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Sample records for luis potos mxico

  1. Superinfection between Influenza and RSV Alternating Patterns in San Luis Potosí State, México

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Hernández, Jorge Xicoténcatl; Núñez-López, Mayra; Comas-García, Andreu; Cherpitel, Daniel Ernesto Noyola; Ocampo, Marcos Capistrán

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain through the ecological hypothesis superinfection and competitive interaction between two viral populations and niche (host) availability, the alternating patterns of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and influenza observed in a regional hospital in San Luis Potosí State, México using a mathematical model as a methodological tool. The data analyzed consists of community-based and hospital-based Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) consultations provided by health-care institutions reported to the State Health Service Epidemiology Department from 2003 through 2009. PMID:25803450

  2. Hydrovolcanic evolution of the Joya Prieta maar, San Luis Potosí, northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila-Harris, P.; Aranda-Gomez, J. J.; Carrasco, G.

    2013-05-01

    The Joya Prieta is a Quaternary maar volcano emplaced at the western sector of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt. The crater is located at the axis of an open Laramide fold with a N20°W axis trend. It is the most easterly structure of the Santo Domingo Group, a cluster of intraplate maars and tuff-rings northeast of San Luis Potosí. A characteristic feature of these maars is that they are emplaced in close relationship with anticlines, exposing impressive inner crater walls of folded strata. In the Joya Prieta maar, the calcareous basement rocks are clearly exposed and unconformably overlain by the volcanic succession. A generalized stratigraphic sequence registers, from base to top, olivine-bearing basalt lava resting unconformably atop El Abra Formation limestone. The lava is overlain by thick and oxidized scoria and spatter agglomerate that grades into a moderately sorted spatter-fall layer with pervasive palagonite alteration. In direct contact with no evidence of reworking, pedogenesis or remobilization, the maar-forming sequence starts with parallel-stratified fall layers of altered basaltic pumice and scoria, with lava and limestone lithic clasts. This fall deposit marks the influx of xenocrystals and xenoliths, widely documented in previous works; they comprise mainly kaersutite mega crystals and spinel lherzolite respectively. The proximal fall deposit is divided into two thick layers by an indurated ash-tuff bed with pellets and single-rimmed accretionary lapilli. The upper layer of this fall deposit passes gradually onto an alternation of lapilli-sized layers with parallel ash-tuff horizons until it grades into cross-stratified, lithic-rich lapilli-tuff. The heterolithologic lapilli tuff is cemented on a fine ash matrix with palagonized juvenile clasts and abundant lava, shale and limestone lithics exhibiting a plethora of lithofacies in the like of parallel-bedded tuff, low-angle cross-bedded tuff and massive strata. This passes gradually

  3. Mortality attributable to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Comas‐García, Andreu; García‐Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Méndez‐de Lira, José J.; Aranda‐Romo, Saray; Hernández‐Salinas, Alba E.; Noyola, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Comas‐García et al. (2011) Mortality attributable to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 76–82. Background  Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Starting in 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus has become one of the leading respiratory pathogens worldwide. However, the overall impact of this virus as a cause of mortality has not been clearly defined. Objectives  To determine the impact of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 on mortality in a Mexican population. Methods  We assessed the impact of pandemic influenza virus on mortality during the first and second outbreaks in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, and compared it to mortality associated with seasonal influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during the previous winter seasons. Results  We estimated that, on average, 8·1% of all deaths that occurred during the 2003–2009 seasons were attributable to influenza and RSV. During the first pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 outbreak, there was an increase in mortality in persons 5–59 years of age, but not during the second outbreak (Fall of 2009). Overall, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 outbreaks had similar effects on mortality to those associated with seasonal influenza virus epidemics. Conclusions  The impact of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus on mortality during the first year of the pandemic was similar to that observed for seasonal influenza. The establishment of real‐time surveillance systems capable of integrating virological, morbidity, and mortality data may result in the timely identification of outbreaks so as to allow for the institution of appropriate control measures to reduce the impact of emerging pathogens on the population. PMID:21306570

  4. [Violence against women in transnational communities in San Luis Potosí, Mexico: a public health problem].

    PubMed

    Flores, Yesica Yolanda Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide problem due to its impact on quality of life for those living under the complicity of a patriarchal culture and a state that makes such violence invisible. This article aims to give visibility to the contexts of violence affecting female "partners of migrants" in their places of origin, problematizing how such violence assaults their physical and mental health. This was a qualitative study with an interpretative anthropological focus, drawing on a sample of 21 women from rural and urban areas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Interviews were based on daily life history and discourse analysis. According to the results, women experience more violence when their spouses migrate, new forms of violence are committed against them, and the violence occurs in both the household and the community. Violence against women is a public health problem that should be treated through a framework that is sensitive to the social and cultural dynamics characterizing the contexts in which health programs are implemented. PMID:27487439

  5. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  6. Use of abstraction regime and knowledge of hydrogeological conditions to control high-fluoride concentration in abstracted groundwater: San Luis Potosı´ basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Cardona, A.; Edmunds, W. M.

    2002-04-01

    Significant amounts of fluoride are found in the abstracted groundwater of San Luis Potosı´. This groundwater withdrawal induces a cold, low-fluoride flow as well as deeper thermal fluoride-rich flow in various proportions. Flow mixing takes place depending on the abstraction regime, local hydrogeology, and borehole construction design and operation. Fluoride concentrations (≈3.7 mg l -1) could become higher still, in time and space, if the input of regional fluoride-rich water to the abstraction boreholes is enhanced. It is suggested that by controlling the abstraction well-head water temperature at 28-30 °C, a pumped water mixture with a fluoride content close to the maximum drinking water standard of 1.5 mg l -1 will be produced. Further, new boreholes and those already operating could take advantage of fluoride solubility controls to reduce the F concentration in the abstracted water by considering lithology and borehole construction design in order to regulate groundwater flow conditions.

  7. Labor attributes and strategies: the case of tomato workers in san luis potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Maria Isabel Mora

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the economic crisis in the 1980s that affected Mexico and the rest of Latin America, official policies encouraged commercial agriculture, especially the cultivation of export crops. During that period, women's entry into the paid labor market accelerated. For many women in rural areas, this meant widening opportunities for participation and a chance not only to help their families, but also to look for a partner, earn their own money, and "see the world." This article analyzes the incorporation of women into the tomato agro-industry in the Altiplano region of el Valle de Arista, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. It discusses the strategies that women workers use-physical appearance, experience, and efficiency-as characteristics that are "required" in order to stay in this highly competitive, segmented, and precarious labor market. PMID:21342870

  8. Commissioner Potočnik at Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    As part of his first official trip to Brazil and Chile, the European Science and Research Commissioner, Janez Potočnik, visited Europe's flagship for ground-based astronomy, the ESO Paranal Observatory. ESO PR Photo 48a/07 ESO PR Photo 48a/07 Commissioner Potočnik at the Control-Console of the VLT The major facility atop the 2600m high Paranal mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert is the Very Large Telescope (VLT), whose design, instrument complement and operating principles set the standard for ground-based optical and infrared astronomy. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) enhances the capabilities of this unique facility even further as do the survey telescopes VST (optical) and VISTA (infrared). Publication statistics show that the VLT provides data for a scientific paper every day, all year round. The Commissioner was accompanied, among others, by Jaime Pérez Vidal, Head of Delegation of the European Commission (EC) to Chile, Mary Minch and Cornelia Nauen, respectively Director and Principal Administrator of International Scientific Cooperation for the EC, and Hervé Peró, Head of EC Unit Research Infrastructures. The visitors were able to acquaint themselves with the VLT during an overnight stay at this remote site. The guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Felix Mirabel, and the Director of the Paranal Observatory, Andreas Kaufer, as well as ESO staff members of many nationalities. The visitors were shown the various frontline installations at the observatory, including many of the distinctive VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. The Commissioner was provided with a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. ESO PR Photo 48b/07 ESO PR Photo 48b/07 Commissioner Potočnik Visiting the ESO Observatory at Paranal Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean

  9. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  10. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  11. [Physical factors influencing the floristic relationships of pinyon pine (Pinaceae) from San Luis Potosi, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Romero, Angélica; Luna, Mario; García, Edmundo

    2014-06-01

    In plant communities, the species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental factors are of central importance in ecology. In San Luis Potosí of Mexico, woodlands of Pinus cembroides and P. johannis are sympatric, but P. cembroides tends to be located in South and Southwest slopes, in more disturbed sites; unlike, P. johannis, is mostly distributed in mesic areas, in North and Northeast slopes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of some physical factors on the floristic similarity of pinyon pine P. cembroides and P. johannis. The study area was located in the Sierra San Miguelito, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We selected 40 sampling units spread over an area of 50km2. In each unit, we laid out two 20m long lines perpendicular to each other, in which we recorded cover data of the plant species intercepted. We developed two data matrices, the first one including cover values of 91 species, and the second one, considering seven topographical, climatic, and solar radiation variables. We applied cluster analysis and ordination to explore the influence of environmental variables on the floristic differentiation of pinyon pine woodlands. Clustering showed six groups, the first three characterized by P. cembroides. The ordination showed that variance represented by the first three axes was 65.9%. Axis 1 was positively correlated with altitude and negatively with mean annual temperature; axes two and three, showed low correlation with the variables tested. P. cembroides woodlands and accompanying flora tend to be located in lower altitude, higher mean annual temperature, and mainly in South-Southwestern slopes. In contrast, stands of P. johannis, mixed stands of P. johannis-P. cembroides, and Quercus potosina, were usually founded in greater altitudes, mean annual temperature slightly lower, and North-Northeastern exposure. The sites of these monospecific and mixed woodlands with associated species, indicators of environmental variables

  12. 19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, IN CENTRAL PORTION OF SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA. Leeds Hill Barnard & Jewett - Consulting Engineers, February 1942. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  13. 76 FR 10945 - San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of... Corporation as sole Receiver for San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, California, (OTS No. 15051)...

  14. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico Mountain, known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations, both of which have left a legacy of pollution. In this study...

  15. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Lee, Bonmyong

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome. PMID:26425383

  16. 33 CFR 80.1130 - San Luis Obispo Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, CA. 80.1130 Section 80.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1130 San Luis Obispo Bay, CA. A line drawn...

  17. Multielemental pollution of soils at the Ingenios, decommissioned mineralurgical sites in Potosí (Bolivia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higueras, Pablo; Llanos, Willians; García, María. Eugenia; Millán, Rocío.; Serrano, Carlos; María García-Noguero, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Potosí is a world classical mining site, located in South West Bolivia. Mining activity is centered at the so-called Cerro Rico, an impressive mount formed by rhyolitic rocks affected by intensive hydrothermal alteration, and hosting a complex multivein deposit including mainly Ag and Sn minerals. From the starting of the mining activity, in the late 16th Century, to 1850 the main ore was silver minerals, and from 1850 the silver ores exhausted, and mining activity centered on Sn minerals. During the first stage, the silver minerals were treated by amalgamation, using the so-called "método de patio", which implies the usage of mercury and other compounds as metallurgical agents. This work was carried out at the "ingenios", facilities located next to streams, in order to have the water and mechanical energy needed for the process, and nowadays in ruins. We have studied the soil pollution related with this activity, at several of these old "ingenios", putting forward a multielemental contamination including high Hg and Sn concentrations, and, to a lesser extent, but also with values above reference levels, with As, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sb.

  18. Baylisascaris potosis n. sp., a new ascarid nematode isolated from captive kinkajou, Potos flavus, from the Cooperative Republic of Guyana.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new nematode species, Baylisascaris potosis n. sp., isolated from captive kinkajou, Potos flavus, from the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. The nematode was found in fecal specimens, identified morphologically, and confirmed genetically. The new species is similar to Baylisascaris procyonis, Baylisascaris columnaris, and other Baylisascaris species, but is distinguished by the position of the male phasmidial pole. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses confirmed that the new species is phylogenetically distinct from all the members of the genus Baylisascaris, and groups with B. procyonis and B. columnaris. This nematode is the 10th species assigned to the genus Baylisascaris. PMID:24662055

  19. Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Richter, Daniel De B.; Vandenberg, John

    2011-12-01

    Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate historical air concentrations of mercury from colonial mining operations during 1715, a year of relatively low silver production. Source characteristics were selected from archival documents, colonial maps and images of silver smelters in Potosí and a base case of input parameters was selected. Input parameters were varied to understand the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. Modeled maximum 1-h concentrations were most sensitive to stack height and diameter, whereas an index of community exposure was relatively insensitive to uncertainty in input parameters. Modeled 1-h and long-term concentrations were compared to inhalation reference values for elemental mercury vapor. Estimated 1-h maximum concentrations within 500 m of the silver smelters consistently exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values. Additionally, the entire community was estimated to have been exposed to levels of mercury vapor that exceed present-day acute inhalation reference values for the general public. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations of mercury were predicted to substantially exceed the EPA Reference Concentration for areas within 600 m of the silver smelters. A concentration gradient predicted by AERMOD was used to select soil sampling locations along transects in Potosí. Total mercury in soils ranged from 0.105 to 155 mg kg-1, among the highest levels reported for surface soils in the scientific literature. The correlation between estimated air concentrations and measured soil concentrations will guide future research to determine the extent to which the

  20. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. PMID:27100004

  1. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Luis Obispo County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Luis Obispo County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  2. Geologic Map of the San Luis Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    The map area includes San Luis and the primarily rural surrounding area. San Luis, the county seat of Costilla County, is the oldest surviving settlement in Colorado (1851). West of the town are San Pedro and San Luis mesas (basalt-covered tablelands), which are horsts with the San Luis fault zone to the east and the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone to the west. The map also includes the Sanchez graben (part of the larger Culebra graben), a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the east). The oldest rocks exposed in the map area are the Pliocene to upper Oligocene basin-fill sediments of the Santa Fe Group, and Pliocene Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of 3.7?4.8 Ma old flood basalts. Landslide deposits and colluvium that rest on sediments of the Santa Fe Group cover the steep margins of the mesas. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesas and in the graben is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The alluvial deposits are subdivided into three Pleistocene-age units and three Holocene-age units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surfaces, the largest of which is known as the Costilla Plain. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map area are from earthquakes, landslides, and localized flooding. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. The landslides may have seismogenic origins; that is, they may be stimulated by strong ground shaking during large earthquakes. Machette and Thompson based this geologic map entirely on new mapping, whereas Drenth supplied geophysical data and interpretations.

  3. Binturong (Arctictis binturong) and Kinkajou (Potos flavus) Digestive Strategy: Implications for Interpreting Frugivory in Carnivora and Primates

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Joanna E.; Fellner, Vivek; McKenney, Erin; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong) that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT) on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue), Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent (ADF) fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3); P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6). In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides – methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles – the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon. PMID:25157614

  4. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  5. Working (And Sparring) With Luis: Some Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripstein, Moishe

    2011-04-01

    Luis Alvarez was the most remarkable physicist I have ever worked with. As a member of his bubble chamber group at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley and subsequently as a leader of that group for several years, I could appreciate his outstanding attributes as a physicist and his forceful and colorful personality. Each day at the lab seemed exciting. Although he created the largest research group in particle physics in the world at the time, Luis was an ardent foe of group-think, which he characterized as ``intellectual phase-lock''. He had an uncanny intuition about physics and technology, coupled with an insatiable curiosity about the world around him. He is justly renowned as a member of the Inventors Hall of Fame for his myriad inventions and as a Nobel Laureate in physics for his contributions to particle physics through his development of the hydrogen bubble chamber technique, leading to the discovery of a large number of resonance states. However, it was his wide-ranging curiosity which led him to one of his finest achievements, while working with his son Walter - developing the asteroid impact theory as the explanation of the extinction of the dinosaurs. I will offer some personal recollections of Luis and the group in this period, including some of his other intriguing efforts which illustrate the breadth of his interests, pertaining to the Kennedy assassination and x-raying the pyramids, among them. All in all, a brilliant and most unusual scientist and stimulating colleague.

  6. Art as Critical Public Pedagogy: A Qualitative Study of Luis Camnitzer and His Conceptual Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorrilla, Ana; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness from the perspective and work of conceptual artist, Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework is grounded in the critical public pedagogy literature. Data collection methods included interviews with conceptual artist Luis Camnitzer and with…

  7. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of... for a Conduit Hydroelectric Project \\1\\ to the San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation...\\ San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ] 62,113 (1981). On October...

  8. Luis de Florez and the Special Devices Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paul Louis

    This Dissertation presents the life of Luis de Florez and the World War II history of the Special Devices Division (SDD) of the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics. Luis de Florez was a well known consulting engineer, aviation fuel expert, private pilot and reserve Naval officer. While on active duty in 1940, he received the assignment to improve the Navy's flight training methods. To accomplish this objective, he promoted the concept of synthetic training, the use of simulators and other non-operational equipment, to provide training for Navy flight personnel such as pilots, gunners, navigators, flight engineers, radio operators and others as well as for ground based people like mechanics. He founded the Special Devices Division to design the tools and equipment needed for this type of training. The success of synthetic training and the devices developed by the SDD received recognition by the awarding of the Collier Trophy to de Florez in December 1944. This trophy is awarded annually for the most significant aeronautical achievement of the previous year (1943). De Florez received the award for the strategic accomplishment of training thousands of American airmen in 1943. The work of the Division also had other important technical, social, financial and operational impacts on the prosecution of WW II by the Allies. The work of the Division also had impacts on American society as a whole that persist to the present day. These impacts are discussed in detail. The Dissertation presents details of the devices and their use in aviation training as well as a history of the Division during the war. After the war, de Florez led an advisory board for the CIA. These activities and some of both the positive and negative results of the work of this board are discussed. This discussion includes de Florez' involvement in the CIA's drug experiments and the unfortunate Frank Olsen affair.

  9. Ground water recharge to the aquifers of northern San Luis Valley, Colorado: A remote sensing investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Huntley, D.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground water recharge to the aquifers of San Luis Valley west of San Luis Creek was primarily from ground water flow in the volcanic aquifers of the San Juan Mountains. The high permeability and anisotropic nature of the volcanic rocks resulted in very little contrast in flow conditions between the San Juan Mountains and San Luis Valley. Ground water recharge to aquifers of eastern San Luis Valley was primarily from stream seepage into the upper reaches of the alluvial fans at the base of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The use of photography and thermal infrared imagery resulted in a savings of time and increase in accuracy in regional hydrogeologic studies. Volcanic rocks exhibited the same spectral reflectance curve as sedimentary rocks, with only the absolute magnitude of reflectance varying. Both saline soils and vegetation were used to estimate general ground water depths.

  10. Oligocene basaltic volcanism of the northern Rio Grande Rift: San Luis Hills, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.A.; Johnson, C.M.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The inception of the Rio Grande Rift in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado was accompanied by voluminous mafic volcanism preserved in part as erosional remnants on an intrarift horst within the current axial rift graben of the San Luis Valley. Major and trace element constraints support a petrogenetic model of fractionation plus lower crustal assimilation for petrologic suites within the San Luis Hills rocks, although the model cannot relate lavas for the entire series to a common parent. Most mafic lavas of the San Luis Hills were evolved (Mg # <60) and contaminated by LREE-enriched silicic partial melts of granulitic lower crust depleted in Rb, Th, and U. However, relatively noncontaminated lavas can be identified and indicate at least two mantle source regions were involved. -from Authors

  11. Of Salsa and Sonnets, Stories and Soul: A Conversation with Cuban-American Literary Critic William Luis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    2000-01-01

    Contains an interview conducted in Spring 2000 via email with William Luis, an author, professor of Spanish at Vanderbilt University, and leading authority on Latin American, Caribbean, Afro-Hispanic, and Latino literatures. Offers Luis' perspective on topics of literature and ethnic/cultural identity. (EV)

  12. 75 FR 76726 - San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of San Luis ] Solar, LLC's application for market-based...

  13. 76 FR 62819 - Notice of Intent To Amend the Resource Management Plan for the San Luis Resource Area, Colorado...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Amend the Resource Management Plan for the San Luis Resource Area, Colorado, and Associated Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management..., the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) San Luis Valley Public Lands Center, Monte Vista,...

  14. Cyanobacteria/Foraminifera Association from Anoxic/Dysoxic Beds of the Agua Nueva Formation (Upper Cretaceous - Cenomanian/Turonian) at Xilitla, San Luis Potosi, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Piñón, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Rojas-León, A.; Duque-Botero, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Agua Nueva Formation in the vicinity of Xilitla, State of San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico, consists of interbedded brown shale (Grayish orange 10YR 7/4 to Moderate yellowish brown 10YR 5/4) and dark-gray fossiliferous limestone (Bluish gray 5B 6/1 to Dark bluish gray 5B 4/1), varying between 10 and 20 cm in thickness. The sequence also includes 2 to 4 cm- thick intermittent bentonite layers (Moderate greenish yellow 10Y 7/4, to dark greenish yellow 10Y 6/6 and Light olive 10Y 5/4). At the field scale, shaly intervals show no apparent internal structures, whereas most limestone beds show primary lamination at the millimeter scale (1-2 mm), and intermittent layers of black chert of about 5 cm thick. Pyrite is present as disseminated crystals and as 2 cm-thick layers. Bioturbation or macrobenthic organisms other than inoceramids do not occur in the Agua Nueva Formation at Xilitla. Unusual macrofossils are present only in limestone strata, and consist of well- preserved diverse genera of fishes such as sharks, Ptychodus sp. and teleosteans, Rhynchodercetis sp., Tselfatia sp., Goulmimichthys sp., and scales of Ichtyodectiformes, as well as ammonites and inoceramids (Blanco et al., 2006). The presence of Inoceramus (Mytyloides) labiatus (Maldonado-Koederll, 1956) indicates an Early Turonian age for the sequence. Total carbonate content (CaCO3 = TIC) varies between 62 and 94% in the Limestone beds, which yield Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from 0.4% to 2.5%; the shale intervals contain TIC values consistently lower than 33% and TOC lower than 0.8% Microscopically the limestone beds vary from mudstone to packstone composed essentially of coccoid cyanobacteria similar to coeval deposits in northeastern Mexico, Coahuila State, at Parras de La Fuente (Duque- Botero 2006). Similarly, the microspheroids are spherical to sub-spherical, and occur as isolated elements or aggregates forming series of chains of parallel-packed light lamina 1-2 mm thick. Filamentous cyanobacteria

  15. Evaluating the sustainability of a regional system using Fisher information in the San Luis Basin, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the theory, data, and methodology necessary for using Fisher information to assess the sustainability of the San Luis Basin (SLB) regional system over time. Fisher information was originally developed as a measure of the information content in data and is an ...

  16. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: An Economic Measure of Regional Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). GNRP is equal to aggregate consumption minus the depreciation of man-made and natural capital. We measure the move...

  17. 76 FR 14042 - San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Alamosa, CO; Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), intend to prepare a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) in Alamosa, Colorado. The Complex comprises Baca, Monte Vista, and Alamosa National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs).We provide this notice in compliance with our CCP policy to advise......

  18. Chasing Personal Meaning: Pedagogical Lessons through Luis Rodriguez's "Always Running"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen-Homer, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In this autobiographical narrative, the author recounts her experiences teaching the novel "Always Running" by Luis Rodriguez with her English classes at a high school in a gang-heavy area. When she first started teaching, this teacher struggled to engage students. One particularly disruptive student requested to read "Always…

  19. Emphatic or Reflexive? On the Endophoric Character of French "lui-meme" and Similar Complex Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zribi-Hertz, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the referential properties of a class of complex pronouns labelled M-Pronouns, exemplified by Old English "himself," French "lui-meme," and English "his own." It is shown that M-Pronouns exhibit some properties commonly taken as characterizing reflexive anaphors, and that they also occur as "intensive" pronouns. Contains 66…

  20. Survey of San Luis Valley School Closures. Resource Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Alfred M.

    School closures in Colorado's San Luis Valley were surveyed, listing the pros and cons of closing school during the potato harvest. In 1958, 12 of 31 elementary schools and 7 of 13 secondary schools ceased operation for periods up to 18 days during the potato harvest, closing schools to 4,447 students. Of these students, 904 elementary children…

  1. San Luis Valley Board of Cooperative Services Bilingual-Bicultural Program. Curriculum: Kindergarten Through Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Luis Valley Board of Cooperative Services, Alamosa, CO.

    For the children in the San Luis Valley (Colorado), bilingual education has provided a successful atmosphere for both the monolingual English speakers and the non-English speakers. They teach each other, learn about each other's culture, and appreciate and understand others better. This curriculum guide, funded by Title VII of the Elementary and…

  2. Late Glacial and Holocene Record of Hydroclimate in the San Luis Valley, Southern Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Koran, M.

    2012-12-01

    Lake sediments from the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado, archive a detailed record of Late Glacial and Holocene climatic fluctuations in the southern Rocky Mountains. Together with radiometric dating analysis, measurements of grain size, magnetic susceptibility, total inorganic carbon (TIC), oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of the TIC fraction on sediment samples from San Luis Lake (at an average resolution of 60 years per sample) allow us to generate a sediment record of climatic change in the region spanning the last 16ka (1 ka=1000 cal yrs). This record documents the timing and duration of major climate episodes and trends, comparable to the existing paleoclimate records from the American Southwest. The Late Glacial record of San Luis Lake contains a big wet episode in the late part of the Mystery Interval (MI), a relatively dry climate during Bølling-Allerød (B/A) warm interval, and a relatively wet episode during the Younger Dryas (YD) interval, similar to the lake-level record found in the Estancia basin in central New Mexico. The early to middle Holocene record of d18O in the San Luis Lake parallels the calcite d18O record of Bison Lake in northern Colorado, documenting a history of significant change in precipitation seasonality across the northern boundary of the North American monsoon (NAM). The middle Holocene epoch is characterized by greater variations in magnetic susceptibility, d18O and d13C, suggesting the prevalence of wet, variable or transitional climate conditions. In contrast, the late Holocene climate is relatively dry, as indicated by more positive values of d18O in San Luis Lake. The results of this study reveal a complex history of climate evolution due to the interactions of two seasonally distinct precipitation regimes with mountainous landforms in the region.

  3. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  4. Dual-system Tectonics of the San Luis Range and Vicinity, Coastal Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The M 6.5 "San Simeon" earthquake of December 22, 2003, occurred beneath the Santa Lucia Range in coastal central California, and resulted in around $250,000,000 property damage and two deaths from collapse of an historic building in the town of Paso Robles, located 40 km from the epicenter. The earthquake and more than 10,000 aftershocks were well recorded by nearby seismographs, which permitted detailed analysis of the event (eg: McLaren et al., 2008). This analysis facilitated evaluation of the hazard of the occurrence of a similar event in the nearby San Luis Range, located along the coast west of the city of San Luis Obispo some 55 km south of the San Simeon epicenter. The future occurrence of earthquakes analogous to the 2003 event in this area had been proposed in the late 1960’s (eg: Benioff and Smith, 1967; Richter, 1969) but the apparent hazard of such occurrences came to be overshadowed by the discovery of the “Hosgri” strike slip fault passing close to the area in the offshore. However data accumulated since the early 1970’s clearly demonstrate the hazard as being partitioned between nearby earthquakes of strike slip origin, and underlying earthquakes of thrust origin analogous to that of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. And for the onshore San Luis Range area, an underlying actively seismogenic thrust wedge appears to provide the maximum potential seismic ground motion; exceeding that potentially resulting from large events on nearby strike slip faults of the San Simeon-Hosgri system, for onshore sites. Understanding and documentation of the geology, geomorphology, tectonics and seismogenesis of the San Luis Range and vicinity has recently experienced a quantum improvement as both new and accumulated data have been analysed. An integrated interpretation of all available data now clearly shows that a dual “side by side” system of active tectonics exists in the region. Essentially the most obvious evidence for this is seen simply in the

  5. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys in southern Colorado, United States. These airborne geophysical surveys provide high-resolution and spatially comprehensive datasets characterizing the resistivity structure of the shallow subsurface of each survey region, accompanied by magnetic-field information over matching areas. These data were collected to provide insight into the distribution of groundwater brine in the Paradox Valley, the extent of clay aquitards in the San Luis Valley, and to improve our understanding of the geologic framework for both regions. This report describes these contracted surveys and releases digital data supplied under contract to the USGS.

  6. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  7. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  8. The procyonid social club: comparison of brain volumes in the coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica), kinkajou (Potos flavus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether increased relative brain size, including regional brain volumes, is related to differing behavioral specializations exhibited by three member species of the family Procyonidae. Procyonid species exhibit continuums of behaviors related to social and physical environmental complexities: the mostly solitary, semiarboreal and highly dexterous raccoons (Procyon lotor); the exclusively arboreal kinkajous (Potos flavus), which live either alone or in small polyandrous family groups, and the social, terrestrial coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica). Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 adult skulls including 17 coatimundis (9 male, 8 female), 14 raccoons (7 male, 7 female), and 14 kinkajous (7 male, 7 female) were used to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts. Endocranial volume was positively correlated with two separate measures of body size: skull basal length (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and basicranial axis length (r = 0.45, p = 0.002). However, relative brain size (total endocranial volume as a function of body size) varied by species depending on which body size measurement (skull basal length or basicranial axis length) was used. Comparisons of relative regional brain volumes revealed that the anterior cerebrum volume consisting mainly of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly larger in the social coatimundi compared to kinkajous and raccoons. The dexterous raccoon had the largest relative posterior cerebrum volume, which includes the somatosensory cortex, in comparison to the other procyonid species studied. The exclusively arboreal kinkajou had the largest relative cerebellum and brain stem volume in comparison to the semi arboreal raccoon and the terrestrial coatimundi. Finally, intraspecific comparisons failed to reveal any sex differences, except in the social coatimundi. Female coatimundis possessed a larger relative frontal cortical volume than males. Social life histories differ in male and female coatimundis

  9. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  10. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  11. Utilization of geothermal energy in the production of fuel grade ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Walter, K.M.

    1981-10-01

    The San Luis Valley, a high alpine valley in south-central Colorado, is an area of known geothermal activity. The valley is a sparsely populated agricultural area whose principal crops are potatoes, beer barley, and wheat. In the surrounding mountains there are several lumber operations. This combination of a geothermal heat source and a biomass feedstock source makes the valley a candidate area for the production of fermentation ethanol. Therefore, a study was initiated to investigate the engineering, environmental, institutional and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy for the commercial production of 76 to 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of fuel grade ethanol in the San Luis Valley.

  12. Presence of Oxyodontherium (Macraucheniidae, Litopterna) in the Río Quinto Formation, San Luis (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, Esperanza; Chiesa, Jorge; Ojeda, Guillermo

    2008-03-01

    This paper deals with the new mammal remains from the Río Quinto Formation, found at the Arroyo La Petra locality (San Luis, Argentina). They consist of an incomplete skull and two mandibular fragments of a macraucheniid, both with milk dentition and M1/m1 erupting, corresponding to a very young individual. Morfometrical characteristics of the specimens allow their identification as Oxyodontherium zeballosi and provide the first cranial data for this species. The holotype of this species is considered a juvenile individual. We maintain a conservative position in maintaining O. zeballosi as a valid species though based on juvenile specimens. However, a full systematic revision of the Family Macraucheniidae is needed to verify the validity and phylogenetic relationships of the taxa included in it. The identification of O. zeballosi indicates a late Miocene age for the fossiliferous level, which implies a cronoestratigraphic extension of the Río Quinto Formation, thus far considered as Pliocene in age. In addition, the presence of Oxyodontherium in San Luis Province increases the geographical distribution of this macrauchenid, whose record previously was limited to Miocene outcrops of the Paraná River (Entre Ríos Province). Its presence in the Mio-Pliocene beds of Uruguay is very doubtful because it is based on a metapodial.

  13. 78 FR 16569 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, Permian Basin Railways, and San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Corporate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Holdings, LLC (IPH), its wholly owned subsidiaries Permian Basin Railways (PBR) and San Luis & Rio Grande..., IPH is a noncarrier that wholly owns PBR, which directly controls seven Class III railroads.\\1\\ PBR... (Saratoga). In addition, PBR controls 80% of Cape Rail, Inc. (Cape Rail), a noncarrier railroad...

  14. 76 FR 414 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Los Angeles to San Luis Obispo (LOSSAN North) Rail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...), Division 13, Public Resources Code; and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545... quality effects; exposure to seismic and flood hazards; impacts to water resources, wetlands, and... Angeles Union Station and the San Luis Obispo Amtrak Station. The improvements to be discussed in...

  15. Anomalous Representations of Reality in Luis Valdez's "The Shrunken Head of Pancho Villa" and "The Mummified Deer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saborio, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Luis Valdez creates anomalous realities in two of his plays, "The Shrunken Head of Pancho Villa" and "The Mummified Deer," in order to defy dominant expressions of reality as well as classifications of "Chicano" and "Mexican." The anomalous realities, represented primarily by a bodiless head in the first play and an eighty-four-year-old Yaqui…

  16. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  17. Scientist as detective: Luis Alvarez and the pyramid burial chambers, the JFK assassination, and the end of the dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Charles G.

    2007-11-01

    Luis Alvarez (1911-1988) was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century. His investigations of three mysteries, all of them outside his normal areas of research, show what remarkable things a far-ranging imagination working with an immense store of knowledge can accomplish.

  18. More than Meets the Eye: Adult Education for Critical Consciousness in Luis Camnitzer's Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorrilla, Ana Carlina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness through the conceptual art of Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework grounding this research was critical public pedagogy, influenced by both critical theory and Stuart Hall's systems of representation (1997). This framework…

  19. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively. PMID:14595590

  20. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO.

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence ofR. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas forR. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia. PMID:27074327

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO

    PubMed Central

    FACCINI-MARTÍNEZ, Álvaro A.; BOTERO-GARCÍA, Carlos A.; HIDALGO, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence of R. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas for R. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia. PMID:27074327

  2. Measured performance results: low-cost solar water heating systems in the San Luis Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.

    1983-01-01

    The measured performance of seven low-cost solar water heating systems in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado is summarized. During the summer and fall of 1981, SERI monitored a variety of low-cost solar water heating system designs and components. Five systems had site-built collectors, and four included low-cost tank-in-jacket heat exchanger/storage tank components. Two were air-to-water systems. The five liquid-based systems included a drain-down design, a propylene glycol-charged thermosiphon system, and three pumped-glycol systems. The pumped-liquid systems performed the best, with system efficiencies greater than 20% and solar fractions between 40% and 70%. Tjhe air-to-water systems did not perform as well because of leakage in the collectors and heat exchangers. The thermosiphon system performed at lower efficiency because the collector flows were low.

  3. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments: Progress Report October 1998 through November 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; TerBerg, R.; Borglin, S.E.

    2001-06-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the US Bureau of Reclamation and the Panoche Water District, is conducting a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium (Se)-enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems which may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to the groundwater; increased exposure to the biota; and reduced productivity of farm crops. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through November 2000, as well as the results of these investigations.

  4. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  5. Introduction to the Special Collection of Papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: A Methodology for Evaluating Regional Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, descripti...

  6. Transient Electromagnetic Soundings Near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado (2006 Field Season)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, David V.; de Sozua Filho, Oderson A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to obtain subsurface information of use to hydrologic modeling. Seventeen soundings were made to the east and north of the sand dunes. Using a small loop TEM system, maximum exploration depths of about 75 to 150 m were obtained. In general, layered earth interpretations of the data found that resistivity decreases with depth. Comparison of soundings with geologic logs from nearby wells found that zones logged as having increased clay content usually corresponded with a significant resistivity decrease in the TEM determined model. This result supports the use of TEM soundings to map the location of the top of the clay unit deposited at the bottom of the ancient Lake Alamosa that filled the San Luis Valley from Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time.

  7. Mössbauer, TEM/SAED and XRD investigation on waste dumps of the Valea lui Stan gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Serban Grigore; Udubasa, Sorin S.; Udubasa, Gheorghe; Kuncser, Victor; Popescu-Pogrion, Nicoleta; Mercioniu, Ionel; Feder, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    The complementary investigation techniques, Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the fate of the Valea lui Stan, Romania, gold-ore nanoscale-minerals during the long time of residence in the waste dumps. The preliminary investigations showed such waste dumps to contain significant amount of metals which cannot be identified by conventional methods. An intense research activity started up in order to evaluate the possibilities to recycle Valea lui Stan waste dumps and to recover metals by chemical or phytoextraction procedures. The waste dumps naturally show different mineral constituents with clay minerals as major phases, observed by XRD-technique. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colours, MÖSSBAUER technique evidences the presence of the finely dispersed iron bearing minerals. The authors are focusing to inspect and analyze Fe-compounds in the samples collected from Valea lui Stan's waste dumps in order to identify the magnetic phases by Mössbauer technique.

  8. Patterns of food abundance for breeding waterbirds in the san luis valley of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammonley, J.H.; Laubhan, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the amount and distribution of macroinvertebrates and seeds in four wetland habitats (short emergent, seasonal open water, semipermanent/permanent open water, and saltgrass [Distichlis spicata]) used by breeding ducks and shorebirds at a wetland complex in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA. Density of macroinvertebrates did not differ among habitats or sampling periods (P = 0.45), but dry mass, crude protein, and gross energy production were greater (P < 0.05) in short emergent than in other habitats. These differences were largely due to the greater dry mass of gastropods in short emergent than in other habitats. Total seed density, dry mass, crude protein, and gross energy differed among habitats and periods with interaction effects (P <0.01). Although seed abundance varied among habitats and sampling periods, abundance was greatest in short emergent during all sampling periods. Breeding waterbirds consumed a variety of macroinvertebrates and seeds on the study area. Patterns of abundance among habitats of macroinvertebrates and seeds consumed by six waterbird species were not consistent with patterns of foraging habitat use by most ducks and shorebirds at this wetland complex. Our results indicate that estimates of food or nutrient abundance are useful in assessing the functional role of broad habitat types, but factors other than food abundance also influence avian selection of wetland foraging habitats. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Agricultural producers' perceptions of sandhill cranes in the San Luis Valley of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Gammonley, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Management for migratory birds at an ecosystem scale requires forming cooperative partnerships with the private sector. To be effective, however, wildlife managers must understand the economic and social attitudes of private landowners to ensure that strategies involving stakeholders are viable and can be implemented. We documented attitudes of farmers in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of Colorado toward Rocky Mountain Population greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) using a self administered, mail-back survey. Overall response rate was 46.7%. Viewing sandhill cranes in the SLV was considered somewhat important or important by 78.6% of respondents. In contrast, only 62.1% of respondents indicated that viewing sandhill cranes was somewhat important or important on their own land. Farmers' attitudes toward viewing sandhill cranes on their own property were related (P=0.02) to perceived conflicts with crop production. The extent of crane use (P=0.04) was the only variable we tested that predicted whether conflicts were reported. Our results suggest that partnerships between farmers and natural resource agencies concerned with management of sandhill cranes may be viable. However, the role of farmers in any proposed management strategy must be examined carefully because there may be an upper limit of crane use on private land that farmers will tolerate.

  10. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  11. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  12. Tracing groundwater recharge in the San Luis Valley, Colorado: Groundwater contamination susceptibility in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Tanya; Hindshaw, Ruth; Singer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Water is a vital resource in any agricultural watershed, yet in the arid western United States farming practices threaten the quality and availability of groundwater. This is a pressing concern in the San Luis Valley, southern Colorado, where agriculture comprises 30% of the local economy, and employs over half the valley population. Although 54 % of the water used for irrigation is surface water, farmers do not usually apply this water directly to their fields. Instead, the water is often diverted into pits which recharge the aquifer, and the water is subsequently pumped during the following irrigation season. The Rio Grande Water Conservation District recognises that recharge to the unconfined aquifer has been outpaced by commercial irrigation for at least four decades, resulting in a decline in groundwater levels. Recycled irrigation water, and leakage from unlined canals now represent the greatest recharge contribution to the unconfined aquifer in this region. This makes the shallow groundwater particularly susceptible to agricultural contamination. The purpose of this study is to assess groundwater contamination in the unconfined and upper confined aquifers of the San Luis Valley, which are the most susceptible to contamination due to their close proximity to the surface. Although concentrations of potentially harmful contaminants from agricultural runoff are regularly monitored, the large spatial and temporal fluctuations in values make it difficult to determine long-term trends. We have analysed δ18O, δ2H and major-ion chemistry of 57 groundwater, stream and precipitation samples, collected in June 2014, and interpreted them alongside regional stream flow data and groundwater levels. This will allow us to study the seasonality and locality of groundwater recharge to provide greater insight into the watershed's potential for pollution. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed using the model DRASTIC (Depth to water, Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil

  13. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability.

    PubMed

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. PMID:22483369

  14. [Luis Alfredo Garavito Cubillos: criminal and legal aspects of serial homicide with over 200 victims].

    PubMed

    Benecke, Mark; Rodriguez y Rowinski, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    This is the first scientific report on the crimes of the homosexual paedophile sadist Luis Alfredo Garavito Cubillos, based on a research stay of the authors in Columbia, and including discussions with the investigators, and the offender. Between 1992 and 1999, Garavito killed more than 200 children in the core age span between 8 and 13 years (as an exception, 6 to 16 years). His modus operandi remained stable. During daytime, he lured children of a lower social status out of crowded parts of the city into hidden areas that were overgrown with high plants. Garavito promised either payment for easy work, or drugs, or made other socially believable offers. The children were tied up, tortured, raped, and killed by at least one cut in the lateral part of the neck, or by decapitation. During the killings, Garavito was drunk. Even after his arrest (for attempted sexual abuse under a wrong identity) it was not immediately possible to track his crimes since Garavito had frequently changed his places of stay and his jobs. He also grew different hairdos and used wrong names. During his still ongoing confessions, he directs the investigators correctly to all scenes of crime spread over large parts of Columbia. In our report, we give an overview over the course of investigations, hint to similarities in the cases of the German serial killer Denke (1920's) and homosexual paedophile serial killer Jürgen Bartsch (1960's), and give preliminary impressions on the offender's personality. Furthermore, the violent environment and juridical peculiarities in Columbia are discussed. In spite of a total penalty of 2600 years in prison, it is formally well possible that Garavito will be released out of prison within the next 10 to 20 years, i.e. even before the maximum sentence of 40 years will be over. PMID:12462935

  15. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. )

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  16. Advancements in understanding the aeromagnetic expressions of basin-margin faults—An example from San Luis Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V. J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we summarize and expand on an investigation of the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies related to faults along the eastern margin of the San Luis Basin, northern Rio Grande Rift, Colorado (Grauch et al., 2010). Similar to the faults examined in the central Rio Grande Rift, magnetic sources can be completely explained by tectonic juxtaposition and produce multiple, vertically stacked magnetic contrasts at individual faults. However, the geologic sources are different. They arise from both the sedimentary cover and the underlying bedrock rather than from stratified sediments. In addition, geologic evidence for secondary growth or destruc

  17. An energy systems view of sustainability: emergy evaluation of the San Luis Basin, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Daniel E; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2012-03-01

    Energy Systems Theory (EST) provides a framework for understanding and interpreting sustainability. EST implies that "what is sustainable" for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system and within the system of concern. The pulsing paradigm explains the ubiquitous cycles of change that apparently govern ecosystems, rather than succession to a steady state that is then sustainable. Therefore, to make robust decisions among environmental policies and alternatives, decision-makers need to know where their system resides in the cycles of change that govern it. This theory was examined by performing an emergy evaluation of the sustainability of a regional system, the San Luis Basin (SLB), CO. By 1980, the SLB contained a climax stage agricultural system with well-developed crop and livestock production along with food and animal waste processing. The SLB is also a hinterland in that it exports raw materials and primary products (exploitation stage) to more developed areas. Emergy indices calculated for the SLB from 1995 to 2005 revealed changes in the relative sustainability of the system over this time. The sustainability of the region as indicated by the renewable emergy used as a percent of total use declined 4%, whereas, the renewable carrying capacity declined 6% over this time. The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) showed the largest decline (27%) in the sustainability of the region. The total emergy used by the SLB, a measure of system well-being, was fairly stable (CV = 0.05). In 1997, using renewable emergy alone, the SLB could support 50.7% of its population at the current standard of living, while under similar conditions the U.S. could support only 4.8% of its population. In contrast to other indices of sustainability, a new index, the Emergy Sustainable Use Index (ESUI), which considers the benefits gained by the larger system compared to the potential for local environmental

  18. Initial vegetation species and senescience/stress indicator mapping in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; King, Trude V. V.; Ager, Cathy; Swayze, Gregg A.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed AVIRIS data obtained over agricultural areas in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. The data were acquired on September 3, 1993. A combined method of radiative transfer modeling and ground calibration site reflectance was used to correct the flight data to surface reflectance. This method, called Radiative Transfer Ground Calibration, or RTGC, corrects for variable water vapor in the atmosphere and produces spectra free of artifacts with spectral channel to channel noise approaching the signal to noise of the raw data. The calibration site soil samples were obtained on the day of the overflight and measured on our laboratory spectrometer. The site was near the center of the AVIRIS scene and the spectra of the soil is spectrally bland, especially in the region of the chlorophyll absorption in the visible portion of the spectrum. The center of the scene is located at approximately 106 deg 03' longitude, 37 deg 23' latitude, and the scene covers about 92 square kilometers. This scene is one of 28 in the area for a general project to study the Summitville abandoned mine site, located in the mountains west of the San Luis Valley, and its effects on the surrounding environment.

  19. Followup Study of Transfer Students from C.O.S. to California State University, Fresno, & California Poly-Technic State University, San Luis Obispo, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elaine

    A study was conducted at College of the Sequoias (COS) to assess the academic success of students transferring to California State University, Fresno (Fresno State), and California Poly-Technic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal-Poly). The study focused on the number of units completed at COS, grade point average (GPA) at COS, COS units…

  20. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a new number one…

  1. On the Origin of the Crestone Crater: Low-Latitude Periglacial Features in San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwans, E.; Meng, T. M.; Prudhomme, K.; Morgan, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Located within the northern boundary of the Great Sand Dunes National Park is the Crestone Crater, a elliptical bowl-shaped feature consisting of a raised rim surrounding a central depression. The elongate crater has an approximate diameter of 100 m and reaches a depth of 10 m at its center relative to its rim, which rises 10 m above the elevation of the surrounding surface. Its precise origin is largely unknown and has perplexed regional geologists and residents of Crestone, Colorado for more than 80 years. This project used on-site and remote geophysical methods to characterize the processes that led to the geomorphologic surface expression observed today. Formation hypotheses examined encompass extraterrestrial, eolian, and periglacial processes. Field methods included a new gravity survey and reanalysis of gravity data collected in a previous student investigation of the feature. Additionally, a recent LiDAR dataset spanning San Luis Valley was examined to analyze the main structure, similar features in the area, and surrounding eolian and alluvial surfaces. An extraterrestrial origin, as suggested by numerous previous investigators, was deemed unlikely due to the non-unique gravity signature of the crater, its topographic similarity to many other like features identified in San Luis Valley, as well as its failure to excavate below the elevation of the surrounding surface. Furthermore, the expression of confirmed eolian landforms in San Luis Valley indicates that eolian processes alone would not produce such a prominent form in the level of vegetation observed. Proximal glacial deposits in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains show that the windblown sand in which all these features are clustered is adjacent to areas of past glaciations, and thus would have been affected by freeze-thaw cycles and thin, localized permafrost. Ice extent maps provided by the Colorado Geological Survey, as well as research on the timing of the formation of the Great Sand Dunes reinforce

  2. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  3. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation: Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, S. W.; Garing, K. L.; Coury, G. E.; Fritzler, E. A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The institutional and environmental analyses indicate that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  4. Forecasting Selenium Discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Ecological Effects of A Proposed San Luis Drain Extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (Bay-Delta) could change significantly if federal and state agencies (1) approve an extension of the San Luis Drain to convey agricultural drainage from the western San Joaquin Valley to the North Bay (Suisun Bay, Carquinez Strait, and San Pablo Bay); (2) allow changes in flow patterns of the lower San Joaquin River and Bay-Delta while using an existing portion of the San Luis Drain to convey agricultural drainage to a tributary of the San Joaquin River; or (3) revise selenium criteria for the protection of aquatic life or issue criteria for the protection of wildlife. Understanding the biotransfer of selenium is essential to evaluating effects of selenium on Bay-Delta ecosystems. Confusion about selenium threats to fish and wildlife stem from (1) monitoring programs that do not address specific protocols necessary for an element that bioaccumulates; and (2) failure to consider the full complexity of the processes that result in selenium toxicity. Past studies show that predators are more at risk from selenium contamination than their prey, making it difficult to use traditional methods to predict risk from environmental concentrations alone. This report presents an approach to conceptualize and model the fate and effects of selenium under various load scenarios from the San Joaquin Valley. For each potential load, progressive forecasts show resulting (1) water-column concentration; (2) speciation; (3) transformation to particulate form; (4) particulate concentration; (5) bioaccumulation by invertebrates; (6) trophic transfer to predators; and (7) effects on those predators. Enough is known to establish a first-order understanding of relevant conditions, biological response, and ecological risks should selenium be discharged directly into the North Bay through a conveyance such as a proposed extension of the San Luis Drain. The approach presented here, the Bay-Delta selenium model, determines the mass, fate

  5. Spring stopover food resources and land use patterns of Rocky Mountain population Sandhill Carnes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Gammonley, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Virtually the entire Rocky Mountain population (RMP) of greater sandhill cranes uses the San Luis Valley (SLV) of Colorado as a spring stopover area. RMP cranes in the SLV depend on unharvested grain provided on Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, and on waste grain in privately owned fields. In recent years, however, fall tillage and irrigation of grain fields has become increasingly widespread in the SLV. These changes in farming practices have resulted in an unmeasured reduction in waste grain availability for RMP cranes during spring and have prompted concern over whether current or projected foods are adequate to meet spring demands of the target population size of 18,000-20,000 RMP cranesa?|

  6. Lithium Systematics Revealed in Samples from ODP Leg 204 (Hydrate Ridge): A Tribute to Lui-Heung Chan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Chan, L.; Ungerer, A.

    2008-12-01

    Changes in chemical and isotopic composition of interstitial fluids with depth have shown to be powerful tracers of fluid sources and migration patterns, an area of research pioneered by Lui-Heung Chan. It was due to her expertise and passion to unravel key geochemical processes in accretionary margins that we pursued lithium analyses in sediment and pore waters recovered by drilling on Hydrate Ridge during ODP Leg 204. The data reveals several important processes associated with lithium systematics in marine sediments. Specifically: 1) Lithium is consumed at shallow sequences, probably resulting from an interplay of reactions involving alteration of volcanogenic material that occurs simultaneously with release of light lithium from clay sites by exchange with ammonium, as shown previously for the Costa Rica margin. 2) Release of light lithium at depth is consistent with that previously reported in deep sequences of accretionary margins along the Pacific Rim, and likely occurs during clay alteration reactions that precede illitization. 3) An increase in dissolved lithium, associated with anomalously light lithium isotopic composition in a high permeability zone (Horizon A) document migration of aqueous fluids along this horizon, which is thought to act as a methane pathway feeding massive gas hydrate deposits at the seafloor. 4) Analyses of fluids collected from zones of massive hydrate formation at the summit sites reveal that there is no isotopic fractionation of lithium during gas hydrate formation. Lui's life long dedication to precise and accurate measurements of lithium isotopes forms the cornerstone to our understanding of lithium geochemistry and led to important new perspectives on a wide range of natural processes. The rigor of her analytical approaches, the influence of her publications, the patience and dedication to train others and her contagious enthusiasm will be sorely missed. She had a tremendous influence in the personal and professional lives of

  7. Archosauriform remains from the Late Triassic of San Luis province, Argentina, Quebrada del Barro Formation, Marayes-El Carrizal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianechini, Federico A.; Codorniú, Laura; Arcucci, Andrea B.; Castillo Elías, Gabriela; Rivarola, David

    2016-03-01

    Here we present archosauriform remains from 'Abra de los Colorados', a fossiliferous locality at Sierra de Guayaguas, NW San Luis Province. Two fossiliferous levels were identified in outcrops of the Quebrada del Barro Formation (Norian), which represent the southernmost outcrops of the Marayes-El Carrizal Basin. These levels are composed by massive muddy lithofacies, interpreted as floodplain deposits. The specimens consist of one incomplete maxilla (MIC-V718), one caudal vertebra (MIC-V719), one metatarsal (MIC-V720) and one indeterminate appendicular bone (MIC-V721). The materials can be assigned to Archosauriformes but the fragmentary nature and lack of unambiguous synapomorphies preclude a more precise taxomic assignment. The maxilla is remarkably large and robust and represents the posterior process. It preserved one partially erupted tooth with ziphodont morphology. This bone shows some anatomical traits and size match with 'rauisuchians' and theropods. MIC-V719 corresponds to a proximal caudal vertebra. It has a high centrum, a ventral longitudinal furrow, expanded articular processes for the chevrons, a posteriorly displaced diapophysis located below the level of the prezygapophyses, and short prezygapophyses. This vertebra would be from an indeterminate archosauriform. MIC-V720 presents a cylindrical diaphysis, with a well-developed distal trochlea, which present resemblances with metatarsals of theropods, pseudosuchians, and silesaurids, although the size matches better with theropods. MIC-V721 has a slender diaphysis and a convex triangular articular surface, and corresponds to an indeterminate archosauriform. Despite being fragmentary, these materials indicate the presence of a diverse archosauriforms association from Late Triassic beds of San Luis. Thus, they add to the faunal assemblage recently reported from this basin at San Juan Province, which is much rich and diverse than the coeval paleofauna well known from Los Colorados Formation in the

  8. Digital data from the Questa-San Luis and Santa Fe East helicopter magnetic surveys in Santa Fe and Taos Counties, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; Geophex Ltd.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in December, 2005. One survey covers the eastern edge of the San Luis basin, including the towns of Questa, New Mexico and San Luis, Colorado. A second survey covers the mountain front east of Santa Fe, New Mexico, including the town of Chimayo and portions of the Pueblos of Tesuque and Nambe. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  9. Early use of corrective lenses in Spanish colonies of the Americas including parts of the future United States: reference to Viceroy Luis de Velasco (the Son).

    PubMed

    Calvo, Maria; Enoch, Jay M

    2003-10-01

    We discuss many aspects of a reproduction of a formal painting from the XVIth century. It is a portrait of Viceroy of New Spain Luis de Velasco, El Joven or Hijo (son-see text), found at the Museum of the Pecos National Monument (near Pecos and Santa Fe, New Mexico). A formal portrait of each Viceroy of New Spain was created, and this one was painted during de Velasco's first term as Viceroy (1590 to 1595 AD). In this depiction, he is seen wearing spectacles. To our knowledge, this is the first known reference suggesting the introduction of this form of visual correction in the Spanish Colonies in the Americas and in the future United States. There are three known portraits of Luis de Velasco (son): One painting, which included his father and significant others, hangs in the Colegiata (a small cathedral) de San Luis near Valladolid, Spain. In this portrayal, he was shown as a young man without a spectacle correction. And there are two viceregal portraits (Term 1, 1590 to 1595; Term 2, 1607 to 1611) in which he wears the same spectacle correction (these are located in Mexico City). PMID:14560118

  10. Potential human health risk by 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" reservoir (Northern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Porres, M. Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, M. A.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Cabral-Lares, M.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Conchos River is one of the most important in northern Mexico and the main surface waterway in the arid state of Chihuahua. The Luis L. Leon dam produces the Luis L. Leon Reservoir, which is the last major reservoir before the Conchos River enters the Rio Grande at the Texas-Chihuahua border. Activity concentrations (AC) of 234,238U and 210Po in fillet and liver of three stocked fish species (Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus), as well as in water from the Luis L. Leon reservoir were determined. 238U and 234U ACs in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus species, present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bqṡkg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues respect to their concentrations in water was determined. Lepomis cyanellus species showed the highest BAF for total uranium in fillet, with value 1.5. The annual effective dose for uranium in adults by fish consumption in this work ranged from 4.46×10-3 to 3.68×10-2 μSvṡyear-1. The difference in concentrations of uranium in fillet among the studied species is likely primarily due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  11. {open_quotes}Black Gold{close_quotes} leads to new structural interpretation, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    In the course of exploring for gold along the east margin of the Rio Grande Rift (northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains and northeastern San Luis Basin) live Cretaceous oil was discovered in fractured Precambrian gneiss in 25 of 42 shallow drill holes. Geologic mapping located two outcrops of Mesozoic sediments along the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Mancos Shale, Dakota Group and Morrison Formation sediments were identified from 17 drill holes. These are the first known occurrences of Mesozoic sediments in the area. Previous investigations had concluded that the Mesozoic section eroded from the San Luis uplift during the Laramide. Surface and subsurface geologic data was integrated with gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys for a new structural interpretation. The San Luis Basin is separated from the mountains by an intermediate block and the main basin-bounding fault is three miles west-southwest of the mountain front. A major low-angle, normal fault or detachment fault is related to Miocene rifting. A thick section of Mesozoic sediments are interpreted to be present in the hanging wall of this low angle fault. Buried and thermally matured in a Laramide intermountane basin, these sediments are likely the source of the present day oil found in Precambrian rocks.

  12. Diet and habitat landscape of Equus sp. and Mammuthus columbi for the Late Pleistocene deposit at El Cedral, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Crespo, V. A.; Bennami, M.; Sanchez-Chillon, B.; Alberdi, M. T.; Santos-Moreno, A.

    2007-05-01

    The diet and habitat landscape for fossil specimens pertaining to Late Pleistocene horse Equus sp., and mammoth Mammuthus columbi from the deposit at Rancho La Amapola, El Cedral, San Luís Potosí, México were assayed with basis on stable isotopes analysis the carbon and oxygen found in dental enamel apatite. For horses the Δ 13C values showed from C3/C4 a basic C4-plants diet ranging into a C3/C4 mixer feeder, while mammoth showed values as a C3/C4 mixer feeder, but preferring C4 plants; there was not significant differences among the average values for both groups, with -3.5 ‰ for horses and -3.8 ‰ for mammoth. Mexican data was compared with those for the same genera from US localities, including the states of Florida, New Mexico, and Texas, allowing confirmation of the inference that El Cedral species were mainly grazers, but with some C3 plants being consumed; furthermore, comparisons of El Cedral specimens, using both carbon and oxygen isotopes, with Floridan C3-plant sites showed El Cedral specimens could be defined as mixer feeders in open habitats, preferring such opn areas like grassland or savanna. Our results are in agreement with the species dental morphology, as well as with the pollen record for the same site, which showed the existence of grassland that could have extended during the Late Pleistocene from southern Canada to central Mé xico

  13. Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley: October 9, 2008 - March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Hunter, L. M.; Kirkland, T. M.; Tierney, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    This report is about the social acceptance of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the San Luis Valley, approximately 200 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. The research focused on social factors that may facilitate and impede the adoption and implementation of CSP. During the winter of 2008-2009, interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 CSP-related stakeholders inside and outside the Valley. Interviews focused on the perceived advantages and disadvantages of siting a hypothetical 100-MW CSP facility in the Valley, the level of community support and opposition to CSP development, and related issues, such as transmission. State policy recommendations based on the findings include developing education programs for Valley residents, integrating Valley decision makers into an energy-water-land group, providing training for Valley decision makers, offering workforce training, evaluating models of taxation, and forming landholder energy associations. In addition, the SLV could become a laboratory for new approaches to CSP facility and transmission siting decision-making. The author recommends that outside stakeholders address community concerns and engage Valley residents in CSP decisions. Engaging the residents in CSP and transmission decisions, the author says, should take parallel significance with the investment in solar technology.

  14. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

  15. Evaluation of the transfer of soil arsenic to maize crops in suburban areas of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Alfaro-Barbosa, J M; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Caballero-Quintero, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-11-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in agricultural food products is a matter of concern because it can cause adverse health effects at low concentrations. Agricultural-product intake constitutes a principal source for As exposure in humans. In this study, the contribution of the chemical-soil parameters in As accumulation and translocation in the maize crop from a mining area of San Luis Potosi was evaluated. The total arsenic concentration and arsenic speciation were determined by HG-AFS and IC-HG-AFS, respectively. The data analysis was conducted by cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The soil pH presented a negative correlation with the accumulated As in each maize plant part, and parameters such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) presented a higher correlation with the As translocation in maize. Thus, the metabolic stress in maize may induce organic acid exudation leading a higher As bioavailability. A high As inorganic/organic ratio in edible maize plant tissues suggests a substantial risk of poisoning by this metalloid. Careful attention to the chemical changes in the rhizosphere of the agricultural zones that can affect As transfer through the food chain could reduce the As-intoxication risk of maize consumers. PMID:25128885

  16. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: from stone huts to stone walls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, Shannon; Donlan, Rebecca A.; Kardos, Barbara Maat

    2015-01-01

    The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between 1855 and 1890 A.D. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between 1860 and 1890 A.D. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments. In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

  17. Petrology, geochemistry and mineralization of the Las Águilas and Virorco mafic-ultramafic bodies, San Luis Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracutti, Gabriela; Bjerg, Ernesto; Mogessie, Aberra

    2013-04-01

    The layered mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Sierras de San Luis, Argentina (Las Águilas, Las Higueras and Virorco), constitute a 3-5-km-wide belt that extends over 100 km from NE to SW. They carry a sulphide mineralization consisting of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite, in veins and as disseminated to massive ore. Disseminated spinels are frequently associated with the sulphide minerals as well as platinum group minerals. A strong correlation between S, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, Pt and Pd indicates the presence of one to three levels of mineralization within the ultramafic units. The maximum concentration of these elements coincides with the units containing platinum group minerals (PGM) and spinel group minerals. This clear relationship constitutes a good prospecting guide in the search for layers with high-grade ore, probably associated with deeper stratigraphic levels where ultramafic rocks are dominant. The bulk rock chemistry and concentrations of metals and platinum group elements as well as textural evidence suggest that the parental magma was mafic with tholeiitic affinities and MgO rich. The Las Águilas layered mafic-ultramafic body and the remaining bodies in the area bear similar characteristics to well-known stratified complexes developed in extensional tectonic regimes, as it is the case of Jinchuan (China), Kabanga (Tanzania) and Fiambala (Argentina).

  18. Confined aquifer head measurements and storage properties in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, from spaceborne InSAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Knight, Rosemary; Zebker, Howard A.; Schreüder, Willem A.

    2016-05-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), a remote sensing technique for measuring centimeter-level surface deformation, is used to estimate hydraulic head in the confined aquifer of the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado. Reconstructing head measurements from InSAR in agricultural regions can be difficult, as InSAR phase data are often decorrelated due to vegetation growth. Analysis of 17 L-band ALOS PALSAR scenes, acquired between January 2007 and March 2011, demonstrates that comprehensive InSAR deformation measurements can be recovered over the vegetated groundwater basin with an improved processing strategy. Local skeletal storage coefficients and time delays between the head change and deformation are estimated through a joint InSAR-well data analysis. InSAR subsidence estimates are transformed to head changes with finer temporal and spatial resolution than is possible using existing well records alone. Both InSAR and well data suggest that little long-term water-storage loss occurred in the SLV over the study period and that inelastic compaction was negligible. The seasonal head variations derived from InSAR are consistent with the existing well data at most locations where confined aquifer pumping activity dominates. Our results demonstrate the advantages of InSAR measurements for basin-wide characterization of aquifer storage properties and groundwater levels over agricultural regions.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentration in soil from San Luis Potosi, Mexico: levels and ecological and human health risk characterization.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Orta-García, Sandra T; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge Armando; González-Palomo, Ana K; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils from the city of San Luis Potosi in Mexico and perform an ecological and human health risk characterization. In order to confirm the presence of PBDEs, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and the concentrations of PBDEs in urban, industrial, agricultural, and brick kiln industry areas were determined. The mean total PBDEs levels obtained in the study sites were 25.0 ± 39.5 μg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation) in the brick kiln industry zone; 34.5 ± 36.0 μg/kg in the urban zone; 8.00 ± 7.10 μg/kg in the industrial zone and 16.6 ± 15.3 μg/kg in the agricultural zone. The ecological and human health risk characterization showed relatively low-hazard quotient values. However, the moderately high PBDEs levels found in soils highlight the necessity to establish a systematic monitoring process for PBDEs in environmental and biological samples. PMID:26566197

  20. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  1. Sediment discharge in the Upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins, San Luis Obispo County, California, during the 1968-73 water years were analyzed to determine total sediment discharge at four stations in the basins. Water discharge and total sediment discharge at these stations, representative of the 1943-72 period, were estimated from long-term flow data for nearby gaging stations and water-sediment discharge relations determined for the 1968-73 water years. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station occurs during a few days each year. The quantity of sediment transported in a single day often accounts for more than 40 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Estimated sediment discharge for the upper Arroyo Grande and Santa Rita Creek basins during the 1943-72 water years averaged 53,000 tons and 23,000 tons per year. Long-term sediment deposition in Lopez Reservoir, which is in the southern part of the upper Arroyo Grande basin, was estimated to be 35 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24431579

  3. Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Mark Robert

    1992-01-01

    By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

  4. Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Eugenio M

    2005-12-01

    The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary works and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collares), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-indi-viduation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16570531

  5. Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Eugenio M

    2005-01-01

    The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary words and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collores), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-individuation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16193548

  6. Socio-Urban Spatial Patterns Associated with Dyslipidemia among Schoolchildren in the City of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aradillas-García, Celia; Palos-Lucio, Gabriela; Padrón-Salas, Aldanely

    2016-02-01

    The places where a child lives and attends to school are both major environmental and social determinants of its present and future health status. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and some of their risk factors among child and adolescent populations are obesity and dyslipidemia, so finding the patterns of distribution of these risk factors by gender, type of school, area, and margination level is important to do health intervention focusing in their necessities to prevent diseases at younger ages. Because of that, a cross-sectional study was performed among elementary and junior high school students from public and private schools in six of the seven areas of the metropolitan zone of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Biochemical dyslipidemia indicators (triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein) and anthropometric data (weight and height) were obtained. Seventeen public schools and five private schools with a total of 383 students were included. More than half of the studied population (53.0 %) had elevated triglyceride levels. A total of 330 students (86.2 %) had normal levels of total cholesterol with a mean value of 141.7 mg/dl, and 202 schoolchildren (52.8 %) had lower than acceptable levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with a mean value of 43.9 mg/dl. There were differences in the levels of high-density protein between the areas and the type of school where they had been studied. Finally, a total of 150 students (39.4 %) had at least one altered lipid value and 103 participants (26.9 %) had two altered values. Several students, despite their young age, showed a high prevalence of risk factors, so it is important to design programs according to their necessities. PMID:26666249

  7. Sr Isotopes and Migration of Prairie Mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) from Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis-Pichardo, G.; Perez-Crespo, V.; Schaaf, P. E.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. For more than 25 years, Sr isotopes have been used as a resourceful tracer tool in this context. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. Sr isotope ratios are obtained through the geologic substrate and its overlying soil, from where an individual got hold of food and water; these ratios are in turn incorporated into the dentition and skeleton during tissue formation. In previous studies from Teotihuacan, Mexico we have shown that a three-step leaching procedure on tooth enamel samples is important to assure that only the biogenic Sr isotope contribution is analyzed. The same Sr isotopic tools can function concerning ancient animal migration patterns. To determine or to discard the mobility of prairie mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) found at Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, México the leaching procedure was applied on six molar samples from several fossil remains. The initial hypothesis was to use 87Sr/86Sr values to verify if the mammoth population was a mixture of individuals from various herds and further by comparing their Sr isotopic composition with that of plants and soils, to confirm their geographic origin. The dissimilar Sr results point to two distinct mammoth groups. The mammoth population from Laguna de Cruces was then not a family unit because it was composed by individuals originated from different localities. Only one individual was identified as local. Others could have walked as much as 100 km to find food and water sources.

  8. Pharmacological aspects of selected herbs employed in Hispanic folk medicine in the San Luis Valley of Colorado, USA: I. Ligusticum porteri (osha) and Matricaria chamomilla (manzanilla).

    PubMed

    Appelt, G D

    1985-03-01

    Interviews with Hispanic families in the San Luis Valley of Colorado delineated several medicinal herbs that are popular in Hispanic folk medicine, including Ligusticum porteri (osha) and Matricaria chamomilla (manzanilla). A search of the scientific literature reveals that related species of Ligusticum and Matricaria chamomilla contain compounds that possess significant pharmacologic activity. This combined information is now being used as a basis for further investigation at the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy in an effort to detect pharmacologic activity in osha and manzanilla preparations. PMID:3990316

  9. A multi-dimensional analysis of the upper Rio Grande-San Luis Valley social-ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, Ken

    The Upper Rio Grande (URG), located in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado, is the primary contributor to streamflow to the Rio Grande Basin, upstream of the confluence of the Rio Conchos at Presidio, TX. The URG-SLV includes a complex irrigation-dependent agricultural social-ecological system (SES), which began development in 1852, and today generates more than 30% of the SLV revenue. The diversions of Rio Grande water for irrigation in the SLV have had a disproportionate impact on the downstream portion of the river. These diversions caused the flow to cease at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico in the late 1880s, creating international conflict. Similarly, low flows in New Mexico and Texas led to interstate conflict. Understanding changes in the URG-SLV that led to this event and the interactions among various drivers of change in the URG-SLV is a difficult task. One reason is that complex social-ecological systems are adaptive, contain feedbacks, emergent properties, cross-scale linkages, large-scale dynamics and non-linearities. Further, most analyses of SES to date have been qualitative, utilizing conceptual models to understand driver interactions. This study utilizes both qualitative and quantitative techniques to develop an innovative approach for analyzing driver interactions in the URG-SLV. Five drivers were identified for the URG-SLV social-ecological system: water (streamflow), water rights, climate, agriculture, and internal and external water policy. The drivers contained several longitudes (data aspect) relevant to the system, except water policy, for which only discreet events were present. Change point and statistical analyses were applied to the longitudes to identify quantifiable changes, to allow detection of cross-scale linkages between drivers, and presence of feedback cycles. Agricultural was identified as the driver signal. Change points for agricultural expansion defined four distinct periods: 1852--1923, 1924--1948, 1949--1978 and 1979

  10. Phytoremediation management of selenium-laden drainage sediments in the San Luis Drain: a greenhouse feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, G S; Lin, Z-Q

    2005-11-01

    An estimated 100,000m(3) selenium (Se)-laden drainage sediment resides in the San Luis Drain (SLD) of Central California. This greenhouse study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of growing salt- and boron-tolerant plant species in sediment for reduction of Se content by plant extraction. Drainage sediment was collected from the SLD and mixed with control soil (i.e., uncontaminated soil) to the following ratios (sediment:control soil) by volume: 0:3 (i.e., control soil only), 1:2 (i.e., 1/3 sediment and 2/3 control soil), 2:1 (i.e., 2/3 sediment and 1/3 control soil), and 3:0 (i.e., sediment only). Salt-tolerant plant species consisted of canola (Brassica napus var. Hyola 420), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Au Triumph), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides), and cordgrass (Spartina patens var. Flageo). Increased ratios of sediment:soil resulted in decreased dry matter production for all tested plant species; especially at ratios of sediment:soil greater than 1:2. Plant Se concentrations (mgkg(-1) DM) ranged as follows for plant species at all ratios of sediment:soil: canola (51-72), tall fescue (16-36), and cordgrass and salado grass (9-14). Total Se concentrations in the soil were at least 20% lower at postharvest compared to preplant concentrations for all plant species at each ratio of sediment:soil. In contrast, water-extractable Se concentrations in the soil were at least three times higher at postharvest than at preplant for all plant species, irrespective of the ratio of sediment:soil. Leaching of Se occurred in irrigated bare pots from each respective ratio of sediment:soil over a duration of 60 days. Based upon the downward movement of Se in bare pots of sediment:soil, it may be more prudent to leave the drainage sediment in the SLD, incorporate clean soil, and then grow low maintenance salt-tolerant plants (e.g., cordgrass, salado grass) in the concrete-lined canal. By this means, possible contamination of groundwater with soluble Se will be

  11. Analysis of the potential impacts on surface water quality resulting from the proposed use of the San Luis Drain to transport agricultural drainage through the northern Grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-05-01

    An Environmental Assessment and initial Study for the interim use of a portion of the San Luis Drain for conveyance water through the Grassland Water District and adjacent Grassland areas was conducted. The project proposes the use of 18 miles of the San Luis Drain for the conveyance of agricultural drainage water for a period of five years and the elimination of agricultural drainage discharges from 76 miles of existing channels in and adjacent to the Grassland Water District. A report was prepared to (a) quantify the potential project effects on surface water quality within Salt and Mud Sloughs and the San Joaquin River using currently available data, and (b) to improve the understanding of existing water supply and drainage operations within the Grassland area. After submission of the original report it was brought to the attention of one of the coauthors that the database on selenium and boron concentrations in drainage water did not include the water quality data collected by the Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB). In addition, the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) requested further examination of Grasslands hydrology to estimate the quantity of supplemental water that would be needed to restore the San Joaquin River to the same TDS and trace element concentrations prior to implementation of the project. This report addresses these issues.

  12. Selected water-quality characteristics and flow of ground water in the San Luis basin, including the Conejos River subbasin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S., Jr.; Hammond, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 99 wells and 19 springs in the San Luis basin in Colorado and New Mexico were evaluated to determine selected water quality characteristics as an aid in understanding the flow of groundwater in the basin. The evaluation shows that the distribution of chemical water types in the basin is consistent with chemical changes to be expected along flow paths in rocks typical of those in the basin. The San Luis basin area is underlain by a surficial (< 100-ft-thick) unconfined aquifer and, in turn, by a confining bed and a deeper confined aquifer. Previous studies have indicated that the groundwater system is recharged around the edges of the basin and that groundwater then moves toward discharge areas in the topographically closed part of the basin and along principal streams. The evaluation of water quality data showed that groundwater at the perimeter of the San Luis basin is primarily a calcium bicarbonate type, which is typical in recharge areas. Groundwater near the center of the basin is primarily a sodium bicarbonate type, which is typical of groundwater in downgradient areas. The change in principal cation from calcium to sodium indicates chemical evolution of the water along the groundwater flow path and supports previously developed concepts of groundwater movement in the basin. The exchange of calcium for sodium along the flow path also is assumed to occur in the Conejos River subbasin. Upgradient wells yield calcium bicarbonate type water, whereas downgradient wells yield sodium bicarbonate type water. However, an exception to this relation is found at McIntire Spring, which yields calcium bicarbonate type water from a downgradient location. The source of water discharging from the spring may be the confined aquifer, with hydraulic connection along the Manassa fault. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from both the unconfined and confined aquifers increases downgradient. The increase is dramatic in the closed basin

  13. Integration of geology, non-seismic geophysics and seismic data in a structurally complex, frontier oil play: Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    The discovery of live Cretaceous oil in mineral exploration drill holes, followed by the identification of Mesozoic sediments in outcrop and in shallow drill holes, has lead to an integrated approach to exploration of a structurally complex, frontier oil play in south-central Colorado. Gravity, aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric (MT), and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were acquired and interpreted in the initial stages of the project. Models derived from the geophysical data were augmented with geologic field work to explain specific anomalies. Interpretation of the gravity data was constrained by density measurements on representative rock samples collected in the field. Seismic data, acquired in the most recent exploration stage, provided confirmation and modification of the basin margin geometry. Velocity data from the seismic was integrated with resistivity, density, magnetic and geologic data to predict lithologies on an intermediate fault block located between the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the San Luis Basin.

  14. 2007 Rocky Mountain Section Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip - Quaternary Geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, September 7-9, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Coates, Mary-Margaret; Johnson, Margo L.

    2007-01-01

    Prologue Welcome to the 2007 Rocky Mountain Cell Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip, which will concentrate on the Quaternary geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. To our best knowledge, Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) has never run a trip through the San Luis Basin, although former trips in the region reviewed the 'Northern Rio Grande rift' in 1987 and the 'Landscape History and Processes on the Pajarito Plateau' in 1996. After nearly a decade, the FOP has returned to the Rio Grande rift, but to an area that has rarely hosted a trip with a Quaternary focus. The objective of FOP trips is to review - in the field - new and exciting research on Quaternary geoscience, typically research being conducted by graduate students. In our case, the research is more topically oriented around three areas of the San Luis Basin, and it is being conducted by a wide range of Federal, State, academic, and consulting geologists. This year's trip is ambitious?we will spend our first day mainly on the Holocene record around Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, the second day on the Quaternary stratigraphy around the San Luis Hills, including evidence for Lake Alamosa and the 1.0 Ma Mesita volcano, and wrap up the trip's third day in the Costilla Plain and Sunshine Valley reviewing alluvial stratigraphy, the history of the Rio Grande, and evidence for young movement on the Sangre de Cristo fault zone. In the tradition of FOP trips, we will be camping along the field trip route for this meeting. On the night before our trip, we will be at the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve's Pinyon Flats Campground, a group facility located about 2 miles north of the Visitors Center. After the first day's trip, we will dine and camp in the Bachus pit, about 3 miles southwest of Alamosa. For the final night (after day 2), we will bed down at La Junta Campground at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild and Scenic Rivers State Recreation Area, west of Questa

  15. Reassessment of the volume of the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic intrusives, San Luis, Argentina, based on an alternative geophysical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudia, Zaffarana; Silvana, Geuna; Stella, Poma; Alberto, Patiño Douce

    2011-10-01

    In the Sierra de San Luis, Central Argentina, a belt of small and discontinuous lenses of mafic-ultramafic rocks intrude a polydeformed basement and are thought to be the cause of a local increase of the metamorphic grade from amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. This assumption was especially based on forward modelling of a huge gravity anomaly centered over the Sierra de San Luis, which lead some workers to think that a vast volume of mafic-ultramafic rocks lay in shallow levels. Here, we propose an alternative model to explain this anomaly, in which the mafic-ultramafic intrusion is not the ultimate source. Therefore, there is no need to propose a bigger size than that observed in outcrops for the mafic-ultramafic bodies. The thermal effect of the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic sills and dikes on the host rocks was estimated applying a simple analytical solution (error function) for heating of a semi-infinite half space (the country rocks) in contact with a hotter sheet of finite thickness (the mafic-ultramafic intrusion). Results indicate that the effect of the intrusion of these hot mafic magmas is local, because beyond a few hundred meters from the contact zone temperatures never exceed 600 °C, and a few km from the intrusion they barely increase 50 °C relative to the initial temperature. These results, together with the preservation of primary igneous characteristics (such as rhythmic layering) being overprinted by metamorphic textural changes, indicate that the intrusion occurred before regional deformation. It is suggested that the thermal anomaly in the Pringles Metamorphic Complex could have been mainly caused by factors inherent to their geodynamic setting.

  16. Simulation of smoke plumes from agricultural burns: application to the San Luis/Rio Colorado airshed along the U.S./Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Fernando, H J S

    2007-12-15

    Vegetation fires emit a number of air pollutants, thus impacting air quality at local, regional and global scales. One such pollutant is the particulate matter (PM) that is known to trigger adverse health effects. In this study, the CALPUFF/CALMET/MM5 modeling system is employed to simulate PM(10) dispersion (PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) from agricultural fires in the Yuma/San Luis area along the U.S./Mexico border, with the aim of investigating local and regional air quality impacts of fires. To the extent possible the data collected from and observations made in the study area were employed to infer inputs to the modeling system, but insufficient information available on burning practices and input parameters, such as the duration of fire, PM(10) emission rate and plume rise, necessitated relying on some previously published research as well as the Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) model to provide necessary inputs. Under the simulated conditions the fire plumes did not disperse much, and thus mostly affected the area near the sources. The PM impact of fires on populated (receptor) areas in Yuma/San Luis was less than 15 microg/m(3), calculated on the basis of EPA-recommended 24-hr averaged PM(10). If the formation of secondary particles is considered, the impacts could have been greater. In order to conduct more realistic fire plume simulations, it is imperative to have accurate fire-activity records such as the firing technique applied, fuel condition, time of burning as well as some model updates. In all, this paper presents a methodology for calculating agricultural-burns introduced PM, while identifying critical improvements that need to be made in future work. PMID:17889257

  17. Maps of the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley, San Diego County, California, showing geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.

    1985-01-01

    In November 1984, 84 wells and 1 spring in the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley were inventoried by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Depth to water in 38 wells ranged from 1.3 to 38 ft and 23 wells had depths to water less than 10 feet. Dissolved solids concentration of water from 29 wells and 1 spring sampled in autumn 1983 and spring 1984 ranged from 574 to 2,370 mgs/L. Groundwater with a dissolved solids concentration less than 1,000 mgs/L was generally restricted to the eastern part of the aquifer. The total volume of alluvial fill in the Bonsall area is 113,000 acre-feet; the amount of groundwater storage available in the alluvial aquifer is 18,000 acre-feet. The alluvial aquifer is, in part, surrounded and underlain by colluvium and weathered crystalline rock that add some additional groundwater storage capacity to the system. Data in this report are presented on five maps showing well locations , thickness of alluvial fill, water level contours in November 1983 and hydrographs of selected wells, groundwater quality in spring 1960 and graphs showing changes in dissolved solids concentrations of water from selected wells with time, and groundwater quality in spring 1984. This report is part of a larger cooperative project between the Rainbow Municipal Irrigation District and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the larger project is to develop an appropriate groundwater management plan for the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley. (USGS)

  18. Forecasting selenium discharges to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: ecological effects of a proposed San Luis drain extension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Presser, Theresa S.

    2000-01-01

    During the next few years, federal and state agencies may be required to evaluate proposals and discharge permits that could significantly change selenium (Se) inputs to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (Bay-Delta), particularly in the North Bay (i.e., Suisun Bay and San Pablo Bay). These decisions may include discharge requirements for an extension of the San Luis Drain (SLD) to the estuary to convey subsurface agricultural drainage from the western San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a renewal of an agreement to allow the existing portion of the SLD to convey subsurface agricultural drainage to a tributary of the San Joaquin River (SJR) (coincident with changes in flow patterns of the lower SJR), and refinements to promulgated Se criteria for the protection of aquatic life for the estuary. Understanding the biotransfer of Se is essential to evaluating the fate and impact of proposed changes in Se discharges to the Bay-Delta. However, past monitoring programs have not addressed the specific protocols necessary for an element that bioaccumulates. Confusion about Se threats in the past have stemmed from failure to consider the full complexity of the processes that result in Se toxicity. Past studies show that predators are more at risk from Se contamination than their prey, making it difficult to use traditional methods to predict risk from environmental concentrations alone. In this report, we employ a novel procedure to model the fate of Se under different, potentially realistic load scenarios from the SJV. For each potential load, we progressively forecast the resulting environmental concentrations, speciation, transformation to particulate form, bioaccumulation by invertebrates, trophic transfer to predators, and effects in those predators. Enough is known to establish a first order understanding of effects should Se be discharged directly into the North Bay via a conveyance such as the SLD. Our approach uses 1) existing knowledge concerning the biogeochemical

  19. Regression models of monthly water-level change in and near the Closed Basin Division of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is developing a water-resource project, the Closed Basin Division, in the San Luis Valley of south-central Colorado that is designed to salvage unconfined ground water that currently is discharged as evapotranspiration. The water table in and near the 130,000-acre Closed Basin Division area will be lowered by an annual withdrawal of as much as 100,000 acre-feet of ground water from the unconfined aquifer. The legislation authorizing the project limits resulting drawdown of the water table in preexisting irrigation and domestic wells outside the Closed Basin Division to a maximum of 2 feet. Water levels in the closed basin in the northern part of the San Luis Valley historically have fluctuated more than 2 feet in response to water-use practices and variation of climatically controlled recharge and discharge. Declines of water levels in nearby wells that are caused by withdrawals in the Closed Basin Division can be quantified if water-level fluctuations that result from other water-use practices and climatic variations can be estimated. This study was done to evaluate water-level change at selected observation wells in and near the Closed Basin Division. Regression models of monthly water-level change were developed to predict monthly water-level change in 46 selected observation wells. Predictions of monthly water-level change are based on one or more of the following: elapsed time, cosine and sine functions with an annual period, streamflow depletion of the Rio Grande, electrical use for agricultural purposes, runoff into the closed basin, precipitation, and mean air temperature. Regression models for five of the wells include only an intercept term and either an elapsed-time term or terms determined by the cosine and sine functions. Regression models for the other 41 wells include 1 to 4 of the 5 other variables, which can vary from month to month and from year to year. Serial correlation of the residuals was detected in 24 of the

  20. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  1. Evaluation of the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos in the Carolina stream (San Luis, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Tripole, Susana; Gonzalez, Patricia; Vallania, Adriana; Garbagnati, Marcela; Mallea, Miguel

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos of the Carolina stream (San Luis - Argentina). Samples were obtained in the years 1997-1998 at two sites: site C(1), located 200 m upstream of the drainage, and site C(2), located 800 m downstream. The system buffer capacity was evaluated in the non - contaminated site by means of the buffer index calculation. The physico - chemical changes observed as a consequence of the contribution of acid mine drainage (AMD) were: a decreasing of pH and an increase in the ionic concentration, especially sulfate and Fe coming from the oxidation produced by chemiolithotrophic bacteria. The values obtained indicated a low buffer capacity and a high intrinsic vulnerability of the system to resist the impact originated by the AMD, producing a remarkable decreasing of pH of the receiving stream. These changes caused modifications in the original benthic community that was replaced by organisms more tolerant to the acid stress. A reduction in the abundance and in the taxonomic richness of the benthic macroinvertebrates was observed when compared with the reference station. An increase in the proportion of Chironomidae and of Acari and a decrease in the proportion of the remaining taxa were observed. The most sensitive groups were Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Mollusca. The community was mostly affected by the following variables: pH, conductivity, sulfate and dissolved total Fe. PMID:16565803

  2. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    PubMed Central

    Chiapella, Jorge O.; Demaio, Pablo H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area. PMID:25878555

  3. Early stage evolution of the mafic-ultramafic belt at La Melada, Sierra de San Luis, Argentina: P-T constraints from metapyroxenite pseudosection modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Brogioni, Norma

    2012-08-01

    At La Melada, Sierra de San Luis, Argentina, two lenses of mafic-ultramafic rocks, which underwent Famatinian metamorphism followed by shear deformation, form part of a NNE-SSW-trending belt along the eastern flank of the Sierra. Metapyroxenites from the lenses are granoblastic rocks made up of igneous and metamorphic minerals, with varying degrees of deformation and mylonitization. These rocks preserve evidence of post-magmatic re-equilibration that followed the emplacement of the mafic-ultramafic rocks. Microstructural investigation and P-T pseudosection modelling suggest that La Melada metapyroxenites experienced a temperature and pressure decrease from the M0 (800 °C < T < 920 °C; 0.7 GPa < P < 0.9 GPa) to the M1 stage (720 °C < T < 780 °C; 0.6 GPa < P < 0.7 GPa). Further re-equilibration led to the formation of talc + cummingtonite during the M2 stage and to the development of metamorphic plagioclase and dolomite in the post-M2 stage. The P-T segment reconstructed for La Melada metapyroxenites is consistent with a back-arc setting and with P-T paths previously reported in the literature.

  4. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    PubMed Central

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; Mejía-Saavedra, José de Jesús; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect. PMID:25789336

  5. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  6. Identification and distribution of cotton rats, genus Sigmodon (Muridae: Sigmodontinae), of Nayarit, M?xico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, M.D.; Fisher, R.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Morphological, chromosomal, distributional, and ecological data are presented for three species of Sigmodon (S. alleni, S. arizonae, and S. mascotensis) from the state of Nayarit, Mexico. The species were collected in all possible pairwise combinations of sympatry, including the first record of such documented for S. arizonae and S. mascotensis. Emphasis is devoted to the discrimination of S. arizonae and S. mascotensis, from each other and from typical S. hispidus, using qualitative features of the skin and skull and morphometric analyses of craniodental measurements. Based on these results and examination of type specimens, additional synonyms of S. mascotensis are identified, with reassignment of two forms, tonalensis Bailey (1902) and obvelatus Russell (1952), currently mistaken as subspecies of S. hispidus. Sigmodon mascotensis emerges as a species distributed from southern Nayarit and Zacatecas to extreme western Chiapas, where it inhabits deciduous or semi-deciduous tropical vegetation having a pronounced dry season. These reallocations and other reidentifications remove any documentation for S. hispidus along the entire Pacific versant of Mexico.

  7. Crotalus aquilus in the Mexican state of M?xico consumes a diverse summer diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mociño-deloya, E.; Setser, K.; Peurach, S.C.; Meik, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report observations of the summer diet of Crotalus aquilus (Queretaro dusky rattlesnake) from an agricultural region near San Pedro de los Metates, municipality of Acambay, state of Mexico, Mexico. We recovered the remains of 12 individual prey items from 11 different snakes. Eleven of 38 (29%) snakes observed contained prey remains, including 6 mammals, 3 lizards, and 3 snakes. These observations suggest that C. aquilus consumes a diverse diet and that they may be more ophiophagous than many other rattlesnakes.

  8. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  9. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Lucero Estrada, Cecilia; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; Escudero, María Esther

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7-3.3%) than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0-1.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0-1.5%). Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5-13.5%) and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0-65%). One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0-4.2%) and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0-5.0%). S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0-4.2%) while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0-99%). The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures. PMID:25177351

  10. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Lucero Estrada, Cecilia; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; Escudero, María Esther

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7–3.3%) than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0–1.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0–1.5%). Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5–13.5%) and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0–65%). One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0–5.0%). S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0–99%). The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures. PMID:25177351

  11. High quality InSAR data linked to seasonal change in hydraulic head for an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Jessica A.; Knight, Rosemary; Zebker, Howard A.; Schreüder, Willem A.; Shanker Agram, Piyush; Lauknes, Tom R.

    2011-12-01

    In the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado legislation passed in 2004 requires that hydraulic head levels in the confined aquifer system stay within the range experienced in the years 1978-2000. While some measurements of hydraulic head exist, greater spatial and temporal sampling would be very valuable in understanding the behavior of the system. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data provide fine spatial resolution measurements of Earth surface deformation, which can be related to hydraulic head change in the confined aquifer system. However, change in cm-scale crop structure with time leads to signal decorrelation, resulting in low quality data. Here we apply small baseline subset (SBAS) analysis to InSAR data collected from 1992 to 2001. We are able to show high levels of correlation, denoting high quality data, in areas between the center pivot irrigation circles, where the lack of water results in little surface vegetation. At three well locations we see a seasonal variation in the InSAR data that mimics the hydraulic head data. We use measured values of the elastic skeletal storage coefficient to estimate hydraulic head from the InSAR data. In general the magnitude of estimated and measured head agree to within the calculated error. However, the errors are unacceptably large due to both errors in the InSAR data and uncertainty in the measured value of the elastic skeletal storage coefficient. We conclude that InSAR is capturing the seasonal head variation, but that further research is required to obtain accurate hydraulic head estimates from the InSAR deformation measurements.

  12. Exposure to arsenic and lead of children living near a copper-smelter in San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Importance of soil contamination for exposure of children.

    PubMed

    Carrizales, Leticia; Razo, Israel; Téllez-Hernández, Jesús I; Torres-Nerio, Rocío; Torres, Arturo; Batres, Lilia E; Cubillas, Ana-Cristina; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the levels of soil contamination and child exposure in areas next to a primary smelter (arsenic-copper metallurgical) located in the community of Morales in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In Morales, 90% of the soil samples studied in this work were above 400 mg/kg of lead, and above 100 mg/kg of arsenic, which are guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Bioaccessibility of these metals was studied in vitro in 10 soil samples; the median values of bioaccessibility obtained in these samples were 46.5% and 32.5% for arsenic and lead. Since the concentrations of arsenic and lead in soil were above normal values, and taking into account the bioaccessibility results, exposure to these metals was evaluated in children. Regarding lead, children aged 3-6 years had the highest mean blood lead levels; furthermore, 90% of them had concentrations above 10 microg/dl (CDC's action level). Total urinary arsenic was higher in children aged 8-9 yr; however, the percentage of children with concentrations above 50 microg/g creatinine (CDC's action level) or 100 microg/g creatinine (World Health Organization [WHO] action level) was similar among different age groups. Using the EPAs integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children (IEUBK), we estimated that 87% of the total lead in blood is obtained from the soil/dust pathway. The exposure dose to arsenic, estimated for the children living in Morales using Monte Carlo analysis and the arsenic concentrations found in soil, was above the EPA's reference dose. With all these results, it is evident that studies are needed in order to identify adverse health effects in children living in Morales; nevertheless, it is more important to develop a risk reduction program as soon as possible. PMID:16171795

  13. Hydrogeology and simulated effects of ground-water development on an unconfined aquifer in the Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, G.J.; Watts, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Wells completed in an unconfined aquifer in the Closed Basin Division of the San Luis Valley Project, Colorado, are expected to provide about 101,800 acre-ft of groundwater/year to the Rio Grande when this project is completed. Lowering of groundwater levels in the unconfined aquifer is expected to decrease the quantity of groundwater that is lost by evapotranspiration. The aquifer system, which consists of an unconfined aquifer that is 50 to 130 ft thick, overlies a thick, leaky confined aquifer. Groundwater moves from the edge of the valley toward a topographic low near the center of the Closed Basin Division, where it is lost by evapotranspiration. A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was used to evaluate the effects of projected withdrawal of about 141 cu ft/sec by 168 wells throughout a 20-year period. The simulated pumpage resulted in a projected drawdown greater than 0.1 ft in the water-levels of the unconfined aquifer over an area of about 370 sq mi. Maximum simulated drawdown was 25 ft. Simulations indicate that about 66 % of the water to be withdrawn from the unconfined aquifer would be derived from decreases of evapotranspiration, 26% from induced leakage from an underlying confined aquifer, and 8% from storage of the unconfined aquifer. Model simulations were based only on withdrawals from wells completed in the unconfined aquifer. Pumpage from the confined aquifer was not simulated. Upward leakage from the confined aquifer predicted by the model, results from the simulated declines of the potentiometric surface in the unconfined aquifer. (USGS)

  14. New evidence for self-medication in bonobos: Manniophyton fulvum leaf- and stemstrip-swallowing from LuiKotale, Salonga National Park, DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Fruth, Barbara; Ikombe, Nono Bondjengo; Matshimba, Gaby Kitengie; Metzger, Sonja; Muganza, Désiré Musuyu; Mundry, Roger; Fowler, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The swallowing of entire leaves by apes across Africa without chewing has been observed for over 40 plant species. Here we add evidence for (a) a new site, LuiKotale where leaf-swallowing of Manniophyton fulvum (Euphorbiaceae) is observed in bonobos, (b) a so far unreported ingestion of unchewed stemstrips of M. fulvum, we name stemstrip-swallowing; and (c) a test of some of the requirements put forward by Huffman for the assessment of plants ingested for medical purpose. As ecological correlates we analyzed M. fulvum phenological data and examined 1,094 dung piles collected between 2002 and 2009. By that we assessed availability and choice of leaves. In addition, we provide the first full description of the behavior related to this plant species' use by chimpanzees or bonobos using 56 bouts of M. fulvum ingestion observed between October 2007 and February 2010. With these data we tested and met 4 of the 6 requirements given by Huffman, supporting ingestion of this species as self-medication. Despite species' year-round availability and abundance, M. fulvum was ingested only at specific times, in very small amounts, and by a small proportion of individuals per party. In the absence of our own parasitological data, we used M. fulvum swallowing as evidence for parasite infestation, and seasonality as a proxy for stressors underlying seasonal fluctuation and impacting immune responses. Using these indirect factors available, we investigated conditions for a parasite to develop to its infective stage as well as conditions for the host to cope with infections. Both rain and temperature were good predictors for M. fulvum ingestion. We discuss the use of M. fulvum with respect to its hispidity and subsequent purging properties and provide insight into its ethnomedicinal uses by humans, stimulating speculations about potentially additional pharmacological effects. PMID:24105933

  15. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-08-01

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation--or neutrino oscillation--by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5% respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock mechanical

  16. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-06-11

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation or neutrino oscillation by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5 percent respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock

  17. Faulting, volcanism, and basin development along the western margin of the southern San Luis Basin segment of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. J.; Thompson, R. A.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Lee, J.; Budahn, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Luis Basin segment of the northern Rio Grande rift, straddling the Colorado-New Mexico border, is an asymmetrical graben where the major basin-bounding fault is on the east side. In contrast, the west side is a basin-directed dip slope surface cut by north to northwest trending faults with predominantly down-to-southwest displacement. Around 26 Ma, initial rift-related faulting formed broad, shallow basins coincident with basaltic volcanism of the Hinsdale Formation. Later episodes of rifting produced deep and narrow sub-basins generally along the eastern boundary. Basin-fill deposits along the western margin are generally thin. However, in the northern Tusas Mountains, gravity data identifies a small, yet deep, sub-basin that may contain 750 m of basin-filling Los Pinos Formation based on thickness projections derived from mapping. The Los Pinos Formation is overlain by early rift-related Hinsdale Formation basalt flows indicating this sub-basin formed as part of early rifting; the sub-basin may be a southern extension of the Monte Vista graben to the north. The stratigraphic section along the western boundary includes Precambrian basement up to volcanic rocks of the Taos Plateau volcanic field (~5-2Ma). Dips on the early-rift Miocene to Oligocene Hinsdale Formation lavas (3-5 degrees) reflect the cumulative eastward tilting corresponding to continued basin subsidence. Shallower dips (1-2 degrees) on early Pliocene volcanic rocks suggest continued subsidence up to about 3 Ma, or younger. Down-to-southwest faults accommodating eastward tilting are mostly in areas west of Pliocene volcanic rocks; individual faults offset Hinsdale Formation and older rocks by up to 200 m. The few observed faults in the Pliocene volcanic rocks have minor offset. Numerous volcanic vents are in close proximity to the faults along the western boundary. Volcanoes are commonly low to medium relief shield volcanoes with basaltic andesite composition capped by late stage cinder cones

  18. Time constraints on the Famatinian and Achalian structural evolution of the basement of the Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenken, André; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Wemmer, Klaus; López de Luchi, Mónica G.

    2008-05-01

    Geochronological data pertaining to the structural evolution of the Sierra de San Luis provide important insights into the geodynamic history along the southwestern margin of Gondwana. In the Pringles metamorphic complex, metamorphic fabrics (S 1) were affected by two folding events (D 2 and D 3) related to the Ordovician approach of the Cuyania terrane. Contemporary formations of high-temperature shear zones record a prominent east-side-up displacement. Resumption of compression due to the Achalian collision with the Chilenia terrane was accommodated by the reactivation of the Famatinian high-temperature shear zones in greenschist facies conditions. K-Ar Ms ages point to their activity up to the Early Carboniferous. The post-Pampean structural evolution of the Pringles metamorphic complex is supported by new Sm-Nd and 207Pb/ 206Pb data, which agree with previously proposed early Cambrian sedimentation of the psammopelitic precursors. A Sm-Nd mineral isochron, together with published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, bracket the emplacement of mafic and ultramafic intrusions that control the granulite facies metamorphism between 506 and 478 Ma. A late Cambrian emplacement of the crustal-derived Paso del Rey pluton is suggested by a 207Pb/ 206Pb zircon age at 491 ± 19 Ma. The syn-D 2 emplacement of these granitoids indicates that the D 1 to D 2 structural evolution predates the generally assumed Middle Ordovician accretion of the Precordillera/Cuyania terrane. K-Ar Hbl, Ms, and Bt ages and some Rb-Sr mica data record the cooling after the Famatinian metamorphic peak. Ms ages from large Ms booklets suggest a common cooling of the basement of the sierra at approximately 445 Ma, whereas normal-sized muscovites from gneissic rocks (K-Ar ages of ˜380 Ma) indicate slow cooling of the Pringles metamorphic complex with respect to the other basement domains. K-Ar Bt ages between 360 and 340 Ma capture cooling below approximately 300 °C of the basement. Differential cooling is

  19. Use of InSAR to identify land-surface displacements caused by aquifer-system compaction in the Paso Robles area, San Luis Obispo County, California, March to August 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, D.W.; Densmore, J.N.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, Falk

    2000-01-01

    The population in San Luis Obispo County has grown steadily during the 1990s, and some land use has been converted from dry farming to grazing to irrigated vineyards and urban areas. Because insufficient surface-water supplies are available to meet the growing demand, ground-water pumpage has increased and the resulting water-level declines have raised concern that this water resource may become overstressed. One particular concern is whether the larger ground-water basins within the county function as large individual basins or whether subsurface structures divide these large basins into smaller subbasins, as differences in ground-water-level data suggest. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is used in locating land-surface displacement, which may indicate subsurface structures in ground-water basins by determining seasonal and historical land-surface changes. Owing to the high spatial detail of InSAR imagery, the InSAR-derived displacement maps can be used with ground-water-level data to reveal differential aquifer-system compaction related to the presence of geological structures or the distribution of compressible sediments that may define subbasin boundaries. This report describes InSAR displacement maps of the Paso Robles area of San Luis Obispo County and compares them to maps of seasonal changes in ground-water levels to detect the presence of aquifer-system compaction.

  20. Use of InSAR to identify land-surface displacements caused by aquifer-system compaction in the Paso Robles area, San Luis Obispo County, California, March to August 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, David W.; Densmore, Jill N.; Galloway, Devin L.; Amelung, Falk

    2001-01-01

    The population in San Luis Obispo County has grown steadily during the 1990s, and some land use has been converted from dry farming to grazing to irrigated vineyards and urban areas. Because insufficient surface-water supplies are available to meet the growing demand, ground-water pumpage has increased and the resulting water-level declines have raised concern that this water resource may become overstressed. One particular concern is whether the larger ground-water basins within the county function as large individual basins or whether subsurface structures divide these large basins into smaller subbasins, as differences in ground-water-level data suggest. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is used in locating land-surface displacement, which may indicate subsurface structures in ground-water basins by determining seasonal and historical land-surface changes. Owing to the high spatial detail of InSAR imagery, the InSAR-derived displacement maps can be used with ground-water-level data to reveal differential aquifer-system compaction related to the presence of geological structures or the distribution of compressible sediments that may define subbasin boundaries. This report describes InSAR displacement maps of the Paso Robles area of San Luis Obispo County and compares them to maps of seasonal changes in ground-water levels to detect the presence of aquifer-system compaction.

  1. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  2. Geological and geochemical studies of the Sierra del Morro-Oeste (San Luis Province, Argentina): Meta-sediments and meta-volcanics from a probable back-arc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delakowitz, B.; Höll, R.; Hack, M.; de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Stärk, H.

    The Sierra del Morro-Oeste covers an area of some 40 km 2 in the northeastern part of San Luis Province, Argentina. This area is an integral part of the scheelite- and wolframite-bearing crystalline basement of the Sierras Pampeanas. A "characteristic rock sequence"—several tens of meters thick—is concordantly embedded between uniform country rocks (quartz-oligoclase/andesine micaschists and gneises); it includes layered alternations of banded amphibolites, hornblende-epidote schists, scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks, lenses of barren marble, and, locally, tourmaline-bearing micaschists. Chemical analyses of amphibolite samples allow these metamorphic rocks to be interpreted as derivatives of a tholeiite-basaltic volcanism. The amphibolites are subdivided into two groups (A and B) because of significant differences in their chemical composition. These differences are related to hydrothermal seafloor alteration. This sea-water alteration has been most effective in the youngest tholeiite-basaltic lava extrusions. The derivatives of the submarine altered tholeiite-basaltic lavas (amphibolites of Group B) can therefore be interpreted as younger in comparison with the primary lavas of the non-altered amphibolites of Group A. The extrusion of the tholeiite-basaltic lavas obviously took place during an initial stage of back-arc basin rifting on continental crust.

  3. Potential human health risk by metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" Reservoir (Northern México).

    PubMed

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq∙kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26, 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bq∙kg-1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13-0.39, 0.005-0.126 and 0.009-0.08 mg∙kg-1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11-0.43, 0.002-0.039 and 0.02-0.26 mg∙kg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg-1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  4. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens on São Luis island, Maranhão state, Brazil, with a new genotype described.

    PubMed

    Sousa, I C; Pena, H F J; Santos, L S; Gennari, S M; Costa, F N

    2016-06-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution that infects warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. Toxoplasma is considered to be monospecific, but three classical clonal lineages (Types I-III) have been described, especially for isolates from North America and Europe. However, recently, several studies have shown that many isolates, particularly from South America, are different from the classic types and highly diverse, with the presence of specific clonal lineages and non-archetypal genotypes. In order to isolate and genotypically characterize T. gondii, 60 free-range naturally infected chickens (Gallus domesticus) from four municipalities on São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil, were first serologically screened for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by means of the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT≥1:16). Heart and brain samples from seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice. The isolates obtained from bioassaying were genotyped by means of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) using 11 markers and by microsatellites (MS) using 15 markers. The frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in the chickens examined was 25.0% (15/60). Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained and named TgCkBrMA1 to 5. Four genotypes were described. One of them is reported for the first time. No classic clonal lineages of types I, II or III were found, but the Brazilian clonal lineage BrI was identified. MS analysis revealed five genotypes. The results corroborate studies already developed in other regions of Brazil, thus indicating that T. gondii has high genetic diversity in Brazil. PMID:27198795

  5. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México)

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A.; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  6. Alvarez, Luis Walter (1911-88)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist and astronomer, born in San Francisco, CA, professor at the University of California, Nobel prizewinner (1968) for his discoveries in particle physics. Used cosmic rays to `x-ray' the pyramids of Egypt, finding in particular that the tombs in the Great Pyramid at Giza had no hidden rooms. Alvarez (and his son) discovered globally distributed iridium at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary i...

  7. Sustainability Metrics: The San Luis Basin Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about promoting humanly desirable dynamic regimes of the environment. Metrics: ecological footprint, net regional product, exergy, emergy, and Fisher Information. Adaptive management: (1) metrics assess problem, (2) specific problem identified, and (3) managemen...

  8. Elevated cadmium concentrations in potato tubers due to irrigation with river water contaminated by mining in Potosí, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Oporto, Carla; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Smolders, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Risk of cadmium (Cd) in the human food chain in Cd-contaminated areas is often limited by phytotoxicity from zinc (Zn) that is associated with the Cd contamination. A semiarid area, 60 km downstream of a tin mine in Bolivia, was surveyed where irrigation with Cd-contaminated river water (65-240 microg Cd L(-1)) has increased median soil Cd to 20 mg kg(-1) while median soil Zn was only about 260 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in potato tubers increased from background values (0.05 mg kg(-1) dry wt.) in soils irrigated with spring water to a median value of 1.2 mg kg(-1) dry wt. in the affected area. Median concentration of Cd in soil solutions was 27 microg L(-1) and exceeded the corresponding value of Zn almost twofold. Soil-extractable chloride ranged from 40 to 1600 mg Cl(-) kg(-1) and was positively correlated with soil total Cd. Increasing soil solution Cl(-) decreased the solid-liquid distribution coefficient of Cd in soil. Soil total Cd explained 64% of the variation of tuber Cd concentration while only 3% of the variation was explained by soil extractable Cl(-) (n = 49). The estimated dietary Cd intake from potato consumption by the local population is about 100 microg d(-1) which exceeds the WHO recommended total daily intake. It is concluded that the food chain risk of Cd in the irrigation water of the semiarid area is aggravated by the association with Cl(-) and, potentially, by the relatively large Cd/Zn ratio. PMID:17596627

  9. Regional Sustainability: The San Luis Basin Metrics Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of established, scientifically supported metrics of sustainability. Many of the metrics are data intensive and require extensive effort to collect data and compute. Moreover, individual metrics may not capture all aspects of a system that are relevant to sust...

  10. Sun Spot One (SS1): San Luis Valley, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    2008-06-10

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  11. RIVER AND WATERSHED PLANNING: THE SAN LUIS REY CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental management of our water resources requires the integration of science and politics, defining problems and solutions for physical resources within a social context. watershed planning is a term applied to the development of long-term strategies to reconcile a com...

  12. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…

  13. Mollusks of the Upper Jurassic (upper Oxfordian-lower Kimmeridgian) shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation, northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Patrick; Beckmann, Seija; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Götte, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We present the first systematic description of Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) invertebrates from the shallow marine Minas Viejas Formation of northeastern Mexico. The unit was generally considered to be extremely poor in fossils, due to an overall evaporitic character. The collection described here includes three taxa of ammonites, 10 taxa of bivalves and five taxa of gastropods. The fossils were discovered near Galeana and other localities in southern Nuevo León and northeastern San Luis Potosí, in thin-bedded marly limestones intercalated between gypsum units. Due to complex internal deformation of the sediments, fossils used for this study cannot be assigned to precise layers of origin. However, the taxa identified suggest a Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) age for these fossil-bearing layers and allow us, for the first time, to assign a biostratigraphic age to Upper Jurassic strata in the region underlying the La Caja and La Casita formations.

  14. Arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Armienta, M A; Segovia, N

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above Mexican drinking water standards have been detected in aquifers of various areas of Mexico. This contamination has been found to be mainly caused by natural sources. However, the specific processes releasing these toxic elements into groundwater have been determined in a few zones only. Many studies, focused on arsenic-related health effects, have been performed at Comarca Lagunera in northern México. High concentrations of fluoride in water were also found in this area. The origin of the arsenic there is still controversial. Groundwater in active mining areas has been polluted by both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic-rich minerals contaminate the fractured limestone aquifer at Zimapán, Central México. Tailings and deposits smelter-rich fumes polluted the shallow granular aquifer. Arsenic contamination has also been reported in the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining zone, southern Baja California, and Santa María de la Paz, in San Luis Potosí state. Even in the absence of mining activities, hydrogeochemistry and statistical techniques showed that arsenopyrite oxidation may also contaminate water, as in the case of the Independencia aquifer in the Mexican Altiplano. High concentrations of arsenic have also been detected in geothermal areas like Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Acoculco. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was revealed by epidemiological studies in Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosí states. Presence of fluoride in water results from dissolution of acid-volcanic rocks. In Mexico, groundwater supplies most drinking water. Current knowledge and the geology of Mexico indicate the need to include arsenic and fluoride determinations in groundwater on a routine basis, and to develop interdisciplinary studies to assess the contaminant's sources in all enriched areas. PMID:18335171

  15. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J.; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A.; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V. Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites. PMID:24592381

  16. Evaluation of Skylab photography for water resources, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Huntley, D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab S190A photography used in a stereo mode is sufficient for defining the drainage divides and drainage patterns at the regional level. This data, combined with geologic information, define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within the basin.

  17. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Cecilia S.M. Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E.; Satorres, Sara E.; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia del C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers’ intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

  18. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Cecilia S M Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E; Satorres, Sara E; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia Del C

    2013-12-01

    An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers' intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

  19. [Yersinia enterocolitica strains of bovine origin isolated in San Luis, Argentina: virulence, enterotoxigenicity, and antibiotic sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Escudero, M E; Eiguer, T; Caffer, M I; Fronchkowsky, B; Fernández Cobo, M; Stefanini de Guzmán, A M

    1991-01-01

    Eleven Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from bovine tongues and classified as B1 0:5 Lis Xz (8), B2 0:9 Lis X3 (2), nontypable (1), were examined for the following virulence-associated characteristics: autoagglutination, calcium dependency, Sereny test, congo red binding and presence of 40-48 MDa plasmids. Heat-stable enterotoxin production was also determined. Antibiotic susceptibility was assayed according to the modified Bauer-Kirby's method. Two Y. enterocolitica B1 0:5 Lis Xz strains were positive for autoagglutination, calcium dependency and congo red binding; both exhibited nearly 40 MDa plasmids and one of them was enterotoxigenic. The other strains did not carry virulence-associated plasmids, 5 were congo red positive and 4 produced enterotoxin. Therefore, two B1 0:5 Lis Xz strains would be potentially virulent. All strains were susceptible to piperacillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, amikacin, kanamycin, sisomicin, phosphomycin , chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and pipemidic acid. Ampicillin and sulfisoxazole proved to be less efficient. PMID:1670473

  20. 76 FR 6517 - San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Petition for a Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... a.m. (local time), in Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish Hall, 6631 County Road 13, Conejos, Colorado... should place their names on the list of speakers upon arrival at the Parish Hall of Our Lady of...

  1. San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: A Methodology for Evaluating Regional Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although there are several scientifically-based sustainability metrics, many are data intensive, difficult to calculate, and fail to capture all aspects of a system. To address these issues, we produced a scientifically-defensible, but straightforward and inexpensive, methodolog...

  2. Making the Transition to the SuperCatalog: ISU's Experience with LUIS II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, H. Scott; Ensor, Patricia L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development at Indiana State University of a SuperCatalog, a computerized library catalog that provides access to both library holdings and locally loaded commercial databases, including ERIC and Wilson indexes. Software is discussed; the impact on staff, users, interlibrary loan, and library instruction is examined; and future…

  3. Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

  4. 75 FR 59285 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... jeopardize the continued existent of federally listed plant or animal species. The applicant seeks an ITP for... Bahia Vista Estates Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP), and on our preliminary determination that the HCP... and Wildlife Service as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act (16...

  5. An energy systems view of sustainability: emergy analysis of the San Luis Basin, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy Systems Theory (EST) is used to provide a context for understanding and interpreting sustainability. We propose that “what is sustainable” for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system. Further...

  6. An Emergy Systems View of Sustainability: Emergy Evaluation of the San Luis Basin, Colorado

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy Systems Theory (EST) was used to provide a context for understanding and interpreting sustainability. We propose that “what is sustainable” for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system. Furtherm...

  7. 75 FR 49022 - San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Petition for a Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... raised in this proceeding, however, the Board has chosen to seek public comment. A decision in the matter.... Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings. Kulunie L. Cannon, Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P...

  8. 75 FR 8735 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... shoulderband snail was listed as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C... approximately 9.6 acres adjacent to the ADA trail and boardwalk system, closure and restoration to native... applicant proposes the construction and use of a boardwalk, overlook area, and trail project within a...

  9. The etiology of maternal mortality in developing countries: what do verbal autopsies tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, N. L.; Langer, A.; Hernandez, B.; Romero, M.; Winikoff, B.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reassess the practical value of verbal autopsy data, which, in the absence of more definitive information, have been used to describe the causes of maternal mortality and to identify priorities in programmes intended to save women's lives in developing countries. METHODS: We reanalysed verbal autopsy data from a study of 145 maternal deaths that occurred in Guerrero, Querétaro and San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in 1995, taking into account other causes of death and the WHO classification system. The results were also compared with information given on imperfect death certificates. FINDINGS: The reclassification showed wide variations in the attribution of maternal deaths to single specific medical causes. CONCLUSION: The verbal autopsy methodology has inherent limitations as a means of obtaining histories of medical events. At best it may reconfirm the knowledge that mortality among poor women with little access to medical care is higher than that among wealthier women who have better access to such care. PMID:11584727

  10. The Experimental Discovery of Double-Charm Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelfried, Jürgen; Selex Collaboration

    2005-04-01

    In 2002, the SELEX [The SELEX (Fermilab E781) Collaboration: Ball State University, Bogazici University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Fermilab, Institute For High Energy Physics (Protvino), Institute of High Energy Physics (Beijing), Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow), Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Tel Aviv University, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, University of Iowa, University of Michigan-Flint, University of Rochester, University of Rome La Sapienza and INFN, University of São Paulo, University of Trieste and INFN. http://www-selex.fnal.gov] Experiment (Fermilab E781) reported the first observation of a member of the family of doubly charmed baryons [SELEX Collaboration, M. Mattson et al.: First observation of the doubly charmed baryonΞcc+. Phys. Rev. Letters 89 (2002) 112001, [ arXiv:hep-ex/0208014

  11. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefined and brown sugar or glycerol, in the presence of 50 mg/L of Cr (VI), the strain caused complete disappearance of Cr (VI), with the concomitant production of Cr (III) in the growth medium after 7 days of incubation, at 28°C, pH 4.0, 100 rpm, and an inoculum of 38 mg of dry weight. Decrease of Cr (VI) levels from industrial wastes was also induced by Paecilomyces biomass. These results indicate that reducing capacity of chromate resistant filamentous fungus Cr (VI) could be useful for the removal of Cr (VI) pollution. PMID:20634988

  12. At last! The single-crystal X-ray structure of a naturally occurring sample of the ilmenite-type oxide FeCrO3.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cruz, María Ana; Elizalde-González, María de la Paz; Escudero, Roberto; Bernès, Sylvain; Silva-González, Rutilo; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2015-10-01

    A natural single crystal of the ferrimagnetic oxide FeCrO3, which was found in an opencast mine situated in the San Luis Potosí State in Mexico, has been characterized in order to elucidate some outstanding issues about the actual structure of this material. The single-crystal X-ray analysis unambiguously shows that transition metal cations are segregated in alternating layers normal to the threefold crystallographic axis, affording a structure isomorphous to that of ilmenite (FeTiO3), in the space group R3̅. The possible occurrence of cation antisite and vacancy defects is below the limit of detection available from X-ray data. Structural and magnetic results are in agreement with the coherent slow intergrowth of magnetic phases provided by the two antiferromagnetic corundum-type parent oxides Fe2O3 (hematite) and Cr2O3 (eskolaite). Our results are consistent with the most recent density functional theory (DFT) studies carried out on digital FeCrO3 [Sadat Nabi & Pentcheva (2011). Phys. Rev. B, 83, 214424], and suggest that synthetic samples of FeCrO3 might present a cation distribution different to that of the ilmenite structural type. PMID:26428405

  13. Promoting Ethical Competencies: Education for Democratic Citizenship in a Mexican Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patino-Gonzalez, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions have a responsibility to promote the development of students' ethical and citizenship competencies, especially in contexts of major social inequality. Graduates, who constitute a very small percentage of the population in Mxico, are the best qualified to conceive of creative alternatives to resolve its demanding…

  14. 76 FR 31678 - San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Continuance in Control Exemption-Saratoga and North Creek Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    .... (PBR), which in turn is owned by Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, a noncarrier short line holding company. PBR currently owns the following Class III rail carriers: SLRG, West Texas & Lubbock Railway,...

  15. 76 FR 41811 - Kellaway Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, San Luis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... dune) snail was listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR... Fish and Wildlife Service Kellaway Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro... low-effect habitat conservation plan (plan). We invite comments from the public on the...

  16. Student Teacher and Cooperating Teacher Tensions in a High School Mathematics Teacher Internship: The Case of Luis and Sheri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Kathryn; Samkoff, Aron; Weber, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We investigate interpersonal difficulties that student teachers and cooperating teachers may experience during the teaching internship by exploring the tension between one high school mathematics student teacher and his cooperating teacher. We identified seven causes of this tension, which included different ideas about what mathematics should be…

  17. Review of samples of water, sediment, tailings, and biota at the Little Bonanza mercury mine, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; Goldstein, Daniel N.; Brussee, Brianne E.; May, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    Sample Sites and Methods Samples were collected to assess the concentrations of Hg and biogeochemically relevant constituents in tailings and wasterock piles at the Little Bonanza Hg mine. Tailings are present adjacent to a three-pipe retort used to process the Hg ore. The tailings occur in the upper 15 cm of the soil adjacent to the retort and slag from the retort is present on the surface. An area of disturbed soil and rock uphill from the retort was likely formed during construction of a dam that provided water for mining activities. Wasterock in these piles was sampled. The largest amount of tailings is exposed to the west of the retort in the bank of WF Las Tablas Creek. Water, sediment, and biota were sampled from WF Las Tablas Creek, which flows through the mine area. Sample-site locations are shown in figures 10 and 11 and listed in table 1. Samples were collected when streamflow was low and no precipitation had occurred.

  18. 76 FR 45602 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow Creek Ranch, San Luis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Service's Safe Harbor Policy published in the Federal Register on June 17, 1999 (64 FR 32717), the Service... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow... the Federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), under the Endangered Species...

  19. 78 FR 73557 - Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge, San Luis Obispo County, CA: Intent To Prepare a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and... management, habitat management, wildlife-dependent recreation, environmental education, and cultural...: Intent To Prepare a Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish...

  20. 75 FR 17430 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern... conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for the Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge...-Person Drop-off: You may drop off comments at the Hopper Mountain NWR Complex Headquarters in...

  1. 77 FR 21797 - Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... intent published on April 6, 2010 (75 FR 17430), two planning updates, a CCP Web page ( http://www.fws... Fish and Wildlife Service Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges... Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Hopper Mountain, Bitter...

  2. 76 FR 33362 - Request for Interest in Lease Arrangement on Federal Lands, San Luis Project, Los Banos, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... (Interior), announces the availability of a Request for Interest (RFI). Reclamation is seeking interest from... Tribes, and in finding ways to bring together the variety of interests to address the competing needs...

  3. Development and Application of Multidisciplinary Sustainability Metrics to Environmental Management in the San Luis Basin in Colorado at AESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot project was initiated to create an approach to measure, monitor, and maintain prosperity and environmental quality within a regional system. The goal was to produce a scientifically defensible but straightforward and inexpensive methodology that is simple to use and int...

  4. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Fresno, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, San Luis Obispo, and Tulare Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; And Others

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Fresno,…

  5. Using Lagrangian sampling to study water quality during downstream transport in the San Luis Drain, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkmar, E.C.; Dahlgren, R.A.; Stringfellow, W.T.; Henson, S.S.; Borglin, S.E.; Kendall, C.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism for diel (24h) changes commonly observed at fixed sampling locations and how these diel changes relate to downstream transport in hypereutrophic surface waters, we studied a parcel of agricultural drainage water as it traveled for 84h in a concrete-lined channel having no additional water inputs or outputs. Algal fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity, and turbidity were measured every 30min. Grab samples were collected every 2h for water quality analyses, including nutrients, suspended sediment, and chlorophyll/pheophytin. Strong diel patterns were observed for dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature within the parcel of water. In contrast, algal pigments and nitrate did not exhibit diel patterns within the parcel of water, but did exhibit strong diel patterns for samples collected at a fixed sampling location. The diel patterns observed at fixed sampling locations for these constituents can be attributed to algal growth during the day and downstream transport (washout) of algae at night. Algal pigments showed a rapid daytime increase during the first 48h followed by a general decrease for the remainder of the study, possibly due to sedimentation and photobleaching. Algal growth (primarily diatoms) was apparent each day during the study, as measured by increasing dissolved oxygen concentrations, despite low phosphate concentrations (<0.01mgL-1). ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans André Luis Souza dos Santos

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, André Luis Souza

    2010-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated mycoses of almost all inner organs, especially in immunocompromised patients. In this context, both the host immune status and the ability of C. albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance; in this last case, culminating in the establishment of successful infection known as candidiasis. C. albicans possesses a potent armamentarium consisting of several virulence molecules that help the fungal cells to escape of the host immune responses. There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases, designated as Saps, are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C. albicans cells, since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions. For these reasons, Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets. Corroborating this hypothesis, the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the aspartyl protease inhibitor-type (HIV PIs) have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps. The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease, reducing opportunistic infections, especially candidiasis. The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status, but also as a result of direct inhibition of C. albicans Saps. In this article, we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C. albicans, focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity, growth behavior, morphological architecture, cellular differentiation, fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials, modulation of virulence factors, experimental candidiasis infection, and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents. PMID:21537366

  7. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the dominant vegetal cover adjacent to the urban gullies. The local climate is humid tropical, with average annual temperatures of 26°C, reaching higher values in October to December and lower from April to June. Rainfall distribution throughout the year is irregular, marked by two very distinct seasons (rainy and dry). The highly seasonal erosive rains incise a complex series of soil erosion landforms, mainly gullies in this area. The following procedures have been carried out: fieldwork with monitoring of gully head erosion; Environmental Education Program; handcraft workshop regarding the prodution of geotextiles from Buriti fiber. The rehabilitation of this degraded site, follows these stages: 1. Acquisition of equipment and materials; 2. Contracting workers; 3. Reshaping selected gully walls; 4. Adding organic palm materials to the topsoil and ~30 kg of grass seeds; 5. Application of geotextile anchored on the ground by using wooden stakes; 6. Maintenance work with photographic records; 7. Photo comparison to measure the vegetal cover percentage, with the aid of geoprocessing software. Some of the gully walls presented steep slopes, around 90 degrees, and therefore, it was necessary to reshape them for the application of soil bioengineering techniques. It was selected a sample area of 2.000 m2 to be rehabilitated. The knowledge of soil and geomorphological characteristics was essential to understand surface runoff, considering the direction of water flows. Due to the difficulties in diverting the flows, which would require more extensive engineering works, the channel was maintained, and the base of the slopes was strengthened to support the flows. In the upper part of this area, which had ~8° slope angle, contour lines were surveyed and barriers of wooden stakes were used to retard runoff velocity from adjacent vegetated slopes. Some slopes in this part had a 45° slope angle, due to the local topography. However, this angle is considered too steep for the application of palm-mats. In some parts of gully, work was completed to reshape the gullies and construct the ~12 m high terraces using the gully material. Tractor work was impeded, because on the second terrace the tractor had difficulty in working, because of the high sand content, which made the slope unstable. These terraces are crossed by a flow convergence area, which was formed by men inserting sand bags, decomposing palm leaves and grass seeds, to form a vegetated channel after grass growth. Key-words: Rehabilitation, gully, geotextile, soil bioengineering.

  8. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the dominant vegetal cover adjacent to the urban gullies. The local climate is humid tropical, with average annual temperatures of 26°C, reaching higher values in October to December and lower from April to June. Rainfall distribution throughout the year is irregular, marked by two very distinct seasons (rainy and dry). The highly seasonal erosive rains incise a complex series of soil erosion landforms, mainly gullies in this area. The following procedures have been carried out: fieldwork with monitoring of gully head erosion; Environmental Education Program; handcraft workshop regarding the prodution of geotextiles from Buriti fiber. The rehabilitation of this degraded site, follows these stages: 1. Acquisition of equipment and materials; 2. Contracting workers; 3. Reshaping selected gully walls; 4. Adding organic palm materials to the topsoil and ~30 kg of grass seeds; 5. Application of geotextile anchored on the ground by using wooden stakes; 6. Maintenance work with photographic records; 7. Photo comparison to measure the vegetal cover percentage, with the aid of geoprocessing software. Some of the gully walls presented steep slopes, around 90 degrees, and therefore, it was necessary to reshape them for the application of soil bioengineering techniques. It was selected a sample area of 2.000 m2 to be rehabilitated. The knowledge of soil and geomorphological characteristics was essential to understand surface runoff, considering the direction of water flows. Due to the difficulties in diverting the flows, which would require more extensive engineering works, the channel was maintained, and the base of the slopes was strengthened to support the flows. In the upper part of this area, which had ~8° slope angle, contour lines were surveyed and barriers of wooden stakes were used to retard runoff velocity from adjacent vegetated slopes. Some slopes in this part had a 45° slope angle, due to the local topography. However, this angle is considered too steep for the application of palm-mats. In some parts of gully, work was completed to reshape the gullies and constru

  9. 78 FR 57651 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the Community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, CA; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The decision to prepare an EA or EIS will be, in part, contingent on the complexity of issues identified during, and following, the scoping phase of the NEPA process... impairing essential behavior patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering (50 CFR 17.3(c))....

  10. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Resources Code; and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). FRA... in the future as continued growth in population, employment, and tourism activity is expected to generate increased travel demand. By 2040, statewide population is expected to grow substantially,...

  11. 78 FR 70035 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the San Luis Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... markets and delivers federal electric power (mostly hydroelectric power) to federal preference customers... Tribal Governments (65 FR 67249); the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, Government-to- Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments (59 FR 22951); DOE-specific guidance on...

  12. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes. PMID:27545977

  13. Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Li, Yong Hua; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Feng; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Wang, En Tao

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile strain, NM2E3(T) was identified as Brevibacterium based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and had the highest similarities to Brevibacterium jeotgali SJ5-8(T) (97.3 %). This novel bacterium was isolated from root tissue of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Its cells were non-spore-forming rods, showing catalase and oxidase activities and were able to grow in LB medium added with 40 mM Cu(2+), 72 mM As(5+) and various other toxic elements. Anteiso-C15:0 (41.6 %), anteiso-C17:0 (30 %) and iso-C15:0 (9.5 %) were the major fatty acids. MK-8(H2) (88.4 %) and MK-7(H2) (11.6 %) were the major menaquinones. The DNA G + C content of the strain NM2E3(T) was 70.8 mol % (Tm). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the strain NM2E3(T) had 39.8, 21.7 and 20.3 % relatedness with B. yomogidense JCM 17779(T), B. jeotgali JCM 18571(T) and B. salitolerans TRM 45(T), respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic analyses, the strain NM2E3(T) (=CCBAU 101093(T) = HAMBI 3627(T) = LMG 8673(T)) is reported as a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., is proposed. PMID:26429721

  14. View of yacht club and avila pier, facing west. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of yacht club and avila pier, facing west. The San Luis Bay Club is visible on the hill in the background. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. Highlighting Changes in the Classrooms of a Successful One-to-One Program in Rural Argentina: Case Studies of "Todos los Chicos en la Red" in San Luis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Daniel; Pierson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one computing programs and laptop programs have been a popular approach to education reform in developing countries over the last decade. A motivation behind so many one-to-one laptop programs is the desire to overcome with one powerful resource the historical lack of educational tools and resources available in developing countries.…

  16. The association of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with perceived quality of life in a biethnic population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, E M; Baxter, J; Mitchell, C M; Shetterly, S M; Hamman, R F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association between quality of life and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) status, and whether this association differs between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. METHODS: Between 1986 and 1989, cross-sectional data on perceived quality of life (PQOL) were collected from 223 persons with NIDDM and 753 non-diabetic subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment, persons with NIDDM rated their PQOL significantly lower than did control subjects. The relationship of diabetes and PQOL did not differ by ethnicity. The number of complications of diabetes was not associated with lower PQOL scores. CONCLUSIONS: Control and treatment strategies should reflect an understanding of the impact that diabetes has on social functioning, leisure activities, and physical and mental health. PMID:9702155

  17. Jim. L'historie de Jim Caron jeune homme racontee par lui-meme (Jim. The Story of Jim Caron as a Young Man Told by Himself).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Julien

    This illustrated account of an interview with Jim Caron, a 101 year-old Franco-American resident of New Hampshire, is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. The narrative is divided into ten chapters and is written in the style of the spoken French dialect of Quebec and New England. In addition to details on the long life of Jim it…

  18. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vizuet Vega, Norma Isela; Shamah Levy, Teresa; Gaona Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la anemia es un factor de riesgo en la población infantil con consecuencias graves para su crecimiento y desarrollo. Los programas de ayuda alimentaria pueden contribuir a su prevención y control. Objetivo: estudiar la adherencia al consumo de suplementos y su relación con la prevalencia de anemia en niños menores de tres años de edad en San Luis Potosí, México beneficiarios del programa PROSPERA.Métodos: se realizó un análisis comparativo en niños de 12 a 36 meses que consumen diferentes suplementos alimenticios: 414 pertenecientes al grupo de intervención y 334 al de comparación. Se midió la hemoglobina (Hb) por Hemocue clasificando como anémicos a quienes tuvieron valores <110 g/l. Se aplicaron pruebas de t de Student y X2. Se estimaron efectos de intervención mediante el método de diferencias en diferencias y un puntaje de adherencia al consumo de suplementos.Resultados: al final del estudio la prevalencia de anemia disminuyó 11.2 pp en el grupo de intervención y 8.7 pp en el de comparación; la interacción del puntaje de adherencia por suplemento y etapa de observación mostró que la adherencia al consumo de Bebida láctea + Vitaniño reduce el riesgo de presentar anemia (p = 0,14). El consumo de Nutrisano + Vitaniño se asoció con menor riesgo (0,2), ambos con respecto al consumo de Nutrisano.Conclusiones: el programa PROSPERA tuvo efectos importantes en la disminución de las prevalencias de anemia. Se recomienda llevar a cabo acciones para mejorar la adherencia al consumo de suplementos alimenticios, a fIn de mejorar la efectividad de los programas. PMID:27571648

  20. Raman Spectroscopy an Option for the Early Detection of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Moisés Roberto Vallejo; Mendoza, María Guadalupe Galindo; Elías, Miguel Ghebre Ramírez; González, Francisco Javier; Contreras, Hugo Ricardo Navarro; Servín, Carlos Contreras

    2016-05-01

    This research describes the application of portable field Raman spectroscopy combined with a statistical analysis of the resulting spectra, employing principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), in which we determine that this method provides a high degree of reliability in the early detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) on Sweet Orange, disease caused by the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis), Persian Lime (C. latifolia), and Mexican Lime (C. aurantifolia) trees were collected from several municipalities, three at Colima State and three at Jalisco State (HLB presence). In addition, Sweet Orange samples were taken from two other Mexican municipalities, one at San Luis Potosí and the other at Veracruz (HLB absent). All samples were analyzed by real-time PCR to determine its phytosanitary condition, and its spectral signatures were obtained with an ID-Raman mini. Spectral anomalies in orange trees HLB-positive, were identified in bands related to carbohydrates (905 cm(-1), 1043 cm(-1), 1127 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1370 cm(-1), 1272 cm(-1), 1340 cm(-1), and 1260-1280 cm(-1)), amino acids, proteins (815 cm(-1), 830 cm(-1), 852 cm(-1), 918 cm(-1), 926 cm(-1), 970 cm(-1), 1002 cm(-1), 1053 cm(-1), and 1446 cm(-1)), and lipids (1734 cm(-1), 1736 cm(-1), 1738 cm(-1), 1745 cm(-1), and 1746 cm(-1)). Moreover, PCA-LDA showed a sensitivity of 86.9 % (percentage of positives, which are correctly identified), a specificity of 91.4 % (percentage of negatives, which are correctly identified), and a precision of 89.2 % (the proportion of all tests that are correct) in discriminating between orange plants HLB-positive and healthy plants. The Raman spectroscopy technique permitted rapid diagnoses, was low-cost, simple, and practical to administer, and produced immediate results. These are essential features for phytosanitary

  1. Curicaberis, a new genus of Sparassidae from North and Central America (Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparassinae).

    PubMed

    Rheims, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    The genus Curicaberis gen. nov. is described to include the type species, Curicaberis ferrugineus (C.L. Koch, 1836) comb. nov., and eight other species transferred from Olios Walckenaer, 1837: C. abnormis (Keyserling, 1884) comb. nov., C. annulatus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) comb. nov., C. bibranchiatus (Fox, 1937) comb. nov., C. ensiger (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) comb. nov., C. ferrugineus (C.L. Koch, 1836) comb. nov., C. luctuosus (Banks, 1898) comb. nov., C. minax (O. Pickard-Cambridge,1896) comb. nov., C. manifestus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1890) comb. nov., and C. peninsulanus (Banks, 1898) comb. nov.. All species are redescribed and illustrated. The males of C. ferrugineus comb. nov. and C. luctuosus comb. nov., and the female of C. annulatus comb. nov. are described and illustrated for the first time. Twenty-three new species are described: C. azul sp. nov. (♂) from Veracruz, C. catarinas sp. nov. (♀) from Chihuahua, C. chamela sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. eberhardi sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. jalisco sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), and C. urquizai sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Jalisco, C. culiacan sp. nov. (♂) from Sinaloa, C. cuyutlan sp. nov. (♂) from Colima, C. durango sp. nov. (♂) from Durango, C. elpunto sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. sanpedrito sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. tortugero sp. nov. (♀), C. yerba sp. nov. (♀) and C. zapotec sp. nov. (♂) from Oaxaca, C. huitiupan sp. nov. (♂), from Chiapas, C. pedregal sp. nov. (♂) from Distrito Federal, C. potosi sp. nov. (♀) from San Luis Potosí, C. puebla sp. nov. (♀) from Puebla, C. tepic sp. nov. (♀) from Nayarit, and C. mitla sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Veracruz and Oaxaca, C. chiapas sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Chiapas and Tabasco, all in Mexico, C. granada sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Granada and Manágua in Nicaragua and Guanacaste in Costa Rica, and C. bagaces sp. nov. (♀), from Guanacaste, Costa Rica. An identification key and distribution maps are provided for all known species. PMID

  2. Mercury Production and Use in Colonial Andean Silver Production: Emissions and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. Objectives: We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564–1810). Discussion: Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. Conclusions: According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury. PMID:22334094

  3. 13. GROOVED FOOTING (CONSTRUCTION KEY) EXTENDING ABOVE CEMENT FLOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GROOVED FOOTING (CONSTRUCTION KEY) EXTENDING ABOVE CEMENT FLOOR IN FIRST UNLINED SECTION BEYOND SOUTH PORTAL. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen and restroom additions are behind the rear wall. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  5. View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. Harbor storage building and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. 22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no date, no number. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. Biological assessment of the effects of activities conducted at Camp Roberts Army National Guard training site, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California, on the endangered san joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 imposes several requirements on federal agencies concerning listed threatened and endangered species and their designated critical habitat. Camp Roberts is operated by the California Army National Guard (CA ARNG) with funding from the National Guard Bureau (NGB). Its primary mission to provide a site where military training requirements of the western United States can be met. The presence of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) was confirmed in 1960 and the distribution and abundance of the species increased over the next two decades. The Secretary of Interior has not designated any critical habitat for San Joaquin kit fox. The major objective of this Biological Assessment is to provide FWS with sufficient information concerning the possible impacts that routine military training, maintenance and repair activities, and proposed construction projects may have on the San Joaquin kit fox and its essential habitat at Camp Roberts so that formal consultation with NGB and CA ARNG can begin. FWS will use this information as part of the basis for issuing a Biological Opinion which will include an incidental take provision. 45 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Art and Craft of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Root-Bernstein, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Walter Alvarez, a doctor and physiologist of some renown, decided to send his scientifically talented son, Luis, to an arts and crafts school where Luis took industrial drawing and woodworking instead of calculus. Luis Alvarez won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1968. Einstein was certainly not a standout in his mathematics and physics classes. Yet…

  9. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types in Mexican women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    López-Revilla, Rubén; Martínez-Contreras, Luz A; Sánchez-Garza, Mireya

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence of high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the states of San Luis Potosí (SLP) and Guanajuato (Gto), Mexico, was determined by restriction fragment length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on the E6 ~250 bp (E6-250) HR-HPV products amplified from cervical scrapings of 442 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma (280 from SLP and 192 from Gto). Fresh cervical scrapings for HPV detection and typing were obtained from all of them and cytological and/or histological diagnoses were performed on 383. Results Low grade intraepithelial squamous lesions (LSIL) were diagnosed in 280 cases (73.1%), high grade intraepithelial squamous lesions (HSIL) in 64 cases (16.7%) and invasive carcinoma in 39 cases (10.2%). In the 437 cervical scrapings containing amplifiable DNA, only four (0.9%) were not infected by HPV, whereas 402 (92.0%) were infected HR-HPV and 31 (7.1%) by low-risk HPV. RFLP analysis of the amplifiable samples identified infections by one HR-HPV type in 71.4%, by two types in 25.9% and by three types in 2.7%. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV types was, in descending order: 16 (53.4%) > 31 (15.6%) > 18 (8.9%) > 35 (5.6) > 52 (5.4%) > 33 (1.2%) > 58 (0.7%) = unidentified types (0.7%); in double infections (type 58 absent in Gto) it was 16 (88.5%) > 31 (57.7%) > 35 (19.2%) > 18 (16.3%) = 52 (16.3%) > 33 (2.8%) = 58 (2.8%) > unidentified types (1.0%); in triple infections (types 33 and 58 absent in both states) it was 16 (100.0%) > 35 (54.5%) > 31 (45.5%) = 52 (45.5%) > 18 (27.3%). Overall frequency of cervical lesions was LSIL (73.1%) > HSIL (16.7%) > invasive cancer (10.2%). The ratio of single to multiple infections was inversely proportional to the severity of the lesions: 2.46 for LSIL, 2.37 for HSIL and 2.15 for invasive cancer. The frequency of HR-HPV types in HSIL and invasive cancer lesions was 16 (55.0%) > 31 (18.6%) > 35 (7.9%) > 52 (7.1%) > 18 (4.3%) > unidentified types (3.6%) > 33 (2.9%) > 58 (0

  10. PREFACE: Collapse Calderas Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottsmann, Jo; Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo

    2008-10-01

    (IAVCEI), the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) through the Coordinación de la Investigación Científica, the Institute of Physics Publishing services, the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Querétaro (CONCYTEQ). The workshop represented the key activity of the IAVCEI Commission on Collapse Calderas in 2008. We, the workshop organizers, would like to express our gratitude to all workshop participants, the staff of Misión La Muralla, the Centro de Geociencias of UNAM for administrative and logistic support, to Adelina Geyer for web support, to María Inés Rojano for organization of logistics, the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí for logistics support, the Comisiòn Nacional de Electricidad for authorizing a visit to Los Azufres geothermal field, and to all sponsors that provided financial support. We expect these proceedings to stimulate further fruitful discussions, which we hope will be continued at a future meeting. Jo Gottsmann and Gerardo Aguirre-Diaz October 2008

  11. 20. GEOLOGY, PLAN AND PROFILE, SHOWING LINED AND UNLINED SECTIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GEOLOGY, PLAN AND PROFILE, SHOWING LINED AND UNLINED SECTIONS, AND DETAILED TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no number, revised 3-20-42. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  12. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Nobles County, MN, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1184, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 23528, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  13. 77 FR 65842 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the Unincorporated Areas of Robeson County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1171, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 3590, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  14. 77 FR 65843 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Montgomery County, Alabama and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1223, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 70386, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  15. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Yakima County, WA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1233, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 73537, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  16. 77 FR 58507 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the Unincorporated Areas of Highlands County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1204, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 43968, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  17. 78 FR 34014 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Bolivar County, Mississippi and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1178, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... and on August 7, 2012, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 8965 and 77 FR...

  18. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Coos County, OR, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1204, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... rulemaking at 76 FR 43968, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  19. 77 FR 66790 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Madison County, AL and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1189, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... rulemaking at 76 FR 21695, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  20. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Hampden County, MA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1066, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 46047, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  1. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1222, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... rulemaking at 76 FR 62006, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  2. 78 FR 14587 - Kelley-McDonough Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ..., 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act and its implementing regulations (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Shoulderband Snail, Community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... single-family-zoned parcel in the unincorporated community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo...

  3. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Colorado is proposing supplementary rules for public land included in the San Luis Resource Area Travel Management Plan (TMP), approved on June 4, 2009. These supplementary rules would apply to the public lands within Saguache, Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management of the San Luis Valley......

  4. Solid Geometry in the Works of an Iron Artisan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The author shares a story of how Luis González, an iron artisan, helped the author build a wooden and iron toy truck. The knowledge required to build the skeleton for the parallelepiped in the construction of the truck is not in the mathematical high school curriculum in Venezuela. Although Luis never received a degree beyond high school,…

  5. Main interior space facing south toward the ocean. Original scissor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing south toward the ocean. Original scissor trusses and deck roof are visible at the top. Octagonal window with large picture windows face the ocean. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west northwest. The main entry is to the right and the more recent deck addition is to the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  8. View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck and the avila pier are on the right and the harbor storage and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  9. 23. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, 'Report on Salinas Dam, Salinas River, California,' June 15, 1943. (Photographer unknown; report located at City of San Luis Obispo.) CONSTRUCTION PHOTO SHOWING CURVED CONCRETE CHUTE SPILLWAY. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  10. 22. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, 'Report on Salinas Dam, Salinas River, California,' June 15, 1943. (Photographer unknown; report located at City of San Luis Obispo.) CONSTRUCTION PHOTO SHOWING THE STRUTS, POURED TO ALIGN WITH THE RIGHT (WEST) BUTTRESS. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  11. 21. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, 'Report on Salinas Dam, Salinas River, California,' June 15, 1943. (Photographer unknown; report located at City of San Luis Obispo.) SALINAS DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1941. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  12. 24. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of original photo from Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, 'Report on Salinas Dam, Salinas River, California,' June 15, 1943. (Photographer unknown, report located at City of San Luis Obispo.) SALINAS DAM COMPLETION PHOTO. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  13. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  14. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, DOMED PLATE DECK FROM BELOW. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  15. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW OF SOUTH ABUTMENT. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  16. 78 FR 69705 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Environmental Assessment for the San Luis Resource Area, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as... associated Environmental Assessment (EA) for the San Luis Resource Area and by this notice is announcing...

  17. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  18. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    is just a set of foundations and a portal, considered national monuments. There, we enjoyed a delicious meal in the cellars of the Corralejo Hacienda before returning to Leon. The XIII MWPF was sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) through the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and individual research projects, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnológico del Estado de Guanajuato (CONCyTEG), Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla and Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. Also, we wish to thak to those who helped in the process of getting financial support for the meeting, specially Dr Juan Carlos D'Olivo, President of the Red Nacional de Física de Altas Energías and Dr José Luis Lucio Martínez, Rector of Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León. These proceedings have been published thanks to the support of PIFI 2011. This meeting was possible due to the commitment of the working groups and we wish to thank to their members for the decisive collaboration with the organizing committee. At the local level, we thank our graduate students: Carolina Luján, Vannia González, Selim Gomez and Carlos Alberto Vaquera for their invaluable contribution in the organization of the large amount of small but important things around the meeting. Finally, we would like to thank all the speakers for delivering excellent talks which contributed to the success of the event. We are also grateful to all the participants for the nice academic and social atmosphere during the meeting and for providing their write-ups on time. The National organizing committee was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda (CINVESTAV-DF) Guillermo Contreras (CINVESTAV-Mérida) David Delepine (DF-UG) Axel de la Macorra (IAC/IF-UNAM) Lorenzo Díaz (BUAP

  19. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Potočka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Potočka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Potočka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not

  20. 78 FR 78992 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations for Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana and Incorporated Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 4, 2013, FEMA published proposed notices at 78 FR 20340 and 78 FR 20341... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations for Plaquemines...

  1. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of McCleary, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...- 1221, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal Emergency Management... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 5, 2011, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 61649,...

  2. 1. CONCRETE PUMPHOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST BANK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONCRETE PUMPHOUSE LOCATED ON THE EAST BANK OF THE SALINAS RIVER NEAR THE BASE OF THE DAM. CAMERA FACING NORTH. - Salinas Dam, Pumphouse, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. El espanol familiar y zonas afines--ensayo bibliografico: 26 (Colloquial Spanish and Related Areas--Bibliographic Essay: 26)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the study of colloquial Spanish in literary texts. Presents an annotated list of Spanish colloquial expressions extracted from "Paralelo 40" by Jose Luis Castillo-Puche. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  4. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  5. 75 FR 3786 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 12978 (60 FR 54579... INMOBILIARIA PASADENA LTDA., Cartago, Valle, Colombia; c/o ORGANIZACION LUIS HERNANDO GOMEZ BUSTAMANTE Y CIA....

  6. 50 CFR 660.383 - Open access fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... endorsement for the gear used to harvest the groundfish. This includes longline, trap, pot, hook-and-line... Islands/Fanny Shoal, Half Moon Bay, Monterey Bay/Canyon, Point Sur Deep, Big Sur Coast/Port San Luis,...

  7. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  8. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  9. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...

  10. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... northeastern flank of the San Luis Range, which forms the southwestern rim of Edna Valley, to the township line... Canyon and the southern rim of Canada Verde, crossing Corbit Canyon Road and continuing along the...