS-induced inhibition of gene expression of aggrecan and collagen-II. Histologic and dimethylmethylene blue analysis indicated piperine could also against LPS induced proteoglycan (PG) depletion in a rat intervertebral disc culture model. Western blot results showed that piperine inhibited the LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK and activation of NF-κB. Finally, our results demonstrated the ability of piperine to antagonize LPS-mediated inflammation of NP cells and suppression of PG in rat intervertebral disc, suggesting a potential agent for treatment of IDD in future. PMID:26261497

  14. Piperine mediates LPS induced inflammatory and catabolic effects in rat intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Kang; Hu, Yiqin; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Piperine is an exact of the active phenolic component from Black pepper. It has been reported to have many biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a degenerative disease closely relate to inflammation of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. This study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of piperine in rat intervertebral disc using in vitro and ex vivo analyzes. We demonstrated that piperine could inhibit LPS induced expression and production of inflammatory factors and catabolic proteases in NP cells culture model. It significantly inhibited multiple inflammatory factors and oxidative stress-associated genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS), MMPs (MMP-3, MMP-13), ADAMTS (ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5) mRNA expression and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, piperine could reverse the LPS-induced inhibition of gene expression of aggrecan and collagen-II. Histologic and dimethylmethylene blue analysis indicated piperine could also against LPS induced proteoglycan (PG) depletion in a rat intervertebral disc culture model. Western blot results showed that piperine inhibited the LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK and activation of NF-κB. Finally, our results demonstrated the ability of piperine to antagonize LPS-mediated inflammation of NP cells and suppression of PG in rat intervertebral disc, suggesting a potential agent for treatment of IDD in future. PMID:26261497

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Heterocarpin from the Salt Marsh Plant Corydalis heterocarpa in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Ah; Kong, Chang-Suk; Park, Hyo Hyun; Lee, Eunkyung; Jang, Mi-Soon; Nam, Ki-Ho; Seo, Youngwan

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of three chromones 1-3 and two coumarins 4-5 on the production of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among the compounds tested heterocarpin (1), a furochromone, significantly inhibited its production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, heterocarpin suppressed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and expression of cytokines such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). PMID:26266403

  16. The dopamine D3 receptor regulates the effects of methamphetamine on LPS-induced cytokine production in murine mast cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Li, Xia; Ren, Hui-Xun; Wu, Feng; Li, Ming; Wang, Biao; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Wei-Ying; Li, Ju-Ping; Chen, Yan-Jiong; Chen, Teng

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH) alter inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in the periphery. However, the effect of METH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses and its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) plays an important role in METH addiction, indicating that the D3R may regulate METH-mediated immune responses. In this study, we examined the effect of METH on mast cell released cytokines in the lungs and thymi of mice stimulated by LPS, and on LPS-induced murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Moreover, we used D3R-deficient mice to investigate the effect of this receptor on LPS-stimulated mast cell released cytokine production after METH treatment in the lungs and thymi. The effects of a D3R agonist and antagonist on LPS-induced cytokine production after METH treatment in murine BMMCs were also evaluated. METH suppressed LPS-induced cytokine production in the lungs and thymi of wild-type (WT) mice and BMMCs. However, METH did not alter LPS-induced cytokine production in the lungs and thymi of D3R-deficient mice. When BMMCs were treated with the D3R receptor antagonist, NGB2904 hydrochloride (NGB-2904), METH did not alter LPS-induced cytokine production. However, treatment with the D3R agonist, 7-hydroxy-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (7-OH-DPAT), significantly enhanced the effects of METH on LPS-induced cytokine production. Our results suggest that METH regulates mast cell released cytokines production in an LPS-induced mouse model via the D3R. PMID:25601390

  17. Asef mediates HGF protective effects against LPS-induced lung injury and endothelial barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanyong; Meliton, Angelo; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Mutlu, Gokhan; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Increased vascular endothelial permeability and inflammation are major pathological mechanisms of pulmonary edema and its life-threatening complication, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have previously described potent protective effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) against thrombin-induced hyperpermeability and identified the Rac pathway as a key mechanism of HGF-mediated endothelial barrier protection. However, anti-inflammatory effects of HGF are less understood. This study examined effects of HGF on the pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) inflammatory activation and barrier dysfunction caused by the gram-negative bacterial pathogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We tested involvement of the novel Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Asef in the HGF anti-inflammatory effects. HGF protected the pulmonary EC monolayer against LPS-induced hyperpermeability, disruption of monolayer integrity, activation of NF-kB signaling, expression of adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and production of IL-8. These effects were critically dependent on Asef. Small-interfering RNA-induced downregulation of Asef attenuated HGF protective effects against LPS-induced EC barrier failure. Protective effects of HGF against LPS-induced lung inflammation and vascular leak were also diminished in Asef knockout mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory effects by HGF and delineate a key role of Asef in the mediation of the HGF barrier protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Modulation of Asef activity may have important implications in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of sepsis and acute lung injury/ARDS-induced gram-negative bacterial pathogens. PMID:25539852

  18. Asef mediates HGF protective effects against LPS-induced lung injury and endothelial barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanyong; Meliton, Angelo; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Mutlu, Gokhan; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu; Birukova, Anna A

    2015-03-01

    Increased vascular endothelial permeability and inflammation are major pathological mechanisms of pulmonary edema and its life-threatening complication, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have previously described potent protective effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) against thrombin-induced hyperpermeability and identified the Rac pathway as a key mechanism of HGF-mediated endothelial barrier protection. However, anti-inflammatory effects of HGF are less understood. This study examined effects of HGF on the pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) inflammatory activation and barrier dysfunction caused by the gram-negative bacterial pathogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We tested involvement of the novel Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Asef in the HGF anti-inflammatory effects. HGF protected the pulmonary EC monolayer against LPS-induced hyperpermeability, disruption of monolayer integrity, activation of NF-kB signaling, expression of adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and production of IL-8. These effects were critically dependent on Asef. Small-interfering RNA-induced downregulation of Asef attenuated HGF protective effects against LPS-induced EC barrier failure. Protective effects of HGF against LPS-induced lung inflammation and vascular leak were also diminished in Asef knockout mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory effects by HGF and delineate a key role of Asef in the mediation of the HGF barrier protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Modulation of Asef activity may have important implications in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of sepsis and acute lung injury/ARDS-induced gram-negative bacterial pathogens. PMID:25539852

  19. Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced vascular permeability via suppressing MLCK/MLC pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujie; Luo, Xuwei; Li, Xiaorui; Song, Xiuming; Wei, Libin; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-01

    Wogonin, a naturally occurring monoflavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities and inhibits oxidant stress-induced vascular permeability. However, the influence of wogonin on vascular hyperpermeability induced by overabounded inflammatory factors often appears in inflammatory diseases and tumor is not well known. In this study, we evaluate the effects of wogonin on LPS induced vascular permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We find that wogonin suppresses the LPS-stimulated hyperactivity and cytoskeleton remodeling of HUVECs, promotes the expression of junctional proteins including VE-Cadherin, Claudin-5 and ZO-1, as well as inhibits the invasion of MDA-MB-231 across EC monolayer. Miles vascular permeability assay proves that wogonin can restrain the extravasated Evans in vivo. The mechanism studies reveal that the expressions of TLR4, p-PLC, p-MLCK and p-MLC are decreased by wogonin without changing the total steady state protein levels of PLC, MLCK and MLC. Moreover, wogonin can also inhibit KCl-activated MLCK/MLC pathway, and further affect vascular permeability. Significantly, compared with wortmannin, the inhibitor of MLCK/MLC pathway, wogonin exhibits similar inhibition effects on the expression of p-MLCK, p-MLC and LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Taken together, wogonin can inhibit LPS-induced vascular permeability by suppressing the MLCK/MLC pathway, suggesting a therapeutic potential for the diseases associated with the development of both inflammatory and tumor. PMID:25956732

  20. Effects of ginsenoside Re on LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microglial activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing several pro-inflammatory enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation leads to the activation of microglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and is associated with the pathological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, AD, and ALS. Ginseng is a natural antioxidant used in herbal medicine and contains ginsenosides (Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Re, and Rd), which have anti-neoplastic and anti-stress properties. This study demonstrates the involvement of the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway, ginsenoside-Re (G-Re), which is one of the ginsenosides mediated by LPS-induced neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells. Methods BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with 2 μg/ml G-Re and stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS to induce neuroinflammation. To investigate the effect of G-Re on LPS-induced cell signaling, we performed western blotting and immunofluorescence using specific antibodies, such as phospho-p38, COX2, and iNOS. Results Pretreatment with 2 μg/ml G-Re was neuroprotective against 1 μg/ml LPS-treated microglial cells. The neuroprotective events induced by G-Re treatment in neuroinflammation occurred via the phospho-p38, iNOS, and COX2 signaling pathways in BV2 cells. Conclusion Taken together, we suggest that G-Re exerts a beneficial effect on neuroinflammatory events in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23102375

  1. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Macrophage Polarization and Prevent LPS-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meiyan; Wu, Lujin; He, Zuowen; Zhang, Shasha; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xizhen; Wang, Peihua; Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wang, Dao Wen

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages, owning tremendous phenotypic plasticity and diverse functions, were becoming the target cells in various inflammatory, metabolic and immune diseases. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) metabolizes arachidonic acid to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which possess various beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EETs treatment on macrophage polarization and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated CYP2J2 expression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction, and sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In vitro studies showed that EETs (1μmol/L) significantly inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization and diminished the proinflammatory cytokines at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level; meanwhile it preserved M2 macrophage related molecules expression and upregulated antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, EETs down-regulated NF-κB activation and up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα/γ) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, which play important roles in regulating M1 and M2 polarization. In addition, LPS treatment in mice induced cardiac dysfunction, heart tissue damage and infiltration of M1 macrophages, as well as the increase of inflammatory cytokines in serum and heart tissue, but rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 expression increased EETs generation in heart and significantly attenuated the LPS-induced harmful effects, which mechanisms were similar as the in vitro study. Taken together, the results indicate that CYP2J2/EETs regulates macrophage polarization by attenuating NF-κB signaling pathway via PPARα/γ and HO-1 activation and its potential use in treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25626689

  2. Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Spulber, Stefan; Edoff, Karin; Hong, Lie; Morisawa, Shinkatsu; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in mouse models of acute neurodegeneration. The effect was suggested to be mediated by its free-radical scavenger properties. However, it has been shown recently that molecular hydrogen alters gene expression and protein phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to test whether chronic ad libitum consumption of molecular hydrogen-enriched electrochemically reduced water (H-ERW) improves the outcome of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Seven days after the initiation of H-ERW treatment, C57Bl/6 mice received a single injection of LPS (0.33 mg/kg i.p.) or an equivalent volume of vehicle. The LPS-induced sickness behaviour was assessed 2 h after the injection, and recovery was assessed by monitoring the spontaneous locomotor activity in the homecage for 72 h after the administration of LPS. The mice were killed in the acute or recovery phase, and the expression of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was assessed by real-time PCR. We found that molecular hydrogen reduces the LPS-induced sickness behaviour and promotes recovery. These effects are associated with a shift towards anti-inflammatory gene expression profile at baseline (downregulation of TNF- ? and upregulation of IL-10). In addition, molecular hydrogen increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration and promotes the extinction of neuroinflammation. Consistently, molecular hydrogen modulates the activation and gene expression in a similar fashion in immortalized murine microglia (BV-2 cell line), suggesting that the effects observed in vivo may involve the modulation of microglial activation. Taken together, our data point to the regulation of cytokine expression being an additional critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen. PMID:22860058

  3. LPS-induced clustering of CD14 triggers generation of PI(4,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Płóciennikowska, Agnieszka; Zdioruk, Mykola I; Traczyk, Gabriela; Świątkowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-15

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions after sequential binding to CD14 protein and TLR4 receptor. Here, we show that CD14 controls generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in response to LPS binding. In J774 cells and HEK293 cells expressing CD14 exposed to 10-100 ng/ml LPS, the level of PI(4,5)P2 rose in a biphasic manner with peaks at 5-10 min and 60 min. After 5-10 min of LPS stimulation, CD14 underwent prominent clustering in the plasma membrane, accompanied by accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and type-I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms Iα and Iγ (encoded by Pip5k1a and Pip5k1c, respectively) in the CD14 region. Clustering of CD14 with antibodies, without LPS and TLR4 participation, was sufficient to trigger PI(4,5)P2 elevation. The newly generated PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in rafts, which also accommodated CD14 and a large portion of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ. Silencing of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ, or application of drugs interfering with PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and availability, abolished the LPS-induced PI(4,5)P2 elevation and inhibited downstream pro-inflammatory reactions. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS induces clustering of CD14, which triggers PI(4,5)P2 generation in rafts that is required for maximal pro-inflammatory signaling of TLR4. PMID:26446256

  4. Fulgidic Acid Isolated from the Rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Suppresses LPS-Induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 Expression by AP-1 Inactivation in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Hong, Yujin; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Ryu, Byeol; Cho, Young-Wuk; Kim, Nam-Jung; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    To identify bioactive natural products possessing anti-inflammatory activity, the potential of fulgidic acid from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and the underlying mechanisms involved in its anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated in this study. Fulgidic acid reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, fulgidic acid suppressed the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, as well as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 at mRNA levels. Fulgidic acid suppressed the LPS-induced transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) as well as the phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. On the other hand, fulgidic acid did not show any effect on LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of fulgidic acid is associated with the suppression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression through down-regulating AP-1 activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. PMID:26133719

  5. Blockade of Interplay between IL-17A and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Attenuates LPS-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ri; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Im; Lee, Kyung Bae; Park, Hae Jin; Jeong, Jae Seok; Cho, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Chul

    2015-01-01

    IL-17 is a cytokine mainly from IL-17-producing T cells, which are one of subsets of CD4+ T cells and play a role in adaptive immune system. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-17A can act rapidly as an innate immune responder during infection before the onset of its classic adaptive immune response. This role of IL-17A in innate immune response is implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation. Very recently, we have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in LPS-induced lung inflammation in vivo and in vitro. This study aimed to elucidate the role of IL-17A in LPS-induced lung injury, focusing on the link with ER stress. We treated a murine model of LPS-induced lung injury with IL-17A neutralizing antibody and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a representative ER stress inhibitor. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IL-17A on ER stress in LPS-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells. Our results showed that inhibition of IL-17A decreased LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia, vascular leakage, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), infiltration of dendritic cells, increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and increased ER stress in the lung. 4-PBA or TAK-242, a TLR4 inhibitor attenuated expression of IL-17A thereby improving LPS-induced lung inflammation. Intriguingly, we observed that stimulation with LPS increased expression of IL-17A in airway epithelial cells and co-stimulation with IL-17A further increased ER stress and NF-κB activation. This study indicates that the interrelationship between IL-17A and ER stress plays an important role in LPS-induced injury showing a positive feedback in airway epithelial cells and suggests that targeting their interaction can be a potential therapeutic approach to overcome one of severe refractory pulmonary disorders. PMID:26516372

  6. Vascular barrier protective effects of orientin and isoorientin in LPS-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonhwa; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-07-01

    Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) can be shed from the cell surface, and this process is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), and high levels of soluble EPCR are involved in vascular inflammation. Orientin, one of the C-glycosyl flavonoids, has been known to have anxiolytic and antioxidative activities. However, the effect of orientin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response has not been studied. Here we investigated the barrier protective effects of orientin against pro-inflammatory responses induced by LPS and the associated signaling pathways. We found that orientin inhibited LPS-induced barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and adhesion/transendothelial migration of monocytes to human endothelial cells. Orientin induced potent inhibition of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and LPS-induced EPCR shedding. Orientin also suppressed LPS-induced hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in vivo. Furthermore, orientin suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or Interleukin (IL)-6 and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 by LPS. Moreover, treatment with orientin resulted in reduced LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia. These results suggest that orientin protects vascular barrier integrity by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, and adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. PMID:24792192

  7. Cannabidiol (CBD) Enhances Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Peer W. F.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a plant-derived cannabinoid that has been predominantly characterized as anti-inflammatory. However, it is clear that immune effects of cannabinoids can vary with cannabinoid concentration, or type or magnitude of immune stimulus. The present studies demonstrate that oral administration of CBD enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced inflammatory cell infiltrate as observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was comprised mainly of neutrophils, with some monocytes. Concomitantly, CBD enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA production, including tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfa), interleukins (IL) 6 and 23 (Il6, Il23), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). These results demonstrate that the CBD-mediated enhancement of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated at the level of transcription of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes. The significance of these studies is that CBD is part of a therapeutic currently in use for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis patients, and therefore it is important to further understand mechanisms by which CBD alters immune function. PMID:23173851

  8. Calorie restriction attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation in discrete regions of the hypothalamus and the subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    Radler, Morgan E; Hale, Matthew W; Kent, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and elicit many health promoting benefits including delaying immunosenescence and attenuating neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. CR also suppresses microglial activation following cortical injury and aging. We previously demonstrated that CR attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and shifts hypothalamic signaling pathways to an anti-inflammatory bias; however, the effects of CR on LPS-induced microglial activation remain largely unexplored. The current study investigated regional changes in LPS-induced microglial activation in mice exposed to 50% CR for 28days. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to examine changes in ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1), a protein constitutively expressed by microglia, in a total of 27 brain regions involved in immunity, stress, and/or thermoregulation. Exposure to CR attenuated LPS-induced fever, and LPS-induced microglial activation in a subset of regions: the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) and the subfornical organ (SFO). Microglial activation in the ARC and VMH was positively correlated with body temperature. These data suggest that CR exerts effects on regionally specific populations of microglia; particularly, in appetite-sensing regions of the hypothalamus, and/or regions lacking a complete blood brain barrier, possibly through altered pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling in these regions. PMID:24291211

  9. Eriodictyol, a plant flavonoid, attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, GUANG-FA; GUO, HONG-JUAN; HUANG, YAN; WU, CHUN-TING; ZHANG, XIANG-FENG

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive inflammatory responses and oxidative injury in the lung tissue. It has been suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidative agents could have therapeutic effects in ALI, and eriodictyol has been reported to exhibit antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eriodictyol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in a mouse model. The mice were divided into four groups: Phosphate-buffered saline-treated healthy control, LPS-induced ALI, vehicle-treated ALI (LPS + vehicle) and eriodictyol-treated ALI (LPS + eriodictyol). Eriodictyol (30 mg/kg) was administered orally once, 2 days before the induction of ALI. The data showed that eriodictyol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the eriodictyol pretreatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in the ALI mouse model, which attenuated the oxidative injury and inhibited the inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. In combination, the results of the present study demonstrated that eriodictyol could alleviate the LPS-induced lung injury in mice by regulating the Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting that eriodictyol could be used as a potential drug for the treatment of LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:26668626

  10. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation of mouse macrophages by inducing the expression of DUSP1.

    PubMed

    Köröskényi, Krisztina; Kiss, Beáta; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine is known to reduce inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages produce adenosine, and the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling activated in an autocrine manner attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation. It has been suggested that A2AR signaling inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inhibition was not identified so far. Here we report that LPS stimulation enhances A2AR expression in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and loss of A2ARs results in enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response. Loss of A2ARs in A2AR null macrophages did not alter the LPS-induced NF-κB activation, but an enhanced basal and LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases (especially that of JNKs) was detected in A2AR null cells. A2AR signaling did not alter the LPS-induced phosphorylation of their upstream kinases, but by regulating adenylate cyclase activity it enhanced the expression of dual specific phosphatase (DUSP)1, a negative regulator of MAP kinases. As a result, lower basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels can be detected in A2AR null macrophages. Silencing of DUSP1 mRNA expression resulted in higher basal and LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation in wild type macrophages, but had no effect on that in A2AR null cells. Our data indicate that A2AR signaling regulates both basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 levels in macrophages via activating the adenylate cyclase pathway. PMID:27066978

  11. Transiently enhanced LPS-induced fever following hyperthermic stress in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaaki; Uno, Tadashi; Riedel, Walter; Nishimaki, Michiyo; Watanabe, Kaori

    2005-11-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to induce an enhanced febrile response to the bacterial-derived endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the enhanced LPS-induced fever seen in heat stressed (HS) animals is caused by leakage of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation. Male rabbits were rendered transiently hyperthermic (a maximum rectal temperature of 43°C) and divided into three groups. They were then allowed to recover in a room at 24°C for 1, 2 or 3 days post-HS. One day after injection with LPS, the post-HS rabbits exhibited significantly higher fevers than the controls, though this was not seen in rabbits at either 2 or 3 days post-HS. The plasma levels of endogenous LPS were significantly increased during the HS as compared to those seen in normothermic rabbits prior to HS. LPS fevers were not induced in these animals. One day post-HS, rabbits that had been pretreated with oral antibiotics exhibited significantly attenuated LPS levels. When challenged with human recombinant interleukin-1β instead of LPS, the 1-day post-HS rabbits did not respond with enhanced fevers. The plasma levels of TNFα increased similarly during LPS-induced fevers in both the control and 1-day post-HS rabbits, while the plasma levels of corticosterone and the osmolality of the 1-day post-HS rabbits showed no significant differences to those seen prior to the HS. These results suggest that the enhanced fever in the 1-day post-HS rabbits is LPS specific, and may be caused by increased leakage of intestinal endotoxin into blood circulation.

  12. 6-7-Dimethoxy-4-methylcoumarin suppresses pro-inflammatory mediator expression through inactivation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kil-Nam; Yang, Hye-Won; Ko, Seok-Chun; Ko, Yeong-Jong; Kim, Eun-A; Roh, Seong Woon; Ko, Eun-Yi; Ahn, Ginnae; Heo, Soo-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of 6,7-dimethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DMC) to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells, and the molecular mechanism through which this inhibition occurred. Our results indicated that DMC downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, DMC suppressed LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of DMC, we assessed its effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the activity and expression of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). The experiments demonstrated that DMC inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. In addition, it attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation via the inhibition of IκB-α phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that DMC exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in RAW 264.7 cells through the inhibition of LPS-stimulated NF-κB and MAPK signaling, thereby downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:26417302

  13. ent-Abietane-type diterpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata with their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-guo; Li, Zhan-lin; Li, Da-Hong; Li, Ning; Bai, Jiao; Zhao, Feng; Meng, Da-li; Hua, Hui-ming

    2016-01-01

    Ten ent-abietane diterpenoids (1-10), including four new (1-4) and six known ones (5-10) were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata. Their structures were determined by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS. Compounds 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 0.69, 1.97, and 0.88μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship was also discussed. PMID:26615888

  14. Three diketopiperazines from marine-derived bacteria inhibit LPS-induced endothelial inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyejin; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Hyukjae; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-04-15

    Diketopiperazine is a natural products found from bacteria, fungi, marine sponges, gorgonian and red algae. They are cyclic dipeptides possessing relatively simple and rigid structures with chiral nature and various side chains. Endothelial dysfunction is a key pathological feature of many inflammatory diseases, including sepsis. In the present study, three (1-3) of diketopiperazines were isolated from two strains of marine-derived bacteria. The compounds were investigated for their effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endothelial inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. From 1μM, 1-3 inhibited LPS-induced hyperpermeability, adhesion, and migration of leukocytes across a human endothelial cell monolayer and in mice in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that 1-3 may serve as potential scaffolds for the development of therapeutic agents to treat vascular inflammatory disorders. PMID:26988307

  15. Lung cell-specific modulation of LPS-induced TLR4 receptor and adaptor localization

    PubMed Central

    Sender, Vicky; Stamme, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    Lung infection by Gram-negative bacteria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), located in the outer membrane of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall, is a highly potent stimulus of immune and structural cells via the TLR4/MD2 complex whose function is sequentially regulated by defined subsets of adaptor proteins. Regulatory mechanisms of lung-specific defense pathways point at the crucial role of resident alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, the TLR4 receptor pathway, and lung surfactant in shaping the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria and LPS. During the past decade intracellular spatiotemporal localization of TLR4 emerged as a key feature of TLR4 function. Here, we briefly review lung cell type- and compartment-specific mechanisms of LPS-induced TLR4 regulation with a focus on primary resident hematopoietic and structural cells as well as modifying microenvironmental factors involved. PMID:25136402

  16. Persistence of LPS-induced lung inflammation in surfactant protein-C-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Maxfield, Melissa D; Ruetschilling, Teah L; Akinbi, Henry T; Baatz, John E; Kitzmiller, Joseph A; Page, Kristen; Xu, Yan; Bao, Erik L; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein-C (SP-C) gene-targeted mice (Sftpc(-/-)) develop progressive lung inflammation and remodeling. We hypothesized that SP-C deficiency reduces the ability to suppress repetitive inflammatory injury. Sftpc(+/+) and Sftpc(-/-) mice given three doses of bacterial LPS developed airway and airspace inflammation, which was more intense in the Sftpc(-/-) mice at 3 and 5 days after the final dose. Compared with Sftpc(+/+)mice, inflammatory injury persisted in the lungs of Sftpc(-/-) mice 30 days after the final LPS challenge. Sftpc(-/-) mice showed LPS-induced airway goblet cell hyperplasia with increased detection of Sam pointed Ets domain and FoxA3 transcription factors. Sftpc(-/-) type II alveolar epithelial cells had increased cytokine expression after LPS exposure relative to Sftpc(+/+) cells, indicating that type II cell dysfunction contributes to inflammatory sensitivity. Microarray analyses of isolated type II cells identified a pattern of enhanced expression of inflammatory genes consistent with an intrinsic low-level inflammation resulting from SP-C deficiency. SP-C-containing clinical surfactant extract (Survanta) or SP-C/phospholipid vesicles blocked LPS signaling through the LPS receptor (Toll-like receptor [TLR] 4/CD14/MD2) in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, indicating that SP-C blocks LPS-induced cytokine production by a TLR4-dependent mechanism. Phospholipid vesicles alone did not modify the TLR4 response. In vivo deficiency of SP-C leads to inflammation, increased cytokine production by type II cells, and persistent inflammation after repetitive LPS stimulation. PMID:23795648

  17. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 μg/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-κB) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-κB translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. PMID:25433435

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella on murine macrophage by down-regulating LPS-induced inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chen; Fan, Nien-Chu; Lin, Ming-Hui; Chu, Inn-Ray; Huang, Shu-Jung; Hu, Ching-Yuan; Han, Shang-Yu

    2008-04-01

    Spilanthes acmella (Paracress), a common spice, has been administered as a traditional folk medicine for years to cure toothaches, stammering, and stomatitis. Previous studies have demonstrated its diuretic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the active compounds contributing to the anti-inflammatory effect have seldom been addressed. This study isolates the active compound, spilanthol, by a bioactivity-guided approach and indicates significant anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage model, RAW 264.7. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of paracress is also investigated. Extracts of S. acmella are obtained by extraction with 85% ethanol, followed by liquid partition against hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The ethyl acetate extract exhibits a stronger free radical scavenging capacity than other fractions do, as determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The chloroform extract significantly inhibits nitric oxide production ( p < 0.01) and is selected for further fractionation to yield the active compound, spilanthol. The diminished levels of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression support the postulation that spilanthol inhibits proinflammatory mediator production at the transcriptional and translational levels. Additionally, the LPS-stimulated IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha productions are dose-dependently reduced by spilanthol. The LPS-induced phosphorylation of cytoplasmic inhibitor-kappaB and the nuclear NF-kappaB DNA binding activity are both restrained by spilanthol. Results of this study suggest that spilanthol, isolated from S. acmella, attenuates the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages partly due to the inactivation of NF-kappaB, which negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:18321049

  19. Osmotin attenuates LPS-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairments via the TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Haroon; Ali, Tahir; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the brain mediates autoimmune responses and induces neuroinflammation that results in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The plant hormone osmotin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 downstream signaling, including activation of TLR4, CD14, IKKα/β, and NFκB, and the release of inflammatory mediators, such as COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS, and IL-1β. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated colocalization of TLR4 and AdipoR1 receptors in BV2 microglial cells, which suggests that osmotin binds to AdipoR1 and inhibits downstream TLR4 signaling. Furthermore, osmotin treatment reversed LPS-induced behavioral and memory disturbances and attenuated LPS-induced increases in the expression of AD markers, such as Aβ, APP, BACE-1, and p-Tau. Osmotin improved synaptic functionality via enhancing the activity of pre- and post-synaptic markers, like PSD-95, SNAP-25, and syntaxin-1. Osmotin also prevented LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration via inhibition of PARP-1 and caspase-3. Overall, our studies demonstrated that osmotin prevented neuroinflammation-associated memory impairment and neurodegeneration and suggest AdipoR1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurological disorders, such as AD. PMID:27093924

  20. Osmotin attenuates LPS-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairments via the TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Badshah, Haroon; Ali, Tahir; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the brain mediates autoimmune responses and induces neuroinflammation that results in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The plant hormone osmotin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 downstream signaling, including activation of TLR4, CD14, IKKα/β, and NFκB, and the release of inflammatory mediators, such as COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS, and IL-1β. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated colocalization of TLR4 and AdipoR1 receptors in BV2 microglial cells, which suggests that osmotin binds to AdipoR1 and inhibits downstream TLR4 signaling. Furthermore, osmotin treatment reversed LPS-induced behavioral and memory disturbances and attenuated LPS-induced increases in the expression of AD markers, such as Aβ, APP, BACE-1, and p-Tau. Osmotin improved synaptic functionality via enhancing the activity of pre- and post-synaptic markers, like PSD-95, SNAP-25, and syntaxin-1. Osmotin also prevented LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration via inhibition of PARP-1 and caspase-3. Overall, our studies demonstrated that osmotin prevented neuroinflammation-associated memory impairment and neurodegeneration and suggest AdipoR1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurological disorders, such as AD. PMID:27093924

  1. Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on LPS-Induced Secretion of IL-8 by Uveal Melanocytes and Relevant Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shih-Chun; Vagaggini, Tommaso; Nien, Chan-Wei; Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced secretion of IL-8 by uveal melanocytes (UM) were tested in cultured human UM. MTT assay revealed that LPS (0.01–1 μg/mL) and lutein and zeaxanthin (1–10 μM) did not influence the cell viability of cultured UM. LPS caused a dose-dependent increase of secretion of IL-8 by cultured UM. Lutein and zeaxanthin did not affect the constitutive secretion of IL-8. However, lutein and zeaxanthin decreased LPS-induced secretion of IL-8 in cultured UM in a dose-dependent manner. LPS significantly increased NF-κB levels in cell nuclear extracts and p-JNK levels in the cell lysates from UM, but not p-p38 MAPK and p-ERG. Lutein or zeaxanthin significantly reduced LPS-induced increase of NF-κB and p-JNK levels, but not p38 MAPK and ERG levels. The present study demonstrated that lutein and zeaxanthin inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-8 in cultured UM via JNK and NF-κB signal pathways. The anti-inflammatory effects of lutein and zeaxanthin might be explored as a therapeutic approach in the management of uveitis and other inflammatory diseases of the eye. PMID:26609426

  2. CD97/ADGRE5 Inhibits LPS Induced NF-κB Activation through PPAR-γ Upregulation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Sun, Zewei; Zhao, Wenting; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Mingjie; Pan, Yanyun; Yan, Hui; Zhu, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    CD97/ADGRE5 protein is predominantly expressed on leukocytes and belongs to the EGF-TM7 receptors family. It mediates granulocytes accumulation in the inflammatory tissues and is involved in firm adhesion of PMNC on activated endothelial cells. There have not been any studies exploring the role of CD97 in LPS induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. Therefore, we first measured the CD97 expression in LPS treated human primary macrophages and subsequently analyzed the levels of inflammatory factor TNF-α and transcription factor NF-κB in these macrophages that have been manipulated with either CD97 knockdown or overexpression. We found that a reported anti-inflammatory transcription factor, PPAR-γ, was involved in the CD97 mediated NF-κB suppression. Furthermore, by immunofluorescence staining, we established that CD97 overexpression not only inhibited LPS induced p65 expression in the nucleus but also promoted the PPAR-γ expression. Moreover, using CD97 knockout THP-1 cells, we further demonstrated that CD97 promoted PPAR-γ expression and decreased LPS induced NF-κB activation. In conclusion, CD97 plays a negative role in LPS induced NF-κB activation and TNF-α secretion, partly through PPAR-γ upregulation. PMID:26997758

  3. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract. PMID:24117072

  4. Human anti-microbial cathelicidin peptide LL-37 suppresses the LPS-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kaori; Murakami, Taisuke; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Tamura, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Nagaoka, Isao

    2011-03-01

    Sepsis is a systemic disease resulting from harmful host response to bacterial infections. During the exacerbation of severe sepsis or septic shock, apoptosis of endothelial cells is induced in susceptible organs such as the lung and liver and triggers microcirculatory disorder and organ dysfunction. LPS, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the major virulence factors for the pathogenesis. We previously reported that LL-37, a human anti-microbial cathelicidin peptide, potently neutralizes the biological activity of LPS and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock. However, the effect of LL-37 on the LPS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis remains to be clarified. In this study, to further elucidate the action of LL-37 on severe sepsis/endotoxin shock, we investigated the effects of LL-37 on the LPS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo using lung-derived normal human microvascular blood vessel endothelial cells (HMVEC-LBls) and D-galactosamine hydrochloride (D-GalN)-sensitized murine endotoxin shock model. LL-37 suppressed the LPS-induced apoptosis of HMVEC-LBls. In addition, LL-37 inhibited the binding of LPS possibly to the LPS receptors (CD14 and toll-like receptor 4) expressed on the cells. Thus, LL-37 can suppress the LPS-induced apoptosis of HMVEC-LBls via the inhibition of LPS binding to the cells. Furthermore, LL-37 drastically suppressed the apoptosis of hepatic endothelial cells as well as hepatocytes in the liver of murine endotoxin shock model. Together, these observations suggest that LL-37 could suppress the LPS-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, thereby attenuating lethal sepsis/endotoxin shock. PMID:21393634

  5. Emodin suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells through a PPARγ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Feng, She-Jun; Yu, Hua-Peng

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a defense and protective response to multiple harmful stimuli. Over and uncontrolled inflammation can lead to local tissues or even systemic damages and injuries. Actually, uncontrolled and self-amplified inflammation is the fundament of the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory diseases, including sepsis shock, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Our recent study showed that emodin, the main active component of Radix rhizoma Rhei, could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced ALI/ARDS in mice. However, its underlying signal pathway was not still very clear. Then, the aim of current study was to explore whether emodin could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells, and its involved potential mechanism. The mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1, MCP-1 and PPARγ were measured by qRCR and western blotting, the production of TNF-α was evaluated by ELISA. Then, the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 was also detected by western blotting. And NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity was analyzed by ELISA as well. Meanwhile, siRNA-PPARγ transfection was performed to knockdown PPARγ expression in cells. Our data revealed that LPS-induced the up-regulation of ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TNF-α, LPS-induced the down-regulation of PPARγ, and LPS-enhanced NF-κB p65 activation and DNA binding activity were substantially suppressed by emdoin in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, our data also figured out that these effects of emdoin were largely abrogated by siRNA-PPARγ transfection. Taken together, our results indicated that LPS-induced inflammation were potently compromised by emodin very likely through the PPARγ-dependent inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26910236

  6. Biflorin, Isolated from the Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum L., Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators via STAT1 Inactivation in Macrophages and Protects Mice from Endotoxin Shock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwi-Ho; Shin, Ji-Sun; Lee, Woo-Seok; Ryu, Byeol; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-04-22

    Two chromone C-glucosides, biflorin (1) and isobiflorin (2), were isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae). Here, inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 1 (IC50 = 51.7 and 37.1 μM, respectively) was more potent than 2 (IC50 > 60 and 46.0 μM). The suppression of NO and PGE2 production by 1 correlated with inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Compound 1 reduced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression via inhibition of their promoter activities. Compound 1 inhibited the LPS-induced production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, 1 reduced p-STAT1 and p-p38 expression but did not affect the activity of nuclear factor κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) or activator protein 1 (AP-1). In a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxemia, 1 reduced the mRNA levels of iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α, and the phosphorylation-mediated activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), consequently improving the survival rates of mice. Compound 1 showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema and croton-oil-induced ear edema in rats. The collective data indicate that the suppression of pro-inflammatory gene expression via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and STAT1 inactivation may be a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of 1. PMID:26977531

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Delays LPS-Induced Preterm Birth in Mice via Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Chen; You, Xingji; Olson, David M.; Chemtob, Sylvain; Gao, Lu; Ni, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of preterm labor in pregnant women is intra-amniotic infection, which is mediated by an inflammatory process. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter, has been implicated to be involved in inflammatory responses. We sought to investigate whether H2S affects infectious preterm birth using the mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced preterm birth. Administration of LPS at 0.4 mg/kg with two injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) on gestational day 14.5 induced preterm labor. LPS significantly increased leukocyte infiltration in uterus, stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CCL2 and CXCL15 in myometrium. Administration of NaHS (i.p.) delayed the onset of labor induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS prevented leukocyte infiltration into intrauterine tissues and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myometrium and decreased the levels of these cytokines in maternal circulation. H2S also decreased LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2/ nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways in myometrium. This study provides new in vivo evidence for the roles of H2S in attenuating inflammation, and a potential novel therapeutic strategy for infection-related preterm labor. PMID:27035826

  8. Micheliolide inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response and protects mice from LPS challenge.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiangyang; Jiang, Xinru; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Yuli; Miao, Zhulei; He, Weigang; Yang, Guizhen; Lv, Zhenhui; Yu, Yizhi; Zheng, Yuejuan

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the principal cause of fatality in the intensive care units worldwide. It involves uncontrolled inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ failure and even death. Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was reported to inhibit dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer and rheumatic arthritis. Nevertheless, the role of MCL in microbial infection and sepsis is unclear. We demonstrated that MCL decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria)-mediated production of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, etc) in Raw264.7 cells, primary macrophages, dendritic cells and human monocytes. MCL plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathways. It has negligible impact on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In the acute peritonitis mouse model, MCL reduced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IFN-β and IL-10 in sera, and ameliorated lung and liver damage. MCL down-regulated the high mortality rate caused by lethal LPS challenge. Collectively, our data illustrated that MCL enabled maintenance of immune equilibrium may represent a potentially new anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug candidate in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock. PMID:26984741

  9. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  10. Micheliolide inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response and protects mice from LPS challenge

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiangyang; Jiang, Xinru; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Yuli; Miao, Zhulei; He, Weigang; Yang, Guizhen; Lv, Zhenhui; Yu, Yizhi; Zheng, Yuejuan

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the principal cause of fatality in the intensive care units worldwide. It involves uncontrolled inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ failure and even death. Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was reported to inhibit dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer and rheumatic arthritis. Nevertheless, the role of MCL in microbial infection and sepsis is unclear. We demonstrated that MCL decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria)-mediated production of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, etc) in Raw264.7 cells, primary macrophages, dendritic cells and human monocytes. MCL plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathways. It has negligible impact on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In the acute peritonitis mouse model, MCL reduced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IFN-β and IL-10 in sera, and ameliorated lung and liver damage. MCL down-regulated the high mortality rate caused by lethal LPS challenge. Collectively, our data illustrated that MCL enabled maintenance of immune equilibrium may represent a potentially new anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug candidate in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock. PMID:26984741

  11. Fingolimod affects gene expression profile associated with LPS-induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Omidbakhsh, Rana; Rajabli, Banafshe; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Khallaghi, Behzad; Mohamed, Zahurin; Naidu, Murali; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Dargahi, Leila

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide is an endotoxin to induce sickness behavior in several animal models to explore the link between immune activation and cognition. Neuroinflammation playing a pivotal role in disease progress is evidently influenced by sphingosine-1-phosphate. As one of the sphingosine analogs in clinical use for multiple sclerosis, fingolimod (FTY720) was shown to substantially affect gene expression profile in the context of AD in our previous experiments. The present study was designed to evaluate the drug efficacy in the context of the mere inflammatory context leading to memory impairment. FTY720 was repeatedly administered for a few days before or after intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in rats. Animal's brains were then assigned to histological as well as multiplex mRNA assay following memory performance test. Both FTY720 pre-treatment and post-treatment were similarly capable of ameliorating LPS-induced memory impairment as assessed by passive avoidance test. Such amending effects may be partly accountable by the concomitant alterations in transcriptional levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases as well as inflammatory genes determined by QuantiGene Plex analysis. These findings confirming FTY720 application benefits suggest its efficacy may not differ significantly while considered either as a preventive or as a therapeutic approach against neuroinflammation. PMID:25098558

  12. p52-independent nuclear translocation of RelB promotes LPS-induced attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Sasaki, C.Y.; Rezanka, L.J.; Ghosh, P.; Longo, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways have a critical role in the development and progression of various cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that the small cell lung cancer cell line (SCLC) H69 expressed a unique NF-{kappa}B profile as compared to other cancer cell lines. The p105/p50, p100/p52, c-Rel, and RelB protein and mRNA transcripts were absent in H69 cells but these cells expressed RelA/p65. The activation of H69 cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in the induction of RelB and p100 expression. The treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of RelB without the processing of p100 to p52. Furthermore, LPS-induced {beta}1 integrin expression and cellular attachment through an NF-{kappa}B-dependent mechanism. Blocking RelB expression prevented the increase in the expression of {beta}1 integrin and the attachment of H69. Taken together, the results suggest that RelB was responsible for the LPS-mediated attachment and may play an important role in the progression of some cancers.

  13. Dexamethasone Suppressed LPS-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase and Its Effect on Endothelial Glycocalyx Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Na; Wang, Hao; Long, Yun; Su, Longxiang; Liu, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism of sepsis-induced vascular hyperpermeability and the beneficial effect of glucocorticoid in protecting vascular endothelium. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a bolus intraperitoneal injection of a nonlethal dose of LPS (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 10?mg/kg, Sigma) or vehicle (pyrogen-free water). Animals of treatment groups were also given either dexamethasone (4?mg/kg, 30?min prior to LPS injection) or the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitor doxycycline (4?mg/kg, 30?min after LPS injection). Both activities and protein levels of MMP-2 (p < 0.001) and MMP-9 (p < 0.001) were significantly upregulated in aortic homogenates from LPS-treated rats, associated with decreased ZO-1 (p < 0.001) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.011) protein contents. Both dexamethasone and doxycycline could significantly inhibit MMPs activity and reserve the expressions of ZO-1 and syndecan-1. The inhibition of MMPs by dexamethasone was significantly lower than that by doxycycline, while the rescue of syndecan-1 expression from LPS-induced endotoxemic rat thoracic aorta was significantly higher in the dexamethasone-treated compared to the doxycycline-treated (p = 0.03). In conclusion, activation of MMPs plays important role in regulating ZO-1 and syndecan-1 protein levels in LPS mediated endothelial perturbation. Both dexamethasone and doxycycline inhibit activation of MMPs that may contribute to the rescue of ZO-1 and syndecan-1 expression. PMID:26199464

  14. Molecular basis for the inhibition of LPS induced differentiation by anti-immunoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.

    1986-03-01

    Previous publications from this laboratory have dissected the molecular levels of regulation for the expression of cell associated and secreted IgM in both quiescent and mitogen activated B lymphocytes. The same approach of biosynthetic labeling of newly synthesized mRNA and polypeptide chains has been used to analyze the molecular level of inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced B cell differentiation by anti-immunoglobulins. It was found that the inhibition is mediated by prevention of the increase in both total RNA synthesis and specific transcription of the ..mu.. gene which is induced by lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, the basal level of transcription necessary for maintenance of membrane IgM synthesis is not affected. In addition, it was found that anti-immunoglobulin does not completely prevent cell enlargement or /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake although the net increase in cell number stimulated by LPS is abrogated. Accordingly, there is a specific inhibition of secretory IgM synthesis which results in the previously documented decrease in the IgM secretion.

  15. GLP-2 Attenuates LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV-2 Cells by Inhibiting ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Liu, Bo-Wen; Ren, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Li, Su-Nan; Fu, Shou-Peng; Zeng, Ya-Long; Xu, Shi-Yao; Yan, Xuan; Gao, Ying-Jie; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) often involves the over-activation of microglia. Over-activated microglia could produce several inflammatory mediators, which trigger excessive inflammation and ultimately cause dopaminergic neuron damage. Anti-inflammatory effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in the periphery have been shown. Nonetheless, it has not been illustrated in the brain. Thus, in this study, we aimed to understand the role of GLP-2 in microglia activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. BV-2 cells were pretreated with GLP-2 and then stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cells were assessed for the responses of pro-inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α); the related signaling pathways were evaluated by Western blotting. The rescue effect of GLP-2 on microglia-mediated neurotoxicity was also examined. The results showed that GLP-2 significantly reduced LPS-induced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-s (COX-2), IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Blocking of Gαs by NF449 resulted in a loss of this anti-inflammatory effect in BV-2 cells. Analyses in signaling pathways demonstrated that GLP-2 reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p65, while no effect was observed on p38 phosphorylation. In addition, GLP-2 could suppress microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. All results imply that GLP-2 inhibits LPS-induced microglia activation by collectively regulating ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p65. PMID:26861286

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of cavidine in vitro and in vivo, a selective COX-2 inhibitor in LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages of mouse.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Hailin; Li, Weifeng; Mu, Qingli; Yao, Huan; Wang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Cavidine is an isoquinoline alkaloid which is isolated from Corydalis impatiens. In traditional Tibetan herb, C. impatiens has been widely used for treatment of skin injuries, hepatitis, cholecystitis, and scabies. The present study aimed to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effect and investigate the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory action. We used different inflammation model animals and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages to examine the anti-inflammatory function of cavidine. Results indicated pretreatment with cavidine (i.p.) decreased xylene-induced ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema, leukocyte number, and the level of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in acetic acid-induced peritonitis in mice. The data also demonstrated that cavidine significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and NO production in peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, cavidine regulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) instead of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) at protein levels. These results suggested that cavidine is a selective COX-2 inhibitor which possesses an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25373916

  17. LPS-induced NFκB enhanceosome requires TonEBP/NFAT5 without DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwan Hee; Sanada, Satoru; An, Seung Min; Ye, Byeong Jin; Lee, Jun Ho; Seo, Young-Kyo; Lee, Changwook; Lee-Kwon, Whaseon; Küper, Christoph; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Choi, Soo Youn; Kwon, Hyug Moo

    2016-01-01

    NFκB is a central mediator of inflammation. Present inhibitors of NFκB are mostly based on inhibition of essential machinery such as proteasome and protein kinases, or activation of nuclear receptors; as such, they are of limited therapeutic use due to severe toxicity. Here we report an LPS-induced NFκB enhanceosome in which TonEBP is required for the recruitment of p300. Increased expression of TonEBP enhances the NFκB activity and reduced TonEBP expression lowers it. Recombinant TonEBP molecules incapable of recruiting p300 do not stimulate NFκB. Myeloid-specific deletion of TonEBP results in milder inflammation and sepsis. We discover that a natural small molecule cerulenin specifically disrupts the enhanceosome without affecting the activation of NFκB itself. Cerulenin suppresses the pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages and sepsis without detectable toxicity. Thus, the NFκB enhanceosome offers a promising target for useful anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27118681

  18. Protective effect of sanguinarine on LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice and its effect on LPS-induced COX-2 expression and COX-2 associated PGE2 release from peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Li, Huani; Mu, Qingli; Zhang, Hailin; Yao, Huan; Li, Jiaoshe; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    The quaternary ammonium salt, sanguinarine (SG) was reported to possess widespread anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental animals and it has been used to treat many inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect and the possible mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of SG. Experimentally-induced mice ES model and LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages were used to examine the anti-inflammatory function of SG. In this study, SG pretreatment significantly increased the survival rate of mice from 25% to 58%, 75% and 91% respectively. The production of PGE2 in BALF, the lung MPO activity and the (W/D) weight ratios were also markedly reduced. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of COX-2 was significantly suppressed in vivo. We also evaluated the effect of SG in LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages to clarify the possible mechanism. The data indicated that SG greatly inhibited the production of PGE2, and it also decreased COX-2 protein expression, without affecting COX-1 expression, in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Taken all together, SG potently protected against LPS-induced ES, and our results suggest that the possible mechanism may be relevant to COX-2 regulation. PMID:25063710

  19. Ulinastatin attenuates LPS-induced human endothelial cells oxidative damage through suppressing JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunping; Ma, Dandan; Chen, Man; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jicheng; Qu, Xin; Wang, Chunting

    2016-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress is a main feature observed in the sepsis by increasing endothelial oxidative damage. Many studies have demonstrated that Ulinastatin (UTI) can inhibit pro-inflammatory proteases, decrease inflammatory cytokine levels and suppress oxidative stress. However, the potential molecular mechanism underlying UTI which exerts its antioxidant effect is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of UTI on the LPS-induced oxidative stress and the underlying mechanisms using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). After oxidative stress induced By LPS in HUVECs, the cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cytoplasm were measured. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined. We found that LPS resulted in a profound elevation of ROS production and MDA levels. The decrease in Cu/Zn-SOD protein and increased in Mn-SOD protein were observed in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These responses were suppressed by an addition of UTI. The increase in c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation by LPS in HUVECs was markedly blocked by UTI or JNK inhibitor SP600125. Our results suggest that UTI exerts its anti-oxidant effects by decreasing overproduction of ROS induced by LPS via suppressing JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Therefore UTI may play a protective role in vascular endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress such as sepsis. This study may provide insight into a possible molecular mechanism by which Ulinastatin inhibits LPS-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27109479

  20. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong | Alexis, Neil E. |; Chen Xian |; Bromberg, Philip A. |; Peden, David B. ||

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  1. Flavones Inhibit LPS-Induced Atrogin-1/MAFbx Expression in Mouse C2C12 Skeletal Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Chieko; Abe, Tomoki; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Mori, Hiroyo; Terao, Junji; Tanaka, Eiji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is a complex process that occurs as a consequence of various stress events. Muscle atrophy-associated genes (atrogenes) such as atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1 are induced early in the atrophy process, and the increase in their expression precedes the loss of muscle weight. Although antioxidative nutrients suppress atrogene expression in skeletal muscle cells, the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on inflammation-induced atrogin-1/MAFbx expression have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced atrogin-1/MAFbx expression. We examined whether nine flavonoids belonging to six flavonoid categories inhibited atrogin-1/MAFbx expression in mouse C2C12 myotubes. Two major flavones, apigenin and luteolin, displayed potent inhibitory effects on atrogin-1/MAFbx expression. The pretreatment with apigenin and luteolin significantly prevented the decrease in C2C12 myotube diameter caused by LPS stimulation. Importantly, the pretreatment of LPS-stimulated myoblasts with these flavones significantly inhibited LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes, resulting in the significant suppression of atrogin-1/MAFbx promoter activity. These results suggest that apigenin and luteolin, prevent LPS-mediated atrogin-1/MAFbx expression through the inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes. Thus, these flavones, apigenin and luteolin, may be promising agents to prevent LPS-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:26052151

  2. Hypertonic Saline (NaCl 7.5%) Reduces LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Ricardo Costa; Biselli, Paolo Jose Cesare; de Lima, Thais Martins; Theobaldo, Mariana Cardillo; Caldini, Elia Tamaso; Pimentel, Rosângela Nascimento; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Kubo, Suely Ariga; Velasco, Irineu Tadeu; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most severe lung inflammatory manifestation and has no effective therapy nowadays. Sepsis is one of the main illnesses among ARDS causes. The use of fluid resuscitation is an important treatment for sepsis, but positive fluid balance may induce pulmonary injury. As an alternative, fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline ((HS) NaCl 7.5%) has been described as a promising therapeutical agent in sepsis-induced ARDS by the diminished amount of fluid necessary. Thus, we evaluated the effect of hypertonic saline in the treatment of LPS-induced ARDS. We found that hypertonic saline (NaCl 7.5%) treatment in rat model of LPS-induced ARDS avoided pulmonary function worsening and inhibited type I collagen deposition. In addition, hypertonic saline prevented pulmonary injury by decreasing metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity in tissue. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation was reduced in HS group as well as neutrophil infiltration, NOS2 expression and NO content. Our study shows that fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline decreases the progression of LPS-induced ARDS due to inhibition of pulmonary remodeling that is observed when regular saline is used. PMID:25962375

  3. Enhanced expression of single immunoglobulin IL-1 receptor-related molecule ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, XuXin; Zhao, YunFeng; Wu, XueLing; Qian, GuiSheng

    2011-02-01

    Single Ig IL-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR) is one of the members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-IL-1 receptor superfamily. Previous studies demonstrated that SIGIRR can function as a negative regulator of IL-1 and LPS signaling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of enhanced expression of SIGIRR on LPS-induced acute lung injury. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing murine SIGIRR (Ad.mSIGIRR) and a control adenoviral vector containing no transgene (Ad.V). A total of 4 10? plaque-forming units of Ad.mSIGIRR or Ad.V adenoviral vector were administered intranasally to BALB/c mice. Forty-eight hours later, all the mice were administered a single dose of LPS via i.p. injection to induce lung injury. Lungs and blood were harvested at several time points. The expression of SIGIRR in lung, the histological changes in the lung, the levels of TNF-? in serum and lung, the concentration of nitric monoxide (NO) in lung, and the activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear transcription factor ?B in the lung were examined. A second cohort of mice was followed for survival for 7 days. Administration of Ad.mSIGIRR increased the expression of SIGIRR in lung tissue, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Administration of Ad.mSIGIRR significantly suppressed the inflammatory reaction to LPS, attenuated the lung pathological changes, and improved the survival of mice, relative to a control adenovirus. These findings suggest that modulating the expression level of SIGIRR may be a promising potential treatment for acute lung injury. PMID:20661180

  4. Effect of azithromycin on the LPS-induced production and secretion of phospholipase A2 in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Kitsiouli, Eirini; Antoniou, Georgia; Gotzou, Helen; Karagiannopoulos, Michalis; Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E

    2015-07-01

    Azithromycin is a member of macrolides, utilized in the treatment of infections. Independently, these antibiotics also possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Phospholipase A2 isotypes, which are implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory lung disorders, are produced by alveolar macrophages and other lung cells during inflammatory response and can promote lung injury by destructing lung surfactant. The aim of the study was to investigate whether in lung cells azithromycin can inhibit secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2, (sPLA2) and (cPLA2), respectively, which are induced by an inflammatory trigger. In this respect, we studied the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated production or secretion of sPLA2 and cPLA2 from A549 cells, a cancer bronchial epithelial cell line, and alveolar macrophages, isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ARDS and control patients without cardiopulmonary disease or sepsis. Pre-treatment of cells with azithromycin caused a dose-dependent decrease in the LPS-induced sPLA2-IIA levels in A549 cells. This inhibition was rather due to reduced PLA2G2A mRNA expression and secretion of sPLA2-IIA protein levels, as observed by western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence by confocal microscopy, respectively, than to the inhibition of the enzymic activity per se. On the contrary, azithromycin had no effect on the LPS-induced production or secretion of sPLA2-IIA from alveolar macrophages. The levels of LPS-induced c-PLA2 were not significantly affected by azithromycin in either cell type. We conclude that azithromycin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on lung epithelial cells through the inhibition of both the expression and secretion of LPS-induced sPLA2-IIA, while it does not affect alveolar macrophages. PMID:25791017

  5. LPS-Induced Delayed Preconditioning Is Mediated by Hsp90 and Involves the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kaucsár, Tamás; Bodor, Csaba; Godó, Mária; Szalay, Csaba; Révész, Csaba; Németh, Zalán; Mózes, Miklós; Szénási, Gábor; Rosivall, László; Sőti, Csaba; Hamar, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We and others demonstrated previously that preconditioning with endotoxin (LPS) protected from a subsequent lethal LPS challenge or from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). LPS is effective in evoking the heat shock response, an ancient and essential cellular defense mechanism, which plays a role in resistance to, and recovery from diseases. Here, by using the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor novobiocin (NB), we investigated the role of Hsp90 and the heat shock response in LPS-induced delayed renal preconditioning. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with preconditioning (P: 2 mg/kg, ip.) and subsequent lethal (L: 10 mg/kg, ip.) doses of LPS alone or in combination with NB (100 mg/kg, ip.). Controls received saline (C) or NB. Results Preconditioning LPS conferred protection from a subsequent lethal LPS treatment. Importantly, the protective effect of LPS preconditioning was completely abolished by a concomitant treatment with NB. LPS induced a marked heat shock protein increase as demonstrated by Western blots of Hsp70 and Hsp90. NB alone also stimulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNA but not protein expression. However, Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein induction in LPS-treated mice was abolished by a concomitant NB treatment, demonstrating a NB-induced impairment of the heat shock response to LPS preconditioning. Conclusion LPS-induced heat shock protein induction and tolerance to a subsequent lethal LPS treatment was prevented by the Hsp90 inhibitor, novobiocin. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of Hsp90 in LPS signaling, and a potential involvement of the heat shock response in LPS-induced preconditioning. PMID:24646925

  6. Dexamethasone prevents LPS-induced microglial activation and astroglial impairment in an experimental bacterial meningitis co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Hinkerohe, Daniel; Smikalla, Dirk; Schoebel, Andreas; Haghikia, Aiden; Zoidl, Georg; Haase, Claus G; Schlegel, Uwe; Faustmann, Pedro M

    2010-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of dexamethasone on gram-negative bacteria derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in astroglial/microglial co-cultures. At the cellular level the microglial phenotype converted to an activated type after LPS incubation. Furthermore, LPS compromised functional astroglial properties like membrane resting potential, intracellular coupling and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression. This change in Cx43 expression was not due to a downregulation of Cx43 mRNA expression. Morphological and functional changes were accompanied by a time-dependent release of inflammation related cytokines. Co-incubation of dexamethasone with LPS prevented these LPS-induced changes within our glial co-culture model. The ability of dexamethasone to reconstitute astrocytic properties and to decrease microglial activation in vitro could be one possible explanation for the beneficial effects of dexamethasone in the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis in vivo. PMID:20230803

  7. The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) modulates the LPS induced acute phase reaction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Brosig, Bianca; Kersten, Susanne; Kluess, Jeannette; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef

    2013-07-01

    The systemic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were studied in male castrated pigs (40.4 ± 3.7 kg) infused intravenously with either DON or LPS alone (100 μg DON/kg/h, 7.5 μg/LPS/kg/h), or together (100 μg DON plus 7.5 μg/LPS/kg/h). The Control group received a saline infusion (n=6/treatment, 24h observation period). An additional DON infusion did not exacerbate the clinical signs observed in LPS-infused pigs. For example, rectal temperature climaxed after 4h (40.4 ± 0.2°C) and 5h (40.1 ± 0.3°C), in the LPS and LPS+DON group, respectively. Saline and DON alone did not induce an acute phase reaction as indicated by unaltered plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) while LPS caused a significant rise of both cytokines. TNF-alpha plasma peak concentrations were significantly higher in the LPS compared to the DON+LPS group (94.3 ± 17.2 ng/mL vs. 79.2 ± 15.7 ng/mL) while IL-6 climaxed earlier in the latter group (3h p.i. vs. 2h p.i.). From the tested clinical-chemical plasma characteristics the total bilirubin concentration and the ASAT activity were strongly elevated by the LPS infusion and additionally increased and decreased by DON, respectively. In conclusion, the LPS-induced effects were only marginally modified by DON. PMID:23603058

  8. AUTOTAXIN DOWNREGULATES LPS INDUCED MICROGLIA ACTIVATION AND PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Awada, Rana; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sbastien; Grs, Sandra; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Parimisetty, Avinash; Orihuela, Ruben; Harry, G. Jean; dHellencourt, Christian Lefebvre

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is essential in defense against infection or injury. It is tightly regulated, as over-response can be detrimental, especially in immune-privileged organs such as the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia constitutes the major source of inflammatory factors, but are also involved in the regulation of the inflammation and in the reparation. Autotaxin (ATX), a phospholipase D, converts lysophosphatidylcholine into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and is upregulated in several CNS injuries. LPA, a pleiotropic immunomodulatory factor, can induce multiple cellular processes including morphological changes, proliferation, death and survival. We investigated ATX effects on microglia inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mimicking gram-negative infection. Murine BV-2 microglia and stable transfected, overexpressing ATX-BV-2 (A+) microglia were treated with LPS. Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 mRNA and proteins levels were examined by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Secreted LPA was quantified by a radioenzymatic assay and microglial activation markers (CD11b, CD14, B7.1 and B7.2) were determined by flow cytometry. ATX expression and LPA production were significantly enhanced in LPS treated BV-2 cells. LPS induction of mRNA and protein level for TNF? and IL-6 were inhibited in A+ cells, while IL-10 was increased. CD11b, CD14, and B7.1 and B7.2 expressions were reduced in A+ cells. Our results strongly suggest deactivation of microglia and an IL-10 inhibitory of ATX with LPS induced microglia activation. PMID:25053164

  9. The binding capability of plasma phospholipid transfer protein, but not HDL pool size, is critical to repress LPS induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Cui, Yingjie; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Shuai; Song, Guohua; Jiao, Peng; Li, Bin; Luo, Tian; Guo, Shoudong; Zhang, Xiangjian; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Qin, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) participates in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Increased plasma PLTP activity was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered acute inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the exact role of PLTP in LPS induced inflammation. HDL pool size was shrunk both in PLTP deficient mice (PLTP−/−) and PLTP transgenic mice (PLTP-Tg). PLTP displayed a strong protective effect on lethal endotoxemia in mice survival study. Furthermore, after LPS stimulation, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) from PLTP−/−, while decreased in BMDM from PLTP-Tg compared with BMDM from wild-type mice (WT). Moreover, LPS induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activation was enhanced in PLTP−/− BMDM or PLTP knockdown RAW264.7. Conversely, PLTP overexpression countered the NFκB activation in LPS challenged BMDM. Additionally, the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) induced by LPS showed no alteration in PLTP−/− BMDM. Finally, PLTP could bind to LPS, attenuate the pro-inflammatory effects of LPS, and improve the cell viability in vitro. To sum up, these findings elucidated that PLTP repressed LPS induced inflammation due to extracellular LPS binding capability, and the protective effects were not related to HDL pool size in mice. PMID:26857615

  10. Suppression of Dendritic Cell-Derived IL-12 by Endogenous Glucocorticoids Is Protective in LPS-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mittelstadt, Paul R.; Castro, Ehydel; Ashwell, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response, remains a major medical challenge. Both hyperinflammation and immunosuppression are implicated as causes of morbidity and mortality. Dendritic cell (DC) loss has been observed in septic patients and in experimental sepsis models, but the role of DCs in sepsis, and the mechanisms and significance of DC loss, are poorly understood. Here, we report that mice with selective deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in DCs (GRCD11c-cre) were highly susceptible to LPS-induced septic shock, evidenced by elevated inflammatory cytokine production, hypothermia, and mortality. Neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibodies prevented hypothermia and death, demonstrating that endogenous GC-mediated suppression of IL-12 is protective. In LPS-challenged GRCD11c-cre mice, CD8+ DCs were identified as the major source of prolonged IL-12 production, which correlated with elevations of NK cell-derived IFN-γ. In addition, the loss of GR in CD11c+ cells rescued LPS-induced loss of CD8+ DCs but not other DC subsets. Unlike wild-type animals, exposure of GRCD11c-cre mice to low-dose LPS did not induce CD8+ DC loss or tolerance to subsequent challenge with high dose, but neutralization of IL-12 restored the ability of low-dose LPS to tolerize. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids blunt LPS-induced inflammation and promote tolerance by suppressing DC IL-12 production. PMID:26440998

  11. Investigations on Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. for inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Khan, Mohd. Shahid; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography fractionation of the dichloromethane extract (LCD) of Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. led to the isolation of five compounds namely β-sitosterol (1) + stigmasterol (2), lupeol (3), oleanolic acid (4) and laballenic acid (5). Also, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of sub-fraction (LCD-F1) of this extract showed the presence of eleven (6-16) compounds. In addition to this, 3-5 and LCD-F1 were evaluated for lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Results directed that 4 and 5 were found to inhibit these mediators at half maximal inhibitory concentration of 17.12 to 57.20 μM while IC50 for LCD-F1 was found to be 15.56 to 31.71 μg/mL. Furthermore, LCD at a dose of 50, 100 and 400 mg/Kg was found to reduce significantly LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. All the results findings evoked that the anti-inflammatory effects of Leucas cephalotes is partially mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators and hence can be utilized for the development of anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:26535039

  12. Investigations on Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. for inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in rat model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neeraj K; Khan, Mohd Shahid; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2015-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography fractionation of the dichloromethane extract (LCD) of Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. led to the isolation of five compounds namely ?-sitosterol (1) + stigmasterol (2), lupeol (3), oleanolic acid (4) and laballenic acid (5). Also, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of sub-fraction (LCD-F1) of this extract showed the presence of eleven (6-16) compounds. In addition to this, 3-5 and LCD-F1 were evaluated for lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? production in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Results directed that 4 and 5 were found to inhibit these mediators at half maximal inhibitory concentration of 17.12 to 57.20 ?M while IC50 for LCD-F1 was found to be 15.56 to 31.71 ?g/mL. Furthermore, LCD at a dose of 50, 100 and 400 mg/Kg was found to reduce significantly LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? production in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. All the results findings evoked that the anti-inflammatory effects of Leucas cephalotes is partially mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators and hence can be utilized for the development of anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:26535039

  13. CYP-epoxygenase metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid protect HL-1 cardiac cells against LPS-induced cytotoxicity Through SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Victor; Jamieson, Kristi L; Vriend, Jelle; Quan, Steven; Seubert, John M

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial LPS is an environmental toxin capable of promoting various cardiac complications. Current evidence suggests that LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction emerges as a consequence of compromised quality of cardiac mitochondria. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which produces a broad spectrum of intrinsic physiological effects including regulation of cell survival and death mechanisms. Although, numerous studies revealed fundamentally beneficial effects of DHA on cardiovascular system, it remains unknown whether these effects were produced by DHA or one of its possibly more potent metabolites. Emerging evidence indicates that cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase metabolites of DHA, epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), produce more potent biological activity compared to its precursor DHA. In this study we investigated whether DHA and its metabolite 19,20-EDP could protect HL-1 cardiac cells against LPS-induced cytotoxicity. We provide evidence that exogenously added or DHA-derived EDPs promote mitochondrial biogenesis and function in HL-1 cardiac cells. Our results illustrate the CYP epoxygenase metabolite of DHA, 19,20-EDP, confers extensive protection to HL-1 cardiac cells against LPS-induced cytotoxicity via activation of SIRT1.

  14. Phosphocreatine protects against LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwu; Lan, Xiaoyan; Ahsan, Anil; Xi, Yalin; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Zonghui; Chu, Peng; Song, Yushu; Piao, Fengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Lin, Yuan; Han, Guozhu; Tang, Zeyao

    2016-03-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an exogenous energy substance, which provides phosphate groups for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle and promotes energy metabolism in cells. However, it is still unclear whether PCr has influenced on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHO) in previous studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of PCr on lipopolsaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mitochondrial OXPHO pathway. PCr protected HUVECs against LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, cytosolic release of cytochrome c (Cyt C), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of caspases, and increasing Bcl2 expression, while suppressing Bax expression. More importantly, PCr significantly improved mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential, enhanced the activities of ATP synthase and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKmt) in creatine shuttle, influenced on respiratory chain enzymes, respiratory control ratio, phosphorus/oxygen ratio and ATP production of OXPHO. Above PCr-mediated mitochondrial events were effectively more favorable to reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) pathway than reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotid pathway in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our results revealed that PCr protects against LPS-induced HUVECs apoptosis, which probably related to stabilization of intracellular energy metabolism, especially for FADH2 pathway in mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP synthase and CKmt. Our findings suggest that PCr may play a certain role in the treatment of atherosclerosis via protecting endothelial cell function. PMID:26708229

  15. A non-redundant role for MKP5 in limiting ROS production and preventing LPS-induced vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Deng, Jing; Cheng, Ni; Welch, Emily J; Zhang, Yongliang; Malik, Asrar B; Flavell, Richard A; Dong, Chen; Ye, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least 11 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and only 3 major groups of MAPKs, raising the question of whether these phosphatases have non-redundant functions in vivo. Using a modified mouse model of local Shwartzman reaction, we found that deletion of the MKP5 gene, but not the MKP1 gene, led to robust and accelerated vascular inflammatory responses to a single dose of LPS injection. Depletion of neutrophils significantly reduced the vascular injury in Mkp5−/− mice, whereas adoptive transfer of Mkp5−/− neutrophils replicated the LPS-induced skin lesions in wild-type recipients. Neutrophils isolated from Mkp5−/− mice exhibited augmented p38 MAPK activation and increased superoxide generation on activation. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, significantly reduced p47phox phosphorylation and diminished superoxide production in neutrophils. p38 MAPK phosphorylated mouse p47phox, and deletion of the p47phox gene ablated the LPS-induced vascular injury in Mkp5−/− mice. Collectively, these results show an earlier unrecognized and non-redundant function of MKP5 in restraining p38 MAPK-mediated neutrophil oxidant production, thereby preventing LPS-induced vascular injury. PMID:19696743

  16. Ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® decreases LPS-induced IL-6 release from murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Michels, J; Runkel, F; Gokorsch, S; Häberlein, H

    2016-03-01

    IL-6 plays a key role in the course of inflammatory processes as well as in the regulation of immune responses by the release of different cytokines. IL-6 is produced e.g. by macrophages recruited to the airways in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli like allergens and respiratory viruses. Patients with inflammatory airway diseases therefore may benefit from therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway, e.g. reduction of the IL-6 release. Within this context, we tested the influence of the ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® on the LPS-induced release of IL-6 from murine macrophages (J774.2). One point seven µg/ml (5 µM) corticosterone served as positive control and was able to reduce LPS-induced IL-6 release by 46 ± 4%. EA 575® was tested in concentrations between 40 and 400 µg/ml. EA 575® decreased the LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner and statistically significant by 25 ± 4%, 32 ± 4%, and 40 ± 7% in concentrations of 80, 160, and 400 µg/ml, respectively. The present data suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of EA 575® used in therapy of chronic- and acute inflammatory airway diseases accompanied with cough. PMID:27183712

  17. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha S; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide LPS challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60–300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an anti-TNF-α antibody but not with an anti-IL-1 antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-α rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE2 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-α antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of p-MPPI into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon LPS induced suppression of defensive rage. The results demonstrate that LPS suppresses defensive rage by acting through peripheral TNF-α in periphery and that central effects of LPS suppression of defensive rage are mediated through PGE2 and 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus. PMID:19647047

  18. Agomelatine Protection in an LPS-Induced Psychosis-Relevant Behavior Model.

    PubMed

    Inanir, Sema; Copoglu, Umit Sertan; Kokacya, Hanifi; Dokuyucu, Recep; Erbas, Oytun; Inanir, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of agomelatine in a psychosis-relevant behavior model. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used 18 adult male Wistar rats in this study. Twelve rats given LPS for endotoxemia were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=6). Group I was treated with 1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl i.p. and Group II was treated with 40 mg/kg agomelatine. Six normal rats served as the control group and were not given LPS for endotoxemia. Cylindrical steel cages containing vertical and horizontal metal bars with top cover were used. Rats were put in these cages for the purpose of orientation for 10 min. Apomorphine was given to rats removed from cages, and then they were immediately put back in the cages for the purpose of observing stereotyped conduct. Brain HVA levels and plasma TNF-a levels were evaluated in tissue homogenates using ELISA. The proportion of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in samples taken from plasma for detection of lipid peroxidation similar to thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. RESULTS LPS induced-plasma TNF-α, brain TNF-α, and plasma MDA levels were significantly lower in the LPS+agomelatine group compared to the LPS+saline group (p<0.05). HVA levels and stereotype scores were significantly lower in the LPS+agomelatine group compared to the LPS+saline group (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Agomelatine reduced TNF-α, HVA, MDA levels, and the stereotype score in relevant models of psychosis. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of agomelatine involved oxidant cleansing properties and that its effects on the metabolism of dopamine can play an important role in the model of psychosis. PMID:26647355

  19. Agomelatine Protection in an LPS-Induced Psychosis-Relevant Behavior Model

    PubMed Central

    Inanir, Sema; Copoglu, Umit Sertan; Kokacya, Hanifi; Dokuyucu, Recep; Erbas, Oytun; Inanir, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of agomelatine in a psychosis-relevant behavior model. Material/Methods We used 18 adult male Wistar rats in this study. Twelve rats given LPS for endotoxemia were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=6). Group I was treated with 1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl i.p. and Group II was treated with 40 mg/kg agomelatine. Six normal rats served as the control group and were not given LPS for endotoxemia. Cylindrical steel cages containing vertical and horizontal metal bars with top cover were used. Rats were put in these cages for the purpose of orientation for 10 min. Apomorphine was given to rats removed from cages, and then they were immediately put back in the cages for the purpose of observing stereotyped conduct. Brain HVA levels and plasma TNF-α levels were evaluated in tissue homogenates using ELISA. The proportion of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in samples taken from plasma for detection of lipid peroxidation similar to thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results LPS induced-plasma TNF-α, brain TNF-α, and plasma MDA levels were significantly lower in the LPS+agomelatine group compared to the LPS+saline group (p<0.05). HVA levels and stereotype scores were significantly lower in the LPS+agomelatine group compared to the LPS+saline group (p <0.001). Conclusions Agomelatine reduced TNF-α, HVA, MDA levels, and the stereotype score in relevant models of psychosis. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of agomelatine involved oxidant cleansing properties and that its effects on the metabolism of dopamine can play an important role in the model of psychosis. PMID:26647355

  20. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide inhibits LPS-induced inflammation through the inactivation of AP-1 and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice against endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weicheng; Wang, Xinfeng; Wu, Lei; Shen, Ting; Ji, Lilian; Zhao, Xihong; Si, Chuan-Ling; Jiang, Yunyao; Wang, Gongcheng

    2016-02-17

    Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (AG), an active flavonoid derivative isolated from the agricultural residue of Juglans sigillata fruit husks, possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-complement, and aldose reductase inhibitory activities. To date, no report has identified the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of AG. This study was therefore designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms of AG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and on endotoxin-induced shock in mice. AG suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. Additionally, AG suppressed LPS-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α. AG treatment decreased the translocation of c-Jun into the nucleus, and decreased activator protein-1 (AP-1)-mediated luciferase activity through the inhibition of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Consistent with the in vitro observations, AG protected mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that AG may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion. PMID:26750400

  1. 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole from Antrodia camphorata inhibits LPS-induced inflammation via suppression of NF-κB and induction HO-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shie, Pei-Hsin; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Lay, Horng-Liang; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2016-02-01

    Several benzenoid compounds have been isolated from Antrodia camphorata are known to have excellent anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole (DMB), one of the major benzenoid compounds isolated from the mycelia of A. camphorata. DMB significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, DMB suppressed the protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, DMB significantly suppressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this inhibition was found to be associated with decreases in the phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitor, inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Moreover, we found that DMB markedly inhibited the protein expression level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Furthermore, treatment with DMB significantly increased hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in RAW264.7 cells, which is further confirmed by hemin, a HO-1 enhancer, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory molecules and iNOS and TLR4 protein levels. Taken together, the present study suggests that DMB may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26745712

  2. Treatment of LPS-induced tissue injury: role of liposomal antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Suntres, Z E; Shek, P N

    1996-01-01

    Tissue injury is a common occurrence in multiple organ failure, a possible clinical complication of Gram-negative bacterial sepsis. Gram-negative bacteria, in part through lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor, and other cytokines, activate neutrophils to increase oxygen consumption and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the susceptibility of tissues to ROS can be reduced by augmenting the antioxidant status of the affected tissues. Rats were challenged intravenously with LPS (Escherichia coli: 0111:B4) at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight, and 0, 2, 4, or 6 h later were treated intravenously with plain liposomes or alpha-tocopherol liposomes (20 mg alpha-tocopherol/kg body weight); treated rats were then killed 24 h after LPS challenge. Animals challenged with LPS were extensively damaged in the liver, as evidenced by an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and also in the lung, as indicated by a decrease in pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and alkaline phosphatase activities. The injection of LPS also resulted in increased myeloperoxidase activities in the two organs, suggestive of activation of the inflammatory response. Within the pulmonary and hepatic organs of LPS-challenged animals, the involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms was evident, because a significant decrease in reduced glutathione and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. In contrast, the administration of alpha-tocopherol liposomes in the post-LPS-challenge period resulted in a significant alleviation of both lung and liver injuries, evidenced by a general reversal of the altered biochemical indices toward normal among treated animals. The therapeutic effect was found to be greater when liposomal alpha-tocopherol treatment was given earlier during the development of injury. Plain liposomes administered immediately after LPS injection also protected hepatic and pulmonary tissues from injuries. However, unlike alpha-tocopherol liposomes, plain liposomes did not confer any beneficial effect when administered at later timepoints post-LPS injection. These data suggest that alpha-tocopherol, administered in a liposomal form, may serve as a potentially effective pharmacological agent in the treatment of LPS-induced tissue injuries. PMID:8828099

  3. Intranuclear interactomic inhibition of NF-κB suppresses LPS-induced severe sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Dong; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Bo-Young; Oh, Hyunju; Ghosh, Sankar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2015-08-28

    Suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, which is best known as a major regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, is a potent strategy for the treatment of endotoxic sepsis. To inhibit NF-κB functions, we designed the intra-nuclear transducible form of transcription modulation domain (TMD) of RelA (p65), called nt-p65-TMD, which can be delivered effectively into the nucleus without influencing the cell viability, and work as interactomic inhibitors via disruption of the endogenous p65-mediated transcription complex. nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 from BV2 microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). nt-p65-TMD did not inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70, p38, JNK, or ERK involved in T cell activation, but was capable of suppressing the transcriptional activity of NF-κB without the functional effect on that of NFAT upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The transduced nt-p65-TMD in T cell did not affect the expression of CD69, however significantly inhibited the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A, or IL-10. Systemic administration of nt-p65-TMD showed a significant therapeutic effect on LPS-induced sepsis model by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Therefore, nt-p65-TMD can be a novel therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, where a transcription factor has a key role in pathogenesis, and further allows us to discover new functions of p65 under normal physiological condition without genetic alteration. - Highlights: • The nt-p65-TMD is intra-nuclear interactomic inhibitor of endogenous p65. • The nt-p65-TMD effectively inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • The excellent therapeutic potential of nt-p65-TMD was confirmed in sepsis model.

  4. Early LPS-induced ERK activation in retinal pigment epithelium cells is dependent on PIP 2 -PLC.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Melina V; Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Giusto, Norma M; Salvador, Gabriela A

    2016-06-01

    This article presents additional data regarding the study "The phospholipase D pathway mediates the inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium" [1]. The new data presented here show that short exposure of RPE cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an early and transient activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). This early ERK1/2 activation is dependent on phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-phospholipase C (PIP2-PLC). On the contrary, neither the phospholipase D 1 (PLD1) nor the PLD2 inhibition is able to modulate the early ERK1/2 activation induced by LPS in RPE cells. PMID:27006973

  5. Early LPS-induced ERK activation in retinal pigment epithelium cells is dependent on PIP2-PLC☆

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, Melina V.; Kamerbeek, Constanza B.; Giusto, Norma M.; Salvador, Gabriela A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents additional data regarding the study “The phospholipase D pathway mediates the inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium” [1]. The new data presented here show that short exposure of RPE cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an early and transient activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). This early ERK1/2 activation is dependent on phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-phospholipase C (PIP2-PLC). On the contrary, neither the phospholipase D 1 (PLD1) nor the PLD2 inhibition is able to modulate the early ERK1/2 activation induced by LPS in RPE cells. PMID:27006973

  6. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced autophagy is involved in the restriction of Escherichia coli in peritoneal mesothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Host cell autophagy is implicated in the control of intracellular pathogen. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common organism caused single-germ enterobacterial peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis. In this study, we investigated autophagy of peritoneal mesothelial cells and its role in defense against E.coli. Results Autophagy in human peritoneal mesothelial cell line (HMrSV5) was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent and time-dependent way, which was demonstrated by increased expression of Beclin-1 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, the accumulation of punctate green fluorescent protein-LC3, and a higher number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled autophagic vacuoles. After incubation of HMrSV5 cells with E.coli following LPS stimulation, both the intracellular bactericidal activity and the co-localization of E.coli (K12-strain) with autophagosomes were enhanced. Conversely, blockade of autophagy with 3-methyladenine, wortmannin or Beclin-1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) led to a significant reduction in autophagy-associated protein expression, attenuation of intracellular bactericidal activity, and reduced co-localization of E.coli with monodansylcadaverine-labeled autophagosomes. In addition, treatment of HMrSV5 cells with LPS caused a dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. Both knockdown of TLR4 with siRNA and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 with Polymyxin B significantly decreased LPS-induced autophagy. Furthermore, TLR4 siRNA attenuated remarkably LPS-induced intracellular bactericidal activity. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated for the first time that LPS-induced autophagy in peritoneal mesothelial cells could enhance the intracellular bactericidal activity and the co-localization of E.coli with autophagosomes. The activation of TLR4 signaling was involved in this process. These results indicate that LPS-induced autophagy may be a cell-autonomous defense mechanism triggered in peritoneal mesothelial cells in response to E.coli infection. PMID:24219662

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon water extract in vivo and in vitro LPS-induced models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cinnamon bark is one of the most popular herbal ingredients in traditional oriental medicine and possesses diverse pharmacological activities including anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. The goal of this study is to investigate the in vivo and in vitro inhibitory effect of cinnamon water extract (CWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and its underlying intracellular mechanisms. Methods CWE was orally administrated to mice for 6 days prior to intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Serum levels of TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined 1 hour after LPS stimulation. Peritoneal macrophages from thioglycollate-injected mice were isolated and assayed for viability, cytokine expression and signaling molecules upon LPS stimulation. CWE was further fractioned according to molecular size, and the levels of total polyphenols and biological activities of each fraction were measured. Results The oral administration of CWE to mice significantly decreased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6. CWE treatment in vitro decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α. CWE blocked the LPS-induced degradation of IκBα as well as the activation of JNK, p38 and ERK1/2. Furthermore, size-based fractionation of CWE showed that the observed inhibitory effect of CWE in vitro occurred in the fraction containing the highest level of total polyphenols. Conclusions Treatment with CWE decreased LPS-induced TNF-α in serum. In vitro inhibition of TNF-α gene by CWE may occur via the modulation of IκBα degradation and JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 activation. Our results also indicate that the observed anti-inflammatory action of CWE may originate from the presence of polyphenols. PMID:23190501

  8. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders. PMID:26417317

  9. Suppressive effects of Mimosa pudica (L.) constituents on the production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neeraj K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation of fourteen compounds from the active ethyl acetate (MPE) extract of M. pudica (L.) whole plant and their subsequent evaluation for the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Among the tested compounds, L-mimosine (12; IC50 = 19.23 to 21.15 µM), crocetin (4; IC50 = 23.45 to 25.57 µM), crocin (14; IC50 = 27.16 to 31.53 µM) and jasmonic acid (11; IC50 = 21.32 to 29.42 µM) were identified as potent NO inhibitor when tested on the macrophages. Similarly, towards TNF-α and IL-1ß inhibition, including these four compounds, and ethyl gallate (3), gallic acid (10) and caffeic acid (7) were found to be more active with half maximal concentration, 17.32 to 62.32 µM whereas the other compounds depicted moderate and mild effects (IC50 = 59.32 to 95.01 µM). Also, at a dose of 40 mg/Kg, L-mimosine (12), jasmonic acid (11), crocin (14) and its de-esterified form, crocetin (4) were found to significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduce 60.7 %, 48.9 %, 48.4 % and 43.6 % respectively of TNF-de-esterified production in female Sprague Dawley rats. However, in case of IL-1ß, with the same dose (40 mg/Kg), jasmonic acid (11) exhibited significant reduction with 54.2 % followed by crocin (14) (50.2 %) and crocetin (4) (39.8 %) while L-mimosine (12) was found to reduce only 16.3 %. Based on the results, it can be estimated that these compounds imparting greatly to anti-inflammatory effects of M. pudica in vitro as well as in vivo through reduction of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators which affirm the ethno-pharmacological use of this plant for prevention of inflammatory-related disorders. PMID:26417317

  10. The transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin 6 mediates pro- and anti-inflammatory responses during LPS-induced systemic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Jenny; Fuchs, Franziska; Damm, Jelena; Herden, Christiane; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Soares, Denis Melo; Roth, Joachim; Rummel, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammation and, as we previously suggested, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation. Here, we investigated its contribution to immune-to-brain communication and brain controlled sickness symptoms during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced (50 or 2500 μg/kg i.p.) systemic inflammation in NF-IL6-deficient (KO) or wildtype mice (WT). In WT LPS induced a dose-dependent febrile response and reduction of locomotor activity. While KO developed a normal fever after low-dose LPS-injection the febrile response was almost abolished 3-7 h after a high LPS-dose. High-dose LPS-stimulation was accompanied by decreased (8 h) followed by enhanced (24 h) inflammation in KO compared to WT e.g. hypothalamic mRNA-expression including microsomal prostaglandin E synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and further inflammatory mediators, neutrophil recruitment to the brain as well as plasma levels of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and IL-10. Interestingly, KO showed reduced locomotor activity even under basal conditions, but enhanced locomotor activity to novel environment stress. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity of KO was intact, but tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes were shifted to enhanced serotonin production and reuptake. Overall, we showed for the first time that NF-IL6 plays a dual role for sickness response and immune-to-brain communication: acting pro-inflammatory at 8h but anti-inflammatory at 24 h after onset of the inflammatory response reflecting active natural programming of inflammation. Moreover, reduced locomotor activity observed in KO might be due to altered tryptophan metabolism and serotonin reuptake suggesting some role for NF-IL6 as therapeutic target for depressive disorders. PMID:25813145

  11. aged black garlic exerts anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing no and proinflammatory cytokine production with less cytoxicity in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septicemia mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Yoo, Yung Choon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Suk Kyung; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Min, A Young; Sung, Nak Yun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antisepticemic activities of a water extract of aged black garlic (AGE), which is not pungent, were compared with those of raw garlic extract (RGE). The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed that AGE was not toxic up to 1000 ?g/mL and was at least four times less cytotoxic than RGE. AGE significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor-necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of AGE on LPS-induced inflammation was confirmed by downregulation of inducible NO synthase and TNF-? mRNA expression, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The anti-inflammatory activities of AGE were similar to those of RGE at nontoxic concentrations up to 250 ?g/mL. Signal transduction pathway studies further indicated that both garlic extracts inhibited activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-?B induced by LPS stimulation. Treatment with both AGE and RGE in an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia significantly reduced the level of TNF-? and interleukin-6 in serum and completely protected against LPS-induced lethal shock in C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that AGE is a more promising nutraceutical or medicinal agent to prevent or cure inflammation-related diseases for safety aspects compared with RGE. PMID:25238199

  12. Chitosan nanoparticles reduce LPS-induced inflammatory reaction via inhibition of NF-κB pathway in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jue; Xu, Yinglei; Xu, Jianqin; Ling, Yun; Cai, Yueqin

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP), an extensively oral-administered drug carrier, was investigated for the anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-inflamed Caco-2 cells and the relate mechanisms. CNP could alleviate the decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) induced by LPS in Caco-2 monolayer, and significantly inhibit LPS-induced production of TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. PCR array assay revealed that CNP down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of TLR4 in LPS-inflamed Caco-2 cells. CNP was further showed to reduce cytoplasmic IκB-α degradation and nuclear NF-κB p65 levels in LPS-inflamed Caco-2 cells. These results suggested that CNP suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory response by decreasing permeability of intestinal epithelial monolayer and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine in Caco-2 cells, which were partially mediated by NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26854884

  13. Apigenin-7-Glycoside Prevents LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Downregulation of Oxidative Enzyme Expression and Protein Activation through Inhibition of MAPK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun-Cheng; Ho, Yu-Ling; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2015-01-01

    Apigenin-7-glycoside (AP7Glu) with multiple biological activities is a flavonoid that is currently prescribed to treat inflammatory diseases such as upper respiratory infections. Recently, several studies have shown that its anti-inflammatory activities have been strongly linked to the inhibition of secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced through phosphorylation nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. Additionally, inflammation, which can decrease the activities of antioxidative enzymes (AOEs) is also observed in these studies. At the same time, flavonoids are reported to promote the activities of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) decreased by LPS. The purpose of this study was to assess these theories in a series of experiments on the suppressive effects of AP7Glu based on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro and acute lung injury in mice in vivo. After six hours of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, pulmonary pathological, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, total polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) cells, cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and AOEs, are all affected and changed. Meanwhile, our data revealed that AP7Glu not only did significantly inhibit the LPS-enhanced inflammatory activity in lung, but also exhibited anti-inflammatory effect through the MAPK and inhibitor NF-κB (IκB) pathways. PMID:25590301

  14. [Effects of combination of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin on LPS-induced cytokines expression in macrophage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Zhong, Ju-ying; Gao, Er-ning; Yang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    To study the anti-inflammatory activity of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin. In the study, the liquichip-based high-throughput synchronous detection technique for 23 inflammatory factors, uniform design, comprehensive weight method were adopted to study the effect of different combined administration of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin in inhibiting the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264. 7 cells and multiple inflammatory cytokines. In the study, the uniform design table U₉ (9³) was adopted to design doses of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin. The liquichip technique was used to detect the effect of different combined administration of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin on the 23 cytokines expressed in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW264. 7 inflammation model. The traditional Chinese medicine component optimization software and the improved least angle regression algorithm were used to analyze the dose-effect relationship among the three components and the cytokine inhibition rate and produce the regression equation. The comprehensive weight method was applied to get the optimal dose ratio of glycyrrhizic acid, ligustrazine and puerarin with highest efficacy of 25:2:13 and verify the optimal dose ratio. The verification results were consistent with the prediction trend, indicating the accuracy of the mathematical model for predicting the experiment. The experimental results showed the multi-target and multi-level efficacies of glycyrrhizic acid, ligustrazine and puerarin and the high anti-inflammatory activity of their combined administration, which provides powerful basis for subsequent drug development. PMID:27062829

  15. BHBA Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV-2 Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shou-Peng; Li, Su-Nan; Wang, Jian-Fa; Li, Yang; Xie, Shan-Shan; Xue, Wen-Jing; Liu, Hong-Mei; Huang, Bing-Xu; Lv, Qing-Kang; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Ju-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    β-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) has neuroprotective effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Microglial activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing several proinflammatory enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines. The current study investigates the potential mechanisms whereby BHBA affects the expression of potentially proinflammatory proteins by cultured murine microglial BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that BHBA significantly reduced LPS-induced protein and mRNA expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Blocking of GPR109A by PTX resulted in a loss of this anti-inflammatory effect in BV-2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that BHBA reduced LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α and translocation of NF-κB, while no effect was observed on MAPKs phosphorylation. All results imply that BHBA significantly reduces levels of proinflammatory enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway but not MAPKs pathways, and GPR109A is essential to this function. Overall, these data suggest that BHBA has a potential as neuroprotective drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24803746

  16. A TLR4/MD2 fusion protein inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabl, Bernd Brandl, Katharina; Fink, Marina; Gross, Philipp; Taura, Kojiro; Gaebele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Falk, Werner

    2008-10-17

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis. In injured liver they are the main extracellular matrix protein producing cell type and further perpetuate hepatic injury by secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Since LPS-mediated signaling through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as key fibrogenic signal in HSCs we aimed to test TLR4 as potential target of therapy via ligand-binding soluble receptors. Incubation of human HSCs with a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of TLR4 and MD2 which binds LPS inhibited LPS-induced NF{kappa}B and JNK activation. TLR4/MD2 abolished LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, and RANTES in HSCs. In addition, TLR4/MD2 fused to human IgG-Fc neutralized LPS activity. Since TLR4 mutant mice are resistant to liver fibrosis, the TLR4/MD2 soluble receptor might represent a new therapeutic molecule for liver fibrogenesis in vivo.

  17. STAT4 knockout protects LPS-induced lung injury by increasing of MDSC and promoting of macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cuiping; Jiang, Liyan; Xu, Xiaobo; Zhu, Fen; Zhang, Shuqi; Wu, Xu; Liu, Zilong; Yang, Xiangdong; Li, Shanqun

    2016-03-01

    The disruption of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) signal can inhibit the inflammation and protect organs from injury during severe bacterial infection. However, the mechanism of STAT4 signal in lung injury remains poor understood. Here we report that STAT4 deficiency decreased the lethality and protein leakage in STAT4(-/-) mice and protected lipopolysaccharid (LPS)-induced lung injury with ameliorated edema, inflammatory infiltration and hemorrhage. The expression of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) markedly increased in the circulation of STAT4(-/-) mice after LPS stimuli, accompanying with increased macrophages infiltration in inflamed lung tissue. In addition, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of STAT4(-/-) mice. Thus, these results indicate that the accumulation of MDSCs and macrophages play a critical role in LPS-induced lung injury. Targeting MDSCs and macrophages polarization through a STAT4 dependent signaling pathway might help to reduce the inflammation and damage of lung tissue. PMID:26644077

  18. Polymethoxyflavone Apigenin-Trimethylether Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response in Nontransformed Porcine Intestinal Cell Line IPEC-J2

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Orsolya; Palócz, Orsolya; Pászti-Gere, Erzsébet; Gálfi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin and its trimethylated analogue (apigenin-trimethylether) has been investigated in order to evaluate whether these flavonoids could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation in IPEC-J2 non-transformed intestinal epithelial cells. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and COX-2 mRNA were measured as a marker of inflammatory response. The extracellular H2O2 level in IPEC-J2 cells was also monitored by Amplex Red assay. Our data revealed that both compounds had significant lowering effect on the inflammatory response. Apigenin (at 25 μM) significantly decreased gene expression of IL-6 in LPS-treated cells, while apigenin-trimethylether in the same concentration did not influence IL-6 mRNA level. Both apigenin and apigenin-trimethylether reduced IL-8 gene expression significantly. TNF-α mRNA level was decreased by apigenin-trimethylether, which was not influenced by apigenin. Treatment with both flavonoids caused significant reduction in the mRNA level of COX-2, but the anti-inflammatory effect of the methylated analogue was more effective than the unmethylated one. Furthermore, both flavonoids reduced significantly the level of extracellular H2O2 compared to the control cells. In conclusion, the methylated apigenin analogue could avoid LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and it could be applied in the future as an effective anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:26180592

  19. Saponarin from barley sprouts inhibits NF-κB and MAPK on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung Hye; Park, Mi Jin; Ra, Ji-Eun; Han, Sang-Ik; Nam, Min-Hee; Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Jin Hwan; Seo, Woo Duck

    2014-11-01

    Saponarin (SA), a natural flavonoid, is known for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. SA is the predominant compound (1142.7 ± 0.9 mg per 100 g) in barley sprouts, constituting 72% of the total polyphenol content. We investigated, for the first time, the effects of SA from barley sprouts on cellular anti-inflammatory responses. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, SA suppressed the activation of NF-κB, as evidenced by the inhibition of NF-κB DNA binding, nuclear translocation, IκBα phosphorylation, and reporter gene expression, and it downregulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-6. Furthermore, SA reduced the transcription of NF-κB target molecules COX2 and FLIP inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and p38. These results suggest that SA isolated from barley sprouts exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 signaling. Thus, SA may be a promising natural anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25238253

  20. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi; He, Bei

    2015-06-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (β{sub 2}-AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β{sub 2}-AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production.

  1. The Protective Effects of HJB-1, a Derivative of 17-Hydroxy-Jolkinolide B, on LPS-Induced Acute Distress Respiratory Syndrome Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Cao, Jinjin; Wu, Donglin; Peng, Qisheng; Wang, Hong-Bing; Sun, Wan-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),which is inflammatory disorder of the lung, which is caused by pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, trauma and sepsis, results in widespread lung inflammation and increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Its pathogenesis is complicated and the mortality is high. Thus, there is a tremendous need for new therapies. We have reported that HJB-1, a 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide B derivative, exhibited strong anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. In this study, we investigated its impacts on LPS-induced ARDS mice. We found that HJB-1 significantly alleviated LPS-induced pulmonary histological alterations, inflammatory cells infiltration, lung edema, as well as the generation of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BALF. In addition, HJB-1 markedly suppressed LPS-induced IκB-α degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p65 subunit and MAPK phosphorylation. These results suggested that HJB-1 improved LPS-induced ARDS by suppressing LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation. PMID:26760995

  2. Polysaccharides from Smilax glabra inhibit the pro-inflammatory mediators via ERK1/2 and JNK pathways in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chuan-li; Wei, Zhu; Min, Wang; Hu, Meng-mei; Chen, Wen-long; Xu, Xiao-jie; Lu, Chuan-jian

    2015-05-20

    The rhizomes of Smilax glabra have been used as both food and folk medicine in many countries for a long time. However, little research has been reported on polysaccharides of S. glabra. In the present study, two polysaccharide fractions, SGP-1 and SGP-2, were isolated from the rhizomes of S. glabra with the number average molecular weights of 1.72 × 10(2)kDa and 1.31 × 10(2)kDa, and the weight average molecular weights of 1.31 × 10(5)kDa and 1.18 × 10(5)kDa, respectively, and their mainly monosaccharide compositions were both galactose and rhamnose (2.5:1). Both SGP-1 and SGP-2 significantly suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, as well as the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, SGP-1 and SGP-2 repressed the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). These findings strongly suggested polysaccharides were also the anti-inflammatory active ingredient for S. glabra, and the potential of SGP-1 and SGP-2 as the anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25817687

  3. In vitro and in vivo therapeutics of β-thujaplicin on LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages and septic shock in mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, M-F; Chen, L-Y; Tsai, P-J; Cherng, J-Y

    2012-01-01

    β-thujaplicin, an active constituent from Chamaecyparis obtusa, has been shown to have acaricidal and antimicrobial effects. Very few studies have focused on the potential of the anti-inflammatory effect of β-thujaplicin. Moreover, its capability of inhibiting inflammatory mediators e.g. TNF-a gene transcription, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, remains unknown. Besides those molecular mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory effect of β-thujaplicin, solid proof of its effectiveness in vivo has not yet been studied. In our study, in vitro effects of β thujaplicin were verified on RAW 264.7 macrophages which were stimulated by LPS. Indomethacin was used as a positive control. The inducible NO production after stimulation was measured by Griess reagent. PGE2, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA methods. Protein expressions of iNOS, COX2, and NF-κB were evaluated by Western blotting. Septic ICR mice were administered 20 mg/kg of LPS and then the mortality rate was monitored. Within the concentration range which was devoid of cytotoxicty, β-thujaplicin exhibited a clear dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, β-thujaplicin inhibited LPS-induced PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α production as well as iNOS, COX2, and NF- κB protein expression more substantially potent than indomethacin. In agreement with the in vitro study, β-thujaplicin was shown to be effective in vivo for inhibiting LPS-induced NO and TNF-α production and a significant decrease in mortality rate of mice suffering from septic shock was observed. This study demonstrates the potential of β-thujaplicin in treatment of inflammation and sepsis. These effects occur through an efficient blockage of TNF-α and iNOS production. β-thujaplicin efficacy is comparable to that of indomethacin thus it can be a substitution but bear less depletion of PGE2, making this compound very promising in clinical applications. β-thujaplicin, an active constituent from Chamaecyparis obtusa, has been shown to have acaricidal and antimicrobial effects. Very few studies have focused on the potential of the anti-inflammatory effect of β-thujaplicin. Moreover, its capability of inhibiting inflammatory mediators e.g. TNF-alpha gene transcription, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, remains unknown. Besides those molecular mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory effect of β-thujaplicin, solid proof of its effectiveness in vivo has not yet been studied. In our study, in vitro effects of β-thujaplicin were verified on RAW 264.7 macrophages which were stimulated by LPS. Indomethacin was used as a positive control. The inducible NO production after stimulation was measured by Griess reagent. PGE2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured by ELISA methods. Protein expressions of iNOS, COX2, and NF-kB were evaluated by Western blotting. Septic ICR mice were administered 20 mg/kg of LPS and then the mortality rate was monitored. Within the concentration range which was devoid of cytotoxicty, β-thujaplicin exhibited a clear dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, β-thujaplicin inhibited LPS-induced PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-alpha production as well as iNOS, COX2, and NF-kB protein expression more substantially potent than indomethacin. In agreement with the in vitro study, β-thujaplicin was shown to be effective in vivo for inhibiting LPS-induced NO and TNF-alpha production and a significant decrease in mortality rate of mice suffering from septic shock was observed. This study demonstrates the potential of β-thujaplicin in treatment of inflammation and sepsis. These effects occur through an efficient blockage of TNF-alpha and iNOS production. β-thujaplicin efficacy is comparable to that of indomethacin thus it can be a substitution but bear less depletion of PGE2, making this compound very promising in clinical applications. PMID:22507316

  4. Protective effect of rutin on LPS-induced acute lung injury via down-regulation of MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Huang, Yi-Chun; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Chien-Ying; Chen, Chun-Jung; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Pan, Pin-Ho; Horng, Chi-Ting; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin, is the important pathogen of acute lung injury (ALI), which is a clinical syndrome that still lacks effective therapeutic medicine. Rutin belongs to vitamin P and possesses various beneficial effects. In this study, we investigate the potential protective effects and the mechanisms of rutin on LPS-induced ALI. Pre-administration with rutin inhibited LPS-induced arterial blood gas exchange and neutrophils infiltration in the lungs. LPS-induced expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were suppressed by rutin. In addition, the inhibitory concentration of rutin on phosphorylation of Akt was similar as MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation. In conclusion, rutin is a potential protective agent for ALI via suppressing the blood gas exchange and neutrophil infiltration. The mechanism of rutin is down-regulation of MIP-2 expression and MMP-9 activation through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:25091621

  5. In vivo Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade selectively inhibits LPS-induced innate immune response and ACTH release in rat pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Benicky, Julius; Pavel, Jaroslav; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration induces an innate immune response and stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We studied Angiotensin II AT1 receptor participation in the LPS effects with focus on the pituitary gland. LPS (50 μg/kg, i.p.) enhanced, 3 hours after administration, gene expression of pituitary CD14 and that of Angiotensin II AT1A receptors in pituitary and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); stimulated ACTH and corticosterone release; decreased pituitary CRF1 receptor mRNA and increased all plasma and pituitary pro-inflammatory factors studied. The AT1 receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan (1 mg/kg/day, s.c. daily for 3 days before LPS) blocked pituitary and PVN AT1 receptors, inhibited LPS-induced ACTH but not corticosterone secretion and decreased LPS-induced release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 to the circulation. The ARB reduced LPS-induced pituitary gene expression of IL-6, LIF, iNOS, COX-2 and IκB-α; and prevented LPS-induced increase of nNOS/eNOS activity. The ARB did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression, IL-6 or IL-1βprotein content or LPS-induced decrease of CRF1 receptors. When administered alone, the ARB increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and basal PGE2 mRNA in pituitary. Our results demonstrate that the pituitary gland is a target for systemically administered LPS. AT1 receptor activity is necessary for the complete pituitary response to LPS and is limited to specific pro-inflammatory pathways. There is a complementary and complex influence of the PVN and circulating cytokines on the initial pituitary response to LPS. Our findings support the proposal that ARBs may be considered for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. PMID:19427376

  6. LPS-INDUCED CCL2 EXPRESSION AND MACROPHAGE INFLUX INTO THE MURINE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IS POLYAMINE-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Puntambekar, Shweta S.; Davis, Deirdre S.; Hawel, Leo; Crane, Janelle; Byus, Craig V.; Carson, Monica J.

    2011-01-01

    Increased polyamine production is observed in a variety of chronic neuroinflammatory disorders, but in vitro and in vivo studies yield conflicting data on the immunomodulatory consequences of their production. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in endogenous polyamine production. To identify the role of polyamine production in CNS-intrinsic inflammatory responses, we defined CNS sites of ODC expression and the consequences of inhibiting ODC in response to intracerebral injection of LPS+/? IFN?. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that both neurons and non-neuronal cells rapidly respond to LPS+/? IFN? by increasing ODC expression. Inhibiting ODC by co-injecting DFMO decreased LPS-induced CCL2 expression and macrophage influx into the CNS, without altering LPS-induced microglial or macrophage activation. Conversely, intracerebral injection of polyamines was sufficient to trigger macrophage influx into the CNS of wild-type but not CCL2KO mice, demonstrating the dependence of macrophage influx on CNS expression of CCL2. Consistent with these data, addition of putrescine and spermine to mixed glial cultures dramatically increased CCL2 expression and to a much lesser extent, TNF expression. Addition of all three polyamines to mixed glial cultures also decreased the numbers and percentages of oligodendrocytes present. However, in vivo, inhibiting the basal levels of polyamine production was sufficient to induce expression of apolipoprotein D, a marker of oxidative stress, within white matter tracts. Considered together, our data indicate that: (1) CNS-resident cells including neurons play active roles in recruiting pro-inflammatory TREM1+ macrophages into the CNS via polyamine-dependent induction of CCL2 expression and (2) modulating polyamine production in vivo may be a difficult strategy to limit inflammation and promote repair due to the dual homeostatic and pro-inflammatory roles played by polyamines. PMID:21237263

  7. Intra-Amniotic LPS Induced Region-Specific Changes in Presynaptic Bouton Densities in the Ovine Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Strackx, Eveline; Jellema, Reint K.; Rieke, Rebecca; Gussenhoven, Ruth; Vles, Johan S. H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Gavilanes, Antonio W. D.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. Chorioamnionitis has been associated with increased risk for fetal brain damage. Although, it is now accepted that synaptic dysfunction might be responsible for functional deficits, synaptic densities/numbers after a fetal inflammatory challenge have not been studied in different regions yet. Therefore, we tested in this study the hypothesis that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused profound changes in synaptic densities in different regions of the fetal sheep brain. Material and Methods. Chorioamnionitis was induced by a 10 mg intra-amniotic LPS injection at two different exposure intervals. The fetal brain was studied at 125 days of gestation (term = 150 days) either 2 (LPS2D group) or 14 days (LPS14D group) after LPS or saline injection (control group). Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the presynaptic density in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, entorhinal cortex, and piriforme cortex, in the nucleus caudatus and putamen and in CA1/2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results. There was a significant reduction in presynaptic bouton densities in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex and in layers 2-3 of the entorhinal and the somatosensory cortex, in the nucleus caudate and putamen and the CA1/2 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the LPS2D compared to control animals. Only in the motor cortex and putamen, the presynaptic density was significantly decreased in the LPS14 D compared to the control group. No changes were found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the piriforme cortex. Conclusion. We demonstrated that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused a decreased density in presynaptic boutons in different areas in the fetal brain. These synaptic changes seemed to be region-specific, with some regions being more affected than others, and seemed to be transient in some regions. PMID:26417592

  8. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected. PMID:26621247

  9. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Saulo J F; Sousa, Fernanda I A B; Pereira, Domingos M S; Ferro, Thiago A F; Pereira, Ione C P; Silva, Bruna L R; Pinheiro, Aruanã J M C R; Mouchrek, Adriana Q S; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Costa, Soraia K P; Nascimento, José L M; Grisotto, Marcos A G; da Costa, Robson; Fernandes, Elizabeth S

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26922677

  10. The regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 during LPS-induced inflammation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, Dalya; Goralski, Kerry B.; Renton, Kenneth W. . E-mail: Ken.Renton@dal.ca

    2006-10-01

    It is well known that inflammatory and infectious conditions differentially regulate cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated drug metabolism in the liver. We have previously outlined a potential pathway for the downregulation in hepatic cytochrome P450 following LPS-mediated inflammation in the CNS (Abdulla, D., Goralski, K.B., Garcia Del Busto Cano, E., Renton, K.W., 2005. The signal transduction pathways involved in hepatic cytochrome P450 regulation in the rat during an LPS-induced model of CNS inflammation. Drug Metab. Dispos). The purpose of this study was to outline the effects of LPS-induced peripheral and central nervous system inflammation on hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in vivo, an enzyme that plays an important role in various physiological and pathological states. We report an increase in hepatic mRNA expression of CYP2E1 that occurred as early as 2-3 h following either the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5 mg/kg LPS or i.c.v. administration of 25 {mu}g of LPS. This increase in CYP2E1 mRNA expression was sustained for 24 h. In sharp contrast to the increase in hepatic CYP2E1 mRNA, we observed a significant reduction in the catalytic activity of this enzyme 24 h following either the i.c.v. or i.p. administration of LPS. Cycloheximide or actinomycin-D did not change the LPS-mediated downregulation in hepatic CYP2E1 catalytic activity. Our results support the idea that LPS acts at two different levels to regulate hepatic CYP2E1: a transcriptional level to increase CYP2E1 mRNA expression and a post-transcriptional level to regulate CYP2E1 protein and activity.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma is not necessary for the development of LPS-induced tolerance in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zingarelli, Basilia; Fan, Hongkuan; Ashton, Sarah; Piraino, Giovanna; Mangeshkar, Prajakta; Cook, James A

    2008-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory properties in endotoxic shock and sepsis. One phenomenon that alters the inflammatory response to endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] is endotoxin tolerance, which is caused by previous exposure to endotoxin. Here, we investigate whether changes in endogenous PPARgamma function regulate this phenomenon using three different models of LPS-induced tolerance in macrophages. In a first in vitro model, previous LPS exposure of murine J774.2 macrophages suppressed tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release in response to subsequent LPS challenge. Treatment of J774.2 cells with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 did not alter tolerance induction because these cells were still hyporesponsive to the secondary LPS challenge. In a second ex vivo model, primary rat peritoneal macrophages from LPS-primed rats exhibited suppression of thromboxane B2 and TNF-alpha production, while maintaining nitrite production in response to in vitro LPS challenge. Pretreatment of rats with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 in vivo failed to alter the tolerant phenotype of these primary macrophages. In a third ex vivo model, primary peritoneal macrophages with conditional deletion of PPARgamma were harvested from LPS-primed Cre-lox mice (Cre+/+ PPARgamma-/-) and exhibited significant suppression of TNF-alpha production in response to in vitro LPS challenge. Furthermore, both LPS-primed PPARgamma-deficient Cre+/+ PPARgamma-/- mice and wild-type Cre-/- PPARgamma+/+ mice exhibited reduced plasma TNF-alpha levels in response to a high dose of LPS in vivo. These data demonstrate that PPARgamma does not play a role in the LPS-induced tolerant phenotype in macrophages. PMID:18028370

  12. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; So, Hong-Seob; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-02-01

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine(727). Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26792726

  13. CSTMP Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects on LPS-Induced Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Liao, Wang; He, Xiaojie; Xiang, Wei; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    (E)-2-(2-chlorostyryl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (CSTMP), a novel stilbene derivative, have been shown to have cytoprotective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human endothelial cells. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects in lupus nephritis (LN). In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CSTMP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (hRPTECs) and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. CSTMP significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity and suppressed the release of proinflammatory mediators, including iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, CCL-2, ICAM-1, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in LPS-induced hRPTECs. In addition, CSTMP decreased the expression of TLR4 and its adapter molecules (MyD88, phosphorylation of TAK1, TRAF6, and IRAK1) and abolished its interactions with these adapter molecules in LPS-induced hRPTECs, resulting in an inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88/TAK1/ TRAF6/IRAK1 complex. Moreover, CSTMP also attenuated phosphorylation of IκB and IKK-α/β, and P50-NF-κB and P65-NF-κB translocation to nucleus in LPS-induced hRPTECs. These findings provided new insights to understand the mode of action of CSTMP in treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as LN. PMID:26956469

  14. Acute hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response to LPS-induced endotoxemia: expression pattern of kinin type B1 and B2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Rimmele, Florian; Mallis, Lisa; Huser, Walter; Dendorfer, Andreas; Jhren, Olaf; Dominiak, Peter; Leeb-Lundberg, L M Fredrik; Bader, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and des-Arg9-BK are pro-inflammatory mediators acting via B2 (B2R) and B1 (B1R) receptors, respectively. We investigated the role of B2R and B1R in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in SD rats. LPS given intraperitoneally (ip) up-regulated B1R mRNA in the hypothalamus, both B1R and B2R were up-regulated in pituitary and adrenal glands. Receptor localization was performed using immunofluorescence staining. B1R was localized in the endothelial cells, nucleus supraopticus (SON), adenohypophysis and adrenal cortex. B2R was localized nucleus paraventricularis (PVN) and SON, pituitary and adrenal medulla. Blockade of B1R prior to LPS further increased ACTH release and blockade of B1R 1 h after LPS decreased its release. In addition, we evaluated if blockade of central kinin receptors influence the LPS-induced stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. Blockade of both B1R and B2R reduced the LPS-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus. Our data demonstrate that a single injection of LPS induced a differential expression pattern of kinin B1R and B2R in the HPA axis. The tissue specific cellular localization of these receptors indicates that they may play a crucial role in the maintenance of body homeostasis during endotoxemia. PMID:26468906

  15. Inhibition of RANKL- and LPS-induced osteoclast differentiations by novel NF-?B inhibitor DTCM-glutarimide.

    PubMed

    Koide, Naoki; Kaneda, Ayumi; Yokochi, Takashi; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    We have isolated 9-methylstreptimidone from microorganism as a new NF-?B inhibitor. Later, we designed 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl) methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-glutarimide) as an analog of this compound, which shows anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. In the present research, we found that DTCM-glutarimide inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and RANKL- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells without any toxicity. It also inhibited the RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Upstream signaling involving phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3? was induced by RANKL, of which the signaling was inhibited by DTCM-glutarimide. Then DTCM-glutarimide was confirmed to inhibit RANKL-induced NF-?B activity, possibly by inhibiting the Akt-mediated activation of IKK. Thus, DTCM-glutarimide inhibited osteoclastogenesis by blocking both the Akt-GSK3?-NFATc1 and NF-?B-NFATc1 pathways. DTCM-glutarimide may be a candidate as a chemotherapeutic agent for severe bone resorption diseases. PMID:25617668

  16. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés; De Paul, Ana Lucía

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K-Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • In hyperplastic pituitaries, LPS triggered the lactotroph cell proliferation and IL-6 release. • Functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs. • Increases in TLR4 and CD14 intracellular expression levels were detected after an LPS challenge. • The proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release involved the PI3K-Akt pathway and NF-κB activation. • 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 secretion.

  17. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana Del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés; De Paul, Ana Lucía

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K-Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:23973924

  18. Ergosterol of Cordyceps militaris Attenuates LPS Induced Inflammation in BV2 Microglia Cells.

    PubMed

    Nallathamby, Neeranjini; Guan-Serm, Lee; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Raman, Jegadeesh; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-06-01

    Different solvent extracts of Cordyceps militaris stroma powder were tested for cell viability and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered BV2 microglia cells. Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction resulted in an enriched ergosterol sub-fraction CE3. The BV2 cells showed no cytotoxic effects when treated with the ethyl acetate fraction and sub-fraction CE3 at concentrations of 0.1 ?g/mL - 100 ?g/mL compared with the control. At 10 ?g/mL, the ethyl acetate fraction and sub-fraction CE3 had the highest reduction of 48.0% and 44.7% of nitric oxide production, respectively. The major compound in sub-fraction CE3 was ergosterol, identified by GCMS, and the purity was checked by HPLC. Further, the reduction of nitric oxide in LPS triggered BV2 cells was about three fold higher when compared with the control commercial ergosterol. PMID:26197508

  19. Proteomic dissection of LPS-inducible, PHF8-dependent secretome reveals novel roles of PHF8 in TLR4-induced acute inflammation and T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Özgün; Xie, Ling; Wang, Li; Wu, Bing; Kong, Qing; Wan, Yisong; Chen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin (LPS)-induced changes in histone lysine methylation contribute to the gene-specific transcription for control of inflammation. Still unidentified are the chromatin regulators that drive the transition from a transcriptional-repressive to a transcriptional-active chromatin state of pro-inflammatory genes. Here, using combined approaches to analyze LPS-induced changes in both gene-specific transcription and protein secretion to the extracellular compartment, we characterize novel functions of the lysine demethylase PHF8 as a pro-inflammatory, gene-specific chromatin regulator. First, in the LPS-induced, acute-inflamed macrophages, PHF8 knockdown led to both a reduction of pro-inflammatory factors and an increase in a transcriptional-repressive code (H3K9me2) written by the methyltransferase G9a. Through unbiased quantitative secretome screening we discovered that LPS induces the secretion of a cluster of PHF8-dependent, 'tolerizable' proteins that are related to diverse extracellular pathways/processes including those for the activation of adaptive immunity. Specifically, we determined that PHF8 promotes T-cell activation and proliferation, thus providing the first link between the epigenetic regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity. Further, we found that, in the acute-inflamed macrophages, the acute-active PHF8 opposes the H3K9me1/2-writing activity of G9a to activate specific protein secretions that are suppressed by G9a in the endotoxin-tolerant cells, revealing the inflammatory-phenotypic chromatin drivers that regulate the gene-specific chromatin plasticity. PMID:27112199

  20. Proteomic dissection of LPS-inducible, PHF8-dependent secretome reveals novel roles of PHF8 in TLR4-induced acute inflammation and T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Özgün; Xie, Ling; Wang, Li; Wu, Bing; Kong, Qing; Wan, Yisong; Chen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin (LPS)-induced changes in histone lysine methylation contribute to the gene-specific transcription for control of inflammation. Still unidentified are the chromatin regulators that drive the transition from a transcriptional-repressive to a transcriptional-active chromatin state of pro-inflammatory genes. Here, using combined approaches to analyze LPS-induced changes in both gene-specific transcription and protein secretion to the extracellular compartment, we characterize novel functions of the lysine demethylase PHF8 as a pro-inflammatory, gene-specific chromatin regulator. First, in the LPS-induced, acute-inflamed macrophages, PHF8 knockdown led to both a reduction of pro-inflammatory factors and an increase in a transcriptional-repressive code (H3K9me2) written by the methyltransferase G9a. Through unbiased quantitative secretome screening we discovered that LPS induces the secretion of a cluster of PHF8-dependent, ‘tolerizable’ proteins that are related to diverse extracellular pathways/processes including those for the activation of adaptive immunity. Specifically, we determined that PHF8 promotes T-cell activation and proliferation, thus providing the first link between the epigenetic regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity. Further, we found that, in the acute-inflamed macrophages, the acute-active PHF8 opposes the H3K9me1/2-writing activity of G9a to activate specific protein secretions that are suppressed by G9a in the endotoxin-tolerant cells, revealing the inflammatory-phenotypic chromatin drivers that regulate the gene-specific chromatin plasticity. PMID:27112199

  1. A novel synthetic compound MCAP suppresses LPS-induced murine microglial activation in vitro via inhibiting NF-kB and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Wook; More, Sandeep Vasant; Yun, Yo-Sep; Ko, Hyun-Myung; Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Heesoon; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, In-Su; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of a novel synthetic compound, 7-methylchroman-2-carboxylic acid N-(2-trifluoromethyl) phenylamide (MCAP) against LPS-induced microglial activation in vitro. Methods: Primary mouse microglia and BV2 microglia cells were exposed to LPS (50 or 100 ng/mL). The expression of iNOS and COX-2, proinflammatory cytokines, NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling molecules were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. The morphological changes of microglia and nuclear translocation of NF-ĸB were visualized using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Results: Pretreatment with MCAP (0.1, 1, 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in BV2 microglia cells. Similar results were obtained in primary microglia pretreated with MCAP (0.1, 0.5 μmol/L). MCAP dose-dependently abated LPS-induced release of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and mitigated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB by reducing the phosphorylation of IκBα in BV2 microglia cells. Moreover, MCAP attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, whereas SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, significantly potentiated MCAP-caused inhibition on the expression of MEF-2 (a transcription factor downstream of p38 MAPK). Conclusion: MCAP exerts anti-inflammatory effects in murine microglia in vitro by inhibiting the p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and proinflammatory responses. MCAP may be developed as a novel agent for treating diseases involving activated microglial cells. PMID:26838070

  2. A novel MyD-1 (SIRP-1alpha) signaling pathway that inhibits LPS-induced TNFalpha production by monocytes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rosemary E; Patel, Vanshree; Seatter, Sandra D; Deehan, Maureen R; Brown, Marion H; Brooke, Gareth P; Goodridge, Helen S; Howard, Christopher J; Rigley, Kevin P; Harnett, William; Harnett, Margaret M

    2003-10-01

    MyD-1 (CD172) is a member of the family of signal regulatory phosphatase (SIRP) binding proteins, which is expressed on human CD14+ monocytes and dendritic cells. We now show a novel role for MyD-1 in the regulation of the innate immune system by pathogen products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), purified protein derivative (PPD), and Zymosan. Specifically, we demonstrate that ligation of MyD-1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) secretion but has no effect on other cytokines induced in response to each of these products. In an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this surprisingly selective effect we investigated signal transduction pathways coupled to MyD-1. Ligation of the SIRP was found to recruit the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and promote sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, phospholipase D, and sphingosine kinase. Inhibition of LPS-induced TNFalpha secretion by MyD-1 appears to be mediated by this pathway, as the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin restores normal LPS-driven TNFalpha secretion. MyD-1-coupling to this PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway may therefore present a novel target for the development of therapeutic strategies for combating TNFalpha production and consequent inflammatory disease. PMID:12805067

  3. Maprotiline inhibits LPS-induced expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Laleh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of the known anti-inflammatory potential of heterocyclic antidepressants, the mechanisms concerning their modulating effects are not completely known. In our earlier work, maprotiline, a heterocyclic antidepressants, considerably inhibited infiltration of polymorphonuclear cell leucocytes into the inflamed paw. To understand the mechanism involved, we evaluated the effect of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression in stimulated endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of maprotiline (10-8 to 10-6 M) and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Maprotiline significantly decreased the LPS-induced expression of VCAM-1 at all applied concentrations. The expression of ICAM-1 decreased in the presence of maprotiline at 10-6 M concentration (P<0.05). Since maprotiline inhibits the expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells, it can be a possible way through which maprotiline exerts its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27168753

  4. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum) Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Fabián, Saray; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile. PMID:24453416

  5. Alliin, a garlic (Allium sativum) compound, prevents LPS-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Fabián, Saray; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile. PMID:24453416

  6. FPR2/ALX activation reverses LPS-induced vascular hyporeactivity in aorta and increases survival in a pneumosepsis model.

    PubMed

    Horewicz, Verônica Vargas; Crestani, Sandra; de Sordi, Regina; Rezende, Edir; Assreuy, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    The formylpeptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) is a very promiscuous receptor, utilized by lipid and protein ligands that trigger pro- or anti-inflammatory responses. FPR2/ALX expression is increased in lung tissues of septic animals and its activation has a beneficial therapeutic effect by controlling exacerbated inflammation. Although FPR2/ALX expression was observed in vascular smooth muscle cells, its role in vascular reactivity in inflammatory conditions has not been studied. In this study, we report that LPS increases FPR2/ALX expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5 cells) and aorta tissue, and that the selective agonist WKYMVm reverses LPS-induced vascular hyporeactivity in mouse aorta rings. Mice bearing pneumosepsis by Klebsiella pneumoniae and treated with WKYMVm recovered the reactivity to vasoconstrictors and the survival improved by 40%. As for the mechanisms involved, FPR2/ALX activation decreases NO production in LPS-stimulated cells and aorta, but it does not seem involve the regulation of NOS-2 expression. The molecular mechanism by which the peptide inhibits NO production still needs to be elucidated, but our data suggests an important role for NO in the WKYMVm beneficial effect observed in LPS injury and sepsis. In conclusion, our data suggest, for the first time, that a receptor, primarily described as a mediator of immune responses, may have an important role in the vascular dysfunctions observed in sepsis and may be a possible target for new therapeutic interventions. PMID:25478948

  7. Socs1 and Socs3 degrades Traf6 via polyubiquitination in LPS-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Cheng, X; Zheng, Y; Zeng, F; He, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in inflammatory development during acute pancreatitis (AP) are largely vague, especially in the transformation of acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) into acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). This current study aims to investigate the functions of Traf6 in different AP models in vitro and in vivo, and to identify the possible regulatory mechanism in the progression of inflammation from mild to severe. Our data revealed that the level of Traf6 expression was significantly increased in the mild AP induced by caerulein, and the upregulation of Traf6 played a protective role in acinar cells against caerulein-induced apoptosis. In contrast, only Traf6 protein but not mRNA was downregulated in the severe ANP induced by combination treatment of caerulein and LPS. Mechanistic studies showed that LPS upregulated the levels of Socs1 and Socs3 expressions in acinar cells, Socs1 and Socs3 interacted Traf6 directly and degraded Traf6 protein via polyubiquitination, thereby counteracted the protective function of Traf6. In vivo study further showed that combination treatment of caerulein and LPS failed to induce an ANP model in the TLR4 knockout mice, and the level of Traf6 expression in the pancreatic tissues remained the same as that from the acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) mouse. Taken together, our study reveals that Traf6 functioned as a protective factor in the progression of AP, and LPS-induced Socs1 and Socs3 exacerbate mild AP to severe AP, which provides evidence for developing a new therapeutic target to combat AP. PMID:26633718

  8. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  9. The influence of temperament on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced secretion of epinephrine and cortisol in bulls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host's complex reaction to a pathogenic stressor involves interaction of the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. For example, exposure to bacteria stimulates secretion of the stress-related hormones, cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (Epi; 1). Innate and induced secretion of CS and Epi are influe...

  10. The essential oil isolated from Artemisia capillaris prevents LPS-induced production of NO and PGE(2) by inhibiting MAPK-mediated pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeong-Dan; Moon, Sang-Eun; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Lee, Kyung-Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaris) is used in traditional Korean herbal medicine for its believedanti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies have suggested that the essential oil of A. capillaris contains the active components responsible for its pharmacological effect, even though the mechanism for its action is unclear. This study examined the inhibitory effects of the essential oil of A. capillaris on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The essential oil significantly inhibited the production of NO in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, which was mediated by the down-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression but not by its direct cytotoxic activity. The essential oil also blocked the secretion of PGE(2) and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the LPS-stimulated cells. Western blot analysis showed that the essential oil inhibited the phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha, nuclear translocation of p65, and subsequent activation of NF-kappaB. In addition, the essential oil suppressed the LPS-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as the AP-1 DNA-binding activity. Moreover, MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced the LPS-induced production of NO and PGE(2). Collectively, we suggest that the oil inhibits the expression and production of inflammatory mediators by blocking the MAPK-mediated pathways and inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. PMID:19811407

  11. Therapeutic effect of intravenous infusion of perfluorocarbon emulsion on LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shike; Ding, Hui; Lv, Qi; Yin, Xiaofeng; Song, Jianqi; Landén, Ning Xu; Fan, Haojun

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the leading causes of death in critical care. Despite extensive efforts in research and clinical medicine, mortality remains high in these diseases. Perfluorocarbon (PFC), a chemical compound known as liquid ventilation medium, is capable of dissolving large amounts of physiologically important gases (mainly oxygen and carbon dioxide). In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous infusion of PFC emulsion on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in rats and elucidate its mechanism of action. Forty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 6 rats were treated with saline solution by intratracheal instillation (control group), 18 rats were treated with LPS by intratracheal instillation (LPS group) and the other 18 rats received PFC through femoral vein prior to LPS instillation (LPS+PFC group). The rats in the control group were sacrificed 6 hours later after saline instillation. At 2, 4 and 6 hours of exposure to LPS, 6 rats in the LPS group and 6 rats in LPS+PFC group were sacrificed at each time point. By analyzing pulmonary pathology, partial pressure of oxygen in the blood (PaO2) and lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) of each rat, we found that intravenous infusion of PFC significantly alleviated acute lung injury induced by LPS. Moreover, we showed that the expression of pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) of endothelial cells and CD11b of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) induced by LPS were significantly decreased by PFC treatment in vivo. Our results indicate that intravenous infusion of PFC inhibits the infiltration of PMNs into lung tissue, which has been shown as the core pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. Thus, our study provides a theoretical foundation for using intravenous infusion of PFC to prevent and treat ALI/ARDS in clinical practice. PMID:24489970

  12. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the mechanisms involved in the LPS-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Bariani, Mara Victoria; Domnguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Cella, Maximiliano; Burdet, Juliana; Franchi, Ana Mara; Aisemberg, Julieta

    2015-12-01

    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a strong causal relationship between infection and preterm births. Intrauterine infection elicits an immune response involving the release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and prostaglandins (PG) that trigger uterine contractions and parturition events. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Similarly to PG, endocannabinoids are implicated in different aspects of reproduction, such as maintenance of pregnancy and parturition. Little is known about the involvement of endocannabinoids on the onset of labor in an infectious milieu. Here, using a mouse model of preterm labor induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we explored changes on the expression of components of endocannabinoid system (ECS). We have also determined whether AEA and CB antagonists alter PG production that induces labor. We observed an increase in uterine N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression (NAPE-PLD, the enzyme that synthesizes AEA) upon LPS treatment. Activity of catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) did not change significantly. In addition, we also found that LPS modulated uterine cannabinoid receptors expression by downregulating Cb2 mRNA levels and upregulating CB1 protein expression. Furthermore, LPS and AEA induced PGF2a augmentation, and this was reversed by antagonizing CB1 receptor. Collectively, our results suggest that ECS may be involved in the mechanism by which infection causes preterm birth. PMID:26347521

  13. Alterations of lung microbiota in a mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Poroyko, Valeriy; Meng, Fanyong; Meliton, Angelo; Afonyushkin, Taras; Ulanov, Alexander; Semenyuk, Ekaterina; Latif, Omar; Tesic, Vera; Birukova, Anna A; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2015-07-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome are common responses to a variety of infectious and noninfectious insults. We used a mouse model of ALI induced by intratracheal administration of sterile bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to investigate the changes in innate lung microbiota and study microbial community reaction to lung inflammation and barrier dysfunction induced by endotoxin insult. One group of C57BL/6J mice received LPS via intratracheal injection (n = 6), and another received sterile water (n = 7). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at 72 h after treatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted and used for qPCR and 16S rRNA gene-tag (V3-V4) sequencing (Illumina). The bacterial load in BAL from ALI mice was increased fivefold (P = 0.03). The community complexity remained unchanged (Simpson index, P = 0.7); the Shannon diversity index indicated the increase of community evenness in response to ALI (P = 0.07). Principal coordinate analysis and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) test (P = 0.005) revealed a significant difference between microbiota of control and ALI groups. Bacteria from families Xanthomonadaceae and Brucellaceae increased their abundance in the ALI group as determined by Metastats test (P < 0.02). In concordance with the 16s-tag data, Stenotrohomonas maltophilia (Xanthomonadaceae) and Ochrobactrum anthropi (Brucellaceae) were isolated from lungs of mice from both groups. Metabolic profiling of BAL detected the presence of bacterial substrates suitable for both isolates. Additionally, microbiota from LPS-treated mice intensified IL-6-induced lung inflammation in naive mice. We conclude that the morbid transformation of ALI microbiota was attributed to the set of inborn opportunistic pathogens thriving in the environment of inflamed lung, rather than the external infectious agents. PMID:25957290

  14. CYTOSOLIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2α PROTECTS AGAINST FAS-BUT NOT LPS-INDUCED LIVER INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guiying; Chen, Weina; Han, Chang; Wu, Tong

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is a rate-limiting key enzyme controlling the release of arachidonic acid (AA) substrate for the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. This study was designed to explore the role of hepatocyte cPLA2α in Fas-mediated liver injury, in vivo. Methods Transgenic mice with targeted expression of cPLA2α under control of the albumin-promoter enhancer and wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with anti-Fas antibody Jo2 or lipopolysaccharide plus D-galactosamine and monitored for liver injury and survival at various time points. Results The cPLA2α Tg mice resist Fas-induced liver failure, as reflected by the lower serum transaminase levels, fewer apoptotic hepatocytes, reduced caspase activation, and reduced PARP cleavage when compared to the matched wild type mice. Inhibition of cPLA2α by its pharmacological inhibitor, pyrrolidine, enhanced Jo2-induced liver injury in both cPLA2α Tg and wild type mice. Hepatic overexpression of cPLA2α increases the expression of EGFR in the liver and the EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, exacerbated Jo2-mediated liver injury. The cPLA2α transgenic mice develop more prominent liver tissue damage than wild-type mice after LPS/D-galactosamine injection. Conclusion Hepatocyte cPLA2α protects against Fas-induced liver injury and this effect is mediated at least in part through upregulation of EGFR. PMID:21703211

  15. The CO donor CORM-2 inhibits LPS-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Pei-Ling; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Infection with Gram-negative bacteria has been recognized as an initiator of rheumatoid arthritis, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and infiltration of immune cells. Carbon monoxide (CO) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here we have investigated the detailed mechanisms of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression induced by LPS and if CO inhibited LPS-induced leukocyte adhesion to synovial fibroblasts by suppressing VCAM-1 expression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) were incubated with LPS and/or the CO-releasing compound CORM-2. Effects of LPS on VCAM-1 levels were determined by analysing mRNA expression, promoter activity, protein expression, and immunohistochemical staining. The molecular mechanisms were investigated by determining the expression, activation, and binding activity of transcriptional factors using target signal antagonists. KEY RESULTS CORM-2 significantly inhibited inflammatory responses in LPS-treated RASFs by down-regulating the expression of adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and leukocyte infiltration. The down-regulation of LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression involved inhibition of the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 and AP-1 (p-c-Jun, c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA levels). These results were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to detect NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS LPS-mediated formation of the TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6/c-Src complex regulated NF-κB and MAPKs/AP-1 activation leading to VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion. CORM-2, which liberates CO to elicit direct biological activities, attenuated LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression by interfering with NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and significantly reduced LPS-induced immune cell infiltration of the synovium. PMID:24628691

  16. Directly interact with Keap1 and LPS is involved in the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate in LPS-induced macrophages and endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yi-Shiou; Huang, Qingrong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wang, Ying-Jan; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    Disruption of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) interaction has emerged as a promising strategy to reduce oxidative stress-induced inflammation. However, its roles in regulating downstream events, including the cross talk between Nrf2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), are not well defined. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanistic connection between Keap1-Nrf2 signaling and the transcription factor NF-κB and to investigate the function of (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) in the repression of multiple inflammatory mediators. ECG attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediator expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through the induction of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven glutathione (GSH) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels, interference with NF-κB and Nfr2/ARE transcriptional activities, and suppression of the MAPKs (JNK1/2 and p38) and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Importantly, anti-inflammatory effects of ECG partly require activation of ERK1/2 signaling to mediate HO-1 expression and Nrf2/ARE signaling activation. Furthermore, ECG may directly interact intracellularly with the Kelch repeat domains of Keap1 and bind to extracellular LPS, thereby promoting the nuclear accumulation of the Nrf2 protein and blockading the activation of LPS-induced downstream target signaling pathways. Consistent with in vitro studies, ECG attenuates pathological syndromes of LPS-induced sepsis and systemic inflammation. Our results identified ECG as a novel Keap1-Nrf2 interaction disruptor and LPS-induced TLR4 activation inhibitor, thereby providing an innovative strategy to prevent or treat immune, oxidative stress and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:26878775

  17. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  18. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  19. Corticotropin-releasing factor augments LPS-induced immune/inflammatory responses in JAWSII cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Li, Meng; Lu, Bin; Wang, Xi; Chen, Chaoying; Zhang, Meng

    2016-04-01

    The effect of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on gastrointestinal tract inflammation via modulation of the immune system cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) is not known. We investigated the expression of CRF and its receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2 in a colonic DC model (JAWSII cells) in a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory milieu. The mRNA expression of CRF and protein expression of CRFR1 and CRFR2 was assessed, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce the maturation of JAWSII cells. JAWSII cells were divided into four groups: control, CRF, LPS, and LPS + CRF. The levels of secreted cytokines IL-6, IL-4, TNF-α, and MIP-1α were determined, both in JAWSII cells and in the culture supernatant, by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The expression of CRFR1 and CRFR2 in JAWSII cells was accompanied by a low CRF expression. Compared with control group, CRF group did not affect the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and MIP-1α, but LPS treatment significantly increased the expression of these cytokines, indicating maturation of JAWSII cells. CRF further augmented the production of IL-6, TNF-α, and MIP-1α in mature JAWSII cells, with no increase in TNF-α mRNA expression. However, the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-4 did not change after LPS treatment. CRF treatment decreased the expression of IL-4 in both mature and immature JAWSII cells. JAWSII cells produce low level of CRF and express CRFR1 and CRFR2 surface receptors. CRF promotes immune/inflammatory responses in mature JAWSII cells when induced by LPS treatment. PMID:26754762

  20. Two structurally distinct {kappa}B sequence motifs cooperatively control LPS-induced KC gene transcription in mouse macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, Y.; Fukumoto, S.; Hamilton, T.A.

    1995-10-01

    The mouse KC gene is an {alpha}-chemokine gene whose transcription is induced in mononuclear phagocytes by LPS. DNA sequences necessary for transcriptional control of KC by LPS were identified in the region flanking the transcription start site. Transient transfection analysis in macrophages using deletion mutants of a 1.5-kb sequence placed in front of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene identified an LPS-responsive region between residues -104 and +30. This region contained two {kappa}B sequence motifs. The first motif (position -70 to -59, {kappa}B1) is highly conserved in all three human GRO genes and in the mouse macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) gene. The second {kappa}B motif (position -89 to -78, {kappa}B2) was conserved only between the mouse and the rat KC genes. Consistent with previous reports, the highly conserved {kappa}B site ({kappa}B1) was essential for LPS inducibility. Surprisingly, the distal {kappa}B site ({kappa}B2) was also necessary for optimal response; mutation of either {kappa}B site markedly reduced sensitivity to LPS in RAW264.7 cells and to TNF-{alpha} in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Although both {kappa}B1 and {kappa}B2 sequences were able to bind members of the Rel homology family, including NF{kappa}B1 (P50), RelA (65), and c-Rel, the {kappa}B1 site bound these factors with higher affinity and functioned more effectively than the {kappa}B2 site in a heterologous promoter. These findings demonstrate that transcriptional control of the KC gene requires cooperation between two {kappa}B sites and is thus distinct from that of the three human GRO genes and the mouse MIP-2 gene. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  1. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Dampens LPS-Induced Chemokine Expression in Human Dendritic Cells by Inhibition of STAT-1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Mariman, Rob; Tielen, Frans; Koning, Frits; Nagelkerken, Lex

    2014-01-01

    VSL#3, a mixture of 8 different probiotic bacteria, has successfully been used in the clinic to treat Ulcerative Colitis. We previously identified the modulation of chemokines as a major mechanism in the protective effect of the VSL#3 in a mouse model of colitis. This was supported by in vitro studies that implicated a role for VSL#3 in the suppression of LPS-induced chemokine production by mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). Herein, we validated these findings employing human monocyte-derived DC. Stimulation of human DC with LPS, VSL#3, or a combination of both resulted in their maturation, evident from enhanced expression of activation markers on the cell-surface, as well as the induction of various chemokines and cytokines. Interestingly, a set of LPS-induced chemokines was identified that were suppressed by VSL#3. These included CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL7, and CCL8. In silico approaches identified STAT-1 as a dominant regulator of these chemokines, and this was confirmed by demonstrating that LPS-induced phosphorylation of this transcription factor was inhibited by VSL#3. This indicates that VSL#3 may contribute to the control of inflammation by selective suppression of STAT-1 induced chemokines. PMID:25546330

  2. Upregulation of miR-146a contributes to the suppression of inflammatory responses in LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenguo; Gong, Honghan; Li, Yong; Jie, Kemin; Ding, Chengzhi; Shao, Qiang; Liu, Fen; Zhan, Yian; Nie, Cheng; Zhu, Weifeng; Qian, Kejian

    2013-09-01

    Despite the critical role of microRNA in inflammatory response, little is known about its function in inflammation-induced Acute Lung Injury (ALI)/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). To investigate the potential role of microRNA146a (miR-146a) in ALI, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI rat model. Our data revealed that LPS-induced lung injury in rats resulted in significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-1β, and miR-146a expression. LPS treatment also leads to higher expression of miR-146a as well as increase in secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in alveolar macrophage (AM) NR8383 cells in a time-dependent manner. Manipulation with miR146a mimic significantly suppressed LPS-mediated TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β induction in NR8383 cells by repressing expression of IRAK-1 and TRAF-6. These data clearly indicate that the upregulation of miR146a suppresses inflammatory mediators in LPS induced-ALI model. Therefore, miR-146a may be therapeutically targeted as a mean to repress inflammatory response following ALI. PMID:23848342

  3. Lipoxin A4 and Platelet Activating Factor Are Involved in E. coli or LPS-Induced Lung Inflammation in CFTR-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiya; Yang, Jun; Su, Emily M.; Li, Ling; Zhao, Caiqi; Yang, Xi; Gao, Zhaowei; Pan, Mengyao; Sun, Peiyu; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Yiyi; Su, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del) or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2) or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1) or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase) inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation. PMID:24671173

  4. Genomic Instability in Liver Cells Caused by an LPS-Induced Bystander-Like Effect

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Igor; Walz, Paul; Thomas, James; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infection has been linked to carcinogenesis, however, there is lack of knowledge of molecular mechanisms that associate infection with the development of cancer. We analyzed possible effects of the consumption of heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 cells or its cellular components, DNA, RNA, protein or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on gene expression in naïve liver cells. Four week old mice were provided water supplemented with whole heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components for a two week period. One group of animals was sacrificed immediately, whereas another group was allowed to consume uncontaminated tap water for an additional two weeks, and liver samples were collected, post mortem. Liver cells responded to exposure of whole heat-killed bacteria and LPS with alteration in γH2AX levels and levels of proteins involved in proliferation, DNA methylation (MeCP2, DNMT1, DNMT3A and 3B) or DNA repair (APE1 and KU70) as well as with changes in the expression of genes involved in stress response, cell cycle control and bile acid biosynthesis. Other bacterial components analysed in this study did not lead to any significant changes in the tested molecular parameters. This study suggests that lipopolysaccharides are a major component of Gram-negative bacteria that induce molecular changes within naïve cells of the host. PMID:23874414

  5. LPS induces IL-10 production by human alveolar macrophages via MAPKinases- and Sp1-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chanteux, Hugues; Guisset, Amélie C; Pilette, Charles; Sibille, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Background IL-10 is a cytokine mainly produced by macrophages that plays key roles in tolerance to inhaled antigens and in lung homeostasis. Its regulation in alveolar macrophages (HAM), the resident lung phagocytes, remains however unknown. Methods The present study investigated the role of intracellular signalling and transcription factors controlling the production of IL-10 in LPS-activated HAM from normal nonsmoking volunteers. Results LPS (1–1000 pg/ml) induced in vitro IL-10 production by HAM, both at mRNA and protein levels. LPS also activated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPkinases (immunoblots) and Sp-1 nuclear activity (EMSA). Selective inhibitors of MAPKinases (respectively PD98059, SB203580 and SP600125) and of Sp-1 signaling (mithramycin) decreased IL-10 expression in HAM. In addition, whilst not affecting IL-10 mRNA degradation, the three MAPKinase inhibitors completely abolished Sp-1 activation by LPS in HAM. Conclusion These results demonstrate for the first time that expression of IL-10 in lung macrophages stimulated by LPS depends on the concomitant activation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPKinases, which control downstream signalling to Sp-1 transcription factor. This study further points to Sp-1 as a key signalling pathway for IL-10 expression in the lung. PMID:17916230

  6. Cocaine counteracts LPS-induced hypolocomotion and triggers locomotor sensitization expression.

    PubMed

    Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Engelke, Douglas Senna; Lunardi, Paula; Mello E Souza, Tadeu; Santos-Junior, Jair Guilherme; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimmune signalling underlies addiction and comorbid depression. Clinical observations indicate that infections and chronic lesions are more frequent in drug users and elevated inflammatory states are evident in cocaine dependents. Therefore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory cytokines represent an important tool for the investigation of sickness, depressive illness and addiction behaviour. A major component of addiction is the progressive and persistent increase in locomotor activity after repeated drug administration and even prolonged periods of abstinence. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of locomotor sensitization when a non-sensitizing dose of cocaine is paired with a systemic inflammatory stimulus. LPS and cocaine were administered intraperitonealy in young-adult male C57bl/6 mice during a 5-day acquisition phase. After a 48-h withdrawal period all groups were challenged with cocaine to evaluate locomotor expression. During the acquisition phase, the LPS-treated groups displayed characteristic hypolocomotion related to sickness behaviour. The low dose of cocaine did not increase the distance travelled, characterizing a non-sensitization dose. Groups that received both LPS and cocaine did not display hypolocomotion, indicating that cocaine might counteract hypolocomotion sickness behaviour. Moreover, during challenge, only these animals expressed locomotor sensitization. Our results indicate that LPS could facilitate the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice and that the immune system may modulate cocaine-induced sensitization. PMID:25835320

  7. Curcumin modulates the immune response associated with LPS-induced periodontal disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Morgana R.; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Coimbra, Leila S.; Spolidorio, Luis C.; Kirkwood, Keith L.; Rossa, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice ascribed various biological activities. Curcumin therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, but not on periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition initiated by an immune response to microorganisms of the dental biofilm. Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by injecting LPS in the gingival tissues on the palatal aspect of upper first molars (30 ug LPS, 3 times/week for 2 weeks). Curcumin was administered to rats daily via oral gavage at 30 and 100 mg/Kg. RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 synthase on the gingival tissues. The inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric and descriptive analysis on H&E-stained sections, whereas modulation of p38 MAPK and NK-κB signaling was assessed by Western blot. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at mRNA and protein levels, but NF-kB was inhibited only with the lower dose of curcumin, whereas p38 MAPK activation was not affected. Curcumin produced a significant reduction on the inflammatory infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Curcumin potently inhibits innate immune responses associated with periodontal disease, suggesting a therapeutic potential in this chronic inflammatory condition. PMID:21242275

  8. Curcumin modulates the immune response associated with LPS-induced periodontal disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Morgana R; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Coimbra, Leila S; Spolidorio, Luis C; Kirkwood, Keith L; Rossa, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice ascribed various biological activities. Curcumin therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, but not on periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition initiated by an immune response to micro-organisms of the dental biofilm. Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by injecting LPS in the gingival tissues on the palatal aspect of upper first molars (30 µg LPS, 3 times/week for 2 weeks). Curcumin was administered to rats daily via oral gavage at 30 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Reverse transcriptase-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of IL-6, TNF-α and prostaglandin E(2) synthase on the gingival tissues. The inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric and descriptive analysis on hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections, whereas modulation of p38 MAPK and NK-κB signaling was assessed by Western blot. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at mRNA and protein levels, but NF-κB was inhibited only with the lower dose of curcumin, whereas p38 MAPK activation was not affected. Curcumin produced a significant reduction on the inflammatory infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Curcumin potently inhibits innate immune responses associated with periodontal disease, suggesting a therapeutic potential in this chronic inflammatory condition. PMID:21242275

  9. Epidural analgesia with morphine or buprenorphine in ponies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced carpal synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Gabrielle C.; Carregaro, Adriano B.; Gehrcke, Martielo I.; De La Crte, Flvio D.; Lara, Valria M.; Pozzobon, Ricardo; Brass, Karin E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the analgesia effects of the epidural administration of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of morphine or 5 ?g/kg BW of buprenorphine in ponies with radiocarpal joint synovitis. Six ponies were submitted to 3 epidural treatments: the control group (C) received 0.15 mL/kg BW of a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution; group M was administered 0.1 mg/kg BW of morphine; and group B was administered 5 ?g/kg BW of buprenorphine, both diluted in 0.9% NaCl to a total volume of 0.15 mL/kg BW administered epidurally at 10 s/mL. The synovitis model was induced by injecting 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left or right radiocarpal joint. An epidural catheter was later introduced in the lumbosacral space and advanced up to the thoracolumbar level. The treatment started 6 h after synovitis induction. Lameness, maximum angle of carpal flexion, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, and intestinal motility were evaluated before LPS injection (baseline), 6 h after LPS injection (time 0), and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after treatments. Although the model of synovitis produced clear clinical signs of inflammation, the lameness scores in group C were different from the baseline for only up to 12 h. Both morphine and buprenorphine showed a reduction in the degree of lameness starting at 0.5 and 6 h, respectively. Reduced intestinal motility was observed at 0.5 h in group M and at 0.5 to 1 h in group B. Epidural morphine was a more effective analgesic that lasted for more than 12 h and without side effects. It was concluded that morphine would be a valuable analgesic option to alleviate joint pain in the thoracic limbs in ponies. PMID:21731186

  10. Sangxingtang inhibits the inflammation of LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating the MAPK/NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Zhu; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yao, Jin-Fu; DU, Juan; Yan, Tian-Hua

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of Sangxingtang (SXT) on acute lung injury using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed. The degree of lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The inflammatory signaling pathway-related proteins nuclear factor mitogen activated protein kinases (P38MAPK), extracellular regulated protein kinases (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) and nuclear transcription factor (NF-?B) p65 expressions were measured by Western blotting. Our results showed that the treatment with the SXT markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased the levels of P-P38MAPK, P-Erk, P-Jnk and P-NF-?B p65 and the total protein levels in lungs, improved the SOD activity and inhibited the MPO activity. Histological studies demonstrated that SXT substantially reduced the LPS-induced neutrophils in lung tissues, compared with the untreated LPS group. In conclusion, our results indicated that SXT had protective effects on LPS-induced ALI in mice. PMID:26721707

  11. Brazilein Suppresses Inflammation through Inactivation of IRAK4-NF-κB Pathway in LPS-Induced Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal herbal plant has been commonly used for prevention and intervention of disease and health promotions worldwide. Brazilein is a bioactive compound extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Several studies have showed that brazilein exhibited the immune suppressive effect and anti-oxidative function. However, the molecular targets of brazilein for inflammation prevention have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of brazilein on LPS-induced inflammatory response in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We demonstrated that brazilein decreased the expression of IRAK4 protein led to the suppression of MAPK signaling and IKKβ, and subsequent inactivation of NF-κB and COX2 thus promoting the expression of the downstream target pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, MCP-1, MIP-2, and IL-6 in LPS-induced Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Moreover, we observed that brazilein reduced the production of nitrite compared to the control in LPS-induced Raw264.7. Thus, we suggest that brazilein might be a useful bioactive compound for the prevention of IRAK-NF-κB pathway associated chronic diseases. PMID:26593910

  12. Brazilein Suppresses Inflammation through Inactivation of IRAK4-NF-κB Pathway in LPS-Induced Raw264.7 Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal herbal plant has been commonly used for prevention and intervention of disease and health promotions worldwide. Brazilein is a bioactive compound extracted from Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Several studies have showed that brazilein exhibited the immune suppressive effect and anti-oxidative function. However, the molecular targets of brazilein for inflammation prevention have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of brazilein on LPS-induced inflammatory response in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We demonstrated that brazilein decreased the expression of IRAK4 protein led to the suppression of MAPK signaling and IKKβ, and subsequent inactivation of NF-κB and COX2 thus promoting the expression of the downstream target pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, MCP-1, MIP-2, and IL-6 in LPS-induced Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Moreover, we observed that brazilein reduced the production of nitrite compared to the control in LPS-induced Raw264.7. Thus, we suggest that brazilein might be a useful bioactive compound for the prevention of IRAK-NF-κB pathway associated chronic diseases. PMID:26593910

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC): inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production in myeloid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Low, Pauline; Clark, Amanda M; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chang, Tsu-Chung; Reynolds, Maxwell; Ralph, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is a mixture predominantly composed of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes, refined from the essential oil of the tea tree by removing up to 99% of the more toxic, hydrophobic monoterpenes. MAC was examined here for its immunomodulatory effects on the human THP1 and murine RAW264.7 myeloid leukemic cell lines as models for macrophage-like cells. Firstly, MAC levels were determined that did not affect either the survival or proliferation of these cell lines in vitro. Next, the levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFNγ and IL-3) were examined from the myeloid cell lines using multiplex assays. Many of the LPS-inducible cytokines produced by either cell lines could be significantly inhibited by MAC. Closer examination of the mechanism of action of MAC showed that it inhibited the LPS-induced activation of IκB phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling and translocation, inhibiting iNOS protein expression and NO production. These results demonstrate that MAC exerts its immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signalling activation and levels of cytokine production by macrophage-like cell lines. PMID:25858876

  14. Toona sinensis Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation and Migration in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species and NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Huang, Pei-Jane; Liu, Yi-Ru; Kumar, K. J. Senthil; Hsu, Li-Sung; Lu, Te-Ling; Chia, Yi-Chen; Takajo, Tokuko; Kazunori, Anzai; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Toona sinensis is one of the most popular vegetarian cuisines in Taiwan and it has been shown to possess antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic potential of aqueous leaf extracts from Toona sinensis (TS; 25–100 μg/mL) and its major bioactive compound, gallic acid (GA; 5 μg/mL), in LPS-treated rat aortic smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. We found that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of TS and GA significantly inhibited inflammatory NO and PGE2 production by downregulating their precursors, iNOS and COX-2, respectively, in LPS-treated A7r5 cells. Furthermore, TS and GA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS and their corresponding mediator, p47phox. Notably, TS and GA pretreatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced migration in transwell assays. Gelatin zymography and western blotting demonstrated that treatment with TS and GA suppressed the activity or expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and t-PA. Additionally, TS and GA significantly inhibited LPS-induced VEGF, PDGF, and VCAM-1 expression. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition of iNOS/COX-2, MMPs, growth factors, and adhesion molecules was associated with the suppression of NF-κB activation and MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38) phosphorylation. Thus, Toona sinensis may be useful for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:24723997

  15. LXRα represses LPS-induced inflammatory responses by competing with IRF3 for GRIP1 in Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chun-Mu; He, Kun; Li, Pei-Zhi; Liu, Zuo-Jin; Zhu, Xi-Wen; Ou, Zhi-Bing; Ruan, Xiong-Zhong; Gong, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-An

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) in the nucleus play important roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. The mechanism of LXR regulation of the LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inflammatory signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, T0901317 (a LXRs agonist), LPS and T0901317+LPS. Additionally, Kupffer cells isolated from male C57/BL6 mice were divided into the same four groups. A decreased amount of inflammatory cells infiltrated the portal areas and the hepatic sinusoids in the livers of mice in the T0901317+LPS group than in those of mice in the LPS group. In the T0901317+LPS group, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were lower, while the serum level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was higher. In vitro, Kupffer cells pretreated with T0901317 for 24h presented reduced TNF-α, interferon-beta (IFN-β) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels, while the IL-10 level increased; however, the mRNA and protein expression levels of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) were not significantly reduced. The co-IP data illustrated that LXRα bound to GRIP1 specifically in the T0901317+LPS group, while less IRF3 was bound to GRIP1 in the T0901317+LPS group than in the LPS group. Furthermore, the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB was decreased by pretreating Kupffer cells with T0901317 for 24h. These results suggest that activated LXRα competes with IRF3 for GRIP1 binding, thus repressing IRF3 and NF-κB transcriptional activity and inhibiting the inflammatory response initiated by LPS in Kupffer cells. PMID:27085678

  16. BQ-123 prevents LPS-induced preterm birth in mice via the induction of uterine and placental IL-10

    SciTech Connect

    Olgun, Nicole S.; Hanna, Nazeeh; Reznik, Sandra E.

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any delivery occurring prior to the completion of 37 weeks' gestation, currently accounts for 11–12% of all births in the United States. Maternal genito-urinary infections account for up to 40% of all PTBS and induce a pro-inflammatory state in the host. The potent vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known to be upregulated in the setting of infection, and elicits its effect by binding to the ET{sub A} receptor. We have previously shown that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor with BQ-123 is capable of preventing LPS-induced PTB in mice. We hypothesize that the administration of BQ-123 post LPS exposure will dismantle a positive feedback loop observed with pro-inflammatory cytokines upstream of ET-1. On GD 15.5, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were injected with PBS, LPS, BQ-123, or LPS + BQ-123. Changes at both the level of transcription and translation were observed in uterus and placenta in the ET-1 axis and in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines over the course of 12 h. We discovered that BQ-123, when administered 10 h post LPS, is capable of increasing production of uterine and placental Interleukin-10, causing a shift away from the pro-inflammatory state. We also observed that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor decreased IL-1β and TNFα in the placenta while also decreasing transcription of ET-1 in the uterus. Our results reinforce the role of ET-1 at the maternal fetal interface and highlight the potential benefit of ET{sub A} receptor blockade via the suppression of ET-1, and induction of a Th2 cytokine dominant state. - Highlights: • The pro-inflammatory response to LPS in the uterus and placenta is ET-1 dependent. • ET{sub A} blockade triggers up-regulation of IL-10 in uterus and placenta. • A positive feedback loop drives ET-1 expression in gestational tissue.

  17. Isofraxidin exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited TNF-? production in LPS-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro via the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Xing, Wei; Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Hu, Hua; Li, Yongmei

    2012-10-01

    Isofraxidin (IF) is a Coumarin compound that can be isolated from medicinal plants, such as Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.). Nakai is widely used in Asian countries for the treatment of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour action. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of IF on inflammation and nociception. In addition, we investigated a potential novel mechanism to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of IF. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, LPS-induced mouse endotoxic shock, acetic acid-induced mice writhing and formalin-induced mouse pain models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of IF. In vitro, we examined the effects of IF inhibition on TNF-? production and the regulation of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation activity in LPS-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages. Our results demonstrated that IF can significantly decrease xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced pain. Moreover, IF greatly inhibited the production of TNF-? in the serum of LPS-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages, and it decreased phospho-p38 and ERK1/2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Overall, our data suggest that IF possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities that may be mediated through the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. PMID:22800929

  18. Selected contribution: role of IL-6 in LPS-induced nuclear STAT3 translocation in sensory circumventricular organs during fever in rats.

    PubMed

    Harr, Eva-Maria; Roth, Joachim; Pehl, Ulrich; Kueth, Matthias; Gerstberger, Rdiger; Hbschle, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is regarded as an endogenous mediator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever. IL-6 is thought to act on the brain at sites that lack a blood-brain barrier, the circumventricular organs (CVOs). Cells that are activated by IL-6 respond with nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 molecule (STAT3) and can be detected by immunohistochemistry. We investigated whether the LPS-induced release of IL-6 into the systemic circulation was accompanied by a nuclear STAT3 translocation within the sensory CVOs. Treatment with LPS (100 microg/kg) led to a slight (1 h) and then a strong increase (2-8 h) in plasma IL-6 levels, which started to decline at the end of the febrile response. Administration of both pyrogens LPS and IL-6 (45 microg/kg) induced a febrile response with IL-6, causing a rather moderate fever compared with the LPS-induced fever. Nuclear STAT3 translocation in response to LPS was observed within the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and the subfornical organ (SFO) 2 h after LPS treatment. To investigate whether this effect was mediated by IL-6, the cytokine itself was systemically applied and indeed an identical pattern of nuclear STAT3 translocation was observed. However, nuclear STAT3 translocation already occurred 1 h after IL-6 application and proved to be less effective compared with LPS treatment when analyzing OVLT and SFO cell numbers that showed nuclear STAT3 immunoreactivity after the respective pyrogen treatment. Our observations represent the first molecular evidence for an IL-6-induced STAT3-mediated genomic activation of OVLT and SFO cells and support the proposed role of these brain areas as sensory structures for humoral signals created by the activated immune system and resulting in the generation of fever. PMID:12015387

  19. LPS-induced TNF-α factor mediates pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic pattern in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Marco; Gnani, Daniela; De Stefanis, Cristiano; Crudele, Annalisa; Rychlicki, Chiara; Petrini, Stefania; Bruscalupi, Giovannella; Agostinelli, Laura; Stronati, Laura; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Musso, Giovanni; Furlanello, Cesare; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is currently considered one of the major players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and progression. Here, we aim to investigate the possible role of LPS-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in inducing a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic phenotype of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We found that children with NAFLD displayed, in different liver-resident cells, an increased expression of LITAF which correlated with histological traits of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Total and nuclear LITAF expression increased in mouse and human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Moreover, LPS induced LITAF-dependent transcription of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the clonal myofibroblastic HSC LX-2 cell line, and this effect was hampered by LITAF silencing. We showed, for the first time in HSCs, that LITAF recruitment to these cytokine promoters is LPS dependent. However, preventing LITAF nuclear translocation by p38MAPK inhibitor, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced with the aid of p65NF-ĸB, while IL-1β transcription exclusively required LITAF expression/activity. Finally, IL-1β levels in plasma mirrored those in the liver and correlated with LPS levels and LITAF-positive HSCs in children with NASH. In conclusion, a more severe histological profile in paediatric NAFLD is associated with LITAF over-expression in HSCs, which in turn correlates with hepatic and circulating IL-1β levels outlining a panel of potential biomarkers of NASH-related liver damage. The in vitro study highlights the role of LITAF as a key regulator of the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory pattern in HSCs and suggests p38MAPK inhibitors as a possible therapeutic approach against hepatic inflammation in NASH. PMID:26573228

  20. Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, PPAR-alpha dependently inhibits LPS-induced tissue factor expression and activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Van Hoan Tran; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2007-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is involved not only in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, but is also associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis and hence may be an attractive target for directed cancer therapeutics. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is widely used in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, as well as cancers. Gypenoside (Gyp) XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is one of the prominent components in GP. We have recently reported Gyp XLIX to be a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator. Here we demonstrate that Gyp XLIX (0-300 {mu}M) concentration dependently inhibited TF promoter activity after induction by the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with promoter reporter constructs pTF-LUC. Furthermore, Gyp XLIX inhibited LPS-induced TF mRNA and protein overexpression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Its inhibition of LPS-induced TF hyperactivity was further confirmed by chromogenic enzyme activity assay. The activities of Gyp XLIX reported in this study were similar to those of Wy-14643, a potent synthetic PPAR-alpha activator. Furthermore, the Gyp XLIX-induced inhibitory effect on TF luciferase activity was completely abolished in the presence of the PPAR-alpha selective antagonist MK-886. The present findings suggest that Gyp XLIX inhibits LPS-induced TF overexpression and enhancement of its activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells via PPAR-alpha-dependent pathways. The data provide new insights into the basis of the use of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine G. pentaphyllum for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancers.

  1. Lipoxin A4 attenuates LPS-induced mouse acute lung injury via Nrf2-mediated E-cadherin expression in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue; He, Songqing; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Shuo; Gao, Hongyu; Zhang, Jingnong; Li, Yang; Peng, Wei; Wu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental element of acute lung injury (ALI) is the inflammation that is part of the body's immune response to a variety of local or systemic stimuli. Lipoxins (LXs) are important endogenous lipids that mediate resolution of inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that LXA4 reduced the LPS inhalation-induced pulmonary edema, neutrophil infiltration and TNF-α production in mice. With the same model, the current investigation focused on the role of the airway epithelium, a first-line barrier and a prime target of inhaled toxicants. We report that LXA4 strongly inhibited LPS-induced ALI in mice, in part by protecting the airway epithelium and preserving the E-cadherin expression and airway permeability. Using a cryo-imaging assay and fluorescence detection, LXA4 was shown to block LPS-induced ROS generation and preserve mitochondrial redox status both in vivo and in vitro. To further assess whether and how NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was involved in the protective effect of LXA4, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis was employed in human epithelial cell line (16HBE), to determine the relative distance between Nrf2 and its negative regulator or cytosolic inhibitor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). It provided us the evidence that LXA4 further promoted the dissociation of Nrf2 and Keap1 in LPS-treated 16HBE cells. The results also showed that LXA4 activates Nrf2 by phosphorylating it on Ser40 and triggering its nuclear translocation. Moreover, when the plasmid expression dominant negative mutation of Nrf2 was transfected as an inhibitor of wild-type Nrf2, the protective effect of LXA4 on E-cadherin expression was almost completely blocked. These results provide a new mechanism by which LXA4 inhibits LPS-induced ALI through Nrf2-mediated E-cadherin expression. PMID:26845617

  2. LPS-induced TNF-α factor mediates pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic pattern in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Sara; Panera, Nadia; Mina, Marco; Gnani, Daniela; De Stefanis, Cristiano; Crudele, Annalisa; Rychlicki, Chiara; Petrini, Stefania; Bruscalupi, Giovannella; Agostinelli, Laura; Stronati, Laura; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Musso, Giovanni; Furlanello, Cesare; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is currently considered one of the major players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and progression. Here, we aim to investigate the possible role of LPS-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in inducing a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic phenotype of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).We found that children with NAFLD displayed, in different liver-resident cells, an increased expression of LITAF which correlated with histological traits of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Total and nuclear LITAF expression increased in mouse and human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Moreover, LPS induced LITAF-dependent transcription of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the clonal myofibroblastic HSC LX-2 cell line, and this effect was hampered by LITAF silencing. We showed, for the first time in HSCs, that LITAF recruitment to these cytokine promoters is LPS dependent. However, preventing LITAF nuclear translocation by p38MAPK inhibitor, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced with the aid of p65NF-ĸB, while IL-1β transcription exclusively required LITAF expression/activity. Finally, IL-1β levels in plasma mirrored those in the liver and correlated with LPS levels and LITAF-positive HSCs in children with NASH.In conclusion, a more severe histological profile in paediatric NAFLD is associated with LITAF over-expression in HSCs, which in turn correlates with hepatic and circulating IL-1β levels outlining a panel of potential biomarkers of NASH-related liver damage. The in vitro study highlights the role of LITAF as a key regulator of the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory pattern in HSCs and suggests p38MAPK inhibitors as a possible therapeutic approach against hepatic inflammation in NASH. PMID:26573228

  3. Ambroxol inhalation ameliorates LPS-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shui-Juan; Jiang, Juan-Xia; Ren, Qian-Qian; Jia, Yong-Liang; Shen, Jian; Shen, Hui-Juan; Lin, Xi-Xi; Lu, Hong; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2016-03-15

    Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, is shown to exert several pharmacological activities, including secretolytic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Oral and intravenous administration of ambroxol is useful for the airway inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its potential in inhalation therapy for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucous hypersecretion and inflammatory response. In the present study, we compared the pharmacological effects of ambroxol by inhalation with intravenous administration and preliminarily explored its mechanism of action. Our results demonstrated that ambroxol administered by inhalation inhibited MUC5AC expression, reduced glycosaminoglycan levels, enhanced the function of mucociliary clearance and promoted sputum excretion, suggesting that ambroxol increases expectoration of sputum by reducing its viscosity. Moreover, ambroxol significantly alleviated LPS-induced the influx of inflammatory cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) expression in lung tissues, and inhibited increases in the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, CCL-2 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), KC (keratinocyte cell protein) and interleukin (IL)-1β in lung tissues. The secretolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled ambroxol at a dose of 7.5mg/ml was comparable to that of ambroxol at 20mg/ml i.v. and dexamethasone at 0.5mg/kg i.p. In addition, we found that ambroxol dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced increases in the mRNA expression of MUC5AC, TNF-α, and IL-1β in human bronchial epithelial cell (NCI-H292) by inhibiting the Erk signaling pathway. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of ambroxol in inhalation therapy for the airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:26872986

  4. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tatiane; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Brito, Carlos; Stavroullakis, Alexander; Ferreira, Ana Carolina; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Prakki, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26273314

  5. uPA Attenuated LPS-induced Inflammatory Osteoclastogenesis through the Plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yosuke; Ishisaki, Akira; Kawashita, Eri; Kuretake, Hiromi; Ikeda, Kanako; Matsuo, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis-caused bone destruction, results from an increase of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) induced by inflammation. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated that the effect of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a potent stimulator of bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We found that the uPA deficiency promoted inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and bone loss induced by LPS. We also showed that LPS induced the expression of uPA, and the uPA treatment attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 mouse monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Additionally, we showed that the uPA-attenuated inflammatory osteoclastgenesis is associated with the activation of plasmin/protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 axis by uPA. Moreover, we examined the mechanism underlying the effect of uPA on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis, and found that uPA/plasmin/PAR-1 activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway through Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) activation, and attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis by inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that uPA attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis through the plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK axis. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach to bone loss caused by inflammatory diseases. PMID:26722218

  6. CXC195 suppresses proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulating TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yiting; Tu, Qunfei; Yan, Wei; Xiao, Dan; Zeng, Zhimin; Ouyang, Yuming; Huang, Long; Cai, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoli; Chen, Ya-Jie; Liu, Anwen

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. • CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. • CXC195 regulated TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. - Abstract: CXC195 showed strong protective effects in neuronal apoptosis by exerting its antioxidant activity. However, the anti-cancer effects of CXC195 is still with limited acquaintance. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells lines (HepG2) and the possible signaling pathways. CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. In addition, CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, including TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL-22 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Moreover, CXC195 inhibited the expressions and interactions of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1, NF-κB translocation to nucleus and its DNA binding activity, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Our results suggested that treatment with CXC195 could attenuate the TLR4-mediated proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, thus might be beneficial for the treatment of HCC.

  7. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of tricin, a flavonoid isolated from Njavara rice bran in LPS induced hPBMCs and carrageenan induced rats.

    PubMed

    Shalini, V; Jayalekshmi, Ananthasankaran; Helen, A

    2015-08-01

    Njavara is an indigenous medicinal rice variety traditionally used in Ayurvedic system of medicine practiced in Kerala, India. Tricin is a bioflavonoid present in significantly higher levels in rice bran of Njavara. Present study attempted to identify the molecular target of tricin in TLR mediated signaling pathways by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats as experimental models. Tricin acted upstream in the activation of inflammation cascade by interfering with TLR4 activation, preferably by blocking the LPS induced activation of TLR4, MYD88 and TRIF proteins in hPBMCs. Subsequently, tricin significantly blocked the activation of downstream kinases like p38MAPK, JNK1/2 and IRF3. Thus the inhibitory effect of tricin on NF-κB and IRF3 together confirms the specific inhibition of both MYD88 dependent and TRIF dependent pathways. Tricin treatment also inhibited the pro-inflammatory effect of LPS by blocking the TLR4 signaling mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which is confirmed by specific inhibition of COX-2. Results demonstrated that in addition to NF-κB, tricin can prevent the activation of STAT proteins by significantly inhibiting the activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 via the down regulation of upstream phosphorylating enzymes like JAK1 and JAK2. The protective anti-inflammatory effect of tricin was also confirmed by in vivo experiments. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that tricin exerts its anti-inflammatory effect via a mechanism involving the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade. PMID:25839778

  8. Antagonistic effects of acetylshikonin on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in BV2 microglial cells via inhibition of ROS/PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signaling and activation of Nrf2-dependent HO-1.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Gi-Young

    2015-10-01

    Although acetylshikonin (ACS) is known to have antioxidant and antitumor activities, whether ACS regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells remains unclear. In this study, it was found that ACS isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, ACS reduced the LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and subsequently suppressed iNOS and COX-2 expression. Consistent with these data, ACS attenuated the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, ACS enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Zinc protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, partially attenuated the antagonistic effects of ACS on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. By contrast, the presence of cobalt protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inducer, potently suppressed LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. These data indicate that ACS downregulates proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 by suppressing PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB activity induced by ROS as well as inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activity. Taken together, ACS might be a good candidate to regulate LPS-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26091627

  9. Baicalein attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Chen, Libin; Kou, Jinhua; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao

    2015-09-01

    Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid presented in the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It has been reported that baicalein possesses a number of biological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anticancer properties. However, the effect of baicalein on mastitis has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the effect of baicalein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Baicalein was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results indicated that baicalein treatment markedly attenuated the damage of the mammary gland induced by LPS, suppressed the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in mice with LPS-induced mastitis. Besides, baicalein blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and, and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. These findings suggested that baicalein may have a potential prospect against mastitis. PMID:26202808

  10. Sophocarpine displays anti-inflammatory effect via inhibiting TLR4 and TLR4 downstream pathways on LPS-induced mastitis in the mammary gland of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dehai; Xu, Niannian; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Yang, Shijin; Qiu, Changwei; Li, Chengye; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2016-06-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammation of the mammary gland. LPS, which is widely used to induce mastitis models for the study of this disease, triggers similar inflammation as Escherichia coli. Sophocarpine, isolated from Sophora alopecuroides L., exhibits multiple biological properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of action of sophocarpine on mastitis within an LPS-induced mouse model. ELISA and western blotting were performed to detect protein levels. The qPCR was performed to detect mRNA levels. The ELISA and qRT-PCR results showed that sophocarpine inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. However, sophocarpine suppressed TLR4 expression. Further study showed that sophocarpine could suppress the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65 and p38. These results confirm that sophocarpine played an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-induced mastitis by regulating TLR4 and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in mammary gland tissues. Therefore, sophocarpine may be a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of mastitis. PMID:27039209

  11. A Single 9-Colour Flow Cytometric Method to Characterise Major Leukocyte Populations in the Rat: Validation in a Model of LPS-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Sharrock, Anna; Birrell, Mark A.; Rankin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a commonly used model for immunological investigation. Yet basic research and characterisation of leukocyte populations and sub-sets lags far behind murine research, with inconsistency on reported leukocyte markers and their overlap. These shortcomings limit the opportunity for more complex and advanced rat immunology research. In this study, we developed a robust 9-colour flow-cytometric protocol to elucidate the major blood and tissue rat leukocyte populations, and validated it in a model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Blood and tissues (lung, BALF, spleen, liver, bone marrow) from naïve Sprague-Dawley rats were collected and analysed by flow cytometry (FCM). Rats were exposed to aerosolised saline or LPS (1mg/mL), at 3 and 24hrs thereafter blood, lung and BALF were collected and analysed using FCM and ELISA. Neutrophils, two monocyte subsets, NK Cells, B Cells, CD4+, CD8+ T Cells and alveolar macrophages can be identified simultaneously across different tissues using a 9-colour panel. Neutrophils and monocytes can be distinguished based upon differential expression of CD43 and His48. Neutrophils and CD43Lo/His48Hi monocyte-macrophages are elevated in the lung at 3 and 24hrs during LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. This validated method for leukocyte enumeration will offer a platform for greater consistency in future rat immunology and inflammation research. PMID:26764486

  12. Contribution of CFTR to Alveolar Fluid Clearance by Lipoxin A4 via PI3K/Akt Pathway in LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Yang, Li; Qi, Wei; Wu, De-Rong; Zheng, Xia; Liu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Juan; Jin, Sheng-Wei; Smith, Fang Gao

    2013-01-01

    The lipoxins are the first proresolution mediators to be recognized and described as the endogenous “braking signals” for inflammation. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory and proresolution bioactions of lipoxin A4 in our lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)induced lung injury model. We demonstrated that lipoxin A4 significantly improved histology of rat lungs and inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced lung injury. In addition, lipoxin A4 increased alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and the effect of lipoxin A4 on AFC was abolished by CFTRinh-172 (a specific inhibitor of CFTR). Moreover, lipoxin A4 could increase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein expression in vitro and in vivo. In rat primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells, LPS decreased CFTR protein expression via activation of PI3K/Akt, and lipoxin A4 suppressed LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. These results showed that lipoxin A4 enhanced CFTR protein expression and increased AFC via PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, lipoxin A4 may provide a potential therapeutic approach for acute lung injury. PMID:23766562

  13. Anti-inflammatory action of high molecular weight Mytilus edulis hydrolysates fraction in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sang; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2016-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory Mytilus edulis hydrolysates (MEHs) were prepared by peptic hydrolysis and MEH was further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight, namely >5kDa, 1-5kDa, and <1kDa. The >5kDa peptide fraction exerted the highest nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity and inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Pretreatment with the >5kDa peptide fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and gene expressions. Stimulation by LPS induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and -1β (IL-1β), whereas co-treatment with the >5kDa peptide fraction suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The >5kDa peptide fraction inhibited the translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) through the prevention of IκBα (inhibitory factor kappa B alpha) phosphorylation and degradation and also inhibited the MAPK signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. PMID:26920260

  14. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-8. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} is partially mediated by IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-{alpha} and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-{alpha} secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince-rich regimen may help to prevent and improve the treatment of such diseases.

  15. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Suppress LPS-Induced NF-κB Activation by Inducing A20, a Negative Regulator of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2015-09-01

    Zinc contained in solar salt and bamboo salt plays a critical role in various immune responses. Zinc oxide is a source of zinc, and recently it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP) more effectively decrease allergic inflammatory reactions than zinc oxide bulk material. The aim of this work was to investigate the regulatory effect of ZO-NP on interferon (IFN)-γ plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. ZO-NP (0.1-10 μg/mL) did not affect cell viability but toxicity was evident at a ZO-NP concentration of 100 μg/mL. ZO-NP (10 μg/mL) inhibited the IFN-γ plus LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. The productions of inflammatory cytokines, such as, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased by IFN-γ plus LPS but down-regulated by ZO-NP treatment. Furthermore, the up-regulations of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs by IFN-γ plus LPS were reduced by ZO-NP at low (0.1 μg/mL) and high (10 μg/mL) concentrations. ZO-NP (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB by blocking IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. In addition, ZO-NP induced the expression of A20, a zinc finger protein and negative regulator of NF-κB. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ZO-NP offer a potential means of treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:26716206

  16. Recombinant rat CC16 protein inhibits LPS-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-κB pathway in rat tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Min; Wang, Hailong; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Cao, Dawei; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Caiping; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Xinri; Hu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Jianying; Du, Yongcheng

    2015-10-01

    Clara cell protein (CC16) is a well-known anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the epithelial Clara cells of the airways. It is involved in the development of airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Previous studies suggest that CC16 gene transfer suppresses expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in bronchial epithelial cells. However, its role in the function of these cells during inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CC16 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat tracheal epithelial cells and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We generated recombinant rat CC16 protein (rCC16) which was bioactive in inhibiting the activity of phospholipase A2. rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent (0-2 µg/mL) manner, as demonstrated by real time RT-PCR, ELISA, and zymography assays. Gene transcription and DNA binding studies demonstrated that rCC16 suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and its binding of gene promoters as identified by luciferase reporter and gel mobility shift assays, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses further revealed that rCC16 concentration dependently inhibited the effects of LPS on nuclear increase and cytosol reduction of NF-κB, on the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-κB inhibitory IκBα, and on p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB activation by phosphorylation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit. These data indicate that inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-κB activation by rCC16 involves both translocation- and phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. When the tracheal epithelial cells were pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cellular uptake of rCC16 and its inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and also MMP-9 production were significantly abolished. Taken together, our data suggest that clathrin-mediated uptake of rCC16 suppresses LPS-mediated inflammatory MMP-9 production through inactivation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways in tracheal epithelial cells. PMID:25716019

  17. Thonzonium bromide inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro and prevents LPS-induced bone loss in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang; Gao, Jun J; Landao-Bassonga, Euphemie; Pavlos, Nathan J; Qin, An; Steer, James H; Zheng, Ming H; Dong, Yang; Cheng, Tak S

    2016-03-15

    Osteoclasts (OCs) play a pivotal role in a variety of lytic bone diseases including osteoporosis, arthritis, bone tumors, Paget's disease and the aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants. The primary focus for the development of bone-protective therapies in these diseases has centered on the suppression of OC formation and function. In this study we report that thonzonium bromide (TB), a monocationic surface-active agent, inhibited RANKL-induced OC formation, the appearance of OC-specific marker genes and bone-resorbing activity in vitro. Mechanistically, TB blocked the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, ERK and c-Fos as well as the induction of NFATc1 which is essential for OC formation. TB disrupted F-actin ring formation resulting in disturbances in cytoskeletal structure in mature OCs during bone resorption. Furthermore, TB exhibited protective effects in an in vivo murine model of LPS-induced calvarial osteolysis. Collectively, these data suggest that TB might be a useful alternative therapy in preventing or treating osteolytic diseases. PMID:26906912

  18. The protective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) on LPS-induced acute lung injury via TLR3-mediated IFNs, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingcai; Qin, Ying; Mi, Xiuju

    2016-04-01

    The study attempted to clarify the protective role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) of rats. BMSC were obtained from bone marrow of rat, cultured and proliferated in vitro. Rats of ALI were established through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Male rats were allocated to control group, ALI group and BMSC, transplantation group. Rats were sacrificed after BMSC injection after 12h, 24h and 48h. Here we investigated the role of BMSC in LPS-induced alveolar macrophages to further demonstrate the mechanism of BMSC to lung injury. TLR3, a member of Toll-like receptor family, has been found in macrophages and the cell surface. In our study, first BMSC successfully reversed LPS-induced lung injury by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, ameliorated apoptosis via TUNEL and flow cytometer analysis, as well as improved cell structure. And then, western blot, quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis were used to confirm that TLR3 was significantly down-regulated for BMSC treatment. Subsequently, TRIF and RIP1, down-streaming signals of TLR3, were inhibited greatly, leading to TRAF3, MAPK as well as NF-κB inactivity. Our results indicated that BMSC transplantation group displayed inhibitory effects on interferon (IFNs) levels via TLR3 in LPS-induced ALI and preventive effects on inflammation response via TLR3-regualted MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-induced lung injury. The present study indicated that BMSC could display protective effects on LPS-induced ALI and provide an experimental basis for clinical therapy. PMID:27044826

  19. Delphinidin Inhibits LPS-Induced MUC8 and MUC5B Expression Through Toll-like Receptor 4-Mediated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chang Hoon; Jeon, Bo Sung; Choi, Yoon Seok; Song, Si-Youn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Delphinidin is one of the anthocyanidins. It is believed to have anti-inflammatory property including antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of delphinidin in mucin-producing human airway epithelial cells has not been determined. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate the effect and the brief signaling pathway of delphinidin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MUC8 and MUC5B expression in human airway epithelial cells. Methods In mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme immunoassay were used for investigating the expressions of MUC8, MUC5, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), after LPS treatment and delphinidin treatment. And the signaling pathway of delphinidin on LPS-induced MUC8 and MUC5B expression was investigated using the RT-PCR, and immunoblot analysis. To confirm the involvement of TLR4 in LPS-induced MUC8 and MU5B expression, the cells were transfected with TLR4 siRNA. Results In NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells, LPS (100 ng/mL) significantly induced TLR4, MUC8, and MUC5B expression. TLR4 siRNA significantly blocked LPS-induced MUC8 and MUC5B mRNA expression. LPS (100 ng/mL) significantly activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Delphinidin (50 and 100 µM) inhibited LPS-induced TLR4, MUC8, and MUC5B expression and LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. In the primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, delphinidin (50 and 100 µM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TLR4, MUC8, and MUC5B gene expression. Conclusion These results suggest that delphinidin attenuates LPS-induced MUC8 and MUC5B expression through the TLR4-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells. These findings indicated that delphinidin may be a therapeutic agent for control of inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:25177436

  20. Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production via activating amp-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Li; Xu, Ying; Shen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is elevated during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD), which damages vascular endothelial cells to cause systemic vasculitis. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of cordycepin on TNFα expression in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and ex vivo cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of KD patients. We found that cordycepin significantly suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression and production in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)). Meanwhile, cordycepin alleviated TNFα production in KD patients' PBMCs. PBMCs from healthy controls had a much lower level of basal TNF-α content than that of KD patients. LPS-induced TNF-α production in healthy controls' PBMCs was also inhibited by cordycepin. For the mechanism study, we discovered that cordycepin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in both KD patients' PBMCs and LPS-stimulated macrophages, which mediated cordycepin-induced inhibition against TNFα production. AMPK inhibition by its inhibitor (compound C) or by siRNA depletion alleviated cordycepin's effect on TNFα production. Further, we found that cordycepin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulate RAW 264.7 cells or healthy controls' PBMCs. PBMCs of KD patients showed higher basal level of ROS and NF-κB activation, which was also inhibited by cordycepin co-treatment. In conclusion, our data showed that cordycepin inhibited TNFα production, which was associated with AMPK activation as well as ROS and NF-κB inhibition. The results of this study should have significant translational relevance in managing this devastating disease. PMID:25007068

  1. LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6 in mast cells is dependent on p38 but independent of TTP

    PubMed Central

    Hochdörfer, Thomas; Tiedje, Christopher; Stumpo, Deborah J.; Blackshear, Perry J.; Gaestel, Matthias; Huber, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 is regulated by various mRNA-binding proteins, influencing stability and translation of the respective transcripts. Research in macrophages has shown the importance of the p38-MK2-tristetraprolin (TTP) axis for regulation of TNF-α mRNA stability and translation. In the current study we examined a possible involvement of p38 and TTP in LPS-induced cytokine production in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Using pharmacological inhibitors we initially found a strong dependence of LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production on p38 activation, whereas activation of the Erk pathway appeared dispensable. LPS treatment also induced p38-dependent expression of the TTP gene. This prompted us to analyze the proinflammatory cytokine response in BMMCs generated from TTP-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, there were no significant differences in cytokine production between TTP-deficient and WT BMMCs in response to LPS. Gene expression and cytokine production of TNF-α and IL-6 as well as stability of the TNF-α transcript were comparable between TTP-deficient and WT BMMCs. In contrast to TTP mRNA expression, TTP protein expression could not be detected in BMMCs. While we successfully precipitated and detected TTP from lysates of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, this was not accomplished from BMMC lysates. In contrast, we found mRNA and protein expression of the other TIS11 family members connected to regulation of mRNA stability, BRF1 and BRF2, and detected their interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. These data suggest that control of cytokine mRNA stability and translation in MCs is exerted by proteins different from TTP. PMID:23499908

  2. Role of CD14 and TLR4 in type I, type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced normal human skin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongming; Li, Juncong; Wang, Yihe; Hu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD14 and TLR4 in type I, type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced normal human skin fibroblasts. The secondary aim was to provide theoretical basis for the molecular mechanisms of scar formation induced by LPS. Methods: The normal skin fibroblasts cultured in vitro were randomly divided into four groups: 0.1 μg/mL LPS reference group, CD14 pretreatment + LPS, TLR4 pretreatment + LPS, CD14 and TLR4 pretreatment + LPS. The collagen DNA synthesis was assessed by 3H-proline incorporation method. Real-time Quantitative PCR was used to detect type I, type III collagen mRNA expression. Results: Similar results were revealed for mRNA expression levels. The immunofluorescence staining suggested that type I and type III collagen were expressed in all investigated groups and that the expression was differentially downregulated in groups B, C, D. ELISA demonstrated markedly decreased levels in secreting type I, type III collagens and hydroxyproline in groups B, C, D (P<0.05), and the lowest level was detected in group D (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pretreatment with CD14 or TLR4 alone or their combination can significantly reduce the levels of type I and type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion, with the most notable reduction detected in case of CD14 and TLR4 combined. We could thus conclude that both CD14 and TLR4 are involved in type I and type III collagen expression, synthesis and secretion in LPS-induced skin fibroblasts. PMID:25932184

  3. Hericium erinaceus suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammation gene activation in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ock; Lee, Sang-Won; Oh, Chung-Hun; Rhee, Yun-Hee

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of each fraction of Hericium erinaceus (HE). The ethanol extract from HE was partitioned with different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. The treatment with 10-100 μg/mL of each fraction did not reduce RAW 264.7 cell viability except ethyl acetate fraction. Among the various extracts, the chloroform fraction showed the most potent activity against nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that chloroform fraction from HE (CHE) significantly reduced the protein level of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or mRNA levels of iNOS in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages. Furthermore, CHE inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit, phsophorylation of I-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activation of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and NF κB in the nucleus were abrogated by CHE with luciferase assay. In conclusion, these results indicate that CHE may provide an anti-inflammatory effect by attenuating the generation of excessive NO, PGE(2), and ROS and by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes through the inhibition of NF-κB and JNK activity. PMID:22126451

  4. Production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in murine peritoneal macrophages: neocuproine as a broad inhibitor and ATP7A as a selective regulator.

    PubMed

    Patel, Om V; Wilson, William B; Qin, Zhenyu

    2013-06-01

    Copper chelation regulates the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo during vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Little is known about how the copper egress pump ATP7A regulates the production of these mediators. In this study, we isolated ATP7A deficient macrophages (MΦ) from the peritoneal cavity of blotchy mice and identified the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators that were altered by ATP7A deficiency. These results were compared with the effect of neocuproine (a copper chelator) treatment on both ATP7A deficient and control MΦ. Seven of the 24 inflammatory mediators examined in this study had significant changes in expression in the ATP7A deficient MΦ compared to controls; 16 of these mediators were significantly reduced in MΦ treated with neocuproine compared to controls. Both neocuproine treatment and ATP7A deficiency reduced IFN-γ, MCP-1, MCP-3, and VEGF-A levels. Interestingly, the production of KC/GRO was upregulated by ATP7A deficiency but downregulated by neocuproine treatment. Neocuproine, but not ATP7A deficiency, reduced the production of FGF-9, IL-1α, IL-12p70, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, MIP-1β, MIP-2, RANTES, and TNFα. ATP7A deficiency but not neocuproine treatment reduced IP-10 and MCP-5 levels. In addition, both ATP7A deficiency and neocuproine treatment had no effect on GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-11, IL-7, OSM, and SCF. Together, these findings provide evidence that MΦ ATP7A selectively regulates LPS-induced inflammatory mediators, in part, via modulation of cellular copper availability, whereas neocuproine generally inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators. These results also imply that although copper chelation and ATP7A downregulation may result in different copper concentrations, gradients, and/or distribution in the cells, they may not lead to opposite biological effects on inflammatory mediator production. PMID:23604539

  5. Valsartan, independently of AT1 receptor or PPARγ, suppresses LPS-induced macrophage activation and improves insulin resistance in cocultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Misaki; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Fujishiro, Midori; Ohno, Haruya; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Kumamoto, Sonoko; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Takako; Kurihara, Hiroki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Kamata, Hideaki; Nishimura, Fusanori; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2012-02-01

    Macrophages are integrated into adipose tissues and interact with adipocytes in obese subjects, thereby exacerbating adipose insulin resistance. This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the insulin-sensitizing effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan, as demonstrated in clinical studies. Insulin signaling, i.e., insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt phosphorylations, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was impaired markedly by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or in the culture medium of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, and valsartan had no effects on these impairments. However, in contrast, when cocultured with RAW 264.7 cells using a transwell system, the LPS-induced insulin signaling impairment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed almost complete normalization with coaddition of valsartan. Furthermore, valsartan strongly suppressed LPS-induced productions of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and TNFα with nuclear factor-κB activation and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 and primary murine macrophages. Very interestingly, this effect of valsartan was also observed in THP-1 cells treated with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) siRNA or a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) antagonist as well as macrophages from AT1a receptor-knockout mice. We conclude that valsartan suppresses the inflammatory response of macrophages, albeit not via PPARγ or the AT1a receptor. This suppression appears to secondarily improve adipose insulin resistance. PMID:22045314

  6. Dopamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production through the formation of dopamine quinone in murine microglia BV-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuhiro; Sugino, Yuta; Tozawa, Azusa; Yamamuro, Akiko; Kasai, Atsushi; Ishimaru, Yuki; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been suggested to modulate functions of glial cells including microglial cells. To reveal the regulatory role of DA in microglial function, in the present study, we investigated the effect of DA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine microglial cell line BV-2. Pretreatment with DA for 24 h concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production was not inhibited by SCH-23390 and sulpiride, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, pretreatment with (-)-(6aR,12bR)-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-Hexahydro-7-methylindolo[4,3-a]phenanthridin (CY 208-243) and bromocriptine, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor agonists, respectively, did not affect the LPS-induced NO production. N-Acetylcysteine, which inhibits DA oxidation, completely inhibited the effect of DA. Tyrosinase, which catalyzes the oxidation of DA to DA quionone (DAQ), accelerated the inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production. These results suggest that DA attenuates LPS-induced NO production through the formation of DAQ in BV-2 cells. PMID:26908040

  7. Propofol pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production in cultured hepatocytes by suppressing MAPK/ERK activity and NF-{kappa}B translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Jawan, Bruno; Kao, Y.-H.; Goto, Shigeru; Pan, M.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsu, L.-W.; Nakano, Toshiaki; Lai, C.-Y.; Sun, C.-K.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Tai, M.-H.

    2008-06-15

    Propofol (PPF), a widely used intravenous anesthetic for induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgeries, was found to possess suppressive effect on host immunity. This study aimed at investigating whether PPF plays a modulatory role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in a cell line of rat hepatocytes. Morphological observation and viability assay showed that PPF exhibits no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 300 {mu}M after 48 h incubation. Pretreatment with 100 {mu}M PPF for 24 h prior to LPS stimulation was performed to investigate the modulatory effect on LPS-induced inflammatory gene production. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that PPF pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-induced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression. Western blotting analysis showed that PPF pretreatment potentiated the LPS-induced TLR-4 downregulation. Flow cytometrical analysis revealed that PPF pretreatment showed no modulatory effect on the LPS-upregulated CD14 expression on hepatocytes. In addition, PPF pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and I{kappa}B{alpha}, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B primed by LPS. Moreover, addition of PD98059, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and GM-CSF production, suggesting that the PPF-attenuated GM-CSF production in hepatocytes may be attributed to its suppressive effect on MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, PPF as an anesthetic may clinically benefit those patients who are vulnerable to sepsis by alleviating sepsis-related inflammatory response in livers.

  8. Monocyte B7 and Sialyl Lewis X modulates the efficacy of IL-10 down-regulation of LPS-induced monocyte tissue factor in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Warnes, G; Biggerstaff, J P; Francis, J L

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have investigated the use of anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10) to control the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in sepsis by down-regulation of monocyte tissue factor (MTF) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the initial phase of the disease. In vitro and in vivo human studies have shown that a minimal (<1 h) delay in IL-10 treatment significantly reduces the cytokines ability to inhibit LPS-induced MTF expression and the end products of coagulation. In this whole blood in vitro study we investigated the role of lymphocyte and platelet interactions with monocytes to up-regulate MTF expression in the presence of IL-10 in the initial phase of exposure to LPS. Individual blockade of monocyte B7 or platelet P-selectin significantly (35%) reduced MTF expression (P<0.05). IL-10 showed a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS (0.1 microg/ml) induced MTF expression, with 56% inhibition at 1 ng/ml, maximizing at 5 ng/ml IL-10 (75%; P<0.05). Simultaneous exposure to LPS and IL-10 (1 ng/ml) or addition of IL-10 1 h after LPS, with individual B7 and P-selectin blockade significantly enhanced the inhibition of MTF expression by IL-10 (P<0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of IL-10 to control DIC could be enhanced by a simultaneous B7 and P-selectin blockade. PMID:9695978

  9. Lipopolysaccharide pretreatment inhibits LPS-induced human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis via upregulating the expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein

    PubMed Central

    HOU, YU SEN; LIU, LING YING; CHAI, JIA KE; YU, YONG HUI; DUAN, HONG JIE; HU, QUAN; YIN, HUI NAN; WANG, YI HE; ZHUANG, SHU BO; FAN, JUN; CHU, WAN LI; MA, LI

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based regenerative therapy is currently regarded as a novel approach with which to repair damaged tissues. However, the efficiency of MSC transplantation is limited due to the low survival rate of engrafted MSCs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production is increased in numerous diseases and serves an essential function in the regulation of apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Previous studies have indicated that low-dose LPS pretreatment contributes to cytoprotection. In the current study, LPS was demonstrated to induce apoptosis in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) via the activation of caspase, in a dose-dependent manner. Low-dose LPS pretreatment may protect hUCMSCs against apoptosis induced by high-dose LPS, by upregulating the expression of cellular FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The results of the present study indicate that pretreatment with an appropriate concentration of LPS may alleviate high-dose LPS-induced apoptosis. PMID:25955291

  10. miR-15a/16 are upreuglated in the serum of neonatal sepsis patients and inhibit the LPS-induced inflammatory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xuelian; Wang, Xiaoli; Xu, Jiaju; Hou, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Ding, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Infection in neonates, particular the neonatal sepsis continues to be a global problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is complicated by nonspecific clinical symptomatology, a high-false negative rate, and a delay in obtaining blood culture results. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been used as finger prints for sepsis, and have been validated to be potential sepsis biomarker recently. In the present study, we investigated the level of several miRNAs, such as miR-15a, miR-16, miR-15b, and miR-223, which have been identified as a biomarker in adult sepsis, in neonatal sepsis patients, and then we analyzed the association of miR-15a/16 with the patient prognosis. Results demonstrated that the level of miR-15a/16 was up-regulated in neonatal sepsis patients than in normal neonatal subjects; however, no statistical difference was disclosed in the miR-15b and miR-223 level between two groups. And the ROC analysis indicated the miR-15a and miR-16 were potent fingerprints for diagnosing neonate sepsis. In order to explore the miR-15a/16 function on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory pathway, the mice macrophage RAW264.7 cells were transiently transfected with miR-15a/16 mimics. And it was demonstrated that the miR-15a/16 transfection down-regulated the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) transcription level with a statistical difference in the LPS treated cells. And the suppression capability of miR-15a/16 on the expression of TLR-4 and IRAK-1 were evaluated by western blot. Thus, in present study, we identified miR-15a/16 as potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of neonatal sepsis, and the upregulated miR-15a/16 downregulated the LPS-induced inflammatory pathway. PMID:26131152

  11. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ affects LPS-induced disturbance of blood-brain barrier via lipid kinase-independent control of cAMP in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Frister, Adrian; Schmidt, Caroline; Schneble, Nadine; Brodhun, Michael; Gonnert, Falk A; Bauer, Michael; Hirsch, Emilio; Müller, Jörg P; Wetzker, Reinhard; Bauer, Reinhard

    2014-12-01

    The breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key event in the development of sepsis-induced brain damage. BBB opening allows blood-born immune cells to enter the CNS to provoke a neuroinflammatory response. Abnormal expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) was shown to contribute to BBB opening. Using different mouse genotypes in a model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation, our present report reveals phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) as a mediator of BBB deterioration and concomitant generation of MMP by microglia. Unexpectedly, microglia expressing lipid kinase-deficient mutant PI3Kγ exhibited similar MMP regulation as wild-type cells. Our data suggest kinase-independent control of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity by PI3Kγ as a crucial mediator of microglial cell activation, MMP expression and subsequent BBB deterioration. The results identify the suppressive effect of PI3Kγ on cAMP as a critical mediator of immune cell functions. PMID:25033932

  12. Discovery of new MD2 inhibitor from chalcone derivatives with anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yali; Wu, Jianzhang; Ying, Shilong; Chen, Gaozhi; Wu, Beibei; Xu, Tingting; Liu, Zhiguo; Liu, Xing; Huang, Lehao; Shan, Xiaoou; Dai, Yuanrong; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening acute inflammatory disease with limited options available for therapy. Myeloid differentiation protein 2, a co-receptor of TLR4, is absolutely required for TLR4 sense LPS, and represents an attractive target for treating severe inflammatory diseases. In this study, we designed and synthesized 31 chalcone derivatives that contain the moiety of (E)-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one, which we consider the core structure of current MD2 inhibitors. We first evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds in MPMs. For the most active compound 20, we confirmed that it is a specific MD2 inhibitor through a series of biochemical experiments and elucidated that it binds to the hydrophobic pocket of MD2 via hydrogen bonds with Arg90 and Tyr102 residues. Compound 20 also blocked the LPS-induced activation of TLR4/MD2 -downstream pro-inflammatory MAPKs/NF-κB signaling pathways. In a rat model with ALI induced by intracheal LPS instillation, administration with compound 20 exhibited significant protective effect against ALI, accompanied by the inhibition of TLR4/MD2 complex formation in lung tissues. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the specific MD2 inhibitor from chalcone derivatives we identified is a potential candidate for treating acute inflammatory diseases. PMID:27118147

  13. High glucose increases LPS-induced DC apoptosis through modulation of ERK1/2, AKT and Bax/Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigates the effect of glucose on the LPS-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells in the intestinal tract of mice and the dendritic cell line DC2.4. Methods Flow cytometry was used to detect dendritic cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect the morphological changes characteristic of apoptotic nuclei. Expression of apoptosis related proteins was investigated by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results Pretreatment with a high concentration of glucose increased apoptosis of LPS-treated dendritic cells both in vivo and in vitro at 24h. No effect was evident at the earlier time points of 15min and 6h in vitro. Furthermore, at 24hours the expression of the survival proteins AKT, ERK and Bcl-2 was decreased, while the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax was increased. AKT, ERK, Bcl-2 and Bax were mainly located in the cytoplasm by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions These results suggest that high glucose concentrations might prime dendritic cells for apoptosis induced by LPS in the intestinal tract through upregulating the expression of Bax and downregulating the expression of AKT, ERK and Bcl-2. Therefore, this study may give clues to understanding the immunological mechanism behind gastrointestinal complications in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24885625

  14. Discovery of new MD2 inhibitor from chalcone derivatives with anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Wu, Jianzhang; Ying, Shilong; Chen, Gaozhi; Wu, Beibei; Xu, Tingting; Liu, Zhiguo; Liu, Xing; Huang, Lehao; Shan, Xiaoou; Dai, Yuanrong; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening acute inflammatory disease with limited options available for therapy. Myeloid differentiation protein 2, a co-receptor of TLR4, is absolutely required for TLR4 sense LPS, and represents an attractive target for treating severe inflammatory diseases. In this study, we designed and synthesized 31 chalcone derivatives that contain the moiety of (E)-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one, which we consider the core structure of current MD2 inhibitors. We first evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds in MPMs. For the most active compound 20, we confirmed that it is a specific MD2 inhibitor through a series of biochemical experiments and elucidated that it binds to the hydrophobic pocket of MD2 via hydrogen bonds with Arg(90) and Tyr(102) residues. Compound 20 also blocked the LPS-induced activation of TLR4/MD2 -downstream pro-inflammatory MAPKs/NF-κB signaling pathways. In a rat model with ALI induced by intracheal LPS instillation, administration with compound 20 exhibited significant protective effect against ALI, accompanied by the inhibition of TLR4/MD2 complex formation in lung tissues. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the specific MD2 inhibitor from chalcone derivatives we identified is a potential candidate for treating acute inflammatory diseases. PMID:27118147

  15. Chilean Strawberry Consumption Protects against LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Capability in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Molinett, Sebastian; Nuñez, Francisca; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Zúñiga-Hernández, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The Chilean strawberry fruit has high content of antioxidants and polyphenols. Previous studies evidenced antioxidant properties by in vitro methods. However, the antioxidant effect and its impact as functional food on animal health have not been evaluated. In this study, rats were fed with a Chilean strawberry aqueous extract (4 g/kg of animal per day) and then subjected to LPS-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg). Transaminases and histological studies revealed a reduction in liver injury in rats fed with strawberry aqueous extract compared with the control group. Additionally, white strawberry supplementation significantly reduced the serum levels and gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β cytokines compared with nonsupplemented rats. The level of F2-isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG indicated a reduction in liver oxidative stress by the consumption of strawberry aqueous extract. Altogether, the evidence suggests that dietary supplementation of rats with a Chilean white strawberry aqueous extract favours the normalization of oxidative and inflammatory responses after a liver injury induced by LPS. PMID:26457108

  16. Flavonoid Fraction of Bergamot Juice Reduces LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response through SIRT1-Mediated NF-κB Inhibition in THP-1 Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Roberto; Currò, Monica; Cirmi, Santa; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Campiglia, Pietro; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Plant polyphenols exert anti-inflammatory activity through both anti-oxidant effects and modulation of pivotal pro-inflammatory genes. Recently, Citrus bergamia has been studied as a natural source of bioactive molecules with antioxidant activity, but few studies have focused on molecular mechanisms underlying their potential beneficial effects. Several findings have suggested that polyphenols could influence cellular function by acting as activators of SIRT1, a nuclear histone deacetylase, involved in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. On the basis of these observations we studied the anti-inflammatory effects produced by the flavonoid fraction of the bergamot juice (BJe) in a model of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cell line, focusing on SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition. We demonstrated that BJe inhibited both gene expression and secretion of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) by a mechanism involving the inhibition of NF-κB activation. In addition, we showed that BJe treatment reversed the LPS-enhanced acetylation of p65 in THP-1 cells. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of Sirtinol were able to suppress the inhibitory effect of BJe via p65 acetylation, underscoring that NF-κB–mediated inflammatory cytokine production may be directly linked to SIRT1 activity. These results suggest that BJe may be useful for the development of alternative pharmacological strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory process. PMID:25260046

  17. Targeting the annexin 1-formyl peptide receptor 2/ALX pathway affords protection against bacterial LPS-induced pathologic changes in the murine adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Buss, Nicholas A P S; Gavins, Felicity N E; Cover, Patricia O; Terron, Andrea; Buckingham, Julia C

    2015-07-01

    Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality in a high proportion of patients with sepsis. Here, we provide new insights into the underlying adrenal pathology. Using a murine model of endotoxemia (LPS injection), we demonstrate that adrenal insufficiency is triggered early in the disease. LPS induced a local inflammatory response in the adrenal gland within 4 hours of administration, coupled with increased expression of mRNAs for annexin A1 (AnxA1) and the formyl peptide receptors [(Fprs) 1, 2, and 3], a loss of lipid droplets in cortical cells (index of availability of cholesterol, the substrate for steroidogenesis), and a failure to mount a steroidogenic response to ACTH. Deletion of AnxA1 or Fpr2/3 in mice prevented lipid droplet loss, but not leukocyte infiltration. LPS increased adrenal myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and TLR2 mRNA expression, but not lymphocyte antigen 96 or TLR4. By contrast, neutrophil depletion prevented leukocyte infiltration and increased AnxA1, Fpr1, and Fpr3 mRNAs but had no impact on lipid droplet loss. Our novel data demonstrate that AnxA1 and Fpr2 have a critical role in the manifestation of adrenal insufficiency in this model, through regulation of cholesterol ester storage, suggesting that pharmacologic interventions targeting the AnxA1/FPR/ALX pathway may provide a new approach for the maintenance of adrenal steroidogenesis in sepsis. PMID:25818588

  18. Modulation of LPS-Induced CD4+ T-Cell Activation and Apoptosis by Antioxidants in Untreated Asymptomatic HIV Infected Participants: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, S.; Marnewick, J. L.; Abayomi, A.; Ipp, H.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent immune activation characterises HIV infection and is associated with depletion of CD4+ T-cells and increased risk of disease progression. Early loss of gut mucosal integrity results in the translocation of microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the systemic circulation. This is an important source of on-going immune stimulation. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of CD4+ T-cell activation (%CD25 expression) and apoptosis (% annexin V/7-AAD) in asymptomatic, untreated HIV infection at baseline and after stimulation with LPS and incubation with or without vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine. LPS induced a significant (P < 0.03) increase in %CD25 expression, annexin V, and 7-AAD in HIV positive individuals. NAC in combination with vitamin C, significantly (P = 0.0018) reduced activation and early apoptosis of CD4+ T-cells to a greater degree than with either antioxidant alone. Certain combinations of antioxidants could be important in reducing the harmful effects of chronic immune activation and thereby limit CD4+ T-cell depletion. Importantly, we showed that CD4+ T-cells of the HIV positive group responded better to a combination of the antioxidants at this stage than those of the controls. Therefore, appropriate intervention at this asymptomatic stage could rescue the cells before repetitive activation results in the death of CD4+ T-cells. PMID:24348678

  19. Chebulagic acid (CA) attenuates LPS-induced inflammation by suppressing NF-{kappa}B and MAPK activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, D. Bharat; Reddanna, Pallu

    2009-03-27

    Chebulagic acid (CA), a natural anti-oxidant, showed potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7, a mouse macrophage cell line. These effects were exerted via inhibition of NO and PGE{sub 2} production and down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX, TNF-{alpha} and IL-6. CA inhibited NF-{kappa}B activation by LPS, and this was associated with the abrogation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation and subsequent decreases in nuclear p50 and p65 protein levels. Further, the phosphorylation of p38, ERK 1/2 and JNK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was suppressed by CA in a concentration-dependent manner. LPS-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also effectively inhibited by CA. These results suggest that CA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and MAP kinase phosphorylation.

  20. Protective Role of Flavonoids and Lipophilic Compounds from Jatropha platyphylla on the Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in Macrophage Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambriz-Pérez, Dulce L; Bang, Woo Young; Nair, Vimal; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel A; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Heredia, J Basilio

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen polyphenols (e.g, apigenin, genistein, and luteolin glycosides) and 11 lipophilic compounds (e.g., fatty acids, sterols, and terpenes) were detected by LC-MS/MS-ESI and GC-MS, respectively, in Jatropha platyphylla. Extracts from pulp, kernel, and leaves and fractions were studied to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. Phenolic and lipophilic extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ROS and NO production while not affecting mitochondrial activity or superoxide generation rate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, NO production was also diminished by lipophilic leaf fractions F1 and F2 with the latter fraction showing a greater effect and composed mainly of sterols and terpene. Furthermore, total extracts showed nonselective inhibitions against cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 activities. All together, these results suggest that J. platyphylla extracts have potential in treating inflammatory diseases and their activity is mediated by flavonoids and lipophilic compounds. PMID:26872073

  1. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  2. INVOLVEMENT OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 AND MAPK PATHWAYS IN LPS-INDUCED CD40 EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD40 is a co-stimulatory surface molecule actively expressed on mature dendritic cells (DC). Recent studies suggest that endotoxin (LPS) inhalation induces DC maturation in the airways of healthy volunteers. To characterize the effect of LPS on CD40 expression and underlying mech...

  3. Proteomic analysis of the LPS-induced stress response in rat chondrocytes reveals induction of innate immune response components in articular cartilage.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Haglund L; Bernier SM; Onnerfjord P; Recklies AD

    2008-03-01

    Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR) in articular chondrocytes has been reported to increase the catabolic compartment, leading to matrix degradation, while the main consequence of TLR activation in monocytic cells is the expression and secretion of components of the innate immune response, particularly that of inflammatory cytokines. The objective of the work reported here was to obtain a more complete picture of the response repertoire of articular chondrocytes to TLR activation. Mass spectrometry was used to analyse the secretome of stimulated and unstimulated cells. Characterization of TLR expression in rat articular chondrocytes by RT/PCR indicated that TLR4 was the major receptor form. Exposure of these cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the well-characterized TLR4 ligand, induced production not only of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP3 and 13, but also of components traditionally associated with the innate immune response, such as the complement components C1r, C3 and complement factor B, long pentraxin-3 and osteoglycin. Neither TNF-alpha nor IL-1 was detectable in culture media following exposure to LPS. One of the most prominently-induced proteins was the chitinase-like protein, Chi3L1, linking its expression to the innate immune response repertoire of articular chondrocytes. In intact femoral heads, LPS induced expression of Chi3L1 in chondrocytes close to the articular surface, suggesting that only these cells mount a stress response to LPS. Thus articular chondrocytes have a capacity to respond to TLR activation, which results in the expression of matrix metalloproteases as well as subsets of components of the innate immune response without significant increases in the production of inflammatory cytokines. This could influence the erosive processes leading to cartilage degeneration as well as the repair of damaged matrix.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the LPS-induced stress response in rat chondrocytes reveals induction of innate immune response components in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Lisbet; Bernier, Suzanne M; Onnerfjord, Patrik; Recklies, Anneliese D

    2008-03-01

    Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR) in articular chondrocytes has been reported to increase the catabolic compartment, leading to matrix degradation, while the main consequence of TLR activation in monocytic cells is the expression and secretion of components of the innate immune response, particularly that of inflammatory cytokines. The objective of the work reported here was to obtain a more complete picture of the response repertoire of articular chondrocytes to TLR activation. Mass spectrometry was used to analyse the secretome of stimulated and unstimulated cells. Characterization of TLR expression in rat articular chondrocytes by RT/PCR indicated that TLR4 was the major receptor form. Exposure of these cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the well-characterized TLR4 ligand, induced production not only of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP3 and 13, but also of components traditionally associated with the innate immune response, such as the complement components C1r, C3 and complement factor B, long pentraxin-3 and osteoglycin. Neither TNF-alpha nor IL-1 was detectable in culture media following exposure to LPS. One of the most prominently-induced proteins was the chitinase-like protein, Chi3L1, linking its expression to the innate immune response repertoire of articular chondrocytes. In intact femoral heads, LPS induced expression of Chi3L1 in chondrocytes close to the articular surface, suggesting that only these cells mount a stress response to LPS. Thus articular chondrocytes have a capacity to respond to TLR activation, which results in the expression of matrix metalloproteases as well as subsets of components of the innate immune response without significant increases in the production of inflammatory cytokines. This could influence the erosive processes leading to cartilage degeneration as well as the repair of damaged matrix. PMID:18023983

  5. Dexamethasone Attenuates LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury through Inhibition of NF-κB, COX-2, and Pro-inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Korashy, Hesham M; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Attia, Sabry M; Shabanah, Othman A; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2016-05-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is a synthetic glucocorticoid with potent anti-inflammatory effects that is widely used to treat inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of DEX on the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a mouse model. Animals were pretreated with DEX (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) for seven days and acute lung injury was induced by intranasal (i.n.) administration of LPS on day 7. In the present study, administration of LPS resulted in significant increase in neutrophils and lymphocytes count whereas a substantial reduction in T cell subsets (CD3(+) and CD4(+)) and pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α) cytokines occurred, which were reversed by DEX treatment. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increased mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB p65 and decreased IL-10 in the LPS group, which were reversed by treatment with DEX in lung tissues. Western blot analysis revealed an increased expression of COX-2, iNOS and NF-κB p65 in the LPS-group, which was reduced by treatment with DEX. Compared with the LPS group, the DEX treatment also demonstrated a considerable increase in the protein expression level of IL-10 cytokine. Administration of LPS resulted in marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity whereas noticeable decrease in glutathione (GSH) content. These changes were significantly reversed by treatment with DEX. The histological examinations revealed protective effect of DEX while LPS group aggravated lung injury. The present findings demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory action of the DEX against acute lung injury induced by LPS. PMID:27104958

  6. GYF-17, a chloride substituted 2-(2-phenethyl)-chromone, suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory mediator production in RAW264.7 cells by inhibiting STAT1/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhixiang; Gu, Yufan; Zhao, Yunfang; Song, Yuelin; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    GYF-17, a 2-(2-phenethyl)-chromone derivative, was isolated from agarwood and showed superior activity of inhibiting NO production of RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in our preliminary pharmacodynamic screening. In order to develop novel therapeutic drug for acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism of GYF-17 were investigated in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that GYF-17 could reduce LPS-induced expression of iNOS and then result in the decrement of NO production. More meaningful, the expression and secretion of key pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, were intensively inhibited by GYF-17. Furthermore, GYF-17 also down regulated the expression of COX2 and the production of PGE2 which plays important role in causing algesthesia during inflammatory response. In mechanism study, GYF-17 selectively suppressed phosphorylation of STAT1/3 and ERK1/2 during the activation of NF-κB, MAPK and STAT signaling pathways induced by LPS. Collectively, GYF-17 can intensively suppress the production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells by inhibiting STAT1/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and thereby shows great potential to be developed into therapeutic drug for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27064545

  7. Changes of expression of the protein C pathway components in LPS-induced endotoxemia--implication for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The process of blood coagulation is mediated by activation of a series of serine-protease zymogens. The protein C (PC) anticoagulant pathway, one of the important pathways related to physiological thrombosis formation, includes PC, thrombomodulin (TM), endothelial PC receptor (EPCR), protein S (PS) and C4b-binding protein (C4BP). TM, mainly present in endothelial cells, is a cofactor for thrombin-catalyzed activation of PC, and the resulting activated PC (aPC) inactivates the blood coagulation cofactors factor Va and factor VIIIa in the presence of PS. PS, mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant aPC in the regulation of blood coagulation. The cofactor activity of PS for aPC is regulated by C4BP, a multimeric protein whose structure consists of seven α-chains (C4BPα) and a β-chain (C4BPβ). Sepsis is generally caused by infection by microorganisms, and patients with sepsis undergo drastic hemostatic changes, thought to be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory cytokines. In this review, based primarily on our previous studies, we describe the LPS- and cytokine-induced changes in various proteins in the PC anticoagulant pathway that are related to the increased risk of thrombosis under sepsis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of recombinant soluble TM (rsTM) as a possible remedy for sepsis. PMID:25567340

  8. Suppression of LPS-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris through inhibition of the NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway and regulation of EMT-related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Hye; Jang, Eun Hyang; Hong, Darong; Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal event in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Prunella vulgaris (PV) inhibits the proliferation of various cancer cells; however, its possible role in EMT has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we explored the effect of PV aqueous extract (PVAE), a typical medicine for decoction, on EMT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced EMT-like phenotype changes in cancer cell lines that enhanced cell migration and invasion. PVAE markedly inhibited these effects and produced accompanying changes in the expression of EMT markers, including decreased expression of N-cadherin and vimentin, and increased expression of β-catenin. We found that PVAE effects on LPS-induced EMT were mediated by inhibition of the NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway. Our findings provide new evidence that PVAE suppresses cancer invasion and migration by inhibiting EMT. Therefore, we suggest that PVAE is an effective dietary chemopreventive agent with antimetastatic activity against malignant tumors. PMID:26324883

  9. [Effect of paeoniflorin on oxidative stress and energy metabolism in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Qiu, Xiang-jun; He, Su-na; Yang, Hui; Wang, Deng; Yang, Xue-mei

    2015-07-01

    Paeoniflorin is the main active ingredient of Chinese herbaceous peony. This study is to investigate the protective effect of paeoniflorin (Pae) on acute brain damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. The mice were randomly assigned to the normal control, model control (LPS), as well as groups of paeoniflorin and lipopolysaccharide (Pae + LPS). Then the mice were administered intraperitioneally with normal saline or Pae (10, 30 mg · kg(-1)) once daily for 6 d. One hour after intrapertioneally treatment on the seventh day, each group were injected LPS (5 mg · kg(-1)) to establish the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide inflammation model except the normal group. The mice were sacrificed after 6 h and the brain homogenates were prepared and measured. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), succinatedehydrogenase (SDH), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase were dectected by the colorimetric method. The levels of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein in subcellular fractions of brain tissue were detected by Western blot. The results demonstrated that the administration with paeoniflorin reduced the levels of the MDA production; significantly increase the activities of antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-PX). In addition, paeoniflorin could enhance the total antioxidant capacity, decrease the level of H2O2, and increase the activities of SDH, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase. Furthermore, paeoniflorin can increase the expression of HO-1 and activate the nuclear transfer of Nrf2. Taking together, these findings suggest that paeoniflorin alleviate the acute inflammation in mice brain damage induced by LPS, which is related with its antioxidant effect and improvement of energy metabolism. PMID:26666042

  10. Potent irreversible P2Y12 inhibition does not reduce LPS-induced coagulation activation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Hobl, Eva-Luise; Ay, Cihan; Key, Nigel S; Derhaschnig, Ulla; Jilma, Bernd; Spiel, Alexander O

    2016-03-01

    Platelets play an important role in the activation of coagulation. P2Y12 receptor inhibition may be beneficial in inflammatory states. Prasugrel, a potent irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12 receptor-induced platelet activation may reduce activation of coagulation in a human LPS (lipopolysaccharide) model. A double-blind, randomized, crossover trial with a minimum washout period of 6 weeks was performed. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received prasugrel or placebo 2 h before infusion of a bolus of LPS (2 ng/kg of body weight), whereas four subjects were assigned to a control group receiving prasugrel or placebo without LPS. hcDNA (histone-complexed DNA), coagulation and platelet-specific parameters were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Leucocyte aggregate formation was analysed by flow cytometry, and thromboelastometry was performed. LPS infusion markedly activated coagulation. However, prasugrel did not reduce changes in prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complexes, microparticle-associated tissue factor, CD40 ligand, P-selectin, platelet-leucocyte aggregation, hcDNA levels or the coagulation profile measured by thromboelastometry. hcDNA plasma levels increased approximately 6-fold after LPS infusion in both treatment groups, but not in the control groups. Potent irreversible P2Y12 inhibition by prasugrel does not affect LPS-induced coagulation activation. The 6-fold increased hcDNA plasma levels after infusion of LPS indicates the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps during sterile inflammation. PMID:26554025

  11. Microglia-Derived Cytokines/Chemokines Are Involved in the Enhancement of LPS-Induced Loss of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in DJ-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Lee, Ming-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of DJ-1 (PARK7) has been linked to the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge between DJ-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our results found that the basal levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (the hub cytokine) and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (a downstream mediator) were elevated in the substantia nigra of DJ-1 KO mice and in microglia cells with DJ-1 deficiency, and the release of cytokine/chemokine was greatly enhanced following LPS administration in the DJ-1 deficient conditions. In addition, direct intranigral LPS challenge caused a greater loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content in DJ-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, the sensitization of microglia cells to LPS challenge to release IFN-γ and I-TAC was via the enhancement of NF-κB signaling, which was antagonized by NF-κB inhibitors. LPS-induced increase in neuronal death in the neuron-glia co-culture was enhanced by DJ-1 deficiency in microglia, which was antagonized by the neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ or I-TAC. These results indicate that DJ-1 deficiency sensitizes microglia cells to release IFN-γ and I-TAC and causes inflammatory damage to dopaminergic neurons. The interaction between the genetic defect (i.e. DJ-1) and inflammatory factors (e.g. LPS) may contribute to the development of PD. PMID:26982707

  12. Pre-treatment of C57BL6/J mice with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A prevents LPS-induced sickness behaviors and elevations in dorsal hippocampus interleukin-1β, independent of interleukin-4 expression.

    PubMed

    Eimerbrink, M J; Kranjac, D; St Laurent, C; White, J D; Weintraub, M K; Pendry, R J; Madigan, R; Hodges, S L; Sadler, L N; Chumley, M J; Boehm, G W

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elevates production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and motivates the expression of sickness behaviors. In this study, we tested the ability of an LPS-derived adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), to prevent LPS-induced sickness behaviors in a burrowing paradigm. Testing occurred over a three-day period. Animals received a single injection of either MPLA or saline the first two days of testing. On day three, animals received either LPS or saline. Tissue from the dorsal hippocampus was collected for qRT-PCR to assess expression of IL-1β and IL-4. Results indicate that, during the pre-treatment phase, administration of MPLA induces an immune response sufficient to trigger sickness behaviors. However, we observed that animals pre-treated with MPLA for two days were resistant to LPS-induced sickness behaviors on day three. Results from the qRT-PCR analysis indicated that LPS-treated animals pre-treated with MPLA expressed significantly less IL-1β compared to LPS-treated animals pre-treated with saline. However, we did not observe a significant difference in IL-4 expression between groups. Therefore, results indicate that under the given parameters of the study, MPLA pre-treatment protects against LPS-induced sickness behaviors, at least in part, by decreasing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. PMID:26778788

  13. Co-operation of TLR4 and raft proteins in LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    P?ciennikowska, Agnieszka; Hromada-Judycka, Aneta; Borz?cka, Kinga; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacteria to induce production of pro-inflammatory mediators aiming at eradication of the bacteria. Dysregulation of the host responses to LPS can lead to a systemic inflammatory condition named sepsis. In a typical scenario, activation of TLR4 is preceded by binding of LPS to CD14 protein anchored in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane called rafts. CD14 then transfers the LPS to the TLR4/MD-2 complex which dimerizes and triggers MyD88- and TRIF-dependent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. The TRIF-dependent signaling is linked with endocytosis of the activated TLR4, which is controlled by CD14. In addition to CD14, other raft proteins like Lyn tyrosine kinase of the Src family, acid sphingomyelinase, CD44, Hsp70, and CD36 participate in the TLR4 signaling triggered by LPS and non-microbial endogenous ligands. In this review, we summarize the current state of the knowledge on the involvement of rafts in TLR4 signaling, with an emphasis on how the raft proteins regulate the TLR4 signaling pathways. CD14-bearing rafts, and possibly CD36-rich rafts, are believed to be preferred sites of the assembly of a multimolecular complex which mediates the endocytosis of activated TLR4. PMID:25332099

  14. p120 Modulates LPS-Induced NF-κB Activation Partially through RhoA in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shenghui; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Liwei; Wu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    p120-Catenin (p120) is an adherens junction protein recognized to regulate cell-cell adhesion. Emerging evidence indicates that p120 may also play an important role in inflammatory responses, and the regulatory mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, we showed that p120 was associated with airway inflammation. p120 downregulation induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, accompanied with IκBα degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- treated C57BL mice and human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Moreover, we first found that p120 directly coprecipitated with RhoA in BECs. After LPS stimulation, although total RhoA and p120-bound RhoA were unchanged, RhoA activity was increased. Y27632, a ROCK inhibitor, could partially inhibit nuclear translocation of p65. Overexpression of p120 inactivated RhoA and NF-κB in BECs, whereas p120 loss significantly increased RhoA activity, p65 nuclear translocation, and IL-8 expression. Taken together, our study supports the regulatory role of p120 in airway inflammation and reveals that p120 may modulate NF-κB signaling partially through RhoA. PMID:24995336

  15. Intracellular NAD+ levels are associated with LPS-induced TNF-α release in pro-inflammatory macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shabany, Abbas Jawad; Moody, Alan John; Foey, Andrew David; Billington, Richard Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism and immune responses have been shown to be closely linked and as our understanding increases, so do the intricacies of the level of linkage. NAD+ has previously been shown to regulate tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis and TNF-α has been shown to regulate NAD+ homoeostasis providing a link between a pro-inflammatory response and redox status. In the present study, we have used THP-1 differentiation into pro- (M1-like) and anti- (M2-like) inflammatory macrophage subset models to investigate this link further. Pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages showed different resting NAD+ levels and expression levels of NAD+ homoeostasis enzymes. Challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory stimulus for macrophages, caused a large, biphasic and transient increase in NAD+ levels in pro- but not anti-inflammatory macrophages that were correlated with TNF-α release and inhibition of certain NAD+ synthesis pathways blocked TNF-α release. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation also caused changes in mRNA levels of some NAD+ homoeostasis enzymes in M1-like cells. Surprisingly, despite M2-like cells not releasing TNF-α or changing NAD+ levels in response to lipopolysaccharide, they showed similar mRNA changes compared with M1-like cells. These data further strengthen the link between pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and NAD+. The agonist-induced rise in NAD+ shows striking parallels to well-known second messengers and raises the possibility that NAD+ is acting in a similar manner in this model. PMID:26764408

  16. Intracellular NAD+ levels are associated with LPS-induced TNF-α release in pro-inflammatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Al-Shabany, Abbas Jawad; Moody, Alan John; Foey, Andrew David; Billington, Richard Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism and immune responses have been shown to be closely linked and as our understanding increases, so do the intricacies of the level of linkage. NAD(+) has previously been shown to regulate tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis and TNF-α has been shown to regulate NAD(+) homoeostasis providing a link between a pro-inflammatory response and redox status. In the present study, we have used THP-1 differentiation into pro- (M1-like) and anti- (M2-like) inflammatory macrophage subset models to investigate this link further. Pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages showed different resting NAD(+) levels and expression levels of NAD(+) homoeostasis enzymes. Challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory stimulus for macrophages, caused a large, biphasic and transient increase in NAD(+) levels in pro- but not anti-inflammatory macrophages that were correlated with TNF-α release and inhibition of certain NAD(+) synthesis pathways blocked TNF-α release. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation also caused changes in mRNA levels of some NAD(+) homoeostasis enzymes in M1-like cells. Surprisingly, despite M2-like cells not releasing TNF-α or changing NAD(+) levels in response to lipopolysaccharide, they showed similar mRNA changes compared with M1-like cells. These data further strengthen the link between pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and NAD(+). The agonist-induced rise in NAD(+) shows striking parallels to well-known second messengers and raises the possibility that NAD(+) is acting in a similar manner in this model. PMID:26764408

  17. Study of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) Activity in LPS-Induced Tolerance Using Fluorescence-Based and Immunoprecipitation-Aided Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Pappy II, Adlai L.; Pham, Tiffany T.; Shanley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant intracellular serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatases accounting for 1% of the total cellular protein content. PP2A is comprised of a heterodimeric core enzyme and a substrate-specific regulatory subunit. Potentially, at least seventy different compositions of PP2A exist because of variable regulatory subunit binding that accounts for various activity modulating numerous cell functions. Due to the constitutive phosphatase activity present inside cells, a sensitive assay is required to detect the changes of PP2A activity under various experimental conditions. We optimized a fluorescence assay (DIFMU assay) by combining it with prior anti-PP2A immunoprecipitation to quantify PP2A-specific phosphatase activity. It is also known that prior exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces “immune tolerance” of the cells to subsequent stimulation. Herein we report that PP2A activity is upregulated in tolerized peritoneal macrophages, corresponding to decreased TNF-α secretion upon second LPS stimulation. We further examined the role of PP2A in the tolerance effect by using PP2ACαlox/lox;lyM-Cre conditional knockout macrophages. We found that PP2A phosphatase activity cannot be further increased by tolerance. TNF-α secretion from tolerized PP2ACαlox/lox;lyM-Cre macrophages is higher than tolerized control macrophages. Furthermore, we showed that the increased TNF-α secretion may be due to an epigenetic transcriptionally active signature on the promoter of TNF-α gene rather than regulation of the NFκB/IκB signaling pathway. These results suggest a role for increased PP2A activity in the regulation of immune tolerance. PMID:26131975

  18. Mouse CD84 is a pan-leukocyte cell-surface molecule that modulates LPS-induced cytokine secretion by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sintes, Jordi; Romero, Xavier; de Salort, Jose; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2010-10-01

    CD84 is 1 of the 9 SLAM family cell-surface receptors involved in leukocyte activation. The CD84 ectodomain is highly glycosylated, and its cytoplasmic tail contains 2 copies of an ITSM, which can be phosphorylated. Here, we report that although mouse CD84 was present on all BM HSCs, its expression declined in developing thymic and BM lymphocytes. However, CD84 expression levels did increase significantly during the later maturation stages and were expressed abundantly on mature B and T cells. Among lymphocyte subsets, the highest expression was found on innate-like lymphocytes; specifically, on NKT and marginal zone B cells. Splenic CD4+ T(FH) cells exhibited higher levels of CD84 compared with the other CD4+ T cell subsets. CD84 was expressed abundantly on monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and DCs. Moreover, as the function of CD84 in myeloid cells remains unknown, we focused on the role this receptor plays in mouse macrophage activation. Transfection of CD84 in RAW-264.7 macrophages led to an increase in MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation upon LPS stimulation. Concomitantly, the presence of CD84 increased the LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and MCP-1 but lowered IL-10 and IL-6 production significantly. This modulatory effect was mediated by Y(300) within the second ITSM of CD84. Additionally, CD84 knock-down decreased TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-activated BMDMs. Taken together, these results show that mouse CD84 is a pan-leukocyte receptor, able to modulate signaling pathways downstream of TLR4, and regulates macrophage cell-fate decisions and effector functions. PMID:20628063

  19. LPS-induced NF-{kappa}B expression in THP-1Blue cells correlates with neopterin production and activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Jenny, Marcel; Division of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck ; Kurz, Katharina; Klein, Angela; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Uberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} LPS induces NF-{kappa}B, neopterin formation and tryptophan degradation in THP-1 cells. {yields} Close dose- and time-dependent correlations exist between these biochemical events. {yields} Data provides some evidence for a parallel induction of them upon TLR stimulation. {yields} Results can be of considerable relevance also in vivo. -- Abstract: Neopterin production is induced in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with Th1-type cytokine interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}). In parallel, IFN-{gamma} induces the tryptophan-(trp)-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Translocation of the signal transduction element nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is induced by ROS and accelerates the pro-inflammatory response by activation of other pro-inflammatory pathways. Therefore, a close relationship between NF-{kappa}B expression, the production of neopterin and the degradation of trp can be assumed, although this has not been demonstrated so far. In the present in vitro study we compared the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on NF-{kappa}B activation, neopterin formation and the degradation of trp in THP-1Blue cells, which represent the human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1 stably transfected with an NF-{kappa}B inducible reporter system. In cells stimulated with LPS, a significant induction of NF-{kappa}B was observed, and this was paralleled by an increase of kynureunine (kyn) and neopterin concentrations and a decline of trp. The increase of the kyn to trp quotient indicates accelerated IDO activity. Higher LPS concentrations and longer incubation of cells were associated with higher activities of all three biochemical pathways and significant correlations existed between NF-{kappa}B activation, neopterin release and trp degradation (all p < 0.001). We conclude that there is a parallel induction of NF-{kappa}B, neopterin formation and trp degradation in monocytic THP-1 cells, which is elicited by pro-inflammatory triggers like LPS during innate immune responses.

  20. Overexpression of S100A7 Protects LPS-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Stimulates IL-6 and IL-8 in HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyan; Zheng, Yan; Lu, Zhuoyang; Cui, Yang; Tian, Qiong; Xiao, Shengxiang; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jiankang

    2014-01-01

    Background S100A7 (or psoriasin) is distributed in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes of normal human epidermis, and it is overexpressed in many epidermal inflammatory diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces mitochondrial function changes, which play important roles in multiple cellular mechanisms including inflammation. Although S100A7 expression is regulated by various factors in the human epidermis during inflammation, whether S100A7 interacts with mitochondria in keratinocytes is not clear. Objectives Our study was designed to investigate whether S100A7 could prohibit mitochondrial dysfunction and stimulate cytokines in cultured normal HaCaT cells treated with LPS. Results We generated HaCaT cells that constitutively express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-S100A7 (S100A7-EGFP) or EGFP alone, as a control. Here, we show that S100A7-EGFP HaCaT cells exhibit an increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). qRT-PCR revealed that expression of three main mitochondrial biogenesis-associated genes was significantly increased: PPAR-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1). S100A7 overexpression increased mtDNA content and effectively increased intracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) production, while decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. S100A7 overexpression also significantly decreased the expression of Mfn2 and increased DRP1 expression compared with control EGFP cells. S100A7 down-regulated the expression of the autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1 and LC3B. S100A7 also increased expression of IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines. Knockdown of S100A7 decreased MMP and disrupted mitochondrial homeostasis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that S100A7 stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and increases mitochondrial function in HaCaT cells treated with LPS; and S100A7 also promotes secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. PMID:24671027

  1. Pseudoguaianolides isolated from Inula britannica var. chinenis as inhibitory constituents against inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Tai; Yang, Seung-Won; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Mar, Woongchon

    2002-04-01

    Three pseudoguaianolide type sesquiterpenes, bigelovin (1), 2,3-dihydroaromaticin (2), and ergolide (3) were isolated as inhibitory constituents against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from the flowers of Inula britannica var. chinensis. Bigelovin (1) exhibited a highly potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.46 mM, which is about 8 times more potent than the known selective inhibitor of iNOS, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (IC50 3.49 microM). 2,3-Dihydroaromaticin (2) and ergolide (3) also exhibited potent inhibitory activities on LPS-induced iNOS with IC50 values of 1.05 and 0.69 microM, respectively. PMID:12009027

  2. Synthesis and effects of new caffeic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Liu-Xin; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Bo-Wei; Wang, Rui; Fu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 20 new derivatives of caffeic acid esters were synthesized and their inhibitory activities against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages were determined. Compounds 3l, 3r, 3s and 3t were found to decrease nitrite levels in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-induced cells and showed potent inhibitory activities against the NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 7.4, 5.9, 3.3 and 2.2 μM, respectively. They could be selected as compromising compounds for the later pharmacological study. PMID:24955176

  3. Ethanol extract of Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai suppresses in vitro LPS-induced cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo acute inflammatory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunyao

    2014-01-01

    Synurus deltoides (Aiton) Nakai, belonging to the Compositae family, is an edible plant widely distributed in Northeast Asia. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulative effects of the ethanol extract of S. deltoides (SDE). The SDE extract strongly down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, thereby inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and TNF-α in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, SDE also suppressed the nuclear translocation of the activation protein (AP)-1 and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and simultaneously decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), p38, and Akt. In agreement with the in vitro observations, the orally administered SDE ameliorated the acute inflammatory symptoms in the arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and the EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Therefore, S. deltoides have a potential anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential therapeutic use in the inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:24611100

  4. The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-γ- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jin; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Jeong, Seung-Il; Lee, Seongoo; Kim, Kyun Ha; Joo, Myungsoo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Kim, Jai-Eun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

  5. The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-γ- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HEE-JIN; CHOI, HEE-JUNG; PARK, MI-JU; LEE, JI-YEON; JEONG, SEUNG-IL; LEE, SEONGOO; KIM, KYUN HA; JOO, MYUNGSOO; JEONG, HAN-SOL; KIM, JAI-EUN; HA, KI-TAE

    2015-01-01

    Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

  6. Oryeongsan inhibits LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators via blockade of the NF-kappaB, MAPK pathways and leads to HO-1 induction in macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oryeongsan (OR) is an herbal medication used in east-Asian traditional medicine to treat dysuresia, such as urinary frequency, hematuria, and dysuria due to renal disease and chronic nephritis. Recent studies showed that protective effect against acute gastric mucosal injury and an inhibitory effect on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway of OR. However, its effect on inflammation still remains unknown. In this study, to provide insight into the biological effects of OR, we investigated their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methods We investigated the pharmacological and biological effects of OR on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and related products through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Also, we examined the activation and suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages via Western blot analysis in order to explore inhibitory mechanism of OR. Results OR had anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1beta. In addition, it strongly suppressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO synthesizing enzymes. It also induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression and inhibited NF-kappaB signaling pathway activation and phosphorylation of MAPKs. Conclusions We further demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effects and inhibitory mechanism of OR in LPS-stimulated macrophages for the first time. OR contains strong anti-inflammatory activity and affects various mechanism pathways including NF-kappaB, MAPKs and HO-1. Our results suggest that OR has potential value to be developed as an inflammatory therapeutic agent from a natural substance. PMID:25023125

  7. Potent anti-inflammatory effect of a novel furan-2,5-dione derivative, BPD, mediated by dual suppression of COX-2 activity and LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression via NF-κB inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Park, Seung-Jae; Ryu, Suran; Kang, Han Byul; Kim, Tae Woo; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Jae-Yeol; Cho, Young-Wuk; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We previously reported that 3-(benzo[d]-1,3-dioxol-5-yl)-4-phenylfuran-2,5-dione (BPD) showed strong inhibitory effects on PGE2 production. However, the exact mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of BPD is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the effects of BPD on inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages and animal models of inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The expressions of COX-2, inducible NOS (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages, were determined by Western blot and/or qRT-PCR, respectively. NF-κB activation was investigated by EMSA, reporter gene assay and Western blotting. Anti-inflammatory effects of BPD were evaluated in vivo in carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats and LPS-induced septic shock in mice. KEY RESULTS BPD not only inhibited COX-2 activity but also reduced the expression of COX-2. In addition, BPD inhibited the expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β at the transcriptional level. BPD attenuated LPS-induced DNA-binding activity and the transcription activity of NF-κB; this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation level of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) and reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, BPD suppressed the formation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1)/TAK-binding protein1 (TAB1), which was accompanied by a parallel reduction of phosphorylation of TAK1 and IκB kinase (IKK). Pretreatment with BPD inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema and LPS-induced septic death. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Taken together, our data indicate that BPD is involved in the dual inhibition of COX-2 activity and TAK1-NF-κB pathway, providing a molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of BPD. PMID:21913901

  8. Inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-? and NO production in mouse macrophage and inflammatory response in rat animal models by a novel Ayurvedic formulation, BV-9238.

    PubMed

    Dey, Debendranath; Chaskar, Sunetra; Athavale, Nitin; Chitre, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic crippling disease, where protein-based tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors show significant relief, but with potentially fatal side effects. A need for a safe, oral, cost-effective small molecule or phyto-pharmaceutical is warranted. BV-9238 is an Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing specialized standardized extracts of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa. The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 were evaluated for inhibition of TNF-? and nitric oxide (NO) production, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, RAW 264.7, mouse macrophage cell line. BV-9238 reduced TNF-? and NO production, without any cytotoxic effects. Subsequently, the formulation was tested in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and carrageenan-induced paw edema (CPE) rat animal models. AIA was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally in the paw, and BV-9238 and controls were administered orally for 21?days. Arthritic scores in AIA study and inflamed paw volume in CPE study were significantly reduced upon treatment with BV-9238. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 are due to its inhibition of TNF-?, and NO, and this formulation shows promise as an alternate therapy for inflammatory disorders where TNF-? and NO play important roles. PMID:24706581

  9. Coenzyme Q0 regulates NF?B/AP-1 activation and enhances Nrf2 stabilization in attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation and redox imbalance: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Ming-Wei; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Liao, Chun-Huei; Chang, Chia-Ting; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogs with variable number of isoprenoid units have been demonstrated as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant/pro-oxidant molecules. In this study we used CoQ0 (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, zero isoprenoid side-chains), a novel quinone derivative, and investigated its molecular actions against LPS-induced inflammation and redox imbalance in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and mice. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, non-cytotoxic concentrations of CoQ0 (2.5-10?M) inhibited iNOS/COX-2 protein expressions with subsequent reductions of NO, PGE2, TNF-? and IL-1? secretions. This inhibition was reasoned by suppression of NF?B (p65) activation, and inhibition of AP-1 (c-Jun., c-Fos, ATF2) translocation. Our findings indicated that IKK?-mediated I-?B degradation and MAPK-signaling are involved in regulation of NF?B/AP-1 activation. Furthermore, CoQ0 triggered HO-1 and NQO-1 genes through increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2/ARE-signaling. This phenomenon was confirmed by diminished CoQ0 protective effects in Nrf2 knockdown cells, where LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-? and IL-1? productions remained high. Molecular evidence revealed that CoQ0 enhanced Nrf2 steady-state level at both transcriptional and translational levels. CoQ0-induced Nrf2 activation appears to be regulated by ROS-JNK-signaling cascades, as evidenced by suppressed Nrf2 activation upon treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of ROS (N-acetylcysteine) and JNK (SP600125). Besides, oral administration of CoQ0 (5mg/kg) suppressed LPS-induced (1mg/kg) induction of iNOS/COX-2 and TNF-?/IL-1? through tight regulation of NF?B/Nrf2 signaling in mice liver and spleen. Our findings conclude that pharmacological actions of CoQ0 are mediated via inhibition of NF?B/AP-1 activation and induction of Nrf2/ARE-signaling. Owing to its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, CoQ0 could be a promising candidate to treat inflammatory disorders. PMID:26548719

  10. Dietary Blue Pigments Derived from Genipin, Attenuate Inflammation by Inhibiting LPS-Induced iNOS and COX-2 Expression via the NF-κB Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:22479539

  11. Redox factor-1 mediates NF-κB nuclear translocation for LPS-induced iNOS expression in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Dong; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Kang Mi; Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Jong Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Park, Young Chul

    2008-01-01

    Redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator redox factor-1 (Ref-1) is induced by oxidative stress and protects cells against it. However, the function of Ref-1 in regulating nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in macrophages has not been defined. We investigated the role of Ref-1 related to the regulation of NO synthesis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. LPS stimulates the up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Ref-1 in macrophages. Importantly, Ref-1-deficient macrophages using a small interfering RNA did not stimulate inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression as well as nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation by stimulation with LPS. When the cells were pretreated with diphenyleneiodonium or p47phox small interfering RNA for inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity, LPS did not stimulate the nuclear translocation of Ref-1. We next asked whether reactive oxygen species are sufficient for the nuclear translocation of Ref-1 in macrophages. The direct use of H2O2 stimulated the translocation to the nucleus of nuclear factor-κB, but not Ref-1 and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine did not inhibit the LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of Ref-1. These data suggest that Ref-1 nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages requires the activation of other signalling molecules aside from reactive oxygen species followed by the activation of NADPH oxidase. PMID:18028373

  12. Knockdown of versican V1 induces a severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced acute lung injury via the TLR2-NF-κB signaling pathway in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    XU, LULU; XUE, TAO; ZHANG, JING; QU, JIEMING

    2016-01-01

    The versican family is important in the modulation of inflammation, however, the role of versican V1 (V1) in lipo-polysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. To investigate this, the present study performed experiments in male C57BL/6J mice, which were randomly divided into a normal control group (control; n=6), an LPS-stimulated ALI group (LPS; n=6), a scramble small interfering (si)RNA group (scramble; n=6), a V1-siRNA group (V1-siRNA; n=6), a scramble siRNA and LPS-stimulated group (scramble+LPS; n=6) and a V1-siRNA and LPS-stimulated group (V1-siRNA+LPS; n=6). On day 1, the mice were anesthetized, and 5 nmol scramble siRNA or V1-siRNA were administered intratracheally. On day 3, LPS (1 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (50 µl per mouse) were injected intratracheally. All the mice were anesthetized and sacrificed on day 4, and samples were collected and analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. ALI was evaluated based on lung injury scores, cell counts and total protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Inflammatory mediators were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbend assay. V1 was increased by LPS in the mouse ALI model, whereas specific V1 knockdown induced higher lung injury scores, and higher total cell counts and protein concentrations in the BALF. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α was upregulated, and interleukin-6 exhibited an increasing trend. The expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4, increased, and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway subunit, P65, was phosphorylated. Taken together, the expression of V1 was upregulated by LPS, and V1 inhibition resulted in the aggravation of LPS-induced ALI via the activation of TLR2-NF-κB and release of TNF-α. PMID:27109786

  13. A Comparative Study of the Effects upon LPS Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammation in vitro of the Lipids of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach.

    PubMed

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of the isolated lipid extracts of three-spot seahorse which is rare marine bony fish. Petroleum ether (PE) extract was obtained from systematic solvent extraction after reflux extraction with 95% ethanol. FrIV was collected after silica gel column chromatography, and neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), phospholipids (PL) were separated from FrIV. Basic compositions were detected and analyzed via thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Anti-inflammatory activities of total lipids (TL), isolated NL, GL, and PL were detected by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine monocyte macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The results revealed that lipids of seahorse showed a positive correlation with the in vitro suppression of the release of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α potently in a dose dependent manner, and showed cell compatibility. Among the fractions, GL (50 μg/mL) showed the highest capacity to attenuate the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines which was comparable to that of the positive drug dexamethasone (DX) (20 μg/mL). Collectively, our findings indicated that the lipids from seahorse may be effective in the management of inflammation. PMID:26582156

  14. Punicalagin Induces Nrf2/HO-1 Expression via Upregulation of PI3K/AKT Pathway and Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaolong; Li, Hongquan; Hou, Xiaolin; Li, Deyin; He, Shasha; Wan, Changrong; Liu, Mingjiang; Liu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are thought to play a central role in potentiating macrophage activation, causing excessive inflammation, tissue damage, and sepsis. Recently, we have shown that punicalagin (PUN) exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages. However, the potential antioxidant effects of PUN in macrophages remain unclear. Revealing these effects will help understand the mechanism underlying its ability to inhibit excessive macrophage activation. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) exhibits antioxidant activity in macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HO-1 is a potential target of PUN and tried to reveal its antioxidant mechanism. Here, PUN treatment increased HO-1 expression together with its upstream mediator nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, specific inhibition of Nrf2 by brusatol (a specific Nrf2 inhibitor) dramatically blocked PUN-induced HO-1 expression. Previous research has demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays a critical role in modulating Nrf2/HO-1 protein expression as an upstream signaling molecule. Here, LY294002, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, suppressed PUN-induced HO-1 expression and led to ROS accumulation in macrophages. Furthermore, PUN inhibited LPS-induced oxidative stress in macrophages by reducing ROS and NO generation and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 mRNA expression. These findings provide new perspectives for novel therapeutic approaches using antioxidant medicines and compounds against oxidative stress and excessive inflammatory diseases including tissue damage, sepsis, and endotoxemic shock. PMID:25969626

  15. Sonchus asper extract inhibits LPS-induced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Xu, Ming Lu; Liu, Jie; Wang, You; Hu, Jian He

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sonchus asper is used extensively as an herbal anti-inflammatory for treatment of bronchitis, asthma, wounds, burns, and cough; however, further investigation is needed in order to understand the underlying mechanism. To determine its mechanism of action, we examined the effects of an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of S. asper on nitric oxide (NO) production and prostaglandin-E2 levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. MATERIALS/METHODS An in vitro culture of RAW264.7 macrophages was treated with LPS to induce inflammation. RESULTS Treatment with EAF resulted in significant suppression of oxidative stress in RAW264.7 macrophages as demonstrated by increased endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and intracellular glutathione levels, decreased generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and restoration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. To confirm its anti-inflammatory effects, analysis of expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 was performed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. EAF treatment resulted in significantly reduced dose-dependent expression of all of these factors, and enhanced expression of the antioxidants MnSOD and heme oxygenase-1. In addition, HPLC fingerprint results suggest that rutin, caffeic acid, and quercetin may be the active ingredients in EAF. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, findings of this study imply that the anti-inflammatory effect of EAF on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress. PMID:26634045

  16. Constitutively expressed Siglec-9 inhibits LPS-induced CCR7, but enhances IL-4-induced CD200R expression in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Shoji, Toru; Iijima, Shinji; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Siglecs recognize the sialic acid moiety and regulate various immune responses. In the present study, we compared the expression levels of Siglecs in human monocytes and macrophages using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The differentiation of monocytes into macrophages by macrophage colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhanced the expression of Siglec-7 and Siglec-9. The differentiated macrophages were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon (IFN)-γ or interleukin (IL)-4. The expression of Siglec-10 was enhanced by IL-4, whereas that of Siglec-7 was reduced by LPS plus IFN-γ. The expression of Siglec-9 was not affected by these stimuli. The knockdown of Siglec-9 enhanced the expression of CCR7 induced by the LPS or the LPS plus IFN-γ stimulation, and decreased the IL-4-induced expression of CD200R. These results suggest that Siglec-9 is one of the main Siglecs in human blood monocytes/macrophages and modulates innate immunity. PMID:26923638

  17. Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by cell-permeable superoxide dismutase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Ae; Song, Ha Yong; Ju, Sung Mi; Lee, Su Jin; Seo, Won Yong; Sin, Dong Hyeon; Goh, Ah Ra; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu

    2010-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in uncontrolled neuro-inflammation leading to many neurological diseases including Alzheimer's. One of the major antioxidant enzymes known to prevent deleterious effects due to oxidative stress is Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). In this study, we examined the regulatory function of SOD on the LPS-induced signaling pathways leading to NF-kappaB activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in BV-2 cells using cell-permeable SOD. Treatment of BV-2 cells with cell-permeable SOD led to a decrease in LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and significantly inhibited protein and mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2 upregulated by LPS. Production of NO and PGE2 in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells was significantly abrogated by pretreatment with a cell-permeable SOD fusion protein. Furthermore, cell-permeable SOD inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity and activation of MAP kinases including ERK, JNK, and p38 in BV-2 cells. These data indicate that SOD has a regulatory function for LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation leading to expression of iNOS and COX-2 in BV-2 cells and suggest that cell-permeable SOD is a feasible therapeutic agent for regulation of ROS-related neurological diseases. PMID:20108167

  18. Comparison of stress-induced and LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors and the alterations of central proinflammatory cytokines mRNA in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xi-Ting; Lin, Wen-Juan; Tang, Ming-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Although proinflammatory cytokine changes in depression have been studied widely, few investigations have searched for specific and common changes in cytokines. In the present study, two animal models of depression were compared: a chronic stress model using forced swim stress and an immune activation model using repeated central lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 mRNA were examined in the brain regions of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It was found that both chronic swim stress and repeated central LPS infusion induced depressive-like behaviors, including decreased body weight, reduced saccharin preference, and increased immobility time or shortened latency of immobility in the tail suspension test. Central TNF-α mRNA expression was elevated in both models and central IL-6 mRNA expression was unchanged in both models. Central IL-1β mRNA expression was increased only in the chronic immune activation model. The findings from this study suggest that TNF-α may be a common risk factor for inflammation in depressive disorders. PMID:26354152

  19. Pepsin-pancreatin protein hydrolysates from extruded amaranth inhibit markers of atherosclerosis in LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages-like human cells by reducing expression of proteins in LOX-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is considered a progressive disease that affects arteries that bring blood to the heart, to the brain and to the lower end. It derives from endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, which play an important role in the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death around the world and one factor that can contribute to its progression and prevention is diet. Our previous study found that amaranth hydrolysates inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in human and mouse macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, extrusion improved the anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth protein hydrolysates in both cell lines, probably attributed to the production of bioactive peptides during processing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the anti-atherosclerotic potential of pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates from unprocessed and extruded amaranth in THP-1 lipopolysaccharide-induced human macrophages and suggest the mechanism of action. Results Unprocessed amaranth hydrolysate (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysate (EAH) showed a significant reduction in the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (69% and 100%, respectively), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (64% and 52%, respectively), interleukin-22 (IL-22) (55% and 70%, respectively). Likewise, UAH and EAH showed a reduction in the expression of monocyte-chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (35% and 42%, respectively), transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) (48% and 61%, respectively), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (59% and 63%, respectively), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (60% and 63%, respectively). Also, EAH reduced the expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) (27%), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (28%) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (19%), important molecular markers in the atherosclerosis pathway. EAH, led to a reduction of 58, 52 and 79% for LOX-1, ICAM-1 and MMP-9, respectively, by confocal microscopy. Conclusions Extruded amaranth hydrolysate showed potential anti-atherosclerotic effect in LPS-induced THP-1 human macrophage-like cells by reducing the expression of proteins associated with LOX-1 signaling pathway. PMID:24891839

  20. Skewed pattern of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated cytokine production in human neonatal blood: Low LPS-induced IL-12p70 and high IL-10 persist throughout the first month of life

    PubMed Central

    Belderbos, M.E.; van Bleek, G.M.; Levy, O.; Blanken, M.O.; Houben, M.L.; Schuijff, L.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2010-01-01

    Newborns are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, which may be due to impaired immune responses. This study aims to characterize the ontogeny of neonatal TLR-based innate immunity during the first month of life. Cellularity and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist-induced cytokine production were compared between cord blood obtained from healthy neonates born after uncomplicated gestation and delivery (n=18), neonatal venous blood obtained at the age of one month (n=96), and adult venous blood (n=17). Cord blood TLR agonist-induced production of the Th1-polarizing cytokines IL-12p70 and IFN-α was generally impaired, but for TLR3, 7 and 9 agonists, rapidly increased to adult levels during the first month of life. In contrast, TLR4 demonstrated a slower maturation, with low LPS-induced IL-12p70 production and high IL-10 production up until the age of one month. Polarization in neonatal cytokine responses to LPS could contribute to neonatal susceptibility to severe bacterial infection. PMID:19648060

  1. The Inhibitory Mechanisms Study of 5,6,4'-Trihydroxy-7,3'-Dimethoxyflavone against the LPS-Induced Macrophage Inflammatory Responses through the Antioxidant Ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Liang, Chia-Hua; Liang, Fong-Pin; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Juang, Shin-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The whole plant of Anisomeles ovata has been widely used in Taiwan for treating inflammation-related skin and liver diseases, however, the detailed pharmacology mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, one of the major components, 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone (5-TDMF), was purified from a methanol extract of Anisomeles ovata. A pharmacological study of this compound suggests that 5-TDMF possesses potent free radical scavenging activity both in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, 5-TDMF reduces nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in LPC-treated RAW 264.7 cells through the attenuation of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Additional experiments suggest that of 5-TDMF interferes with nuclear factor-κB translocation and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These results identify 5-TDMF as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, explain the pharmacologic function of Anisomeles ovata and suggest its great potential as a new anti-inflammatory remedy. PMID:26805809

  2. DAP12 Stabilizes the C-terminal Fragment of the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-2 (TREM2) and Protects against LPS-induced Pro-inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Chen, Xiao-Fen; Zhang, Zhen-Lian; Wang, Zhe; Shi, Xin-Zhen; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun

    2015-06-19

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a DAP12-associated receptor expressed in microglia, macrophages, and other myeloid-derived cells. Previous studies have suggested that TREM2/DAP12 signaling pathway reduces inflammatory responses and promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Recently, TREM2 has been identified as a risk gene for Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we show that DAP12 stabilizes the C-terminal fragment of TREM2 (TREM2-CTF), a substrate for γ-secretase. Co-expression of DAP12 with TREM2 selectively increased the level of TREM2-CTF with little effects on that of full-length TREM2. The interaction between DAP12 and TREM2 is essential for TREM2-CTF stabilization as a mutant form of DAP12 with disrupted interaction with TREM2 failed to exhibit such an effect. Silencing of either Trem2 or Dap12 gene significantly exacerbated pro-inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Importantly, overexpression of either full-length TREM2 or TREM2-CTF reduced LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Taken together, our results support a role of DAP12 in stabilizing TREM2-CTF, thereby protecting against excessive pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25957402

  3. Additive Suppression of LPS-Induced IL-10 and TNF-α by Pre-treatment of Dexamethasone and SB203580 in a Murine Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line (MH-S).

    PubMed

    Meng, Aihong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Qi, Na; Liu, Dengchang; Wu, Jiakai

    2015-01-01

    P38 inhibitors are potent anti-inflammatory agents with distinctive mechanism of action from corticosteroid; the potential combined use of both anti-inflammatory agents could be an effective treatment for inflammatory lung disease; however, the impact of such combination on the homeostasis of immune response was poorly understood. To investigate the combined effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and/or SB203580 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (pro-inflammatory) and interleukin (IL)-10 (anti-inflammatory) secretion in mouse alveolar macrophage cell line. Secreted TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Phosphorylated STAT3 were investigated using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Pre-treatment of DEX or SB203580 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IL-10, TNF-α secretion, and STAT3 phosphorylation. Combined use of both agents showed stronger inhibitory effect. Combining DEX and SB203580 showed strong inhibition on the LPS-induced IL-10 secretion and STAT3 phosphorylation, which might reflect a very important drawback from the combined use of both anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25563207

  4. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity: Implication in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Aleksi; Sareila, Outi; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2006-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is an inflammatory mediator, which acts as a cytotoxic agent and modulates immune responses and inflammation. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway is activated by chemical and physical stress and regulates immune responses. Previous studies have shown that p38 MAPK pathway regulates NO production induced by inflammatory stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of inducible NO synthesis by p38 MAPK pathway. Results p38 MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB220025 stimulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in J774.2 murine macrophages. Increased iNOS mRNA expression was associated with reduced degradation of iNOS mRNA. Treatment with SB220025 increased also LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Interestingly, JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the effect of SB220025 on LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production. Conclusion The results suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB220025 results in increased JNK activity, which leads to stabilisation of iNOS mRNA, to enhanced iNOS expression and to increased NO production. PMID:16504051

  5. Knockdown of versican V1 induces a severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced acute lung injury via the TLR2-NF-κB signaling pathway in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lulu; Xue, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Jieming

    2016-06-01

    The versican family is important in the modulation of inflammation, however, the role of versican V1 (V1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. To investigate this, the present study performed experiments in male C57BL/6J mice, which were randomly divided into a normal control group (control; n=6), an LPS‑stimulated ALI group (LPS; n=6), a scramble small interfering (si)RNA group (scramble; n=6), a V1‑siRNA group (V1‑siRNA; n=6), a scramble siRNA and LPS‑stimulated group (scramble+LPS; n=6) and a V1‑siRNA and LPS‑stimulated group (V1‑siRNA+LPS; n=6). On day 1, the mice were anesthetized, and 5 nmol scramble siRNA or V1‑siRNA were administered intratracheally. On day 3, LPS (1 mg/kg) or phosphate‑buffered saline (50 µl per mouse) were injected intratracheally. All the mice were anesthetized and sacrificed on day 4, and samples were collected and analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels were examined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. ALI was evaluated based on lung injury scores, cell counts and total protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Inflammatory mediators were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbend assay. V1 was increased by LPS in the mouse ALI model, whereas specific V1 knockdown induced higher lung injury scores, and higher total cell counts and protein concentrations in the BALF. Tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF)‑α was upregulated, and interleukin‑6 exhibited an increasing trend. The expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4, increased, and the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB pathway subunit, P65, was phosphorylated. Taken together, the expression of V1 was upregulated by LPS, and V1 inhibition resulted in the aggravation of LPS‑induced ALI via the activation of TLR2-NF-κB and release of TNF-α. PMID:27109786

  6. siRNA targeting mCD14 inhibits TNF-?, MIP-2, and IL-6 secretion and NO production from LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Jiao, Hanwei; Liu, Tao; Du, Li; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Donglin; Hao, Yongchang; Man, Churiga; Wang, Fengyang

    2011-10-01

    Innate immunity plays a key role in protecting a host against invading microorganism, including Gram-negative bacteria. Cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) is an important innate immunity molecule, existing as a soluble (sCD14) and membrane-associated (mCD14) protein. Endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] is recognized as a key molecule in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock caused by Gram negative bacteria. Emerging evidences indicate that upstream inhibition of bacterial LPS/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/CD14-mediated inflammation pathway is an effective therapeutic approach for attenuating damaging immune activation. RNA interference (RNAi) provides a promising approach to down-regulate gene expression specifically. To explore the possibility of using RNAi against mCD14 as a strategy for inhibiting the secretion of cytokines and the nitric oxide (NO) production from LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells, four different short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules corresponding to the sequence of mCD14 gene were designed and synthesized. We then tested the inhibition effects of these siRNA molecules on mCD14 expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. After effective siRNA molecule (mCD14-siRNA-224), which is capable of reducing messenger RNA (mRNA) accumulation and protein expression of mCD14 specifically, was identified, RAW264.7 cells pretreated with mCD14-siRNA-224 were stimulated with LPS, and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the NO production were evaluated. The results indicated that mCD14-siRNA-224 effectively inhibited TNF-?, MIP-2, and IL-6 release and NO production from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by down-regulating mRNA accumulation and protein expression of mCD14 specifically. These findings provide useful information for the development of RNAi-based prophylaxis and therapy for endotoxin-related diseases. PMID:21701985

  7. Astrocytic TLR4 expression and LPS-induced nuclear translocation of STAT3 in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yousuke; Furube, Eriko; Morita, Shoko; Wanaka, Akio; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Miyata, Seiji

    2015-01-15

    The sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs) comprise the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP) and lack the blood-brain barrier. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was seen at astrocytes throughout the sensory CVOs and at microglia in the AP and solitary nucleus around the central canal. The peripheral and central administration of lipopolysaccharide induced a similar pattern of nuclear translocation of STAT3. A microglia inhibitor minocycline largely suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced astrocytic nuclear translocation of STAT3 in the OVLT and AP, but its effect was less in the SFO. PMID:25595264

  8. Inflammatory Animal Model for Parkinson's Disease: The Intranigral Injection of LPS Induced the Inflammatory Process along with the Selective Degeneration of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Machado, A.; Herrera, A. J.; Venero, J. L.; Santiago, M.; de Pablos, R. M.; Villarn, R. F.; Espinosa-Oliva, A. M.; Argelles, S.; Sarmiento, M.; Delgado-Corts, M. J.; Maurio, R.; Cano, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an animal model of degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, the neuronal system involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). The implication of neuroinflammation on this disease was originally established in 1988, when the presence of activated microglia in the substantia nigra (SN) of parkinsonians was reported by McGeer et al. Neuroinflammation could be involved in the progression of the disease or even has more direct implications. We injected 2??g of the potent proinflammatory compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different areas of the CNS, finding that SN displayed the highest inflammatory response and that dopaminergic (body) neurons showed a special and specific sensitivity to this process with the induction of selective dopaminergic degeneration. Neurodegeneration is induced by inflammation since it is prevented by anti-inflammatory compounds. The special sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons seems to be related to the endogenous dopaminergic content, since it is overcome by dopamine depletion. Compounds that activate microglia or induce inflammation have similar effects to LPS. This model suggest that inflammation is an important component of the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, probably also in PD. Anti-inflammatory treatments could be useful to prevent or slow down the rate of dopaminergic degeneration in this disease. PMID:22389821

  9. Early expansion and expression of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) gene family in the LPS-exposed monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2015-10-01

    To date, a single lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) homologue, mediating the expression of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α in terms of host defense was identified in vertebrates and most invertebrates such as insects, mollusks, and crustaceans. However, LITAF gene family members have recently been characterized in only two mollusks, Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Although a large gene family expansion of LITAF homologues was observed in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the amino acid sequences encoded by the C. elegans LITAF homologue have low similarities to other LITAF gene family members. In this study, three LITAF genes were identified in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus. In silico analyses of B. koreanus LITAF genes of conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships supported gene annotations that indicated that LITAF is involved in innate immunity in primitive rotifers. To examine transcriptional sensitivity of B. koreanus LITAF genes, the rotifers were exposed to different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transcriptional levels of LITAF1 and LITAF2 gene were significantly upregulated dose- and time-dependently in response to LPS exposure for 24 h. LPS exposure induced glutathione (GSH) depletion and antioxidant enzyme activity levels for 24 h in B. koreanus. These results suggested that the B. koreanus LITAF gene family has potential sensitivities directly and/or indirectly to immune stimulator-triggered oxidative stress. PMID:26056818

  10. Differential protection among fractionated blueberry polyphenolic families against DA-, Aβ42 and LPS-induced decrements in Ca2+ buffering in primary hippocampal cells

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, James A.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Brewer, Gregory J.; Weikel, Karen A.; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Fisher, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that at least part of the loss of cognitive function in aging may be the result of deficits in Ca2+ recovery (CAR) and increased oxidative/inflammatory (OX/INF) stress signaling. However, previous research showed that aged animals supplemented with blueberry (BB) extract, showed fewer deficits in CAR, as well as motor and cognitive functional deficits. A recent subsequent experiment has shown that DA- or Aβ42-induced deficits in CAR in primary hippocampal neuronal cells (HNC) were antagonized by BB extract, and (OX/INF) signaling was reduced. Present experiments assessed the most effective BB polyphenol fraction that could protect against OX/INF-induced deficits in CAR, ROS generation, or viability. HNCs treated with BB extract, BB fractions (e.g., proanthocyanidin, PAC), or control medium were exposed to dopamine (DA, 0.1mM), amyloid beta (Aβ42, 25 µM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1µg/ml). Results indicated that the degree of protection against deficits in CAR varied as a function of the stressor and was generally greater against Aβ42 and LPS than DA. The whole BB, anthocyanin (ANTH) and pre-C18 fractions offered the greatest protection, while chlorogenic acid offered the lowest protection. Protective capabilities of the various fractions against ROS depended upon the stressor, where the BB extract and the combined PAC (high and low m.w.) fraction offered the best protection against LPS and Aβ42 but were less effective against DA-induced ROS. The high and low m.w. PACs and the ANTH fractions enhanced ROS production regardless of the stressor used and this reflected increased activation of stress signals (e.g., P38 MAPK). The viability data indicated that the whole BB and combined PAC fraction showed greater protective effects against the stressors than the more fractionated polyphenolic components. Thus, these results suggest that, except for a few instances, the lesser the polyphenolic fractionation the greater the effects, especially with respect to prevention of ROS and stress signal generation, and viability. PMID:20597478

  11. MR imaging and targeting of a specific alveolar macrophage subpopulation in LPS-induced COPD animal model using antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Shaik, Asma Sultana; Afzal, Sibtain; Al Sayed, Baraa; Halwani, Rabih

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Targeting and noninvasive imaging of a specific alveolar macrophage subpopulation in the lung has revealed the importance for early and better diagnosis and therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, the in vivo effect of pulmonary administration of iron oxide nanoparticles on the polarization profile of macrophages was assessed, and a noninvasive free-breathing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol coupled with the use of biocompatible antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles was developed to enable specific targeting and imaging of a particular macrophage subpopulation in lipopolysaccharide-induced COPD mice model. Materials and methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry analysis were performed to assess the biocompatibility of PEGylated dextran-coated SPIO nanoparticles. Specific biomarkers for M1 and M2 macrophages subsets were selected for conjugation with magnetic nanoparticles. MRI protocol using ultra-short echo time sequence was optimized to enable simultaneous detection of inflammation progress in the lung and detection of macrophages subsets. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis were finally performed to confirm MRI readouts and to characterize the polarization profile of targeted macrophages. Results The tested SPIO nanoparticles, under the current experimental conditions, were found to be biocompatible for lung administration in preclinical settings. Cluster of differentiation (CD)86- and CD206-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles enabled successful noninvasive detection of M1 and M2 macrophage subpopulations, respectively, and were found to co-localize with inflammatory regions induced by lipopolysaccharide challenge. No variation in the polarization profile of targeted macrophages was observed, even though a continuum switch in their polarization might occur. However, further confirmatory studies are required to conclusively establish this observation. Conclusion Coupling of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a specific antibody targeted to a particular macrophage subpopulation could offer a promising strategy for an early and better diagnosis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases using noninvasive MRI. PMID:24711699

  12. Modulation of LPS-induced memory insult, γ-secretase and neuroinflammation in 3xTg mice by 5-Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yash B.; Giannopoulos, Phillip F.; Chu, Jin; Praticò, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Besides amyloid and tau pathology, a constant feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an intense inflammatory response, which is considered an active player in its pathogenesis. The 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is a proinflammatory enzyme and an endogenous modulator of AD-like phenotype in mouse models of the disease. To further understand the role of 5LO in AD pathogenesis, we exposed the 3xTg and 3xTg/5LO knockout mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known inducer of neuroinflammation, and evaluated its effect on their AD-like phenotype. 3xTg mice treated with LPS manifested a worsening of behavior, γ-secretase up-regulation, and increased neuroinflammatory responses. These effects were completely prevented in 3xTg mice genetically deficient for 5LO. By contrast, the absence of 5LO did not protect against increase in tau phosphorylation at specific epitopes that were mediated by the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Our data demonstrate that the 5LO pathway affects key neuropathological features of the AD-like phenotype (behavior, Abeta, microgliosis, astrocytosis) but not others (tau pathology) in the LPS-dependent neuroinflammation model. The opposite ways whereby 5LO influences the LPS-dependent effects in vivo supports the complex nature of the neuroinflammatory response in AD and its differential role in modulating amyloid and tau neuropathology. PMID:24332986

  13. Matrine Attenuates COX-2 and ICAM-1 Expressions in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Prevents Acute Lung Injury in LPS-Induced Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, You-Rong; Chen, Ya-Ling; Chang, Yi-Hsien; Li, Zih-Ying; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Matrine is isolated from Sophora flavescens and shows anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. Here we evaluated matrine's suppressive effects on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Additionally, BALB/c mice were given various matrine doses by intraperitoneal injection, and then lung injury was induced via intratracheal instillation of LPS. In LPS-stimulated A549 cells, matrine inhibited the productions of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and IL-6 and decreased COX-2 expression. Matrine treatment also decreased ICAM-1 protein expression and suppressed the adhesion of neutrophil-like cells to inflammatory A549 cells. In vitro results demonstrated that matrine significantly inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and decreased nuclear transcription factor kappa-B subunit p65 protein translocation into the nucleus. In vivo data indicated that matrine significantly inhibited neutrophil infiltration and suppressed productions of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum. Analysis of lung tissue showed that matrine decreased the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, COX-2, and ICAM-1. Our findings suggest that matrine improved lung injury in mice and decreased the inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells. PMID:26880863

  14. Matrine Attenuates COX-2 and ICAM-1 Expressions in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Prevents Acute Lung Injury in LPS-Induced Mice.

    PubMed

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, You-Rong; Chen, Ya-Ling; Chang, Yi-Hsien; Li, Zih-Ying; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Matrine is isolated from Sophora flavescens and shows anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. Here we evaluated matrine's suppressive effects on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Additionally, BALB/c mice were given various matrine doses by intraperitoneal injection, and then lung injury was induced via intratracheal instillation of LPS. In LPS-stimulated A549 cells, matrine inhibited the productions of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and IL-6 and decreased COX-2 expression. Matrine treatment also decreased ICAM-1 protein expression and suppressed the adhesion of neutrophil-like cells to inflammatory A549 cells. In vitro results demonstrated that matrine significantly inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and decreased nuclear transcription factor kappa-B subunit p65 protein translocation into the nucleus. In vivo data indicated that matrine significantly inhibited neutrophil infiltration and suppressed productions of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum. Analysis of lung tissue showed that matrine decreased the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, COX-2, and ICAM-1. Our findings suggest that matrine improved lung injury in mice and decreased the inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells. PMID:26880863

  15. CaMKIV-dependent preservation of mTOR expression is required for autophagy during LPS-induced inflammation and acute kidney injury1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianghong; Howell, Gina M.; Guo, Lanping; Collage, Richard D.; Loughran, Patricia A.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved homeostasis process regulating biomass quantity and quality, plays a critical role in the host response to sepsis. Recent studies show its calcium dependence, but the calcium sensitive regulatory cascades have not been defined. Here we describe a novel mechanism in which CaMKIV, through inhibitory serine phosphorylation of GSK-3β and inhibition of FBXW7 recruitment, prevents ubiquitin proteosomal degradation of mTOR, and thereby augments autophagy in both the Mφ and the kidney. Under the conditions of sepsis studied, mTOR expression and activity were requisite for autophagy, a paradigm countering the current perspective that prototypically, mTOR inhibition induces autophagy. CaMKIV-mTOR dependent autophagy was fundamentally important for IL-6 production in vitro and in vivo. Similar mechanisms were operant in the kidney during endotoxemia and served a cytoprotective role in mitigating acute kidney injury. Thus, CaMKIV-mTOR-dependent autophagy is conserved in both immune and non-immune/parenchymal cells and is fundamental for the respective functional and adaptive responses to septic insult. PMID:25070845

  16. The Receptor CMRF35-Like Molecule-1 (CLM-1) Enhances the Production of LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators during Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Solà, Carme; Martínez-Barriocanal, Águeda; Schwartz, Simó; Martín, Margarita; Peluffo, Hugo; Sayós, Joan

    2015-01-01

    CMRF35-like molecule-1 (CLM-1) belongs to a receptor family mainly expressed in myeloid cells that include activating and inhibitory receptors. CLM-1 contains two ITIMs and a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM), although also displays a binding site for p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K. By using murine primary microglial cultures, we show the presence of all CLM members in microglial cells and characterize the expression of CLM-1 both in basal conditions and during microglial activation. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) induce an increase in microglial CLM-1 mRNA levels in vitro, whereas the TLR2/6 heterodimer agonist peptidoglycan (PGN) produces a marked decrease. In this study we also describe a new soluble isoform of CLM-1 that is detected at mRNA and protein levels in basal conditions in primary microglial cultures. Interestingly, CLM-1 engagement enhances the transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNFα, COX-2 and NOS-2 in microglial cells challenged with LPS. These results reveal that CLM-1 can acts as a co-activating receptor and suggest that this receptor could play a key role in the regulation of microglial activation. PMID:25927603

  17. The Receptor CMRF35-Like Molecule-1 (CLM-1) Enhances the Production of LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators during Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Solà, Carme; Martínez-Barriocanal, Águeda; Schwartz, Simó; Martín, Margarita; Peluffo, Hugo; Sayós, Joan

    2015-01-01

    CMRF35-like molecule-1 (CLM-1) belongs to a receptor family mainly expressed in myeloid cells that include activating and inhibitory receptors. CLM-1 contains two ITIMs and a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM), although also displays a binding site for p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K. By using murine primary microglial cultures, we show the presence of all CLM members in microglial cells and characterize the expression of CLM-1 both in basal conditions and during microglial activation. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) induce an increase in microglial CLM-1 mRNA levels in vitro, whereas the TLR2/6 heterodimer agonist peptidoglycan (PGN) produces a marked decrease. In this study we also describe a new soluble isoform of CLM-1 that is detected at mRNA and protein levels in basal conditions in primary microglial cultures. Interestingly, CLM-1 engagement enhances the transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNFα, COX-2 and NOS-2 in microglial cells challenged with LPS. These results reveal that CLM-1 can acts as a co-activating receptor and suggest that this receptor could play a key role in the regulation of microglial activation. PMID:25927603

  18. Melatonin modulates microsomal PGE synthase 1 and NF-E2-related factor-2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression in LPS-induced murine peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio-Soto, M; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Sanchez-Hidalgo, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Increasing evidence demonstrates that melatonin regulates inflammatory and immune processes acting as both an activator and inhibitor of these responses. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory action remain unclear. Here we have characterized the cellular mechanisms underlying the redox modulation of LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in murine peritoneal macrophages by melatonin to provide insight into its anti-inflammatory effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Murine peritoneal macrophages were isolated and treated with melatonin in the presence or absence of LPS (5 μg·mL−1) for 18 h. Cell viability was determined using sulforhodamine B assay and NO production was measured using the Griess reaction. Pro-inflammatory enzymes and transcription factors were detected by Western blotting. KEY RESULTS Without affecting cell viability, melatonin (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μM) reduced the level of nitrites, inducible NOS (iNOS), COX-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES1) protein, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and prevented NF-κB translocation. Furthermore, melatonin treatment significantly increased NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) protein levels in murine macrophages exposed to LPS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Melatonin reduced pro-inflammatory mediators and enhanced the expression of HO1 via NF-κB, p38 MAPK and Nrf2 cascade signalling pathways in murine macrophages. Thus, melatonin might be a promising target for diseases associated with overactivation of macrophages. PMID:24116971

  19. Fluoxetine up-regulates expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein and inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis in hippocampus-derived neural stem cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, S.-H. . E-mail: shchiou@vghtpe.gov.tw; Chen, S.-J. . E-mail: sjchen@vghtpe.gov.tw; Peng, C-H.; Chang, Y.-L.; Ku, H.-H.; Hsu, W.-M.; Ho, Larry L.-T.; Lee, C.-H.

    2006-05-05

    Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant compound which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin in the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that fluoxetine can promote neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of neurons. However, whether fluoxetine modulates the proliferation or neuroprotection effects of neural stem cells (NSCs) needs to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that 20 {mu}M fluoxetine can increase the cell proliferation of NSCs derived from the hippocampus of adult rats by MTT test. The up-regulated expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in fluoxetine-treated NSCs was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Our results further showed that fluoxetine protects the lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in NSCs, in part, by activating the expression of c-FLIP. Moreover, c-FLIP induction by fluoxetine requires the activation of the c-FLIP promoter region spanning nucleotides -414 to -133, including CREB and SP1 sites. This effect appeared to involve the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, fluoxetine treatment significantly inhibited the induction of proinflammatory factor IL-1{beta}, IL-6, and TNF-{alpha} in the culture medium of LPS-treated NSCs (p < 0.01). The results of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection further confirmed that fluoxentine increased the functional production of serotonin in NSCs. Together, these data demonstrate the specific activation of c-FLIP by fluoxetine and indicate the novel role of fluoxetine for neuroprotection in the treatment of depression.

  20. Prebiotic administration normalizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and cortical 5-HT2A receptor and IL1-β levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Savignac, Helene M; Couch, Yvonne; Stratford, Michael; Bannerman, David M; Tzortzis, George; Anthony, Daniel C; Burnet, Philip W J

    2016-02-01

    The manipulation of the enteric microbiota with specific prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to reduce the host's inflammatory response, alter brain chemistry, and modulate anxiety behaviour in both rodents and humans. However, the neuro-immune and behavioural effects of prebiotics on sickness behaviour have not been explored. Here, adult male CD1 mice were fed with a specific mix of non-digestible galacto-oligosaccharides (Bimuno®, BGOS) for 3 weeks, before receiving a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces sickness behaviour and anxiety. Locomotor and marble burying activities were assessed 4h after LPS injection, and after 24h, anxiety in the light-dark box was assessed. Cytokine expression, and key components of the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamatergic system were evaluated in the frontal cortex to determine the impact of BGOS administration at a molecular level. BGOS-fed mice were less anxious in the light-dark box compared to controls 24h after the LPS injection. Elevated cortical IL-1β concentrations in control mice 28 h after LPS were not observed in BGOS-fed animals. This significant BGOS×LPS interaction was also observed for 5HT2A receptors, but not for 5HT1A receptors, 5HT, 5HIAA, NMDA receptor subunits, or other cytokines. The intake of BGOS did not influence LPS-mediated reductions in marble burying behaviour, and its effect on locomotor activity was equivocal. Together, our data show that the prebiotic BGOS has an anxiolytic effect, which may be related to the modulation of cortical IL-1β and 5-HT2A receptor expression. Our data suggest a potential role for prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders where anxiety and neuroinflammation are prominent clinical features. PMID:26476141

  1. Microarray and Pathway Analysis Reveal Distinct Mechanisms Underlying Cannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of LPS-Induced Activation of BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Vogel, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids are known to exert immunosuppressive activities. However, the mechanisms which contribute to these effects are unknown. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to activate BV-2 microglial cells, we examined how Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD) the non-psychoactive component, modulate the inflammatory response. Microarray analysis of genome-wide mRNA levels was performed using Illumina platform and the resulting expression patterns analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify functional subsets of genes, and the Ingenuity System Database to denote the gene networks regulated by CBD and THC. From the 5338 transcripts that were differentially expressed across treatments, 400 transcripts were found to be upregulated by LPS, 502 by CBD+LPS and 424 by THC+LPS, while 145 were downregulated by LPS, 297 by CBD+LPS and 149 by THC+LPS, by 2-fold or more (p≤0.005). Results clearly link the effects of CBD and THC to inflammatory signaling pathways and identify new cannabinoid targets in the MAPK pathway (Dusp1, Dusp8, Dusp2), cell cycle related (Cdkn2b, Gadd45a) as well as JAK/STAT regulatory molecules (Socs3, Cish, Stat1). The impact of CBD on LPS-stimulated gene expression was greater than that of THC. We attribute this difference to the fact that CBD highly upregulated several genes encoding negative regulators of both NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activities, such as Trib3 and Dusp1 known to be modulated through Nrf2 activation. The CBD-specific expression profile reflected changes associated with oxidative stress and glutathione depletion via Trib3 and expression of ATF4 target genes. Furthermore, the CBD affected genes were shown to be controlled by nuclear factors usually involved in regulation of stress response and inflammation, mainly via Nrf2/Hmox1 axis and the Nrf2/ATF4-Trib3 pathway. These observations indicate that CBD, and less so THC, induce a cellular stress response and that this response underlies their high immunosuppressant activities. PMID:23637839

  2. Protective Effect of Lupeol Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation via the p38/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Pathway in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Haroon; Ali, Tahir; Rehman, Shafiq-Ur; Amin, Faiz-Ul; Ullah, Faheem; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a close interaction between neuroinflammatory responses, increased production of inflammatory mediators, and neurodegeneration. Pathological findings in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease have shown common signs of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lupeol, a natural pentacyclic triterpene, has revealed a number of pharmacological properties including an anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lupeol against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in the cortex and hippocampus of adult mice. Our results showed that systemic administration of LPS induced glial cell production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin (IL)-1β, while co-treatment with lupeol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes, and decreased the LPS-induced generation of TNF-α, iNOS, and IL-1β. The intracellular mechanism involved in the LPS-induced activation of inflammatory responses includes phosphorylation of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was significantly inhibited by lupeol. We further elucidated that lupeol inhibited the LPS-induced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and reversed the LPS-induced expression of apoptotic markers such as Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Taken together; our results suggest that lupeol inhibits LPS-induced microglial neuroinflammation via the P38-MAPK and JNK pathways and has therapeutic potential to treat various neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:26139594

  3. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by a novel humulene derivative in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye-Young; Kim, Moon Sun; Jang, Dae Sik; Park, Eun-Jung; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Sang Kook

    2009-07-01

    In our previous study, we reported the isolation of a novel humulene derivative, 5-hydroxyzerumbone, from Zingiber zerumbet and its inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. This study was performed to examine its mechanism of action on the regulation of NO production. 5-Hydroxyzerumbone inhibited the expressions of iNOS mRNA and protein in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with 5-hydroxyzerumbone also induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in macrophage cells. In addition, 5-hydroxyzerumbone inhibited LPS-induced transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB, indicating that regulation of NF-kappaB activity might be involved in the inhibition of NO production by 5-hydroxyzerumbone. 5-Hydroxyzerumbone, however, did not affect the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and the activation of p38 and ERK in LPS-treated cells. Taken together, these results suggest that down-regulation of LPS-induced NO production by 5-hydroxyzerumbone is mediated by the suppression of iNOS expression through the modulation of NF-kappaB activation and HO-1 induction in macrophage cells. PMID:19298870

  4. Bifunctional effects of fucoidan on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin Won; Yoon, Se Young; Oh, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kang, Keon Wook . E-mail: kwkang@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-07-21

    Algal fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities including anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study evaluated the effect of fucoidan on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. Low concentration range of fucoidan (10 {mu}g/ml) increased the basal expression level of iNOS in quiescent macrophages. However, we found for the first time that fucoidan inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blot analysis revealed that fucoidan suppressed the LPS-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene. Moreover, the activation of both nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are key steps in the transcriptional activation of the iNOS gene. Here, it was revealed that fucoidan selectively suppressed AP-1 activation, and that the activation of AP-1 appears to be essential for the induction of iNOS in activated macrophages. This inhibitory effect on AP-1 activation by fucoidan might be associated with its NO blocking and anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Extract of gum resins of Boswellia serrata L. inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide production in rat macrophages along with hypolipidemic property.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi S; Singh, Birendra K; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2005-06-01

    Boswellia serrata, Linn F (Burseraceae) is commonly used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurvedic) as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic and anti-proliferative agent. This study was planned to investigate the water-soluble fraction of the oleoresin gum of Boswellia serrata (BS extract) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In the previous condition, rats were fed on atherogenic diet (2.5% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 15.7 % saturated fat) along with the BS extract for 90 days. Blood was collected for lipid profile and toxicological safety parameters. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured to see the LPS induced NO production. Under in vivo experiment, BS extract significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (38-48 %), increased serum high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, 22-30%). Under in vitro experiments with thioglycolate activated macrophages, it inhibited LPS induced (NO) production with IC 50 value at 662 ng /ml. Further, this fraction, in the dose of 15 mg/100 g body wt for 90 days, did not show any increase in serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood urea, in normal control animals. However, it significantly reversed the raised SGPT and blood urea in the atherogenic diet-fed animals. Transverse section of liver and kidney also supported its protective effect. Thus it may be concluded that water extract of Boswellia serrata possesses strong hypocholesterolemic property along with increase in serum HDL. It inhibits the LPS induced NO production by the activated rat peritoneal macrophages and show hepato-protective and reno-protective property. PMID:15991575

  6. Glucagon induces airway smooth muscle relaxation by nitric oxide and prostaglandin E₂.

    PubMed

    Insuela, Daniella B R; Daleprane, Julio B; Coelho, Luciana P; Silva, Adriana R; e Silva, Patrícia M R; Martins, Marco A; Carvalho, Vinicius F

    2015-06-01

    Glucagon is a hyperglycemic pancreatic hormone that has been shown to provide a beneficial effect against asthmatic bronchospasm. We investigated the role of this hormone on airway smooth muscle contraction and lung inflammation using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. The action of glucagon on mouse cholinergic tracheal contraction was studied in a conventional organ bath system, and its effect on airway obstruction was also investigated using the whole-body pletysmographic technique in mice. We also tested the effect of glucagon on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation. The expression of glucagon receptor (GcgR), CREB, phospho-CREB, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-3, pNOS-3 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 was evaluated by western blot, while prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and tumour necrosis factor-α were quantified by enzyme-linked immunoassay and ELISA respectively. Glucagon partially inhibited carbachol-induced tracheal contraction in a mechanism clearly sensitive to des-His1-[Glu9]-glucagon amide, a GcgR antagonist. Remarkably, GcgR was more expressed in the lung and trachea with intact epithelium than in the epithelium-denuded trachea. In addition, the glucagon-mediated impairment of carbachol-induced contraction was prevented by either removing epithelial cells or blocking NOS (L-NAME), COX (indomethacin) or COX-1 (SC-560). In contrast, inhibitors of either heme oxygenase or COX-2 were inactive. Intranasal instillation of glucagon inhibited methacholine-induced airway obstruction by a mechanism sensitive to pretreatment with L-NAME, indomethacin and SC-560. Glucagon induced CREB and NOS-3 phosphorylation and increased PGE₂ levels in the lung tissue without altering COX-1 expression. Glucagon also inhibited LPS-induced AHR and bronchoalveolar inflammation. These findings suggest that glucagon possesses airway-relaxing properties that are mediated by epithelium-NOS-3-NO- and COX-1-PGE₂-dependent mechanisms. PMID:26021821

  7. Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in downregulating nuclear factor-kappa B pathway by Garcinol.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chiung-Ho; Sang, Shengmin; Liang, Yu-Chih; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2004-11-01

    Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative of Garcinia indica fruit rind and other species. Recent studies have demonstrated that garcinol exhibited antioxidative effects in vitro. In this study, we found that garcinol inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Western blot analyzes and gel-shift assays revealed that garcinol strongly blocks the activation of eukaryotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B)-induced by LPS. Moreover, transient transfection experiments showed that garcinol inhibited the NF-kappa B-dependent transcriptional activity. Based on these data, we demonstrated that inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kappa B activation occurred through suppressing the phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha and p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK). Garcinol also lowers the LPS-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contributes to the activation of NF-kappa B. The NF-kappa B signaling pathway leads to inflammatory reaction and our results suggest that garcinol suppresses the expression of iNOS in this pathway. PMID:15390082

  8. Effects of adenosine on bacterial lipopolysaccharide- and interleukin 1-induced nitric oxide release from equine articular chondrocytes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Benton HP; MacDonald MH; Tesch AM

    2002-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adenosine influences the in vitro release of nitric oxide (NO) from differentiated primary equine articular chondrocytes.SAMPLE POPULATION: Articular cartilage harvested from the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints of 11 horses (3 to 11 years old) without history or clinical signs of joint disease.PROCEDURE: Chondrocytes were isolated, plated at a high density (10(5) cells/well), and treated with adenosine, the adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), bradykinin, or other agents that modify secondary messenger pathways alone or in combination with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rhIL-1alpha). Nitric oxide release was measured indirectly by use of the Griess reaction and was expressed as micromol of nitrite in the supernatant/microg of protein in the cell layer. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity was determined by measuring the conversion of radiolabeled arginine to radiolabeled citrulline.RESULTS: Treatment of chondrocytes with adenosine alone had no significant effect on NO release. However, adenosine and NECA inhibited LPS- and rhIL-1alpha-induced NO release. This response was mimicked by forskolin, which acts to increase adenylate cyclase activity, but not by the calcium ionophore A23187 Treatment of chondrocytes with phorbol myristate acetate, which acts to increase protein kinase C activity, potentiated LPS-induced NO release. Adenosine treatment also significantly inhibited the LPS-induced increase in iNOS activity.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adenosine and the nonspecific adenosine receptor agonist NECA inhibited inflammatory mediator-induced release of NO from equine articular chondrocytes. Modulation of adenosine receptor-mediated pathways may offer novel methods for treatment of inflammation in horses with joint disease.

  9. Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions we...

  10. Morphine-6beta-glucuronide modulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Lysle, D T; Carrigan, K A

    2001-08-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine are well established; however, suprisingly little is known about the immunomodulatory properties of the major metabolites of morphine. The present study tests the hypothesis that expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is modulated by the administration of the morphine metabolite, morphine-6beta-glucuronide. The initial study using rats shows that morphine-6beta-glucuronide administration (0, 1.0, 3.163, 10 mg/kg s.c.) results in a pronounced reduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of iNOS (inducible nitricoxide synthease) in spleen, lung, and liver tissue as measured by western blotting. Morphine-6beta-glucuronide also produces a reduction in the level of plasma nitrite/nitrate, the more stable end-product of nitric oxide degradation. In a subsequent study, administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) prior to the injection of morphine-6beta-glucuronide (10 mg/kg) blocks the morphine-6beta-glucuronide induced reduction of iNOS expression and plasma nitrite/nitrite levels indicating that the effect is mediated via the opioid-receptor. This study provides the first evidence that morphine-6beta-glucuronide alters the expression of iNOS. PMID:11580103

  11. Central but not systemic inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase modulates oxytocin release during endotoxemic shock.

    PubMed

    Stabile, Angelita Maria; Moreto, Viviana; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Carnio, Evelin Capellari

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that immunological challenges as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration increases plasma oxytocin (OT) concentration. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas directly related to the immune system has been implicated in the central modulation of neuroendocrine adaptive responses to immunological stress. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the NO pathway participates in the control of OT release induced by LPS injection. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats received bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of LPS, preceded or not by i.v. or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. Rats were decapitated after 2, 4 and 6h of treatment, for measurement of OT by radioimmunoassay. In a separate set of experiments, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 15 min over 6h, using a polygraph. These studies revealed that LPS reduced MAP and increased HR at 4 and 6h post-injection. LPS significantly increased plasma OT concentration at 2 and 4h post-injection. Pre-treatment with i.c.v. AG further increased plasma OT concentration and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in MAP, however, i.v. AG failed to show similar effects. Thus, iNOS pathway may activate a central inhibitory control mechanism that attenuates OT secretion during endotoxemic shock. PMID:19932725

  12. Alachlor and carbaryl suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression by differentially inhibiting NF-{kappa}B activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Muroi, Masashi; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi . E-mail: tanamoto@nihs.go.jp

    2005-07-08

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages plays an important role in host defense and inflammation. We found that two agrochemicals, alachlor and carbaryl, inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production by macrophages. In the present study, we investigated this inhibitory mechanism in RAW 264 cells. Both chemicals inhibited LPS-induced iNOS protein and mRNA expression as well as murine iNOS promoter activity. When treating these chemicals with reducing agents, the inhibition by carbaryl was reversed, but not the inhibition by alachlor. These chemicals also inhibited LPS-induced interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) expression, an indispensable factor for LPS-induced iNOS expression. The inhibited iNOS expression, however, was not restored by exogenous IFN-{beta} supplementation. LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, which is necessary for the expression of IFN-{beta} and iNOS, was inhibited by these chemicals: however, the LPS-induced degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and I{kappa}B-{beta} was inhibited only by alachlor. These results indicate that alachlor and carbaryl differentially impair the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to the inhibition of NO production.

  13. 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase expression through the inhibition of Janus kinase 2-mediated JNK pathway in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Uto, Takuhiro; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, De-Xing

    2005-10-15

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) is an active ingredient of Wasabi (Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura), which is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. To clarify the cellular signaling mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory action of 6-MITC, we investigated the effects of 6-MITC on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264 cells. 6-MITC showed a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), iNOS mRNA and protein. LPS caused the c-Jun phosphorylation (a major component of AP-1) and IkappaB-alpha degradation. 6-MITC suppressed LPS-induced c-Jun phosphorylation, but did not inhibit IkappaB-alpha degradation. Cellular signaling analysis using MAPK-(U0126 for MEK1/2, SB203580 for p38 kinase and SP600125 for JNK) and Jak2-specific (AG490) inhibitors demonstrated that LPS stimulated iNOS expression via activating Jak2-mediated JNK, but not ERK and p38, pathway. 6-MITC suppressed iNOS expression through the inhibition of Jak2-mediated JNK signaling cascade with the attendant to AP-1 activation. In addition, the structure-activity study revealed that the inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) depended on the methyl chain length. These findings provide the molecular basis for the first time that 6-MITC is an effective agent to attenuate iNOS production. PMID:16139249

  14. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory derivatives with gastrointestinal-sparing properties.

    PubMed Central

    Cirino, G.; Wheeler-Jones, C. P.; Wallace, J. L.; Del Soldato, P.; Baydoun, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of novel nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NO-NSAIDs) on induction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined in a murine cultured macrophage cell line, J774. 2. LPS-induced nitrite production was markedly attenuated by the nitroxybutylester derivatives of flurbiprofen (FNBE), aspirin, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ketorolac, with each compound reducing accumulated nitrite levels by > 40% at the maximum concentrations (100 micrograms ml-1) used. 3. Further examination revealed that nitrite production was inhibited in a concentration-dependent (1-100 micrograms ml-1) manner by FNBE which at 100 micrograms ml-1 decreased LPS-stimulated levels by 63.3 +/- 8.6% (n = 7). The parent compound flurbiprofen was relatively ineffective over the same concentration-range, inhibiting nitrite accumulation by 24 +/- 0.9% (n = 3) at the maximum concentration used (100 micrograms ml-1). 4. FNBE reduced LPS-induced nitrite production when added to cells up to 4 h after LPS. Thereafter, FNBE caused very little or no reduction in nitrite levels. Furthermore NO-NSAIDs (100 micrograms ml-1) did not inhibit the metabolism of L-[3H]-arginine to citrulline by NO synthase isolated from LPS-activated macrophages. 5. Western blot analysis demonstrated that NO synthase expression was markedly attenuated following co-incubation of J774 cell with LPS (1 microgram ml-1; 24 h) and FNBE (100 micrograms ml-1; 24 h). Thus taken together, these findings indicate that NO-NSAIDs inhibit induction of NO synthase without directly affecting enzyme activity. 6. In conclusion our results indicate that NO-NSAIDs can inhibit the inducible L-arginine-NO pathway, and are capable of suppressing NO synthesis by inhibiting expression of NO synthase. The clinical implications of these findings remain to be established. Images Figure 4 PMID:8730734

  15. Isobutyrylshikonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated nuclear transcription factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Kang, Chang-Hee; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Lee, Hak-Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are important macrophages to defend against pathogens in the central nervous system (CNS); however, persistent or acute inflammation of microglia lead to CNS disorders via neuronal cell death. Therefore, we theorized that a good strategy for the treatment of CNS disorders would be to target inflammatory mediators from microglia in disease. Consequently, we investigated whether isobutyrylshikonin (IBS) attenuates the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with IBS inhibited the secretion of NO and prostaglandin E2 (as well as the expression of their key regulatory genes), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Isobutyrylshikonin also suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 in addition to blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a specific NF-κB inhibitor, showed the down-regulation of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 messenger RNA by suppressing NF-κB activity. This indirectly suggests that IBS-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, IBS attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, which are upstream molecules of NF-κB, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The functional aspects of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were analyzed with LY294002, which is a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor that attenuated LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by suppressing NF-κB activity. These data suggest that an IBS-mediated anti-inflammatory effect may be involved in suppressing the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25454762

  16. Adenosine receptor agonists differentially regulate IL-10, TNF-alpha, and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in endotoxemic mice.

    PubMed

    Haskó, G; Szabó, C; Németh, Z H; Kvetan, V; Pastores, S M; Vizi, E S

    1996-11-15

    Adenosine released into the extracellular space by immunologic and nonimmunologic stimuli has been shown to regulate various immune functions. In this study we report that i.p. pretreatment of mice with CGS-21680 HCl (CGS), a selective agonist of A2 adenosine receptors, at 0.2 to 2 mg/kg caused an augmentation of plasma IL-10 levels induced by i.p. injection of LPS, but decreased plasma levels of LPS-induced TNF-alpha. 2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), an agonist of A1 adenosine receptors, at 0.5 mg/kg diminished LPS-induced plasma TNF-alpha concentrations, but enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 levels only at the highest dose used (2 mg/kg). The specific A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-beta- D-ribofuranuronamide, at 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg potentiated LPS-stimulated IL-10 production and inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha production. LPS-induced plasma nitrite and nitrate levels (the breakdown products of nitric oxide (NO)) were suppressed by CGS and CCPA. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, pretreatment of the cells with both CGS and CCPA inhibited LPS-induced IL-10, TNF-alpha, and NO production, each in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of these drugs on cytokine and NO production was associated with improved mitochondrial respiration. Neither CGS nor CCPA affected the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB in these cells. These results demonstrate that adenosine receptor stimulation differentially modulates the LPS-induced production of IL-10, TNF-alpha, and NO in vitro and in vivo. The increase in LPS-induced IL-10 production and suppression of LPS-induced TNF-alpha and NO production caused by adenosine receptor activation may explain some of the immunomodulatory actions of adenosine released in excess during inflammatory and/or ischemic insult. PMID:8906843

  17. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2–Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • α-DHC isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium has significant antioxidant potential. • α-DHC inhibits NO, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. • α-DHC down-regulates of COX-2, iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. • α-DHC down-regulates MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. • α-DHC induces ARE-regulated gene expression via Keap-1 modification.

  18. Involvement of the membrane form of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced priming of mouse peritoneal macrophages for enhanced nitric oxide response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Ancuta, P; Fahmi, H; Pons, J F; Le Blay, K; Chaby, R

    1997-01-01

    We studied the pathways of macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). When mouse macrophages pre-exposed to LPS were restimulated with this agent, reduced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) responses (desensitization/endotoxin tolerance) were accompanied by increased (priming) nitric oxide (NO) responses. Priming was also inducible with recombinant interferon-beta (IFN-beta). The requirement of TNF-alpha biosynthesis in the LPS-induced priming was also suggested by the observation that both anti-TNF-alpha serum and pentoxifylline inhibited this effect. However, addition of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (mrTNF-alpha) did not enhance the priming induced by LPS or IFN-beta, and preincubation with mrTNF-alpha alone, or in association with other cytokines produced by macrophages (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, or leukaemia inhibitory factor), did not induce a priming effect. We found however, that pentoxifylline, which blocked the priming, also decreased the level of membrane-bound TNF-alpha. Furthermore, exposure to compound BB-3103 (a metalloproteinase inhibitor that blocks the processing of membrane-bound TNF-alpha yielding to the secreted cytokine) enhanced the priming effect, the expression of membrane TNF-alpha and the specific binding of LPS. These observations suggest that the membrane form of TNF-alpha is involved in the interaction of LPS with a receptor required for LPS-induced priming. PMID:9415035

  19. Altered Regulation of Renal Nitric Oxide and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Systems in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Kim, In Jin; Ma, Seong Kwon; Lee, Jong Un

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may induce vascular relaxation by increasing the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an important mediator of vascular tone during sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether regulation of NO and the ANP system is altered in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney injury. LPS (10 mg.kg-1) was injected in the tail veins of male Sprague-Dawley rats; 12 hours later, the kidneys were removed. Protein expression of NO synthase (NOS) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. As an index of synthesis of NO, its stable metabolites (nitrite/nitrate, NOx) were measured using colorimetric assays. mRNA expression of the ANP system was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To determine the activity of guanylyl cyclase (GC), the amount of cGMP generated in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and ANP was calculated. Creatinine clearance decreased and fractional excretion of sodium increased in LPS-treated rats compared with the controls. Inducible NOS protein expression increased in LPS-treated rats, while that of endothelial NOS, neuronal NOS, and NEP remained unchanged. Additionally, urinary and plasma NOx levels increased in LPS-treated rats. SNP-stimulated GC activity remained unchanged in the glomerulus and papilla in the LPS-treated rats. mRNA expression of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-C decreased in LPS-treated rats, while that of ANP and NPR-A did not change. ANP-stimulated GC activity reduced in the glomerulus and papilla. In conclusion, enhancement of the NO/cGMP pathway and decrease in ANP clearance were found play a role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced kidney injury. PMID:22128259

  20. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  1. Bromelain improves decrease in defecation in postoperative rats: modulation of colonic gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Suping; Huang, Tom H W; Li, George Q; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2006-01-25

    Ileus continues to be a common consequence of abdominal surgery, causing significant patient discomfort and often leading to more serious problems. The therapy available is limited, hence, ileus remains an important clinical problem. Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) directly modulates intestinal dysmotility after bowel manipulation and plays an essential role in initiating intestinal inflammation. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is known to be a critical component of iNOS gene transcriptional activation in response to inflammatory stimuli. Bromelain is a crude extract from the pineapple stem, which is sold as a nutritional supplement to "promote digestive health" and as an anti-inflammatory medication in some developed countries. Here, we have found that oral administration of bromelain improves decrease in defecation in abdominal postoperative rats. Results showed that bromelain increased the wet weight, dry weight, water content and number of fecal pellets in laparotomized plus mechanically manipulated rats, suggesting improvement of postoperative ileus. Furthermore, bromelain treatment inhibited overexpressed iNOS mRNA and restored down-regulated inhibitor kappaBalpha mRNA in the colon of the postoperative rats. From the in vitro experiments, bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite overproduction in macrophage cell lines and LPS-induced NF-kappaB luciferase reporter gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages transfected with NF-kappaB luciferase reporter gene. Thus, our findings suggest that bromelain improves decrease in defecation in postoperative rats, at least in part, by inhibiting colonic iNOS overexpression via NF-kappaB pathway. Our data indicates that bromelain may benefit patients with postoperative ileus. PMID:16137711

  2. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-induced inflammation alters mouse urinary bladder contraction via an interleukin-6-activated inducible nitric oxide synthase-related pathway.

    PubMed

    Weng, Te I; Wu, Hsiao Yi; Lin, Pei Ying; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection. Elevated blood and urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels have been shown in inflammatory urinary tract diseases. The role of IL-6 in mediating the urodynamic dysfunction in response to E. coli-induced urinary tract infection has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the nitric oxide (NO)-triggered alteration of contractile responses in the urinary bladder under an E. coli-induced inflammatory condition. The electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of the isolated detrusor strips, and immunoblotting for detecting protein expression in the bladders was measured short term (1 h) or long term (6 or 24 h) after intraperitoneal injection of E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or intravesical instillation of human pyelonephritogenic E. coli-J96 (O4:K6) strain or LPS into mice. IL-6 and NO productions were increased in the urinary bladders of mice 1 to 24 h after LPS or E. coli-J96 treatment. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and protein kinase C (PKC) activation and EFS-evoked detrusor contractions were increased in the bladders at 6 h after LPS or E. coli-J96 treatment, which could be reversed by anti-IL-6 antibody and iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine. At 1 h after LPS administration, bladder NO generation, endothelial NOS expression, and EFS-evoked detrusor contractions were effectively increased, whereas anti-IL-6 antibody could not reverse these LPS-induced responses. These results indicate that IL-6 may play an important role in the iNOS/NO-triggered PKC-activated contractile response in urinary bladder during E. coli or LPS-induced inflammation. PMID:19470750

  3. Inhibition of the induction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine brain microglial cells by sodium salicylate.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Lee, E; Shin, T; Chung, C; An, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been proposed to play a role in a variety of inflammatory diseases. Sodium salicylate (NaSal) is the most commonly used anti-inflammatory agent. We investigated whether NaSal can diminish the induction of iNOS in murine brain microglial cells. In primary cultures, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) separately did not stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production, whereas IFN-gamma combined with LPS synergistically induced iNOS. NaSal inhibited both the production of NO and expression of iNOS in microglial cells. Synergy between IFN-gamma and LPS was mainly dependent on tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion as the increase of the induction of the iNOS by IFN-gamma plus LPS was associated with the increase of TNF-alpha secretion and IFN-gamma plus LPS-induced TNF-alpha secretion by microglial cells was decreased by the treatment with NaSal. These results suggest a possible use of NaSal in managing inflammation of the central nervous system through inhibition of the iNOS induction. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9824502

  4. Hydrangenol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the NF-κB pathway and activating the Nrf2-mediated HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Kang, Chang-Hee; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Lee, Seungheon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Seo, Yong Taek; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-06-01

    We previously demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of water extract of Hydrangea macrophylla in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells. Here, we investigated whether hydrangenol, a bioactive component of H. macrophylla, attenuates the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and its associated gene, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our data showed that low dosages of hydrangenol inhibited LPS-stimulated NO release and iNOS expression without any accompanying cytotoxicity. Hydrangenol also suppressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunits, consequently inhibiting DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Additionally, the NF-κB inhibitors, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and PS-1145, significantly attenuated LPS-induced iNOS expression, indicating that hydrangenol-induced NF-κB inhibition might be a key regulator of iNOS expression. Furthermore, our data showed that hydrangenol suppresses NO production by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The presence of cobalt protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inducer, potently suppressed LPS-induced NO production. Hydrangenol also promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and subsequently increased its binding activity at the specific antioxidant response element sites. Additionally, transient knockdown of Nrf2 significantly downregulated hydrangenol-induced HO-1 expression, indicating that hydrangenol-induced Nrf2 is an upstream regulator of HO-1. Taken together, these data suggest that hydrangenol attenuates NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation and by stimulating the Nrf2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, hydrangenol is a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of LPS-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:27032067

  5. Atypical “seizure-like” activity in cortical reverberating networks in vitro can be caused by LPS-induced inflammation: a multi-electrode array study from a hundred neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Francesca; Amadeo, Alida; Donvito, Giulia; Lecchi, Marzia; Costa, Barbara; Constanti, Andrew; Wanke, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    We show here that a mild sterile inflammation induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a neuron/astrocyte/microglial cortical network, modulates neuronal excitability and can initiate long-duration burst events resembling epileptiform seizures, a recognized feature of various central nervous neurodegenerative, neurological and acute systemic diseases associated with neuroinflammation. To study this action, we simultaneously analyzed the reverberating bursting activity of a hundred neurons by using in vitro multi-electrode array methods. ∼5 h after LPS application, we observed a net increase in the average number of spikes elicited in engaged cells and within each burst, but no changes neither in spike waveforms nor in burst rate. This effect was characterized by a slow, twofold exponential increase of the burst duration and the appearance of rarely occurring long burst events that were never seen during control recordings. These changes and the time-course of microglia-released proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were blocked by pre-treatment with 50 nM minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory agent which was inactive when applied alone. Assay experiments also revealed that application of 60 pM exogenous TNF-α after 12–15 h, produced non-washable changes of neuronal excitability, completely different from those induced by LPS, suggesting that TNF-α release alone was not responsible for our observed findings. Our results indicate that the link between neuroinflammation and hyperexcitability can be unveiled by studying the long-term activity of in vitro neuronal/astrocyte/microglial networks. PMID:25404893

  6. Chikusetsusaponin V attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yan Wen; Zhang, Chang Cheng; Zhao, Hai Xia; Wan, Jing Zhi; Deng, Li Li; Zhou, Zhi Yong; Dun, Yao Yan; Liu, Chao Qi; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Ting

    2016-06-01

    Chikusetsusaponin V (CsV), a saponin from Panax japonicus, has been reported to inhibit inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells. However, whether CsV could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury in vivo and the potential mechanisms involved remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CsV on LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and further explored the potential mechanisms involved. Our results showed that CsV significantly attenuated elevation of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and improved liver histopathological changes in LPS-induced mice. In addition, CsV decreased serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and inhibited mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS challenged mice. Furthermore, CsV inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by downregulating phosphorylated NF-κB, IκB-α, ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 levels in the liver tissue, which ultimately decreased nucleus NF-κB protein level. In conclusion, our data suggested that CsV could be a promising drug for preventing LPS challenged liver injury since it attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses, partly via inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26981791

  7. Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production rescues airway growth and maturation in atrophic fetal rat lung explants

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, C.; Cherry, J.I.; Land, F.M.; Land, S.C. . E-mail: s.c.land@dundee.ac.uk

    2006-10-13

    Inflammation induces premature maturation of the fetal lung but the signals causing this effect remain unclear. We determined if nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, evoked by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 {mu}g ml{sup -1}), participated in this process. Fetal rat lung airway surface complexity rose 2.5-fold over 96 h in response to LPS and was associated with increased iNOS protein expression and activity. iNOS inhibition by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-2HCl (L-NIL) abolished this and induced airway atrophy similar to untreated explants. Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) expression was also induced by LPS and abolished by L-NIL. As TGF{beta} suppresses iNOS activity, we determined if feedback regulation modulated NO-dependent maturation. LPS induced TGF{beta}1 release and SMAD4 nuclear translocation 96 h after treatment. Treatment of explants with a blocking antibody against TGF{beta}1 sustained NO production and airway morphogenesis whereas recombinant TGF{beta}1 antagonized these effects. Feedback regulation of NO synthesis by TGF{beta} may, thus, modulate airway branching and maturation of the fetal lung.

  8. Microsatellite (GT)n polymorphism at 3'UTR of SLC11A1 influences the expression of brucella LPS induced MCP1 mRNA in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Sivamani; Kumar, Subodh; Sharma, Arjava; Mitra, Abhijit

    2013-04-15

    A (GT)n microsatellite polymorphism at 3'UTR of SLC11A1(solute carrier family 11A1) is associated with the natural resistance to bovine brucellosis. A pleiotropic effect of SLC11A1 on other candidate genes influencing the host resistance including monocyte chemotactic/chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) is also hypothesized. In the present study, we report the cloning and characterization of the complete coding sequence of bubaline (bu) MCP1 and its tissue distribution at the transcript level. The buMCP1 exhibited as high as 99% and >80% of sequence identities with the bovine and other domestic animal species homologues. The buMCP1 mRNA was abundant across the different tissues: most abundant in liver and mammary gland, moderate in ovary, skeletal muscle and testis, and least in uterus. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (RTqPCR) analysis revealed that PBMCs carrying so called resistant GT13 allele produced more MCP1 mRNA endogenously as well as when induced with brucella LPS suggesting the pleiotropic roles of SLC11A1 in conferring resistance against the intracellular pathogens particularly against brucellosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which 3'UTR SLC11A1 concomitantly increases the production of chemokines like MCP1 are yet to be investigated. PMID:23333195

  9. Recognition of Betaine as an Inhibitor of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Activated Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amiraslani, Banafsheh; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Shahsanam; Nazem, Habiballah; Sabet, Mohammadsadegh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuroinflammation, as a major outcome of microglia activation, is an important factor for progression of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Microglial cells, as the first-line defense in the central nervous system, act as a source of neurotoxic factors such as nitric oxide (NO), a free radical which is involved in neuronal cell death. The aim of this study was to inhibit production of NO in activated microglial cells in order to decrease neurological damages that threat the central nervous system. Methods: An in vitro model of a newborn rat brain cell culture was used to examine the effect of betaine on the release of NO induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Briefly, primary microglial cells were stimulated by LPS and after 2 minutes, they were treated by different concentrations of betaine. The production of NO was assessed by the Griess assay while cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Results: Our investigations indicated that LPS-induced NO release was attenuated by betaine, suggesting that this compound might inhibit NO release. The effects of betaine on NO production in activated microglial cells after 24 h were "dose-dependent". It means that microglial cells which were treated with higher concentrations of betaine, released lower amounts of NO. Also our observations showed that betaine compound has no toxic effect on microglial cells. Conclusion: Betaine has an inhibitory effect on NO release in activated microglial cells and may be an effective therapeutic component to control neurological disorders. PMID:22801281

  10. Soyasaponin Ab inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Cheng, Yanwen; Wang, Tao; Tang, Lihua; Sun, Yan; Lu, Xiuyun; Yu, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Soyasaponin Ab (SA) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects of SA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of SA on LPS-induced ALI and clarify the possible mechanism. The mice were stimulated with LPS to induce ALI. SA was given 1h after LPS treatment. 12h later, lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes and edema. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to assess inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) production. In vitro, mice alveolar macrophages were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of SA. Our results showed that SA attenuated LPS-induced lung pathological changes, edema, the expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissues, as well as TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, and NO production in mice. Meanwhile, SA up-regulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased by LPS in mice. SA also inhibited LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production as well as NF-?B activation in alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, SA could activate Liver X Receptor Alpha (LXR?) and knockdown of LXR? by RNAi abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of SA. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that SA exhibited protective effects against LPS-induced acute lung injury and the possible mechanism was involved in activating LXR?, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. PMID:26672918

  11. Ginsenoside Rg5:Rk1 attenuates TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and LPS-induced NO production via downregulation of NF-κB/p38 MAPK/STAT1 signaling in human keratinocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungeun; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Aceituno, Veronica Castro; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Zhang, Jinglou; Jimenez Perez, Zuly Elizabeth; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Keratinocytes and macrophages are two cells types that play a pivotal role in the development of AD. These cells produced different chemokines and cytokines, especially thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), as well as nitric oxide (NO) through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX2 in response to stimulation by TNF-α/IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) respectively. These mediators are thought to be crucial regulators of the pathogenesis of AD. Although several natural compounds to treat AD have been studied, the effect of Rg5:Rk1 from Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) on AD has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of Rg5:Rk1 on TNF-α/IFN-γ stimulated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and LPS-stimulated macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data showed that pretreatment of HaCaT cells with Rg5:Rk1 significantly reduced the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced increase in TARC/CCL17 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Rg5:Rk1 decreased LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. A considerable reduction in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the aforementioned AD mediators was also observed. Pretreatment with Rg5:Rk1 attenuated the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, STAT1, and NF-κB/IKKβ in HaCaT cells. Together, these findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg5:Rk1 may have a potential anti-AD effect by suppressing NF-κB/p38 MAPK/STAT1 signaling. PMID:26714752

  12. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (p<0.001) brain- reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) significantly increased (p<0.001) the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide and the activity of cytokines in the brain. MEAR supplementation resulted in normalization of brain GSH and CAT and SOD and decreases in the levels of MDA with reduction of nitric oxide and cytokines in the brain. The action of the extract at dose of 200 mg/kg was almost similar to the standard drug, quercetin (100mg/kg, p.o.). These present study conclude that MEAR administration significantly (P<0.05) reduced LPS- induced oxidative-stress and intensely suggest that Asparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent. PMID:25730806

  13. 2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde inhibits nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via regulation of AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Yeon; Hong, Su-Hyung; Park, Sun-Dong; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Kim, Soo-A

    2012-12-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, an active compound of cinnamon, has been reported to exert various biological functions such as anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Previously, we showed that 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) has an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. In an effort to find a more effective anti-atherosclerotic agent, here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. We showed that BCA more effectively inhibited NO production than HCA with less cytotoxicity. We also demonstrated that BCA inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. Signal transduction studies showed that BCA significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK and AP-1-dependent reporter gene activity. LPS-induced expression levels of JunB, c-Jun and c-Fos were also decreased by BCA treatment. Moreover, the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of AP-1 was markedly inhibited by BCA. The direct injection of BCA into mice inhibited the LPS-induced increase in plasma nitrite levels, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect of BCA in vivo. Overall, these observations suggest that BCA has the potential for use as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. PMID:23036374

  14. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia.

    PubMed

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi; Kotera, Jun; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid-derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. PMID:27086850

  15. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J.-M.; Lin, H.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.; Wu, M.-S.; Lin, C.-W.; Chiu, W.-T.; Lin, C.-H. Chen, Y.-C.

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 {mu}M, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  16. The role of prostanoids and nitric oxide in endotoxin-induced hyporesponsiveness of equine digital blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S R; Elliott, J

    1999-05-01

    Endotoxin has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute laminitis. The aim of this study was to examine the direct effects of endotoxin on isolated equine digital blood vessels. Equine digital veins (EDV), incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 microg/ml) became hyporesponsive to 5-HT after 16 h. Cycloheximide and ibuprofen blocked this effect of LPS and increased the maximum response obtained to 5-HT when compared to control vessels. L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed the hyporesponsiveness caused by LPS. Vessels maintained in culture medium containing LPS also became hyporesponsive to 5-HT, an effect which was completely prevented by ibuprofen but only partially reversed by L-NAME. Measurements were made of 6-keto PGF1alpha and nitrite production by segments of equine digital artery and vein in culture medium alone or co-cultured with peripheral blood leucocytes. LPS did not stimulate nitrite production from vessel segments but increased nitrite release from leucocytes, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and L-NAME. Lipopolysaccharide increased 6-keto PGF1alpha production by blood vessels, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and ibuprofen but not L-NAME. No synergistic effect on release of nitrite or 6-keto PGF1alpha was noted in co-cultures of blood vessels and leucocytes. These data suggest that induction of cyclo-oxygenase by LPS was a major cause of hyporesponsiveness of digital blood vessels to 5-HT. Release of nitric oxide was not detectable in LPS-stimulated blood vessels maintained in culture even in the presence of activated leucocytes yet L-NAME did protect against LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness indicating nitric oxide synthase induction may play some role in the effect of LPS. These findings are important in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the vascular changes which occur in acute laminitis. PMID:10402134

  17. A tetramethoxychalcone from Chloranthus henryi suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Si-Yu; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Qiu-Yan; Xu, Peng; Pan, Li-Long; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Neuroinflammation underlies the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. 2?-hydroxy-4,3?,4?,6?-tetramethoxychalcone (HTMC) is a known chalcone derivative isolated from Chloranthus henryi with anti-inflammatory activities in BV2 macrophages. However, its pharmacological effects on microglial cells have not been demonstrated. To this end, we examined the effects of HTMC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells. HTMC concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory enzymes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6. In addition, HTMC inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by reducing NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2 and Nox4 expression. In addition, HTMC interfered LPS-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK) phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. By inhibiting phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Jun, HTMC suppressed LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. Taken together, our data indicate that HTMC suppresses inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by modulating JNK-AP-1 and NADPH oxidases-ROS pathways. HTMC represents a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative and related aging-associated diseases. PMID:26852953

  18. Inhibition of endogenous heat shock protein 70 attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase induction via disruption of heat shock protein 70/Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1-Ca(2+) -calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1-nuclear factor-κB signals in BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Tong, Lijuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to inflammation and host defense. The inhibition of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents iNOS induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, the role and mechanism of endogenous Hsp70 in iNOS induction in microglia remains unclear. This study addresses this issue in BV-2 microglia, showing that Hsp70 inhibition or knockdown prevents LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitric oxide production. Real-time PCR experiments showed that LPS-induced iNOS mRNA transcription was blocked by Hsp70 inhibition. Further studies revealed that the inhibition of Hsp70 attenuated LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). This prevention effect of Hsp70 inhibition on IKKβ-NF-κB activation was found to be dependent on the Ca(2+) /calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signals based on the following observations: 1) chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of CaMKII reduced LPS-induced increases in TAK1 phosphorylation and 2) Hsp70 inhibition reduced LPS-induced increases in CaMKII/TAK1 phosphorylation, intracellular pH value, [Ca(2+) ]i , and CaMKII/TAK1 association. Mechanistic studies showed that Hsp70 inhibition disrupted the association between Hsp70 and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which is an important exchanger responsible for Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that the inhibition of endogenous Hsp70 attenuates the induction of iNOS, which likely occurs through the disruption of NHE1/Hsp70-Ca(2+) -CaMKII/TAK1-NF-κB signals in BV-2 microglia, providing further insight into the functions of Hsp70 in the CNS. PMID:25691123

  19. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide by extract of Emilia sonchifolia L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Akah, Peter A; Okoye, Festus B C; Esimone, Charles O

    2012-12-01

    Emilia sonchifolia L. (Asteraceae) is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of a wide array of inflammatory disorders. This practice has also been supported by scientific reports which showed that extracts of E. sonchifolia possess anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. However, the mechanism(s) through which the extracts produce these effects is not known. In this study, the effect of a methanol/methylene chloride extract of E. sonchifolia (ES) on the levels of IL-1? and TNF-? after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1?mg/kg) challenge was investigated in mice. The effect of ES on TNF-? and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production by LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMDM) was also investigated in vitro. BMMDM were pre-incubated for 2?h with ES (20, and 100 ?g/mL) or with Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, PDTC (100 M) and then activated with LPS, and then the IL-1?, TNF-? and NO production measured in the cell-free conditioned culture supernatant after 24?h of incubation. In groups of mice pre-treated with ES, the systemic levels of IL-1? and TNF-? induced by LPS were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower. In vitro, ES treatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease in LPS-inducible IL-1?, TNF-?, and NO production by BMDM compared to the effects of treatment of the cells with LPS alone without affecting the viability of the cells. The results of these studies suggest that treatment with ES alleviated inflammatory responses possibly through a suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as IL-1?, TNF-?, and iNO. PMID:22712801

  20. Overproduction of nitric oxide by endothelial cells and macrophages contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in adrenocortical cells and adrenal insufficiency during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Nan; Duan, Guo-Li; Liu, Yu-Jian; Yu, Qing; Tang, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Han; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xin

    2015-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adrenal glands, thereby leading to adrenocortical insufficiency. Since nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) leads to mitochondrial damage in various tissues, the present study aims to investigate whether NO contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in adrenal cortex and adrenocortical insufficiency during endotoxemia. Systemic administration of LPS increased iNOS expression and NO production in adrenal glands of mice. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400 W significantly attenuated the LPS-induced mitochondrial superoxide production and dysfunction in adrenal glands, and reversed the LPS-induced adrenocortical hyporesponsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In contrast, administration of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) led to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adrenal glands, which resulted in a blunted corticosterone response to ACTH. Using double immunofluorescence staining for iNOS with the vascular endothelial cell marker CD31 or the macrophage marker CD68, we found that increased iNOS expression was found in vascular endothelial cells and macrophages, but not adrenocortical cells in the adrenal gland during endotoxemia. Administration of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor GYY4137 inhibited NO production and reversed LPS-induced adrenocortical hyporesponsiveness. Our data suggest that overproduction of NO, which is mainly generated by endothelial cells and macrophages during endotoxemia, contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in adrenocortical cells and subsequently leads to adrenal insufficiency. PMID:25744413

  1. N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced brain inflammation by regulating NF-κB signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang Hun; Kim, Jiae; Ahn, Jee-Yin; Hahn, Hoh-Gyu; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2015-12-15

    We report that N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine (KHG26693), a novel thiazole derivative, can prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation in mice. In this LPS-induced model of brain inflammation, administration of KHG26693 effectively prevented increases in the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, prostaglandin E2, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide, and mitigated reductions in the levels of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus. KHG26693 also prevented reductions in the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, pretreatment with KHG26693 prior to LPS treatment dramatically attenuated the elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. Moreover, pretreatment with KHG26693 significantly suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκBα through the inactivation of IKKβ. Additionally, KHG26693 caused the downregulation of LPS-induced cystathionine-b-synthase gene expression in the brain. Although the clinical relevance of our findings remains to be determined, our data suggest that KHG26693 might prevent neuronal cell injury via the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:26616878

  2. Nitric oxide in liver fibrosis: The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in hepatic cells in pathological conditions. Its induction is involved in the development of liver fibrosis, and thus iNOS could be a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes the role of iNOS in liver fibrosis, focusing on 1) iNOS biology, 2) iNOS-expressing liver cells, 3) iNOS-related therapeutic strategies, and 4) future directions. PMID:26770919

  3. Soybean glyceollins mitigate inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    YOON, EUN-KYUNG; KIM, HYUN-KYOUNG; CUI, SONG; KIM, YONG-HOON; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2012-01-01

    Glyceollins, produced to induce disease resistance responses against specific species, such as an incompatible pathogen Phytophthora sojae in soybeans, have the potential to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of elicited glyceollins via a signaling pathway, we studied the glyceollin signaling pathway using several assays including RNA and protein expression levels. We found that soybean glyceollins significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, as well as the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via the suppression of NF-κB activation. Glyceollins also inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα kinase (IKK), the degradation of IκBα, and the formation of NF-κB-DNA binding complex in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, they inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, but increased the generation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Collectively, the present data show that glyceollins elicit potential anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:22246209

  4. U-Bang-Haequi Tang: A Herbal Prescription that Prevents Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB-Mediated Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Min; Jung, Ji Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Park, Sang Mi; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Ju-Hee; Kang, Seung Ho; Park, Sun-Dong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Zhao, Rong Jie; Jee, Seon Young

    2014-01-01

    Since antiquity, medical herbs have been prescribed for both treatment and preventative purposes. Herbal formulas are used to reduce toxicity as well as increase efficacy in traditional Korean medicine. U-bang-haequi tang (UBT) is a herbal prescription containing Arctii fructus and Forsythia suspensa as its main components and has treated many human diseases in traditional Korean medicine. This research investigated the effects of UBT against an acute phase of inflammation. For this, we measured induction of nitric oxide (NO) and related proteins in macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, paw swelling was measured in carrageenan-treated rats. Carrageenan significantly induced activation of inflammatory cells and increases in paw volume, whereas oral administration of 0.3 or 1 g/kg/day of UBT inhibited the acute inflammatory response. In RAW264.7 cells, UBT inhibited mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS. UBT treatment also blocked elevation of NO production, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα induced by LPS. Moreover, UBT treatment significantly blocked the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases by LPS. In conclusion, UBT prevented both acute inflammation in rats as well as LPS-induced NO and iNOS gene expression through inhibition of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24959187

  5. Supercritical extract of Seabuckthorn Leaves (SCE200ET) inhibited endotoxemia by reducing inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthase 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Jayashankar, Bindhya; Mishra, K P; Ganju, L; Singh, S B

    2014-05-01

    Endotoxins from infectious organisms lead to sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response, and a major cause of death. Numerous studies have shown the potential role of plants and plant-derived compounds in the suppression of LPS induced endotoxemia in vivo. In the present study, we have identified a plant namely Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) as a potent agent for the treatment of endotoxemia. The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Supercritical Extract of Seabuckthorn Leaves (SCE200ET) and its active component Isorhamnetin (IR) on the LPS induced endotoxemia in Balb/c mice by measuring the level of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α and IL-6. Expression of COX-2 and iNOS was measured to understand the involvement of various pathways in the mechanism of action of SCE200ET and IR. The results indicated that SCE200ET and IR inhibited LPS induced NO production by peritoneal macrophages. Cytokines mediated effector functions were influenced by the reduction of IL-6 and TNF-α production and CD40 expression was also markedly diminished in the extract or IR treated groups. In addition, the anti-inflammatory properties were further characterized by decreased expression of COX-2 and iNOS proteins. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract by RP-HPLC led to identification of isorhamnetin, as bioactive component. Thus, SCE200ET extract and its active component Isorhamnetin could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of endotoxin induced sepsis. PMID:24594274

  6. Acanthopanax koreanum fruit waste inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Soon; Koh, Jaesook; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2010-01-01

    The Acanthopanax koreanum fruit is a popular fruit in Jeju Island, but the byproducts of the alcoholic beverage prepared using this fruit are major agricultural wastes. The fermentability of this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of using A. koreanum fruit waste (AFW) as a source of antiinflammatory agents. AFWs were extracted with 80% EtOH. The ethanolic extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction (100 microg/mL) of AFW inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 cells by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively. These inhibitory effects of the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of AFWs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent pattern. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of AFWs also prevented degradation of IkappaB-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid was identified as major compound present in AFW, and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore using pure ursolic acid as standard and by HPLC, AFW and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts was found to contain 1.58 mg/g and 1.75 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we tested the potential application of AFW extracts as a cosmetic material by performing human skin primary irritation tests. In these tests, AFW extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that AFW extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application. PMID:20368786

  7. Diterpenoids from the Roots of Euphorbia fischeriana with Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Chul; Jin, Qinghao; Jang, Hari; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Ha-Jin; Shin, Jong Won; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2016-01-22

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of a methanolic extract of Euphorbia fischeriana led to the isolation of four new abietane-type diterpenoids, fischeriolides A-D (1-4), together with 11 known diterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated based on the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic circular dichroism methods. Compounds 5-9 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values in the range 4.9-12.6 μM. PMID:26702644

  8. Malabaricone C suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses via inhibiting ROS-mediated Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungwon; Tae, Nara; Min, Byung Sun; Choe, Jongseon; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Malabaricone C (MLB-C), isolated from nutmeg, is a phenolic diarylnonanoid that is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular actions of MLB-C against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. MLB-C inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-γ (INF-γ) in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with NO and PGE(2) inhibition, MLB-C suppressed LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression as well as the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS. MLB-C pretreatment prevented LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK), phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In addition, MLB-C blocked LPS-induced serine 536 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB. Further study demonstrated that MLB-C inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation, which is an upstream activator of NF-κB, by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, without affecting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These findings indicate that MLB-C exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB activation by inhibiting interconnected ROS/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:22917708

  9. Kolaviron, Biflavonoid Complex from the Seed of Garcinia kola Attenuated Angiotensin II- and Lypopolysaccharide-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Yakubu, Momoh Audu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid extract from Garcinia kola seeds has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio-protective, nephro-protective and other arrays of chemopreventive capabilities but the mechanism of action is still not completely understood. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative potential of KV in cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs). Effects of KV (25-100 μg/mL) on VSMC proliferation alone or following treatments with mitogen and proinflammatory agents Angiotensin II (Ag II, 10-6 M) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/mL) and effects on NO production were determined. Cellular proliferations were determined by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) level was determined by Griess assay. KV dose-and time dependently attenuated VSMC growth. Results: Treatment of VSMCs with Ag II and LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of the cell which was significantly attenuated by the treatment with KV. Treatment of VSMC with LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) level in the media which was attenuated by KV. These results demonstrated anti-proliferative anti-inflammatory properties of KV as it clearly inhibited cellular proliferation induced by mitogens as well as LPS-induced inflammatory processes. Conclusion: Therefore, KV may mitigate cardiovascular conditions that involve cell proliferation, free radical generation and inflammatory processes such as hypertension, diabetes and stroke. However, the molecular mechanism of action of KV needs to be investigated. SUMMARY Angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron mitigates angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron ameliorates nitric oxide productionKolaviron offers antioxidant activity. Abbreviations Used: VSMCs: Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Ag II: Angiotensin II, KV: Kolaviron, LPS: lypopolysaccharide, NO: Nitric Oxide, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, MTT: (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), DMSO: Dimethylsulfoxide, GB1: Garcinia kola biflavonoid-1, GB2: Garcinia kola biflavonoid-2, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, ET-1: Endothelin-1, NF-κB: Nuclear factor-kappa beta, COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2 PMID:27114693

  10. Implication of nitric oxide synthase in carcinogenesis: analysis of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Esumi, H; Ogura, T; Kurashima, Y; Adachi, H; Hokari, A; Weisz, A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly identified, multifunctional biological mediator. However, it also has deleterious effects on biological materials. For instance, nucleic acids, proteins, and some prosthetic groups of enzymes can be modified by NO or its reaction products with other reactive oxygen species. Endogenous nitrosamine formation through the reaction of NO or its oxidized products with amines might be involved in carcinogenesis. These deleterious effects of NO are often associated with inflammatory processes both in experimental animals and human. We analyzed the molecular mechanism of control of expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in mouse cells by cloning its putative promoter region. This promoter responded to various cytokines and endotoxin similarly to the endogenous NOS gene in mouse cells. No appreciable induction of NOS was observed in human peripheral blood cells, but induction was detected in a human glioblastoma cell line A-172. Therefore, the human inducible NOS cDNA was cloned from A-172 cells and its cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence found to have about 80% similarity to those of both mouse and rat inducible NOSs. The effects of various cytokines on the induction of the gene were somewhat different from those observed in mouse cells, but the mouse promoter responded to these cytokines similarly to the endogenous NOS gene in human cells, indicating functional similarity of cis-elements of the genes encoding both human and mouse inducible NOS. Structural analysis of the human inducible NOS gene by Southern blot analysis revealed putative genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism in intron 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7581489

  11. Isofuranodiene, the main volatile constituent of wild celery (Smyrnium olusatrum L.), protects d-galactosamin/lipopolysacchride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenping; Shi, Jingshan; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-05-01

    Isofuranodiene is a natural sesquiterpene rich occurring in Smyrnium olusatrum, a forgotten culinary herb which was marginalised after the domestication of the improved form of celery. Our recent data showed that isofuranodiene inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its protective effect on d-galactosamine/lipopolysacchride (GalN/LPS)-induced liver injury in SD rats. Oral administration of isofuranodiene (20 and 50 mg/kg) dramatically inhibited GalN/LPS-induced serum elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde levels, and significantly ameliorated liver injury as evidenced by the histological improvement in H&E staining. Furthermore, isofuranodiene treatment significantly inhibited GalN/LPS-induced mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in liver tissues. The results from this study showed that isofuranodiene protects GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in SD rats and suggested that it may be a potential functional food ingredient for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25978596

  12. Design and Synthesis of 2-Amino-4-methylpyridine Analogues as Inhibitors for Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and in vivo Evaluation of [18F]6-(2-Fluoropropyl)-4-methyl-pyridin-2-amine as a Potential PET Tracer for Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dong; Lee, Hsiaoju; Rothfuss, Justin M.; Chen, Delphine L.; Ponde, Datta E.; Welch, Michael J.; Mach, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A series of position-6 substituted 2-amino-4-methylpyridine analogues was synthesized and compounds 9, 18, and 20 were identified as the inhibitors with the greatest potential to serve as PET tracers for imaging inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). [18F]9 was synthesized and evaluated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS activation. In vivo biodistribution studies of [18F]9 indicate higher tracer uptake in the lungs of the LPS-treated mice when compared to control mice. Tracer uptake at 60 min post-injection was reduced in a blocking study using a known inhibitor of iNOS. The expression of iNOS was confirmed by Western blot analysis of lung samples from the LPS-treated mice. MicroPET studies also demonstrated accumulation of radiotracer in the lungs of the LPS-treated mice. Taken collectively, these data suggest that [18F]9 shows favorable properties as a PET tracer to image iNOS activation with PET. PMID:19323559

  13. Effect of Ixeris dentata Nakai Extract on Nitric Oxide Production and Prostaglandin E2 Generation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yu Yeon; Hong, Jin Tae; Han, Sang Bae; Son, Dong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of severe acute and chronic diseases. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory property of a crude methanol extract (MeOH-ex) and the solvent fractions of Ixeris dentata Nakai (IDN) in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7. Here, we showed that the ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc-fr) had the most potent inhibitory activity on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production among the tested samples, i.e., IDN MeOH-ex and the three different solvent fractions (chloroform, n-hexane, and EtOAc). We further found that the EtOAc-fr significantly inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin PGE2 (PGE2) generation in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the treatment with EtOAc-fr effectively suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). These results suggest that the EtOAc-fr of IDN MeOH-ex exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity in vitro by inhibiting LPS-induced NO production and PGE2 generation via suppression of iNOS and COX-2 expression. PMID:26770187

  14. Gardenia jasminoides extracts and gallic acid inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by suppression of JNK2/1 signaling pathways in BV-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Hung; Kuo, Heng-Hung; Ho, Li-Hsing; Tseng, Ming-Lang; Siao, An-Ci; Hung, Chang-Tsen; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Hou, Chien-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ, Cape Jasmine Fruit, Zhi Zi) has been traditionally used for the treatment of infectious hepatitis, aphthous ulcer, and trauma; however, the direct evidence is lacking. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effect of the GJ extract (GJ) and gallic acid (GA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation of BV-2 microglial cells and acute liver injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Results: Our results showed that the GJ extract and GA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandin (PGE2) production in BV-2 cells. The GJ extract and GA significantly decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in LPS-treated rats. Furthermore, the water extract, but not the ethanol extract, of the GJ dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced JNK2/1 and slightly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in BV-2 cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that the protective mechanism of the GJ extract involves an antioxidant effect and inhibition of JNK2/1 MAP kinase and COX-2 expressions in LPS-induced inflammation of BV-2 cells. PMID:26221479

  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is responsible for nitric oxide release from murine pituicytes.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, T H; Rivier, C; Lee, S; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D; Moesby, L

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated whether pituicytes were able to produce and release nitric oxide (NO), and which type of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) would be responsible for this phenomenon. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 micro g/ml was used as inflammatory mediator. Because pituicytes are known to secrete interleukin (IL)-6 upon stimulation with LPS, this parameter was also investigated. Cultured pituicytes, from 4-week-old male mice, were stimulated with LPS for 6 h or 24 h. At 24 h, there was a significant increase in accumulated nitrite indicating NO formation. In contrast, IL-6 release was already significantly higher 6 h after stimulation and further increased at 24 h. The correlation between accumulated nitrite and secreted IL-6 was 0.84 after 24 h of incubation with LPS. The expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA in the pituicytes was significantly higher than the control level after 6 h and 24 h of exposure to LPS, with levels at 6 h being significantly higher than those at 24 h. There was no detected expression of endothelial NOS or neuronal NOS mRNA. Cultured pituicytes were also subjected to immunocytochemistry for iNOS protein at 6, 12, and 24 h after stimulation with LPS. Most cells were positive for iNOS, but there were no observable differences with the time points that we used. Collectively, these results show that pituicytes are able to produce NO, and that the inducible form of NOS is responsible for this production. Furthermore, there is a weak correlation between NO and IL-6 released from pituicytes after 24 h of stimulation with LPS. PMID:12588513

  16. TXNIP Deficiency Exacerbates Endotoxic Shock via the Induction of Excessive Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Dong Oh; Park, Jeong-Ran; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Min, Jeong-Ki; Na, Hee-Jun; Lee, Seon-Jin; Lee, Hee Gu; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Hee-Bong; Choi, Inpyo

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has multiple functions, including tumor suppression and involvement in cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, its role in the inflammatory process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that Txnip−/− mice are significantly more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. In response to LPS, Txnip−/− macrophages produced significantly higher levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and an iNOS inhibitor rescued Txnip−/− mice from endotoxic shock-induced death, demonstrating that NO is a major factor in TXNIP-mediated endotoxic shock. This susceptibility phenotype of Txnip−/− mice occurred despite reduced IL-1β secretion due to increased S-nitrosylation of NLRP3 compared to wild-type controls. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TXNIP is a novel molecule that links NO synthesis and NLRP3 inflammasome activation during endotoxic shock. PMID:24098117

  17. Anandamide rescues retinal barrier properties in Müller glia through nitric oxide regulation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, G; Chatterjee, N

    2015-01-22

    The blood retinal barrier (BRB) can mitigate deleterious immune response. Dysfunction at the BRB can affect disease progression. Under inflammatory conditions Müller glia produce increased pro-inflammatory factors, like nitric oxide (NO). In this study we describe molecular events at the Müller glia during inflammation which could affect inner BRB properties. Griess assay and 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) time-lapse fluorescence were used to measure NO production. Western blot was used to analyze the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) components. Lucifer Yellow was used to measure permeability. Griess assay and DAF-2DA time-lapse fluorescence images revealed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation and increased NO production. In parallel, changes were observed in tight junction proteins, zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), connexin 43 (Cx43), and permeability. This was mediated through activation of iNOS and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), implicated in immune response. Endocannabinoids can exert a protective and anti-inflammatory effect. Exogenous arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) inhibited NO generation and also abolished LPS-induced increase in permeability. Our work suggests that subtle changes in Müller glia function, which act as part of the BRB, could contribute to retinal health. AEA which can reduce inflammatory cytotoxicity has potential as treatment in several ocular manifestations where the integrity of the BRB is crucial. PMID:25453774

  18. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits ghrelin-excited neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reduces food intake via central nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Borner, Tito; Pinkernell, Sarah; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces anorexia and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc). Peripheral administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400 W counteracts the anorectic effects of LPS. Here we investigated the role of central NO signaling in LPS anorexia. In electrophysiological studies we tested whether 1400 W counteracts the iNOS-dependent inhibition of Arc neurons triggered by in vivo or in vitro stimulation with LPS. We used the hormone ghrelin as a functional reference stimulus because ghrelin is known to activate orexigenic Arc neurons. Further, we investigated whether in vitro LPS stimulation induces an iNOS-mediated formation of the second messenger cGMP. Since the STAT1 pathway contributes to the regulation of iNOS expression we investigated whether LPS treatment induces STAT1 phosphorylation in the Arc. Finally we tested the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of 1400 W on LPS-induced anorexia. Superfusion with 1400 W (10(-4) M) increased neuronal activity in 37% of neurons in Arc slices from LPS treated (100 μg/kg ip) but not from saline treated rats. Similarly, 1400 W excited 45% of Arc neurons after in vitro stimulation with LPS (100 ng/ml). In both approaches, a considerable percentage of 1400 W sensitive neurons were excited by ghrelin (10(-8)M; 50% and 75%, respectively). In vitro stimulation with LPS induced cGMP formation in the Arc, which was blocked by co-incubation with 1400 W. LPS treatment elicited a pSTAT1 response in the Arc of mice. Central 1400 W injection (4 μg/rat) attenuated LPS-induced anorexia and counteracted the LPS-dependent decrease in respiratory quotient and energy expenditure. In conclusion, the current findings substantiate a role of central iNOS dependent NO formation in LPS-induced effects on eating and energy homeostasis. A pharmacological blockade of NO formation might be a therapeutic approach to ameliorate disease-related anorexia. PMID:22465682

  19. Acanthopanax trifoliatus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tzu-Mei; Hsieh, Po-Chow; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Ho, Yu-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2015-10-01

    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a well-known herb that is used for the treatment of bruising, neuralgia, impotence, and gout in Taiwan. This herb exhibits multifunctional activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant effects. This paper investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of A. trifoliatus. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis established the fingerprint chromatogram of the ethyl acetate fraction of A. trifoliatus (EAAT). The anti-inflammatory effect of EAAT was detected using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 in vitro and LPS-induced lung injury in vivo. The effects of EAAT on LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and the mouse model were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. EAAT attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with EAAT markedly reduced LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissues. Furthermore, EAAT significantly reduced the number of total cells and protein concentration levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Western blotting test results revealed that EAAT blocked protein expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, phosphorylation of Nuclear factor-kappa-B Inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells as well as LPS-induced lung injury. This study suggests that A. trifoliatus may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26520688

  20. Synthesis of new heterocyclic lupeol derivatives as nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Pamita; Patel, Neeraj Kumar; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    A series of heterocyclic derivatives including indoles, pyrazines along with oximes and esters were synthesized from lupeol and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. All the synthesized molecules of lupeol were found to be more active in inhibiting NO production with an IC50 of 18.4-48.7 ?M in both the cell lines when compared to the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME (IC50=69.21 and 73.18 ?M on RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells, respectively). The halogen substitution at phenyl ring of indole moiety leads to potent inhibition of NO production with half maximal concentration ranging from 18.4 to 41.7 ?M. Furthermore, alkyl (11, 12) and p-bromo/iodo (15, 16) substituted compounds at a concentration of 20 ?g/mL exhibited mild inhibition (29-42%) of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and weak inhibition (10-22%) towards interleukin 1-beta (IL-1?) production in both the cell lines. All the derivatives were found to be non-cytotoxic when tested at their IC50 (?M). These findings suggest that the derivatives of lupeol could be a lead to potent inhibitors of NO. PMID:24909081

  1. Eupatolide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongkyu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-06-25

    Inula britannica is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat bronchitis, digestive disorders, and inflammation in Eastern Asia. Here, we identified eupatolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from I. britannica, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Eupatolide inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels and the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, eupatolide significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter genes. Pretreatment of eupatolide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha, and phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser-536 as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide induced proteasomal degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced TRAF6 polyubiquitination. These results suggest that eupatolide blocks LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level through inhibiting the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and MAPKs via proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, eupatolide may be a novel anti-inflammatory agent that induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions. PMID:20353767

  2. Nitric oxide and fever: immune-to-brain signaling vs. thermogenesis in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dantonio, Valter; Batalhão, Marcelo E; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Komegae, Evilin N; Buqui, Gabriela A; Lopes, Norberto P; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Carnio, Évelin C; Steiner, Alexandre A; Bícego, Kênia C

    2016-05-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in thermogenesis but does not mediate immune-to-brain febrigenic signaling in rats. There are suggestions of a different situation in birds, but the underlying evidence is not compelling. The present study was designed to clarify this matter in 5-day-old chicks challenged with a low or high dose of bacterial LPS. The lower LPS dose (2 μg/kg im) induced fever at 3-5 h postinjection, whereas 100 μg/kg im decreased core body temperature (Tc) (at 1 h) followed by fever (at 4 or 5 h). Plasma nitrate levels increased 4 h after LPS injection, but they were not correlated with the magnitude of fever. The NO synthase inhibitor (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, l-NAME; 50 mg/kg im) attenuated the fever induced by either dose of LPS and enhanced the magnitude of the Tc reduction induced by the high dose in chicks at 31-32°C. These effects were associated with suppression of metabolic rate, at least in the case of the high LPS dose. Conversely, the effects of l-NAME on Tc disappeared in chicks maintained at 35-36°C, suggesting that febrigenic signaling was essentially unaffected. Accordingly, the LPS-induced rise in the brain level of PGE2 was not affected by l-NAME. Moreover, l-NAME augmented LPS-induced huddling, which is indicative of compensatory mechanisms to run fever in the face of attenuated thermogenesis. Therefore, as in rats, systemic inhibition of NO synthesis attenuates LPS-induced fever in chicks by affecting thermoeffector activity and not by interfering with immune-to-brain signaling. This may constitute a conserved effect of NO in endotherms. PMID:26984892

  3. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  4. Functional link between TNF biosynthesis and CaM-dependent activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J; Smallwood, Heather S; Kathmann, Loel E; Markillie, Lye MENG; Squier, Thomas C; Thrall, Brian D

    2006-01-18

    Inflammatory responses stimulated by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) involve calcium-mediated signaling, yet the cellular sensors that determine cell fate in response to LPS remain poorly understood. We report that exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells to LPS induces a rapid increase in calmodulin (CaM) abundance, which is associated with the modulation of the inflammatory response. Increases in CaM abundance precedes nuclear localization of key transcription factors (i.e., NFκB p65 subunit, phospho-c-Jun, and Sp1) and subsequent increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Cellular apoptosis following LPS challenge is blocked following inhibition of iNOS activity, whether accomplished using the pharmacological inhibitor 1400W, through gene silencing of TNFα, or by increasing the level of cellular CaM by stable transfection. Increasing CaM expression also results in reductions in the cellular release of TNFα and iNOS, and activation of their transcriptional regulators, indicating the level of available CaM plays a key role in determining the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic cascade during cellular activation by LPS. These results indicate a previously unrecognized central role for CaM in maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to LPS, such that under resting conditions cellular concentrations of CaM are sufficient to inhibit the biosynthesis of proinflammatory mediators associated with macrophage activation. Although CaM and iNOS protein levels are coordinately increased as part of the oxidative burst, limiting cellular concentrations of CaM due to association with iNOS (and other high-affinity binders) commit the cell to an unchecked inflammatory cascade leading to apoptosis.

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against inflammation-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Chang; Ren, Xiao-Fan; Chen, Lei; Gao, Xian-Qi; Xie, Jun-Xia; Chen, Wen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests that chronic neuroinflammation is associated with dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ginsenoside Rg1, the most active components of ginseng, possesses a variety of biological effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in rat substantia nigra (SN) and its potential mechanisms. Treatment with Rg1 could ameliorate the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in LPS-lesioned rats. GR antagonist RU486 partly abolished the protective effect of Rg1. Rg1 treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced loss of tyrosin hydroxlase (TH) positive neurons in substantial nigra par compacta (SNpc) and decreased content of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in striatum of the lesioned side. Meanwhile, Rg1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced microglial activation and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO). These effects were abolished by co-treatment with RU486. In addition, Rg1 treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the lesioned side of substantial nigra. These effect could be also partly blocked by RU486. Taken together, these data indicate that Rg1 has protective effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced microglia inflammation. GR signaling pathway might be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Rg1. PMID:26455404

  6. microRNA and human inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong; Geller, David A

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression involves both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Human iNOS gene transcription is controlled in a cell type-specific manner by extracellular cytokines. Transcriptional regulation of human iNOS gene involves transcription factors NF-κB, Stat-1, AP-1, C/EBPβ, KLF6, Oct 1, and NRF. Important posttranscriptional mechanisms also regulate human iNOS mRNA stability through RNA binding proteins HuR, TTP, KSRP, and PABP. Recently, there are several miRNAs that were validated to regulate human and rodent iNOS gene expression. Among them, miR-939 and miR-26a were identified to bind with the human iNOS 3'-UTR and exert a translational blockade of human iNOS protein synthesis. PMID:25189382

  7. Cannabidiol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular changes and inflammation in the mouse brain: an intravital microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. The present study was designed to explore its effects in a mouse model of sepsis-related encephalitis by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Vascular responses of pial vessels were analyzed by intravital microscopy and inflammatory parameters measured by qRT-PCR. Results CBD prevented LPS-induced arteriolar and venular vasodilation as well as leukocyte margination. In addition, CBD abolished LPS-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression as measured by quantitative real time PCR. The expression of the inducible-nitric oxide synthase was also reduced by CBD. Finally, preservation of Blood Brain Barrier integrity was also associated to the treatment with CBD. Conclusions These data highlight the antiinflammatory and vascular-stabilizing effects of CBD in endotoxic shock and suggest a possible beneficial effect of this natural cannabinoid. PMID:21244691

  8. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling. PMID:25616905

  9. Oxidized low density lipoprotein suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglia: Oxidative stress acts through control of inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ohn Soon; Lee, Chang Seok; Joe, Eun-hye; Jou, Ilo . E-mail: jouilo@ajou.ac.kr

    2006-03-31

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is readily oxidized under certain conditions, resulting in the formation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Despite numerous in vitro reports that reveal the pathogenic role of oxidative stress, anti-oxidative strategies have underperformed in the clinic. In this study, we examine the role of oxLDL in brain inflammatory responses using cultured rat brain microglia. We demonstrate that oxLDL inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in these cells. It also decreases LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide, and reduces LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Oxysterols, known components of oxLDL and endogenous agonists of liver X receptor, can simulate the inhibitory effects of oxLDL in LPS-activated microglia. In addition, their inhibitory effects were mimicked by liver X receptor (LXR) agonists and potentiated by a retinoid X receptor agonist, suggesting these molecules heterodimerize to function as oxysterol receptors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that oxLDL inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in brain microglia and that these inhibitory effects are mediated by oxysterols and, at least in part, by the nuclear receptor LXR. Our results suggest an additional mechanism of action for oxidative stress that acts indirectly via modulation of inflammatory responses. Although further studies are needed, these results answer in part the question of why anti-oxidative strategies have not been successful in clinical situations. Moreover, as brain inflammation participates in the initiation and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders, the present data provide information that should prove a useful guide for designing therapeutic strategies to combat oxidative brain diseases.

  10. Independent suppression of nitric oxide and TNF alpha in the lung of conscious rats by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Kolls, J; Bagby, G; Greenberg, S S

    1995-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) mediate in part the microbicidal response of murine and rodent alveolar macrophages (AM) and recruited neutrophils (PMN) to airborne infections. Ethanol (ETOH) suppresses intrapulmonary TNF alpha and NO release and impairs pulmonary host defense mechanisms. We tested the concept that ETOH down-regulates NO by inhibiting production of TNF alpha. Male rats were given intratracheal (i.t.) saline (PBS), a polyclonal anti-TNF alpha antibody (TNFab) or nonimmune IgG (22 mg/kg, i.m.) 2 h before giving i.t. Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) to normal rats or rats pretreated with ETOM (5.5 g/kg, i.p.) 30 min before experimentation. AM and PMN were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) fluid of rats killed 2 and 4 h after administration of LPS. mRNA for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and TNF alpha were measured in AM and PMN with competitor equalized RT-PCR techniques. The BAL fluid, AM, and PMN were assayed for TNF alpha and NO2-, and NO3- (RNI) with the L929 bioassay and chemiluminescence, respectively. TNFab abolished LPS-induced increases in TNF alpha but did not suppress the NO content of the BAL fluid or gene expression for iNOS by AM or PMN. ETOH suppressed LPS-induced increases in mRNA for iNOS, production of RNI, and BAL fluid TNF alpha but did not affect LPS-induced increases in mRNA for TNF alpha. ETOH-induced attenuation of LPS-induced up-regulation of the iNOS system did not differ in rats pretreated with TNFab or IgG. Thus, ETOH down-regulates iNOS gene expression and RNI production independent of its effects on TNF alpha. Acute ETOH administration suppresses iNOS at the level of transcription and TNF alpha at the level of translation or release of the peptide. PMID:7540157

  11. Pulmonary hypertension triggered by lipopolysaccharide in ascites-susceptible and -resistant broilers is not amplified by aminoguanidine, a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Bowen, O T; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B; Wideman, R F

    2006-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent pulmonary vasodilator that modulates the pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension (PH) triggered by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in broilers. The amplitude and duration of the LPS-induced PH are markedly enhanced following pretreatment with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits NO synthesis by both the constitutive (endothelial) and inducible (inflammatory) forms of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS, respectively). In the present study L-NAME and the selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) were administered to differentiate between iNOS and eNOS as the primary source of NO that attenuates the pulmonary vascular response to LPS. Clinically healthy male progeny from ascites-susceptible and ascites-resistant lines were anesthetized, and their pulmonary artery was cannulated. The initial pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was recorded, then the broilers either remained untreated (control group) or were injected i.v. with AG. Ten minutes later all birds received an i.v. injection of LPS, followed 40 min later by an i.v. injection of L-NAME. When compared with untreated controls, AG neither increased the baseline PAP nor did it increase or prolong the PH response to LPS. The ascites-susceptible broilers maintained a higher PAP than the ascites-resistant broilers throughout the experiment, and the ascites-resistant broilers exhibited greater relative increases in PAP in response to LPS than did the ascites-susceptible broilers. Within 40 min after the LPS injection, PAP subsided to a level that did not differ from the respective preinjection value for each line. Injecting L-NAME reversed the decline in PAP, and within 5 min PAP returned to hypertensive levels approaching the maximum peak PH response to LPS. The absence of any impact of AG coupled with the profound response to L-NAME indicates that NO synthesized by eNOS rather than iNOS likely modulated the acute (within 1 h) PH elicited by LPS. Evidently eNOS is activated by the increased shear stress exerted on the endothelium during the PH response to LPS, whereas LPS-mediated up-regulation of iNOS expression may take longer than 1 h before biologically effective quantities of NO are produced. PMID:16553285

  12. Role of nitric oxide synthases in elastase-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laurent; Plantier, Laurent; Dagouassat, Maylis; Lanone, Sophie; Goven, Delphine; Caramelle, Philippe; Berrehar, Franois; Kerbrat, Stephane; Dinh-Xuan, Anh-Tuan; Crestani, Bruno; Le Gouvello, Sabine; Boczkowski, Jorge

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in combination with superoxide produces peroxynitrites and induces protein nitration, which participates in a number of chronic degenerative diseases. NO is produced at high levels in the human emphysematous lung, but its role in this disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the NO synthases contribute to the development of elastase-induced emphysema in mice. nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS were quantified and immunolocalized in the lung after a tracheal instillation of elastase in mice. To determine whether eNOS or iNOS had a role in the development of emphysema, mice bearing a germline deletion of the eNOS and iNOS genes and mice treated with a pharmacological iNOS inhibitor were exposed to elastase. Protein nitration was determined by immunofluorescence, protein oxidation was determined by ELISA. Inflammation and MMP activity were quantified by cell counts, RT-PCR and zymography in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Cell proliferation was determined by Ki67 immunostaining. Emphysema was quantified morphometrically. iNOS and eNOS were diffusely upregulated in the lung of elastase-treated mice and a 12-fold increase in the number of 3-nitrotyrosine-expressing cells was observed. Over 80% of these cells were alveolar type 2 cells. In elastase-instilled mice, iNOS inactivation reduced protein nitration and increased protein oxidation but had no effect on inflammation, MMP activity, cell proliferation or the subsequent development of emphysema. eNOS inactivation had no effect. In conclusion, in the elastase-injured lung, iNOS mediates protein nitration in alveolar type 2 cells and alleviates oxidative injury. Neither eNOS nor iNOS are required for the development of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:20956973

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, J; Forslund, T; Sundqvist, T; Skogh, T

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess' reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0.001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 +/- 78 versus 176 +/- 65 micro mol/l, P = 0.008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 +/- 11 versus 26 +/- 9 micro mol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19.2 +/- 20.7 versus 8.6 +/- 6.5 micro mol/l, P = 0.054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. PMID:12296866

  14. GAPDH regulates cellular heme insertion into inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Aulak, Kulwant S.; Fox, Paul L.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Heme proteins play essential roles in biology, but little is known about heme transport inside mammalian cells or how heme is inserted into soluble proteins. We recently found that nitric oxide (NO) blocks cells from inserting heme into several proteins, including cytochrome P450s, hemoglobin, NO synthases, and catalase. This finding led us to explore the basis for NO inhibition and to identify cytosolic proteins that may be involved, using inducible NO synthase (iNOS) as a model target. Surprisingly, we found that GAPDH plays a key role. GAPDH was associated with iNOS in cells. Pure GAPDH bound tightly to heme or to iNOS in an NO-sensitive manner. GAPDH knockdown inhibited heme insertion into iNOS and a GAPDH mutant with defective heme binding acted as a dominant negative inhibitor of iNOS heme insertion. Exposing cells to NO either from a chemical donor or by iNOS induction caused GAPDH to become S-nitrosylated at Cys152. Expressing a GAPDH C152S mutant in cells or providing a drug to selectively block GAPDH S-nitrosylation both made heme insertion into iNOS resistant to the NO inhibition. We propose that GAPDH delivers heme to iNOS through a process that is regulated by its S-nitrosylation. Our findings may uncover a fundamental step in intracellular heme trafficking, and reveal a mechanism whereby NO can govern the process. PMID:20921417

  15. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  16. Protective effects of leucine against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of leucine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in Labeo rohita (rohu) in vivo and in vitro. Primary hepatocytes, isolated from the hepatopancreas, were exposed to different concentrations of LPS for 24 h to induce an inflammatory response, and the protective effects of leucine against LPS-induced inflammation were studied. Finally, we investigated the efficiency of dietary leucine supplementation in attenuating an immune challenge induced by LPS in vivo. Exposure of cells to 10-25 μg mL(-1) of LPS for 24 h resulted in a significant production of nitric oxide and release of lactate dehydrogenase to the medium, whereas cell viability and protein content were reduced (p < 0.05). LPS exposure (10 μg mL(-1)) increased mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in vitro (p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with leucine prevented the LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs by downregulating TLR4, MyD88, NF-κBp65, and MAPKp38 mRNA expression. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, which was increased by LPS treatment, was further enhanced (p < 0.05) by leucine pretreatment. The enhanced expression of IL-10 might inhibit the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. It was found that leucine pretreatment attenuated the excessive activation of LPS-induced TLR4-MyD88 signaling as manifested by lower level of TLR4, MyD88, MAPKp38, NF-κBp65 and increased level of IκB-α protein in leucine pre-treatment group. In vivo experiments demonstrated that leucine pre-supplementation could protect fish against LPS-induced inflammation through an attenuation of TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway. Taken together, we propose that leucine pre-supplementation decreases LPS-induced immune damage in rohu by enhancing the expression of IL-10 and by regulating the TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathways. PMID:27016401

  17. Methanol extract of Antrodia camphorata protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing NF-κB and MAPK pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Ching-Jang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-06-11

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a herbal medicine for drug intoxication for the treatment of inflammation syndromes and liver-related diseases in Taiwan. This study demonstrates the protective effect of the methanol extract of AC (MAC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with MAC 1 h before the intratracheal (I.T.) instillation of LPS challenge model. Lung injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with MAC markedly improved LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissues. Moreover, MAC also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6 at 6 h in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, MAC reduced total cell number and protein concentrations in the BALF the pulmonary wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissues. MAC also efficiently blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited the degradation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκBα. This is the first investigation in which MAC inhibited acute lung edema effectively, which may provide a potential target for treating ALI. MAC may utilize the NF-κB and MAPKs pathways and the regulation of SOD activity to attenuate LPS-induced nonspecific pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24849405

  18. PRIOR LAPAROTOMY OR CORTICOSTERONE POTENTIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED FEVER AND SICKNESS BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Hains, Leah E.; Loram, Lisa C.; Taylor, Frederick R; Strand, Keith A; Wieseler, Julie L.; Barrientos, Ruth M.; Young, Jennifer J.; Frank, Matthew G; Sobesky, Julia; Martin, Thomas J.; Eisenach, James C.; Maier, Steven F.; Johnson, John D.; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulating sensitized immune cells with a subsequent immune challenge results in potentiated pro-inflammatory responses translating into exacerbated sickness responses (i.e. fever, pain and lethargy). Both corticosterone (CORT) and laparotomy cause sensitization, leading to enhanced sickness-induced neuroinflammation or pain (respectively). However, it is unknown whether this sensitization affects all sickness behaviors and immune cell responses equally. We show that prior CORT and prior laparotomy potentiated LPS-induced fever but not lethargy. Prior CORT, like prior laparotomy, was able to potentiate sickness-induced pain. Release of nitric oxide (NO) from peritoneal macrophages stimulated ex vivo demonstrates that laparotomy, but not CORT sensitizes these cells. PMID:21907418

  19. DISSECTING STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC EFFECTS IN INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Page, Richard C.; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Bolisetty, Karthik; Yu, Zhihao; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are haem-thiolate enzymes that catalyse the conversion of L-Arginine (LArg) into NO and citrulline. Inducible NOS (iNOS) is responsible for delivery of NO in response to stressors during inflammation. The catalytic performance of iNOS is proposed to rely mainly on the haem midpoint potential and the ability of the substrate L-Arg to provide an H-bond for oxygen activation (O-O scission). We present a comparative study of native iNOS versus iNOS-mesohaem, and investigate the formation of a low-spin ferric haem-aquo or -hydroxo species (P) in iNOS mutant W188H substituted with mesohaem. iNOS-mesohaem and W188H-mesohaem were stable and dimeric, and presented substrate-binding affinities comparable to their native counterparts. Single turnover reactions catalysed by iNOSoxy with LArg (first reaction step) or N-hydroxyarginine (second reaction step) showed that mesohaem substitution triggered faster rates of FeIIO2 conversion and altered other key kinetic parameters. We elucidated the first crystal structure of a NOS substituted with mesohaem and found essentially identical features compared to the structure of iNOS carrying native haem. This facilitated the dissection of structural and electronic effects. Mesohaem substitution substantially reduced the build-up of species P in W188H iNOS during catalysis, thus increasing its proficiency toward NO synthesis. The marked structural similarities of iNOSoxy containing native haem or mesohaem indicate that the kinetic behaviour observed in mesohaem-substituted iNOS is most heavily influenced by electronic effects rather than structural alterations. PMID:25608846

  20. Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

  1. Sesamin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibition of TLR4 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Li; Yuan, Jiang; Shouyin, Jiang; Yulin, Li; Libing, Jiang; Jian-An, Wang

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies suggested that TLR4 signaling pathways played an important role in the development of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Sesamin, a sesame lignan exacted from sesame seeds, has been shown to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin on LPS-induced ALI in mice. Mice ALI model was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. Sesamin was given 1h after LPS challenge. Our results showed that sesamin inhibited LPS-induced lung pathological change, edema, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Sesamin suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? production. Furthermore, sesamin inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-?B activation. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that sesamin protected against LPS-induced ALI by inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:26468152

  2. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Rodríguez, Alonso; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    (-)-Epicatechin increases indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells and myocardium. We investigated endothelial nitric oxide synthase involvement on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal-glucose and high-glucose media, as well as to restore indicators of cardiac mitochondria from the effects of simulated diabetes. Here, we demonstrate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in mitochondrial proteins, transcription factors and sirtuin 1 under normal-glucose conditions. In simulated diabetes endothelial nitric oxide synthase function, mitochondrial function-associated and biogenesis-associated indicators were adversely impacted by high glucose, effects that were reverted by (-)-epicatechin. As an animal model of type 2 diabetes, 2-month old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Fasting and fed blood glucose levels were increased and NO plasma levels decreased. High-fat-diet-fed mice myocardium revealed endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial activity and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. The administration of 1 mg/kg (-)-epicatechin for 15 days by oral gavage shifted these endpoints towards control mice values. Results suggest that endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates (-)-epicatechin-induced increases of indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells. (-)-Epicatechin also counteracts the negative effects that high glucose or simulated type 2 diabetes has on endothelial nitric oxide synthase function. PMID:26993496

  3. Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Variants Associate With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nikkari, Seppo T.; Mtt, Kirsi M.; Kunnas, Tarja A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and expression has been associated with hypertension, but less is known whether the 2 known functional polymorphic sites in the iNOS gene (g.1026 C/A (rs2779249), g.2087 G/A (rs2297518)) affect susceptibility to hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the genetic variants of iNOS and diagnosed hypertension in a Finnish cohort. This study included 320 hypertensive cases and 439 healthy controls. All participants were 50-year-old men and women and the data were collected from the Tampere adult population cardiovascular risk study (TAMRISK). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and iNOS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed using KASP genotyping PCR. Data analysis was done by logistic regression. At the age of 50 years, the SNP rs2779249 (C/A) associated significantly with hypertension (P?=?0.009); specifically, subjects carrying the A-allele had higher risk of hypertension compared to those carrying the CC genotype (OR?=?1.47; CI?=?1.082.01; P?=?0.015). In addition, a 15-year follow-up period (35, 40, and 45 years) of the same individuals showed that carriers of the A-allele had more often hypertension in all of the studied age-groups. The highest risk for developing hypertension was obtained among 35-year-old subjects (odds ratio [OR] 3.83; confidence interval [CI]?=?1.2012.27; P?=?0.024). Those carrying variant A had also significantly higher readings of both systolic (P?=?0.047) and diastolic (P?=?0.048) blood pressure during the follow-up. No significant associations between rs2297518 (G/A) variants alone and hypertension were found. However, haplotype analysis of rs2779249 and rs2297518 revealed that individuals having haplotype H3 which combines both A alleles (CAGA, 19.7% of individuals) was more commonly found in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (OR?=?2.01; CI?=?1.293.12; P?=?0.002). In conclusion, there was a significant association between iNOS genetic variant (rs2779249) and hypertension in the genetically homogenous Finnish population. Those who carried the rare A-allele of the gene had higher risk for hypertension already at the age of 35 years. PMID:26579803

  4. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  5. Nitric oxide-dependent human acrosomal loss induced by PPCM (SAMMA) and by nitric oxide donors occurs by independent pathways: basis for synthesis of an improved contraceptive microbicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert A; Feathergill, Kenneth A; Chany, Calvin J; Jain, Sanjay; Krunic, Aleksej

    2009-01-01

    PPCM (previously designated sulfuric acid-modified mandelic acid [SAMMA]) is a contraceptive microbicide in preclinical development. Its contraceptive activity is attributable in part to its ability to promote premature acrosomal loss. Prior studies showed that PPCM-induced human acrosomal loss (PAL) is Ca(2+)-dependent. This study was carried out to determine transduction elements downstream from Ca(2+) entry. PAL is inhibited by inhibitors selective for endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase. PAL is completely inhibited by 0.1 microM ODQ (soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor). PAL is inhibited by protein kinase G inhibitors with selectivity for the type II isotype. Several inhibitors of the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G pathway induce Ca(2+)-dependent acrosomal loss when added alone. These responses are inhibited by nifedipine, a blocker of Ca(v1.x) voltage-dependent channels. Acrosomal loss induced by the nitric oxide donor SNAP (SNAL) does not require added Ca(2+). Sperm production of nitric oxide is increased by PPCM, an effect inhibited by nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). Although inhibited by ODQ, SNAL and acrosomal loss induced by other nitric oxide donors are unaffected by KT5823 (protein kinase G inhibitor). Unlike PAL, SNAL is partially inhibited by KT5720 (protein kinase A inhibitor) and genistein (protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor). Acrosomal loss response to PPCM and SNAP added in combination suggests that these agents act by independent mechanisms. A PPCM derivative was synthesized, in which a nitric oxide donor was esterified to PPCM (NOSPPA-23). NOSPPA-23 induces acrosomal loss with or without added Ca(2+). The ED(50) of NOSPPA-23 (4.8 nM) in the presence of Ca(2+) is 35-fold less than that of PPCM. These findings suggest the following: 1) elements responsible for PAL include endothelial nitric oxide synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and type II protein kinase G; 2) the resting state of the nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway is a determinant of acrosomal status; 3) PPCM and nitric oxide donors induce acrosomal loss via nitric oxide, but through independent pathways; and 4) covalent attachment of a nitric oxide donor to PPCM provides synergistic efficacy as a stimulus of acrosomal loss. Further studies with this novel prototype as an improved contraceptive microbicide are warranted. PMID:18974424

  6. Regulation of prostaglandin production by nitric oxide; an in vivo analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, D; Settle, S L; Masferrer, J L; Seibert, K; Currie, M G; Needleman, P

    1995-01-01

    1. Endotoxin E. Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treatment in conscious, restrained rats increased plasma and urinary prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) production. Inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression accounted for the LPS-induced PG and NO release since the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone inhibited both effects. Thus, LPS (4 mg kg-1) increased the plasma levels of nitrite/nitrate from 14 +/- 1 to 84 +/- 7 microM within 3 h and this rise was inhibited to 35 +/- 1 microM by dexamethasone. Levels of 6-keto PGF1 alpha in the plasma were below the detection limit of the assay (< 0.2 ng ml-1). However, 3 h after the injection of LPS these levels rose to 2.6 +/- 0.2 ng ml-1 and to 0.7 +/- 0.01 ng ml-1 after LPS in rats that received dexamethasone. 2. The induced enzymes were inhibited in vivo with selective COX and NOS inhibitors. Furthermore, NOS inhibitors, that did not affect COX activity in vitro markedly suppressed PG production in the LPS-treated animals. For instance, the LPS-induced increased in plasma nitrite/nitrate and 6-keto PGF1 alpha at 3 h was decreased to 18 +/- 2 microM and 0.5 +/- 0.02 ng ml-1, 23 +/- 1 microM and 0.7 +/- 0.01 ng ml-1, 29 +/- 2 microM and 1 +/- 0.01 ng ml-1 in rats treated with LPS in the presence of the NOS inhibitors NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, NG-nitro arginine methyl ester and aminoguanidine, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7542531

  7. Inducible nitric oxide synthase regulates production of isoprostanes in vivo during chlamydial genital infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Sigar, I M; Rana, S V; Gupta, J; Holland, S M; Byrne, G I; Morrow, J D

    2003-12-01

    Urinary nitrite and F(2)-isoprostanes, an index of oxidant stress, were elevated during chlamydial genital infection of mice. Enhancement of urinary nitrite and F(2)-isoprostanes was observed in phagocyte oxidase-deficient mice. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduced isoprostane excretion. We conclude that nitrogen radicals induce F(2)-isoprostane production and excretion during murine chlamydial genital infection. PMID:14638813

  8. Roquefort cheese proteins inhibit Chlamydia pneumoniae propagation and LPS-induced leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Zigangirova, Naylia A; Kobets, Natalie V; Tsibezov, Valery; Kapotina, Lydia N; Fedina, Elena D; Bashmakov, Yuriy K

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation in atherosclerosis, which could be associated with some subclinical infections such as C. pneumoniae, is one of the key factors responsible for the development of clinical complications of this disease. We report that a proprietary protein extract isolated from Roquefort cheese inhibits the propagation of C. pneumoniae in a human HL cell line in a dose-dependent manner, as revealed by the immunofluorescence analysis. These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the infective progeny formation over the protein extract range of 0.12-0.5 μg/mL. Moreover, short term feeding of mice with Roquefort cheese (twice, 10 mg per mouse with an interval of 24 hours) led to the inhibition of the migration of peritoneal leukocytes caused by intraperitoneal injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide. These changes were complemented by a reduction in neutrophil count and a relative increase in peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that ingestion of Roquefort could promote regenerative processes at the site of inflammation. The ability of this protein to inhibit propagation of Chlamydia infection, as well as the anti-inflammatory and proregenerative effects of Roquefort itself, may contribute to the low prevalence of cardiovascular mortality in France where consumption of fungal fermented cheeses is the highest in the world. PMID:23737705

  9. Regulation of LPS-induced tissue factor expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells by curcumin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane receptor, which initiates thrombotic episodes associated with various diseases. In addition to membrane-bound TF, we have discovered an alternatively spliced form of human TF mRNA. It was later confirmed that this form of TF mRNA expresses a soluble protein circ...

  10. AURANOFIN, AS AN ANTI-RHEUMATIC GOLD COMPOUND SUPPRESSES LPS-INDUCED HOMODIMERIZATION OF TLR4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are activated by invading microorganisms or endogenous molecules, evoke immune and inflammatory responses. TLR activation is closely linked to the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Auranofin, an Au(I) compound, is a we...

  11. Walnut extracts protect cultured microglia against LPS-induced neurotoxicity via modulation of intracellular calcium concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), as compared to other edible plants. Previously, our laboratory had demonstrated that dietary walnut supplementation in aged animals enhanced protective signaling pathways, altered membrane microstructures, an...

  12. AFFYMETRIX GENECHIP-BASED ANALYSIS OF THE GENOMIC RESPONSE TO ACUTE LPS-INDUCED BOVINE MASTITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic response of the bovine mammary gland was profiled four hours after an intramammary challenge with E. coli endotoxin (LPS). Three mid-lactation cows were challenged in one quarter with 1 ug of LPS while contralateral quarters received saline and served as within animal controls. RNA from ...

  13. ROLE OF CELL SIGNALING IN PROTECTION FROM DIESEL AND LPS INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously demonstrated in CD-1 mice that pre-administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB203580) reduces acute lung injury and inflammation following pulmonary exposures to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here ...

  14. Increased susceptibility of Cftr-/- mice to LPS-induced lung remodeling.

    PubMed

    Bruscia, Emanuela M; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Barone, Christina; Scholte, Bob J; Homer, Robert; Krause, Diane S; Egan, Marie E

    2016-04-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by homozygous mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, which result in chronic pulmonary infection and inflammation, the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although these processes are clearly related to each other, each is likely to contribute to the pathology differently. Understanding the contribution of each of these processes to the overall pathology has been difficult, because they are usually so intimately connected. Various CF mouse models have demonstrated abnormal immune responses compared with wild-type (WT) littermates when challenged with live bacteria or bacterial products acutely. However, these studies have not investigated the consequences of persistent inflammation on lung tissue in CF mice, which may better model the lung pathology in patients. We characterized the lung pathology and immune response of Cftr(-/-) (CF) and Cftr(+/+) (WT) mice to chronic administration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that, after long-term repeated LPS exposure, CF mice develop an abnormal and persistent immune response, which is associated with more robust structural changes in the lung than those observed in WT mice. Although CF mice and their WT littermates develop lung pathology after chronic exposure to LPS, the inflammation and damage resolve in WT mice. However, CF mice do not recover efficiently, and, as a consequence of their chronic inflammation, CF mice are more susceptible to morphological changes and lung remodeling. This study shows that chronic inflammation alone contributes significantly to aspects of CF lung pathology. PMID:26851259

  15. Oligodendrogenesis in the fornix of adult mouse brain; the effect of LPS-induced inflammatory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kazunori; Furube, Eriko; Muneoka, Shiori; Ono, Katsuhiko; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Miyata, Seiji

    2015-11-19

    Evidence have been accumulated that continuous oligodendrogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain. The fornix, projection and commissure pathway of hippocampal neurons, carries signals from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain and has critical role in memory and learning. However, basic characterization of adult oligodendrogenesis in this brain region is not well understood. In the present study, therefore, we aimed to examine the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and the effect of acute inflammatory stimulation on oligodendrogenesis in the fornix of adult mouse. We demonstrated the proliferation of OPCs and a new generation of mature oligodendrocytes by using bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Oligodendrogenesis of adult fornix was also demonstrated by using oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 transgenic mouse. A single systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) attenuated proliferation of OPCs in the fornix together with reduced proliferation of hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells. Time course analysis showed that a single administration of LPS attenuated the proliferation of OPCs during 24-48 h. On the other hand, consecutive administration of LPS did not suppress proliferation of OPCs. The treatment of LPS did not affect differentiation of OPCs into mature oligodendrocytes. Treatment of a microglia inhibitor minocycline significantly attenuated basal proliferation of OPCs under normal condition. In conclusion, the present study indicates that continuous oligodendrogenesis occurs and a single administration of LPS transiently attenuates proliferation of OPCs without changing differentiation in the fornix of the adult mouse brains. PMID:26385416

  16. Isoflavone-free soy protein diet inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we showed reduced atherosclerotic lesions in a hyperlipidemic mouse model fed isoflavone-free soy protein diet (SPI–) compared to casein (CAS)-fed mice, despite unchanged serum lipid levels. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the atheroprotective effect of soy-based diets is...

  17. LPS-Induced Genes in Intestinal Tissue of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A.; Rivera-Cardona, Gabriela; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50) unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7) of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43) had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin), metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt), metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein) and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein). The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response. PMID:19584914

  18. P2Y12 receptor inhibition and LPS-induced coagulation.

    PubMed

    Essex, David W; Rao, A Koneti

    2016-03-01

    Platelets play a major role in the complex interactions involved in blood coagulation via multiple mechanisms. As reported in this issue, Schoergenhofer et al. tested the hypothesis that platelet inhibition by prasugrel, a potent platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor antagonist, attenuates the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the blood coagulation system in healthy human subjects. LPS, a bacterial product with potent pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects, plays a central role in sepsis. It activates monocytes and endothelial cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and other TLRs to stimulate production of TF and other pro-coagulant molecules, chemokines and cytokines. Treatment with prasugrel did not decrease biomarkers of coagulaion. A better understanding of the relative roles of platelet and coagulation mechanisms in triggering the pro-thrombotic state may lead to more effective antithrombotic strategies. PMID:26846581

  19. Gelam Honey Has a Protective Effect against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Organ Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Mustafa; Mansor, Marzida; Al-Abd, Nazeh; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Gelam honey exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and is thought to have potent effects in reducing infections and healing wounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenously-injected Gelam honey in protecting organs from lethal doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six groups of rabbits (N = 6) were used in this study. Two groups acted as controls and received only saline and no LPS injections. For the test groups, 1 mL honey (500 mg/kg in saline) was intravenously injected into two groups (treated), while saline (1 mL) was injected into the other two groups (untreated); after 1 h, all four test groups were intravenously-injected with LPS (0.5 mg/kg). Eight hours after the LPS injection, blood and organs were collected from three groups (one from each treatment stream) and blood parameters were measured and biochemical tests, histopathology, and myeloperoxidase assessment were performed. For survival rate tests, rabbits from the remaining three groups were monitored over a 2-week period. Treatment with honey showed protective effects on organs through the improvement of organ blood parameters, reduced infiltration of neutrophils, and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Honey-treated rabbits also showed reduced mortality after LPS injection compared with untreated rabbits. Honey may have a therapeutic effect in protecting organs during inflammatory diseases. PMID:22754370

  20. LPS-induced chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulate Shh signaling in the ovine fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer J P; Kuypers, Elke; Nitsos, Ilias; Jane Pillow, J; Polglase, Graeme R; Kemp, Matthew W; Newnham, John P; Cleutjens, Jack P; Frints, Suzanna G M; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Kramer, Boris W

    2012-11-01

    Chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids mature the fetal lung functionally but disrupt late-gestation lung development. Because Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a major pathway directing lung development, we hypothesized that chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulated Shh signaling, resulting in an altered fetal lung structure. Time-mated ewes with singleton ovine fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or maternal intramuscular betamethasone 7 and/or 14 days before delivery at 120 days gestational age (GA) (term = 150 days GA). Intra-amniotic LPS exposure decreased Shh mRNA levels and Gli1 protein expression, which was counteracted by both betamethasone pre- or posttreatment. mRNA and protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 10 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which are important mediators of lung development, increased 2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, 14 days after LPS exposure. Both 7-day and 14-day exposure to LPS changed the mRNA levels of elastin (ELN) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) and 2 (Col1A2), which resulted in fewer elastin foci and increased collagen type I deposition in the alveolar septa. Corticosteroid posttreatment prevented the decrease in ELN mRNA and increased elastin foci and decreased collagen type I deposition in the fetal lung. In conclusion, fetal lung exposure to LPS was accompanied by changes in key modulators of lung development resulting in abnormal lung structure. Betamethasone treatment partially prevented the changes in developmental processes and lung structure. This study provides new insights into clinically relevant prenatal exposures and fetal lung development. PMID:22962010

  1. New generation lipid emulsion protects against LPS-induced brain inflammation in pemature piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premature infants provided parenteral nutrition (PN) high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have increased risk of inflammatory disease, such as nosocomial sepsis. The pro-inflammatory insult can also contribute to injury and delayed neuronal growth in the perinatal brain. Provision of high ...

  2. GW274150 and GW273629 are potent and highly selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, Wendy K; Angell, Anthony D R; Craig, Caroline; Dawson, John; Garvey, Edward; Moncada, Salvador; Monkhouse, Jayne; Rees, Daryl; Russell, Linda J; Russell, Rachel J; Schwartz, Sheila; Waslidge, Neil; Knowles, Richard G

    2005-01-01

    GW274150 ([2-[(1-iminoethyl) amino]ethyl]-L-homocysteine) and GW273629 (3-[[2-[(1-iminoethyl)amino]ethyl]sulphonyl]-L-alanine) are potent, time-dependent, highly selective inhibitors of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) vs endothelial NOS (eNOS) (>100-fold) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) (>80-fold). GW274150 and GW273629 are arginine competitive, NADPH-dependent inhibitors of human iNOS with steady state Kd values of <40 and <90 nM, respectively.GW274150 and GW273629 inhibited intracellular iNOS in J774 cells in a time-dependent manner, reaching IC50 values of 0.2±0.04 and 1.3±0.16 μM, respectively. They were also acutely selective in intact rat tissues: GW274150 was >260-fold and 219-fold selective for iNOS against eNOS and nNOS, respectively, while GW273629 was >150-fold and 365-fold selective for iNOS against eNOS and nNOS, respectively.The pharmacokinetic profile of GW274150 was biphasic in healthy rats and mice with a terminal half-life of ∼6 h. That of GW273629 was also biphasic in rats, producing a terminal half-life of ∼3 h. In mice however, elimination of GW273629 appeared monophasic and more rapid (∼10 min). Both compounds show a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rats and mice.GW274150 was effective in inhibiting LPS-induced plasma NOx levels in mice with an ED50 of 3.2±0.7 mg kg−1 after 14 h intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 3.8±1.5 mg kg−1 after 14 h when administered orally. GW273629 showed shorter-lived effects on plasma NOx and an ED50 of 9±2 mg kg−1 after 2 h when administered i.p.The effects of GW274150 and GW273629 in vivo were consistent with high selectivity for iNOS, as these inhibitors were of low potency against nNOS in the rat cerebellum and did not cause significant effects on blood pressure in instrumented mice. PMID:15778742

  3. Sulforaphane exerts anti-inflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tianjie; Xu, Fei; Yan, Xixin; Li, Shuai; Li, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanate-4-methyl sulfonyl butane) is a plant extract (obtained from cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage) and is known to exert anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It stimulates the generation of human or animal cells, which is beneficial to the body. The aim of the current study was to determine whether sulforaphane protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced acute lung injury (ALI) through its anti-inflammatory effects, and to investigate the signaling pathways involved. For this purpose, male BALB/c mice were treated with sulforaphane (50 mg/kg) and 3 days later, ALI was induced by the administration of LPS (5 mg/kg) and we thus established the model of ALI. Our results revealed that sulforaphane significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (as shown by LDH assay), the wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs and the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (measured by ELISA), as well as nuclear factor-κB protein expression in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Moreover, treatment with sulforaphane significantly inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression (as shown by western blot analysis), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Lastly, we noted that pre-treatment with sulforaphane activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the mice with LPS-induced ALI. These findings demonstrate that sulforaphane exerts protective effects against LPS-induced ALI through the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Thus, sulforaphane may be a potential a candidate for use in the treatment of ALI. PMID:26531002

  4. Genetic and Epigenetic Variations in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter, Particulate Pollution and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Muhammad T.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Lurmann, Fred; Breton, Carrie V.; Wang, Xinhui; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, encoded by NOS2) is the major enzyme for nitric oxide synthesis in airways. As such, measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) provides an in vivo assessment of iNOS activity. Short-term exposure to air pollution, haplotypes and DNA methylation in NOS2 promoter have been associated independently with iNOS expression and/or FeNO. Objective We aimed to examine the effects of ambient air pollutants, NOS2 promoter haplotypes and NOS2 promoter methylation on FeNO level in children. Methods We selected 940 participants in the Children’s Health Study who provided buccal samples and had undergone FeNO measurement on the same day. DNA methylation was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction Pyrosequencing assay. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms captured the haplotype diversity in the NOS2 promoter. Average particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm (PM2.5 and PM10), ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels 7 days before FeNO measurement were estimated based on air pollution data obtained at central monitoring sites. Results We found interrelated effects of PM2.5, NOS2 promoter haplotypes and iNOS methylation on FeNO. Elevated 7-day average PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower iNOS methylation (P=.01). NOS2 promoter haplotypes were globally associated with NOS2 promoter methylation (P=6.2 × 10−8). There was interaction among one common promoter haplotype, iNOS methylation level and PM2.5 exposure on FeNO (Pinteraction=.00007). Conclusion Promoter variants in NOS2 and short term PM2.5 exposure affect iNOS methylation. This is one of the first studies showing contributions of genetic and epigenetic variations in air pollution mediated phenotype expression. PMID:22055874

  5. PKC412 (CGP41251) modulates the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi . E-mail: hinoue@genome.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Takata, Yoichiro; Nakano, Shunji; Yasui, Natsuo; Itakura, Mitsuo

    2007-08-17

    PKC412 (CGP41251) is a multitarget protein kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the effects of PKC412 on macrophages. PKC412 inhibited the proliferation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. At non-toxic drug concentrations, PKC412 significantly suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-{alpha} and nitric oxide, while instead enhancing IL-6 secretion. PKC412 attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylations of MKK4 and JNK, as well as AP-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, PKC412 suppressed LPS-induced Akt and GSK-3{beta} phosphorylations. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of PKC412 are, at least in part, mediated through its interference with the MKK4/JNK/AP-1 and/or Akt/GSK-3{beta} pathways. Since macrophages contribute significantly to the development of both acute and chronic inflammation, PKC412 may have therapeutic potential and applications in treating inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases.

  6. Lactoferrin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced endometritis in mice via down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Weishi; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jifang; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-09-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the most abundant proteins found in milk, and it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of LF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of LF on LPS-induced endometritis in mice. The endometritis model was established by the perfusion of mice with LPS. LF was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1h before and 12h after LPS induction. Our results demonstrated that LF significantly attenuated the histopathological changes in the uterus, reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of nitric oxide (NO), and inhibited the activation of NF-κB and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that LF has an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced endometritis in mice. Therefore, LF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of endometritis. PMID:26256698

  7. Berberine hydrochloride attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced endometritis in mice by suppressing activation of NF-κB signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Wang, Yu; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis is a common disease in animal production and influences breeding all over the world. Berberine is one of the main alkaloids isolated from Rhizoma coptidis. Previous reports showed that berberine has anti-inflammatory potential. However, there have been a limited number of published reports on the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced endometritis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 12h after LPS induction. Then, a biopsy was performed, and uterine myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in the uterus homogenate were measured by ELISA. The extent of IκB-α and P65 phosphorylation was detected by Western blot. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration, suppressed myeloperoxidase activity and decreased NO, TNF-αand IL-1βproduction. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride inhibited the phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor, IκBα. These findings suggest that berberine hydrochloride exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse endometritis and might be a potential therapeutic agent for endometritis. PMID:25479718

  8. Somatostatin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neurodegeneration in the rat substantia nigra by inhibiting the activation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    BAI, LIJUAN; ZHANG, XIQUE; LI, XIAOHONG; LIU, NA; LOU, FAN; MA, HONGLEI; LUO, XIAOGUANG; REN, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) is a neuromodulator which is abundant throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and has a crucial role in neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of SST in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the context of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, a model of PD was generated by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra (SN) of rats in order to investigate the effects of SST on LPS-induced degeneration of DA in vivo. Intramural injection of LPS resulted in a significant loss of DA neurons, while reduction of neuronal death by SST pretreatment was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase and Nissl. In parallel, immunohistochemical detection of OX-42 and hydroethidine staining were employed to determine the activation of microglia and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. It was found that SST inhibited the LPS-induced microglial activity and ROS production. ELISA revealed a decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and prostaglandin E2 when SST was administered prior to LPS treatment. Western blot analysis showed that LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p-p65 was attenuated by administration of SST prior to LPS application. The results indicated that LPS-induced loss of nigral DA neurons was inhibited by SST and the observed effects of SST on neuroprotection were associated with suppression of microglial activation and the NF-κB pathway, ensuing decreases of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The present study therefore suggested that SST is beneficial for treating neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, through inhibiting the activation of microglia. PMID:25777539

  9. The role of nitric oxide on DNA damage induced by benzene metabolites

    PubMed Central

    MELIKIAN, ASSIEH A.; CHEN, KUN-MING; LI, HEYI; SODUM, RAMA; FIALA, EMERICH; EL-BAYOUMY, KARAM

    2013-01-01

    Benzene, a tobacco constituent, is a leukemogen in humans and a carcinogen in rodents. Several benzene metabolites generate superoxide anion (O2•−) and induce nitric oxide synthase in the bone marrow of mice. We hypothesized that the reaction of nitric oxide (•NO) with O2•− leads to the formation of peroxynitrite as an intermediate during benzene metabolism. This hypothesis was supported by demonstrating that the exposure of mice to benzene produced nitrated metabolites and enhanced the levels of protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine in the bone marrow of mice in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the influence of nitric oxide, generated from sodium 1-(N,N-diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, on DNA strand breaks induced by each single or binary benzene metabolite at different doses and compared the levels of the DNA damage induced by each benzene metabolite in the presence of nitric oxide with the levels of DNA strand breaks induced by peroxynitrite at similar doses in vitro. We found that among benzene metabolites only 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (BT) can induce significant DNA damage in the absence of nitric oxide. While 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (HQ), 1,4-benzo-quinone (BQ) and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (CAT) require •NO to induce DNA strand breaks, hydroquinone was the most potent DNA-damaging benzene metabolite in the presence of •NO. The order of DNA breaks by benzene metabolites in the presence of •NO is: Peroxynitrite = HQ > BT > BQ > CAT. The •NO and O2•− scavengers inhibited DNA damage induced by [HQ+•NO]. Benzene, trans,trans-muconaldehyde, and phenol, do not induce DNA strand breaks either in the absence or presence of •NO. However, adding phenol to [HQ+•NO] leads to greater DNA damage than [HQ+•NO] alone. Collectively, these results suggest that nitric oxide is an important factor in DNA damage induced by certain benzene metabolites, probably via the formation of the peroxynitrite intermediate. Phenol, the major benzene metabolite that does not induce DNA damage alone and is inactive in vivo, synergistically enhances DNA damage induced by potent benzene metabolite in the presence of nitric oxide. PMID:18425395

  10. Licochalcone A Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Licochalcone A (Lico A), a flavonoid found in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, the protective effects of Lico A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. In this study, using a mouse model of LPS-induced AKI, we investigated the protective effects and mechanism of Lico A on LPS-induced AKI in mice. LPS-induced kidney injury was assessed by detecting kidney histological study, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. The production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in serum and kidney tissues was detected by ELISA. The activation of NF-κB was measured by western blot analysis. Our results showed that Lico A dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced kidney histopathologic changes, serum BUN, and creatinine levels. Lico A also suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production both in serum and kidney tissues. Furthermore, our results showed that Lico A significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that Lico A has protective effects against LPS-induced AKI and Lico A exhibits its anti-inflammatory effects through inhibiting LPS-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:26552405

  11. Indole alkaloids from the roots of Isatis indigotica and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liguo; Wang, Guan; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Hongmei; Chen, Lixia; Zhao, Feng; Qiu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Three rare indole-2-S-glycosides, indole-3-acetonitrile-2-S-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), indole-3-acetonitrile-4-methoxy-2-S-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and N-methoxy-indole-3-acetonitrile-2-S-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with 11 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the roots of Isatis indigotica Fort. (Cruciferae). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of mass spectrometry and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. A plausible biosynthesis pathway of 1-3 is also proposed. PMID:24685504

  12. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guiyang; Zhou, Li; Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes including a new elemane-type sesquiterpene, 5βH-elem-1,3,7,8-tetraen-8,12-olide (1), and two new carabrane-type sesquiterpenes, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-methoxy-carabrane-4,8-dione (2) and 8,11-epidioxy-8-hydroxy-4-oxo-6-carabren (3), together with eight known sesquiterpenes (4-11) were isolated from Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. A possible biogenetic scheme for the related compounds was postulated. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed. PMID:25819782

  13. Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibition, nitric oxide and hydroperoxide on insulin release induced by various secretagogues.

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotidis, G; Akesson, B; Rydell, E L; Lundquist, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by islet NO synthase and monoamine oxidase, respectively, may have a regulatory influence on insulin secretory processes. We have investigated the pattern of insulin release from isolated islets of Langerhans in the presence of various pharmacological agents known to perturb the intracellular levels of NO and the oxidation state of SH-groups. 2. The NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) dose-dependently increased L-arginine-induced insulin release. D-Arginine did not influence L-arginine-induced insulin secretion. However, D-NAME which reportedly has no inhibitory action on NO synthase, modestly increased L-arginine-induced insulin release, but was less effective than L-NAME. High concentrations (10 mM) of D-arginine as well as L-NAME and D-NAME could enhance basal insulin release. 3. The intracellular NO donor, hydroxylamine, dose-dependently inhibited insulin secretion induced by L-arginine and L-arginine+L-NAME. 4. Glucose-induced insulin release was increased by NO synthase inhibition (L-NAME) and inhibited by the intracellular NO donor, hydroxylamine. Sydnonimine-1 (SIN-1), an extracellular donor of NO and superoxide, induced a modest suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin release. SIN-1 did not influence insulin secretion induced by L-arginine or the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin. 5. The intracellular 'hydroperoxide donor' tert-butylhydroperoxide in the concentration range of 0.03-3 mM inhibited insulin release stimulated by the nutrient secretagogues glucose and L-arginine. Low concentrations (0.03-30 microM) of tert-butylhydroperoxide, however enhanced insulin secretion induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7533613

  14. Nilotinib ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Agamy, Dina S.

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given nilotinib (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage twice daily for 1 week prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS. At 24 h after LPS exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissue were collected. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein level and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF were determined. Optical microscopy was performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities as well as nitrite/nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}) levels were measured in lung tissues. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), transforming growth factor-{beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined in lung tissues. Treatment with nilotinib prior to LPS exposure significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, as it significantly decreased lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the BALF. This was supported by the histopathological examination which revealed marked attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in nilotinib treated rats. In addition, nilotinib significantly increased SOD and GSH activities with significant decrease in MDA content in the lung. Nilotinib also reduced LPS mediated overproduction of pulmonary NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} levels. Importantly, nilotinib caused down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and iNOS levels in the lung. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effects of nilotinib against the LPS-induced ALI. This effect can be attributed to nilotinib ability to counteract the inflammatory cells infiltration and hence ROS generation and regulate cytokine effects. - Research highlights: > The protective effects of nilotinib against LPS-induced ALI in rats were studied. > Nilotinib showed potent anti-inflammatory activity as it attenuated PMN infiltration and hence ROS generation. > In addition, nilotinib caused down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production.

  15. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and formation of nitric oxide by alveolar macrophages: an interspecies comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Jesch, N K; Dörger, M; Enders, G; Rieder, G; Vogelmeier, C; Messmer, K; Krombach, F

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to play a role in mediating pulmonary injury. However, interspecies differences appear to exist in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to express the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and to generate NO. The purpose of this study was to compare iNOS expression and NO production by rat, hamster, monkey, and human AM using the identical experimental conditions in vitro. As AM donors, CD rats, Syrian golden hamsters, cynomolgus monkeys, and nonsmoking, healthy human volunteers were used. The AM were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and stimulated in vitro with various concentrations and combinations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The oxidation product of NO, nitrite, was measured in the AM supernatant by the Griess reaction. The expression of iNOS in AM was detected using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. The expression of iNOS mRNA was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rat AM, stimulated with either LPS or IFN-gamma, produced nitrite in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Combination of LPS and IFN-gamma resulted in a significantly enhanced nitrite formation. However, none of the treatments was able to induce hamster, monkey, or human AM to release measurable amounts of nitrite. Whereas expression of iNOS protein was only detected in stimulated rat AM, expression of iNOS mRNA was found in unstimulated and stimulated rat AM, slightly in stimulated hamster AM, but not in monkey and human AM. In conclusion, our findings point to distinct regulatory mechanisms of the NO pathway in AM from these four different species. PMID:9400741

  16. The flavonoid luteolin induces nitric oxide production and arterial relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Si, Hongwei; Wyeth, Richard P.; Liu, Dongmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Luteolin, a flavone present in many foods and medicinal plants, may have beneficial effects on various human chronic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that luteolin can directly act on vascular endothelial cells (ECs), leading to nitric oxide (NO) production and subsequent vascular relaxation. Methods Rat aortic rings were mounted in organ bath. Luteolin was added cumulatively and vessel relaxation of rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) or potassium was recorded. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at Ser1177 and NO production from aortic rings and primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) exposed to luteolin were measured by using Western blot and fluorometric assay, respectively. Results Luteolin dose-dependently (10-100 μmol/L) elicited relaxation of PE- or potassium-contracted aortic rings. The vasorelaxation effect of luteolin was attenuated by the eNOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting that this luteolin action is at least partially mediated by activating eNOS activity. We further found that luteolin dose-dependently (10-100 μmol/L) increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 (up to 1.9 fold) in isolated rat rings. Consistently, exposure of HAECs to luteolin also increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Conclusion Luteolin may be a vascular protective agent by directly acting on vascular ECs to stimulate NO-dependent vascular dilatation. PMID:23604495

  17. The chloroform fraction of Solanum nigrum suppresses nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages through inhibition of p38, JNK and ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Jeong, Ha-Deok; Choi, Ho-Young

    2011-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L., commonly known as black nightshade, is used worldwide for the treatment of skin and mucosal ulcers, liver cirrhosis and edema. We aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory active fraction of S. nigrum by serial extractions. S. nigrum was first extracted with methanol, then fractionated with chloroform and water. The effects of S. nigrum fractions, diosgenin and α-solanine on LPS/interferon-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), or LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse peritoneal macrophages were determined. Western blotting analysis was used to detect LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. The chloroform fraction of S. nigrum was cytotoxic in a time and concentration dependent manner; however, the methanol and water fractions were not. The chloroform fraction reduced NO through inhibition of iNOS synthesis and inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 at the level of protein secretion; the methanol and water fractions showed a weak or no effect. The chloroform fraction also suppressed p38, JNK and ERK1/2. Diosgenin and α-solanine were cytotoxic at a high concentration. In particular, diosgenin was able to inhibit TNF-α and IL-6, but both compounds did not affect LPS-induced iNOS expression. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory compounds of S. nigrum exist preferentially in the nonpolar fraction, ruling out the possibility that diosgenin and α-solanine are the likely candidates. The inhibition of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 by the chloroform fraction may be partly due to the suppression of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. Further study is required to identify the active compounds of S. nigrum. PMID:22083995

  18. Regulation of Injury-Induced Neurogenesis by Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2012-01-01

    The finding that neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to divide, migrate, and differentiate into several cellular types in the adult brain raised a new hope for restorative neurology. Nitric oxide (NO), a pleiotropic signaling molecule in the central nervous system (CNS), has been described to be able to modulate neurogenesis, acting as a pro- or antineurogenic agent. Some authors suggest that NO is a physiological inhibitor of neurogenesis, while others described NO to favor neurogenesis, particularly under inflammatory conditions. Thus, targeting the NO system may be a powerful strategy to control the formation of new neurons. However, the exact mechanisms by which NO regulates neural proliferation and differentiation are not yet completely clarified. In this paper we will discuss the potential interest of the modulation of the NO system for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or other pathological conditions that may affect the CNS. PMID:22997523

  19. Calmodulin-induced structural changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Persechini, Anthony; Tran, Quang-Kim; Black, D J; Gogol, Edward P

    2013-01-31

    We have derived structures of intact calmodulin (CaM)-free and CaM-bound endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by reconstruction from cryo-electron micrographs. The CaM-free reconstruction is well fitted by the oxygenase domain dimer, but the reductase domains are not visible, suggesting they are mobile and thus delocalized. Additional protein is visible in the CaM-bound reconstruction, concentrated in volumes near two basic patches on each oxygenase domain. One of these corresponds with a presumptive docking site for the reductase domain FMN-binding module. The other is proposed to correspond with a docking site for CaM. A model is suggested in which CaM binding and docking position the reductase domains near the oxygenase domains and promote docking of the FMN-binding modules required for electron transfer. PMID:23266515

  20. Anmindenols A and B, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihye; Kim, Hiyoung; Lee, Tae Gu; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

    2014-06-27

    Anmindenols A (1) and B (2), inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by interpreting various spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Anmindenols A and B are sesquiterpenoids possessing an indene moiety with five- and six-membered rings derived from isoprenyl units. The absolute configuration of C-4 in anmindenol B was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a dimolybdenum complex. Anmindenols A (1) and B (2) inhibited nitric oxide production in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 23 and 19 μM, respectively. PMID:24878306

  1. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. PMID:26327113

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury Disrupts Cerebrovascular Tone Through Endothelial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Nitric Oxide Gain of Function

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Nuria; Sonkusare, Swapnil K.; Longden, Thomas A.; Tran, Tram L.; Sackheim, Adrian M.; Nelson, Mark T.; Wellman, George C.; Freeman, Kalev

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported to increase the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and can lead to loss of cerebrovascular tone; however, the sources, amounts, and consequences of excess NO on the cerebral vasculature are unknown. Our objective was to elucidate the mechanism of decreased cerebral artery tone after TBI. Methods and Results Cerebral arteries were isolated from rats 24 hours after moderate fluid‐percussion TBI. Pressure‐induced increases in vasoconstriction (myogenic tone) and smooth muscle Ca2+ were severely blunted in cerebral arteries after TBI. However, myogenic tone and smooth muscle Ca2+ were restored by inhibition of NO synthesis or endothelium removal, suggesting that TBI increased endothelial NO levels. Live native cell NO, indexed by 4,5‐diaminofluorescein (DAF‐2 DA) fluorescence, was increased in endothelium and smooth muscle of cerebral arteries after TBI. Clamped concentrations of 20 to 30 nmol/L NO were required to simulate the loss of myogenic tone and increased (DAF‐2T) fluorescence observed following TBI. In comparison, basal NO in control arteries was estimated as 0.4 nmol/L. Consistent with TBI causing enhanced NO‐mediated vasodilation, inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase, protein kinase G, and large‐conductance Ca2+‐activated potassium (BK) channel restored function of arteries from animals with TBI. Expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase was upregulated in cerebral arteries isolated from animals with TBI, and the inducible isoform of NO synthase inhibitor 1400W restored myogenic responses following TBI. Conclusions The mechanism of profound cerebral artery vasodilation after TBI is a gain of function in vascular NO production by 60‐fold over controls, resulting from upregulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase in the endothelium. PMID:25527626

  3. Macrophage nitric oxide synthase gene: two upstream regions mediate induction by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, C J; Alley, E W; Raval, P; Snowman, A M; Snyder, S H; Russell, S W; Murphy, W J

    1993-01-01

    The promoter region of the mouse gene for macrophage-inducible nitric oxide synthase (mac-NOS; EC 1.14.13.39) has been characterized. A putative TATA box is 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Computer analysis reveals numerous potential binding sites for transcription factors, many of them associated with stimuli that induce mac-NOS expression. To localize functionally important portions of the regulatory region, we constructed deletion mutants of the mac-NOS 5' flanking region and placed them upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, when transfected with a minimal promoter construct, expresses little luciferase activity when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or both. Maximal expression depends on two discrete regulatory regions upstream of the putative TATA box. Region I (position -48 to -209) increases luciferase activity approximately 75-fold over the minimal promoter construct. Region I contains LPS-related responsive elements, including a binding site for nuclear factor interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) and the kappa B binding site for NF-kappa B, suggesting that this region regulates LPS-induced expression of the mac-NOS gene. Region II (position -913 to -1029) alone does not increase luciferase expression, but together with region I it causes an additional 10-fold increase in expression. Together the two regions increase expression 750-fold over activity obtained from a minimal promoter construct. Region II contains motifs for binding IFN-related transcription factors and thus probably is responsible for IFN-mediated regulation of LPS-induced mac-NOS. Delineation of these two cooperative regions explains at the level of transcription how IFN-gamma and LPS act in concert to induce maximally the mac-NOS gene and, furthermore, how IFN-gamma augments the inflammatory response to LPS. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7692452

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Regulates Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a main enzyme producing nitric oxide during inflammation and thus contributes to the initiation and development of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin derived from green tea, has multiple beneficial effects for treating cardiovascular disease, but the effect of EGCG on the expression of vascular iNOS remains unknown. In this study, we investigated (i) whether EGCG inhibits the expression of vascular iNOS induced by angiotensin II in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and, if it does inhibit, (ii) mechanisms underlying the inhibition. Angiotensin II increased expression levels of vascular iNOS; EGCG counteracted this effect. EGCG increased the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, EGCG did not affect the production of reactive oxygen species induced by angiotensin II. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby EGCG provides direct vascular benefits for treating inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21826167

  5. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A H; Misko, T P; Lin, R F; Hickey, W F; Trotter, J L; Tilton, R G

    1994-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory localized nitric oxide to the affected spinal cords of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a prime model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. The present study shows that activated lymphocytes sensitized to the central nervous system encephalitogen, myelin basic protein, can induce nitric oxide production by a murine macrophage cell line. Induction was inhibited by amino-guanidine, a preferential inhibitor of the inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform, and by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Aminoguanidine, when administered to mice sensitized to develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, inhibited disease expression in a dose-related manner. At 400 mg aminoguanidine/kg per day, disease onset was delayed and the mean maximum clinical score was 0.9 +/- 1.2 in aminoguanidine versus 3.9 +/- 0.9 in placebo-treated mice. Histologic scoring of the spinal cords for inflammation, demyelination, and axonal necrosis revealed significantly less pathology in the aminoguanidine-treated group. The present study implicates excessive nitric oxide production in the pathogenesis of murine inflammatory central nervous system demyelination, and perhaps in the human disease multiple sclerosis. Images PMID:7515395

  6. Induction of cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts by lipopolysaccharide: possible involvement of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Chakravortty, D; Kumar, K S

    1997-11-17

    Recent studies suggest that tissue specific fibroblasts respond to inflammatory stimuli leading to the onset of inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we investigated cell kinetics, collagen synthesis, and nitric oxide (NO) level in cultured human small intestinal lamina propria fibroblasts (HSILPF, n = 45) in response to LPS of enteropathogenic E. coli. LPS treatment enhanced the 3[H] TdR uptake, increased the percentage of 'S' phase cells as early as 4 hrs, and decreased the population doubling time of HSILPF in a dose and time dependent manner. Collagen synthesis in HSILPF was also elevated by LPS. The LPS induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis were inhibited by polymyxin B (10 micrograms/ml). LPS was found to suppress the NO production in these cells, whereas combination of LPS (10 micrograms/ml) and IFN gamma (100 U/ml) enhanced NO output and concurrently decreased the cell proliferation and collagen production in HSILPF. Inhibitors of NO, L-NG-monomethyl L-arginine, and aminoguanidine partially restored cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in cells exposed to LPS and IFN gamma. These findings suggest that LPS induces increased cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in HSILPF and these could be related to the suppression of NO production. PMID:9388501

  7. Nitric oxide-induced p53 accumulation and regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by wild-type p53.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, K; Ambs, S; Lupold, S E; Kapust, R B; Spillare, E A; Weinberg, W C; Felley-Bosco, E; Wang, X W; Geller, D A; Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Harris, C C

    1996-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene product p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage from exogenous chemical and physical mutagens. Therefore, we hypothesized that p53 performs a similar role in response to putative endogenous mutagens, such as nitric oxide (NO). We report here that exposure of human cells to NO generated from an NO donor or from overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) results in p53 protein accumulation. In addition, expression of wild-type (WT) p53 in a variety of human tumor cell lines, as well as murine fibroblasts, results in down-regulation of NOS2 expression through inhibition of the NOS2 promoter. These data are consistent with the hypothesis of a negative feedback loop in which endogenous NO-induced DNA damage results in WT p53 accumulation and provides a novel mechanism by which p53 safeguards against DNA damage through p53-mediated transrepression of NOS2 gene expression, thus reducing the potential for NO-induced DNA damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8637893

  8. New ambuic acid derivatives from the solid culture of Pestalotiopsis neglecta and their nitric oxide inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qiu-Yue; Li, Er-Wei; Han, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yun-Fei; Ma, Ke; Bao, Li; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four new ambuic acid derivatives (1–4), and four known derivatives (5–8), were isolated from the solid culture of a plant pathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis neglecta. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments. The absolute configuration of the C-16 secondary alcohol in 1 was deduced via the CD data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex with the acetonide derivative of 1. The absolute configuration in 3 was assigned by comparison of the experimental and simulated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum. The NMR data of compound 5 was reported for the first time. In the nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assay, compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed inhibitory activity against the NO production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage with IC50 values of 88.66, 11.20, and 20.80 µM, respectively. PMID:25989228

  9. Nitric oxide induces apoptosis in a human colonic epithelial cell line, T84

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, M.; Liu, X.; Oliver, P. D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Clark, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in infiltrating and resident cells (epithelia, neurons) and an exaggerated release of nitric oxide. NO can induce apoptosis in macrophages and tumour cell lines. We investigated whether NO induced cell death in an epithelial (T84) cell fine via apoptosis. Culture T84 cells were exposed to a bolus of NO (40 or 80 μM) dissolved in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). After incubation for 4 h at 37°C in 5% CO2, cells were either stained for DNA fragmentation with the TdT-mediated dUTP–biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) method, or cytosolic DNA fragments quantified by a cell death detection ELISA assay. Nitric oxide induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner which preceded frank cell death (failure to exclude Trypan blue). These data suggest that epithelial cell death may be NO dependent and via apoptosis, in states of gut inflammation. PMID:18475646

  10. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Methods Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Results Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24886300

  11. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by carboxybutyrylated glucosamine takes place via down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated nuclear factor-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Kim, Moon-Moo; Mendis, Eresha; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2008-01-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) has been reported to possess several biomedical properties, and currently a great deal of attention has been focused on improving the functional properties of GlcN for different applications. Therefore, this study was conducted to introduce a carboxybutyryl functional group to GlcN and to find out the inhibitory mechanism of a novel GlcN derivative, carboxybutyrylated GlcN (CGlcN), on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). In the initial experiments, the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was inhibited by CGlcN pretreatment and suggested the possibility of down-regulating their respective genes, iNOS and COX-2. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that CGlcN can affect both transcriptional and translational levels of iNOS and COX-2 expression. The data from the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) promoter gene transfection experiment supported the idea that inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 is caused by the down-regulation of their transcription factor, NF-κB. Following stimulation with LPS, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) present upstream of NF-κB signaling were also inhibited by CGlcN treatment. However, the protein level of another MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), remained unaffected. Moreover, following treatment with CGlcN, the protein expression of I-κB kinase (IKK) clearly confirmed that its down-regulation directly inhibited the degradation of IκB and release of NF-κB. Therefore, it can be concluded that CGlcN is capable of inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling by p38 MAPK and JNK, but not by ERK. PMID:18205790

  12. Sesquiterpenes from an Egyptian herbal medicine, Pulicaria undulate, with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yabe, Mikuko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The methylene chloride-methanol (1 : 1) extract from the air-dried aerial parts of wild Pulicaria undulata collected in North Sinia, Egypt, showed inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages. From the extract, three new sesquiterpenes named 5α-hydroperoxyivalin, 8-epi-xanthanol, and 8-epi-isoxanthanol were isolated together with four known sesquiterpenes. The structure of each new sesquiterpenes was determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, all the sesquiterpenoids significantly inhibited the production of NO. Ivalin (IC50=2.0 μM) and 2α-hydroxyalantolactone (1.8 μM) showed particularly strong inhibitory effects, but had strong cytotoxic effects as well. Furthermore, ivalin and 2α-hydroxyalantolactone concentration-dependently reduced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein levels in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:22382417

  13. Nitric oxide- and nitric oxide donors-induced relaxation and its modulation by oxidative stress in piglet pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    López-López, José Gustavo; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Cogolludo, Angel L; Ibarra, Manuel; Zaragozá-Arnáez, Francisco; Tamargo, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is widely used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension while inhaled NO donors have been suggested as an alternative therapy. The differential susceptibility to inactivation by oxidative stress and oxyhaemoglobin of NO and two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) were analysed in isolated endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries from 2-week-old piglets stimulated with U46619. NO, SNAP and SNP relaxed the arteries (pIC30=7.73±0.12, 7.26±0.17 and 6.43±0.13, respectively) but NO was not detected electrochemically in the bath after the addition of SNP and only at concentrations at which SNAP produced more than 50% relaxation. The sGC inhibitor ODQ (10−6 M) or the sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase thapsigargin (2×10−6 M) markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by NO, SNAP and SNP. Addition of oxyhaemoglobin (3×10−7 M) or diethyldithiocarbamate (1 mM) markedly inhibited NO- (pIC30=6.88±0.07 and 6.92±0.18, respectively), weakly inhibited SNAP- and had no effect on SNP-induced relaxation. Xanthine oxidase (5 mu ml−1) plus hypoxanthine (10−4 M) markedly inhibited NO- (pIC30=6.96±0.12) but not SNAP- or SNP-induced relaxation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), MnCl2, diphenileneiodonium and exposing the luminal surface of the rings outwards (inversion) potentiated the relaxant responses of NO (pIC30=8.52±0.16, 8.23±0.11, 8.01±0.11 and 8.20±0.10, respectively). However, SOD did not modify the NO detected by the electrode and had no effect on SNAP- or SNP-induced relaxation. Therefore, the kinetics and local distribution of NO release of NO donors influence the susceptibility to the scavenging effects of oxyhaemoglobin and superoxide. PMID:11429384

  14. Treatment of sunitinib-induced hypertension in solid tumor by nitric oxide donors.

    PubMed

    León-Mateos, L; Mosquera, J; Antón Aparicio, L

    2015-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) are overexpressed in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. This characteristic has supported the rationale of targeting VEGF-driven tumour vascularization, especially in clear cell RCC. VEGF-inhibiting strategies include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and sorafenib) and neutralizing antibodies such as bevacizumab. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. HTN observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of HTN. Although the exact mechanism by tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce HTN has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction) occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition. NO donors could be successfully used not only for the treatment of developed angiogenesis-inhibitor-induced hypertension but also for preventive effects. PMID:26386874

  15. Treatment of sunitinib-induced hypertension in solid tumor by nitric oxide donors☆

    PubMed Central

    León-Mateos, L.; Mosquera, J.; Antón Aparicio, L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) are overexpressed in the majority of renal cell carcinomas. This characteristic has supported the rationale of targeting VEGF-driven tumour vascularization, especially in clear cell RCC. VEGF-inhibiting strategies include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and sorafenib) and neutralizing antibodies such as bevacizumab. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. HTN observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of HTN. Although the exact mechanism by tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce HTN has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction) occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition. NO donors could be successfully used not only for the treatment of developed angiogenesis-inhibitor-induced hypertension but also for preventive effects. PMID:26386874

  16. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  17. Gentamicin induced nitric oxide-related oxidative damages on vestibular afferents in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Sook Kyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Ki Ryung; Kim, Myung Gu; Chung, Won-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on hair cells. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this excitotoxicity, we treated guinea pigs with gentamicin by placing gentamicin (0.5 mg) pellets into a round window niche. After the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment, the numbers of hair cells in the animals were counted with a scanning electron microscope. We then performed immunostaining using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine antibodies. The number of hair cells in the animals was found to decrease significantly after 7 days. nNOS and iNOS expression levels were observed to have increased 3 days after treatment. Nitrotyrosine was expressed primarily at the calyceal afferents of the type I hair cells 3 days after treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed positive hair cells 3 days after treatment. Our results suggest that inner ear treatment with gentamicin may upregulate nNOS and iNOS to induce oxidative stress in the calyceal afferents of type I hair cells, via nitric oxide overproduction. PMID:16289993

  18. L-Ascorbate Attenuates the Endotoxin-Induced Production of Inflammatory Mediators by Inhibiting MAPK Activation and NF-κB Translocation in Cortical Neurons/Glia Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ni; Lai, Chien-Cheng; Chiu, Chien-Tsai; Lin, Jhen-Jhe; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In response to acute insults to the central nervous system, such as pathogen invasion or neuronal injuries, glial cells become activated and secrete inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines. This neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Endogenous ascorbate levels are significantly decreased among patients with septic encephalopathy. Using the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce neuroinflammation in primary neuron/glia cocultures, we investigated how L-ascorbate (vitamin C; Vit. C) affected neuroinflammation. LPS (100 ng/ml) induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the production of NO, interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2) in a time-dependent manner; however, cotreatment with Vit. C (5 or 10 mM) attenuated the LPS-induced iNOS expression and production of NO, IL-6, and MIP-2 production. The morphological features revealed after immunocytochemical staining confirmed that Vit. C suppressed LPS-induced astrocytic and microglial activation. Because Vit. C can be transported into neurons and glia via the sodium-dependent Vit. C transporter-2, we examined how Vit. C affected LPS-activated intracellular signaling in neuron/glia cocultures. The results indicated the increased activation (caused by phosphorylation) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as p38 at 30 min and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) at 180 min after LPS treatment. The inhibition of p38 and ERK MAPK suppressed the LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. Vit. C also inhibited the LPS-induced activation of p38 and ERK. Combined treatments of Vit. C and the inhibitors of p38 and ERK yielded no additional inhibition compared with using the inhibitors alone, suggesting that Vit. C functions through the same signaling pathway (i.e., MAPK) as these inhibitors. Vit. C also reduced LPS-induced IκB-α degradation and NF-κB translocation. Thus, Vit. C suppressed the LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in neuron/glia cocultures by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:24983461

  19. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  20. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. PMID:26590117

  1. Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Activation Generates an Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase-like Output of Nitric Oxide in Inflamed Endothelium*

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Jessica L.; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of NO generated in the vasculature under inflammatory conditions are usually attributed to inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), but the role of the constitutively expressed endothelial NOS (eNOS) is unclear. In normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC), bradykinin (BK) activates kinin B2 receptor (B2R) signaling that results in Ca2+-dependent activation of eNOS and transient NO. In inflamed HLMVEC (pretreated with interleukin-1β and interferon-γ), we found enhanced binding of eNOS to calcium-calmodulin at basal Ca2+ levels, thereby increasing its basal activity that was dependent on extracellular l-Arg. Furthermore, B2R stimulation generated prolonged high output eNOS-derived NO that is independent of increased intracellular Ca2+ and is mediated by a novel Gαi-, MEK1/2-, and JNK1/2-dependent pathway. This high output NO stimulated with BK was blocked with a B2R antagonist, eNOS siRNA, or eNOS inhibitor but not iNOS inhibitor. Moreover, B2R-mediated NO production and JNK phosphorylation were inhibited with MEK1/2 and JNK inhibitors or MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 siRNA but not with ERK1/2 inhibitor. BK induced Ca2+-dependent eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177, Thr495, and Ser114 in cytokine-treated HLMVEC, but these modifications were not dependent on JNK1/2 activation and were not responsible for prolonged NO output. Cytokine treatment did not alter the expression of B2R, Gαq/11, Gαi1,2, JNK, or eNOS. B2R activation in control endothelial cells enhanced migration, but in cytokine-treated HLMVEC it reduced migration. Both responses were NO-dependent. Understanding how JNK regulates prolonged eNOS-derived NO may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of disorders involving vascular inflammation. PMID:23255592

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase provides protection against injury-induced thrombosis in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hao; Benguigui, Lea Esther S.; Lamon, Brian D.; Deeb, Ruba S.; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Hajjar, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasoactive molecule produced by three NO synthase (NOS) enzymes: neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS). While eNOS contributes to blood vessel dilation that protects against the development of hypertension, iNOS has been primarily implicated as a disease-promoting isoform during atherogenesis. Despite this, iNOS may play a physiological role via the modulation of cyclooxygenase and thromboregulatory eicosanoid production. Herein, we examined the role of iNOS in a murine model of thrombosis. Blood flow was measured in carotid arteries of male and female wild-type (WT) and iNOS-deficient mice following ferric chloride-induced thrombosis. Female WT mice were more resistant to thrombotic occlusion than male counterparts but became more susceptible upon iNOS deletion. In contrast, male mice (with and without iNOS deletion) were equally susceptible to thrombosis. Deletion of iNOS was not associated with a change in the balance of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) or antithrombotic prostacyclin (PGI2). Compared with male counterparts, female WT mice exhibited increased urinary nitrite and nitrate levels and enhanced ex vivo induction of iNOS in hearts and aortas. Our findings suggest that iNOS-derived NO in female WT mice may attenuate the effects of vascular injury. Thus, although iNOS is detrimental during atherogenesis, physiological iNOS levels may contribute to providing protection against thrombotic occlusion, a phenomenon that may be enhanced in female mice. PMID:21602468

  3. Neostigmine-induced contraction and nitric oxide-induced relaxation of isolated ileum from STZ diabetic guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cellini, Joseph; Jukic, Anne Marie Zaura; LePard, Kathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Both delayed gastrointestinal transit and autonomic neuropathy have been documented in patients with diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of neostigmine, an agent that mimics release of acetylcholine from autonomic neurons by prokinetic agents, to contract smooth muscle, despite dysfunctional enteric neural pathways, was determined using isolated ilea from STZ-treated and control guinea pigs. Both bethanechol- and neostigmine-induced contractions were stronger in diabetic ileum. Bethanechol-induced contractions of control but not diabetic ileum were increased by low dose scopolamine suggesting reduced activation of presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors in diabetic ileum. The muscarinic receptor antagonist 4-DAMP strongly, but the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium only weakly, reduced neostigmine-induced contractions of control and diabetic ilea. The amount of acetylcholine, inferred from tissue choline content, was increased in diabetic ileum. Nicotinic neural and noncholinergic postjunctional smooth muscle receptors contributed more strongly to neostigmine-induced contractions in diabetic than control ileum. Relaxation of diabetic ileum by exogenous nitric oxide generated from sodium nitroprusside was comparable to control ileum, but smooth muscle relaxation by L-arginine using neuronal nitric oxide synthase to generate nitric oxide was weaker in diabetic ileum with evidence for a role for inducible nitric oxide synthase. Despite autonomic neuropathy, neostigmine strongly contracted ileum from diabetic animals but by a different mechanism including stronger activation of postjunctional muscarinic receptors, greater synaptic acetylcholine, stronger activation of noncholinergic excitatory pathways, and weaker activation of inhibitory pathways. A selective medication targeting a specific neural pathway may more effectively treat disordered gastrointestinal transit in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:21880552

  4. The endogenous nitric oxide mediates selenium-induced phytotoxicity by promoting ROS generation in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Mo, Hai-Zhen; Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants. PMID:25333984

  5. The Endogenous Nitric Oxide Mediates Selenium-Induced Phytotoxicity by Promoting ROS Generation in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants. PMID:25333984

  6. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L.; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B.

    2015-01-01

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction. PMID:26608817

  7. The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Oplnder, Christian; Suschek, Christoph V.

    2013-01-01

    Human skin is exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation comprising UVB (280315 nm) and UVA (315400 nm) on a daily basis. Within the last two decades, the molecular and cellular response to UVA/UVB and the possible effects on human health have been investigated extensively. It is generally accepted that the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of UVB is due to the direct interaction with DNA. On the other hand, by interaction with non-DNA chromophores as endogenous photosensitizers, UVA induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a pivotal role as mediators of UVA-induced injuries in human skin. This review gives a short overview about relevant findings concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying UVA/UVB-induced cell death. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential role of cutaneous antioxidants and photolabile nitric oxide derivates (NODs) in skin physiology. UVA-induced decomposition of the NODs, like nitrite, leads not only to non-enzymatic formation of nitric oxide (NO), but also to toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS), like peroxynitrite. Whereas under antioxidative conditions the generation of protective amounts of NO is favored, under oxidative conditions, less injurious reactive nitrogen species are generated, which may enhance UVA-induced cell death. PMID:23344028

  8. Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Anticancer Activity of the Topoisomerase-Active Drugs Etoposide and Adriamycin in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Bhattacharjee, Suchandra; Espey, Michael G.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (⋅NO) was originally identified as an innate cytotoxin. However, in tumors it can enhance resistance to chemotherapy and exacerbate cancer progression. Our previous studies indicated that ⋅NO/⋅NO-derived species react with etoposide (VP-16) in vitro and form products that show significantly reduced activity toward HL60 cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. Here, we further confirm the hypothesis that ÷NO generation contributes to VP-16 resistance by examining interactions of ⋅NO with VP-16 in inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)–expressing human melanoma A375 cells. Inhibition of iNOS catalysis by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-l-lysine dihydrochloride (L-NIL) in human melanoma A375 cells reversed VP-16 resistance, leading to increased DNA damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that coculturing A375 melanoma cells with LPS-induced macrophage RAW cells also significantly reduced VP-16 cytotoxicity and DNA damage in A375 cells. We also examined the interactions of ⋅NO with another topoisomerase active drug, Adriamycin, in A375 cells. In contrast, to VP-16, ⋅NO caused no significant modulation of cytotoxicity or Adriamycin-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that ⋅NO does not interact with Adriamycin. Our studies support the hypothesis that ⋅NO oxidative chemistry can detoxify VP-16 through direct nitrogen oxide radical attack. Our results provide insights into the pharmacology and anticancer mechanisms of VP-16 that may ultimately contribute to increased resistance, treatment failure, and induction of secondary leukemia in VP-16–treated patients. PMID:24049059

  9. Comparison of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in pancreatic islets of young and aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhfall, Khadije; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mehrani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective