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Sample records for luigi castagnetta italo

  1. Italo Svevo and the first psychoanalytic novel.

    PubMed

    Esman, A

    2001-12-01

    The first fictional work that used psychoanalysis as a central plot device was La Coscienza di Zeno (Confessions of Zeno), published in 1923 by Ettore Schmitz, a Triestino Jewish businessman who wrote under the pseudonym of 'Italo Svevo'. This paper describes Svevo's background, his relations with such important literary figures as James Joyce and with such central figures in Italian psychoanalysis as Dr Edoardo Weiss. It seeks to demonstrate to the Anglophone reader the particular psychoanalytic elements in the novel and to relate them to Svevo's personal experience (including his indirect contacts with Freud) and to the intellectual currents of the period in a city which had, until the aftermath of the First World War, been a crossroads of European culture. PMID:11802692

  2. Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the historical importance of the research that, in the second half of the 18th century, led Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) to lay down the foundation of modern electrophysiology, his scientific personality is largely misrepresented in science history and in popular imagery. He is still considered as a pioneer that by chance incurred some surprising experimental observations and was incapable of pursuing his research in a coherent way. In contrast with these views, Galvani was a high-standard scientist who succeeded, with the strength of experimental science, in demonstrating, in animals, electricity in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable fibres. This electricity, called 'animal electricity', was deemed responsible for nerve conduction. By studying the scientific endeavours of Galvani, through his published and unpublished material, and by situating them in the historical context of the physiology of the Enlightenment, this paper attempts to trace the elusive and complex path that led Galvani to his extraordinary discovery. PMID:16731488

  3. Visual images in Luigi Galvani's path to animal electricity.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The scientific endeavor that led Luigi Galvani to his hypothesis of "animal electricity," i.e., of an electricity present in a condition of disequilibrium between the interior and the exterior of excitable animal fibers, is reviewed here with particular emphasis to the role played by visual images in Galvani's path of discovery. In 1791 Galvani formulated his model of neuromuscular physiology on the base of the image of a muscle and a nerve fiber together as in a "minute animal Leyden jar." This was the last instance of a series of physical models that accompanied Galvani's experimental efforts in the search of a theory capable of accounting for the electric nature of nerve conduction in spite of the many objections formulated in the eighteenth century against a possible role of electricity in animal physiology. PMID:18629700

  4. [Remembering Luigi Galvani on the bicentennial of his death].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    1999-01-01

    A short outline of the evolution of electrology throughout the XVIII century is presented. Emphasis is done on the topic of so-called animal electricity, whose study mainly developed due to the initial research of the Bolognese professor Luigi Galvani. In 1791, he made known his experimental results, submitting them to the criticism of contemporaneous scientists, Galvani and his pupils thought that the electrical phenomena observed in frogs were due to the electricity inherent to these animals (animal electricity), while their opponents, such as the physicist Alessandro Volta, attributed them to the action of the metallic conductors utilized (contact electricity). They were wrong to admit an unique type of electricity, because both types exist. Galvani's investigations encouraged Volta's research, which gave rise to the invention of the electric battery and its uses. Moreover Galvani's studies opened the immense and rich field of electrophysiology. PMID:10425828

  5. Resuscitation great. Luigi Galvani and the foundations of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cajavilca, Christian; Varon, Joseph; Sternbach, George L

    2009-02-01

    Luigi Galvani became one of the greatest scientists of the 18th century with his research and the development of his theory on animal electricity. His work was appreciated by many scientists. Nevertheless, it gave rise to one of the most passionate scientific debates in history when Alessandro Volta postulated that Galvani had confused intrinsic animal electricity with small currents produced by metals. This debate would result in the creation of electrophysiology, electromagnetism, electrochemistry and the electrical battery. Galvani responded to each of the postulated theories of Volta giving irrefutable proof of the involvement of electricity in the contraction of muscles. However, his work was subsequently abandoned and silenced for many years but his ideas and theories were finally confirmed by the creation of new instruments and the interest of new scientists who helped position Galvani as the father of electrophysiology. PMID:19059693

  6. 75 FR 56992 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Luigi Bormioli Corporation (Distribution of Glassware...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 8651-8652, 2/25/2010) and the... to establish a special-purpose subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility of Luigi...

  7. 75 FR 8651 - Foreign-Trade Zone 21-Charleston, SC, Application for Subzone, Luigi Bormioli Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 21--Charleston, SC, Application for Subzone, Luigi Bormioli Corporation (Glassware), Barnwell, SC An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the South Carolina State...

  8. [Luigi Guerri, an ordinary pharmacists who became the "first son" of pharmaceutical chemistry].

    PubMed

    Guerri, D; Pomini, D; Vanni, P

    1997-06-01

    Luigi Guerri (1823-1892) was one of the most important researchers and teachers in pharmaceutic chemistry in Florence in XIX century. Born and lived in Florence, patriot and colleague of the famous Ugo Schiff, from whom he received much praise, Guerri taught and carried out research into chemistry for about forty years at "Istituto di Studi Superiori" in Florence. This article is a synthesis of his career which started as first assistant to professor Campani, then he became a full professor, teaching pharmaceutic chemistry and eventually became the director of the pharmaceutic laboratory in "Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova". This article, with the reproduction of some of Guerri's publications, shows the integrity of the man as a chemist and as a teacher. He was commemorated by Schiff and the scientific journal "Orosi" at his death. PMID:9376110

  9. Medicine and science in the life of Luigi Galvani (1737-1798).

    PubMed

    Bresadola, M

    1998-07-15

    Together with its companion paper, dealing with the contribution of Luigi Galvani to the history of electrophysiology, this article provides a biographical sketch of the scientist of Bologna in the occasion of the bicentenary of his death. Studies on Galvani have focused mainly on his "discovery" of animal electricity, and on the controversy with Alessandro Volta. Much less is known about Galvani's life and activity as a teacher, physician, and researcher in the fields of comparative anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of life. Yet, a balanced assessment of the significance and the role of Galvani's research in the history of science will be possible only after a historical reconstruction of his entire activity. This should take into account aspects of Galvani's life that have been little studied up to now: Galvani's scientific background, the scientific context in which his interest for muscular physiology arose, the interplay between his activity as a researcher and as a physician, the origin and characteristics of his experimental approach to biological studies, and the development of his experimental research in the crucial period culminating in his electrophysiological explanation of muscular motion. The present article aims at offering a contribution in this direction. PMID:9739000

  10. Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1997-10-01

    Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

  11. Physician and dictator: a pictorial essay on Luigi Carlo Farini (1812-1866) in his homeland.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Luigi Carlo Farini (1812-1866) was one of the leading figures in the Italian unification, the Risorgimento. As a physician he always took care of the health problems of its people with a broadminded attitude, promoting for example extensive campaigns of Jennerian vaccination or experimenting the effects of electricity on tetanus. As a political leader - he was proclaimed "Dictator" in 1859 - he made possible the annexation of the Adriatic regions of Emilia and Romagna to the Kingdom of Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoy that later, in March 1861, was to become the new Kingdom of Italy. This article, in connection with the project "Himetop - The History of Medicine Topographical Database", offers a brief photographic survey of the location and condition of the monuments and memories of the physician-dictator in his homeland, two hundred years after his birth. Not only the tormented history of his monument in Ravenna, but also his birthplace, hospital, tomb, etc., testify that Farini's memory is well preserved among the people he served as a physician and as a statesman. PMID:24304112

  12. Animal electricity and the birth of electrophysiology: the legacy of Luigi Galvani.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1998-07-15

    Preceded by a companion paper on Galvani's life, this article is written on the occasion of the bicentenary of the death of Luigi Galvani. From his studies on the effects of electricity on frogs, the scientist of Bologna derived the hypothesis that animal tissues are endowed with an intrinsic electricity that is involved in fundamental physiological processes such as nerve conduction and muscle contraction. Galvani's work swept away from life sciences mysterious fluids and elusive entities like "animal spirits" and led to the foundation of a new science, electrophysiology. Two centuries of research work have demonstrated how insightful was Galvani's conception of animal electricity. Nevertheless, the scholar of Bologna is still largely misrepresented in the history of science, because the importance of his researches seems to be limited to the fact that they opened the paths to the studies of the physicist Alessandro Volta, which culminated in 1800 with the invention of the electric battery. Volta strongly opposed Galvani's theories on animal electricity. The matter of the scientific controversy between Galvani and Volta is examined here in the light of two centuries of electrophysiological studies leading to the modern understanding of electrical excitability in nerve and muscle. By surveying the work of scientists such as Nobili, Matteucci, du Bois-Reymond, von Helmholtz, Bernstein, Hermann, Lucas, Adrian, Hodgkin, Huxley, and Katz, the real matter of the debate raised by Galvani's discoveries is here reconsidered. In addition, a revolutionary phase of the 18th century science that opened the way for the development of modern neurosciences is reevaluated. PMID:9739001

  13. Geoscience Program for High School Education: the Liceo Magrini Microzonation Experience (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Luigi Magrini", Gemona del Friuli, Udine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, Carla; Contessi, Elisa; Girardi, Mariarosa

    2013-04-01

    The Geoscience Program at Liceo Magrini (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Luigi Magrini", Gemona del Friuli, Udine, Italy) involves teachers and research scientists at the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) to implement education programs with the goal of addressing a critical approach to seismic hazard reduction. The Liceo Magrini is set in Gemona del Friuli (Udine, Italy), the town most affected by the Friuli earthquake in 1976. Due to this reason, the seismic hazard and earthquake mitigation are arguments very close to the school population. Being well known students learn more and enjoy classes more when visual and active learning are incorporated into the lecture, the Geoscience Program is divided into theoretical seminars, demonstrations and hands-on activities in the classroom, summer stages that the students perform at the OGS Seismological Department. In particular, this year, in the framework of the Italian National Initiative "Settimana del Pianeta Terra", the Liceo Magrini promoted a study of how the ground responds to an earthquake at different locations (seismic microzonation) within the area the Gemona del Friuli town. Supported by the OGS researchers, the Magrini students acquired, processed and interpreted seismological data to understand how the effects of an earthquake can be mitigated, starting from the soil response during an earthquake. Targeted analysis of specific physical characteristics of the soil foundation (resonance frequencies, damping or amplification of seismic waves, liquefaction of soils) identify areas of similar seismic behavior. Such bulk of information is fundamental to the planning phase of a new structure or the adaptation of an existing one. Under the guidance of an expert seismologist the students designed and conducted the experiment. They identified 15 target sites (main historical buildings,hospital, fire station, schools), spanning from rock to soft soils. They performed measurements and

  14. The Marriage of Mario (NHPPS) and Luigi (OGCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, F.; Marru, S.

    2011-07-01

    Pipeline systems, like the plumbing characters of video game fame, have their strengths and weaknesses. This is generally due to the different niches they occupy in the landscape of pipeline systems. People frequently discuss the potential interchange of application elements (the modules and algorithms) between pipeline systems. However, pipeline systems themselves are applications in their own right. This paper describes an interesting architectural marriage where one pipeline system orchestrates another to take advantage of the strengths and niches of both. This marriage is the result of a (proposed) project between NOAO and Indiana University to provide a Pipeline, Portal, and Archive (PPA) system for the WIYN One-Degree Imager (ODI) which is briefly introduced here.

  15. Una ricerca sul bilinguismo precoce italo-inglese (Research on Early Italian-English Bilingualism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeschner, Traute; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to verify the theory of Taeschner and Volterra (1976) that bilingual children pass through three distinct phases while becoming perfectly bilingual. The 12 subjects were English-Italian bilingual children between the ages of 1.6 and 4.6. (CFM)

  16. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  17. Comment on «Tidal notches in the Mediterranean Sea: A comprehensive analysis» by Fabrizio Antonioli, Valeria Lo Presti, Alessio Rovere, Luigi Ferranti, Marco Anzidei, Stefano Furlani, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, Paolo E. Orru, Giovanni Scicchitano, Gianmaria Sannino, Cecilia R. Spampinato, Rossella Pagliarulo, Giacomo Deiana, Eleonora de Sabata, Paolo Sansò, Matteo Vacchi and Antonio Vecchio. Quaternary Science Reviews 119 (2015) 66-84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper of Antonioli et al. (2015) presents observations of 73 sites with erosion notches, which are called tidal notches, which in fact appear to be of various genetic origins, because a combination of several physical chemical and biological processes of formation is considered including, in addition to intertidal bioerosion, also carbonate rock solution, wetting and drying and wave abrasion that would produce different types of notches. Among the erosion notches, some «roof notches», in which the notch lacks a floor, are distinguished. For these isolated roofs, we would tend to ascribe erosion to dissolution by a freshwater spring undercutting a limestone cliff at sea level. Accompanying a rise in sea level, dissolution by freshwater will tend to continuously displace the roof of the notch upwards, while the base of the notch, dissolved, will tend to be missing. For such isolated roof of a solution notch, protruding above the waterline, the term «visor» has been proposed by Evelpidou et al. (2011).

  18. The Institute for the Study of Non–Model Organisms and other fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William

    2015-01-01

    In his classic novel Invisible Cities, Italo Calvino describes a series of fantastic imagined cities that fulfill core human needs that remain unmet in ordinary cities. In light of the recent founding of a number of high-profile biomedical institutes, Calvino's descriptions encourage us to consider the unmet needs of the biomedical community and imagine unorthodox institutes designed to fulfill these needs. PMID:25633358

  19. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  20. The Institute for the Study of Non-Model Organisms and other fantasies.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, William

    2015-02-01

    In his classic novel Invisible Cities, Italo Calvino describes a series of fantastic imagined cities that fulfill core human needs that remain unmet in ordinary cities. In light of the recent founding of a number of high-profile biomedical institutes, Calvino's descriptions encourage us to consider the unmet needs of the biomedical community and imagine unorthodox institutes designed to fulfill these needs. PMID:25633358

  1. 78 FR 69600 - Airworthiness Directives; Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Industries S.p.A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for certain Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A. Model P-180 airplanes. This proposed AD results from... proposed AD, contact Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A--Airworthiness Office, Via Luigi Cibrario,...

  2. Three Rejoinders in Search of an Author

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig; Howley, Aimee; Yahn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The three rejoinders that follow engage ideas in Amy Azano's critique (q.v.) (see ERIC Document: EJ1048750) of the study of dissertations with a dual focus on rural education and curriculum and instruction (C&I). Considering the issues Amy raises about authors and authority, the allusion to Luigi Pirandello's great twentieth century…

  3. Commentary on "Syntax at Age Two"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2010-01-01

    In English the nonfinite form is simply a bare verb, but in languages with a morphological distinction it usually takes the form of an infinitive. During the relevant stage the child, unlike an adult, sometimes uses an infinitive as the main verb of a root clause. Luigi Rizzi and certain other researchers therefore favor the term "root…

  4. 76 FR 9812 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Halon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 7, 1990 (55 FR 8204... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 10, 2006 (71 FR 27278) Patricia A. Brink... Luigi Galantucci, Altarnura, ITALY; Global Safety Labs, Tulsa, OK; Minimax USA, Inc., Mesa, AZ;...

  5. Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

    Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially planning for…

  6. Volta and Galvani: New Electricity from Old. Experiment No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Presented is a descriptive account of Alessandro Volta's first notable success in 1775, the invention of a unique method of generating electricity. Luigi Galvani's announcement of his theory of "animal electricity" in 1972 is integrated into this interpretation of Volta's discoveries with electricity. Five experiments are described: (1)…

  7. [The foundation, birth and first steps of the Clinica del Lavoro of Milan. Its historical and social contexts].

    PubMed

    Zanobio, B

    1992-01-01

    After recalling the precursors of social and occupational medicine and the political and social background at the beginning of the century, the author dedicates his attention to Luigi Devoto, lecturer, researcher and organizer. An account is given of his work, his friends (and opponents) and his divulgatory activity, whereby he was able to stimulate the interest of politicians and administrators in the problems of safeguarding the health of the workers and their workplaces. Thanks to the enthusiastic commitment of Luigi Devoto, and with the support of other eminent physicians such as Luigi Mangiagalli, in 1902 the municipal council of Milan voted, by a very large majority, the concession of municipal land to build the first Clinic for the study and treatment of occupational diseases. Building began in 1907 and 3 years later the Clinic was inaugurated. The Directorship was assigned to Luigi Devoto who described the organization, activity and staff of the Clinic in a wealth of detail in the first report drawn up just 3 years later. PMID:1603029

  8. 40th Anniversary of the First Proton-Proton Collisions in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Welcome, Luigi di Lella and Rolf HeuerDesign and Construction of the ISR, Kurt HubnerPhysics at small angles, Ugo Amaldi (TERA Foundation)The Impact of the ISR on Accelerator Physics and Technology, Philip J. BryantPhysics at high transverse momentum, Pierre Darriulat (VATLY-Hanoi)Concluding remarks, Rolf Heuer

  9. The bicentennial of the Voltaic battery (1800-2000): the artificial electric organ.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    2000-04-01

    Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery at the end of 1799 and communicated his invention to the Royal Society of London in 1800. The studies that led him to develop this revolutionary device began in 1792, after Volta read the work of Luigi Galvani on the existence of an intrinsic electricity in living organisms. During these studies, Volta obtained a series of results of great physiological relevance, which led him to anticipate some important ideas that marked the inception of modern neuroscience. These results have been obscured by a cultural tradition that has seen Volta exclusively as a physicist, lacking interest for biological problems and opposed in an irreversible way to the physiologist, Luigi Galvani. PMID:10717671

  10. Erratum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster epidemiology, management, and disease and economic burden in Europe: a multidisciplinary perspective By Robert W. Johnston, Marie-José Alvarez-Pasquin, Marc Bijl, Elisabetta Franco, Jacques Gaillat, João G. Clara, Marc Labetoulle, Jean-Pierre Michel, Luigi Naldi, Luis S. Sanmarti and Thomas Weinke. Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines 2015, Vol. 3(4) 109–120. PMID:27551430

  11. Chronovisor - A Dream of the Future or Real Experiments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2006-10-01

    This book, entirely dedicated to the legends concerning "chronovision", is divided into three main parts: a) discussion and criticism of the alleged experiments carried out by father Pellegrino Ernetti; b) in depth study of the "neutrino space theory" by father and physicist Luigi Borello; c) discussion and criticism concerning alleged experiments carried out in the field of chronovision in the past and in recent years, using several methods.

  12. From Galvani to patch clamp: the development of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O A; Petersen, Ole H

    2006-12-01

    The development of electrophysiology is traced from the early beginnings represented by the work of the Dutch microscopist, Jan Swammerdam, in the 17th century through the first notion of an aqueous transmembrane pore as a substrate of excitability made by Luigi Galvani in late 18th century to the invention late in the 20th century of the patch-clamp technique by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann. PMID:17072639

  13. New astronomy library in Bologna is named after Guido Horn D'Arturo: a forefather of modern telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, M.; D'Arturo, G. H.

    2000-04-01

    Some BAA Journal readers with interests in large mirror telescopes may perhaps have read about the tessellated mirror,1 an instrument that, according to the astronomer Luigi Jacchia, was a forefather of the Multiple Mirror Telescope of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.The tessellated mirror is the most famous contribution to astronomy by Guido Horn D'Arturo (1879-1967), director of Bologna Astronomical Observatory from 1920 to 1949.

  14. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  15. Where did the motor function of the cerebellum come from?

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Until the end of 18th century, the role of the cerebellum remained obscure. The turning point occurred when Luigi Galvani showed that muscle contraction is due to electricity and Alessandro Volta produced the battery, an apparatus based on the pairing of silver and zinc plates separated by brine soaked paper disks, capable to generate electricity. Luigi Rolando, at beginning of 19th century, was impressed by these two observations. He thought that, since the brain generates the movement, it must contain a device generating electricity. As a battery, it should be formed by overlapping disks and the cerebellum for Rolando seemed to be the right structure for such a characteristic laminar organization. He argued that, if the cerebellum is the battery that produces electricity for muscle activity, its removal would produce paralysis. Consequently, Rolando removed the cerebellum in a young goat and observed that the animal, before dying, could no longer stand up. He concluded that the cerebellum is a motor structure as it generates the electricity which produces the movement. The conclusions of Rolando were criticized by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens who observed that animals undergoing cerebellectomy were still able to move, even if with problems of balance. Flourens concluded that the role of the cerebellum "is to put in order or to coordinate movements wanted by certain parts of the nervous system, excited by others". It was necessary to wait up to 1891 when Luigi Luciani, observing a dog survived the cerebellectomy, described a triad of symptoms (asthenia, atony and astasis), unquestionably of cerebellar origin. PMID:26331053

  16. Italy flags scientific shortcomings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-04-01

    The land that gave us Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei and Enrico Fermi does not regard science as part of culture, but it must do so if it is to avoid being left behind economically and intellectually. That is the message from a working group of 18 academics, sponsored by the Italian government, to find ways of improving the quantity, quality and public perception of science in the country. The group has now put forward a range of measures to combat what the group's chair, left-wing politician and Siena University law professor Luigi Berlinguer, describes as a "national emergency".

  17. Astronomy-Connected Scientific Works in Early Transylvania and Banat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Ladislau

    2008-09-01

    Baron Roland von Eötvös: physicist who demonstrated the proportionality of the inertial and gravitational mass and carried out research on the spatial changes in gravitation. Some of his experiments was made on the territory of Banat and Crisana (south-easter Transylvania). Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli: a very complex personality: engineer, diplomat, spy, scientist (geograph, historian, biologist, astronomer), who made the first astronomical observations in Banat and published them. Maximilian Hell: a mathematician and astronomer who founded the first astronomical observatory in Cluj and made observations on a very interesting natural phenomenon: the transit of the planet Venus.

  18. Some New Reflections on Mr. Palomar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.

    2009-08-01

    The character Mr. Palomar, the alter-ego of the Italian author Italo Calvino, appeared for the first time in 1975 on the pages of the ``Il Corriere della Sera'', and then more or less regularly till its debut as a book in 1983. Through illuminating thoughts and reflections based on observations, for instance, of sea waves, Mr. Palomar discovers that they induce a peaceful and inspirational state of mind that prevents coronary and mental illnesses, and also holds the key to capturing the complexity of the world reducing it into its most elementary mechanisms. In this contribution I will survey some of Mr. Palomar's thoughts while he observes the sky and speculate on others that he might have explored if he shared our contemporary knowledge of the cosmos. I will also discuss the thoughts of other authors on how, cosmological thinking affects the human condition.

  19. Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism.

    PubMed

    Cassata, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the ideological, institutional and intellectual connections between Italian eugenics and American scientific racism, from 1953 to 1967. The paper pays special attention to the scientific links between fascist demographer Corrado Gini (the first president of the Italian Central Statistical Institute - Istat), and geneticist Luigi Gedda (the president of the Gregor Mendel Institute in Rome and head of the Catholic political association Azione Cattolica) on the one hand, and on the other, the members of the IAAEE (International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics) and their journal, "The Mankind Quarterly". Corrado Gini and Luigi Gedda were both members of the honorary advisory board of "The Mankind Quarterly", and Gini was also assistant editor in 1962. Despite the theoretical differences between the "neo-Lamarckians" Gini and Gedda, and the "Mendelians" Robert Gayre and Reginald Ruggles Gates--editor and associate editor of "The Mankind Quarterly"--the relationship grew stronger because of a sort of strategic alliance in the ideological fight against UNESCO's Statements on Race. The main source of the paper is Corrado Gini's personal archive, deposited in Rome at the National State Archive (ACS). PMID:19848223

  20. Quantitative determination of un-derivatised amino acids in artistic mural paintings using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Piazza, Rossano; Cairns, Warren R L; Izzo, Francesca C; Vianello, Alvise; Zendri, Elisabetta; Gambaro, Andrea

    2010-08-18

    The tempera painting technique is one of the most common methods used throughout art history. Tempera is defined by the type of binders used and in this work we study protein-based temperas. Proteinaceous binders can be characterized by the chromatographic determination of the amino acids present where techniques are either based on gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective of this work was to develop a derivatisation-free HPLC method with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) of 21 amino acids contained in the protein-based binders of tempera paints. The analytical method identifies the painting techniques of two contemporary artists: Sironi and DeLuigi. The sample data are compared to painting material standards. The results show that the samples from works by DeLuigi contain mainly animal glue binders, while the samples from Sironi paintings contain binders that are an amino acid mixture with an overall composition between that of eggs and casein. PMID:20708108

  1. Galileo and the Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivotto, Cristina; Testa, Antonella

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei (1909), Liliana Cavani's Galileo (1968), and Joseph Losey's Galileo (1975), the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei (1947). We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models. We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.

  2. From universe to multiverses--and back again.

    PubMed

    Tjersland, O A

    1990-12-01

    A number of concepts and ideas from constructivist and second-order cybernetic family therapy literature are presented and their implications for therapy are examined. I was inspired by and, in this article, refer to videotapes of consultations and therapy sessions shown at an international conference on constructivism and family therapy in Sulitjelma, Norway, June 1988, and to written material from the Tromsø group (Tom Andersen and Anna M. Flåm), the Milan team (Luigi Boscolo and Gianfranco Cecchin), and the Galveston team (Harlene Anderson and Harold Goolishian). The article also represents an attempt to use constructivist concepts and ideas in a reflection on the author's own professional development as a psychologist and family therapist. PMID:2286248

  3. The Academy of Science of Bologna and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bonomini, V; Campieri, C; Zuccoli, M

    1999-01-01

    The Academy of Science of Bologna, founded in 1711, played an important role in the development of medicine. Receiving the heritage of Malpighi's and Morgagni's researches, the academy encouraged nephrological studies, which produced articles published in its journal, the Commentarii. Since the Commentarii were widely distributed all over Europe, the nephrological research practiced in Bologna reached all the main academies of science, in a fruitful circulation of knowledge. The paper presents the nephrological contributions to the Commentarii in the 18th century, thus introducing physicians, like Domenico Galeazzi and Luigi Galvani, who were both professors at the University of Bologna and at the Academy of Science. In their work three main topics can be identified: uroscopy, anatomy of the kidney and renal pathologies. PMID:10213815

  4. Animal electricity at the end of the eighteenth century: the many facets of a great scientific controversy.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Marco

    2008-01-01

    In the 1790s, Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta were the main protagonists of a lively debate on the role of electricity in animal organisms. Significant developments originated from this debate, leading to the foundation of two new disciplines, electrodynamics and electrophysiology, that were to play a crucial role in the scientific and technological progress of the last two centuries. The Galvani-Volta controversy has been repeatedly reconstructed, sometimes in an attempt to identify the merits and the errors of one or the other of the two protagonists, sometimes with the aim of demonstrating that the theories elaborated by the two Italian scholars were irreconcilable, reflecting completely different ways of looking at phenomena and conceiving of scientific research. In this article a different interpretation is offered, based on a discussion of the scientific issues that were central to Galvani's and Volta's research, and with reference to the context of science and society of the eighteenth century. PMID:18161594

  5. [BODIES ARTIFACTS AND ANATOMICAL MODELS].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology. PMID:26946593

  6. Ultrastructural changes in LGMD1F.

    PubMed

    Cenacchi, Giovanna; Peterle, Enrico; Fanin, Marina; Papa, Valentina; Salaroli, Roberta; Angelini, Corrado

    2013-06-01

    A large Italo-Spanish kindred with autosomal-dominant inheritance has been reported with proximal limb and axial muscle weakness. Clinical, histological and genetic features have been described. A limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1F (LGMD1F) disease locus at chromosome 7q32.1-32.2 has been previously identified. We report a muscle pathological study of two patients (mother and daughter) from this family. Muscle morphologic findings showed increased fiber size variability, fiber atrophy, and acid-phosphatase-positive vacuoles. Immunofluorescence against desmin, myotilin, p62 and LC3 showed accumulation of myofibrils, ubiquitin binding protein aggregates and autophagosomes. The ultrastructural study confirmed autophagosomal vacuoles. Many alterations of myofibrillar component were detected, such as prominent disarray, rod-like structures with granular aspect, and occasionally, cytoplasmic bodies. Our ultrastructural data and muscle pathological features are peculiar to LGMD1F and support the hypothesis that the genetic defect leads to a myopathy phenotype associated with disarrangement of the cytoskeletal network. PMID:23279333

  7. Panic attacks and possession by djinns: lessons from ethnopsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This clinical case report shows how important it is for a psychiatrist to have a knowledge of the cultural and religious context of the patient, in order to understand fully his or her complaints. Culture and religion, in fact, are not neutral, but convey symbols, meanings, and myths that should be properly explored to shed light on the patient’s inner world. Patient D was a 19-year-old Muslim Italo-Tunisian girl, who consulted a psychiatrist for anxiety and panic attacks, and reported being possessed by djinns (ie, “evil creatures”, as described in the Qur’an). A culturally informed interview was carried out, together with administration of psychometric scales, including the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness. Based on her scores and the results of this multidimensional assessment, patient D was treated with transcultural psychotherapy and fluoxetine. After a year of follow-up, she reported no further episodes of panic disorder. For proper assessment and treatment, a combined anthropological, sociological, and psychopathological approach was necessary. PMID:23293545

  8. Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di

    It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.

  9. Clinical phenotype, muscle MRI and muscle pathology of LGMD1F.

    PubMed

    Peterle, Enrico; Fanin, Marina; Semplicini, Claudio; Padilla, Juan Jesus Vilchez; Nigro, Vincenzo; Angelini, Corrado

    2013-08-01

    Of the seven autosomal dominant genetically distinct forms of LGMD so far described, in only four the causative gene has been identified (LGMD1A-1D). We describe clinical, histopathological and muscle MRI features of a large Italo-Spanish kindred with LGMD1F presenting proximal-limb and axial muscle weakness. We obtained complete clinical data and graded the progression of the disease in 29 patients. Muscle MRI was performed in seven patients. Three muscle biopsies from two patients were investigated. Patients with age at onset in the early teens, had a more severe phenotype with a rapid disease course; adult onset patients presented a slow course. Muscle MRI showed prominent atrophy of lower limb muscles, involving especially the vastus lateralis. Widening the patients population resulted in the identification of previously unreported features, including dysphagia, arachnodactyly and respiratory insufficiency. Muscle biopsies showed diffuse fibre atrophy, which evolved with time, chronic myopathic changes, basophilic cytoplasmic areas, autophagosomes and accumulation of myofibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. The LGMD1F is characterized by a selective involvement of limb muscles with respiratory impairment in advanced stages, and by different degrees of clinical progression. Novel clinical features emerged from the investigation of additional patients. PMID:23632945

  10. An unusual recovery from traumatic brain injury in a young man

    PubMed Central

    Ratnasingam, Denesh; Lovick, Darren S.; Weber, Dennis M.; Buonocore, Richard V.; Williams, William V.

    2015-01-01

    Context Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a complex neurological traumatic incident where brain function is disrupted due to physical trauma, can be categorized in multiple ways and is commonly scored using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Severe closed head injury is a form of TBI with a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 8. The outcomes and prognosis are not uniform in the population but mortality is estimated at 30–50 percent. In this case of severe closed head injury, the patient was able to make a near full recovery after several neurosurgery and medical treatments and intercessory prayer to Saint Luigi Guanella. Findings A 21-year-old male patient received a severe closed head TBI and bilateral hemotympanum while rollerblading without a helmet. After imaging, a left frontal craniotomy and evacuation of epidural and subdural hematomas and resection of a left frontal contusion were performed. Intracranial pressure increased and the patient experienced a transtentorial herniation. He underwent a right frontotemporal and subtemporal craniectomy and evacuation of a frontotemporal subdural hematoma. The patient had intraventricular hemorrhage to which a ventriculostomy was performed and later converted to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt for recurrent hydrocephalus. The patient was not expected to regain consciousness, but made a recovery after 24 days in the hospital and 10 days in rehabilitation. The patient followed up 6 months after injury for a cranioplasty and soon after returned to near baseline. Conclusions/clinical relevance In this extraordinary case, the severe closed head injury the patient sustained required intensive neurosurgical and medical treatment and the prognosis for recovery of consciousness was very poor; however, with treatment and rehabilitation and intercessory prayer to Saint Luigi Guanella, this patient was able to recover close to baseline from a Glasgow Coma Scale of 7. Lay Summary Head injuries vary in severity and traumatic brain injuries can be

  11. PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph

  12. Chemical Mapping of Paleontological and Archeological Artifacts with Synchrotron X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Manning, Phillip L.; Wogelius, Roy A.

    2012-07-01

    The application of the recently developed synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) technique to the mapping of large objects is the focus of this review. We discuss the advantages of SRS-XRF over traditional systems and the use of other synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques to provide corroborating spectroscopic and diffraction analyses during the same analytical session. After reviewing routine techniques used to analyze precious specimens, we present several case studies that show how SR-based methods have been successfully applied in archeology and paleontology. For example, SRS-XRF imaging of a seventh-century Qur'ān palimpsest and an overpainted original opera score from Luigi Cherubini is described. We also review the recent discovery of soft-tissue residue in fossils of Archaeopteryx and an ancient reptile, as well as work that has successfully resolved the remnants of pigment in Confuciusornis sanctus, a 120-million-year-old fossil of the oldest documented bird with a fully derived avian beak.

  13. Acoustics of the Intonarumori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2005-04-01

    The Intonarumori were a family of musical instruments invented by the Italian futurist composer and painter Luigi Russolo. Each Intonarumori was made of a wooden parallelepiped sound box, inside which a wheel of different sizes and materials was setting into vibration a catgut or metal string. The pitch of the string was varied by using a lever, while the speed of the wheel was controlled by the performer using a crank. At one end of the string there was a drumhead that transmitted vibrations to the speaker. Unfortunately, all the original Intonarumori were destroyed after a fire during World War II. Since then, researchers have tried to understand the sound production mechanism of such instruments, especially by consulting the patents compiled by Russolo or by reading his book ``The art of noise.'' In this paper we describe the acoustics of the Intonarumori. Based on such description, we propose physical models that simulate such instruments. The intonarumori's string is modeled using a one dimensional waveguide, which is excited either by an impact or a friction model. The body of the instrument is modeled using a 3-D rectangular mesh, while the horn is considered as an omnidirectional radiator.

  14. Conservation of Stone Cladding on the FAÇADE of Royal Palace in Caserta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titomanlio, I.

    2013-07-01

    The beauty of cultural heritage and monumental architecture, is often linked to their non-structural elements and decorative stones façades cladding. The collapse of these elements causes significant consequences that interest the social, the economic, the historical and the technical fields. Several regulatory documents and literature studies contain methods to address the question of relief and of the risk analysis and due to the non - structural stones security. Among the references are widespread international regulatory documents prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States by Applied Technology Council and California. In Italy there are some indications contained in the Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni and the Direttiva del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri in 2007, finalize to the reduction of seismic risk assessment of cultural heritage. The paper, using normative references and scientific researches, allows to analyze on Royal Palace of Caserta the safety and the preservation of cultural heritage and the vulnerability of non-structural stones façade cladding. Using sophisticated equipments of Laboratory ARS of the Second University of Naples, it was possible to analyze the collapse of stone elements due to degradation caused by natural phenomena of deterioration (age of the building, type of materials, geometries , mode of fixing of the elements themselves). The paper explains the collapse mechanisms of stones façade cladding of Luigi Vanvitelli Palace.

  15. Psychoanalysis, science, and art: aesthetics in the making of a psychoanalyst.

    PubMed

    Frayze-Pereira, João A

    2007-04-01

    This paper critically examines the relationship of psychoanalysis to science and art. Its point of departure is Michael Rustin's theorizing. Specifically, in considering the possibility of a psychoanalyst's having an aesthetic orientation, the author analyses: 1) the difficulty of there being any connection between psychoanalysis and science because science's necessarily presupposed subject-object dichotomy is incompatible with transference, which, beginning with Freud, is basic to psychoanalysis; 2) the complex relationship between psychoanalysis and aesthetics using Maurice Merleau-Ponty's philosophical perspective as well as Luigi Pareyson's theory of aesthetics; 3) the Kantian foundations of the psychoanalytic notion of art as the 'containing form of subjective experience'; 4) intersubjectivity, without which clinical practice would not be possible, especially considering matters of identity, difference, the body, and of sensory experience such as 'expressive form'; 5) the relationship of psychoanalysis and art, keeping in mind their possible convergence and divergence as well as some psychoanalysts' conceptual commitment to classicism and the need for contact with art in a psychoanalyst's mind set. PMID:17392062

  16. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love – an analysis of the perception of subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article is based on analysis of 4 couple’s personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma – MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale – Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux – Firenze – ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis. PMID:22037756

  17. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, Giuseppe; Mascia, Fabrizio; Gualano, Luciano; Di Bella, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT), the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate). The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation). All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases. PMID:23348932

  18. Misidentifications in Pirandello's plays and short stories.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Kilcline, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello was an Italian playwright, novelist, short story writer, poet, and one of the leading dramatists of the twentieth century. Pirandello used his plays and short stories to express his life philosophy which included the irony and bitterness of self-deception. In his works, his characters possess highly complex personalities, portrayed by ongoing and overlapping conflicts between illusion and reality. These manifestations of double personalities and confusion between imagination and reality are today known as psychopathological phenomena, classified as both delusional misidentification and reduplication syndromes. Here, individuals misidentify and reduplicate places, people, or events. These delusional syndromes (Capgras, Frégoli, intermetamorphosis, syndrome of subjective doubles) occur primarily in psychiatric illnesses (i.e. schizophrenia) and organic illnesses (i.e. right hemispheric stroke). For Pirandello, reality was highly subjective in all humans. However, misidentification and reduplication syndromes can manifest when this subjectivity gets out of control. With his works, Pirandello made philosophical concepts which had previously only been discussed by intellectuals available to a much larger audience. Pirandello continued to elaborate upon this concept of mutable ego, established by Blaise Pascal in the 1600s and carried on by the French psychologist Alfred Binet. PMID:23485894

  19. Addendum: ``X-Ray Sources and Their Optical Counterparts in the Globular Cluster M4'' (ApJ, 609, 755 [2004])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, Cees; Pooley, David; Homer, Lee; Verbunt, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Kaspi, Victoria M.; van der Klis, Michiel

    2005-02-01

    Luigi Bedin and Ivan King have informed us that the X-ray source CX 2 is in fact the candidate quasi-stellar object (QSO) identified by L.-R. Bedin et al. (ApJ, 609, 755 [2004]). The figure below shows a finding chart of the area around the X-ray position of CX 2 and allows for a direct comparison with the finding chart (Fig. 5) of Bedin et al. (2003). From the location of the proposed optical counterpart to CX 2 in the color-magnitude diagram (Fig. 4), together with the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (Fig. 6), we concluded that this X-ray source is a probable cataclysmic variable (CV). That it now turns out to be probably an extragalactic source underlines the difficulties in securely classifying X-ray sources in globular clusters. After removal of CX 2, the number of CVs in M4 is one (CX 1) or possibly two (CX 4). This does not change the conclusions made in § 5, as we only compared the core radii of M4 and 47 Tuc, while CX 2 is at nearly 3 core-radii. We also note that in Table 1, CX 9w is a misprint for CX 9.

  20. [The historical bases of a super-specialty: electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea A; Lippi, Donatella; Conti, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    In the XVIII century the first structured experiments in the field of bioelectricity were performed, and the Italian scientist Luigi Galvani documented the muscular contraction of a frog undergoing an electric shock. In 1791 he showed that the electric stimulation of the heart of a frog determined the contraction of the heart itself. In the first thirty years of the XIX century galvanometers were developed, and in 1842-42 Carlo Matteucci documented that electric activity was present even in the cardiac muscle at rest. At the end of the XIX century Augustus Waller was among the first scientists to publish an electrocardiographic recording obtained from the human body surface; most of his contemporaneous, however, did not retain that electrocardiography might have been an effective clinical application. Willem Einthoven, instead, was convinced of the widespread feasibility of clinical electrocardiography, and promoted a number of improvements and refinements in electrocardiographic technique. The most important and diagnostic-technical development of electrocardiography occurred in the second half of the XX century, and still today, even if many different sophisticated instrumental examinations are available for cardiologic evaluation, electrocardiography represents an essential first-line diagnostic tool in clinical cardiology. PMID:16259095

  1. [The Einthoven's electrocardiograph after 100 years].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, A; Iturralde, P

    2001-01-01

    The initial studies about the "irritability" of animal tissues by iatrophysic and iatromechanic scientists are reviewed. These studies led to discover the so called animal electricity envisaged by Luigi Galvani in the XVIII century and demonstrated by Carlo Matteucci and his followers in the XIX. Beginning with the Galvani's "reoscopic" frog, which allowed to assess the electrical current in a qualitative sense, it was possible to arrive, at the beginnings of the XX century, to the string electrocardiograph presented by Willem Einthoven in 1901. This opened the way that led to fabrication of ever more sophisticated instruments until the present systems of endocardial mapping by magnetic technology or by multipolar catheters, which permit to quickly identify the site of origin or the spreading ways of a tachycardia for their ablation with radio-frequency. Intracardiac echocardiography is also employed to define the anatomy of right atrium, during intracardiac cartography, in order to establish the most adequate sites for ablation. On the other hand, a logic i.e. rational, method for the interpretation of results from the electrical exploration of the heart has been developed. This one was introduced by Frank N. Wilson in Ann Arbor and has been fittingly applied by Demetrio Sodi Pallares in Mexico. Important diagnostic advances and notable therapeutic inferences have been derived from these latter developments. PMID:11692816

  2. [The centennial of the Einthoven electrocardiograph. Part I].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    2001-01-01

    The initial studies about the "irritability" of animal tissues by iatrophysic or iatromechanic scientists are reviewed. These studies led to discover the so called animal electricity envisaged by Luigi Galvani in the XVIII century and demonstrated by Carlo Matteucci and his followers in the XIX. Beginning with the Galvani's "reoscopic" frog, which allowed to assess the electrical current in a qualitative sense, it was possible to arrive, at the beginnings of the XX century, to the string electrocardiograph developed by Willem Einthoven in 1901. This opened the way that led to fabrication of ever more sophisticated instruments until the present systems of endocardial mapping by magnetic technology or by multipolar catheters, which permit to quickly identify the site of origin or the spreading ways of a tachycardia for their ablation with radiofrequency. Intracardiac echocardiography is also employed to define the anatomy of right atrium, during intracardiac cartography, in order to establish the most adequate sites for ablation. On the other hand, a logic, i.e. rational, method for the interpretation of results from the electrical exploration of the heart has been developed. This one was introduced by Frank N. Wilson in Ann Arbor and has been fittingly applied by Demetrio Sodi Pallares in Mexico. Important diagnostic advances and notable therapeutic inferences have been derived from these latter developments. PMID:11565309

  3. Electricity and Vital Force: Discussing the Nature of Science Through a Historical Narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Hermann; Guerra, Andreia

    2015-05-01

    Seeking a historical-philosophical approach to science teaching, narrative texts have been used as pedagogical tools to improve the learning experience of students. A review of the literature of different types of narrative texts and their different rates of effectiveness in science education is presented. This study was developed using the so-called Historical Narrative as a tool to introduce science content from a historical-philosophical approach, aiming to discuss science as a human construction. This project was carried out in a 9th grade Physics class in K-12 school, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The steps involved in constructing a Historical Narrative based on the controversy over animal electrical fluid between Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta is reported herein. Finally, qualitative research results of the activities inspired by this Historical Narrative are presented with the purpose of answering the research question: to what extent do Historical Narratives support and enhance discussions about the Nature of Science (NOS), through teaching the scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach with 9th grade students? The results indicate that Historical Narrative, based on historical episodes, is a good "door opener" to teach scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach, introducing discussions about the Nature of Science without neglecting the scientific content or simplifying the discussions about the NOS.

  4. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

  5. The frog's dancing master: science, séances, and the transmission of myths.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Myths are not uncommon in the history of neuroscience and their tenacity even when faced with suitable correctives is impressive. The possible origins and transmission of one such myth is examined: the oft repeated quotation, attributed to Luigi Galvani, that he was the "frog's dancing master." The statement does not occur in Galvani's writing and appears to have accrued features in the early nineteenth century, largely from French writers. In the 1870s, the quotation was used by William Crookes, the discoverer of thallium and inventor of Crookes' tube, in implicit support of his investigations into spiritualist phenomena. Crookes arranged séances with the psychic Daniel Dunglas Home and, being unable to explain them, introduced the concept of psychic force. A related myth concerns Galvani's accidental discovery of the neuromuscular action of electricity in the course of preparing a beneficial broth for his ailing wife. The two myths became entwined in the tangled web woven by commentators of Galvani's work. The myth-information is magnified by the World Wide Web. PMID:23323534

  6. Electricity and Vital Force: Discussing the Nature of Science Through a Historical Narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Hermann; Guerra, Andreia

    2014-08-01

    Seeking a historical-philosophical approach to science teaching, narrative texts have been used as pedagogical tools to improve the learning experience of students. A review of the literature of different types of narrative texts and their different rates of effectiveness in science education is presented. This study was developed using the so-called Historical Narrative as a tool to introduce science content from a historical-philosophical approach, aiming to discuss science as a human construction. This project was carried out in a 9th grade Physics class in K-12 school, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The steps involved in constructing a Historical Narrative based on the controversy over animal electrical fluid between Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta is reported herein. Finally, qualitative research results of the activities inspired by this Historical Narrative are presented with the purpose of answering the research question: to what extent do Historical Narratives support and enhance discussions about the Nature of Science (NOS), through teaching the scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach with 9th grade students? The results indicate that Historical Narrative, based on historical episodes, is a good "door opener" to teach scientific content in a historical-philosophical approach, introducing discussions about the Nature of Science without neglecting the scientific content or simplifying the discussions about the NOS.

  7. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century. PMID:23581538

  8. Syntropy, Teleology and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannini, Antonella; Di Corpo, Ulisse

    2012-09-01

    The energy/momentum/mass equation of Einstein's Special Relativity is a quadratic equation: E2 = m2c4 + p2c2 Where E is energy, m is mass, p momentum and c the constant of the speed of light. Quadratic equations always have two solutions: one positive and one negative. The variable time is in the momentum (p) and consequently the positive solution describes energy which diverges from a cause, whereas the backward in time solution describes energy which diverges backward in time from a future cause and corresponds, for us moving forward in time, to energy which converges towards an attractor. The backward in time solution implies retrocausality and was therefore considered unacceptable. Einstein solved the problem assuming that the momentum (p) is always equal to zero, since the speed of physical bodies is extremely small when compared to the speed of light (c). In this way the equation simplifies into the famous E = mc2, which always has positive solution. However, in quantum mechanics the spin of particles nears the speed of light and the full energy/momentum/mass equation is required with its unwanted negative solution. In 1941 Luigi Fantappiè, listing the mathematical properties of the negative solution found that they coincide with the properties of life: concentration of energy, increase in differentiation and complexity, and came to the conclusion that the unwanted negative solution is real. This solution implies retrocausality, a teleological universe and provides the ground for the scientific discussion of theology.

  9. Emerging aspects of psychosocial risks: violence and harassment at work.

    PubMed

    Gilioli, R; Campanini, P; Fichera, G P; Punzi, S; Cassitto, M G

    2006-01-01

    In the last twenty years, psychosocial risks have become crucial in Occupational Health. Particularly, there is an increasing interest about psychological and physical violence at the workplaces. Psychological violence (mobbing or workplace bullying) is described as a situation in which the person has been the victim of negative acts directed to the person and work, with offences, discriminations and isolation. Physical violence at work, still underestimated in many parts of the world, is becoming a topical subject both for its frequency and its pathogenic potential and consist of violence among workers (internal violence) and between workers and external persons (external violence). Examples of external violence are bank robberies, which are prevalent in many European countries, particulary in Italy. The costs of psychological and physical workplace violence are very high at all levels; individual, for the implication of violence for health and quality of life as well as organizational, for the increase of absenteeism, turnover and health care demands and claims. The Medical Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment (CDL) of the "Clinica de Lavoro Luigi Devoto" was set up in 1996 with a day-hospital service for the diagnosis, rehabilitation and prevention of work related psychological diseases. From its opening, about 5000 patients have been examined. PMID:17017341

  10. The history of the development of the cerebellar examination.

    PubMed

    Fine, Edward J; Ionita, Catalina C; Lohr, Linda

    2002-12-01

    The cerebellar examination evolved from observations of experimental lesions made by neurophysiologists and clinical descriptions of patients with trauma to the cerebellum. At the beginning of the 19th century, neurophysiologists such as Luigi Rolando, Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens, and John Call Dalton, Jr. ablated portions of the cerebellum of a variety of animals and observed staggering gait, clumsiness, and falling from side to side without loss of strength. They concluded that the cerebellum coordinated voluntary movements. In 1899, Joseph Francois Félix Babinski observed that patients with cerebellar lesions could not execute complex movements without breaking down into their elemental movements and described the defect as dysmetria. In 1902, Babinski coined the term dysdiodochokinesis to describe the inability to perform rapid execution of movements requiring alternate contractions of agonist and antagonist muscles. Gordon Holmes in 1904 described the phenomena of rebound, noting that if a limb ipsilateral to a cerebellar lesion is suddenly released from tension, the appendage will flail. In 1917, Gordon Holmes reported hypotonia and dysmetria in men wounded by gunshot wounds to their cerebellum. These observations were rapidly included in descriptions of the cerebellar examination in popular contemporaneous textbooks of neurology. Modern observations have demonstrated that the cerebellum influences such cognitive functions such as planning, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning, prosody, and use of correct grammar. PMID:12539058

  11. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  12. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    anticipate enjoying another successful FLUIDOS meeting to be held in one of the main cultural centres of the continent. Italo Bove, Cecilia Cabeza, Arturo C Martí, and Gustavo SarasúaEditors

  13. Rheology of deformed Carrara marble: Insights from torsion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruijn, R. H. C.; Delle Piane, C.; de Raadt, W. S.

    2012-04-01

    Rock deformation experiments are essential for understanding lithosphere dynamics, strain localization processes and deformation mechanisms in polymineral aggregates, as they provide rheological parameters and record fabric development of rock-forming minerals, aiding the geological interpretation of naturally deformed rocks. Carrara marble received significant attention in the rock deformation community due to its homogeneous fabric and low impurities content, making it a laboratory standard. When the torsion actuator was developed for the Paterson-type gas-medium apparatus, it became possible to perform high strain experiments and reach true steady state flow conditions in Carrara marble. At the center of these ground breakings developments stood Luigi Burlini and his students. Their work showed for the first time, the importance of fabric development on steady state flow stress in response to high strain deformation and recrystallization. In the last years of Luigi's life, he and his students took rock deformation studies to a different direction by investigating the effect of initial strain and quantifying the coupling between fabric and flow stress. We present here an overview of the four types of torsion experiment that were performed on Carrara marble with varied pre-existing strain. Earlier torsion experiments on homogeneous Carrara marble provided the framework in which these newer experiments were evaluated. In type I experiments samples were subjected to a torsion deformation leading to a maximum shear strain of 1 to 5, immediately followed by a reversed straining of equal magnitude. In type II and III experiments, a composite sample consisting of a segment of undeformed and one (type II) or two (type III) segment(s) of previously twisted Carrara marble, were deformed. In type IV experiments, a cylindrical segment of dynamically recrystallized Carrara marble was annealed 727 °C for up to five hours at to recover the original grain size without removing

  14. 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: translation and commentary of De Crecchio's classic paper from 1865.

    PubMed

    Delle Piane, Luisa; Rinaudo, Paolo F; Miller, Walter L

    2015-04-01

    In 1865, Luigi De Crecchio, a Neapolitan pathologist, published a detailed autopsy description of Giuseppe Marzo, who lived as a man, had nearly-normal appearing male external genitalia, female internal reproductive organs, and massively enlarged adrenals. This report is widely cited as the first report of non-salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), but a complete English translation has not been available. Via interlibrary loan, we obtained the original volume containing De Crecchio's paper. The complete 39-page publication was translated by two reproductive endocrinologists (L.D.P. and P.F.R.) who are native speakers of Italian. A pediatric endocrinologist conversant with CAH (W.L.M.) summarizes and comments on De Crecchio's observations. Anatomically, the external genitalia were characterized by labio-scrotal fusion and a 10-cm curved phallus with hypospadias. Internally, the ovaries, tubes, and uterus were hypoplastic but otherwise normal, except that the uterus inserted into a utricle. The adrenals were massively enlarged, but this observation was dismissed as unimportant. De Crecchio's exposition of Marzo's life shows many of the issues affecting patients today: family ill-ease regarding genital ambiguity at birth, social pressure following reversed sex assignment in childhood, adult embarassment about genital appearance, difficulties with a legal sex assignment on a birth certificate, and substantial efforts to exhibit maleness to self and associates. De Crecchio was an astute observer who provides insight into both nineteenth-century endocrinology and continuing twenty-first-century difficulties in the care of patients with disordered sex development. PMID:25635623

  15. EduGeoPark: international students exchanges for promoting Earth Science knowledge and Geoheritage awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Dellarole, Edoardo; Kiuttu, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    Geoparks are the ideal destination for international study tours based on the sustainable tourism concept, in which the travel is conceived as an opportunity for sharing both scientific knowledge and intangible and tangible culture. Equally, they are the appropriate places for testing and practicing innovative educational strategies, shareable in an international context. The innovative idea of EduGeoPark project is to involve students and teachers in research activities in Geoparks, including sampling and digital mapping: practical field and laboratory activities for stimulating the geological interpretation of an unknown territory. An approach devoted to improve teamwork and problem solving competences. By means of a partnerships between the Rokua (Finland) and the Sesia-Val Grande (Italy) Geoparks, an exchange program for Secondary School's students started during 2014 (Vaala High School; I.I.S. Luigi Cobianchi High School in Verbania). The study and the visit of both territories was an opportunity for students to observe some relevant geological elements and processes that do not exist in their own country. Moreover, the hosting in families allowed them to feel the culture of the area. Teachers and staff of the Geoparks led field trips to the main geological and cultural attractions of both areas. During the activities, students used mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) and GPS to track field trips, to catch and gather georeferenced data and pictures. They acted as researchers, by using both digital and traditional tools: they observed, asked questions, gathered data, and made hypothesis. By sharing ideas, together with the local guides, they reconstructed the cultural and geological history of the area. Students appreciated the experience: not only they had the opportunity of visiting a different country, but also of deepening the geological awareness on their own territory. EduGeoPark project is opening the participation to other Geoparks, in order to

  16. Comparison between the effect of two geomagnetic storms with the same seasonal and daily characteristics and different intensity on the European ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Bouza, Marta; Herraiz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracía; Paparini, Claudia; Otero, Xurxo; Radicella, Sandro M.

    2016-04-01

    This work presents an analysis of the ionospheric disturbance caused by two geomagnetic storms occurred on the same day, 17th March, but one in 2013 and other in 2015. The greatest intensity of both storms occurs after sunset when geomagnetic indexes (Dst index, Kp and Ap) reached the peak values. Both geomagnetic storms can be classified as intense according to the Dst index criteria. The storm of March 17, 2015, ("St Patricḱs storm"), can be considered even "severe" because the Dst index dropped off -200nT. The solar origins of both geomagnetic storms were magnetic filament eruptions followed by Coronal Mass Ejections, CME. The ionospheric behavior has been studied through the total electron content, TEC. This parameter is obtained from RINEX files processed using the calibration technique developed by Prof. Luigi Ciraolo. RINEX files from selected GNSS stations on Europe belonging to International GPS Service, IGS, and EUREF Permanent Network, have been used. The calibration technique assumes the ionospheric thin shell model to obtain vertical total electron content (vTEC) from slant total electron content (sTEC) at the Ionospheric Pierce Point. The data were obtained in periods of the geomagnetic storms and during quite days surrounding the storms days, at 1 minute sampling. The behavior of the ionosphere during the two geomagnetic storms was similar. In both cases, a positive ionospheric storm, defined as an increase on the TEC, occurred during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms on 17th of March. These increases were followed by a negative ionospheric storm, a decreasing of TEC, in the recuperation phase. However, in the event of 2015, the positive ionospheric storm of the main phase had more intensity but the same duration than that of 2013 and for the negative ionospheric storm both, intensity and duration, were largest in 2015 than in 2013.

  17. Pathogenesis of Age-Related Bone Loss in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. Methods. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author’s knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Results. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. Conclusions. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD PMID:22923429

  18. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Alba Paolo (Università di Torino) Becattini Francesco (Università di Firenze) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonaccorso Angela (INFN Pisa) Colonna Maria (INFN-LNS Catania) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) De Angelis Giacomo (INFN-LNL Legnaro) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Gattobigio Mario (INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, France) Gensini Paolo (INFN Lecce) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (Università del Salento) Giusti Carlotta (Università di Pavia) Greco Vincenzo (Università di Catania) Grossi Eduardo (Università di Firenze) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Lavagno Andrea (Politecnico di Torino) Logoteta Domenico (Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Lombardo Maria Paola (INFN-LNF Frascati) Lo Meo Sergio (ENEA Bologna) Mannarelli Massimo (INFN-LNGS Assergi) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pirrone Sara (INFN Catania) Puglisi Armando (Università di Catania) Radici Marco (INFN Pavia) Rinaldi Matteo (Università di Perugia) Roggero Alessandro (Università di Trento) Rolando Valentina (Università di Ferrara) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Ruggieri Marco (Università di Catania) Salmè Gianni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Scopetta Sergio (Università di Perugia) Taiuti Mauro (Università di Genova) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa) Vorabbi Matteo (Università di Pavia)

  19. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

  20. [Romantic origins of electrophysiology].

    PubMed

    Isler, H

    1992-12-01

    Research on static electricity and its effects on the human body date back to the invention of the electrizing or Wimshurst machine and the Leyden jar of 1743 and 1746. Such experiments often served as social pastimes, but they yielded many publications on medical aspects of static electricity. Attempts to explain the 'life force' of the vitalists and the old concept of the active principle of the nervous system, the 'spiritus animales', as electrical phenomena were unsuccessful because of the skeptic comments of leading experimental scientists such as Albrecht von Haller. When Mesmer reinvented 'animal magnetism' in 1776 as a fashionable term for treatment by suggestion, he appropriated theoretical, technical and social methods from the established ways of the experiments on static electricity. Therefore, the scientific character of Luigi Galvani's investigations was already compromised by his term 'animal electricity' when he published his famous 'Commentarius' in 1781. Volta in Pavia turned against Galvani, proving that galvanic currents are produced by metals alone, and rejecting 'animal electricity'. Volta's doctrine prevailed over Galvani's school after Volta's breakthrough with his pile, or battery, until Galvani's ideas were rehabilitated by Nobili, who in 1828 measured the 'frog current' with his galvanometer. This led to a flurry of bizarre experiments on rows of half-dismembered animals and severed parts of human cadavers. Johannes Müller in Berlin, who, with his students, established new principles of biology and neurology, asked Du Bois-Reymond to study these experiments. Du Bois-Reymond found that measurements of muscle currents in intact animals were more useful, and he compared them with his own observations on electric fishes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1462070

  1. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  2. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    mission up to routine. The activities performed to validate all the Flight Dynamics functions, characterize the behaviour of the satellite and monitor the performances of the Flight Dynamics facility will be highlighted. The MetOp Flight Dynamics Operations team is led by Anders Meier Soerensen and composed by Pier Luigi Righetti, Francisco Sancho, Antimo Damiano and David Lazaro. The team is supported by Hilda Meixner, responsible for all Flight Dynamics validation activities.

  3. Lessons learned from near-fault recordings of the Emilia, 2012 seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Angelo; Mucciarelli, Marco; Chiauzzi, Leonardo; Gallipoli, Maria Rosaria; Stabile, Tony; Lizza, Carmine; Vignola, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    Lessons learned from near-fault recordings of the Emilia, 2012 seismic sequence Marco Mucciarelli (CNR-OGS, Trieste, Italy) Leonardo Chiauzzi, Angelo Masi (Basilicata University, Potenza, Italy) Maria Rosaria Gallipoli, Tony Stabile (IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo, Italy) Carmine Lizza, Luigi Vignola (Mallet s.r.l., Marsicovetere, Italy) The Emilia 2012 seismic sequence provided a wealth of strong motion data, both from permanent and temporary network. The accelerometric station closest to epicentre is managed by the RAN network and it is located in the town of Mirandola (Code MRN), just close to the faults that generated the two main earthquakes of the sequence that are the M=5.9 and M=5.8, occurred on May 20 and 29 respectively. At same site of the MRN-RAN station, after the event occurred on May, 20 2012, a temporary accelerometric station was installed (code CNR) just 5 meters away. While the MRN-RAN station is inside a small building (electric substation) the CNR station was installed in free-field. After the mainshock, the site was also well characterised from the geophysical and geotechnical stand point with surface and down-hole surveys, and laboratory dynamic test on undisturbed samples. The analysis of the recordings, also compared with code provisions, provided several useful insights: 1) while the geological setting is apparently 1-D, there is a strong difference between horizontal components, not only for the mainshock but also for lesser quakes (magnitude down to below 2) thus ruling out a source effect; 2) the mismatch with the spectra provided by the Italian seismic code is due mainly to a poor performance of Vs30-based classification for deep soil site like the ones in the Po Valley rather than to PSHA estimates of hazard on rock conditions; 3) the influence of the housing of the RAN station is clearly visible at high frequency, the only portion of the spectra where the to station show different spectra ordinates; 4) integral parameters like Housner

  4. Early BCR-ABL1 Reduction Is Predictive of Better Event-free Survival in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treated With Any Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fava, Carmen; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna; Dogliotti, Irene; Gottardi, Enrico; Berchialla, Paola; Di Gioacchino, Bruno; Crasto, Francesca; Lorenzatti, Roberta; Volpengo, Alessandro; Daraio, Filomena; Fantino, Cristina; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    An early molecular response has a strong predictive value in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recently, the halving time (velocity of early BCR-ABL1 transcript elimination) has been shown to represent an additional prognostic index. Our objective was the evaluation of the prognostic significance of the 3-month point in our population. We retrospectively collected BCR-ABL1 transcript data at different time points, events, and survival data of patients with CML treated at the Division of Hematology, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. Of 71 patients diagnosed from January 2005 to March 2015 in our center and treated with front-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib), we selected those who had undergone a molecular evaluation at 3 months. The event-free survival (EFS) by the median follow-up time was the primary endpoint. The data from 50 patients with CML chronic phase were analyzed. Overall, 34 of the 50 patients (68%) had a transcript ≤ 10% at 3 months. Of those in the > 10% group, 63% had experienced an event compared with 12% in the ≤ 10% group by the median follow-up point (P < .001). The halving time threshold for discriminating between EFS was 17 days. None of the patients with a transcript > 10% at 3 months had a halving time of ≤ 17 days. Patients with BCR-ABL1 ≤ 10% and a halving time of ≤ 17 days had significantly better EFS than that of patients with BCR-ABL1 ≤ 10% and a halving time > 17 days and of patients with BCR-ABL1 > 10% (96% group 1 vs. 60% group 2 vs. 27% group 3; P < .001). Irrespective of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor used, the prognosis was significantly superior for patients with BCR-ABL1 ≤ 10% and halving time of ≤ 17 days. Our data revealed that the use of ABL1 as a control gene is reliable for the determination of the halving time in the clinical setting and highlight the importance of measuring the BCR-ABL1 transcript at CML diagnosis. PMID:27131622

  5. Representatives of countries participating in the International Space Station toured KSC's Space Sta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Senior government officials from 15 countries participating in the International Space Station (ISS) signed agreements in Washington D.C. on Jan. 29 to establish the framework of cooperation among the partners on the design, development, operation and utilization of the Space Station. Acting Secretary of State Strobe Talbott signed the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on Space Station Cooperation with representatives of Russia, Japan, Canada, and participating countries of the European Space Agency (ESA), including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Some of these officials then toured KSC's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) with NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, at front, sixth from the left. They are, left to right, front to back: Hidetoshi Murayama, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Louis Laurent, Embassy of France; Haakon Blankenborg, Norwegian Parliament Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs; His Excellency Joris Vos, ambassador of the Netherlands; His Excellency Tom Vraalsen, ambassador of Norway; Daniel Goldin; Luigi Berlinguer, Italian minister for education, scientific, and technological research; Antonio Rodota, director general, European Space Agency (ESA); Yvan Ylieff, Belgian minister of science and chairman of the ESA Ministerial Council; Jacqueline Ylieff; Masaaki Komatsu, KSC local NASDA representative and interpreter; Serge Ivanets, space attache, Embassy of Russia; Hiroshi Fujita, Science and Technology Agency of Japan; Akira Mizutani, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Peter Grognard, science attache, Royal Embassy of Belgium; Michelangelo Pipan, Italian diplomatic counselor to the minister; His Excellency Gerhard Fulda, German Federal Foreign Office; Jorg Feustel-Buechl, ESA director of manned space flight and microgravity; A. Yakovenko, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director for Advanced Development

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  7. Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    university Nicholson, Amy University of Maryland Nishida, Yusuke Los Alamos National Laboratory Petreczky, Peter Brookhaven National Laboratory Sakai, Yuji RIKEN Sasaki, Takahiro Kyushu University Schmidt, Christian University of Bielefeld Scorzato, Luigi ECT* - Trento, Italy Shi, Zhifeng The College of William and Mary Shuryak, Edward Stony Brook University Skokov, Vladimir Brookhaven National Laboratory Strickland, Michael Gettysburg College Teaney, Derek Stony Brook University Wang, Qun University of Science and Technology of China Xu, Nu CCNU/LBNL Xu, Xiao-Ming Shanghai University Yamamoto, Naoki Institute for Nuclear Theory Conference photograph

  8. PREFACE: Applications of Novel Scintillators for Research and Industry (ANSRI 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    Scintillator detectors are used widely in the field of γ- and X-ray spectroscopy, particularly in the mid 1900s when the invention of NaI(Tl) by nobel laureate Robert Hofstadter in 1948, spurred the creation of new scintillator materials. In the development of such new scintillators, important characteristics such as its intrinsic efficiency, position sensitivity, robustness, energy and timing response, light output, etc, need to be addressed. To date, these requirements cannot be met by a single type of scintillator alone and therefore the development of an ''ideal'' scintillator remains the holy grail of nuclear instrumentation. Consequently, the last two decades have seen significant progress in the development of scintillator crystals, driven largely by technological advances. Conventional inorganic scintillators such as NaI(Tl) and BGO are now being replaced with better, novel organic, inorganic, ceramic and plastic scintillators offering a wider variety of options for many applications. The workshop on the Applications of Novel Scintillators in Research and Industry was held at University College Dublin in January 2015 and covered a wide range of topics that characterise modern advances in the field of scintillator technology. This set of proceedings covers areas including the growth, production and characterisation of such contemporary scintillators, along with their applications in various fields, such as; Medical Imaging; Defence/Security; Astrophysics; and Nuclear/Particle Physics. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent results on their research at the workshop. These proceedings atest to the excitement and interest in such a broad field, that pervades the pursuit of the development of novel materials for future applications. We would also like to thank Professor Luigi Piro, for giving an interesting public talk during the conference, and to the Institute of Physics Ireland Group for supporting the event. We thank ORTEC for

  9. Coseismic ground deformations related to the 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Working Group, E.

    2009-12-01

    and to many individual throws observed along the long-term Paganica fault, raise questions on the maximum expected Magnitude and the seismic hazard estimate of this area. Thus, although the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake and associated faulting caused major damage and loss of life, it does not fully characterize the seismic hazard associated to this area. Emergeo working group: Giuliana Alessio, Laura Alfonsi, Carlo Alberto Brunori, Francesca R. Cinti, Riccardo Civico, Luigi Cucci, Paolo Marco De Martini, Sofia Mariano, Maria Teresa Mariucci, Paola Montone, Rosa Nappi, Daniela Pantosti, Antonio Patera, Simona Pierdominici and Stefano Pucci.

  10. How Are the Interests of Incapacitated Research Participants Protected through Legislation? An Italian Study on Legal Agency for Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Sabina; Fusari Imperatori, Susanna; Spila-Alegiani, Stefania; Maggiore, Laura; Galeotti, Francesca; Vanacore, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Raschetti, Roberto; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, “Luigi Sacco” Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004). At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2%) applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient's application to

  11. Recommendations for Competency in Allergy Training for Undergraduates Qualifying as Medical Practitioners: A Position Paper of the World Allergy Organization

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Council acknowledges specific comments from: The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) (Amal H Assa'ad); The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) (Mark Dykewicz, D. Betty Lew, Bryan L. Martin); The Argentine Association of Allergy and Immunology (Ledit RF Ardusso); The Argentine Society of Allergy and Immunopathology (Estrella Asayag); The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) (Jill Smith); The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Stephen Durham); The Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunopathology (Nelson Rosario); The Bulgarian Society of Allergology (Vasil Dimitrov); The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) (Richard Warrington); The Chilean Society of Allergy and Immunology (Jessica Salinas); The Chinese Society of Allergology (Zhang Hongyu, Yin Jia); The Czech Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Jiri Litzman); The Danish Society of Allergology (Lone Winther, Peter Plaschke); The Egyptian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Kamal Maurice Hanna); The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (Yehia El-Gamal); The German Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Thilo Jakob, Claus Bachert, Bernhard Przybilla); The Hungarian Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (Kristof Nekam); The Icelandic Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Björn R. Lúðvíksson); The Italian Association of Territorial and Hospital Allergists (Riccardo Asero); The Italian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Luigi Fontana); The Japanese Society of Allergology (Sankei Nishima); The Korean Academy of Asthma Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Joon Sung Lee, Hae-Sim Park); The Latvian Association of Allergists (Ieva Cirule); The Lebanese Society of Allergy & Immunology (Fares Zaitoun); The Mongolian Society of Allergology (S. Munkhbayarlakh); The Allergy and Clinical Immunology Society (Singapore) (Chng Hiok Hee); The Allergy

  12. Some contributions from the doctor of the miners in the Simplon tunnel: The most human of victories. The Provinces of Italy to the Simplon tunnel. The family of the miner at Simplon. 1906.

    PubMed

    Volante, G

    2006-01-01

    he worked under Luigi Devoto (1864-1936) in Milan. After that, he returned to his native Turin where he practised urology. According to his direct descendents, he died aged 64 from respiratory insufficiency the causes of which included a "pneumoconiosis" diagnosed by Prof. Quarelli (1881-1954), a renowned doctor of work-related illnesses, which he had obviously contracted in the period when he had been the doctor of the miners (Gius Volante, 2006). PMID:17017334

  13. Effects of surface states, defects and dopants on the optical and magnetic properties of low-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podila, Ramakrishna

    a range of magnetic properties in ZnO can result, depending on the sample preparation and annealing conditions. For example, within the same ZnO sample we have observed ferro- to para- and diamagnetic responses depending on the annealing conditions. We also explored the effects of surface states on the magnetic behavior of nanoscale ZnO through detailed calculations. In the case of grapheme, we have observed new combination modes in the range from 1650 to 2300 cm-1 in single-(SLG), bi-, few-layer and incommensurate bilayer graphene (IBLG) on silicon dioxide substrates. A peak at ˜1860 cm-1 (iTALO- ) is observed due to a combination of the in-plane transverse acoustic (iTA) and the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons. The intensity of this peak decreases with increasing number of layers and this peak is absent for bulk graphite. The overtone of the out-of-plane transverse optical (oTO) phonon at ˜1750 cm-1, also called the M band, is suppressed for both SLG and IBLG. In addition, two previously unidentified modes at ˜2200 and ˜1880 cm-1 are observed in SLG. The 2220 cm -1 (1880 cm-1) mode is tentatively assigned to the combination mode of in-plane transverse optical (iTO) and TA phonons (oTO+LO phonons) around the K point in the graphene Brillouin zone. Finally, the peak frequency of the 1880 (2220) cm-1 mode is observed to increase (decrease) linearly with increasing graphene layers. Finally, we find that the high curvature in sub-nm SWCNTs leads to (i) an unusual S-like dispersion of the G-band frequency due to perturbations caused by the strong electron-phonon coupling, (ii) an activation of diameter-selective intermediate frequency modes that are as intense as the radial breathing modes (RBMs), and (iii) a clear observation of the IR modes.

  14. The physics of non-volcanic tremor: insights from laboratory-scale earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Toro, G.; Meredith, P.

    2012-04-01

    Due to his extensive early experience in field structural geology, Luigi Burlini's experimental research was always aimed at using laboratory techniques and simulations to improve our understanding of the physics of natural rock deformation. Here we present an example of collaborative work from the later part of his scientific career in which the main goal was unravelling the physics of non-volcanic tremor in subduction zones. This was achieved by deforming typical source rocks (serpentinites) under conditions (300 MPa and 600oC) that approach those expected in nature (up to 1 GPa and 500oC). The main technical challenge was to capture deformation-induced microseismicity (in the form of acoustic emissions) released under such extreme conditions by means of in-situ transducers designed to work at only modest temperatures (up to 200oC). The main scientific challenges were (1) to link the acoustic emission output to specific physical processes, such as cracking, fluid flow or fluid-crack interactions, by means of waveform and microstructural analysis; and (2) to extrapolate the laboratory acoustic emission signals (kHz to MHz frequency) associated with mm to cm-scale processes, to natural seismicity (0.1-1 Hz frequency) associated with km-scale rock volumes by means of frequency scaling (Aki and Richards, 1980). Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been correlated with rupture phenomena in subducting oceanic lithosphere at 30 to 45 km depth, where high Vp/Vs ratios, suggestive of high-fluid pressure, have also been observed. ETS, by accommodating slip in the down-dip portion of the subduction zone, may trigger megathrust earthquakes up-dip in the locked section. In our experiments we measured the output of acoustic emissions during heating of serpentinite samples to beyond their equilibrium dehydration temperature. Experiments were performed on cores samples 15 mm in diameter by 30 mm long under hydrostatic stresses of 200 or 300 MPa in a Paterson high

  15. How to Steal a Million Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of Italian astronomers reports [1] that the stellar cluster Messier 12 must have lost to our Milky Way galaxy close to one million low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 04a/06 ESO PR Photo 04a/06 The Central Part of Messier 12 "In the solar neighbourhood and in most stellar clusters, the least massive stars are the most common, and by far", said Guido De Marchi (ESA), lead author of the study. "Our observations with ESO's VLT show this is not the case for Messier 12." The team, which also includes Luigi Pulone and Francesco Paresce (INAF, Italy), measured the brightness and colours of more than 16,000 stars within the globular cluster Messier 12 [2] with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument attached to one of the Unit Telescopes of ESO's VLT at Cerro Paranal (Chile). The astronomers could study stars that are 40 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see (magnitude 25). Located at a distance of 23,000 light years in the constellation Ophiuchus (The Serpent-holder), Messier 12 got its name by being the 12th entry in the catalogue of nebulous objects compiled in 1774 by French astronomer and comet chaser Charles Messier. It is also known to astronomers as NGC 6218 and contains about 200,000 stars, most of them having a mass between 20 and 80 percent of the mass of the Sun. "It is however clear that Messier 12 is surprisingly devoid of low-mass stars", said De Marchi. "For each solar-like star, we would expect roughly four times as many stars with half that mass. Our VLT observations only show an equal number of stars of different masses." ESO PR Photo 04b/06 ESO PR Photo 04b/06 Loosing Stars in the Milky Way Globular clusters move in extended elliptical orbits that periodically take them through the densely populated regions of our Galaxy, the plane, then high above and below, in the 'halo'. When venturing too close to the innermost and denser regions of the Milky Way, the 'bulge', a globular cluster can be

  16. Brittle onset of monodispersed magmatic suspensions: from spheres to spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordonnier, B.; Kaus, B.; Manga, M.; Caricchi, L.; Pistone, M.; Castro, J.; Hess, K.-U.; Gottschaller, S.; Dingwell, D. B.; Burlini, L.

    2012-04-01

    This abstract describes one of the last projects engaged by Dr. Luigi Burlini. It highlights his wish to make a close link between experimental and numerical studies, and push even further our understanding of rock mechanics. His students, engaged in this study, wish to credit these results to the legacy left by him owing to his constant involvement in Science and in educating the next generation of rheologists. While he could not see this project to fruition, his constant support and help during the conception of the project made it possible. The brittle-ductile transition remains a central question of modern geology as rock failure is the main parameter in mitigating geological risks, such as, for volcanic eruptions, the transitions from effusive to explosive eruptive style. Although numerical simulations are the only way to fully understanding the physical processes involved, we are in a strong need of an experimental validation of the proposed models. We first recall some experimental results obtained under torsion and uni-axial compression on both pure melts and crystal-bearing magmas. Torsion experiments were performed at high temperature (600 to 900 degC) and high pressure (200 to 300 MPa) using a Paterson-type rock deformation apparatus (ETH Zurich). We characterized the brittle onset of two phases magmas from 0 to 65 vol% crystals. The strain-rates span 5 orders of magnitude, with a change in the behavior of the material from viscous to brittle (10^-5- 100 s^-1). The materials tested are a standard borosilicate glass (NIST717), a natural crystal bearing rhyolitic melt (Mt Unzen volcano) and a suspension of haplogranitic synthetic sample with corundum particles. To characterize the physical processes leading to failure in the experiments, we performed 2D and 3D numerical simulations on monodispersed rigid spheroids with eccentricities ranging from 10^-2 to 10^2. The model is numerically solved with Finite Elements Methods. The pre-processing, processing and

  17. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    shell model. Then, as usual, the program of the meeting consisted of general talks and more specialized contributions, which covered five main topics: i) From nuclear forces to nuclear structure; ii) Exploring nuclear structure toward the drip line; iii) Role of the shell model in the study of exotic nuclei; iv) Nuclear structure aspects outside the shell model; and v) Special topics. The main conclusions were drawn in two keynote talks given by Amand Faessler and Franco Iachello. The Conference had about 90 participants from some 20 countries [please see the list of participants]. This is well in line with the tradition of these meetings, as is the fact that more than 50% of the present participants attended one or more of the previous Seminars. We received 58 manuscripts out of the 73 invited papers and contributions presented at the Seminar. All of these have been peer reviewed and are collected in this volume. We would like to thank all the colleagues who have acted as referees to assess the suitability of the various articles for publication in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are confident that the high quality of both invited and contributed papers contained in these Proceedings will be appreciated by the nuclear physics community. We gratefully acknowledge the members of the Advisory Committee for their valuable cooperation in preparing the scientific program as well as the financial support of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, the University of Naples Federico II, and the Dipartimento di Fisica who helped make the Seminar possible. Angela Gargano Luigi Coraggio Nunzio Itaco Editors

  18. Ancient views on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: an historical and epistemological perspective.

    PubMed

    Toni, R

    2000-10-01

    , Mondino envisaged the possibility that the third ventricle was implicated in the regulation of the animal behavior by processing sensory, cognitive and emotional informations. No trace of these Mondino's ideas can be found throughout the Renaissance, despite the leading anatomical work of the period, the Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius, remained apparently inclined to the Galenic dogma of the rete mirabilis. After Vesalius, the Galenic anatomy and physiology of the infundibular region survived for at least two more centuries, and we owe Luigi Galvani, the discoverer of animal electricity, the first detailed anatomical observation that in humans the nasal secretions were not a "drainage" waste of the brain ventricles, as postulated by Galen, but the product of nasal mucous glands. From an epistemological standpoint, Aristotle anticipated the possibility that the "set point" for energy intake and behavioral adaptation was determined by the interplay between the brain activity and a thermogenic principle present in the blood, in a manner very close to a circuitry devoted to maintain the energetic and thermic steady state of the living organism (homeostasis). The Galenic modelling of brain-thyroid interaction is an evolution of the Aristotelian one, since it postulates an anatomical and functional loop linking the transport of body energy to the brain through the arteries, and the transformation of this energy into neural output directed to the peripheral glands, "thyroid" included, by the mediation of the pituitary gland. Finally, the proposal by Mondino de' Liuzzi provides a scheme of brain-thyroid interaction that merges together the "homeostatic" Aristotelian with the "pituitary/autonomic" Galenic models, suggesting that the thyroid plays a "thermoregulatory" role linked to the control of body energy. This remarkable set of ideas has never been credited to Mondino by the modern historical critique, possibly due to the impact that the methodological reform of anatomy by

  19. Water in the Slab: a Trilogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenda, M.; Burlini, L.; Gerya, T.; Mancktelow, N.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation we summarize the results of a project started in 2007 from a brilliant intuition of Luigi Burlini that suggested an additional anisotropy source for the interpretation of seismic anisotropy patterns observed at subduction zones. Such an anisotropic body located in the upper part of the slab would result from the hydration of the oceanic plate at the trench outer-rise. The natural continuation of the project was to understand the mechanical processes behind slab hydration and the fluid flow patterns established during slab dehydration. In both cases, we found that tectonic pressure gradients due to the bending and unbending of the subducting oceanic plate are fundamental in driving fluid flow. This last part of the project led to the other two chapters of the final trilogy about the long route of water in the slab. This trilogy is here described in detail and a chronologically ordered series of events presented below. The first episode is related to slab hydration occurring during bending at the trench-outer rise. Here, fluids are driven downward along active normal faults by bending-related, sub-hydrostatic pressure gradients. Water can percolate down to 15-20 km below the seafloor, triggering hydrothermal reactions and the formation of hydrous minerals. This results in an elongated pattern of mostly trench-dipping hydrated faults with a strike parallel to the trench and whose orientation below the forearc becomes sub-vertical. The second episode is related to the geophysical implications of a hydrated slab below the forearc. Indeed, both the subvertical layering of closely spaced hydrated and dry levels (SPO) and the syn-deformational, fault-parallel alignment of highly anisotropic minerals (CPO) such as serpentine and talc may contribute to the SKS splitting patterns observed in the forearc. We suggest that the upper part of the slab may have a strong seismic anisotropy that can be approximated by a transverse isotropic body with a sub

  20. Prefazione al volume 9 di Gerbertus in Transitu Mercurii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The papers published in this volume deal with historical and contemporary themes of physics and astronomy, always with the focus in didactics, as in the style of Gerbert of Aurillac, "rogatus a pluribus" (required by several students to write down the basics of new sciences). 1. Christopher Columbus in the voyage to America of 1492 discovered the deviation of the Magnetic North from the Celestial North; his measurements could have been done with the technology available to Gerbert, here we present the astronomical aspects of them. 2. On the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli (1702) we repeated the experiences of Cassini in characterizing the refraction of the atmosphere by the difference between observed and calculated positions of the center of the Sun: 3. The collection of astronomical instruments in the Vatican Museums gives the opportunity to present the role of Astronomy in Catholic Church, starting from the calculation of Easter, present in the Chair of Hyppolitus. 4. The Eucharistic Miracle in Lanciano is dated VIII century AD, and the recognition of 1574 found the miracle of weights, where the five drops weigthed like one only. A discussion on that result is made on the light of sensibility of the scales of that time, which does not depart from the one of Gerbert's time. 5. The climate of X century allowed crossing the Alps: Luigi Mariani presents parallel evidences. 6. A list of 44 questions aswered by Paolo Rossi on modern physics/astrophysics is presented as a wish list of the level of culture of a secondary student. Three decades ago these topics were achievable only to University students: now are part of the public opinion, and a new framework has to be set by the teachers. 7. The dynamics of a micro-probe sent to alpha Centauri in 20 years is studied numerically. 8. The azimut of the Pyramid Cestia and 9. the height of the Vatican obelisk are studied exploiting solar ephemerides 10. The phases of pollen production of Cypress for 2016 are

  1. Localized Density/Drag Prediction for Improved Onboard Orbit Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stastny, N.; Lin, C.; Lovell, A.; Luck, J.; Chavez, F.

    Since the development of Luigi G. Jacchia's first density model in 1970 (J70), atmospheric density modeling has steadily focused on large monolithic codes that provide global density coverage. The most recent instantiation of the global density model is the Jacchia-Bowman 2008 (JB08) model developed by Bruce Bowman of the Air Force Space Command. As the models have evolved and improved, their complexity has grown as well. Where the J70 model required 2 indices and various time averages to determine density, the JB08 model requires 5 indices to determine density. Due to computational complexity, the number of real-time inputs required, and limited forecasting abilities, these models are not well suited for onboard satellite orbit propagation. In contrast to the global models, this paper proposes the development of a density prediction tool that is only concerned with the trajectory of a specific satellite. Since the orbital parameters of most low Earth orbiting satellites remain relatively constant in the short term, there is also minimal variation in the density profile observed by the satellite. Limiting the density model to a smaller orbit regime will also increase the ability to forecast the density along that orbital track. As a first step, this paper evaluates the feasibility of using a localized density prediction algorithm to generate the density profile that will be seen by satellite, allowing for high-accuracy orbit propagation with minimal or no input from the ground. The algorithm evaluated in this paper is a simple Yule-Walker auto-regressive filter that, given previously measured density values, provides predictions on the upcoming density profile. This first approach requires zero information about the satellite's current orbit, but does require an onboard method for determining the current, local density. Though this aspect of the onboard system is not analyzed here, it is envisioned that this current, local density (or equivalently drag acceleration

  2. PREFACE: Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, Jan L.; Ferapontov, Eugene V.; Kitaev, Alexander V.; Nimmo, Jonathan J. C.

    2009-10-01

    Geometric ideas are present in many areas of modern theoretical physics and they are usually associated with the presence of nonlinear phenomena. Integrable nonlinear systems play a prime role both in geometry itself and in nonlinear physics. One can mention general relativity, exact solutions of the Einstein equations, string theory, Yang-Mills theory, instantons, solitons in nonlinear optics and hydrodynamics, vortex dynamics, solvable models of statistical physics, deformation quantization, and many others. Soliton theory now forms a beautiful part of mathematics with very strong physical motivations and numerous applications. Interactions between mathematics and physics associated with integrability issues are very fruitful and stimulating. For instance, spectral theories of linear quantum mechanics turned out to be crucial for studying nonlinear integrable systems. The modern theory of integrable nonlinear partial differential and difference equations, or the `theory of solitons', is deeply rooted in the achievements of outstanding geometers of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, such as Luigi Bianchi (1856-1928) and Jean Gaston Darboux (1842-1917). Transformations of surfaces and explicit constructions developed by `old' geometers were often rediscovered or reinterpreted in a modern framework. The great progress of recent years in so-called discrete geometry is certainly due to strong integrable motivations. A very remarkable feature of the results of the classical integrable geometry is the quite natural (although nontrivial) possibility of their discretization. This special issue is dedicated to Jean Gaston Darboux and his pioneering role in the development of the geometric ideas of modern soliton theory. The most famous aspects of his work are probably Darboux transformations and triply orthogonal systems of surfaces, whose role in modern mathematical physics cannot be overestimated. Indeed, Darboux transformations play a central

  3. PREFACE: International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruccio, Giuseppe; Sanvito, Stefano; Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland; Rowan, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Dublin, Ireland), Germar Hoffmann and Roland Wiesendanger (Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Germany), and Alan Rowan (NSRIM Institute Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands). This group also acted as the Publication Committee and managed all the submitted papers that were reviewed by expert referees in order to meet the standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Conference photographNobel Laureate A Fert with some members of the organizing committee. The conference would not have been possible without the support from the local organizing committee at the University of Salento and NNL Institute Nanoscience-CNR, including Anna Paola Caricato, Luigi Martina and the Conference Secretaries Maria Concetta Gerardi, Adriana Amato, and Gabriella Zammillo. We are grateful for the technical assistance of Michele Linciano, Antonio Guerrieri, Carmine Mangia, Luciano Carluccio, and Tommaso Moscara e Francesco Sabetta. We also gratefully acknowledge Serena Chiriacó, Anna Grazia Mondeduro and Massimo Corrado who helped to run the conference. The conference was made possible by the financial support from the European Commission through the SpiDME project (EU-FP6-029002), the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the University of Lecce and its Department of Physics, and all of the sponsors (Lot Oriel, Attocube, Schaefer, Cryogenic Ltd, Oxford Instruments, MTI Corporation, Cantele, Monte dei Paschi di Siena). Conference Chair and Co-Chairs Giuseppe MaruccioStefano SanvitoGermar HoffmannRoland WiesendangerAlan Rowan Logos

  4. The origin of the Dargom canal in the oasis of Samarkand (Uzbekistan). A new scenario from geoarcheological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Mantellini, S.; Picotti, V.; Gabbianelli, G.; Tosi, M.

    2009-04-01

    As the main oases developed in the arid regions of Central Asia, the region of Samarkand is the outcome of large hydraulic works carried out since the past times. The main result of such a great landscape transformation is a complex irrigation network formed by several artificial channels and useful for both urban water supply and irrigation purposes. Within the framework of the Italo-Uzbek Archaeological Project begun in 2001, a specific study was aimed to reconstruct the history of Dargom, the primary canal on the South of the city, and its relationships with the settlement dynamics. According to the most accepted theories, the Dargom was dug during the Achaemenid Age (6th-4th c. BC) as a consequence of a master plan linked to a strong central political power. The new investigations carried out by a joined team of Archaelogists and Geologists from the University Bologna allowed a new hypothesis on the way of digging and the chronology of the Dargom itself. The analyses on the historical settlement patterns seem to suggest a low development of Samarkand's territory during the Achaemenid times, whilst the increasing of sites during the Early Middle Age (5th-8th c.) can be explained throughout the rich trades along the Silk Road as well as the development of irrigated agriculture. The present-day Dargom is a high sinuosity channel deeply incised into the bedrock flowing to the east, strongly resembling a natural channel. It has been excavated for around 70 km along an apron of alluvial fans sourced by a southern mountain range. Its morphology clearly document a natural evolution after excavation: incision and meandering took place, likely due to the increasing gradient related to the headward migration of lowering of the base-level and the decrease of the bed load through time. Field survey around the fortress of Kafir Kala, the main archeological site geographically linked to the Dargom, allowed reconstructing the original bed of the canal, marked by a layer of

  5. Chandra Helps Put The Pieces Together On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected never-before-seen properties in the X-ray afterglow of a gamma-ray burst. This discovery strengthens the case for a “hypernova” model, where massive collapsed stars generate these mysterious blasts of high-energy radiation believed to be the most powerful explosions in the universe. An international team of scientists used Chandra to observe iron emission lines from ejected material surrounding the gamma-ray burst (GRB) known as GRB991216. This is the first time emission lines associated with GRBs have been unambiguously detected and their properties precisely measured at X-ray wavelengths. Astronomers have long debated how GRBs originate. One theory contends that GRBs result when two “compact objects,” that is, neutron stars or black holes, collide and coalesce. Another theory speculates that a “hypernova,” a gigantic star collapsing on itself under its own weight, could cause these extremely energetic outbursts. “The discovery of iron lines in the X-ray spectrum is an important clue to our understanding of GRBs,” said Luigi Piro, lead author of the paper that appeared in the November 3 issue of the journal Science. “Studying the immediate area around the GRB tells us a great deal about the origin of the GRB itself.” A shift in the wavelength, or energy, of the detected iron line emission (relative to what would be seen in a laboratory) tells the researchers the distance to the GRB. The Chandra team determined that it has taken roughly 8 billion years for the X rays from GRB991216 to reach the Earth, in agreement with an independent estimate from an absorption feature in the optical light from the host galaxy. From the distance and the intensities of the detected X-ray emission lines, the investigators deduced the properties of the ejected material and its relationship to the GRB. The team was able to determine the mass of the medium within a light day or two of the GRB as approximately equivalent

  6. Light echoes whisper the distance to a star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    Astronomers have used ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the distribution and motions of thousands of galaxies in the distant Universe. This opens fascinating perspectives to better understand what drives the acceleration of the cosmic expansion and sheds new light on the mysterious dark energy that is thought to permeate the Universe. ESO PR Photo 04a/08 ESO PR Photo 04a/08 Large-scale structures (Computer Simulation) "Explaining why the expansion of the Universe is currently accelerating is certainly the most fascinating question in modern cosmology," says Luigi Guzzo, lead author of a paper in this week's issue of Nature, in which the new results are presented. "We have been able to show that large surveys that measure the positions and velocities of distant galaxies provide us with a new powerful way to solve this mystery." Ten years ago, astronomers made the stunning discovery that the Universe is expanding at a faster pace today than it did in the past. "This implies that one of two very different possibilities must hold true," explains Enzo Branchini, member of the team. "Either the Universe is filled with a mysterious dark energy which produces a repulsive force that fights the gravitational brake from all the matter present in the Universe, or, our current theory of gravitation is not correct and needs to be modified, for example by adding extra dimensions to space." Current observations of the expansion rate of the Universe cannot distinguish between these two options, but the international team of 51 scientists from 24 institutions found a way that could help in tackling this problem. The technique is based on a well-known phenomenon, namely the fact that the apparent motion of distant galaxies results from two effects: the global expansion of the Universe that pushes the galaxies away from each other and the gravitational attraction of matter present in the galaxies' neighbourhood that pulls them together, creating the cosmic web of large

  7. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  8. The Project Serapis: High Resolution Seismic Imagingof The Campi Flegrei Caldera Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Virieux, J.; Capuano, P.; Chiarabba, C.; de Franco, R.; Makris, J.; Michelini, A.; Musacchio, G.; Serapis Group

    expected NE-SW and SE-NW structural trends and it has been designed to get 2D/3D images of the crustal structure at a regional scale. A denser 2D network of 35 OBSs has been deployed in the bay of Pozzuoli aimed at detecting and modeling reflected/converted waves from 1 the possible shallow to deep discontinuities beneath the Campi Flegrei caldera. The main target of this particular receiver lay-out is the detailed imaging of the magma chamber top, expected at 4-5 km depth, according to temperature measurements in wells and sparse seismic observations. About 5000 shots have been performed dur- ing the SERAPIS experiment, at an average spatial spacing of 125 m, for a total ship travel path of 620 km. All of the seismic lines have been re-sampled at least twice, using a staggered configuration, which results in a smaller source spacing (less than 65m). In the gulf of Pozzuoli the source array had a geometry of a 5x5 km grid, slightly shifted south with respect to the OBS array. Seismic signals produced by air- guns have been well detected up to 50-60 km distance and the whole Campi Flegrei, Ischia and Procida on-land networks have recorded high quality seismograms pro- duced by the gridded source array in the bay of Pozzuoli. Due to the extended and very dense source and receiver arrays used for SERAPIS, this campaign can provide an innovative contribution to the accurate reconstruction of the Campi Flegrei caldera structure and to the definition of its feeding system at depth. *SERAPIS group: Auger Emmanuel, Bernard Marie-Lise, Bobbio Antonella, Bonagura Mariateresa, Cantore Luciana, Convertito Vincenzo, D'Auria Luca, De Matteis Raffaella, Emolo Anto- nio, Festa Gaetano, Gasparini Paolo, Giberti Grazia, Herrero Andre, Improta Luigi, Lancieri Maria Flora, Nielsen Stefan, Nisii Vincenzo, Russo Guido, Satriano Clau- dio, Simini Mariella, Vassallo Maurizio, Bruno Pier Paolo, Buonocunto Ciro, Capello Marco, Del Pezzo Edoardo, Galluzzo Danilo, Gaudiosi Germana, Giuliana Alessio

  9. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  10. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    ), Luigi Guiffrida (SOIMI), Gianpietro Marchiori (EIE) and Prof. Massimo Tarenghi (ESO), describing the very successful implementation of this major VLT contract that was awarded by ESO in September 1991 [2]. All speakers praised the good collaboration between ESO and its industrial partners and Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO, expressed his satisfaction `with the splendid performance of the ESO-Industry team which was bringing us close to the realisation of the premier telescope array in optical ground-based astronomy in the world'. The participants were also pleased to listen to several of the Italian engineers present who commented on the very positive experience of being personally involved in the world's largest telescope project. The VLT telescope structures incorporate many new technological concepts. Thanks to these and careful planning of the many components and their integration, it has been possible to achieve, among others, light weight construction, high mechanical stiffness, good thermal equilibrium with the ambient air (of importance for the seeing during the observations), low electromagnetic emissitivity (i.e. low interference with the sensitive astronomical instruments) and easy maintainability. Of particular interest is also the giant, direct drive system with a diameter of 9 metres and the sophisticated, innovative laser encoder system. In this way, there is no direct contact between the moving parts and the friction during the rotation is kept at an absolute minimum. The Next Steps The ESO VLT project is now entering into a decisive phase and the next years will see an increasing number of telescope parts and instruments from the scientific and industrial laboratories of Europe converging towards the VLT observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile. It is gratifying that, despite its high degree of complexity and incorporation of a substantial number of new technologies, the project is within schedule and budget. There will be several

  11. Charting the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    the very massive galaxy cluster RXCJ1131.9-1955 at redshift z = 0.306 [3] in a very rich galaxy field with two major concentrations. It was originally found by George Abell and designated "Abell 1300". The image was obtained with the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope and the WFI camera at La Silla. ESO PR Photo 18c/04 ESO PR Photo 18c/04 Galaxy Cluster RXCJ0937.9-2020 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 746 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1491 pix - 1.3M] [HiRes - JPEG: 2380 x 4437 pix - 14.2M] Caption: PR Photo 18c/04 shows the much smaller, more nearby galaxy group RXCJ0937.9-2020 at a redshift of z = 0.034 [3]. It is dominated by the massive elliptical galaxy seen at the top of the image. The photo covers only the southern part of this group. Such galaxy groups with typical masses of a few 1013 solar masses constitute the smallest objects included in the REFLEX catalogue. This image was obtained with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on the ESO 8.2-m VLT Antu telescope. ESO PR Video Clip 05/04 ESO PR Video Clip 05/04 Galaxy Clusters in the REFLEX Catalogue (3D-visualization) [MPG - 11.7Mb] Caption: ESO PR Video Clip 05/04 illustrates the three-dimensional distribution of the galaxy clusters identfied in the ROSAT All-Sky survey in the northern and southern sky. In addition to the galaxy clusters in the REFLEX catalogue this movie also contains those identified during the ongoing, deeper search for X-ray clusters: the extension of the southern REFLEX Survey and the northern complementary survey that is conducted by the MPE team at the Calar Alto observatory and at US observatories in collaboration with John Huchra and coworkers at the Harvard-Smithonian Center for Astrophysics. In total, more than 1400 X-ray bright galaxy cluster have been found to date. (Prepared by Ferdinand Jamitzky.) Following this idea, a European team of astronomers [2], under the leadership of Hans Böhringer (MPE, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (INAF, Milano, Italy), Chris A. Collins (JMU, Liverpool), and Peter

  12. The Dark Side of Nature: the Crime was Almost Perfect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy), Guido Chincarini (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera & Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy), Nino Panagia (Space Telescope Science Institute, USA), Gianpiero Tagliaferri, Dino Fugazza, Sergio Campana, Stefano Covino, and Paolo D'Avanzo (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy), Daniele Malesani (SISSA/ISAS, Italy and Dark Cosmology Centre, Copenhagen), Vincenzo Testa, L. Angelo Antonelli, Silvia Piranomonte, and Luigi Stella (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), Vanessa Mangano (INAF/IASF Palermo, Italy), Kevin Hurley (University of California, Berkeley, USA), I. Felix Mirabel (ESO), and Leonardo J. Pellizza (Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio). The Danish-led team is composed of Johan P. U. Fynbo, Darach Watson, Christina C. Thöne, Tamara M. Davis, Jens Hjorth, José Mará Castro Cerón, Brian L. Jensen, Maximilian D. Stritzinger, and Dong Xu (Dark Cosmology Centre, University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Jesper Sollerman (Dark Cosmology Centre and Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Sweden), Uffe G. Jørgensen, Tobias C. Hinse, and Kristian G. Woller (Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen), Joshua S. Bloom, Daniel Kocevski, Daniel Perley (Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, USA), Páll Jakobsson (Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, UK), John F. Graham and Andrew S. Fruchter (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA), David Bersier (Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, UK), Lisa Kewley (University of Hawaii, Institute of Astronomy, USA), Arnaud Cassan and Marta Zub (Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Germany), Suzanne Foley (School of Physics, University College Dublin, Ireland), Javier Gorosabel (Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada, Spain), Keith D. Horne (SUPA Physics/Astronomy, University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK), Sylvio

  13. PREFACE: Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability Nonlinearity and Geometry: connections with integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, Jan L.; Ferapontov, Eugene V.; Kitaev, Alexander V.; Nimmo, Jonathan J. C.

    2009-10-01

    Geometric ideas are present in many areas of modern theoretical physics and they are usually associated with the presence of nonlinear phenomena. Integrable nonlinear systems play a prime role both in geometry itself and in nonlinear physics. One can mention general relativity, exact solutions of the Einstein equations, string theory, Yang-Mills theory, instantons, solitons in nonlinear optics and hydrodynamics, vortex dynamics, solvable models of statistical physics, deformation quantization, and many others. Soliton theory now forms a beautiful part of mathematics with very strong physical motivations and numerous applications. Interactions between mathematics and physics associated with integrability issues are very fruitful and stimulating. For instance, spectral theories of linear quantum mechanics turned out to be crucial for studying nonlinear integrable systems. The modern theory of integrable nonlinear partial differential and difference equations, or the `theory of solitons', is deeply rooted in the achievements of outstanding geometers of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, such as Luigi Bianchi (1856-1928) and Jean Gaston Darboux (1842-1917). Transformations of surfaces and explicit constructions developed by `old' geometers were often rediscovered or reinterpreted in a modern framework. The great progress of recent years in so-called discrete geometry is certainly due to strong integrable motivations. A very remarkable feature of the results of the classical integrable geometry is the quite natural (although nontrivial) possibility of their discretization. This special issue is dedicated to Jean Gaston Darboux and his pioneering role in the development of the geometric ideas of modern soliton theory. The most famous aspects of his work are probably Darboux transformations and triply orthogonal systems of surfaces, whose role in modern mathematical physics cannot be overestimated. Indeed, Darboux transformations play a central

  14. A Tale of Two Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    the primordial 24% value (created by the Big Bang) to the present solar 28% value, and yet in a globular cluster that formed only 1 or 2 billion years after the Big Bang, stars were produced with 39% of helium! Contamination from supernovae ESO PR Photo 08d/05 ESO PR Photo 08d/05 The Supernova Scenario [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 483 pix - 33k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 966 pix - 371k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2332 x 2816 pix - 1.9M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 08d/05 shows the possible scenario that may explain the production of two distinct populations of stars in Omega Centauri. The obvious question is now: "Where does all this helium come from?" Luigi Bedin (ESO), another member of the team, suggests that the solution might be connected to supernovae: "The scenario we presently favour is one in which the high helium content originates from material ejected during the supernovae explosions of massive stars. It is possible that the total mass of Omega Centauri was just right to allow the material expelled by high-mass supernovae to escape, while the matter from explosions of stars with about 10-12 times the mass of the Sun was retained." According to this scenario, Omega Centauri must therefore have seen two generations of stars. The first generation, with primordial helium abundance, produced the redder stars. A few tens of million years later, the most massive stars of this first generation exploded as supernovae. The helium-enriched matter that was expelled during the explosions of stars with 10-12 times the mass of the Sun "polluted" the globular cluster. Then a second population of stars, the bluer ones, formed from this helium-rich gas. The scientists acknowledge that certain problems still remain and that the last word may not yet have been said about this unusual globular cluster. But the new results constitute an important step towards the solution of the biggest mystery of all: why is Omega Centauri the only one among the galactic globular cluster that was able to produce super

  15. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  16. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    wave space experiment, the European Space Agency's Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) that will be launched in about 10 years' time, will be sufficiently sensitive to be able to reveal this radiation from RX J0806.3+1527 with a high degree of confidence. Such an observational feat would open an entirely new window on the universe. More information The results described in this Press Release were announced in IAU Circular 7835 and will shortly appear in print in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters ("RX J0806.3+1527: a double degenerate binary with the shortest known orbital period (321 s)" by G.L. Israel and co-authors), cf. astro-ph/0203043. The 5-min optical modulation was detected independently by another group led by G. Ramsay, cf. astro-ph/0203053. Note [1]: The team consists of GianLuca Israel and Luigi Stella at the Astronomical Observatory of Rome (Italy), Stefano Covino and Sergio Campana at the Astronomical Observatory of Brera (Milan, Italy), Wolfgang Hummel, Gianni Marconi and Gero Rupprecht at the European Southern Observatory, Immo Appenzeller and Otmar Stahl at the University of Heidelberg (Germany), Wolfgang Gassler and Karl-Heinz Mantel at the University of Munich (Germany), Christopher Mauche at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Ulisse Munari at the Astronomical Observatory of Padua (Italy), Ignacio Negueruela at the Astronomical Observatory of Strasbourg (France), Harald Nicklas at the University of Göttingen (Germany), and Richard Smart at the Astronomical Observatory of Turin (Italy). [2]: See the research article by Israel et al. (1999, Astronomy &A, Vol. 349, p. L1). Contact GianLuca Israel Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Italy Tel.: +39 06 9428 6437 email: gianluca@ulysses.mporzio.astro.it Technical information about the photos PR Photo 10a/02 is reproduced from FORS1-exposures, obtained in November 1999 in the U- and R-bands, and both lasting 300 sec. The field measures 2.0 x 1.5 arcmin 2. PR

  17. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 [2]). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded