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Sample records for lumboperitoneal lp shunt

  1. Orthopaedic complications of lumboperitoneal shunts.

    PubMed

    McIvor, J; Krajbich, J I; Hoffman, H

    1988-01-01

    Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts performed for communicating hydrocephalus have been reported to lead to neurologic deficits in the lower limbs and spinal deformities as a result of arachnoiditis. A chart review of 375 children who underwent LP shunts between 1960 and 1981 at The Hospital For Sick Children in Toronto was undertaken. Of the 375 charts reviewed, evidence of shunt-induced neurologic deficits was seen in 63 patients. Thirty-four patients had back pain with or without sciatica, 45 patients had hamstring tightness, and 40 patients had foot deformities. Forty-nine patients had lumbar hyperlordosis, lordoscoliosis, and scoliosis. These deformities are postulated to be the result of arachnoiditis involving the conus medullaris and lower lumbar roots. PMID:3192696

  2. Intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Yanagi, Masakazu; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Background: A rare case of intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was treated under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Case Description: A 71-year-old man, who underwent LP shunt installation due to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus a year before, presented with history of high fever and sputum production. Roentgenography and computed tomography of the chest revealed migration of distal end of the peritoneal catheter into the left main bronchus. Migrated catheter was gently extracted through the abdominal wound incision under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Contrast material infused into the catheter did not spread into the pleural cavity. The patient was free of the symptoms within 2 postoperative weeks. Moreover, he underwent the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery 1-month later. Conclusion: This is the first case of the migration of peritoneal catheter of LP shunt into the main bronchus.

  3. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Lumboperitoneal Shunt for Fulminant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fok, Anthony; Chandra, Ronil V; Gutman, Matthew; Ligtermoet, Matthew; Seneviratne, Udaya; Kempster, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with severe visual loss from fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Her lumbar puncture opening pressure was 97 cm H2O. Soon after lumboperitoneal shunt surgery, she had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated frontal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and neuroimaging findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We hypothesize that an abrupt drop in intracranial pressure after lumboperitoneal shunting led to maladjustment of cerebral vascular autoregulation, which caused SAH and PRES. PMID:26919070

  4. Report of Dramatic Improvement after a Lumboperitoneal Shunt Procedure in a Case of Anticoagulation Therapy-Resistant Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Torikoshi, Sadaharu; Akiyama, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which typically progresses from either acute or subacute onset, presents with symptoms related to intracranial hypertension (e.g., headache and papilledema) and brain parenchymal lesions (e.g., aphasia and hemiplegia). Anticoagulation therapy is generally accepted as a treatment for CVT and often leads to good clinical outcomes. However, we experienced a case of CVT with an uncommon clinical course. The patient was a 63-year-old man who presented with headache, papilledema, visual loss, and diplopia; his condition gradually deteriorated, and he was diagnosed with CVT via cerebral angiography. The sinus thrombus was extensive and resistant to anticoagulation therapy, and lumbar puncture revealed a progressive increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. We performed a lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt procedure, which yielded marked improvement in the symptoms. The main mechanism of neurological dysfunction in CVT is venous outflow obstruction caused by venous thrombus, which results in brain edema, and/or venous infarction, which induces focal neurological signs. Another mechanism is impaired CSF absorption in the thrombosed sinuses, resulting in intracranial hypertension. We speculated that the latter mechanism strongly influenced our case, thus explaining the uncommon clinical course and effectiveness of the LP shunt procedure. Although LP shunting is not a common treatment for CVT, this case report could indicate the usefulness of this procedure for CVT with chronic progression and resistance to anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26654661

  5. Shunt Devices for the Treatment of Adult Hydrocephalus: Recent Progress and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiroji

    2016-05-15

    Various types of shunt valves have been developed during the past 50 years, most of which can be classified into the following categories: (1) fixed differential pressure valves; (2) fixed differential pressure (DP) valves with an antisiphon mechanism; (3) programmable DP valves; (4) programmable DP valves with an antisiphon mechanism; and (5) programmable antisiphon valves. When considering the myriad of possible postoperative condition changes, such as the onset of accidental non-related diseases or trauma in adults, and changes in normal physiological development or anticipation of future shunt removal in children, it has become standard to use the programmable valve as a first choice for cerebrospinal fluid shunting. However, it is still unclear what type of shunt valve is suitable for each individual case. Based on the results of SINPHONI and more recently SINPHONI 2 trials, the programmable DP valve is recommended as the first line shunt valve. The programmable DP valve with an antisiphon mechanism is thought to be beneficial for tall, slender patients, who have a tendency for easily developing complications of overdrainage, however, this type of valve must be used cautiously in obese patients because of the increased risk of underdrainage. Although the current evidence is still insufficient, the programmable antisiphon valve, which costs the same as the programmable DP valve, is also thought to be the first line shunt valve. The quick reference table is applicable for most shunt valves, and for patients with either the ventriculoperitoneal or the lumboperitoneal shunt. PMID:27041631

  6. Shunt Devices for the Treatment of Adult Hydrocephalus: Recent Progress and Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKE, Hiroji

    2016-01-01

    Various types of shunt valves have been developed during the past 50 years, most of which can be classified into the following categories: (1) fixed differential pressure valves; (2) fixed differential pressure (DP) valves with an antisiphon mechanism; (3) programmable DP valves; (4) programmable DP valves with an antisiphon mechanism; and (5) programmable antisiphon valves. When considering the myriad of possible postoperative condition changes, such as the onset of accidental non-related diseases or trauma in adults, and changes in normal physiological development or anticipation of future shunt removal in children, it has become standard to use the programmable valve as a first choice for cerebrospinal fluid shunting. However, it is still unclear what type of shunt valve is suitable for each individual case. Based on the results of SINPHONI and more recently SINPHONI 2 trials, the programmable DP valve is recommended as the first line shunt valve. The programmable DP valve with an antisiphon mechanism is thought to be beneficial for tall, slender patients, who have a tendency for easily developing complications of overdrainage, however, this type of valve must be used cautiously in obese patients because of the increased risk of underdrainage. Although the current evidence is still insufficient, the programmable antisiphon valve, which costs the same as the programmable DP valve, is also thought to be the first line shunt valve. The quick reference table is applicable for most shunt valves, and for patients with either the ventriculoperitoneal or the lumboperitoneal shunt. PMID:27041631

  7. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting

    MedlinePlus

    Risks of anesthesia are: Reactions to medications Problems breathing Changes in blood pressure or breathing rate Risks of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement are: Blood clot or bleeding in the brain Brain swelling Hole in the intestines (bowel ...

  8. Ventriculomammary shunt: an unusual ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Morcos, Jacques J

    2015-02-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunctions are common and can result in significant consequences for patients. Despite the prevalence of breast augmentation surgery and breast surgery for other pathologies, few breast related VP shunt complications have been reported. A 54-year-old woman with hydrocephalus post-subarachnoid hemorrhage returned 1 month after VP shunt placement complaining of painful unilateral breast enlargement. After investigation, it was determined that the distal VP shunt catheter had migrated from the peritoneal cavity into the breast and wrapped around her breast implant. The breast enlargement was the result of cerebrospinal fluid retention. We detail this unusual case and review all breast related VP shunt complications reported in the literature. To avoid breast related complications related to VP shunt procedures, it is important to illicit pre-procedural history regarding breast implants, evade indwelling implants during catheter tunneling and carefully securing the abdominal catheter to prevent retrograde catheter migration to the breast. PMID:25127261

  9. Hydrocephalus and Shunts

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections develop within the lrst six months. Skin bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermis) are the most common causes of ... Pay attention to a parent’s (and particularly mom’s) gut feeling about shunt problems—these feelings are usually ...

  10. LP Field, 2010

    Rivers in middle Tennessee crested May 2-3,2010, breaking records at many USGS-operated streamgages. The flood peak on the Cumberland River in downtown Nashville ranks as the highest observed during the past 73 years. Flooding on the Cumberland River damaged the Grand Ole Opry House, LP Field (shown...

  11. Shunt tube calcification as a late complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting.

    PubMed

    Salim, Abubakr Darrag; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Mohamed, Haddab Ahmed; Ibrahim Zayan, Baha Eldin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Shunt calcification is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting that occurs years later after the initial operation this condition is rarely reported in literature. Two patients with shunt calcifications were described. The first patient was 17-year-old lady who had congenital hydrocephalus and shunted in the early infancy, she was presented recently complaining of itching of the skin along the shunt track and limitation of neck movement. The patient was then operated with removal of the old peritoneal catheter and replacing it with a new one. The second patient was 17-year-old boy originally was a case of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, he was operated with both shunting for the hydrocephalus and tumor removal, 6 years later he presented with shunt exposure. Calcification of the shunt tube was discovered intraoperatively upon shunt removal. Shunt calcification has been observed mainly in barium-impregnated catheters. Introducing plain silicone-coated shunt tubing may reduce the rate of this condition. The usual complaints of the patients suffering from this condition are pain in the neck and chest wall along the shunt pathway and limitation of the neck movement due to shunt tube tethering, but features of shunt dysfunction and skin irritation above the shunt may be present. In this review, plain X-ray and operative findings showed that the most extensive calcification is present in the neck, where the catheters were subject to heavy mechanical stress. Disturbed calcium and phosphate metabolisms may be involved in this condition. Shunt calcification is a rare condition that occurs due to material aging presenting with features of shunt tethering, dysfunction or overlying skin irritation. Plain X-ray is needed to detect calcification while shunt removal, replacement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy may carry solution for this condition. PMID:26396620

  12. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Minckler, Don; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Li, Tianjing; Mathew, Milan; Ayyala, Ramesh; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Aqueous shunts are employed for intraocular pressure (IOP) control in primary and secondary glaucomas that fail medical, laser, and other surgical therapies. Objectives This review compares aqueous shunts for IOP control and safety. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, NRR in January 2006, LILACS to February 2004 and reference lists of included trials. Selection criteria We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials in which one arm of the study involved shunts. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data for included studies and a third adjudicated discrepancies. We contacted investigators for missing information. We used fixed-effect models and summarized continuous outcomes using mean differences. Main results We included fifteen trials with a total of 1153 participants with mixed diagnoses. Five studies reported details sufficient to verify the method of randomization but only two had adequate allocation concealment. Data collection and follow-up times were variable. Meta-analysis of two trials comparing Ahmed implant with trabeculectomy found trabeculectomy resulted in lower mean IOPs 11 to 13 months later (mean difference 3.81 mm Hg, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.69 mm Hg). Meta-analysis of two trials comparing double-plate Molteno implant with the Schocket shunt was not done due to substantial heterogeneity. One study comparing ridged with standard double-plate Molteno implants found no clinically significant differences in outcome. Two trials investigating the effectiveness of adjunctive mitomycin (MMC) with the Molteno and Ahmed implants found no evidence of benefit with MMC. Two trials that investigated surgical technique variations with the Ahmed found no benefit with partial tube ligation or excision of Tenon's capsule. One study concluded there were outcome advantages with a double versus a single-plate Molteno implant and one trial comparing the 350 mm2 and 500 mm2 Baerveldt shunts found no clinically significant advantage of the larger device but neither of these trials included all patients randomized. One study suggested improved clinical outcome when MMC was employed with a newly described shunt including ultrasound supporting the conclusion. One small study did not demonstrate an outcome advantage to systemic steroid use postoperatively with single-plate Molteno shunts. One study comparing endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) with Ahmed implant in complicated glaucomas found no evidence of better IOP control with Ahmed implant over ECP. Authors' conclusions Relatively few randomized trials have been published on aqueous shunts and methodology and data quality among them is poor. To date there is no evidence of superiority of one shunt over another. PMID:16625616

  13. TRANSJUGULAR INTRAHEPATIC PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNT

    PubMed Central

    Patidar, Kavish R.; Sydnor, Malcolm; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2014-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an established procedure for the complications of portal hypertension. The largest body of evidence for its use has been supported for recurrent or refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites. Its use has also been advocated for acute variceal bleed, hepatic hydrothorax, and hepatorenal syndrome. With the replacement of bare metal stents with polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE) covered stents, shunt patency has improved dramatically thus improving outcomes. Therefore, reassessment of its utility, management of its complications, and understanding of various TIPS techniques is important. PMID:25438287

  14. Registration of LP1-2581, LP1-2163H, LP3-1159, and LP640-1304 low phytate spring barley germplasm lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA-ARS) has developed and released four low-phytate spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm lines: LP1-2581 (Reg. No._____, PI 658245), LP1-2163H (Reg. No._____, PI 658248 ), LP3-1159 (Reg. No._____, PI 658247), and LP640-1304 (...

  15. [The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt].

    PubMed

    Pisco, J M; Martins, J M; Garcia, V; Correia, M G; Figueiredo, M L; Jalles, N; Freitas, J M; Leal, F C

    1994-03-01

    The case of a 66-year-old woman with several episodes of hemorrhage by esophageal varices and ascites due to portal hypertension is presented. Despite 4 sessions of endoscopic sclerotherapy bleeding recurred. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. In the 10 months following the intervention, there was no further hemorrhage, the ascites disappeared and the shunt is open. PMID:8209705

  16. 76 FR 9771 - SFPP, L.P.; SFPP, L.P.; SFPP, L.P.; SFPP, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...; OR94-4-021; Docket No. IS06-215-003; Docket No. IS06-220-002] SFPP, L.P.; SFPP, L.P.; SFPP, L.P.; SFPP, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 10, 2011, the SFPP, L.P. filed with the... shippers may be entitled to refunds pursuant to the Commission's orders dated December 8, 2006 (SFPP,...

  17. Hydrodynamic properties of hydrocephalus shunts: United Kingdom Shunt Evaluation Laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Czosnyka, M; Czosnyka, Z; Whitehouse, H; Pickard, J D

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although about 80% of properly diagnosed patients with hydrocephalus improve after implantation of any model of shunt, the remaining 20% may develop further complications because of inadequate shunt performance. Therefore, hydrocephalus shunts require careful independent laboratory evaluation. METHOD: Computer supported shunt testing, based on the new International Standard Organisation directives, characterises various aspects of pressure-flow performance of shunts such as variability with time, susceptibility to reflux, siphoning, temperature related behaviour, external pressure, the influence of a strong magnetic field (for example, MRI), presence of pulsation in differential pressure, particles in drained fluid, etc. RESULTS: Seven different models of valves, representing most common constructions, have been tested so far. Most contemporary valves have a hydrodynamic resistance which is too low. This may result in overdrainage both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100%-200%. Most shunts are very sensitive to the presence of air bubbles and small particles in drained fluid. Few shunt models offer reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure, preventing complications related to overdrainage. Valves with an antisiphon device may be blocked by raised subcutaneous pressure. All programmable valves are susceptible to overdrainage in an upright position. CONCLUSION: The behaviour of a valve during such testing is of immediate relevance to the surgeon and may not be adequately described in the manufacturer's product information. Images PMID:9010399

  18. Hepatic vascular shunts: embryology and imaging appearances

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, P; Vaidya, S; Kolokythas, O; Katz, D S; Dighe, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to understand the embryological basis of the development of congenital hepatic vascular shunts and to review the multimodality imaging appearances of congenital and acquired hepatic vascular shunts. Hepatic vascular shunts are commonly seen in imaging. Familiarity with their characteristic appearances is important in order to accurately characterise these shunts and diagnose the underlying disorders. PMID:22101582

  19. Mesoatrial shunt: a prosthesis modification.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J L; Kadir, S; Pierce, W S

    1984-07-01

    The mesoatrial shunt is the indicated treatment in the Budd-Chiari syndrome when the inferior vena cava is occluded and not usable for the standard portasystemic shunts. As the mesoatrial shunt courses from the abdomen into the right side of the chest, it passes posterior to the xiphoid and sternum and frequently is compressed at this point. A prosthesis modification is reported whereby an exterior silicone rubber cuff is bonded to the Dacron or Gortex graft at the point at which it passes posterior to the sternum. This obviates the possibility of graft compression and should increase long-term patency. PMID:6234672

  20. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.-D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole, and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors, and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model.

  1. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3920 Aqueous shunt. (a) Identification. An aqueous shunt is an implantable device intended to reduce intraocular pressure in the anterior chamber of the eye in patients...

  2. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3920 Aqueous shunt. (a) Identification. An aqueous shunt is an implantable device intended to reduce intraocular pressure in the anterior chamber of the eye in patients...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3920 Aqueous shunt. (a) Identification. An aqueous shunt is an implantable device intended to reduce intraocular pressure in the anterior chamber of the eye in patients...

  4. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3920 Aqueous shunt. (a) Identification. An aqueous shunt is an implantable device intended to reduce intraocular pressure in the anterior chamber of the eye in patients...

  5. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3920 Aqueous shunt. (a) Identification. An aqueous shunt is an implantable device intended to reduce intraocular pressure in the anterior chamber of the eye in patients...

  6. Hepatodiaphragmatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, M; Enya, M; Kondo, H; Yokoyama, R; Hoshi, H

    1998-10-01

    A case of an unusual form of hepatodiaphragmatic portosystemic shunt arising from the periphery of left posterosuperior portal vein branch, running beneath the inferior aspect of left hemidiaphragm and draining into the left lateral abdominal wall is demonstrated and assessed with digital subtraction portography, maximum-intensity-projection images reconstructed from helical CT during arterial portography and pulsed Doppler sonography with flow velocity measurement. This is a reported case of this unusual intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and discussion on the utility of current radiological techniques. PMID:9881264

  7. Students with Shunts: Program Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Ron; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the medical condition of hydrocephalus can affect physical education students and physical education programs, and stresses the need to provide physical educators with information on students' medical conditions. Describes hydrocephalus and its treatment with ventricular peritoneal shunts, and offers suggestions on modifying…

  8. Peritoneovenous shunts--devices of last resort.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, K E; Miller, B J

    1988-11-01

    This study examines the usefulness of peritoneovenous shunts through a retrospective review of the charts of 16 patients who received this shunt at the University Hospital in Saskatoon up to May 1987. Fourteen shunts were placed for malignant ascites, 1 for alcoholic cirrhosis and 1 for nephrogenic ascites. All patients had symptoms related to abdominal pressure or dyspnea. Diuretics were most frequently used as initial management, and paracentesis was performed to relieve symptoms in all but one patient. However, a trial of sodium restriction was used in only eight patients, and only five of these trials lasted longer than 1 week. Thus, the adequacy of medical management was questionable. The death of one patient was directly attributable to the shunt, and the deaths of four others were suspected to be sequelae of surgery or shunting. Only five shunts were functioning at the time the patient died. In this study, the majority of the patients received little benefit from the peritoneovenous shunt. PMID:3179855

  9. Spectropolarimetry of ASASSN-14lp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Amber L.; Leising, Mark D.; Milne, Peter; Williams, Grant; Smith, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations which capture the degree of polarization as a function of wavelength help us to explore the aspherical nature of supernova explosions. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 6.5-m MMT and 90" Bok telescopes, we obtained multi-epoch observations of the Type Ia supernova ASASSN-14lp from pre-maximum through late times. We confirm a low continuum polarization indicating a nearly spherical explosion and investigate how the evolution of the Si II 6355Å feature compares to other Type Ia supernovae.

  10. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Thiong'o, Grace Muthoni; Luzzio, Christopher; Albright, A Leland

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purposes of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which children presented with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, to determine the type of shunts that caused the perforations, and to compare the stiffness of perforating catheters with the stiffness of catheters from other manufacturers. METHODS Medical records were reviewed of 197 children who were admitted with VP shunt malfunction. Catheter stiffness was evaluated by measuring relative resistance to cross-sectional compression, resistance to column buckling, and elasticity in longitudinal bending. Catheter frictional force was measured per unit length. RESULTS Six children were identified whose VP shunts had perforated the GI tract; 2 shunts subsequently protruded through the anal orifice, 1 protruded through the oral cavity, and 3 presented with subcutaneous abscesses that tracked upward from the intestine to the chest. All perforating shunts were Chhabra shunts. Catheter stiffness and resistance to bending were greatest with a Medtronic shunt catheter, intermediate with a Codman catheter, and least with a Chhabra catheter. Frictional force was greatest with a Chhabra catheter and least with a Medtronic catheter. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of perforations by Chhabra shunts appears to be higher than the frequency associated with other shunts. The increased frequency does not correlate with their stiffness but may reflect their greater frictional forces. PMID:25837887

  11. Shunt regulation electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W. H.; Bless, J. J. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A regulated electric power system having load and return bus lines is described. A plurality of solar cells interconnected in a power supplying relationship and having a power shunt tap point electrically spaced from the bus lines is provided. A power dissipator is connected to the shunt tap point and provides for a controllable dissipation of excess energy supplied by the solar cells. A dissipation driver is coupled to the power dissipator and controls its conductance and dissipation and is also connected to the solar cells in a power taping relationship to derive operating power therefrom. An error signal generator is coupled to the load bus and to a reference signal generator to provide an error output signal which is representative of the difference between the electric parameters existing at the load bus and the reference signal generator. An error amplifier is coupled to the error signal generator and the dissipation driver to provide the driver with controlling signals.

  12. Arterioportal shunts on dynamic computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Hiyama, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Tsuchiya, S.; Kohno, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Okuda, K.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-two patients, 20 with hepatocelluar carcinoma and 12 with liver cirrhosis, were examined by dynamic computed tomography (CT) using intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium and by celiac angiography. Dynamic CT disclosed arterioportal shunting in four cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and in one of cirrhosis. In three of the former, the arterioportal shunt was adjacent to a mass lesion on CT, suggesting tumor invasion into the portal branch. In one with hepatocellular carcinoma, the shunt was remote from the mass. In the case with cirrhosis, there was no mass. In these last two cases, the shunt might have been caused by prior percutaneous needle puncture. In another case of hepatocellular carcinoma, celiac angiography but not CT demonstrated an arterioportal shunt. Thus, dynamic CT was diagnostic in five of six cases of arteriographically demonstrated arterioportal shunts.

  13. Radiological Insertion and Management of Peritoneovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F. Lopez, A. J.

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to report our experience of the management of complications following the insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for intractable malignant ascites. From June 1999 to January 2006, 26 patients underwent insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for ascites by interventional radiologists. We have used ultrasound and shuntography to assist in the diagnosis of the cause of shunt blockage. Successful techniques for the restoration of the shunt function include port- pumping, stripping of any fibrin sheath, and revision of either the venous or peritoneal catheter. The procedure was initially successful in all patients with continued patency until death in 17. A further four patients are still alive with a functioning shunt. There was one rapid postprocedure death resulting from pulmonary edema. Two patients developed pneumothorax, managed successfully with either a chest drain or aspiration. Shunt dysfunction occurred eight times in seven patients. There were five successful revisions in four patients. Overall, shunt patency has been maintained in 80.1% of patients. Shunt dysfunction is seen in a significant number of patients, but successful revision of the shunt can be achieved in the majority.

  14. Predicting shunt failure in children: should the global shunt revision rate be a quality measure?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Nicholas B; Khan, Nickalus R; Jones, Tamekia L; Lepard, Jacob; McAbee, Joseph H; Klimo, Paul

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Ventricular shunts for pediatric hydrocephalus continue to be plagued with high failure rates. Reported risk factors for shunt failure are inconsistent and controversial. The raw or global shunt revision rate has been the foundation of several proposed quality metrics. The authors undertook this study to determine risk factors for shunt revision within their own patient population. METHODS In this single-center retrospective cohort study, a database was created of all ventricular shunt operations performed at the authors' institution from January 1, 2010, through December 2013. For each index shunt surgery, demographic, clinical, and procedural variables were assembled. An "index surgery" was defined as implantation of a new shunt or the revision or augmentation of an existing shunt system. Bivariate analyses were first performed to evaluate individual effects of each independent variable on shunt failure at 90 days and at 180 days. A final multivariate model was chosen for each outcome by using a backward model selection approach. RESULTS There were 466 patients in the study accounting for 739 unique ("index") operations, for an average of 1.59 procedures per patient. The median age for the cohort at the time of the first shunt surgery was 5 years (range 0-35.7 years), with 53.9% males. The 90- and 180-day shunt failure rates were 24.1% and 29.9%, respectively. The authors found no variable-demographic, clinical, or procedural-that predicted shunt failure within 90 or 180 days. CONCLUSIONS In this study, none of the risk factors that were examined were statistically significant in determining shunt failure within 90 or 180 days. Given the negative findings and the fact that all other risk factors for shunt failure that have been proposed in the literature thus far are beyond the control of the surgeon (i.e., nonmodifiable), the use of an institution's or individual's global shunt revision rate remains questionable and needs further evaluation before being accepted as a quality metric. PMID:26544083

  15. LP01 to LP0m mode converters using all-fiber two-stage tapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellah, Hakim; Zhang, Xiupu; Shen, Dongya

    2015-11-01

    A mode converter between LP01 and LP0m modes is proposed using two stages of tapers. The first stage is formed by an adiabatically tapering a circular fiber to excite the desirable LP0m mode. The second stage is formed by inserting an inner core (tapered from both sides) with a refractive index smaller than the original core. This second stage is used to obtain low insertion loss and high extinction ratio of the desired LP0m mode. Three converters between LP01 and LP0m, m=2, 3, and 4, are designed for C-band, and simulation results show that less than 0.24, 0.54 and 0.7 dB insertion loss and higher than 15, 16, and 17.5 dB extinction ratio over the entire band were obtained for the three converters, respectively.

  16. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  17. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  18. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home...

  19. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.229 Shunting sensitivity. Each highway-rail...

  20. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home...

  1. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home...

  2. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home...

  3. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.229 Shunting sensitivity. Each highway-rail...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  5. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  6. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  7. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  8. 78 FR 22872 - TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings Take notice that on April 5, 2013, the applicants listed above submitted an amendment to...

  9. 78 FR 25262 - TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings Take notice that on April 23, 2013, the applicants listed above submitted an amendment to...

  10. Mycobacterium abscessus ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Montero, Jose A; Alrabaa, Sally F; Wills, Todd S

    2016-04-01

    A 30-year-old man with history of neonatal hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement presented with Mycobacterium abscessus shunt infection despite no shunt manipulation over 10 years prior to presentation. Cure was not achieved until complete removal of all CNS shunt foreign body was performed despite initial adequate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26148928

  11. Canine congenital portosystemic shunts: Disconnections dissected.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, L; van Steenbeek, F G

    2016-05-01

    Canine congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are vascular anomalies that connect the portal vein with the systemic circulation, therefore bypassing the hepatic parenchyma. Portosystemic shunts exist in two different subtypes: extrahepatic and intrahepatic. This congenital disorder is also described in mice, cat, sheep and man. Research has been focused on pathophysiology, diagnostics and treatment of CPSS and this has resulted in increased knowledge, although the aetiology of the disease remains unclear. This review focuses on the aetiology and genetic basis of both intra- and extrahepatic shunts. PMID:27061656

  12. Scintisplenoportography in assessing patency of distal splenorenal shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Teres, J.; Herranz, R.; Visa, J.; Lomena, F.; Pera, C.; Rodes, J.

    1983-06-01

    Scintisplenoportography was performed on 33 occasions in 28 cirrhotic patients who had bled from esophagogastric varices. In 17 cases scintisplenoportography was carried out after a retroperitoneal distal splenorenal shunt procedure and in the remaining 16 instances in patients without any surgical shunt. In four patients scintisplenoportography was performed before and after a surgical shunt procedure, and in one case, before and after the shunt thrombosed. Gammagraphic patterns and spleen-heart times helped determine which patients did not have a surgical shunt, which had a patent shunt, and which patients had a thrombosed shunt. A patent shunt pattern and a thrombosed shunt pattern have been defined. It is concluded that scintisplenoportography is a useful, reproducible, and safe method to assess the patency of distal splenorenal shunts.

  13. Arne Torkildsen and the ventriculocisternal shunt: the first clinically successful shunt for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Eide, Per Kristian; Lundar, Tryggve

    2016-05-01

    Arne Torkildsen was a pioneering Norwegian neurosurgeon who introduced the ventriculocisternal shunt, the first clinically successful shunt for CSF diversion in hydrocephalus. The procedure, usually referred to as ventriculocisternostomy (VCS), Torkildsen's operation, orTorkildsen's shunt, became internationally recognized as an efficient operation for the treatment of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. The operation gained widespread use in the 1940s and 1950s before the introduction of extracranial shunts. In this paper, the authors look more closely at Torkildsen's development of the VCS and examine how this surgical approach differed from other procedures for treating hydrocephalus before World War II. Long-term results of the VCS are presented. PMID:26339852

  14. Severe respiratory failure following ventriculopleural shunt

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Shahzad; Manjunath, Nagaraju M.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure has been used for long to treat hydrocephalus in children. The principle of shunting is to establish a communication between the CSF and a drainage cavity (peritoneum, right atrium, and pleura). Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is used most commonly, followed secondly by ventriculopleural shunt (VPLS). Hydrothorax due to excessive CSF accumulation is a rare complication following both the type of shunts and is more frequently seen with VPLS. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with massive CSF hydrothorax with respiratory failure following VPLS. The aim of the article is to highlight early recognition of this rare and life-threatening condition, which could easily be missed if proper history is not available. PMID:26730125

  15. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home...

  16. The somatic shunt cable model for neurons.

    PubMed

    Durand, D

    1984-11-01

    The derivation of the equations for an electrical model of nerve cells is presented. The model consists of an equivalent cylinder, a lumped somatic impedance, and a variable shunt at the soma. This shunt was introduced to take into account the fast voltage decays observed following the injections of current pulses in some motoneurons and hippocampal granule cells that could not be explained by existing models. The shunt can be interpreted either by penetration damage with the electrode or by a lower membrane specific resistance at the soma than in the dendrites. A solution of the model equations is presented that allows the estimation of the electrotonic length L, the membrane time constant tau m, the dendritic dominance ratio rho, and the shunt parameter epsilon, based only on the measurement of the first two coefficients and time constants in the multiexponential voltage response to injected current pulses. PMID:6498277

  17. Ventricle to sagittal sinus shunt for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Hash, C J; Shenkin, H A; Crowder, L E

    1979-05-01

    A technique of shunting the lateral ventricle to the superior sagittal sinus is described. It has been used in 36 adult patients; infection occured in 2 patients (5.6%), and 2 patients required shunt revision (5.6%). The outcome of 18 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus could be validly evaluated, and successful control was achieved in 15 (83%). One of the 3 failures could have been avoided because shunting was undertaken before the ventricular fluid had cleared of blood. Four patients with normal or low pressure hydrocephalus were treated; only 1 had a successful result. This technique is suitable for patients with high pressure hydrocephalus and is of particular value in very ill or debilitated patients because of the rapidity with which it can be performed under local analgesia. Its use in normal or low pressure hydrocephalus must still be evaluated. In any event, the sagittal sinus is certainly a feasible alternate receptor site for ventricular shunting. PMID:460566

  18. Syringosubarachnoid shunting using a myringotomy tube

    PubMed Central

    Leschke, Jack M.; Mumert, Michael L.; Kurpad, Shekar N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Syringomyelia results from obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow due to a multitude of causes. Often symptoms of pain, weakness, and sensory disturbance are progressive and require surgical treatment. We present here a rare technique for syringosubarachnoid shunting. Case Description: We present the case of a 38-year-old male who suffered a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury due to a motor vehicle accident. With progressive pain and motor decline, a magnetic resonance imaging was obtained and showed a new syrinx extending cervical multiple segments. A unique surgical procedure using a myringotomy tube to shunt CSF into the subarachnoid space was employed in this case. The patient's examination stabilized postoperatively, and at 2 months and 6 months follow-up visits, his strength and sensation continued to improve. Conclusion: We used a myringotomy tube for syringosubarachnoid shunting for the surgical management of a posttraumatic syrinx with good results. This technique minimizes suturing and may minimize shunt-related complications. PMID:26862456

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Versus Surgical Shunting in the Management of Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Yu, Qing-Sheng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Ju-Da; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article was to clarify the optimal management concerning transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs) and surgical shunting in treating portal hypertension. Methods: All databases, including CBM, CNKI, WFPD, Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane up to February 2014, were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TIPS with surgical shunting. Four RCTs, which were extracted by two independent investigators and were evaluated in postoperative complications, mortality, 2- and 5-year survival, hospital stay, operating time and hospitalization charges. Results: The morbidity in variceal rehemorrhage was significantly higher in TIPS than in surgical shunts (odds ratio [OR] = 7.45, 95% confidence interval[CI]: (3.93–14.15), P < 0.00001), the same outcomes were seen in shunt stenosis (OR = 20.01, 95% CI: (6.67–59.99), P < 0.000001) and in hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: (1.63–3.84), P < 0.0001). Significantly better 2-year survival (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: (0.44–0.98), P = 0.04) and 5-year survival (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: (0.30–0.66), P < 0.00001) were seen in patients undergoing surgical shunting compared with TIPS. Conclusions: Compared with TIPS, postoperative complications and survival after surgical shunting were superior for patients with portal hypertension. Application of surgical shunting was recommended for patients rather than TIPS. PMID:25758281

  20. Study of lipoprotein particles LpAI and LpAI:AII in patients before coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Coste-Burel, M; Mainard, F; Chivot, L; Auget, J L; Madec, Y

    1990-11-01

    Lipids, apolipoproteins, and LpAI and LpAI:AII particles were studied in 43 men (mean age 51, SD 7, years) 24 h before their coronary bypass surgery and in 54 control men (mean age 46 SD 9, years). LpAI and LpAI:AII were analyzed by electroimmunodiffusion and by a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunoassay, respectively. Concentrations of LpAI and LpAI:AII in the bypass patients were significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than those in the controls. Apolipoprotein AI was significantly correlated with LpAI (P less than 0.001) and LpAI:AII (P less than 0.01) in controls, but only with LpAI:AII (P less than 0.001) in bypass patients. Discriminant analysis between controls and patients showed apolipoprotein AI to be the most powerful discriminant factor; the addition of LpAI and LpAI:AII did not improve discriminant power. We conclude that the determination of LpAI and LpAI:AII particles reflects metabolic disorders in patients but does not significantly influence the discrimination of such patients into risk groups. PMID:2242564

  1. LP Daac Product Lifecyle Plan in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC that supports selected EOS Community non-standard data products such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED), and also supports NASA Earth Science programs such as Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. To support and deliver excellence for NASA data stewardship, and to accommodate long-tail data preservation with Community and MEaSUREs products, the LP DAAC introduces a Product Lifecycle Plan that features a phased project framework to facilitate long-term product preservation. The first phase, Inception, captures all artifacts applied by the Product Developer(s) and develops Earth Science Data Records based on product artifacts. The second phase, Active Archive, distributes, promotes and provides services for the matured products to the science community. The third and final phase, Long-term Archive, establishes a permanent preservation location for all project artifacts. This poster depicts the LP DAAC Product Lifecycle Plan in action using the LP DAAC recently released NASA WELD Version 1.5 artifacts and phased objectives.

  2. Liver transplantation in patients with patent splenorenal shunts

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel, Carlos O.; Klintmalm, Goran; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Makowka, Leonard; Gordon, Robert D.; Tzakis, Andreas; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Patent distal splenorenal shunts (Warren shunt) have been reported to cause decreases in the portal perfusion pressure and the total hepatic blood flow. Such hemodynamic alterations could have adverse effects on the transplanted liver. The experience with hepatic replacement in four patients with patent Warren shunts is reported. Operative findings were phlebosclerotic portal veins of small size and diminished portal blood flows. Hepatofugal collateral channels created by the construction of the Warren shunt were eliminated by division of the shunt and splenectomy in three patients and splenectomy alone in the other. All patients recovered; thus the presence of a patent Warren shunt should not be a contraindication for hepatic transplantation. PMID:3551166

  3. 78 FR 66352 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 17, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court..., General Manager, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston,...

  4. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... directed to Marcy F. Collins, Associate General Counsel, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box...

  5. 77 FR 12045 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), PO Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77056 filed... directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, PO Box...

  6. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... directed to Lisa A. Connolly, General Manager, Rates & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP,...

  7. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP,...

  8. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission... Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas, 77251-1642, or by calling (713) 627-4102; by...

  9. Pleuroperitoneal shunt for recurrent malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, V; Fernando, H C; Goldstraw, P

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic options available for the management of malignant pleural effusions associated with a restricting malignant cortex remain unsatisfactory. The efficacy of pleuroperitoneal shunts was evaluated in 16 patients with recurrent malignant effusions. There were no operative deaths; one patient died on the third postoperative day as a result of lymphangitis carcinomatosa. The median hospital stay was five (range 3-21) days. Palliation was obtained in all but one of the other 15 patients. There was no appreciable reaccumulation of pleural fluid as judged by radiography. Two patients developed occlusion of the shunt. In one case this was due to blood clots in the pleural catheter and necessitated insertion of a new shunt. The other shunt was removed because of obstructing infected fibrin debris, and a rib resection was performed. There were eight deaths related to the underlying malignancy after a mean interval of 7.3 (range 1.5-23) months. The other six patients are still alive, with a mean survival of 11.0 (range 5-20) months, and have achieved good symptomatic relief. The insertion of a pleuroperitoneal shunt can offer effective palliation for patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusions. Images PMID:1696401

  10. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  11. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  12. 77 FR 2293 - AmeriGas Propane, L.P., AmeriGas Propane, Inc., Energy Transfer Partners, L.P., and Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... AmeriGas Propane, L.P., AmeriGas Propane, Inc., Energy Transfer Partners, L.P., and Energy Transfer...'') with AmeriGas Propane, L.P. (``AmeriGas''), AmeriGas Propane, Inc., Energy Transfer Partners, L.P. (``ETP''), and Energy Transfer Partners GP, L.P. (``ETP GP''), which is designed to guard...

  13. 75 FR 20870 - Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking... given that Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P. and Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P., 3000 Sand...). Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P. proposes to sell part of its equity interest in Renal...

  14. Recovery from confabulation after normotensive hydrocephalus shunting.

    PubMed

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Barbera, Claudia; Brazzarola, Marta; Marangoni, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Confabulation, the production of statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, background, present and future situation, is observed in several conditions affecting the nervous system, but it has never been described in normotensive hydrocephalus. In this article we report on a patient with normotensive hydrocephalus who suffered from an amnesic-confabulatory syndrome. After hydrocephalus shunting, both amnesia and confabulation cleared up abruptly. We discuss this finding in terms of a possible disconnection of the hippocampus, due to transitory white matter damage, which may have recovered after hydrocephalus shunting. PMID:26724492

  15. Ventricular shunt infections: Immunopathogenesis and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Murgas, Yenis; Snowden, Jessica N.

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular shunts are the most common neurosurgical procedure performed in the United States. This hydrocephalus treatment is often complicated by infection of the device with biofilm-forming bacteria. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of shunt infection, as well as the implications of the biofilm formation on treatment and prevention of these infections. Many questions remain, including the contribution of glia and the impact of inflammation on developmental outcomes following infection. Immune responses within the CNS must be carefully regulated to contain infection while minimizing bystander damage; further study is needed to design optimal treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:25156073

  16. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4545 Shunt system implantation instrument. (a) Identification. A shunt system implantation instrument is an instrument used...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4545 Shunt system implantation instrument. (a) Identification. A shunt system implantation instrument is an instrument used...

  18. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the...

  1. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  2. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the...

  3. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  4. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the...

  5. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch...

  6. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  7. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  8. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch...

  9. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch...

  10. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  11. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch...

  12. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545... implantation instrument. (a) Identification. A shunt system implantation instrument is an instrument used in the implantation of cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and includes tunneling instruments for passing...

  14. Fabrication of capacitively-shunted superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Gudmundsen, Theodore J.; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Welander, Paul B.; Gustavsson, Simon; Hover, David; Kerman, Andrew J.; Sears, Adam P.; Oliver, William D.

    2014-03-01

    Improvements in superconducting qubit coherence times and reproducibility have been demonstrated using capacitive shunting. In this study, we present methods for the preparation of both capacitively-shunted charge qubits (transmons) and capacitively-shunted flux qubits. Hybrid fabrication techniques were employed to combine high-quality-factor aluminum capacitive shunts with shadow-evaporated Josephson junctions, and the Josephson junctions were prepared using suspended-bridge germanium masks. We also will describe process testing results that were acquired to assess wafer-to-wafer reproducibility of our fabrication protocols. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of IARPA, the ODNI, or the U.S. Government.

  15. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall detect the application of a...

  16. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall detect the application of a...

  17. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall detect the application of a...

  18. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation is a well-known technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduce by the extra conductors required. It is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1-{phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system. Additions to the electrical system are required to establish the shunt current and to control its magnitude during projectile acceleration. The relationship between muzzle shunt augmentation and conventional series augmentation is developed and various techniques is developed and various techniques for establishing and controlling the shunt current are illustrated with a practical example. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Episodic ventriculomegaly due to hypernatremia mimicking shunt malfunction: case report.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Sarah C; Stone, Scellig S D; Aronson, Joshua P; Putman, Melissa; Proctor, Mark R

    2015-10-01

    Patients with shunted hydrocephalus presenting with altered mental status and ventriculomegaly are generally considered to be in shunt failure requiring surgical treatment. The authors describe a case of shunted hydrocephalus secondary to a disseminated neuroectodermal tumor in a pediatric patient in whom rapid fluctuations in sodium levels due to diabetes insipidus repeatedly led to significant changes in ventricle size, with invasively confirmed normal shunt function and low intracranial pressure. This clinical picture exactly mimics shunt malfunction, requires urgent nonsurgical therapy, and underscores the importance of considering serum osmolar abnormalities in the differential diagnosis for ventriculomegaly. PMID:26186358

  20. Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.

  1. New method of negative capacitance shunt tuning for vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Benjamin S.; Cunefare, Kenneth A.; Collet, Manuel; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2012-04-01

    The control of vibrating structures using piezoelectric elements connected to simple control circuits, known as shunts, is a widely studied field. Many different shunts have been researched that haven been shown to obtain strong performance in both narrow and broadband frequency ranges. Yet, the choice for the exact parameters of these shunts can be found different ways. In this work, a new method of selecting the components of a negative capacitance shunt is presented. An impedance model of a piezoelectric patch is developed and used to predict the control of a vibrating structure. The model predicts the magnitude of the strain induced voltage caused by the vibrating substrate through the computation of two voltage readings within the shunt. It is then confirmed experimentally, that it is possible to obtain experimentally the shunt parameters that produce maximum control through measurement of the shunt response.

  2. A large spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a cirrhotic patient

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Ye, Chun; Hou, Yue; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Summary A spontaneous portosystemic shunt is a rare malformation of the vessels supplying the liver. This condition often leads to the development of hepatic encephalopathy due to excessive shunting of blood from the portal vein to the inferior vena cava. Some studies have suggested that the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts is inversely associated with the appearance of large esophageal varices. Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (SIPSS) are far less frequently observed than extrahepatic portosystemic shunts, which include spleno-gastric-renal shunts, mesenteric-caval shunts, and a large patent umbilical vein. Reported here is a case of decompensated liver cirrhosis with a large SIPSS without any incidence of overt hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26989653

  3. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  4. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Daugherty, M. A.; Green, G. F.; Roth, E. W.

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

  5. Jugular Foramen Arteriovenous Shunt with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, G.; Comoy, J.; Hurth, M.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man with an extracerebral arteriovenous fistula at the skull base, revealed by subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into left laterobulbar veins. Embolization with bucrylate was performed and occluded totally the shunting zone. A 1-year follow-up angiogram confirmed the good stability of the result, the patient being asymptomatic. This case emphasizes the quality of results that can be obtained with bucrylate in arterioverious fistulas presenting with hemorrhage. It confirms that the external carotid artery must be studied when dealing with intracranial hemorrhage. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography may depict vascular abnormalities but do not always indicate the shunting area, thus the pathologic type of the malformation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 5p136-b PMID:17170835

  6. Power factor correction utilizing shunt capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, N.B.; Song, Y.D.; Lebby, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    Power factor (PF) represents an important index in power systems. It can be thought of as the efficiency of a power system to produce useful power. By increasing the power factor, the overall efficiency of the system is increased. This paper addresses power factor improvement by using shunt capacitors. Expressions of the required capacitance for a desired power factor are established according to different system parameters. Examples are included to illustrate the application of these methods.

  7. Quantitative evaluation fo cerebrospinal fluid shunt flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chervu, S.; Chervu, L.R.; Vallabhajosyula, B.; Milstein, D.M.; Shapiro, K.M.; Shulman, K.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe a rigorous method for measuring the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in shunt circuits implanted for the relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. Clearance of radioactivity for several calibrated flow rates was determined with a Harvard infusion pump by injecting the Rickham reservoir of a Rickham-Holter valve system with 100 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m as pertechnetate. The elliptical and the cylindrical Holter valves used as adjunct valves with the Rickham reservoir yielded two different regression lines when the clearances were plotted against flow rats. The experimental regression lines were used to determine the in vivo flow rates from clearances calculated after injecting the Rickham reservoirs of the patients. The unique clearance characteristics of the individual shunt systems available requires that calibration curves be derived for an entire system identical to one implanted in the patient being evaluated, rather than just the injected chamber. Excellent correlation between flow rates and the clinical findings supports the reliability of this method of quantification of CSF shunt flow, and the results are fully accepted by neurosurgeons.

  8. Active shunt capacitance cancelling oscillator circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2003-09-23

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be used to produce oscillation using a piezoelectric crystal, with a frequency of oscillation being largely independent of any shunt capacitance associated with the crystal (i.e. due to electrodes on the surfaces of the crystal and due to packaging and wiring for the crystal). The oscillator circuit is based on a tuned gain stage which operates the crystal at a frequency, f, near a series resonance frequency, f.sub.S. The oscillator circuit further includes a compensation circuit that supplies all the ac current flow through the shunt resistance associated with the crystal so that this ac current need not be supplied by the tuned gain stage. The compensation circuit uses a current mirror to provide the ac current flow based on the current flow through a reference capacitor that is equivalent to the shunt capacitance associated with the crystal. The oscillator circuit has applications for driving piezoelectric crystals for sensing of viscous, fluid or solid media by detecting a change in the frequency of oscillation of the crystal and a resonator loss which occur from contact of an exposed surface of the crystal by the viscous, fluid or solid media.

  9. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  10. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption... that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  11. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 4. Clinical presentation of the shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Spiessberger, Alex; Hothorn, Torsten; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae have been classified into high- and low-risk lesions mainly based on the pattern of venous drainage. Those with leptomeningeal venous drainage carry a higher risk of an aggressive clinical presentation. Recently, it has been proposed that the clinical presentation should be considered as an additional independent factor determining the clinical course of these lesions. However, dural shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage include a very wide spectrum of inhomogeneous lesions. In the current study, we correlated the clinical presentation of 107 consecutive patients harboring cranial dural arteriovenous shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage, with their distinct anatomic and angiographic features categorized into eight groups based on the "DES" (Directness and Exclusivity of leptomeningeal venous drainage and features of venous Strain) concept. We found that among these groups, there are significant angioarchitectural differences, which are reflected by considerable differences in clinical presentation. Leptomeningeal venous drainage of dural sinus shunts that is neither direct nor exclusive and without venous strain manifested only benign symptoms (aggressive presentation 0%). On the other end of the spectrum, the bridging vein shunts with direct and exclusive leptomeningeal venous drainage and venous strain are expected to present aggressive symptoms almost always and most likely with bleeding (aggressive presentation 91.5%). Important aspects of the above correlations are discussed. Therefore, the consideration of leptomeningeal venous drainage alone, for prediction of the clinical presentation of these shunts appears insufficient. Angiographic analysis based on the above concept, offers the possibility to distinguish the higher- from the lower-risk types of leptomeningeal venous drainage. In this context, consideration of the clinical presentation as an additional independent factor for the prediction of their clinical course seems superfluous and possibly misleading. Topography is connected to the clinical presentation of the dural shunts inasmuch as the former determines the venous anatomy and the angioarchitectural features of the lesions. PMID:25421555

  12. 78 FR 79687 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 10, 2013 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in...

  13. 76 FR 41238 - Regency Intrastate Gas LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Regency Intrastate Gas LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 7, 2011, Regency Intrastate Gas LP, (Regency) filed to revise its Operating Statement. Regency states this...

  14. 76 FR 34974 - Regency Intrastate Gas LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Regency Intrastate Gas LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 7, 2011, Regency Intrastate Gas LP, (Regency) filed to revise its Operating Statement. Regency states...

  15. 78 FR 16846 - Notice of Application; Equitrans, L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Application; Equitrans, L.P. Take notice that on March 1, 2013, Equitrans, L.P. (Equitrans), 625 Liberty Avenue, Suite 1700, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222, filed in Docket...: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on April 2, 2013. Dated: March 12, 2013. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary....

  16. 76 FR 9341 - Equitrans, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 27, 2011, Equitrans, L.P. (``Equitrans''), having its principal place of business at 625 Liberty Avenue, Suite...

  17. 75 FR 27551 - Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing May 10, 2010. Take notice that on December 16, 2009, Keystone Energy Partners, LP submit for filing an Updated Market...

  18. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056... Application should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern...

  19. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On March 15, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310... & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, TX 77251-1642, at (713) 627-4488...

  20. 75 FR 45611 - Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 15, 2010, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas... Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, or by calling (713)...

  1. 78 FR 64933 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, (Texas Eastern), having its principal place of business at... Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas, 77251, or by calling (713) 627-4102 (telephone) or (713)...

  2. 76 FR 68745 - Seneca Power Partners, L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Power Partners, L.P. v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e and Rule 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Seneca Power Partners, L.P. (Complainant)...

  3. Percutaneous upsizing of a Blalock-Taussig shunt.

    PubMed

    Tzifa, Aphrodite; Rosenthal, Eric; Qureshi, Shakeel

    2012-04-01

    Percutaneous upsizing of surgically placed Blalock-Taussig shunts is an uncommon practice. We report the case of an 8-month-old infant with single-ventricle physiology, who - due to comorbidities - was deemed unsuitable to proceed with Glenn operation. The 3.5-millimetre Blalock-Taussig shunt was stented successfully with a 5-millimetre pre-mounted stent, resulting in an increase in shunt diameter and oxygen saturation by nearly 30% and 10%, respectively. PMID:21920058

  4. Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

  5. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOEpatents

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  6. Semi-shunt field emission in electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2014-08-04

    We introduce a concept of semi-shunts representing needle shaped metallic protrusions shorter than the distance between a device electrodes. Due to the lightening rod type of field enhancement, they induce strong electron emission. We consider the corresponding signature effects in photovoltaic applications; they are: low open circuit voltages and exponentially strong random device leakiness. Comparing the proposed theory with our data for CdTe based solar cells, we conclude that stress can stimulate semi-shunts' growth making them shunting failure precursors. In the meantime, controllable semi-shunts can play a positive role mitigating the back field effects in photovoltaics.

  7. A compact, coaxial shunt current diagnostic for X pinches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Shaoguo

    2015-08-01

    A compact coaxial shunt was applied in X-pinches experiments on Qiangguang pulsed power generator. The coaxial shunt was designed to have a compact construction for smaller inductance and more, for conveniently assembling upon the X pinch load structure. The coaxial shunt is also a cheap current probe and was easily built by research groups. The shunt can monitor a 100 kA high current with a 100 ns rise time. The calibration results showed that the probe used in the experiments has a resistance of 3.2 m? with an uncertainty of 3%, and its response time to the step signal is less than 7 ns. PMID:26329193

  8. Portosystemic Shunt Syndrome and Endovascular Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E.

    2014-01-01

    The term portosystemic shunt syndrome was coined by Kumamoto et al referring to reduction of the hepatic reserve (reflected by progression of the ChildPugh score) over 5 years compared with portal hypertensive cirrhotics without gastrorenal shunts or with prior history of obliterated gastrorenal shunts. Saad et al elaborated on this term further by describing a complete syndrome with clinical findings (including worsening liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy [HE]) and imaging findings (including hepatic atrophy, portal vein thrombosis, and paucity of intrahepatic portal vein radicles). This article discusses the syndrome in detail. In addition, the article describes the types of HE and the endovascular management of shunt-related HE. PMID:25177088

  9. A compact, coaxial shunt current diagnostic for X pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Shaoguo

    2015-08-01

    A compact coaxial shunt was applied in X-pinches experiments on Qiangguang pulsed power generator. The coaxial shunt was designed to have a compact construction for smaller inductance and more, for conveniently assembling upon the X pinch load structure. The coaxial shunt is also a cheap current probe and was easily built by research groups. The shunt can monitor a 100 kA high current with a 100 ns rise time. The calibration results showed that the probe used in the experiments has a resistance of 3.2 mΩ with an uncertainty of 3%, and its response time to the step signal is less than 7 ns.

  10. LP based approach to optimal stable matchings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Chung-Piaw; Sethuraman, J.

    1997-06-01

    We study the classical stable marriage and stable roommates problems using a polyhedral approach. We propose a new LP formulation for the stable roommates problem. This formulation is non-empty if and only if the underlying roommates problem has a stable matching. Furthermore, for certain special weight functions on the edges, we construct a 2-approximation algorithm for the optimal stable roommates problem. Our technique uses a crucial geometry of the fractional solutions in this formulation. For the stable marriage problem, we show that a related geometry allows us to express any fractional solution in the stable marriage polytope as convex combination of stable marriage solutions. This leads to a genuinely simple proof of the integrality of the stable marriage polytope. Based on these ideas, we devise a heuristic to solve the optimal stable roommates problem. The heuristic combines the power of rounding and cutting-plane methods. We present some computational results based on preliminary implementations of this heuristic.

  11. Space scannable LP-DOAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenbi; Liu, Wen Qing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Feng, Qi; Zheng, Xinming

    2003-06-01

    The DOAS technique is currently the developing trend and the main technique of online monitoring of tropospheric air quality measurements. In order to enlarge the scope of monitoring with only one set of instrument, we recently developed an multi-path LP-DOAS system in which we put several sets of retroreflectors at their own appointed remote places, each makes a measuring lightpath when the telescope aligns with it. In this way we can determine high spatial resolution and two or three-dimensional trace gas distributions of a larger region with the telescope as its center. We developed a stepping-motor-based mechanics-electrical device to drive the telescope. Under the control of a PC the telescope can automatically scan these retroreflectors one by one in continuous measure cycles.

  12. 75 FR 8322 - EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP, Complainants, v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP, Complainants, v. PJM Interconnection, LLC, Respondent; Notice of Complaint February 17, 2010. Take notice that on February 1, 2010 pursuant...

  13. 78 FR 36182 - APL SouthTex Transmission Company LP, Formerly TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov... filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and is available for... Company, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 7, 2013, APL SouthTex Transmission Company LP...

  14. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Liquefaction Project, Request for...

  15. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental...

  16. 77 FR 74179 - TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on December 6, 2012, the applicants listed above submitted a...

  17. Cryptococcal Infection of the Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Foong, Kap Sum; Lee, Ashley; Vasquez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 52 Final Diagnosis: Cryptococcal ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection Symptoms: Confusion • fever • Lethargy Medication: Amphotericin B • Flucytosine Clinical Procedure: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt removal Specialty: Infectious disease Objective: Rare disease Background: Ventriculoperitoneal shunting is an effective treatment for hydrocephalus. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection is a common complication. Cryptococcus neoformans as an implicated organism is rare. In this report, we describe a patient with cryptococcal VPS infection. Case Report: A 52-year-old male with normal pressure hydrocephalus, status post implantation of VPS one year prior to the presentation; who was admitted with a fever, lethargy and confusion for three days. He was treated empirically with intravenous cefepime and vancomycin for VPS infection. The CSF analysis from both the lumbar puncture and the VPS was significant for a low white blood count, low glucose and high protein. Other work-up including India ink and cryptococcal antigen was unrevealing. He remained febrile despite antibiotic treatment for 5 days. The CSF from the shunt was sent for analysis again and it demonstrated similar results from the prior study, but the culture was now positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was started on oral flucytosine and intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. The VPS was removed and an externalized ventricular catheter was placed. The patient showed rapid resolution of the symptoms. Conclusions: To date, there was a total of nine reported cases of cryptococcal VPS infection upon review of the literature. Our presenting case and the literature review highlight the difficulties in making an accurate diagnosis of cryptococcal shunt infection. There were case reports of false negative cryptococcal antigen tests with culture proven cryptococcal meningitis. The CSF culture from the shunt remains a mainstay for identifying cryptococcal shunt infection. Cryptococcal shunt infections are rare and early diagnosis and treatment is essential for patient management which involves shunt replacement with concomitant administration of intravenous antifungal medication. High clinical suspicion is crucial and shunt culture preferably from the valve is recommended. PMID:26778598

  18. Hepatoblastoma in Children With Congenital Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Lautz, Timothy B; Shah, Sonam A; Superina, Riccardo A

    2016-04-01

    Two children developed hepatoblastoma concurrent with congenital portosystemic shunts (PSSs) (Abernethy malformations). Both underwent operative ligation of their PSSs. One received concurrent tumor resection, whereas the other was deemed initially unresectable and underwent biopsy followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although benign hepatic masses, such as focal nodular hyperplasia and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, are common in patients with Abernethy malformations, malignant tumors have also been documented and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with a congenital PSS and a hepatic mass. PMID:26488121

  19. Shunting branch of portal vein and stent position predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; He, Chuang-Ye; Qi, Xing-Shun; Yin, Zhan-Xin; Wang, Jian-Hong; Guo, Wen-Gang; Niu, Jing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Zhang, Zhuo-Li; Larson, Andrew C; Wu, Kai-Chun; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of the shunting branch of the portal vein (PV) (left or right) and the initial stent position (optimal or suboptimal) of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 307 consecutive cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS placement for variceal bleeding from March 2001 to July 2010 at our center. The left PV was used in 221 patients and the right PV in the remaining 86 patients. And, 224 and 83 patients have optimal stent position and sub-optimal stent positions, respectively. The patients were followed until October 2011 or their death. Hepatic encephalopathy, shunt dysfunction, and survival were evaluated as outcomes. The difference between the groups was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis. A Cox regression model was employed to evaluate the predictors. RESULTS: Among the patients who underwent TIPS to the left PV, the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (P = 0.002) and mortality were lower (P < 0.001) compared to those to the right PV. Patients who underwent TIPS with optimal initial stent position had a higher primary patency (P < 0.001) and better survival (P = 0.006) than those with suboptimal initial stent position. The shunting branch of the portal vein and the initial stent position were independent predictors of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt dysfunction after TIPS, respectively. And, both were independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSION: TIPS placed to the left portal vein with optimal stent position may reduce the risk of hepatic encephalopathy and improve the primary patency rates, thereby prolonging survival. PMID:24574750

  20. Hydrocephalus: the zero ICP ventricle shunt (ZIPS) to control gravity shunt flow. A clinical study in 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Foltz, E L; Blanks, J; Meyer, R

    1994-01-01

    Significant morbidity from ventricle shunt overdrainage at 6-7 years after initial shunt placement for hydrocephalus is increasingly recognized as due to excessive gravity-flow of shunted CSF when upright. Shunts are designed primarily to control high ICP. Shunts should also mimic normal upright ICP. Normal upright ICP is -65 mm of water (vertex reference), indicating that a level of zero ICP exists at 65 mm below the brain vertex, with negative ICP above and positive ICP below that level. This normal zero ICP level must be maintained by CSF shunts to mimic normal upright ICP. This will prevent and correct CSF shunt overdrainage. The zero ICP shunt (ZIPS) by design controls this zero level with a zero pressure device (ZPD; siphon control device) installed at the normal vertical level of zero ICP (cm/mm) below the vertex (65 mm). The shunt thus prevents excessive gravity-induced CSF shunt flow. Successful use of ZIPS in 56 patients is reported (low ICP group: n = 42; high ICP group: n = 14). Follow-up is up to 4.5 years. Results show that: (1) adjustability of ZPD level can achieve the desired clinical results; (2) the level of ZPD installed correlates within 4 mm of upright ICP attained; (3) the optimal level of ZPD installation to produce normal upright ICP is 65 mm below the vertex; (4) CT ventricle size, both slit ventricles and large ventricles, may or may not normalize when normal upright ICP is attained in this group of complex, previously shunted patients. PMID:8194062

  1. Study of a shunt reactor with transformer function

    SciTech Connect

    Egawa, Takeshi; Kyono, Mikio; Misawa, Kazutaka

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, a method for supplying the service power of a UHV switching station from the shunt reactor installed in it is studied. Characteristics and one-turn fault condition of the shunt reactor is investigated using equivalent circuits deduced from the magnetic field analysis by the finite element method.

  2. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. 874.3850... tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. 874.3850... tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  4. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with the track circuit in the main track....

  5. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with the track circuit in the main track....

  6. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with the track circuit in the main track....

  7. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with the track circuit in the main track....

  8. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with the track circuit in the main track....

  9. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  10. Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shigeki; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin, the most potent voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, is one of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Recently, putative biosynthetic genes of PSTs were reported in these microorganisms. We previously synthesized genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates, Int-A' and Int-C'2, and also Cyclic-C' which was not predicted based on gene, and identified them all in the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04) and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Axat-2). This study examined the incorporation of (15)N-labeled intermediates into PSTs (C1 and C2) in A. circinalis (TA04). Conversions from Int-A' to Int-C'2, from Int-C'2 to Cyclic-C', and from Int-A' and Int-C'2 to C1 and C2 were indicated using high resolution-LC/MS. However, Cyclic-C' was not converted to C1 and C2 and was detected primarily in the extracellular medium. These results suggest that Int-A' and Int-C'2 are genuine precursors of PSTs, but Int-C'2 converts partially to Cyclic-C' which is a shunt product excreted to outside the cells. This paper provides the first direct demonstration of the biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and a shunt pathway. PMID:26842222

  11. Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Shigeki; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin, the most potent voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, is one of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Recently, putative biosynthetic genes of PSTs were reported in these microorganisms. We previously synthesized genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates, Int-A’ and Int-C’2, and also Cyclic-C’ which was not predicted based on gene, and identified them all in the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04) and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Axat-2). This study examined the incorporation of 15N-labeled intermediates into PSTs (C1 and C2) in A. circinalis (TA04). Conversions from Int-A’ to Int-C’2, from Int-C’2 to Cyclic-C’, and from Int-A’ and Int-C’2 to C1 and C2 were indicated using high resolution-LC/MS. However, Cyclic-C’ was not converted to C1 and C2 and was detected primarily in the extracellular medium. These results suggest that Int-A’ and Int-C’2 are genuine precursors of PSTs, but Int-C’2 converts partially to Cyclic-C’ which is a shunt product excreted to outside the cells. This paper provides the first direct demonstration of the biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and a shunt pathway. PMID:26842222

  12. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher A; Attiah, Mark A; Zachariah, Marcus; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Yang, Jimmy; Codd, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman with a history of an uncomplicated spinal hemangioma resection, who developed acute onset sensory-motor polyneuropathy following influenza vaccine administration. With extensive workup she was diagnosed with POEMS syndrome with progressive headaches, visual loss with papilledema, and repeated elevated lumbar puncture opening pressures despite treatment with acetazolamide and immunosuppressive therapy. Her symptoms dramatically improved following ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. POEMS syndrome is a paraneoplastic disorder involving a constellation of clinical symptoms including polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein elevation, and skin changes. The progression of the disease involves a number of neurovascular sequelae, including symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy resembling chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, cerebrovascular accidents, and papilledema associated with increased intracranial pressure. Despite the association of POEMS with papilledema, treatment for this finding typically includes acetazolamide and therapeutic large volume lumbar punctures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cerebrospinal fluid shunting for the symptomatic management of hydrocephalus associated with POEMS syndrome. PMID:26077937

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar; Unal, Nevzat; Yanik, Keramettin; Cigdem, Halit; Belet, Nursen; Sofuoglu, Ayse

    2014-08-01

    Listeria species may cause life-threatening events including meningitis and invasive infection in newborns, pregnant women, older and immunodeficient people. The most common Listeria species that causes infection is L. monocytogenes. It is known that Listeria innocua has no pathogenicity. A 9-month-old baby had ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone because of infantile spasms. He was brought to hospital with fever and vomiting. Upon physical examination, the patient seemed uncomfortable and had a temperature of 38.6C. Laboratory results were as follows: hemoglobin, 6.7 g/dL; leukocyte count, 5420/mm(3) ; platelet count, 169,000/mm(3) ; and C-reactive protein, 100 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L). On analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leukocyte count was 480/mm(3) , protein was 46 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 35 mg/dL. L. innocua was isolated in CSF culture. We describe this unusual case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with L. innocua. PMID:25252053

  14. Vancomycin for treating cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jill B; Einhaus, Stephanie; Buckingham, Steve; Phelps, Stephanie J

    2005-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of CSF shunt failure that places the patient at risk of intellectual impairment, development of loculated CSF compartments, and death. The purpose of this article is to review the published literature related to vancomycin for treatment of pediatric CSF shunt infections. Fifty percent of shunt infections appear within 2 months of shunt placement or revision; 90% occur within 6 months. Ninety percent of organisms infecting CSF shunting devices are Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. The emergence of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci has made vancomycin the antibiotic of choice for these infections. The usual intravenous regimen is 60 mg/kg/day divided every 6 hours. Intraventricular vancomycin should be considered for most patients, starting with 10 mg daily. CSF vancomycin concentrations should be monitored and dosing adjustments made as needed to maintain CSF trough vancomycin concentrations between 5 and 20 mg/L. PMID:23118622

  15. Shunt attachment and method for interfacing current collection systems

    DOEpatents

    Denney, P.E.; Iyer, N.C.; Hannan, W.F. III.

    1992-12-08

    A composite brush to shunt attachment wherein a volatile component of a composite but mostly metallic brush, used for current collection purposes, does not upon welding or brazing, adversely affect the formation of the interfacial bond with a conductive shunt which carries the current from the zone of the brush. The brush to shunt attachment for a brush material of copper-graphite composite and a shunt of copper, or substituting silver for copper as an alternative, is made through a hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The HIP process includes applying high pressure and temperature simultaneously at the brush to shunt interface, after it has been isolated or canned in a metal casing in which the air adjacent to the interface has been evacuated and the interfacial area has been sealed before the application of pressure and temperature. 6 figs.

  16. Shunt attachment and method for interfacing current collection systems

    DOEpatents

    Denney, Paul E.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Hannan, III, William F.

    1992-01-01

    A composite brush to shunt attachment wherein a volatile component of a composite but mostly metallic brush, used for current collection purposes, does not upon welding or brazing, adversely affect the formation of the interfacial bond with a conductive shunt which carries the current from the zone of the brush. The brush to shunt attachment for a brush material of copper-graphite composite and a shunt of copper, or substituting silver for copper as an alternative, is made through a hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The HIP process includes applying high pressure and temperature simultaneously at the brush to shunt interface, after it has been isolated or canned in a metal casing in which the air adjacent to the interface has been evacuated and the interfacial area has been sealed before the application of pressure and temperature.

  17. Further developments in LP-based optimal power flow

    SciTech Connect

    Alsac, O.; Bright, J.; Prais, M.; Stott, B.P )

    1990-08-01

    Over the past twenty five years, the optimal power flow (OPF) approach that has received the most widespread practical application is the one based on linear programming (LP). Special customized LP methods have been utilized primarily for fast reliable security-constrained dispatch using decoupled separable OPF problem formulations. They have been used in power system planning, operations and control. Nevertheless, while the LP approach has a number of important attributes, its range of application in the OPF field has remained somewhat restricted. This paper describes further developments that have transformed the LP approach into a truly general-purpose OPF solver, with computational and other advantages over even recent nonlinear programming (NLP) methods. The nonseparable loss-minimization problem can now be solved, giving the same results as NLP on power systems of any size and type.

  18. {Lp} stability for the Boltzmann equation near vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei; Lu, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the uniform time stability in the Lebesgue space {Lp(R3 × R3)} of solutions to the Boltzmann equation near vacuum. Precisely, for the soft potential case {-2 < γ < 0}, there exists p_{γ} > 1 such that the nonnegative solution with algebraic decay rate in x, v at infinity is stable with respect to small initial data uniformly in time in {Lp} with {1 ≤ p < p_{γ}}.

  19. Bending characteristics of dual-hole PM-PCF based on LP01 and LP11 modal interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuan; Liu, Feng; Gao, Meng-yuan; Tan, Ai-ling; Fu, Xing-hu; Bi, Wei-hong

    2016-03-01

    The bending characteristics of dual-hole polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) are demonstrated in this paper. The modal interference is induced by the LP01 mode and LP11 mode propagating in a single PM-PCF with the same polarization direction. Simulation results demonstrate that the bending radius induces the phase difference between LP01 mode and LP11 mode, which leads to the change of light interference intensity on the fiber output facet. The relationship between bending radius and normalized interference intensity with three different bending angles is discussed, where the bending angle is defined as the angle between hole axis and the x axis. The bending sensitivity is obtained to be about -188.78/m around the bending radius of 1.5 cm with the bending angle of 90°. The bending characteristics can contribute for online bending detection in widespread areas.

  20. A Hybridized GA with LP-LP Model for the Management of Confined Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Khadem, M; Afshar, M H

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid methodology is introduced in this paper for the optimal solution of the groundwater management problem. The problem to be addressed is the optimal determination and operation of a predefined number of wells out of a priori known set of potential wells with fixed locations to minimize the pumping cost of utilizing a two-dimensional (2D) confined aquifer under steady-state flow condition. The solution to this problem should satisfy a downstream demand, a lower/upper bound on the pumping rates, and a lower/upper bound on the water level drawdown in the wells. The problem is solved by hybridizing a genetic algorithm (GA) which suggests the candidate configurations for the operational wells and a hybrid linear programming (LP-LP) approach with the duty of finding the optimal operation policy of the candidate wells defined by their pumping rates. Two different codings, namely binary and integer codings, are used for the GA and their performances are compared. The ability of the proposed hybrid method is tested against two benchmark problems: (1) finding the optimal configuration and pumping rates of a predefined number of wells out of potential wells and (2) finding the optimal number, configuration and pumping rates of the operating wells out of potential wells and the results are presented and compared with the available ones showing superior efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25059262

  1. Portosystemic Shunt Surgery in Patients with Idiopathic Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karagul, Servet; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Tardu, Ali; Ertugrul, Ismail; Kirmizi, Serdar; Sumer, Fatih; Isik, Burak; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is a rare disease characterized by increased portal venous pressure in the absence of cirrhosis and other causes of liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to present our results in using portosystemic shunt surgery in patients with INCPH. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had been referred to our Liver Transplantation Institute for liver transplantation and who had undergone surgery from January 2010 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with INCPH who had undergone portosystemic shunt procedure were included in the study. Age, sex, symptoms and findings, type of portosystemic shunt, and postoperative complications were assessed. RESULTS A total of 1307 patients underwent liver transplantation from January 2010 to December 2015. Eleven patients with INCPH who did not require liver transplantation were successfully operated on with a portosystemic shunt procedure. The mean follow-up was 30.1±19 months (range 7-69 months). There was no mortality in the perioperative period or during the follow-up. Two patients underwent surgery again due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage; one had bleeding from the surgical site except the portacaval anastomosis and the other had bleeding from the h-graft anastomosis. No patient developed encephalopathy and no patient presented with esophageal variceal bleeding after portosystemic shunt surgery. Shunt thrombosis occurred in 1 patient (9.9%). Only 1 patient developed ascites, which was controlled medically. CONCLUSIONS Portosystemic shunt surgery is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of patients with INCPH. PMID:27194018

  2. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V. . Physics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 {minus} {phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system.

  3. [Bidirectional Glenn shunt without cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Maeba, S; Nemoto, S; Hamdan, L; Okada, T; Azhari, M

    2006-11-01

    From April 2002 to March 2005, 18 patients having undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt (BDG) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) [off-pump BDG] were retrospectively reviewed. During BDG anastomosis, a temporary bypass was established between superior vena cava (15) or innominate vein (3) and main pulmonary artery (16) or right atrium (2). Hemodynamics and oxygenation were maintained well throughout the temporary bypass time. There was no emergent use of CPB. Mean transpulmonary pressure gradient immediately after and 24 hours after the BDG were 6.7 and 5.6 mmHg, respectively. Echocardiography showed mild flow turbulence at the anastomosis in 1 case. This simple and inexpensive technique provided good surgical view with stable hemodynamics enabling satisfactory BDG in selected cases. Furthermore, it could avoid adverse effects of CPB such as lung injury and possible blood transfusion. This experience would encourage off-pump BDG combined with more challenging procedures. PMID:17094543

  4. Ion beam sputter-etched ventricular catheter for hydrocephalus shunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cerebrospinal fluid shunt in the form of a ventricular catheter for controlling the condition of hydrocephalus by relieving the excessive cerebrospinal fluid pressure is described. A method for fabrication of the catheter and shunting the cerebral fluid from the cerebral ventricles to other areas of the body is also considered. Shunt flow failure occurs if the ventricle collapse due to improper valve function causing overdrainage. The ventricular catheter comprises a multiplicity of inlet microtubules. Each microtubule has both a large openings at its inlet end and a multiplicity of microscopic openings along its lateral surfaces.

  5. Goel's Teflon sponge internal shunt for anterior spinal arachnoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Ramdasi, Raghvendra; Shah, Abhidha

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with progressive quadriparesis and bowel-bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed anteriorly located arachnoid cyst in the cervicodorsal region. Following marsupialization of the cyst, an internal Teflon sponge shunt (Goel's shunt) was done that extended from the cyst cavity to the subarchnoid space. The patient improved dramatically in his symptoms. The physical nature of the teflon sponge and its usefulness as an internal shunt are discussed. PMID:25210339

  6. Postpriapism erectile dysfunction and shunt-related urethral stricture: long-term morbidity after proximal shunt for ischaemic priapism

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Jibril Oyekunle

    2014-01-01

    Recent guidelines have advocated for step-wise treatment of increasing invasiveness in the management of ischaemic priapism though with low-level evidences. In the past, proximal shunts were favoured as first-line treatment. We present an African man who had proximal shunt (cavernoso-spongiosal) three decades ago for ischaemic priapism and subsequently had long-term morbidity over the three decades with adverse effect on his quality of life. Recent guidelines appear to be sound despite their limitations and more invasive cavernoso-spongiosal shunts may be associated with significant long-term morbidities and poor quality of life. PMID:25709730

  7. A case of breast cancer involving a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Mirei; Kikuchi, Nobuyuki; Ichimura, Homare; Chujo, Masao; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    An 84-year-old woman was examined for an enlargement of an induration in the left breast. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been placed for postoperative normal pressure hydrocephalus of a cerebral hemorrhage, and it had penetrated the mass according to the computed tomography findings. Breast cancer was diagnosed after a close examination; however, close observation was selected because her family rejected treatment. She developed somnolence 7 months after the initial examination, and ventricular dilatation and expansion of the low-density region around the ventricle were noted on computed tomography, suggesting that the enlarged tumor had excluded the shunt and caused obstruction. The growth of breast carcinoma involving a shunt tube can be the cause of obstruction of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Our findings suggest that a breast lesion should be evaluated at both pre- and postoperation. PMID:26943684

  8. 5. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  9. 9. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  10. 8. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  11. 7. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  12. 4. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  13. 6. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SHUNT LOCOMOTIVE NO. 9072 POSITIONING ELECTRIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE NO. 6734 ON TURNTABLE, adjacent to Erecting Shop and Machine Shop - Juniata Shops, Turntable, South of Sixth Street at Third Avemue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  14. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure activated one-way valve. The catheter is implanted with one end in the peritoneal cavity and the other in...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3850 Endolymphatic shunt... of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  20. LP DAAC and MEaSUREs - Optimizing Collection Inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is a selected NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC supporting the Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program to contribute in providing long-term, consistent, and mature data products. The LP DAAC has identified three essential components for the MEaSUREs collection inception. The first component includes a framework of LP DAAC's data lifecycle including overall inception of products, curation of products, and long-term archiving of products. The second component fuses data producer and data provider operations, interleaving key personnel into key processes throughout the project. The third component integrates and evolves stakeholder elements into a standard methodology, alongside affording an overall homogeneous data delivery system for MEaSUREs collections. As an active participant on the Metadata Evolution for NASA Data Systems (MENDS) Tiger Team, the LP DAAC is working to categorize all data model elements into the ISO 19115 international metadata standard. This poster depicts how each of these three components optimizes the LP DAAC MEaSUREs collection inception process.

  1. Hearing Loss in Patients with Shunt-Treated Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Panova, Margarita V; Geneva, Ina E; Madjarova, Kalina I; Bosheva, Miroslava N

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common manifestation of the long-term complications in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus along with motor development disturbance, cognitive and visual impairment, epilepsy and endocrine disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of hearing in patients with shunt treated hydrocephalus of non-tumor etiology and at least one year after implantation of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, as well as their impact on the quality of life of patients. The study included 70 patients (age range 1.25 years - 21.25 years) with shunted non-tumor hydrocephalus and at least one year after placement of the shunt system. Hearing alterations were proved by measuring the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) for children up to 5 years of age and children with mental retardation; audiograms was used for children older than 5 years with normal neuro-psychological development (NPD). Of the 70 studied patients 17 (24%) had hearing loss (10 bilateral and 7-unilateral) and all of them had sensorineural hearing loss, which is associated with low weight at birth, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and brainstem symptoms at the time of diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Hearing pathology was found more often in shunt-treated patients with NPD retardation, poor functional status and low quality of life. Children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus have hearing loss of sensorineural type. Children with brain stem symptomatology at diagnosing hydrocephalus and children with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus show higher risk of hearing loss. Children with shunted hydrocephalus and hearing loss show lower NPD, lower quality of life and lower functional status. PMID:27180348

  2. In vitro flow measurements in ion sputtered hydrocephalus shunts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental procedure for accurate measurements of the pressure-drop/flow rate relationship in hydrocephalus shunts. Using a fish-hook arrangement, small flow rates in a perforated ion-sputtered Teflon microtubule were measured in vitro in a pressured system and were correlated with pressure in the system. Results indicate that appropriate drainage rates could be obtained in the physiological range for hydrocephalus shunts.

  3. Paediatric ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Actinomyces neuii

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ian A; Jarral, Fazain; Sethi, Kavita; Chumas, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    We present the first reported case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection secondary to Actinomyces neuii in a paediatric patient. Our patient was managed with temporary shunt removal, intrathecal antibiotics and a prolonged course of intravenous and then oral antibiotics. She went on to make a complete recovery. Subsequent cerebrospinal fluid analysis at 5 months post-treatment demonstrated no evidence of residual infection. PMID:24859562

  4. First Report of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection due to Cyberlindnera fabianii

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Jonathan; Hemarajata, Peera; Humphries, Romney; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with significant morbidity and death. Transient fungemia in immunocompetent patients without any other risk factors for fungemia has been suggested as a possible mechanism that may lead to serious fungal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections, but evidence is lacking. The clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and optimal therapy of Cyberlindnera fabianii infections remain to be determined. We describe the first case of CNS infection due to C. fabianii that occurred in an immunocompetent adult with a VP shunt. Spontaneous translocation with yeast that is not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora in the setting of ingestion of multiple servings of a fermentation product was the likely source from which Cyberlindnera fabianii gained entrance into the VP shunt system, causing meningitis in this patient. The authors conclude that, in view of the high morbidity associated with yeast infection of the CNS, long-term antifungal therapy should be strongly considered in cases where the VP shunt cannot be completely removed. Transient fungemia may lead to invasive disease in an immunocompetent host with VP shunt, even in the absence of any other risk factors for fungemia and even after remote placement of the VP shunt. PMID:26618013

  5. A shunt-excited inductive power link.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, K; Jordan, J R; Whittington, H W

    1989-01-01

    An alternative derivation of the separation-insensitive property of series-excited self-oscillating inductive power transfer circuits is presented. This analysis is based on network theory and does not include the explicit determination of frequency as a step in the derivation. The separation-insensitivity principle is extended to shunt-excited links which exhibit a theoretical voltage transfer function of unity while the coupling factor exceeds the reciprocal of the secondary quality factor. This requires the inclusion of a series resistor in the primary resonator's capacitive arm. Series RC elements are replaced by parallel forms in both the primary and secondary; this provides a more convenient output impedance level without the need for another transformer. A demonstration circuit is described and tested. It is found that separation-insensitivity occurs while the coupling factor exceeds the reciprocal of the loaded secondary quality factor. Somewhat inferior response is obtained from a simpler circuit having no added resistances in the primary. PMID:2769731

  6. Temporary arterial shunts to maintain limb perfusion after arterial injury: an animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, D. L.; Putnam, A. T.; Light, J. T.; Ihnat, D. M.; Kissinger, D. P.; Rasmussen, T. E.; Bradley, D. V. Jr

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary shunt placement can quickly restore perfusion after extremity arterial injury. This study examined the adequacy of limb blood flow with shunt use, non-heparin-bonded shunt patency over prolonged periods, and the safety of this technique. METHODS: Common iliac arteries were divided and 4.0-mm Silastic Sundt shunts placed in 16 anesthetized pigs. Eight (group I) had shunts placed immediately; eight others (group II) were shunted after an hour of limb ischemia and hemorrhagic shock. Physiologic parameters and femoral artery blood flow in both hindlimbs were continuously monitored. Limb lactic acid generation, oxygen utilization, and hematologic and metabolic effects were serially evaluated for 24 hours. RESULTS: Shunts remained patent in 13 of 16 pigs. Shunts thrombosed in two group I animals because of technical errors, but functioned well after thrombectomy and repositioning. Patency could not be maintained in one animal that died from shock. Flow in group I shunted limbs was 57 (+/-11 SD) % of control. For group II animals in shock, shunted limb flow initially averaged 46 +/- 15% of control, but 4 hours after shunt placement, the mean limb blood flow was the same as in group I. Increased oxygen extraction compensated for the lower flow. Lactic acid production was not increased in comparison to control limbs. CONCLUSION: Shunts provided adequate flow in this model of extremity trauma. Correctly placed shunts stayed patent for 24 hours, without anticoagulation, if shunt placement followed resuscitation.

  7. Comparisons Between a Hybrid Shunt Active Filter and a Pure Shunt Active Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Yasuhiro; Srianthumrong, Sunt; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper deals with a hybrid shunt active filter for harmonic compensation of a three-phase diode rectifier in a 480-V adjustable-speed motor drive system. The hybrid filter is formed by a three-phase LC filter tuned around the 7-th harmonic frequency and a small-rated three-phase voltage-source PWM inverter. The LC filter and PWM inverter are directly connected in series. As a result, the dc capacitor voltage of the PWM inverter in the hybrid filter is much lower than that of a conventional pure shunt active filter. This results in higher efficiency, less switching ripple and less EMI emission. Computer simulation is carried out to compare the hybrid filter with the pure filter in terms of circuit configuration and filtering performance. Simulation results indicate that the hybrid filter is superior in effectiveness and viability to the pure filter. In addition, theoretical analysis based on vector loci confirms the validity of the simulation results.

  8. Attenuation of Congenital Portosystemic Shunt Reduces Inflammation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Tivers, Michael S.; Handel, Ian; Gow, Adam G.; Lipscomb, Victoria J.; Jalan, Rajiv; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. One of the most significant complications in patients with liver disease is the development of neurological disturbances, termed hepatic encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is incompletely understood, which has resulted in the development of a wide range of experimental models. Congenital portosystemic shunt is one of the most common congenital disorders diagnosed in client owned dogs. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology of canine hepatic encephalopathy is very similar to human hepatic encephalopathy, which provides strong support for the use of dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt as a naturally occurring model of human hepatic encephalopathy. Specifically, we have demonstrated an important role for ammonia and inflammation in the development of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt. Despite the apparent importance of inflammation in driving hepatic encephalopathy in dogs, it is unclear whether inflammation resolves following the successful treatment of liver disease. We hypothesized that haematological and biochemical evidence of inflammation, as gauged by neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte concentrations together with C-reactive protein concentrations, would decrease following successful treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs. One hundred and forty dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt were enrolled into the study. We found that the proportion of dogs with a monocyte concentration above the reference range was significantly greater in dogs with hepatic encephalopathy at time of initial diagnosis. Importantly, neutrophil and monocyte concentrations significantly decreased following surgical congenital portosystemic shunt attenuation. We also found a significant decrease in C-reactive protein concentrations following surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts. Our study demonstrates that haematological and biochemical indices of inflammation reduce following successful treatment of the underlying liver disorder. PMID:25658922

  9. 78 FR 62614 - Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., L.P., Laurel Pipe Line Company, L.P.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 15, 2013... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) a complaint against Buckeye Pipe Line Company L.P. and...

  10. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  11. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied... Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the deepwater port license application for the proposed Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET). All actions related to the processing and agency coordination...

  12. Cross-cultural comparison of Lp(a) profiles.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z W; Wahlqvist, M L; Biegler, B; Balazs, N D; van Buynder, P; Lukito, W; Hsu-Hage, B H; Wattanapenpaiboon, N; Ibiebele, T I

    1998-06-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) phenotypes as genetic markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) have been the focus of great interest in recent times. Included in this study were four Australian populations comprising 348 Anglo-Celtic Melburnians (157 men and 191 women), 339 Chinese Melburnians (169 men and 170 women), 402 South Asian Melburnians (216 men and 186 women) and 394 Aboriginal Australians from Western Australia (175 men and 219 women). Plasma Lp(a) concentrations were more highly skewed towards the lower range in the Chinese and Aboriginal groups than in the Anglo-Celtics and South Asians. Approximately 33% of Anglo-Celtics, 20% Aboriginals, 13% Chinese and 44% South Asians had plasma Lp(a) levels above the generally accepted risk threshold values of 300 mg/L. In Aboriginals and Chinese, the S4 apo(a) phenotype predominated while in Anglo-Celtics and South Asians, the highest frequency occurred in the S3 phenotype. In the S4 phenotype, Lp(a) values varied between the four populations but there was no significant difference in concentration between gender. PMID:24393647

  13. Fire Service Training. LP and Compressed Gas Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    Part of a series of instructional outlines intended for use in a training program for firemen with no previous formal training, this curriculum guide discusses safety precautions for liquefied petroleum (LP) and compressed gas emergencies. During its twelve hours of instruction it covers (1) terminology; (2) the chemical composition of the gases;…

  14. LP engine performance on rice straw producer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, J.J.; Jenkins, B.M.; Goss, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    An LP gas engine was converted using commercially available parts to operate on gas from fluidized bed gasifier fueled by rice straw. The engine was derated up to 57.5% from the lower energy value of induction charge, variations in gas quality, lower mechanical and thermal efficiencies.

  15. 78 FR 43190 - DCP Midstream, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ..., DCP Midstream, LP (DCP), filed an application pursuant to Section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and Part... Pipeline). The Lucerne Residue Pipeline will connect DCP's new non- jurisdictional natural gas processing facilities (Lucerne II Gas Plant) with the interstate natural gas pipeline system. DCP requests for...

  16. 76 FR 63915 - DCP Midstream, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ..., 2011, DCP Midstream, LP (DCP), filed an application pursuant to Section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and... new non-jurisdictional natural gas processing facilities (the LaSalle System) with an interstate... toll- free, (886) 208-3676 or TYY, (202) 502-8659. DCP is a non-jurisdictional gas gathering...

  17. 77 FR 77122 - Pyxis Capital, L.P., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Pyxis Capital, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application December 21, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (the ``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application for an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  18. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business..., 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal Licensees under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958,...

  19. US EPA Testing of LP & MP UV Disinfection Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the ongoing USEPA research on UV disinfection addressing the following objectives: Conservatively predict log inactivation and RED of adenovirus with surrogates; Conduct many (LP=61) UV reactor conditions challenged with Ad2, B. pumilus, and MS2 & conduc...

  20. 76 FR 44898 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 1, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642... application should be directed to Berk Donaldson, Director, Rates and Certificates, Texas Eastern...

  1. Seismo-Acoustic LP Swarms at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Lees, J. M.; Ruiz, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    A massive swarm of seismo-acoustic events interrupted a long period of quiescence at Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador, in May 2010. We present here details of moment tensor solutions to 84 of the event that occurred over the five day crises that include vulcanian explosions, sustained ash emissions, and pyroclastic flows. Long-peroid seismicity at volcanoes have long been considered related to activity of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. The LP events of Tungurahua were characterized by: 1) an initial vent explosion, 2) an emergent, dilatational first motion seismic arrival, 3) followed by quasi-harmonic coda and volcanic tremor. During the May swarm period, both infrasound and seismic waves exhibited significant, non-isotropic radiation patterns. Wave analysis of the infrasound band acoustic waves showed considerable asymmetry, most likely associated with the truncated bowl shape of the 300 m vent. Acoustic wave propagation was explained using combinations of acoustic monopole and dipole sources to illuminate the explosion dynamics. Seismic moment tensors of LP first motions were estimated by waveform inversion, accounting for the considerable topographic relief of Tungurahua. Particle motion analysis indicates that the LP waves, in the 2-5 s band, are body waves. Although the LP sources cluster at 2 km depth below the vent, the station array does not allow for tight bounds on the depth, and vertical uncertainty is large. The strong association of acoustic blasts and LP waves suggests a shallow source for these events. We present the relation between the acoustic and seismic source mechanisms with time over the period.

  2. 78 FR 13663 - Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 12, 2013, Equitrans, L.P. (Equitrans), pursuant to the blanket certificate... open to public inspection. \\1\\ Equitrans, L.P., 85 FERC ] 61,089 (1998). Equitrans proposes to...

  3. 77 FR 7572 - Alliance Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alliance Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2012, Alliance Pipeline L.P. filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under... behalf of Alliance Pipeline Inc., Managing General Partner of Alliance Pipeline L.P., 800, 605--5 Ave....

  4. 76 FR 58850 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Capital Management, L.P. (``HCM''), Highland Funds Asset Management, L.P. (``HFAM''), Highland Funds I... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY... the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from rule 12d1-2(a) under the...

  5. Association of freezing tolerance to LpCBFIIIb and LpCBFIIIc gene polymorphism in perennial ryegrass accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CBF/DREB related genes are considered important genes for regulation of abiotic stress in plants. In this study, CBF/DREB genes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), also known as LpCBF genes, were resequenced from several cultivated and landrace plants from a worldwide collection. The same pla...

  6. 77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and... comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in Coos... Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects, Requests for Comments on Environmental Issues, and...

  7. A Subglandular Breast Cerebrospinal Fluid Pseudocyst Following Postsurgical Shunt Migration.

    PubMed

    Mlynek, Karolina; Frautschi, Russell; Halasa, Brianna; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Papay, Francis

    2015-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage catheters have been associated with numerous complications in various anatomic locations, because of migration, infection, and obstruction. However, breast-related CSF shunt complications tend to occur infrequently or have seldom been reported in the empirical literature. Therefore, a case is presented detailing a breast pseudocyst caused by migration and subsequent coiling of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in the right breast pocket. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in the peer-reviewed literature of a pseudocyst resulting from a CSF drainage catheter coiling around the breast implant post pancreaticoduodenectomy. Moreover, this case highlights the importance of cross-disciplinary procedural awareness, particularly in regards to breast, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and pancreatic procedures. PMID:26894004

  8. Material-induced shunts in multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenstein, O. Bauer, J.; Rakotoniaina, J. P.

    2007-04-15

    By applying lock-in thermography imaging, light-beam-induced current imaging, electron-beam-induced current imaging at different stages of sample preparation, and infrared light microscopy in transmission mode, the physical nature of the dominant material-induced shunts in multicrystalline solar cells made from p-type silicon material has been investigated. It turns out that these shunts are due to silicon carbide (SiC) filaments, which grow preferentially in grain boundaries and cross the whole cell. These filaments are highly n-type doped, like the emitter layer on the surface of the cells. They are electrically connected both with the emitter and with the back contact, thereby producing internal shunts in the solar cell.

  9. A Subglandular Breast Cerebrospinal Fluid Pseudocyst Following Postsurgical Shunt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mlynek, Karolina; Frautschi, Russell; Halasa, Brianna; Kwiecien, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage catheters have been associated with numerous complications in various anatomic locations, because of migration, infection, and obstruction. However, breast-related CSF shunt complications tend to occur infrequently or have seldom been reported in the empirical literature. Therefore, a case is presented detailing a breast pseudocyst caused by migration and subsequent coiling of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in the right breast pocket. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in the peer-reviewed literature of a pseudocyst resulting from a CSF drainage catheter coiling around the breast implant post pancreaticoduodenectomy. Moreover, this case highlights the importance of cross-disciplinary procedural awareness, particularly in regards to breast, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and pancreatic procedures. PMID:26894004

  10. Tunable-Delay Shunts for Paper Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Toley, Bhushan J.; McKenzie, Brittney; Liang, Tinny; Buser, Joshua R.; Yager, Paul; Fu, Elain

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for controlling fluid flow in paper-based devices. The method delays fluid progress through a porous channel by diverting fluid into an absorbent pad-based shunt placed into contact with the channel. Parameters to control the delay include the length and the thickness of the shunt. Using this method, reproducible delays ranging from 3 to 20 minutes were achieved. A simple electrical circuit model was presented and used to predict the delays in a system. Results from the model showed good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the shunts were used for the sequential delivery of fluids to a detection zone in a point-of-care compatible folding card device using biochemical reagents for the amplified detection of the malaria protein PfHRP2. PMID:24245747

  11. Temporal and spatial distributions of carbon shunting arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Koichi; Konishi, Takumi; Mikawa, Ryota; Takahashi, Kazunori; Yukimura, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of a magnetically driven shunting arc plasma were obtained using time-resolved probe measurement. A shunting arc was produced using a carbon rod and accelerated along a pair of rail electrodes by a Lorenz force. The pulse current for driving and maintaining the plasma was supplied from a 20 µF capacitor charged by a dc power supply. Double and single probes were employed to obtain the ion density of the shunting arc plasma. An ion density of 1 × 1019 m-3 was obtained at a distance of 50 mm from the carbon rod 15 µs after applying voltage. The ion density decreased to 2.0 × 1018 m-3 with increasing distance from 50 to 150 mm. The ion density changed with the energy inputted into the plasma.

  12. Rare sequelae following ventriculoatrial shunt: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Vinu Venu; Peethambaran, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ventriculoatrial shunt (VA) is one of the oldest solutions for hydrocephalus. However over subsequent years various complication of VA shunt such as obstructions, malposition, shunt infections, cardiac complications such as endocarditis, traumatic perforation, heart failure, tricuspid regurgitation, intraatrial thrombus, and pulmonary hypertension are reported. Hence, VA shunt procedure has fallen into disrepute. Still VA shunt may be a good option in selected patients with hostile peritoneum. Newer placement strategies and monitoring methods have been put forward to reduce complication following VA shunt. In this case report, we share a rare case of endocarditis with tricuspid regurgitation following a migrated retained calcified shunt tube in the right ventricle of heart 30 years after of VA shunt that was successfully managed. PMID:27057231

  13. Rare sequelae following ventriculoatrial shunt: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Vinu Venu; Peethambaran, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ventriculoatrial shunt (VA) is one of the oldest solutions for hydrocephalus. However over subsequent years various complication of VA shunt such as obstructions, malposition, shunt infections, cardiac complications such as endocarditis, traumatic perforation, heart failure, tricuspid regurgitation, intraatrial thrombus, and pulmonary hypertension are reported. Hence, VA shunt procedure has fallen into disrepute. Still VA shunt may be a good option in selected patients with hostile peritoneum. Newer placement strategies and monitoring methods have been put forward to reduce complication following VA shunt. In this case report, we share a rare case of endocarditis with tricuspid regurgitation following a migrated retained calcified shunt tube in the right ventricle of heart 30 years after of VA shunt that was successfully managed. PMID:27057231

  14. Fractured inlet connecting tube of the flat bottom flushing device of a posterior fossa cystoperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Abbasioun, Kazem; Ghassemi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are well-known complications for shunt procedures. Shunt fracture or disconnection is the second most frequent cause of shunt malfunction in children. Shunt disconnection is not a common cause of shunt malfunction in the early period after installation, especially in the adulthood. Case Description: Fracture of the proximal (inlet) connector of a flat-based shunt installed for decompression of a large posterior fossa arachnoid cyst in a 31-year-old female with signs of increased intracranial pressure led to recurrence of her symptoms 6 months after surgery. Conclusion: Awareness of the possibility of fracture site in the junction of the inlet connector of flat bottom shunt systems is warranted and can be diagnosed by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) imaging without performing shunt series study. PMID:25789198

  15. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  16. Utility of Operative Glaucoma Tube Shunt Viscoelastic Bolus Flush

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Sylvia L; Greider, Kelsi L

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the utility of viscoelastic injection to induce bleb expansion and decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with encapsulated glaucoma tube shunt blebs. Design: Case series. Subjects and participants: Forty-three glaucomatous eyes, including 13 eyes with congenital, 13 uveitic, 5 neovascular, 5 open angle, 4 narrow angle and 3 traumatic glaucomas. Methods, interventions or testing: All patients underwent viscoelastic flush procedure. A pre-bent 27 or 30-gauge cannula was passed through a 25-gauge paracentesis, advanced over the iris across the anterior chamber, and insinuated into the tube shunt lumen. Once the cannula was firmly lodged in position, 0.45 to 0.85 ml of viscoelastic was injected to hyperinflate the bleb. Main outcome measures: Paired t-tests were performed comparing preoperative IOP and number of medications used preoperatively vs levels measured at 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results: Intraocular pressure was reduced from a mean preoperative level of 26.0 ± 1.2 (sem) mm Hg to 15.8 ± 1.0 at 1 month, remaining stable thereafter at each 6-month interval with 15.1 ± 1.1 mm Hg at 24 months (p < 0.0001). Medication use did not vary significantly from baseline. Pressure remained < 21 mm Hg after 2 years in 85% of eyes cannulated within 1 year of primary tube shunt implantation (n = 23), and in 62% of eyes cannulated more than 1 year after tube shunt placement (n = 20). Conclusion: Tube shunt expansion with bolus viscoelastic flush successfully restored encapsulated bleb function, providing a substantial (~10 mm Hg) IOP decrease into the mid-normal pressure range. This persisted in the majority of treated eyes for the entire study period. How to cite this article: Groth SL, Greider KL, Sponsel WE. Utility of Operative Glaucoma Tube Shunt Viscoelastic Bolus Flush. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):73-76. PMID:26997840

  17. Predictors of mortality after transjugular portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ascha, Mona; Abuqayyas, Sami; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Alkukhun, Laith; Sands, Mark; Dweik, Raed A; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinations obtained at the time of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can provide prognostic information that will enhance risk stratification of patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 467 patients who underwent TIPS between July 2003 and December 2011 at our institution. We recorded information regarding patient demographics, underlying liver disease, indication for TIPS, baseline laboratory values, hemodynamic determinations at the time of TIPS, and echocardiographic measurements both before and after TIPS. We recorded patient comorbidities that may affect hemodynamic and echocardiographic determinations. We also calculated Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) class. The following pre- and post-TIPS echocardiographic determinations were recorded: Left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, subjective RV dilation, and subjective RV function. We recorded the following hemodynamic measurements: Right atrial (RA) pressure before and after TIPS, inferior vena cava pressure before and after TIPS, free hepatic vein pressure, portal vein pressure before and after TIPS, and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). RESULTS: We reviewed 418 patients with portal hypertension undergoing TIPS. RA pressure increased by a mean ± SD of 4.8 ± 3.9 mmHg (P < 0.001), HVPG decreased by 6.8 ± 3.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression analysis, a higher MELD score, lower platelet count, splenectomy and a higher portal vein pressure were independent predictors of higher RA pressure (R = 0.55). Three variables predicted 3-mo mortality after TIPS in a multivariate analysis: Age, MELD score, and CTP grade C. Change in the RA pressure after TIPS predicted long-term mortality (per 1 mmHg change, HR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.06, P < 0.012). CONCLUSION: RA pressure increased immediately after TIPS particularly in patients with worse liver function, portal hypertension, emergent TIPS placement and history of splenectomy. The increase in RA pressure after TIPS was associated with increased mortality. Age, splenectomy, MELD score and CTP grade were independent predictors of long-term mortality after TIPS. PMID:27099653

  18. Modeling, analysis and verification of a partial shunt system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Spacecraft power system modeling, analysis and verification techniques using the electronic circuit simulation programs such as SPICE and SABER are presented. Partial shunt control system dynamics including the loop gain and bus impedance are derived. A typical partial shunt system is modeled and the loop gain of the system is simulated using an electronic circuit simulator. To confirm the circuit model simulation results prior to expensive hardware testing, they should be compared with the results simulated from a transfer function model derived from circuit equations. The spacecraft test results finally verify the modeling and analysis.

  19. Endophthalmitis associated with Glaucoma Shunt Intraluminal Stent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Nathan M; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Ang, Ghee Soon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endophthalmitis post glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery is rare, often associated with tube or plate exposure. We report a case of endophthalmitis following glaucoma shunt intraluminal stent exposure in a patient who underwent Baerveldt glaucoma implant surgery. Endophthalmitis following manipulation of intraluminal stents is a rare complication of GDIs but potentially vision threatening condition that needs to be carefully screened for and treated immediately. How to cite this article: Kwon HJ, Kerr NM, Ruddle JB, Ang GS. Endophthalmitis associated with Glaucoma Shunt Intraluminal Stent Exposure. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(1):36-37. PMID:27231417

  20. Potts shunt in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Hyun; Jang, Woo-Sung; Lim, Hong-Gook; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension eventually leads to right-sided heart failure and sudden death. Its mortality rate in children is still high, despite improvements in pharmacological therapy, and therefore novel treatments are necessary. The Potts shunt, which creates an anastomosis between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, has been proposed as a theoretically promising palliative surgical technique to decompress the right ventricle. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with suprasystemic idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure who underwent a Potts shunt for palliation with good short-term results. PMID:25705598

  1. Potts Shunt in Patients with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sue Hyun; Jang, Woo-Sung; Lim, Hong-Gook; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension eventually leads to right-sided heart failure and sudden death. Its mortality rate in children is still high, despite improvements in pharmacological therapy, and therefore novel treatments are necessary. The Potts shunt, which creates an anastomosis between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, has been proposed as a theoretically promising palliative surgical technique to decompress the right ventricle. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with suprasystemic idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure who underwent a Potts shunt for palliation with good short-term results. PMID:25705598

  2. [Simultaneous reconstruction of pharyngoesophagus and phonetic shunt following laryngopharyngoesophagectomy].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, K; Yamada, A; Hashimoto, S; Tateda, M; Miyakura, H; Hozawa, K; Takasaka, T

    1999-02-01

    Because of its many advantages, free jejunal transfer has gained wide acceptance for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction after ablative surgery. Because the jejunum is well vascularized, it facilitates good wound healing, and has a low incidence of anastomotic insufficiency, fistula formation and stricture. However, voice rehabilitation in this group of patients can be difficult. Therefore, we performed primary tracheojejunal shunt operations for voice restoration with jejunum siphons using Nozaki's method (type 3). In this procedure, after dividing a section of the jejunum into two segments, the reconstructed neopharyngoesophagus is anastomosed in a side-to-end fashion to the fabricated shunt using the other segment of the jejunum, as an "elephant nose shunt" so called because of its appearance. Voice restoration can be achieved in patients who undergo laryngopharyngoesophagectomy through these reconstructive procedures. We performed this surgery for nine hypopharyngeal cancer patients after total pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy. Following placement of the shunt, no special care was required. Only one patient developed a severe aspiration. No leakage was seen and the swallowing function was preserved in all patients. Four of nine patients could speak well following these procedures. A vibratory source is created in the neoesophagus, above the elephant shunt. During speech production, narrowing of the inside and vibration of the jejunal mucosa can be observed using a laryngeal fiber scope. In order to study the acoustical characteristics of shunt speech, voice analysis was performed in patients with restored phonatory function using Computerized Speech Lab Model 4300 (KAY). Irregularities of pitch periods in the voice sample were measured using Jita (the pitch period) and Jitt (relative evaluation of the pitch) for the very short term (cycle-to-cycle), and PPQ (pitch period pertubation quotient) for the short term (cycle-to-cycle with a smoothing factor of 5 periods). Irregularities of the peak-to-peak amplitude were measured using ShdB (evaluation in dB of the peak-to-peak amplitude) and Shim (relative evaluation of the peak-to-peak amplitude) for the very short term (cycle-to-cycle), and APQ (amplitude perturbation quotient) for the short term (cycle-to-cycle with a smoothing factor of 11 periods). The pertubation parameters of shunt speech are larger than normal ones not only in terms of the period but also in terms of the amplitude. These results are similar to those of laryngeal polyps, recurrent nerve palsy and esophageal speech. Recovery of phonation using Nozaki's type 3 method with the elephant nose shunt appears promising for pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomized patients. PMID:10191622

  3. Analysis of optical fiber-based LP(01) ↔ LP(02) mode converters for the O-, S-, and C-Band.

    PubMed

    Mellah, Hakim; Zhang, Xiupu; Shen, Dongya

    2015-06-10

    This paper proposes a double fiber taper-based mode converter that converts LP(01) to LP(02) and vice versa. The first taper is used to convert LP(01) to some higher order LP(0m) (m>1) modes while the second taper suppresses the undesired higher order modes (m>2) and results in LP(02) overwhelmingly dominated. A simulation shows that conversion efficiency of almost 100% at the central wavelength of O-, S-, and C-Band, and above 98% over the S- and C-Band was achieved. Moreover, suppression of undesired higher order modes is more than 10 dB over the whole O-, S-, and C-Band. In particular, the suppression is more than 19 dB for the whole C-Band. The analysis also shows that the performance of the mode converter is not sensitive to slight variations of the converter's parameters. The same converter also can be used to convert LP(02) back to LP(01). It is shown that conversion efficiency higher than 99% and suppression of undesired higher order modes higher than 30 dB can be obtained. Further, a (de)multiplexer for an LP(02) and an LP(01) mode was designed using the mode converter combined with a symmetric directional coupler. The multiplexer is broadband and has an insertion loss less than 0.5 dB in the C-Band. PMID:26192862

  4. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Deepak Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti Kumar, Niteen Pamecha, Viniyendra

    2013-08-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

  5. The use of the ASET in the diagnosis of ventriculoatrial shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Reaper, Jacqueline; Collins, Sally Ann; Bayston, Roger

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old man with a ventriculoatrial shunt presented with non-specific symptoms (headache, back pain, night sweats) and inconclusive laboratory results. He showed an extremely high titre of antibody to Staphylococcus epidermidis which proved diagnostic of shunt infection. This was confirmed on shunt removal and he was successfully treated. PMID:22802568

  6. Successful Embolization of a Spontaneous Mesocaval Shunt Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    SciTech Connect

    Boixadera, Helena; Tomasello, Alejandro; Quiroga, Sergi; Cordoba, Joan; Perez, Mercedes; Segarra, Antoni

    2010-10-15

    A 48-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy was found to have a large, spontaneous mesocaval shunt. The shunt was successfully occluded with the use of an Amplatzer Vascular Plug. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this device to embolize a mesocaval shunt involving the superior mesenteric vein.

  7. High-Flow Arterio-Hepatic Venous Shunt in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Use of Multi-Electrode Radiofrequency for Shunt Obliteration

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2015-10-15

    Intra-tumoral arterio-hepatic venous shunting (AHVS) poses an impediment to transarterial chemoembolization of liver tumors. Not only does it present a potential hazard for systemic shunting and embolization, but also the altered flow dynamics may also result in poor delivery of drug/embolics to the target tumor bed. Current available techniques to overcome AVHS include arterial embolization (particles, coils, glue, etc.) or temporary venous occlusion using balloons. We hereby illustrate the use of radiofrequency ablation to obliterate a complex AHVS consisting of a varix-like venous aneurysm.

  8. Switching a mainframe LP to a personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that future advances in hardware will make PC-based LP systems even more attractive and productive then they are now. The authors recently ran one of our typical models with recursion using the new 80386 chip on the Compaq Deskpro 386. The time required it took to generate and solve the problem was approximately 15 minutes compared to 33 minutes with the IBM 80286 chip, 43 minutes with our speed up board added PC and 105 minutes on an IBM PC. This illustrates the tremendous computing power now available on personal computers and convinces them that they made the right decision to switch to a PC-based LP system.

  9. LP turbine retrofit modernization: Improvements in performance and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Groenedaal, J.C.; Fowls, L.G.; Subbiah, R.; Maxwell, B.P.; Persson, B.

    1996-11-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation retrofitted six low pressure (LP) nuclear turbine rotors and associated blade path components at Ringhals 1, a 1960`s vintage English Electric (GEC) unit located near Varobacka, Sweden, and operated by Vattenfall AB. This achieved significant performance improvements and provided improved mechanical features over the original equipment. This paper, discusses design, manufacture, installation, operation and project coordination. The retrofit processes employed for these units can be applied to any potential customers units.

  10. Reversible transverse sinus collapse in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Onder, Halil; Gocmen, Rahsan; Gursoy-Ozdemir, Yasemin

    2016-04-01

    The association of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with stenosis or narrowing of the transverse sinuses (TSs) is well known. However, there is debate as to whether the stenosis is a cause or consequence. Here we describe a case of IIH and narrowing of the TSs, with four relapses and recoveries after repeated CSF diversions with lumbar puncture (LP) over 2 months. Subsequently, implantation of a lumboperitoneal shunt (LPrS) ensured recovery. MR venography 20 months after LPrS showed normally calibrated TSs. We show repeated MR venography findings before and after the LPs, and discuss the pathogenesis of IIH in terms of the cause and effect relationship between IIH and sinus collapse. PMID:25994942

  11. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 874.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3850 Endolymphatic shunt... of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 874.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3850 Endolymphatic shunt... of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  13. Bilhemia: A Rare Complication of Transjugular Intraheptic Portosytemic Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C underwent emergent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) due to a ruptured esophageal varix during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Following TIPS, the patient experienced a rapid rise in serum bilirubin with no evidence of biliary obstruction or hepatic injury. She was determined to have bilhemia, a rare but serious complication of TIPS. PMID:26504882

  14. Surgical treatment of idiopathic syringomyelia: Silastic wedge syringosubarachnoid shunting technique

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Teck M.; Sandquist, Lee; Tong, Doris; Barrett, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The underlying pathophysiology leading to syringomyelia is elusive with multiple flow-related theories constituting our current limited understanding of the disease process. Syringomyelia is associated with pathologies related to the disturbance of cerebral spinal fluid flow found in conditions such as Chiari I malformations, spinal malignancy, spinal cord tethering, trauma, or arachnoid adhesions. Our aim is to describe a unique surgical shunting technique used to treat refractory cases of idiopathic syringomyelia. Methods: Five patients, aged 22-50, presented with progressive neurologic symptoms associated with an idiopathic syrinx. All underwent decompressive laminectomy surgery with syringosubarachnoid shunting using the silastic wedge technique. Results: In five cases of idiopathic syringomyelia, clinical and radiographic follow up ranges from 3 to 36 months. Three patients have radiographic and clinical follow up greater than 24 months. All patients improved clinically and their symptoms have been stable. Conclusions: Shunting procedures for the syringomyelia disease spectrum have been criticized due to the inconsistent long-term outcomes. This surgical technique used to treat symptomatic idiopathic syringomyelia has been devised based on our intraoperative experience, surgical outcomes, and evaluation of the literature. The purpose of the wedges is to preserve patency of the communication between the syrinx cavity and the expanded subarachnoid space by preventing healing of the myelotomy edges and by maintaining an artificial conduit between the syrinx cavity and the subarachnoid space. Although short-term results are promising, continued long-term follow up is needed to determine the ultimate success of the silastic wedge shunting procedure. PMID:25101209

  15. Embolization of nonvariceal portosystemic collaterals in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Arias, Mercedes; Longo, Jesus Maria; Alejandre, Pedro Luis; Betes, Maria Teresa; Elizalde, Arlette Maria

    1997-03-15

    Percutaneous embolization of large portosystemic collaterals was performed in three patients following placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to improve hepatopetal portal flow. Improved hepatic portal perfusion was achieved in these cases, thereby theoretically reducing the risk of chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

  16. Synchrony with shunting inhibition in a feedforward inhibitory network

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dong-Uk; Carney, Paul R.; Ditto, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that GABAA receptor mediated inhibition in adult hippocampus is shunting rather than hyperpolarizing. Simulation studies of realistic interneuron networks with strong shunting inhibition have been demonstrated to exhibit robust gamma band (20–80 Hz) synchrony in the presence of heterogeneity in the intrinsic firing rates of individual neurons in the network. In order to begin to understand how shunting can contribute to network synchrony in the presence of heterogeneity, we develop a general theoretical framework using spike time response curves (STRC's) to study patterns of synchrony in a simple network of two unidirectionally coupled interneurons (UCI network) interacting through a shunting synapse in the presence of heterogeneity. We derive an approximate discrete map to analyze the dynamics of synchronous states in the UCI network by taking into account the nonlinear contributions of the higher order STRC terms. We show how the approximate discrete map can be used to successfully predict the domain of synchronous 1:1 phase locked state in the UCI network. The discrete map also allows us to determine the conditions under which the two interneurons can exhibit in-phase synchrony. We conclude by demonstrating how the information from the study of the discrete map for the dynamics of the UCI network can give us valuable insight into the degree of synchrony in a larger feedforward network of heterogeneous interneurons. PMID:20135213

  17. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND...

  18. Focally spared area of fatty liver caused by arterioportal shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Arita, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Honma, Yutaka

    1996-05-01

    We describe a case with a focally spared area in fatty liver caused by arterioportal shunt. Furthermore, we discuss the cause of the focally spared area related to a localized dilution or reduction in portal blood flow. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  19. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545 Section 882.4545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... components under the skin. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). When made only of surgical...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545 Section 882.4545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... components under the skin. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). When made only of surgical...

  1. Risk factors for shunt malfunction in pediatric hydrocephalus: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Butler, Jerry; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Drake, James; Whitehead, William E; Wellons, John C; Shannon, Chevis N; Tamber, Mandeep S; Limbrick, David D; Rozzelle, Curtis; Browd, Samuel R; Simon, Tamara D

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT The rate of CSF shunt failure remains unacceptably high. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) conducted a comprehensive prospective observational study of hydrocephalus management, the aim of which was to isolate specific risk factors for shunt failure. METHODS The study followed all first-time shunt insertions in children younger than 19 years at 6 HCRN centers. The HCRN Investigator Committee selected, a priori, 21 variables to be examined, including clinical, radiographic, and shunt design variables. Shunt failure was defined as shunt revision, subsequent endoscopic third ventriculostomy, or shunt infection. Important a priori-defined risk factors as well as those significant in univariate analyses were then tested for independence using multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS A total of 1036 children underwent initial CSF shunt placement between April 2008 and December 2011. Of these, 344 patients experienced shunt failure, including 265 malfunctions and 79 infections. The mean and median length of follow-up for the entire cohort was 400 days and 264 days, respectively. The Cox model found that age younger than 6 months at first shunt placement (HR 1.6 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), a cardiac comorbidity (HR 1.4 [95% CI 1.0-2.1]), and endoscopic placement (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]) were independently associated with reduced shunt survival. The following had no independent associations with shunt survival: etiology, payer, center, valve design, valve programmability, the use of ultrasound or stereotactic guidance, and surgeon experience and volume. CONCLUSIONS This is the largest prospective study reported on children with CSF shunts for hydrocephalus. It confirms that a young age and the use of the endoscope are risk factors for first shunt failure and that valve type has no impact. A new risk factor-an existing cardiac comorbidity-was also associated with shunt failure. PMID:26636251

  2. TIPS Versus Peritoneovenous Shunt in the Treatment of Medically Intractable Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Rosemurgy, Alexander S.; Zervos, Emmanuel E.; Clark, Whalen C.; Thometz, Donald P.; Black, Thomas J.; Zwiebel, Bruce R.; Kudryk, Bruce T.; Grundy, L Shane; Carey, Larry C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We undertook a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing TIPS to peritoneovenous (PV) shunts in the treatment of medically intractable ascites to establish relative efficacy and morbidity, and thereby superiority, between these shunts. Methods: Thirty-two patients were prospectively randomized to undergo TIPS or peritoneovenous (Denver) shunts. All patients had failed medical therapy. Results: After TIPS versus peritoneovenous shunts, median (mean ± SD) duration of shunt patency was similar: 4.4 months (6 ± 6.6 months) versus 4.0 months (5 ± 4.6 months). Assisted shunt patency was longer after TIPS: 31.1 months (41 ± 25.9 months) versus 13.1 months (19 ± 17.3 months) (P < 0.01, Wilcoxon test). Ultimately, after TIPS 19% of patients had irreversible shunt occlusion versus 38% of patients after peritoneovenous shunts. Survival after TIPS was 28.7 months (41 ± 28.7 months) versus 16.1 months (28 ± 29.7 months) after peritoneovenous shunts. Control of ascites was achieved sooner after peritoneovenous shunts than after TIPS (73% vs. 46% after 1 month), but longer-term efficacy favored TIPS (eg, 85% vs. 40% at 3 years). Conclusion: TIPS and peritoneovenous shunts treat medically intractable ascites. Absence of ascites after either is uncommon. PV shunts control ascites sooner, although TIPS provides better long-term efficacy. After either shunt, numerous interventions are required to assist patency. Assisted shunt patency is better after TIPS. Treating medically refractory ascites with TIPS risks early shunt-related mortality for prospects of longer survival with ascites control. This study promotes the application of TIPS for medically intractable ascites if patients undergoing TIPS have prospects beyond short-term survival. PMID:15166968

  3. Smell of danger: an analysis of LP-gas odorization

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.S.; Turk, A.

    1985-03-01

    LP-gas derives warning properties from the odorants ethyl mercaptan or thiophane. Laboratory tests have implied that the average person has the ability to smell the odors before leaking LP-gas reaches one-fifth its lower limit of flammability. Generally, however, laboratory tests ignore or discard persons with a poor sense of smell, especially the elderly and persons with certain types of hyposmia. Some persons who apparently can smell the warning agents when directed may otherwise fail to notice or identify them. Elderly men seem particularly vulnerable to instances of incidental anosmia and olfactory agnosia. Psychophysical testing of the warning agents has been rather unsophisticated. There exists neither a standard protocol for testing nor adequate specification of the perceptual properties that might make one warning agent better than another. Without such developments, improvement in warning agents will fail to occur. Possible improvements include increases in concentration, the use of blends to insure more uniform delivery of agent and, to decrease the perceptual vulnerability of relatively insensitive people, use of agents with favorable psychophysical (stimulus-response) functions and use of agents with favorable adaptation characteristics. Even without a change in existing products, it seems advisable to learn more about the vulnerability of LP-gas users and to employ educational means to reduce risks.

  4. Autoregressive model in the Lp norm space for EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyang; Wang, Xurui; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Teng; Peng, Yueheng; Lei, Xu; Tian, Yin; Guo, Daqing; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-30

    The autoregressive (AR) model is widely used in electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses such as waveform fitting, spectrum estimation, and system identification. In real applications, EEGs are inevitably contaminated with unexpected outlier artifacts, and this must be overcome. However, most of the current AR models are based on the L2 norm structure, which exaggerates the outlier effect due to the square property of the L2 norm. In this paper, a novel AR object function is constructed in the Lp (p≤1) norm space with the aim to compress the outlier effects on EEG analysis, and a fast iteration procedure is developed to solve this new AR model. The quantitative evaluation using simulated EEGs with outliers proves that the proposed Lp (p≤1) AR can estimate the AR parameters more robustly than the Yule-Walker, Burg and LS methods, under various simulated outlier conditions. The actual application to the resting EEG recording with ocular artifacts also demonstrates that Lp (p≤1) AR can effectively address the outliers and recover a resting EEG power spectrum that is more consistent with its physiological basis. PMID:25448380

  5. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  6. A new method for the measurement of intrahepatic shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefs, J.C.; Reynolds, T.B.; Pare, P.; Sakimura, I.

    1984-03-01

    After transhepatic portal pressure determination, 96 patients were assessed for the presence of intrahepatic shunts by injection of microspheres (25 +/- 5 micron diameter) into the portal vein using RISA-131I as an indicator of dilution. Multiple portal vein injections in each patient allowed blood sampling from the hepatic vein (site 1) and from two inferior vena cava sampling sites (site 2, at the junction of the hepatic vein orifice with the inferior vena cava, and site 3, 2 to 3 cm closer to or within the right atrium). Intrahepatic shunting was calculated from each site: hepatic vein in 57 patients and inferior vena cava, site 2 in 43 patients and site 3 in 77 patients. At least one valid IHS calculation was available in 92 of the patients. Intrahepatic shunting calculated from sequential portal vein injections with sampling from the hepatic vein was highly correlated (r . 0.98, p less than 0.0001, slope . 1.0), with a mean difference of 1.9% +/- 1.9%. There was no significant difference by t test comparison of the mean IHS calculated from sites 1, 2, and 3. Occasional marked discrepancies were noted between IHS calculated from site 1 or site 2 compared with site 3, and the site 3 calculation was always greater. A shunt index in all patients included shunts calculated from the hepatic vein in 57 patients plus shunt calculation from the inferior vena cava in the remaining patients (site 2 in 26 patients and site 3 in nine). The 82 patients with portal hypertension or chronic liver disease had a higher portal pressure, 13.8 +/- 4.6 mm Hg, and a significantly greater shunt index, 13.7% +/- 24.5% compared with controls. The frequency distribution of IHS in patients with chronic liver disease demonstrated less than 2% IHS in 49% of patients and less than 5% IHS in 63%. The validity of our methods and the implications of the infrequent demonstration of a large IHS are discussed.

  7. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Distal Splenorenal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Rikkers, Layton F.; Rudman, Daniel; Galambos, John T.; Fulenwider, J. Timothy; Millikan, William J.; Kutner, Michael; Smith, Robert B.; Salamn, Atef A.; Jones, Peter J.; Warren, W. Dean

    1978-01-01

    In 1971 a prospective, randomized trial was initiated to determine efficacy of the distal splenorenal shunt in the management of cirrhotic patients who had previously bled from esophageal varices. When entry into the trial was terminated in 1976, 26 patients had received the distal splenorenal shunt (selective) and 29 had undergone a nonselective shunting procedure (18 interposition mesorenal, six interposition mesocaval, and five other nonselective shunts). Three operative deaths occurred in each group. Early postoperative angiography revealed preservation of hepatic portal perfusion in 14 of 16 selective patients (88%), but in only one of 20 nonselective patients (5%; p < .001). Quantitative measures of hepatic function (maximal rate of urea synthesis or MRUS and Child's score) were similar to preoperative values in the selective group but were significantly decreased in nonselective patients on the first postoperative evaluation (p < .001 for MRUS; p < .05 for Child's score). Eighty-seven per cent of selective and 81% of nonselective patients have now been followed for three to six years since surgery. Late postoperative evaluation of 29 survivors (12 selective, 17 nonselective) still shows an advantage to the selective group with respect to MRUS, Child's score, and incidence of hepatopetal portal blood flow, but differences are no longer statistically significant. However, if the seven patients with portal flow (five selective; two nonselective) are compared to the 20 with absent portal flow (seven selective; 13 nonselective), the former group has significantly higher values for MRUS (p < .05) and Child's score (p < .025). No patient with continuing portal perfusion has developed encephalopathy as compared to a 45% incidence of this complication in individuals without portal flow (p < .05). No significant differences between selective and nonselective groups have appeared with respect to total cumulative mortality (ten selective; 38%; eight nonselective, 28%), shunt occlusion (two selective, 10%; five nonselective, 18%), or recurrent variceal hemorrhage (one selective, 4%; two nonselective, 8%). Overall, significantly fewer selective patients have developed postoperative encephalopathy (three selective, 12%; 15 nonselective, 52%; p < .001). Therefore, we conclude that the distal splenorenal shunt, especially when its objective of maintaining hepatic portal perfusion is achieved, results in significantly less morbidity than nonselective shunting procedures. ImagesFigs. 2a and b.Figs. 3a and b. PMID:308357

  8. Inferior vena cava stent grafting closure of a high-flow portacaval shunt.

    PubMed

    Alhaizaey, Abdullah; Ghanekar, Anand; Oreopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Portacaval (PC) shunts can be of congenital or acquired types. Acquired PC shunts are usually created in patients with end-stage liver disease to manage complications associated with portal hypertension or may be part of selected adult-adult living donor liver transplantation procedures to decrease the chance of the small-for-size syndrome. The main potential complication of these acquired high-flow PC shunts is early hepatic encephalopathy. We present a case of a high-flow acquired PC shunt after liver transplantation that was complicated by uncontrolled encephalopathy. This was treated by endovascular inferior vena cava stent grafting for shunt closure. PMID:26946901

  9. Proximal splenorenal shunts for extrahepatic portal venous obstruction in children.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Gupta, S; Kohli, V; Pande, G K; Sahni, P; Nundy, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The results of proximal splenorenal shunts done in children with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction were evaluated. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction, a common cause of portal hypertension in children in India, is being treated increasingly by endoscopic sclerotherapy instead of by proximal splenorenal shunt. It is believed that surgery (or the operation) carries high mortality and rebleeding rates and is followed by portosystemic encephalopathy and postsplenectomy sepsis. However, a proximal splenorenal shunt is a definitive procedure that may be more suitable for children, particularly those who have limited access to medical facilities and safe blood transfusion. METHODS: Between 1976 and 1992, the authors performed 160 splenorenal shunts in children. Twenty were emergency procedures for uncontrollable bleeding and 140 were elective procedures--102 for recurrent bleeding and 38 for hypersplenism. RESULTS: The overall operative mortality rate was 1.9%--10% (3/160-2/20) after emergency operations and 0.7% (1/140) after elective operations. Rebleeding occurred in 17 patients (11%), and pneumococcal meningitis developed in 1 patient who recovered later. Encephalopathy did not develop in any patient. Four patients died in the follow-up period--two of rebleeding, one of chronic renal failure and a subphrenic abscess, and one of unknown causes. The 15-year survival rate by life table analysis was 95%. CONCLUSIONS: A proximal splenorenal shunt, a one-time procedure with a low mortality rate and good long-term results, is an effective treatment for children in India with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. PMID:8129490

  10. Control of an electromechanical hydrocephalus shunt--a new approach.

    PubMed

    Elixmann, Inga M; Kwiecien, Monika; Goffin, Christine; Walter, Marian; Misgeld, Berno; Kiefer, Michael; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Radermacher, Klaus; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-09-01

    Hydrocephalus is characterized by an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therapeutically, an artificial pressure relief valve (so-called shunt) is implanted which opens in case of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and drains CSF into another body compartment. Today, available shunts are of a mechanical nature and drainage depends on the pressure drop across the shunt. According to the latest data, craniospinal compliance is considered to be even more important than mean ICP alone. In addition, ICP is not constant but varies due to several influences. In fact, heartbeat-related ICP waveform patterns depend on volume changes in the cranial vessels during a heartbeat and changes its shape as a function of craniospinal compliance. In this paper, we present an electromechanical shunt approach, which changes the CSF drainage as a function of the current ICP waveform. A series of 12 infusion tests in patients were analyzed and revealed a trend between the compliance and specific features of the ICP waveform. For waveform analysis of patient data, an existing signal processing algorithm was improved (using a Moore machine) and was implemented on a low-power microcontroller within the electromechanical shunt. In a test rig, the ICP waveforms were replicated and the decisions of the ICP analysis algorithm were verified. The proposed control algorithm consists of a cascaded integral controller which determines the target ICP from the measured waveform, and a faster inner-loop integral controller that keeps ICP close to the target pressure. Feedforward control using measurement data of the patient's position was implemented to compensate for changes in hydrostatic pressure during change in position. A model-based design procedure was used to lay out controller parameters in a simple model of the cerebrospinal system. Successful simulation results have been obtained with this new approach by keeping ICP within the target range for a healthy waveform. PMID:25148657

  11. 77 FR 58371 - Allegheny Hydro No. 8, L.P., Allegheny Hydro No. 9, L.P., and U.S. Bank National Association...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Allegheny Hydro No. 8, L.P., Allegheny Hydro No. 9, L.P., and U.S. Bank National Association Allegheny Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

  12. Fuzzy Inference System Approach for Locating Series, Shunt, and Simultaneous Series-Shunt Faults in Double Circuit Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Swetapadma, Aleena; Yadav, Anamika

    2015-01-01

    Many schemes are reported for shunt fault location estimation, but fault location estimation of series or open conductor faults has not been dealt with so far. The existing numerical relays only detect the open conductor (series) fault and give the indication of the faulty phase(s), but they are unable to locate the series fault. The repair crew needs to patrol the complete line to find the location of series fault. In this paper fuzzy based fault detection/classification and location schemes in time domain are proposed for both series faults, shunt faults, and simultaneous series and shunt faults. The fault simulation studies and fault location algorithm have been developed using Matlab/Simulink. Synchronized phasors of voltage and current signals of both the ends of the line have been used as input to the proposed fuzzy based fault location scheme. Percentage of error in location of series fault is within 1% and shunt fault is 5% for all the tested fault cases. Validation of percentage of error in location estimation is done using Chi square test with both 1% and 5% level of significance. PMID:26413088

  13. New and improved ways to treat hydrocephalus: Pursuit of a smart shunt

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Barry R.; Venkataraman, Pranav; Browd, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    The most common treatment for hydrocephalus is placement of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt to supplement or replace lost drainage capacity. Shunts are life-saving devices but are notorious for high failure rates, difficulty of diagnosing failure, and limited control options. Shunt designs have changed little since their introduction in 1950s, and the few changes introduced have had little to no impact on these long-standing problems. For decades, the community has envisioned a “smart shunt” that could provide advanced control, diagnostics, and communication based on implanted sensors, feedback control, and telemetry. The most emphasized contribution of smart shunts is the potential for advanced control algorithms, such as weaning from shunt dependency and personalized control. With sensor-based control comes the opportunity to provide data to the physician on patient condition and shunt function, perhaps even by a smart phone. An often ignored but highly valuable contribution would be designs that correct the high failure rates of existing shunts. Despite the long history and increasing development activity in the past decade, patients are yet to see a commercialized smart shunt. Most smart shunt development focuses on concepts or on isolated technical features, but successful smart shunt designs will be a balance between technical feasibility, economic viability, and acceptable regulatory risk. Here, we present the status of this effort and a framework for understanding the challenges and opportunities that will guide introduction of smart shunts into patient care. PMID:23653889

  14. The 'anatomic shunt test' in clinical practice; contemporary description of test and in-service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Damien K Y; Patel, Mehul S; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Ward, Simon; Polkey, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    The 100% oxygen shunt test for detecting right-to-left anatomical shunting was originally described 70 years ago. However, its clinical value is not yet established. We conducted an audit in 80 patients undergoing the test between 1996 and 2012 in a tertiary referral centre. A significant difference (p=0.02) existed between the median shunt percentages where anatomical shunting was identified (10.2%) and absent (5.0%). The area under the curve for a ROC plot was 0.70. A shunt percentage of 8.3 had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75% for detection of an anatomic shunt. We conclude the test is satisfactory for the first-line investigation for anatomic shunting. PMID:24127023

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Complications In Children: An Evidence-Based Approach To Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Bober, Jacqueline; Rochlin, Jonathan; Marneni, Shashidhar

    2016-02-01

    Although much is known about ventriculoperitoneal shunts, there are still large gaps in the literature and no evidence-based guidelines on management. To date, there is no general consensus on workup and treatment, and there are many differing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for management of complications. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications can be separated into 3 categories: mechanical failure, infection, and functional failure. Knowing the basic anatomy of ventriculoperitoneal shunts, the time of shunt placement, and the clinical manifestations suggestive of potential complications can help with the management of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. This review summarizes the literature on complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts, examines the literature regarding the workup and management of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and makes recommendations for the management of these patients in the emergency department. PMID:26794147

  16. Systemic-pulmonary artery shunts in infants: modified Blalock-Taussig and central shunt procedures.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Access is gained through a midline sternotomy, the thymus partially excised and the superior part of the pericardium is opened. The innominate vein is retracted and the innominate artery is mobilized up to the bifurcation. The aorta is retracted to the left, the superior vena cavae to the right and the right atrial appendage inferiorly. The adventitia around the right pulmonary artery (PA) is dissected, taking care to incise the bulky pericardial reflection between the superior vena cavae and the trachea. Heparin is administrated. An occlusive clamp is applied to the right PA to test for haemodynamic tolerance prior to proceeding with the interposition of a suitable size artificial vascular prosthesis, based on the weight of the patient, between the innominate artery, or proximal subclavian artery and the right PA. Alternatively, if a sufficient main PA is present and adequate flow from a patent ductus arteriosus an end-to-side interposition shunt may be constructed between the ascending aorta and the main PA, provided the patient is stable with the test occlusion of the main PA. The management of the patent arterial ductus depends on whether or not there is forward flow through the PA. PMID:24941030

  17. Measurements of differential group delay and chromatic dispersion for LP01 and LP11 modes of few-mode fibers with depressed claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Nori; Ohashi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Ryo; Kuwaki, Nobuo

    2015-02-01

    The chromatic dispersion of the LP11 mode in a few-mode fiber with low differential group delay is evaluated experimentally. A differential group delay of less than 100 ps/km around 1550 nm can be evaluated with the modal interferometer method. The white-light interferometric method confirms that the LP11 mode is behind the LP01 mode in the 1300-1600 nm wavelength region. The difference between the chromatic dispersion values of the two modes is less than 0.5 ps/km/nm, which means that the optical pulse spreading characteristics of the LP11 mode are similar to those of the LP01 mode for fibers with depressed claddings.

  18. Assignment of the appaloosa coat colour gene (LP) to equine chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Terry, R B; Archer, S; Brooks, S; Bernoco, D; Bailey, E

    2004-04-01

    A single autosomal dominant locus, leopard complex (LP) controls the presence of appaloosa pigmentation patterns in the horse. The causative gene for LP is unknown. This study was undertaken to map LP in the horse. Two paternal half sib families segregating for the LP locus and including a total of 47 offspring were used to perform a genome scan which localized LP to horse chromosome 1 (ECA1). LP was linked to ASB08 (LOD = 9.99 at Theta = 0.02) and AHT21 (LOD = 5.03 at Theta = 0.14). To refine the map position of LP, eight microsatellite markers on ECA1 (UM041, LEX77, 1CA41, TKY374, COR046, 1CA32, 1CA43, and TKY002) were analysed in the two half sib families. Results from this linkage analysis showed LP was located in the interval between ASB08 and 1CA43. Tight junction protein (TJP1), which lies within the LP interval on ECA1, was used to determine the homologous chromosomes in humans (HSA15) and mice (mouse chromosome 7). We propose that the pink eyed dilution (p) gene and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M, member 1 (TRPM1) are positional candidate genes for LP. PMID:15025575

  19. Aerosol Correction for Improving OMPS/LP Ozone Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhong; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Loughman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb Profiler (OMPS-LP) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite was launched on Oct. 28, 2011. Limb profilers measures the radiance scattered from the Earth's atmospheric in limb viewing mode from 290 to 1000 nm and infer ozone profiles from tropopause to 60 km. The recently released OMPS-LP Version 2 data product contains the first publicly released ozone profiles retrievals, and these are now available for the entire OMPS mission, which extends from April, 2012. The Version 2 data product retrievals incorporate several important improvements to the algorithm. One of the primary changes is to turn off the aerosol retrieval module. The aerosol profiles retrieved inside the ozone code was not helping the ozone retrieval and was adding noise and other artifacts. Aerosols including polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) and polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) have a detectable effect on OMPS-LP data. Our results show that ignoring the aerosol contribution would produce an ozone density bias of up to 10 percent in the region of maximum aerosol extinction. Therefore, aerosol correction is needed to improve the quality of the retrieved ozone concentration profile. We provide Aerosol Scattering Index (ASI) for detecting aerosols-PMC-PSC, defined as ln(Im-Ic) normalized at 45km, where Im is the measured radiance and Ic is the calculated radiance assuming no aerosols. Since ASI varies with wavelengths, latitude and altitude, we can start by assuming no aerosol profiles in calculating the ASIs and then use the aerosol profile to see if it significantly reduces the residuals. We also discuss the effect of aerosol size distribution on the ozone profile retrieval process. Finally, we present an aerosol-PMC-PSC correction scheme.

  20. Chaos detection tools: The LP-VIcode and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darriba, L. A.; Maffione, N. P.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    A very important topic in galactic dynamics is the detection of instabilities of a given system and the possible appearance of chaos. Such a chaotic bahaviour can be detected and studied by means of variational chaos in- dicators (CIs). The CIs are based on the study of the evolution of initial deviation vectors, which makes these techniques specially sensitive to in- dicate the presence of chaos. Notwithstanding their special sensitiveness to identify chaos, the CIs are still good alternatives to determine also the resonance web. On the other hand, the so-called spectral analysis methods are based on the study of some quantity (e.g. the frequency) on a single orbit, which turns these techniques very efficient for the determination of the resonant struc- ture of the system. The analysis of the interaction among chaotic and regular components as well as the determination of the resonant structure of the Hamiltonian leads to a deeper understanding of the system's dynamics. Despite the advan- tages of the simultaneous application of both types of techniques, many researchers keep applying only one of them. Herein, we present an alpha version of a program coded in Fortran, the LP-VIcode. Although the code is in a developing stage, it can compute several CIs, and here we apply it together with the Frequency Modified Fourier Transform (FMFT) (Sidlichovský & Nesvorný 1996) to study the stationary space (Schwarzchild 1993) of an average realistic Hamiltonian model (Muzzio et al. 2005). Using the LP-VIcode, in Maffione et al. (2011b) and Darriba et al. (sub- mitted) the authors suggest an efficient package of CIs to study a general Hamiltonian. Here the research is extended to show that the complemen- tary use of the LP-VIcode and the spectral analysis methods is highly rec- ommended to study a realistic Hamiltonian model.

  1. Verification of Aperture and FUV Spectrum Placement for COS at LP3 {LENA1}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnow, David

    2013-10-01

    This proposal will determine the exact spacecraft pointing offset and the aperture offsets needed for the 3rd COS FUV lifetime position {LP3}. The intent is to shift COS FUV spectra by approximately -2.5 arcseconds in the cross-dispersion direction to avoid the heavily gain sagged region around LP1. All FUV exposures will use the ALTERNATE lifetime position to place the spectra at the LP3 location on the detector.

  2. 77 FR 73637 - Alliance Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alliance Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2012, Alliance Pipeline L.P. (Alliance), 800, 605-5 Ave. SW., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2P 3H5... Pipeline L.P., 800, 605-5 Ave. SW., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2P 3H5, by telephone at (403) 517-6354 or...

  3. Kinematic analysis following implantation of the PRESTIGE LP

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Izabela; Chaudhary, Navjot; Duggal, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical success of cervical arthroplasty hinges on the ability to preserve or improve the biomechanics of the functional spinal unit. The purpose of this study was to conduct a radiologic assessment of kinematic parameters preimplantation and postimplantation of the PRESTIGE LP Cervical Disc System (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee). Methods A total of 120 radiographs of 20 patients following single-level implantation of the PRESTIGE LP were retrospectively reviewed. Static and dynamic radiologic assessments were performed before surgery and at 1 year postoperation. Kinematic parameters including range of motion (ROM), horizontal translation, center of rotation (COR X, Y), anterior disc height and posterior disc height, and disc angle and shell angle were assessed for each spinal level using quantitative motion analysis software. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the short form health survey physical component scores and mental component scores. Results The mean physical component scores and mental component scores of the short form health survey (SF-36) improved significantly following surgery. At 1 year postoperation, ROM, translation, and COR X were preserved. The COR Y shifted superiorly from 3.17 ± 2.08 mm preoperation to 0.98 ± 2.23 mm postoperation (P < .001). The anterior disc height and posterior disc height were significantly increased following surgery (3.97 ± 1.01 to 4.78 ± 1.11 mm and 3.04 ± 0.69 to 3.66 ± 0.61 mm, respectively; P < .01). The preoperative disc angle was 3.32° ± 2.92° and the postoperative shell angle was 1.11° ± 4.29°, with a mean change of −2.22° ± 4.63° (P < .05). Conclusions The PRESTIGE LP maintained preoperative ROM, translation, and COR X values. The postoperative COR Y value changed significantly by shifting superiorly, accompanied by an increase in DH. There was a loss of lordosis at the level of surgery, with the PRESTIGE LP endplates having an almost parallel endplate configuration. PMID:25694898

  4. Lp-Green potential estimates on noncompact Riemannian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie

    2010-06-01

    We are concerned with Lp a priori estimates for the Green function of a regular domain of the Laplacian-Beltrami operator on any 3≤n-dimensional complete noncompact boundary-free Riemannian manifold via rough and sharp isoperimetric-type inequalities. Consequently, we are led to evaluate the critical limit of an induced monotone Green's functional using the asymptotic behavior of the Lorentz norm deficit of the Green function at infinity, as well as the harmonic radius of a regular domain in the Riemannian manifold with both non-negative Ricci curvature and optimal isoperimetric inequality of Euclidean type.

  5. Possible sources of right-to-left shunting in patients following a total cavopulmonary connection.

    PubMed

    Buheitel, G; Hofbeck, M; Tenbrink, U; Leipold, G; vd Emde, J; Singer, H

    1998-07-01

    Despite a good haemodynamic result, many children have a mildly decreased arterial-oxygen saturation following a total cavopulmonary connection. Our study was performed to determine possible mechanisms of right-to-left shunting in these patients. We performed elective cardiac catheterization in 19 children at a mean interval of 3.6 years following a total cavopulmonary connection. The intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt, the intracardiac right-to-left shunt and the total right-to-left shunt were calculated under mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen. The intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt was 10.8+/-3.5% of the pulmonary blood flow, and the total right-to-left shunt accounted for 18.9+/-5.2% of the systemic blood flow. The intracardiac right-to-left shunt in patients with no relevant venovenous collaterals or leaks in the atrial tunnel was calculated at 6.4+/-3.0% of the systemic blood flow, while the intracardiac right-to-left shunt in patients with relevant collaterals or leaks accounted for 13.0+/-5.9% of the systemic blood flow. Since intrapulmonary arteriovenous fistulas were not demonstrated angiographically in any of our patients, the intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt is probably due to low ratios of perfusion to ventilation in some pulmonary segments. The intracardiac right-to-left shunt was due to leaks across the interatrial baffle, collaterals between systemic and pulmonary veins, and to the coronary sinus draining to the pulmonary venous atrium. PMID:9731651

  6. Creating interatrial shunts in heart failure and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wolsk, Emil; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-05-17

    Patients with elevated filling pressures are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Structural interventions to lower elevated either left or right atrial filling pressures are gaining attention. Studies in heart failure show that lowering left atrial pressure may reduce CV events while improving functional capacity. In recognition of this, trials are ongoing studying the effects of percutaneously implanted interatrial shunt devices (IASD). The preliminary results of IASD implantation suggest that periprocedural complications are rare and midterm safety good. Although both haemodynamic and functional parameters improve after IASD implantation, study designs, including sample size and duration, preclude definite conclusions regarding potential efficacy. In this paper, we briefly summarise current knowledge in the field, and give a perspective on the data needed to make interatrial device shunt therapy a part of our armamentarium in patients with heart failure or pulmonary hypertension and increased filling pressure. PMID:27174121

  7. Hepatic encephalomyelopathy in a calf with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Oevermann, Anna; Bley, Tim; Pfister, Patrizia; Miclard, Julien

    2008-01-01

    A 4-month-old female Holstein Friesian calf was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Berne, Switzerland for evaluation of ataxia, weakness, apathy and stunted growth. Clinical examination revealed generalized ataxia, propioceptive deficits, decreased menace response and sensibility. Postmortem examination did not reveal macroscopic changes of major organs. Histologically, the brain and the spinal cord lesions were characterized by polymicrocavitation, preferentially affecting the white matter fibers at the junction of grey and white matter and by the presence of Alzheimer type II cells. The liver revealed lesions consistent with a congenital portosystemic shunt, characterized by increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplasia to absence of portal veins. The pathological investigations along with the animal history and clinical signs indicated a hepatic encephalomyelopathy due to a congenital portosystemic shunt. PMID:18296896

  8. Transient response of a static VAR shunt compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.A.; Zelaya-De La Parra, H.

    1996-05-01

    A typical static VAR shunt compensator has been analyzed so that the step response and steady-state errors can be identified. The results show that the steady-state error is dependent upon the error in the measurement of the currents` phase alone. They also show that an unstable condition can occur, though it should rarely arise in practice. All the theory was verified on a low power (240 V, 3 A) system.

  9. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt before and after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E

    2014-09-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has long been referred to as a procedure performed as "a bridge to transplantation" since, like many other portosystemic shunts, it decompresses the portal circulation and stabilizes patients but does not definitively treat portal hypertension. One of the major advantages of TIPS over surgically placed portosystemic shunts in the transplant era is that the TIPS is intrahepatic and is removed in situ with the native liver, and usually does not need additional surgery (unlike takedown/ligation of surgical shunts). There are several studies that evaluate TIPS before transplantation-not as a bridge/temporizing measure, but as a prelude to the transplant to decompress the portal circulation and reduce portosystemic engorgement and collaterals and thus, in theory, reduce intraoperative bleeding during liver transplantation. However, these studies, mostly in the transplant literature, have been equivocal from an intraoperative and posttransplant clinical outcome standpoint. TIPS creation in liver transplant recipients is another interesting aspect of TIPS. There has been a debate about whether or not liver transplantation adds additional technical difficulty to the TIPS procedure. Initially, many theories were proposed as to the technical difficulty of TIPS in a transplanted liver. However, recent opinions and published studies demonstrate that whole-graft liver transplantation does not pose a significant technical difficulty to TIPS. Moreover, there are several recent studies evaluating the outcomes of TIPS in liver transplant recipients, showing that outcomes are less favorable when compared with TIPS in nontransplanted patients. This article discusses the results of TIPS as a preoperative prelude to liver transplantation. In addition, it discusses the technical and clinical outcomes of TIPS in liver transplant recipients. PMID:25177084

  10. Fetal pleuroamniotic shunting for bronchopulmonary sequestration with hydrops.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, S; Sago, H; Kitano, Y; Kuroda, T; Honna, T; Nakamura, T; Ito, Y; Kitagawa, M; Natori, M

    2006-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), a non-functional pulmonary tissue mass, when complicated by fetal hydrops, carries a high risk of perinatal mortality. However, a limited number of cases of BPS complicated by fetal hydrops with an informative clinical course have been reported. We report here on three cases of BPS complicated by fetal hydrothorax and hydrops that were successfully treated by pleuroamniotic shunting, which should be considered as a treatment option for fetal hydrothorax and hydrops associated with BPS. PMID:17086582

  11. Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: Imaging findings and endovascular management

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Rajsekar; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Thomas, Tixon; Kader, Nazar Puthukudiyil; Moorthy, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases of congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in which the right portal vein directly communicated with the inferior venacava (IVC) in one patient and with the hepatic vein in the other. Multiple hepatic nodules consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) were seen in the first patient. The second patient presented with recurrent history of hepatic encephalopathy. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization was performed using coils and Amplatz device following which she completely recovered. PMID:27081230

  12. Wideband digital phase comparator for high current shunts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogliano, Umberto; Trinchera, Bruno; Serazio, Danilo

    2012-06-01

    A wideband phase comparator for precise measurements of phase difference of high current shunts has been developed at INRIM. The two-input digital phase detector is realized with a precision wideband digitizer connected to the outputs of the shunts under comparison through a pair of symmetric active guarded transformers. Data are first acquired asynchronously, and then transferred from on-board memory to host memory. Because of the large amount of data collected the filtering process and the analysis algorithms are performed outside the acquisition routine. Most of the systematic errors can be compensated by a proper inversion procedure. The system is suitable for comparing shunts in a wide range of currents, from 2 A up to 100 A, and frequencies ranging between 500 Hz and 100 kHz. Expanded uncertainty (k = 2) less than 50 µrad, for frequency up to 100 kHz, is obtained in the measurement of the phase difference of a group of 10 A shunts, provided by some European NMIs, using a digitizer with sampling frequency up to 1 MHz. An enhanced version of the phase comparator employs a new digital phase detector with higher sampling frequency and vertical resolution. This permits the contribution to the uncertainty budget of the phase detector to be decreased by a factor two from 20 kHz to 100 kHz. Theories and experiments show that the phase difference between two high precision wideband digitizers, coupled as a phase detector, depends on multiple factors derived from the analogue and digital imprint of each sampling system.

  13. Modernisation Issues of Diesel-Electric Shunting Locomotive Power Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoimoja, Hardi; Jalakas, Tanel; Rosin, Argo; Rassylkin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The research concentrates on the modernisation issues of inefficient diesel-electric shunting locomotives, produced in the former Soviet Union. The existing diesel-generator unit, serving as an onboard power plant can be replaced by hybridised units, with an energy storage unit acting as a peaking power source for dynamic modes. By integrating an energy storage unit into the power plant, the locomotive traction drive becomes hybridised, consuming less fuel during transients and idling.

  14. Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt with an Umbilical Vein Graft

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Luiz Eduardo V.; Andrade, José Carlos S.; Succi, José Ernesto; Cueva, Clotario C.; Ribeiro, Expedito E.; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos C.; Buffolo, Enio

    1985-01-01

    We describe a modification of the Blalock Taussig anastomosis, with the interposition of a glutaraldehyde-tanned umbilical vein graft between the subclavian and pulmonary arteries. This operation was performed in 64 children: 11 were less than 1 month of age (17.2%), and 23 were between 1 and 6 months of age (34.9%). Hospital deaths occurred in six patients—all less than 6 months of age (9.4%). There was no instance of shunt occlusion noted. The clinical course was uneventful among survivors, except for one patient who died of endocarditis in the late postoperative follow-up. The shunt procedure may be performed very rapidly, with minimal dissection, allowing the use of a graft larger than the diameter of the subclavian artery. This modification of the Blalock Taussig operation compares favorably with our previous experience with other shunt procedures and may be considered a valuable alternative in the palliative surgical treatment of several malformations with severe pulmonary oligemia. Images PMID:15227043

  15. Hysteresis Control for Current Harmonics Suppression Using Shunt Active Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Rajesh Kr; Chauhan, Aasha; Sharma, Sachin

    2012-11-01

    Recently wide spread of power electronic equipment has caused an increase of the harmonic disturbances in the power systems. The nonlinear loads draw harmonic and reactive power components of current from ac mains. Current harmonics generated by nonlinear loads such as adjustable speed drives,static powersupplies and UPS. Thus a perfect compensator is required to avoid the consequences due to harmonics. To overcome problems due to harmonics, Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) has been considered extensively. SAPF has better harmonic compensation than the other approaches used for solving the harmonic related problems. The performance of the SAPF depends upon different control strategies. This paper presents the performance analysis of SAPF under most important control strategy namely instantaneous real active and reactive power method (p-q) for extracting reference currents of shunt active filters under unbalanced load condition. Detailed simulations have been carried out considering this control strategy and adequate results were presented. In this paper, harmonic control strategy is applied to compensate the current harmonics in the system. A detailed study about the harmonic control method has been used using shunt active filter technique.

  16. Net cardiac shunts in anuran amphibians: physiology or physics?

    PubMed

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2014-08-15

    Amphibians have a single ventricle and common conus arteriosus that produces an equal pressure to the parallel pulmocutaneous and systemic vascular circuits. The distribution of blood flows between the pulmocutaneous (Qpul) and systemic (Qsys) circuits (net cardiac shunt) varies with a number of environmental conditions and behaviours; although autonomic regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance conductance has been emphasized, little attention has been paid to the possible contribution of the passive physical characteristics of the two circuits to pressure changes associated with variation in cardiac output. In this study, we re-analysed three recent studies that recorded net cardiac shunts in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) under a variety of conditions and treatments. In all three studies, Qpul and Qsys were linearly related to cardiac output (Qtot), but the slope was threefold higher for Qpul compared with Qsys as predicted by relative conductance increases associated with increases in pressure from perfused preparations where autonomic regulation and humoral control were eliminated. Our analysis indicates that the net cardiac shunt in the cane toad is predicted primarily by the physical, rather than physiological, characteristics of the parallel pulmonary and systemic vascular circuits. PMID:24902743

  17. Early ductal shunting and intraventricular haemorrhage in ventilated preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, N; Kluckow, M

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To establish if there is an association between early cardiovascular adaptation and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). METHODS: One hundred and seventeen ventilated preterm infants (mean gestational age 27 weeks, mean birthweight 993 g) were studied echocardiographically within the first 36 hours. Measurements included right (RVO) and left ventricular outputs (LVO), ductus arteriosus (PDA) and atrial shunt diameter using colour Doppler and pulsed Doppler direction and velocity of both shunts. Clinical variables collected over the first 24 hours included use of antenatal steroids, respiratory severity, and mean blood pressure. Cerebral ultrasound scans were reported by a radiologist blinded to clinical and echocardiographic data. RESULTS: Antenatal steroids (two doses) had been given to 73% of the 86 infants with no IVH compared with 48% of the 21 infants with grades 1 and 2 IVH, and just 10% of 10 babies with grades 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Both groups with IVH had significantly larger PDA diameters than the group with no IVH. Infants with grades 3 and 4 IVH had significantly lower RVO than the other infants. These differences were more pronounced when only infants with definite late IVH were analysed. Logistic regression analysis showed lack of antenatal steroids and larger PDA diameters were significantly associated with any grade of IVH and lack of antenatal steroids; lower RVO was significantly associated with grades 3 and 4 IVH. CONCLUSIONS: Larger early PDA shunts, lower RVO, and lack of antenatal steroids were significantly associated with IVH. PMID:8976684

  18. Long-term results of mesocaval shunts with polytetrafluoroethylene grafts.

    PubMed

    Descottes, Bernard; Lachachi, Fouzi; Maisonnette, Franck; Durand-Fontanier, Sylvaine; Abita, Thiare; Geballa, Rami; Valleix, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new procedures such as pharmacologic reduction of portal pressure and endoscopic sclerotherapy, the role of surgery in portal hypertension must be reconsidered. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term results of mesocaval interposition shunting in the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding after sclerotherapy failure or in patients with intractable ascites in whom optimal medical treatments failed. Over a 20-year period, 85 patients (66 men and 19 women; mean age, 53.96 +/- 11.57 years) underwent a mesocaval interposition shunt procedure. Sixty-six patients had recurrent variceal bleeding, and 19 patients had refractory ascites. The underlying etiology of portal hypertension was alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 69), posthepatitis cirrhosis (n = 10), cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 3), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 2), and Budd-Chiari syndrome (n = 1). Thirty-one patients were in Child-Pugh grade A, 34 were in grade B, and 20 were in grade C. The mean diameter of the graft was 11.85 +/- 1.53 mm (range, 10-14 mm). Overall, in-hospital mortality was 10.5% (9 of 85 patients). There were 3 postoperative recurrences of variceal hemorrhage and 5 recurrent bleeds during the follow-up. The overall incidence of shunt thrombosis of this series was 10.5%. The total incidence of encephalopathy was 10.5%. Intraoperative gradient pressure measurements before and after shunt showed satisfactory pressure reduction (16.90 +/- 5.32 to 5.12 +/- 2.50/ mmHg; P < 0.0001). The mean follow-up period was 26.09 +/- 25.3 (range, 1-90) months. Nine patients (10.5%) later received liver transplants, with time intervals ranging from 2 months to 5 years. The actuarial survival rate was 92% at 1 year and 75% at 5 years. In our series, the interposition mesocaval shunt seems to be an effective procedure for the control of complications of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients with good long-term results. Moreover, the procedure can be considered as a solution of choice in patients who are current liver transplant candidates, leaving the hepatic hilus intact. PMID:19943428

  19. Experimental experience with a temporary intraluminal heparin-bonded polyurethane arterial shunt.

    PubMed

    Walker, A J; Mellor, S G; Cooper, G J

    1994-02-01

    After vascular injury, intraluminal arterial shunting may be employed if definitive surgery must be delayed. This paper describes use of a heparin-bonded polyurethane shunt to restore distal circulation after ligation of the femoral artery in sheep. In studies to determine tissue viability for 12 h after insertion into the femoral artery, five of seven shunts remained patent. In another series of experiments to study tissue viability after limb ischaemia, the femoral artery was ligated and a tight Esmarch bandage applied to the limb for 6 h before shunt insertion. The shunt remained patent for 12 h in five of six cases. Nearly all shunt failures occurred shortly after placement and were attributable to intimal damage arising from difficulties during insertion. PMID:8156333

  20. Post Blalock–Taussig shunt mediastinal mass – a single shadow with two different destinies

    PubMed Central

    Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Vadivelu, Ramalingam; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Krishna, Satheesh

    2014-01-01

    The modified Blalock–Taussig shunt is a synthetic shunt between the subclavian and pulmonary artery, used in the treatment of congenital cyanotic heart diseases with pulmonary hypoperfusion. Delayed complications include progressive failure of the shunt, serous fluid leak, and pseudoaneurysm formation. We report two different and rare mediastinal vascular complications following modified BT shunt surgery in this case report. The first one is a seroma, due to serous fluid leakage through the shunt graft, which is a relatively benign complication. The second one is a pseudoaneurysm, arising from the shunt, a frequently fatal complication. Generally, X-ray chest is used for screening in these patients. CT angiography plays a vital role in the diagnosis of both these conditions. Management in pseudoaneurysm should be aggressive, as timely intervention may be life saving, while in seroma the management is most often conservative occasionally requiring surgical intervention. PMID:24814123

  1. Chemoembolic Hepatopulmonary Shunt Reduction to Allow Safe Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Lobectomy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, Ron C.; VanMiddlesworth, Kyle A.

    2012-12-15

    Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization represents an emerging transcatheter treatment option for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Elevation of the hepatopulmonary shunt fraction risks nontarget radiation to the lungs and may limit the use of {sup 90}Y therapy in patients with locally advanced disease with vascular invasion, who often demonstrate increased shunting. We present two cases in which patients with HCC and portal vein invasion resulting in elevated hepatopulmonary shunt fractions underwent chemoembolic shunt closure to allow safe {sup 90}Y radioembolization. Both patients demonstrated excellent tumor response and patient survival. On this basis, we propose a role for chemoembolic reduction of the lung shunt fraction before {sup 90}Y radioembolization in patients with extensive tumor-related hepatopulmonary shunting.

  2. Distribution of extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt morphology in predisposed dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An inherited basis for congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) has been demonstrated in several small dog breeds. If in general both portocaval and porto-azygous shunts occur in breeds predisposed to portosystemic shunts then this could indicate a common genetic background. This study was performed to determine the distribution of extrahepatic portocaval and porto-azygous shunts in purebred dog populations. Results Data of 135 client owned dogs diagnosed with EHPSS at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University from 2001 – 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The correlation between shunt localization, sex, age, dog size and breed were studied. The study group consisted of 54 males and 81 females from 24 breeds. Twenty-five percent of dogs had porto-azygous shunts and 75% had portocaval shunts. Of the dogs with porto-azygous shunts only 27% was male (P = 0.006). No significant sex difference was detected in dogs with a portocaval shunt. Both phenotypes were present in almost all breeds represented with more than six cases. Small dogs are mostly diagnosed with portocaval shunts (79%) whereas both types are detected. The age at diagnosis in dogs with porto-azygous shunts was significantly higher than that of dogs with portocaval shunts (P < 0.001). Conclusion The remarkable similarity of phenotypic variation in many dog breeds may indicate common underlying genes responsible for EHPSS across breeds. The subtype of EHPSS could be determined by a minor genetic component or modulating factors during embryonic development. PMID:22784395

  3. Reversibility of intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunts in liver cirrhosis documented by serial radionuclide perfusion lung scans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.S.; Barnett, C.A.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Using serial perfusion lung scans, the opening up and closure of right-to-left intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunts has been documented over a period of several weeks in a patient with chronic alcoholic liver disease. The presence of the shunts correlates well with the severity of hypoxemia and the presence of nodular mottling on chest radiographs. The time course of these changes with clinical status suggests lability and the functional nature of these shunts.

  4. Estimating intracardiac and extracardiac shunting in the setting of complex congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Ryan J; Shekerdemian, Lara S

    2013-01-01

    Complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with significant morbidity worldwide. Managing hypoxemia in these populations can be difficult, particularly in the setting of cyanotic CHD. However, the presence of additional extracardiac shunts secondary to acute respiratory disease can be very challenging to manage. Before understanding how to deal with hypoxemia in patients with dual shunts, one needs to understand the physiology and diagnosis related to the individual shunts and apply this knowledge to the patient as a whole. PMID:24688231

  5. Clinical Analysis of Results of Shunt Operation for Hydrocephalus Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Soo; Cha, Jae Hun; Heo, Weon; Song, Joon Suk; Kim, Sung Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ventricular enlargement following head injury is a frequent finding but cases requiring shunt operation are rare. The incidence and developing factors of post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) have been variously reported, but studies for factors influencing outcomes of shunt operation for PTH are rare. The incidence of PTH requiring shunt operation, causing injuries, and factors influencing outcome of shunt operation need to be identified. Methods In total, 1,142 patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) between January 2007 and December 2012 were admitted to our department. Of them, 23 patients underwent shunt operation for diagnosed PTH. In this clinical study, we reviewed retrospectively our TBI database and in the 23 patients, we evaluated outcomes with Glasgow Outcome Score just before the operation, at 14 days, 3 months, and 6 months according to initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, interval time between shunt operation and trauma, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. Results The incidence of PTH treated with shunt operation was 2.01%. Subdural hematoma (SDH) was the most common preceding head injury. The outcomes of shunt operation were not related with lumbar CSF pressure or interval time from trauma, but initial GCS score correlated with the outcome. Conclusion In present study, 2.01% of TBI patients underwent shunt operation. SDH was the most common preceding injury. Admission GCS score was related to the outcome of shunt operation. However, there were no correlation between the outcome of shunt operation and initial lumbar CSF pressure or interval time of shunt operation after the trauma.

  6. Thrombosed Mesocaval Shunt: Salvage by Mechanical Thrombolysis. Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Baijal, Sanjay Saran Mohan, Suyash; Singh, Jagadeesh R.; Verma, Ashish

    2008-07-15

    We report the case of a 27-year-old male who presented with acute mesocaval shunt thrombosis, which was successfully managed by mechanical thrombolysis. Shunt thrombosis was suspected when the patient showed clinical signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice in the immediate postoperative period. Doppler sonography showed absence of flow across the shunt, suggestive of thrombosis, which was mechanically thrombolyzed by a percutaneous approach. The portocaval pressure gradient noted at the end of procedure was <5 mm Hg. The shunt remained patent at the end of 3 months' follow-up.

  7. Gold shunt for refractory advanced low-tension glaucoma with spared central acuity

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ryan; Gupta, Neeru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report a case of gold shunt surgery for uncontrolled, low-tension glaucoma with good central vision, after having a previously failed trabeculectomy and tube shunt surgeries. The patient was receiving maximum medical glaucoma therapy of four different types with intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg prior to gold shunt surgery. Five years later, intraocular pressure is well controlled in the low teens without the need for ocular medications, and glaucoma is stable following gold shunt surgery. PMID:27051320

  8. Embolization of portal-systemic shunts in cirrhotic patients with chronic recurrent hepatic encephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurabayashi, Shin; Sezai, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Masanori; Oka, Hiroshi

    1997-03-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of embolization of portal-systemic shunts in cirrhotic patients with chronic recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (CRHE). Methods. Seven cirrhotic patients with CRHE refractory to medical treatment (3 men and 4 women, mean age 66 years) were studied. Five patients had splenorenal shunts, 1 had a gastrorenal shunt, and 1 had an intrahepatic portal vein-hepatic vein shunt. Shunt embolization was performed using stainless steel coils, with a percutaneous transhepatic portal vein approach in 4 patients and a transrenal vein approach in 3 patients. Results. After embolization, the shunt disappeared in 4 patients on either ultrasound pulsed Doppler monitoring or portography. Complications observed in the 7 patients were fever, transient pleural effusion, ascites, and mild esophageal varices. For 3-6 months after embolization, the 4 patients whose shunts disappeared showed minimal or no reappearance of a shunt, and had no recurrence of encephalopathy. The serum ammonia levels decreased and electroencephalograms also improved. One of the 4 patients, who developed mild esophageal varices, required no treatment. Treatment was effective in 3 of the 4 patients (75%) who underwent embolization via a transhepatic portal vein. Conclusion. Transvascular embolization of shunts improved the outcome in 4 of 7 patients. The most effective embolization was achieved via the percutaneous transhepatic portal vein approach.

  9. Simultaneous urethrocutaneous and urethrocavernous fistula after proximal corporospongiosal shunt for priapism.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Adarsh S; Mazur, Daniel J; Han, Justin S; Gonzalez, Christopher M

    2015-03-01

    Proximal corporospongiosal shunts are used for the most refractory cases of priapism. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old man whose priapism was only partially responsive to phenylephrine injections and distal shunting. Proximal shunting was required, and he subsequently developed fistulization of the proximal penile urethra into the skin and the corpora cavernosa. The formation of simultaneous urethrocutaneous and urethrocavernous fistulae is a rare complication of proximal corporospongiosal shunts that can be initially managed with urinary diversion with a suprapubic tube. PMID:25733307

  10. The role of persistent foramen ovale and other shunts in decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Peter T

    2015-06-01

    A persistent foramen ovale (PFO) and other types of right-to-left shunts are associated with neurological, cutaneous and cardiovascular decompression illness (DCI). A right-to-left shunt is particularly likely to be implicated in causation when these types of DCI occur after dives that are not provocative. It is believed that venous nitrogen bubbles that form after decompression pass through the shunt to circumvent the lung filter and invade systemic tissues supersaturated with nitrogen (or other inert gas) and as a result there is peripheral amplification of bubble emboli in those tissues. Approximately a quarter of the population have a PFO, but only a small proportion of the population with the largest right-to-left shunts are at high risk of shunt-mediated DCI. The increased risk of DCI in people with migraine with aura is because migraine with aura is also associated with right-to-left shunts and this increased risk of DCI appears to be confi ned to those with a large PFO or other large shunt. Various ultrasound techniques can be used to detect and assess the size of right-to-left shunts by imaging the appearance of bubble contrast in the systemic circulation after intravenous injection. In divers with a history of shunt-mediated DCI, methods to reduce the risk of recurrence include cessation of diving, modification of future dives to prevent venous bubble liberation and transcatheter closure of a PFO. PMID:26165532

  11. Robert H. Pudenz (1911-1998) and Ventriculoatrial Shunt: Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Konar, Subhas K; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Bir, Shyamal C; Kalakoti, Piyush; Nanda, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Robert H. Pudenz was a renowned neurosurgeon in North America in the 20th century, famous for his contributions in the evolution of the shunt valve and ventriculoatrial shunt surgery. With his innovative idea and help from Heyer, in 1955, he demonstrated that a venous catheter worked best when in the right atrium and that the slit valve should be located at the most distal portion of the shunt system to prevent retrograde filling and thrombosis. He also contributed to various experimental studies on the brain, especially the electrical response of different neural structures. This historical vignette focuses on the work of Robert Pudenz and the evolution of the ventriculoatrial shunt. PMID:26074435

  12. 78 FR 13661 - Energy Transfer Fuel, LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Transfer Fuel, LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 15, 2013, Energy Transfer Fuel, LP filed for approval of rates for...

  13. 77 FR 13593 - PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take... Act of 1978 (PURPA), as amended, 18 CFR 292.205(c), PowerSmith Cogeneration Project, LP (PowerSmith... operated by PowerSmith located in Oklahoma. PowerSmith makes such a request because of a delay in...

  14. 76 FR 41041 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction of Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... interaction of control systems and structures. The usual deterministic approach to defining the loads envelope... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This...

  15. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant to section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed revised... conference. Take notice that a technical conference to discuss all non-rate issues raised by Cove...

  16. 78 FR 66758 - Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt, LP, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Bureau Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt, LP, as a... of accreditation and approval of Saybolt, LP, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... for customs purposes for the next three years as of July 11, 2013. DATES: Effective: The...

  17. 78 FR 11639 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 1, 2013, Houston Pipe Line Company LP (HPL) filed for approval of...

  18. 77 FR 26585 - Steel Partners Holdings L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Steel Partners Holdings L.P.; Notice of Application April 27, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act''). Summary of Application: Steel Partners Holdings L.P. (``SPH... its acquisition of WebBank in 1998 until July 14, 2009. 2. Prior to December 2008, Steel Partners...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR Part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  4. 78 FR 18973 - Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 28, 2013, as supplemented on March 12, 2013, Bridgeline Holdings, L.P. filed for... free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Monday, April 1,...

  5. 77 FR 44610 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on July 13, 2012, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. filed a revised Statement of... TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Monday, July 30, 2012. Dated:...

  6. 78 FR 62349 - Sunoco Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sunoco Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2013), Sunoco Pipeline L.P. (SPLP) filed a petition requesting a declaratory... and Procedure (18 CFR 385.211 and 385.214) on or before 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the...

  7. 75 FR 63452 - Lobo Pipeline Company L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lobo Pipeline Company L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on October 1, 2010, Lobo Pipeline Company L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its...Support@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Comment Date: 5...

  8. 76 FR 28221 - Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011 Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P. submitted a request for a waiver of the reporting...-8659. Comment Date: June 9, 2011. Dated: May 10, 2011. Kimberly Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  9. 77 FR 74658 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Technical Conference The Commission's November 29, 2012 Order in the above-captioned proceeding \\1\\ directed that a technical conference be held to address issues raised by Texas Eastern Transmission, LP's proposed revisions to...

  10. 78 FR 19758 - Stetson Capital Fund LP and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... which the company should be exempt, the company's form of organization and capital structure, the... COMMISSION Stetson Capital Fund LP and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP; Notice of Application March 27, 2013... section 2(a)(13) of the Act. Applicants: Stetson Capital Fund LP (the ``Existing Fund'') and Davis...

  11. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  12. 77 FR 71585 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP v. ISO New England Inc.; Notice of... of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (Complainant... filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and is available...

  13. 76 FR 12103 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and.... Date Filed: February 18, 2011. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Location: The existing... Daoust, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, 33 West 1st Street, South, Fulton, NY, 13069; (315) 598-6131. i....

  14. 75 FR 70939 - Approval of SAYBOLT LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Approval of SAYBOLT LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY... and approval of Saybolt LP, as a commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given..., has been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for...

  15. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from...

  16. 77 FR 21764 - Shell Pipeline Company LP; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Pipeline Company LP; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on March 30, 2012, pursuant to Rule 207(a)(2), Shell Pipeline Company LP (SPLC) submitted...

  17. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from...

  18. 78 FR 71601 - Shell Pipeline Company LP; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Pipeline Company LP; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2013), Shell Pipeline Company LP (SPLC) filed a petition requesting...

  19. 77 FR 50492 - Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order; Shell Pipeline Company LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order; Shell Pipeline Company LP Take notice that on August 10, 2012, pursuant to Rule 207(a)(2), Shell Pipeline Company LP submitted...

  20. 77 FR 74182 - Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on November 30, 2012, Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P. (Magic Valley) filed a petition for...

  1. 77 FR 70432 - Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Magic Valley Pipeline, L.P. (Magic Valley) filed to revise its Statement of...

  2. 78 FR 44943 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission EcoEl ctrica, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 3, 2013, EcoEl ctrica, L.P. (EcoEl ctrica), Road 337, Km. 3.7, Bo. Tallaboa Poniente, Pe uelas, PR 00624, filed.... EcoEl ctrica requests authorization to site, construct, and operate the LNG Supply Pipeline...

  3. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in Docket No....

  4. 76 FR 14387 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 2, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), Post Office Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket No. CP11-118-000, an application pursuant to...

  5. 76 FR 28026 - TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that on May 2, 2011, TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (TransCanada Keystone) filed a request for... changes to its committed rates. TransCanada Keystone states that good cause exists to grant such a...

  6. 78 FR 53487 - Equinox Funds Trust and Equinox Institutional Asset Management LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Equinox Funds Trust and Equinox Institutional Asset Management LP; Notice of Application August 23... requirements. Applicants: Equinox Funds Trust (the ``Trust'') and Equinox Institutional Asset Management LP.... Applicants' Representations 1. The Trust, a Delaware statutory trust, is registered under the Act as an...

  7. Automated Test Assembly Using lp_Solve Version 5.5 in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Qi; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of the software program lp_solve version 5.5 for solving mixed-integer automated test assembly (ATA) problems. The program is freely available under Lesser General Public License 2 (LGPL2). It can be called from the statistical language R using the lpSolveAPI interface. Three empirical problems are presented to…

  8. 78 FR 11965 - Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review...'s Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review: Extension... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data...

  9. 77 FR 74280 - Proposed Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey); Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Learner's Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data...

  10. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy...

  11. 77 FR 68118 - TexStar Transmission, LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Transmission, LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on November 2, 2012, TexStar Transmission, LP (TexStar) filed a Petition for Rate...

  12. 76 FR 20971 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions...

  13. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant...

  14. 75 FR 27774 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P., (Desoto) filed a Notice of Rate...

  15. 76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section 3... authorization to modify the certificated LNG facilities located on Quintana Island, Texas. The filing may...

  16. 78 FR 16845 - Equitrans, L.P.; Equitable Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P.; Equitable Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 1, 2013, Equitrans, L.P. (Equitrans), 625 Liberty Avenue, Suite 1700, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222, and Equitable Gas...

  17. Thermal-hydraulic post-test analysis of OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, J.J. ); Enciso, S. ); Reventos, F. )

    1992-04-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 and SCDAP/MOD1 against the OECD LOFT experiment LP-FP-2 is presented. LP-FP-2 studies the hypothetical release of fission products and their transport following a large-break LOCA scenario. The report comprises a general description of the LP-FP-2 experiment, a summary of thermal-hydraulic data, a simulation of the LP-FP-2 experiment, results of the RELAP5/MOD2 base calculation, the RELAP5/MOD2 sensitivity analysis, the SCDAP/MOD1 nodalization for an LP-FP-2 experiment, the results of the SCDAP/MOD1 calculation, and the summary and conclusions.

  18. Improvement of image quality of time-domain diffuse optical tomography with lp sparsity regularization

    PubMed Central

    Okawa, Shinpei; Hoshi, Yoko; Yamada, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    An lp (0 < p ≤ 1) sparsity regularization is applied to time-domain diffuse optical tomography with a gradient-based nonlinear optimization scheme to improve the spatial resolution and the robustness to noise. The expression of the lp sparsity regularization is reformulated as a differentiable function of a parameter to avoid the difficulty in calculating its gradient in the optimization process. The regularization parameter is selected by the L-curve method. Numerical experiments show that the lp sparsity regularization improves the spatial resolution and recovers the difference in the absorption coefficients between two targets, although a target with a small absorption coefficient may disappear due to the strong effect of the lp sparsity regularization when the value of p is too small. The lp sparsity regularization with small p values strongly localizes the target, and the reconstructed region of the target becomes smaller as the value of p decreases. A phantom experiment validates the numerical simulations. PMID:22162823

  19. 78 FR 4842 - Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets... a formal complaint against Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP and Cargill Power Markets,...

  20. Retrofit of LP rotors on nuclear turbines in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, P.; Billerey, B.; Goffin, J.P.

    1996-11-01

    Tractebel Energy Engineering (TEE) had several options available for eliminating the defects related to stress-corrosion in the LP shrunk-on disk rotors of 500 and 1,000 MW turbines. After conducting a technical and financial analysis, TEE decided to replace the existing rotors with welded rotors associated with a new steam path: the performance improvements proposed and guaranteed by Gec Alsthom (GA) have helped to economically justify the replacement solution. Moreover the new technology implemented will increase turbine reliability and availability. The heat rate tests carried out on Tihange 1 have revealed a gain greater than expected, thus confirming the better performance of the new steam path, designed by GA and the right choice made by TEE and its customers.

  1. L(p) -norm IDF for scalable image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi

    2014-08-01

    The inverse document frequency (IDF) is prevalently utilized in the bag-of-words-based image retrieval application. The basic idea is to assign less weight to terms with high frequency, and vice versa. However, in the conventional IDF routine, the estimation of visual word frequency is coarse and heuristic. Therefore, its effectiveness is largely compromised and far from optimal. To address this problem, this paper introduces a novel IDF family by the use of Lp-norm pooling technique. Carefully designed, the proposed IDF considers the term frequency, document frequency, the complexity of images, as well as the codebook information. We further propose a parameter tuning strategy, which helps to produce optimal balancing between TF and pIDF weights, yielding the so-called Lp-norm IDF (pIDF). We show that the conventional IDF is a special case of our generalized version, and two novel IDFs, i.e., the average IDF and the max IDF, can be defined from the concept of pIDF. Further, by counting for the term-frequency in each image, the proposed pIDF helps to alleviate the visual word burstiness phenomenon. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark data sets (Oxford 5K, Paris 6K, Holidays, and Ukbench). We show that the pIDF works well on large scale databases and when the codebook is trained on irrelevant data. We report an mean average precision improvement of as large as +13.0% over the baseline TF-IDF approach on a 1M data set. In addition, the pIDF has a wide application scope varying from buildings to general objects and scenes. When combined with postprocessing steps, we achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. In addition, since the pIDF is computed offline, no extra computation or memory cost is introduced to the system at all. PMID:24919200

  2. Prediction of the becalmed region for LP turbine profile design

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, V.; Hodson, H.P.

    1998-10-01

    Recent attention has focused on the so-called ``becalmed region`` that is observed inside the boundary layers of turbomachinery blading and is associated with the process of wake-induced transition. Significant reductions of profile loss have been shown for high lift LP turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers due to the effects of the becalmed region on the diffusing flow at the rear of the suction surface. In this paper the nature and the significance of the becalmed region are examined using experimental observations and computational studies. It is shown that the becalmed region may be modeled using the unsteady laminar boundary layer equations. Therefore, it is predictable independent of the transition or turbulence models employed. The effect of the becalmed region on the transition process is modeled using a spot-based intermittency transition model. An unsteady differential boundary layer code was used to simulate a deterministic experiment involving an isolated turbulent spot numerically. The predictability of the becalmed region means that the rate of entropy production can be calculated in that region. It is found to be of the order of that in a laminar boundary layer. It is for this reason and because the becalmed region may be encroached upon by pursuing turbulent flows that for attached boundary layers, wake-induced transition cannot significantly reduce the profile loss. However, the becalmed region is less prone to separation than a conventional laminar boundary layer. Therefore, the becalmed region may be exploited in order to prevent boundary layer separation and the increase in loss that this entails. It is shown that it should now be possible to design efficient high lift LP turbine blades.

  3. Measurements of quantum noise in resistively shunted Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roger H.; van Harlingen, D. J.; Clarke, John

    1982-07-01

    Measurements have been made of the low-frequency spectral density of the voltage noise in current-biased resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions under conditions in which the noise mixed-down from frequencies near the Josephson frequency (νJ) to the measurement frequency (<<νJ) is in the regime hνJ>kBT. In this limit, quantum corrections to the mixed-down noise are important. The spectral densities measured on junctions with current-voltage characteristics close to the Stewart-McCumber model were in excellent agreement with the predicted values, with no fitted parameters. The mixed-down noise for a wide range of bias voltages was used to infer the spectral density of the current noise in the shunt resistor at frequency ν. With no fitted parameters, this spectral density at frequencies up to 500 GHz was in excellent agreement with the prediction (2hνR)(hν2kBT). The presence of the zero-point term, 2hνR, at frequencies hν>kBT was clearly demonstrated. The current-voltage characteristics of a junction with βL≡2πLsI0Φ0~1 and βC≡2πI0R2CΦ0<<1, where I0 is the critical current, C is the junction capacitance, and Ls is the shunt inductance, showed structure at voltages where the Josephson frequency was near a subharmonic of the LsC resonant frequency. The additional nonlinearity of the I-V characteristic caused mixing down of noise near higher harmonics of the Josephson frequency, thereby greatly enhancing the voltage noise. The measured noise was in good agreement with that predicted by computer simulations.

  4. RNA elements directing translation of the duck hepatitis B Virus polymerase via ribosomal shunting.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E

    2011-07-01

    The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) reverse transcriptase (P) is translated from the downstream position on a bicistronic mRNA, called the pregenomic RNA, through a poorly characterized ribosomal shunt. Here, the positions of the discontinuous ribosomal transfer during shunting were mapped, and RNA elements important for shunting were identified as a prelude to dissecting the shunting mechanism. Mutations were introduced into the DHBV genome, genomic expression vectors were transfected into cells which support reverse transcription, and P translation efficiency was defined as the ratio of P/mRNA. Five observations were made. First, ribosomes departed from sequences that comprise the RNA stem-loop called ε that is key to viral replication, but the known elements of ε were not needed for shunting. Second, at least two landing sites for ribosomes were found on the mRNA. Third, all sequences upstream of ε, most sequences between the cap and the P AUG, and sequences within the P-coding region were dispensable for shunting. Fourth, elements on the mRNA involved in reverse transcription or predicted to be involved in shunting on the basis of mechanisms documented in other viruses, including short open reading frames near the departure site, were not essential for shunting. Finally, two RNA elements in the 5' portion of the mRNA were found to assist shunting. These observations are most consistent with shunting being directed by signals that act through an uncharacterized RNA secondary structure. Together, these data indicate that DHBV employs either a novel shunting mechanism or a major variation on one of the characterized mechanisms. PMID:21507974

  5. Interatrial shunt flow profiles in newborn infants: a colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, S; Agata, Y; Saito, K; Oguchi, K; Misawa, H; Fujino, N; Horiguchi, Y; Yashiro, K

    1991-01-01

    Interatrial shunt flow profiles in 36 normal term infants were examined serially by colour flow and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic techniques from within an hour of birth to four or five days after birth. Shunt flow across the foramen ovale was detected in 33 normal infants (92%) within an hour of birth (mean 40 minutes). The occurrence of interatrial shunting decreased with age, but a shunt signal was still detected in 17 infants (47%) on the fourth or fifth day of life, by then the ductus arteriosus had already closed in all the normal infants. The direction of interatrial shunt flow was predominantly left-to-right, but in 64% there was a coexistent small right-to-left shunt in diastole within an hour of birth; by four to five days it was found in 19%. In the six patients with persistent fetal circulation the direction of the interatrial shunt flow was predominantly right-to-left with biphasic peaks in diastole and systole at the early stage of the disease, and the period of right-to-left shunt flow during each cardiac cycle was significantly longer than that in normal infants examined within 1 hour of birth. In all patients the ductus closed before the foramen ovale. At the time of ductal closure in all patients with persistent fetal circulation right-to-left shunt flow was seen during diastole and its period was still prolonged. These findings suggest that interatrial shunting, predominantly left-to-right, is common in normal newborn infants. Evaluation of the characteristics of the interatrial shunt by Doppler echocardiography may be useful for predicting the progress of or improvement in neonates with persistent fetal circulation. Images PMID:1993129

  6. [PERITONEAL VENOUS SHUNT IN THE TREATMENT OF MALIGNANTASCITIS: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    PubMed

    Brazzini, Augusto; Cantella, Ral

    1998-01-01

    The present study, mentions the use of a valve for the drainage os ascitic fluid, better known as the peritoneo venous shunt, as a paliation treatment in terminal oncologic patients. It was performed in four patients with diseminated carcinomas, of diferent primary ethiology. These patients had a bad life quality, because when admitted in our Radiology suite, the clinical examination showed shortness of breathearly saciety, lethargy, and were found handiccapped to perform their habitual skills. This is a short and preliminar series, but it is an encouraging report, because, the quality of life, our goal, is improved. PMID:12209221

  7. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  8. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  9. Piezoelectric vibration damping using resonant shunt circuits: an exact solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, P.; Kerschen, G.; Tondreau, G.; Deraemaeker, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose an exact closed-form solution to the {{H}∞ } optimization of piezoelectric materials shunted with inductive-resistive passive electrical circuits. Realizing that Den Hartog's method which imposes fixed points of equal height in the receptance transfer function is approximate, the parameters of the piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber are calculated through the direct minimization of the maxima of the receptance. The method is applied to a one-degree-of-freedom primary oscillator considering various values of the electromechanical coupling coefficients.

  10. A theoretical and experimental study of coplanar waveguide shunt stubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Ponchak, George E.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of straight and bent coplanar waveguide (CPW) shunt stubs is presented. In the theoretical analysis, the CPW is assumed to be inside a cavity while, the experiments are performed on open structures. For the analysis of CPW discontinuities with air-bridges, a hybrid technique was developed which was validated through extensive theoretical and experimental comparisons. The effect of the cavity resonances on the behavior of the stubs with and without air-bridges is investigated. In addition, the encountered radiation loss due to the discontinuities is evaluated experimentally.

  11. 69 kV shunt capacitor bank specification considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, G.E. )

    1992-01-01

    PSI has standardized on the 69 kv ungrounded star, 7.2 mvar or multiple of the 7.2 mvar shunt capacitor bank for var control. This document defines the considerations to be addressed when specifying a 69 kv ungrounded capacitor bank and for providing suitable protection. The design goal is to provide a bank that is reliable and meets operational requirements at minimum cost with standard components. The bank components will be discussed separately. This paper defines the considerations for specifying capacitor banks to minimize cost, improve reliability and help standardize design. The components making up the bank will be individually discussed with special emphasis on the protection and control.

  12. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  13. The Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Technique and Instruments.

    PubMed

    Keller, Frederick S; Farsad, Khashayar; Rösch, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Although transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was first described in 1971, it took 15 more years for technology, in the form of expandable metallic stents, to be developed to make TIPS a viable, widespread clinical procedure. Currently, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent grafts that exhibit significantly greater long-term patency are used for TIPS creation by most interventionalists. TIPS creation requires specific interventional skills, tools, and devices for success. In the hands of skillful, experienced interventional radiologists, TIPS creation is performed safely and successfully in greater than 95% of cases. PMID:26997084

  14. 77 FR 75489 - Hatteras Venture Partners IV SBIC, L.P.; Application No. 99000769; Notice Seeking Exemption Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Hatteras Venture Partners IV SBIC, L.P.; Application No. 99000769; Notice Seeking Exemption Under... Hatteras Venture Partners IV SBIC, L.P., 280 South Mangum Street, Suite 350, Durham, NC 27001, an applicant... (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Hatteras Venture Partners IV SBIC, L.P. proposes...

  15. 75 FR 51451 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License..., 2010. d. Submitted By: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm Hydroelectric Project....gov . j. Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. (Erie) filed its request to use the Traditional...

  16. 76 FR 28843 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...). Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P. proposes to provide equity financing to Genius.com , Inc., 1400...., Associates of Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P., own more than ten percent of Genius.com , Inc. Therefore, Genius.com , Inc. is considered an Associate of Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P. and...

  17. 76 FR 76474 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...). Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P. proposes to provide equity financing to Lithium Technologies, Inc., 6121 Hollis Street, Suite 4, Emeryville, CA 94608 (``Lithium''). The financing is contemplated for..., L.P., Associates of Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P., own more than ten percent of...

  18. 76 FR 35263 - Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P., 711 Fifth... Equity SBIC I, L.P. proposes to provide equity security financing to Richardson Foods, Inc., 101...

  19. 77 FR 76586 - Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P., 711 Fifth... Equity SBIC I, L.P. proposes to provide debt security financing to Richardson Foods, Inc., 101 Erie...

  20. 78 FR 77770 - Ironwood Equity Fund, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ironwood Equity Fund, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Ironwood Equity Fund, LP, 45 Nod Road, Avon... Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Ironwood Equity Fund, LP proposes to make...

  1. 76 FR 59767 - Plexus Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Plexus Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Plexus Fund II, L.P., 200 Providence Road... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Plexus II, L.P., proposes...

  2. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for treatment of hydrocephalus in a French bulldog puppy.

    PubMed

    Giacinti, Jolene A

    2016-03-01

    A 6.5-week-old bulldog was presented with lethargy, anorexia, and stunted growth. A domed skull, ventrolateral strabismus, hypermetria, and delayed hopping were observed. Congenital hydrocephalus was diagnosed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. After surgery, a shunt obstruction occurred but resolved with treatment. The puppy responded well and neurological deficits continued to improve after surgery. PMID:26933271

  3. Reasons, procedures, and outcomes in ventriculoatrial shunts: A single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Celal; Demırtas, Sinan; Calıskan, Ahmet; Kamasak, Kaan; Karahan, Oguz; Guclu, Orkut; Yazıcı, Suleyman; Mavıtas, Binali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ventricular shunts are used to drain cerebrospinal fluid into extra-cranial spaces. Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts are provided to transfer cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebral ventricle into the right atrium of the heart. A single center experience of indications, procedure, and clinical outcomes in VA shunt was presented in current study. Methods: VA shunts were applied in 10 patients who had repeated previous shunt dysfunction or infection. The reasons, clinical findings, replacement methods, and postoperative clinical follow-ups and outcomes were recorded retrospectively. Results: There were seven female (70%) and three (30%) male patients; their ages ranged from 5 to 13 years (mean ± SD; 8.5 ± 2.6 years). Shunt re-placement reasons were as follows: Shunt occlusion in five patients, intraperitoneal infection in four patients and a distal catheter was kinked and knotted in one patient. Postoperative early complications were seen in one patient as early catheter thrombosis and catheter revision were applied. Late complications were seen in two patients as follows: Catheter infection and infective endocarditis occurred in one patient and pulmonary thrombus occurred in one other patient. There was not any catheter-related mortality observed at the one year follow-up period. Conclusion: VA shunts may be an option for cerebrospinal fluid drainage at necessary conditions. However, sterilization and general training on asepsy and antisepsy are the most important determinants affecting the clinical outcome due to the cardio systemic relationship. PMID:23493480

  4. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. 882.5550 Section 882.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... shunt is a device or combination of devices used to divert fluid from the brain or other part of...

  5. Transhepatic Embolization of Congenital Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunts with Associated Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Kalyan; Hoffer, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic shunts between the portal and systemic venous systems with associated aneurysms are extremely rare. A middle aged woman presented with hepatic encephalopathy and was found to have two intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts with associated aneurysms. Diagnosis was made by duplex ultrasound and was confirmed with contrast enhanced MRI. Treatment was performed percutaneously with an Amplatzer vascular plug. PMID:26257785

  6. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus: current understanding of diagnostic tests and shunting

    SciTech Connect

    Black, P.M.

    1982-02-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus is no longer difficult to diagnose or treat-cranial computed tomographic scanning has made the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement straightforward, and shunt placement often helps the patient whose condition can be traced to a specific cause. Predicting accurately whether a patient will benefit from a shunt, however, is still problematic.

  7. Shunt currents in vanadium flow batteries: Measurement, modelling and implications for efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, H.; Remy, M.

    2015-06-01

    Shunt currents are an important factor which must be considered when designing a stack for flow batteries. They lead to a reduction of the coulombic efficiency and can cause furthermore a critical warming of the electrolyte. Shunt currents inevitably appear at bypass connections of the hydraulic system between the single cells of a stack. In this work the shunt currents of a five-celled mini stack of a vanadium flow battery with external hydraulic system and their effects are investigated directly. The external hydraulic system allows the implementation of current sensors for direct measurement of the shunt currents; moreover, the single bypass channels can be interrupted by clamping the tube couplings and with it the shunt currents between the cells when the pumps are off. Thus the shares of losses by cross contamination and by shunt currents are quantified separately by charge conservation measurements. The experimentally gained data are compared to a shunt current model based on a equivalent circuit diagram and the linear equation system derived from it. Experiments and model data are in good agreement. The effects of shunt currents for different flow frame geometries and number of cells in a stack are simulated and presented in this work.

  8. Superior vena cava syndrome with retropharyngeal edema as a complication of ventriculoatrial shunt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Mohammed S; Entezami, Pouya; Nazzal, Munier M S; Casabianca, Andrew B; Assaly, Ragheb; Riley, Kalen; Gaudin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Thirty-seven-year old female with hydrocephalus managed by a ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt presented with upper body edema, dysphagia, and headache. Imaging demonstrated thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC). Direct catheter thrombolysis led to resolution of thrombus burden. Superior vena cava thrombosis is a rare consequence of VA shunting and must be managed emergently. PMID:26509004

  9. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of...

  13. A High Isolation Series-Shunt RF MEMS Switch

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuan-Wei; Zhu, Jian; Jia, Shi-Xing; Shi, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a wide band compact high isolation microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch implemented on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with three ohmic switch cells, which is based on the series-shunt switch design. The ohmic switch shows a low intrinsic loss of 0.1 dB and an isolation of 24.8 dB at 6 GHz. The measured average pull-in voltage is 28 V and switching time is 47 μs. In order to shorten design period of the high isolation switch, a structure-based small-signal model for the 3-port ohmic MEMS switch is developed and parameters are extracted from the measured results. Then a high isolation switch has been developed where each 3-port ohmic MEMS switch is closely located. The agreement of the measured and modeled radio frequency (RF) performance demonstrates the validity of the electrical equivalent model. Measurements of the series-shunt switch indicate an outstanding isolation of more than 40 dB and a low insertion loss of 0.35 dB from DC to 12 GHz with total chip size of 1 mm × 1.2 mm. PMID:22408535

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Current Status and Future Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Quiroga, Jorge; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Benito, Alberto

    2002-08-15

    Since the insertion of the first TIPS in 1989 much has been learned about this therapeutic procedure. It has an established role for the treatment of some complications of portal hypertension: prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding and rescue of patients with acute uncontrollable variceal bleeding. In addition TIPS is useful for Budd-Chiari syndrome, refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, although its specific role in these indications remains to be definitively established. However, the decrease in sinusoidal blood flow induced by TIPS can lead to the patient developing hepatic encephalopathy and liver failure in some cases. Therefore, TIPS should be used with caution in patients with very poor liver function. From a technical point of view, successful placement of TIPS is achieved in more than 98% of cases by experienced groups. At present, evaluation of TIPS dysfunction based on morphology probably leads to an overdiagnosis of this complication since most of these cases are not associated with clinical manifestations (recurrent bleeding or refractory ascites). The major disadvantage of TIPS remains its poor long-term patency requiring a mandatory surveillance program. The indicator for shunt function/malfunction should be the portosystemic pressure gradient, which is best assessed by intravascular measurements. Shunt obstructions may be prevented or reduced by the use of stent-grafts in the future.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of shunted μ-SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nikhil; Fournier, T.; Courtois, H.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2014-04-24

    In order to eliminate hysteresis, we have fabricated and characterized niobium based shunted micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUIDs). We find a wide temperature range where these μ-SQUIDs are non-hysteretic in nature and show a very good I{sub c} vs. B oscillations in hysteretic regime and V vs. B oscillations in non-hysteretic regime. Here we report the characteristics of a shunted- μ-SQUID (Wf38LS72D5). In this device we have achieved a large voltage modulation, in non-hysteretic regime, at various temperatures including such as 1.1 mV at 6.62 K with a transfer function V{sub Φ} = 7.2mV/Φ{sub 0}. The figures within the original article PDF file, as supplied to AIP Publishing, were affected by a PDF-processing error. Consequently, the article re-flowed and pagination increased from 3 to 4 pages. This article was updated on 14 May 2014 to correct the PDF-processing error, with the scientific content remaining unchanged. Readers are advised that the replacement article PDF file contains an additional blank page to preserve the original pagination.

  16. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): current status and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, José Ignacio; Quiroga, Jorge; Herrero, José Ignacio; Benito, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Since the insertion of the first TIPS in 1989 much has been learned about this therapeutic procedure. It has an established role for the treatment of some complications of portal hypertension: prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding and rescue of patients with acute uncontrollable variceal bleeding. In addition TIPS is useful for Budd-Chiari syndrome, refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, although its specific role in these indications remains to be definitively established. However, the decrease in sinusoidal blood flow induced by TIPS can lead to the patient developing hepatic encephalopathy and liver failure in some cases. Therefore, TIPS should be used with caution in patients with very poor liver function. From a technical point of view, successful placement of TIPS is achieved in more than 98% of cases by experienced groups. At present, evaluation of TIPS dysfunction based on morphology probably leads to an overdiagnosis of this complication since most of these cases are not associated with clinical manifestations (recurrent bleeding or refractory ascites). The major disadvantage of TIPS remains its poor long-term patency requiring a mandatory surveillance program. The indicator for shunt function/malfunction should be the portosystemic pressure gradient, which is best assessed by intravascular measurements. Shunt obstructions may be prevented or reduced by the use of stent-grafts in the future. PMID:12324815

  17. An Unusual Complication of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Urinary Bladder Stone Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songtao; Sheng, Weixin; Qiu, Yufa; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt surgery is the most common technique used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. The migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt to the bladder is rare. Only two cases have been previously reported in the literature. Case Presentation: We report on a 38-year-old male who had hydrocephalus and V-P shunt for 12 years. Two years ago, he found himself with recurrent urinary tract infections, haematuria and urges incontinence, and then he was diagnosed with bladder perforation and merge stones. The patient had an abdominal operation to cut off and take out the shunt catheter, as well as a transurethral holmium laser lithotripsy. Conclusions: Bladder perforation and stones are rare examples of complications in V-P surgical procedures. Controlling the effective length of the terminal V-P shunt and modifying it appropriately can effectively reduce these complications. PMID:26889393

  18. Clinical and ultrasonographic criteria for using ventriculoperitoneal shunts in newborns with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Melo, Jose Roberto Tude; Pacheco, Pollyana; Melo, Emília Nunes de; Vasconcellos, Ângela; Passos, Rosane Klein

    2015-09-01

    Objective Hydrocephalus is one of the main complications associated with myelomeningocele (MM). This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasonographic criteria for using ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts in this group of patients.Method A retrospective cohort study, based on established protocol for VP shunt implant in hydrocephalic children with MM. Parameters used to guide the indication of VP shunts included measurement of head circumference (HC), evaluation of fontanels, and measurement of lateral ventricular atrium (LVA) width by transcranial ultrasonography.Results 43 children were included in the analysis, of which 74% had hydrocephalus and required a VP shunt. These children had LVA width ≥ 15 mm, showed increased HC, or had bulging fontanels.Conclusion VP shunt is required in children with increased HC (≥ 2 standard deviation regarding age group), bulging fontanels, or LVA width of ≥ 15 mm after the closure of MM. PMID:26352494

  19. Elective minimally invasive coronary artery bypass: Shunt or tournique occlusion? Assessment of a protective role of perioperative left anterior descending shunting on myocardial damage. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine impact of intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt to prevent myocardial damage in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. Methods 38 patients were randomly assigned to external tournique occlusion (n = 19) or intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group (n = 19). Blood samples for cardiac troponin T were collected at 30 minutes prior to, 6 and 24 hours after surgery. Results One patient in external tournique occlusion and two patients in intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group were excluded from futher analysis due to preoperative cardiac troponin T level above the 99th-percentile. Postoperatively, each six patients in external tournique occlusion (33.3%) and intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt (35.3%) group were above the 99th-percentile. Two patients from each group (external tournique occlusion group 11.1% vs. intraluminal-left anterior descending shunt group 11.8%) had peak values above 10-% coeficient of variation cutoff (p = 1). There were no significant differences in between both groups at all studied timepoints. Conclusion There was no protective effect of intraluminal shunting on myocardial damage compared to short-term tournique occlusion. It is upon the surgeon's discretion which method may preferrably be used to achieve a bloodless field in grafting of the non-occluded left anterior descending in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. PMID:22809563

  20. Left ventricular to right atrial shunt (Gerbode defect): congenital versus acquired

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital left ventricular to right atrial (LV-RA) shunt (Gerbode defect) is rare, while acquired LV-RA shunt has been increasingly reported. As yet, systematically incorporated data of the LV-RA shunt have not been presented. Aim To present the clinical features, diagnostic challenge and management strategies of congenital and acquired LV-RA shunts. Material and methods The data source was based on a comprehensive literature retrieval of the LV-RA shunt in the period 1990–2013. Results In comparison with the acquired Gerbode defect, the congenital Gerbode defect group of patients were younger and were associated more often with additional congenital disorders. Previous cardiac surgery and infective endocarditis were the two major aetiologies of the occurrence of the acquired shunts. Paravalvular abscess was associated in 10.2% and atrioventricular block in 13.6% of the acquired group patients. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a higher diagnostic accuracy, lower missed diagnosis and lower inclusive diagnosis rates, in comparison to transthoracic echocardiography, but the misdiagnosis rates of the two modalities did not differ from each other. Four (4.5%) of the acquired group patients were complicated by atrioventricular block following surgical or interventional closure of the shunt. Eight (9.1%) patients died in the acquired group, but no patient died in the congenital group. Conclusions The diagnosis of an LV-RA shunt is quite challenging, especially in the context of coexisting abnormalities including an additional intracardiac shunt, tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary artery hypertension and infective endocarditis, which have to be carefully differentiated from the shunt by further investigations. A better control of infective complications and careful manoeuvres during surgery may help to keep the LV-RA-sensitive septum intact. PMID:25489305

  1. Choice of valve type and poor ventricular catheter placement: Modifiable factors associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Kealeboga Josephine; Cherry, Catherine Louise; Wan, Kai Rui; Toy, Jennifer Ah; Wolfe, Rory; Danks, Robert Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure, essentially unchanged in recent years, with high revision rates. We aimed to identify potentially modifiable associations with shunt failure. One hundred and forty patients who underwent insertion of a VP shunt from 2005-2009 were followed for 5-9years. Age at shunt insertion ranged from 0 to 91years (median 44, 26% <18years). The main causes of hydrocephalus were congenital (26%), tumour-related (25%), post-haemorrhagic (24%) or normal pressure hydrocephalus (19%). Fifty-eight (42%) patients required ⩾1 shunt revision. Of these, 50 (88%) were for proximal catheter blockage. The median time to first revision was 108days. Early post-operative CT scans were available in 105 patients. Using a formal grading system, catheter placement was considered excellent in 49 (47%) but poor (extraventricular) in 13 (12%). On univariate analysis, younger age, poor ventricular catheter placement and use of a non-programmable valve were associated with shunt failure. On logistic regression modelling, the independent associations with VP shunt failure were poor catheter placement (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-18.9, p=0.02) and use of a non-programmable valve (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0, p=0.04). In conclusion, poor catheter placement (revision rate 77%) was found to be the strongest predictor of shunt failure, with no difference in revisions between excellent (43%) and moderate (43%) catheter placement. Avoiding poor placement in those with mild or moderate ventriculomegaly may best reduce VP shunt failures. There may also be an influence of valve choice on VP shunt survival. PMID:26758704

  2. Neural Network Based Modeling and Analysis of LP Control Surface Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langari, Reza; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to interpretive modeling of LP based control allocation in intelligent flight control. The emphasis is placed on a nonlinear interpretation of the LP allocation process as a static map to support analytical study of the resulting closed loop system, albeit in approximate form. The approach makes use of a bi-layer neural network to capture the essential functioning of the LP allocation process. It is further shown via Lyapunov based analysis that under certain relatively mild conditions the resulting closed loop system is stable. Some preliminary conclusions from a study at Ames are stated and directions for further research are given at the conclusion of the paper.

  3. A new algorithm for detecting cloud height using OMPS/LP measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; DeLand, Matthew; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2016-03-01

    The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb Profiler (OMPS/LP) ozone product requires the determination of cloud height for each event to establish the lower boundary of the profile for the retrieval algorithm. We have created a revised cloud detection algorithm for LP measurements that uses the spectral dependence of the vertical gradient in radiance between two wavelengths in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. This approach provides better discrimination between clouds and aerosols than results obtained using a single wavelength. Observed LP cloud height values show good agreement with coincident Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements.

  4. Characterization of LpGPAT Gene in Lilium pensylvanicum and Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shao-kun; Yang, Ni-na; Chen, Li-jing; Irfan, Muhammad; Zhao, Xing-hua; Li, Tian-lai

    2015-01-01

    LpGPAT was obtained from L. pensylvanicum using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cloned full-length cDNA was 1544 bp; it encoded 410 amino acids and had a molecular size of 46 KDa. The nucleic acid sequence analysis showed that it shared high homology with other known GPATs. SMAT result suggests that there is a PlsC that exists in 176-322 amino acid sequence of LpGAPT; it means LpGPAT protein is a member of the family of acyltransferase and has acyltransferase enzymatic activity. Result of real-time quantitative PCR and semiquantitative PCR support LpGPAT gene is definitely induced by low temperature stress. PMID:25710023

  5. 75 FR 19646 - Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Segment 1 of Creole Trail's system to an existing meter station at Cameron Meadows Processing Plant, owned by PSI Midstream Partners, L.P., all located in Johnson Bayou, Cameron Parish, Louisiana, to...

  6. 6. ROOF OF TURBINE BUILDING AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ROOF OF TURBINE BUILDING AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM FROM NORTH END OF TURBINE BUILDING ROOF - Portland General Electric Company, Turbine Building, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 76 FR 11446 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., Compliance Specialist, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP, Hudson River Operations, 399 Big Bay Road, Queensbury.... Location: The project is located on the Sacandaga River in the Town of Hadley, Saratoga County, New York....

  8. Global Measurement of Junge Layer Stratospheric Aerosol with OMPS/LP. Scattering Properties and Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rault, D. F.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    The OMPS/LP was launched on board the NPP space platform in October 2011. Over the past two years, the OMPS/LP was used to retrieve the global distribution of ozone and aerosol. The paper will describe the aerosol product, which NASA is presently preparing for public release. The current OMPS/LP aerosol product consists of latitude-altitude curtains along the NPP Sun-synchronous orbit, from cloud top to about 40 km. These curtains extend from local sunrise in Southern polar region to local sunset in Northern polar region. Aerosol extinctions are produced at five distinct wavelengths, namely 513, 525, 670, 750 and 870 nm, with a sampling of 1 km in vertical direction and 1 degree latitude in the along-track direction. The OMPS/LP aerosol dataset is fairly large, with 7000 vertical profiles produced each day for each wavelength. The aerosol product will be presented in terms of extinction monthly median values and mean Angstrom coefficient (particle size). Over the past two years, the Junge layer was affected by several events such as volcanic eruptions (Nabro and Kelut) and a meteor (Chelyabinsk), the effects of which are clearly visible in the OMPS/LP dataset. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) can also be observed in the OMPS/LP dataset. Moreover the effect of the Brewer Dobson Circulation (BDC) can be observed at high altitudes: the BDC velocity at 35 km can be estimated from the time variation of iso-density heights and was found to compare well with BDC velocities evaluated with the water vapor tape recorder technique as well as MERRA model values. Finally, aerosol filaments are clearly visible in OMPS/LP aerosol dataset as they appear as distinct "bubbles" on the OMPS/LP curtain files at periodic intervals in both the Southern and Northern hemispheres. These filaments are a main source of transport from tropical to polar region, and OMPS/LP data can therefore be instrumental in quantifying the rate of this transport. The quality of the OMPS/LP aerosol product is being assessed by comparison with correlative measurements made by CALIPSO, OSIRIS and GOMOS. Statistical comparisons between OMPS/LP and other sensors show mean bias of less than 7% with an ensemble variance of 20-30%.

  9. Portasystemic shunting versus liver transplantation for the Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bismuth, H; Sherlock, D J

    1991-01-01

    Over 12 years, 22 patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome were treated surgically. Eighteen underwent a mesenterico-caval shunt (MCS); two, a side-to-side portacaval shunt; one, a mesenterico-atrial shunt (MAS); and one, a liver transplantation (OLT). One patient died after operation from the precipitating condition, and two MCS grafts that thrombosed were restored. All 21 surviving patients remain well, free from ascites, and all shunts are patent after a mean follow-up of 5.6 +/- 1 years, five patients with more than 10 years' follow-up. This long-term survival achieved by portasystemic shunts suggests that they have a major role in the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome. The authors prefer the mesenterico-caval shunt using a jugular graft. This ensures a total portasystemic shunt, avoids subhepatic surgery, and reduces the long-term risk of prosthetic graft thrombosis. The MAS was reserved for cases with complete caval thrombosis. Patients with significant degrees of caval compression were satisfactorily decompressed by MCS. In patients not promptly treated, the disease progresses to cirrhosis, and such patients must be evaluated for transplantation similarly to those with other hepatopathies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A and B. PMID:1953111

  10. Evaluation of magnetostrictive shunt damper performance using Iron (Fe)-Gallium (Ga) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, JinHyeong; Murray, Andrew; Flatau, Alison B.

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the possibility of dissipating mechanical energy with a proof-of-concept prototype magnetostrictive based shunt circuit using passive electrical components. The device consists of a polycrystalline galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) strip bonded to a brass cantilever beam. Two brass pieces, each containing a permanent magnet, are used to mass load each end of the beam and to provide a magnetic bias field through the galfenol strip. The voltage induced in an induction coil closely wound around the cantilever beam captures the time rate of change of magnetic flux within the galfenol strip as the beam vibrates. The first bending-mode resonant frequency of the device was 69.42 Hz. To dissipate the electrical voltage from the device, a shunt circuit is attached. The effective mechanical impedance for the magnetostrictive shunt circuit is derived. The shunted model is specialized for two shunt circuits: the case of a resistor and that of a capacitance. The experimental results for both the resistive and capacitance shunt circuits validate the shunted magnetostrictive damping model for couple of cased of resistance and capacitance.

  11. Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongaonkar, S.; Servaites, J. D.; Ford, G. M.; Loser, S.; Moore, J.; Gelfand, R. M.; Mohseni, H.; Hillhouse, H. W.; Agrawal, R.; Ratner, M. A.; Marks, T. J.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Alam, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    We compare the dark current-voltage (IV) characteristics of three different thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n cells, organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cells. All three device types exhibit a significant shunt leakage current at low forward bias (V <˜0.4) and reverse bias, which cannot be explained by the classical solar cell diode model. This parasitic shunt current exhibits non-Ohmic behavior, as opposed to the traditional constant shunt resistance model for photovoltaics. We show here that this shunt leakage (Ish), across all three solar cell types considered, is characterized by the following common phenomenological features: (a) voltage symmetry about V =0, (b) nonlinear (power law) voltage dependence, and (c) extremely weak temperature dependence. Based on this analysis, we provide a simple method of subtracting this shunt current component from the measured data and discuss its implications on dark IV parameter extraction. We propose a space charge limited (SCL) current model for capturing all these features of the shunt leakage in a consistent framework and discuss possible physical origin of the parasitic paths responsible for this shunt current mechanism.

  12. Analysis of the Suitability of OMPS LP Ozone Profile Dataset for Extending the Aura MLS Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Stolarski, R. S.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The new Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), launched on 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite, represents the next generation of the US ozone monitoring system. The OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) sensor measures solar radiances scattered from the atmospheric limb in the UV and visible spectral ranges and reconstruct the vertical ozone profiles from the cloud top up to 60 km. The regular LP observations started in early 2012, and now the LP data record exceeds 2.5 years. In this presentation we will demonstrate capability of the new LP sensor to characterize the vertical ozone distribution in different atmospheric regions that are most sensitive to the changes in the stratospheric composition and dynamics. We will consider: a) the seasonal ozone patterns in the lower stratosphere - upper troposphere; b) the vertical ozone distribution inside the Antarctic ozone hole; c) the ozone patterns forced by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillations in the lower tropical stratosphere. The main focus of this study is to perform a comprehensive analysis of ozone patterns obtained from OMPS LP with those observed by Aura MLS to isolate similarities and differences between two sensors in characterizing these processes. We will examine how well LP reproduces the named above natural signals in comparison with MLS in terms of amplitude, phase and vertical structure. One of the key issues is that two instruments measure ozone in different coordinate systems: the LP measures ozone profiles as number density on a regular altitude scale, while Aura MLS retrieves ozone profiles as mixing ratios on pressure vertical grids. The comparison of two measurements requires unit conversion that in turn involves temperature profiles. Thus, the uncertainties related to the unit conversion should be accounted during the analysis. This scientific validation is critical for the further LP algorithm improvement and continuation of the Aura MLS ozone record in the future.

  13. [Lp-PLA2, a biomarker of vascular inflammation and vulnerability of atherosclerosis plaques].

    PubMed

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, D

    2016-05-01

    A chronic inflammation is involved in various stages of development of the atherosclerotic plaques. Among the emerging biomarkers of atherogenesis, the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), formerly known as PAF-acetylhydrolase (McIntyre et al., 2009), hydrolyses the oxidized short chain phospholipids of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), thereby releasing pro-inflammatory mediators (lysophospholipids and oxidized fatty acids). Lp-PLA2, produced by monocytes/macrophages and T-lymphocytes, and mainly associated with LDL (Gazi et al., 2005), is predominantly expressed in the necrotic center of the atherosclerotic plaques and in the macrophage-rich areas (Kolodgie et al., 2006). It would have a predictive role of cardiovascular (CV) events in relation to the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Determination of Lp-PLA2 has been proposed in the assessment of the CV risk, to ensure a better stratification of populations at intermediate risk for targeted therapy (Davidson et al., 2008). Its proatherogenic role suggested that inhibition of its activity could ensure a better vascular protection in combination with cholesterol-lowering agents. Nevertheless, Lp-PLA2 is not yet a fully validated marker for use in daily clinical practice, especially since the studies using an inhibitor of Lp-PLA2 (darapladib) (STABILITY Investigators et al., 2014; O'Donoghue et al., 2014) did not show any reduction in coronary events. Lp-PLA2 could have a site-specific role in plaque inflammation and development (Fenning et al., 2015). High Lp-PLA2 activity could reflect a response to pro-inflammatory stress characteristic of atherosclerosis (Marathe et al., 2014). This presentation aims at clarifying the involvement of Lp-PLA2 in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and at assessing its interest both as a biomarker for the onset of CV events and as a therapeutic target. PMID:26499399

  14. [Migraine and cadiac shunts - is there a link?].

    PubMed

    Riederer, Franz

    2012-10-17

    Recently an association between migraine and cardiac shunts (e.g. through a patent foramen ovale, PFO) has been described. There is evidence from mostly retrospective case series that PFO closure can significantly improve migraine. On the other hand an increase in attack frequency or de novo migraine after percutaneous closure of an atrial septal defect has been described. Animal experiments showed that microemboli in the cerebral circulation can trigger a cortical spreading depression, which is believed the pathophysiological substrate of migraine aura. A randomized controlled trial that investigated PFO closure for treatment resistant migraine with aura was negative. It is currently discussed whether certain subgroups, who have a high risk for paradoxical embolism, might improve after PFO closer. PMID:23074048

  15. Loop gain of a spacecraft switched shunt power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keng

    1994-10-01

    A novel approach of deriving the loop gain of a spacecraft switched shunt power system is presented. The system hardware elements contain both the analog and the digital components. Transfer functions of the analog circuits are easily identified employing the conventional approach. Gain function of the digital block is however conceived following a quite unconventional route. The digital gain is shown to include the effects of comparator thresholds, digital clock, shift register, sinusoidal amplitude, and ac frequency. The dependence of the digital gain on voltage thresholds, clocking period, and the integrational property of threshold comparator is expected. The dependence on sinusoidal amplitude contradicts the traditional concept of small signal analysis. The overall loop gain in the analytic form yields a computational result that matches the actual measurement very well. This fact proves, to some extent, the validity of the digital gain function and the basis of its derivation.

  16. Refractory hepatic hydrothorax treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Degawa, M; Hamasaki, K; Yano, K; Nakao, K; Kato, Y; Sakamoto, I; Nakata, K; Eguchi, K

    1999-02-01

    A 66-year-old cirrhotic woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of refractory pleural effusion and dyspnea. Massive right sided-pleural effusion but no ascites was detected. She had been treated with diuretics and albumin, repeated thoracenteses, and pleural drainage with an intercostal catheter, all of which had failed to relieve her symptoms. The diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax without ascites was made by injection of technetium-99m-sulfur colloid into the peritoneal cavity. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was placed and successfully reduced the pleural effusion, resulting in complete relief of her symptoms. The patient has been free of symptoms for 18 months after the procedure. PMID:10204623

  17. Shunt diode designs in Li/CF Shuttle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D.; Higgins, R.

    1984-09-01

    Although Li/CF cells and batteries have an excellent safety record, they are included with other battery systems that require additional safety precautions. One precaution suggested is the inclusion of shunt diodes into these batteries. The benefits of this addition are examined. All cells tested at elevated temperatures vent regardless of length of time between being fully discharged and reversed or inclusion of the diode in the system. Cells discharged at ambient temperatures all show a relatively quick reversal, but stabilize at voltages that are high enough that the diodes are not functioning. Cells tested at depressed temperatures reverse the deepest of all cells tested, with the deepest reversal occurring very early in the test and voltages recovering to above -0.60 volts near the end of the tests. Anode limited cells will eliminate the venting during hot reversal.

  18. Compensation strategies for shunt active-filter control

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, A.; Montanari, G.C. . Istituto di Elettrotecnica Industriale)

    1994-11-01

    Compensation strategies for control of shunt active filters are compared in the paper. It is shown that the strategy based on unity-power factor control is appropriate when the supply voltage waveform of the plant where the active filter is connected shows significant distortion. As voltage distortion increases, this strategy provides compensated line current having lower harmonic distortion and RMS value with respect to the strategy generally used. This contributes to diminish the current and voltage distortion in networks. The unity-power factor compensation strategy conditions the current flowing in the plant where compensation is realized to fit the voltage waveform, thus reaching a unity power factor. Hence, the line current RMS value is minimum. The comparison of the strategies is performed by both Monte Carlo and ATP simulation.

  19. Plasma cytokine concentrations in dogs with a congenital portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Scott; Gow, Adam G; Foale, Rob D; Tappin, Simon W; Carruthers, Harvey; Reed, Nicola; Yool, Donald A; Woods, Samantha; Marques, Ana I; Jalan, Rajiv; Mellanby, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    Congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) are a well-recognised vascular anomaly in dogs. Recent studies have shown an association between inflammation and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which is a common clinical syndrome in dogs with a cPSS. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are frequently increased in the plasma of human patients with liver disease and have been implicated in the development of HE. In the current study, plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured using a multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in 36 dogs with a cPSS and compared to 25 healthy dogs. There were no significant differences in plasma IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations between the two groups; however, plasma concentrations of IL-6 were significantly higher in dogs with a cPSS compared to healthy dogs (P=0.02). PMID:24518641

  20. Arterio-venous shunts or low oxygen utilization?

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2010-02-01

    An idea of arteriovenous shunts (AVS) was proposed for explanation of dynamic regulation of oxygenation and venous hyperoxia. A formula enabling calculation of AVS and real CO2 production has recently been derived by comparing data of arterial and venous blood gases. Regarding venous hyperoxia, there is a need to differentiate capillary to tissue transport defect (low oxygen utilisation-LOU) from AVS, which may exist simultaneously. The AVS may be associated with normal or relatively high oxygen utilization from the capillary vessels and increased CO2 production. AVS is proposed to carry protective and 'stealing' properties including renal, cardiac, and pulmonary hemodynamic. Calculations of the AVS may be important for dynamic assessment of vascular and metabolic status and in emergency medicine. PMID:20026514

  1. Emphysematous pyonephrosis associated with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog

    PubMed Central

    LIM, Jongsu; YOON, Youngmin; JUNG, Dongin; YEON, Seongchan; LEE, Heechun

    2015-01-01

    A 16-month-old intact female Maltese dog was referred for examination of depression and vomiting. Ultrasonography revealed dilated right renal pelvis containing echogenic fluid with free gas. A hyperechoic material suspected of urolith was identified in the right ureter. Computed tomography revealed emphysematous change of the right kidney associated with ureteral obstruction and extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EHPSS). Ureteronephrectomy and surgical correction were performed for the EHPSS. Escherichia coli was isolated from pus from the right kidney. Quantitative analysis revealed that the urolith was an ammonium urate stone. After 5 months follow-up, no complication was observed. This is the first report of emphysematous pyonephrosis associated with EHPSS in a dog. PMID:26668166

  2. Microwave power heterojunction bipolar transistors fabricated with thermal shunt bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Bozada, C.A.; Barlage, D.W.; Barrette, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Heterojunction bipolar transistor devices and circuits were fabricated using thermal shunt and bathtub thermal management techniques. Broadband cascode MMICs exhibited 10 - 14 dB gain at an output power of 2.5 - 3.0 Watts across 7 - 11 GHz. A 200 {mu}m{sup 2} common-emitter unit cell achieved 7 - 8 dB linear power gain and 40% power-added efficiency at a noise power ratio (NPR) of 18 dBc at 12 GHz. Under single tone measurements at 12 GHz, the unit cell achieved 52% power-added efficiency, with 9.5 dB linear gain, 8 dB power gain and 240 mW output power at 5 V bias.

  3. Role of Glyoxylate Shunt in Oxidative Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungeun; Jung, Jaejoon; Jang, In-Ae; Madsen, Eugene L; Park, Woojun

    2016-05-27

    The glyoxylate shunt (GS) is a two-step metabolic pathway (isocitrate lyase, aceA; and malate synthase, glcB) that serves as an alternative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The GS bypasses the carbon dioxide-producing steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is essential for acetate and fatty acid metabolism in bacteria. GS can be up-regulated under conditions of oxidative stress, antibiotic stress, and host infection, which implies that it plays important but poorly explored roles in stress defense and pathogenesis. In many bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, aceA and glcB are not in an operon, unlike in Escherichia coli In P. aeruginosa, we explored relationships between GS genes and growth, transcription profiles, and biofilm formation. Contrary to our expectations, deletion of aceA in P. aeruginosa improved cell growth under conditions of oxidative and antibiotic stress. Transcriptome data suggested that aceA mutants underwent a metabolic shift toward aerobic denitrification; this was supported by additional evidence, including up-regulation of denitrification-related genes, decreased oxygen consumption without lowering ATP yield, increased production of denitrification intermediates (NO and N2O), and increased cyanide resistance. The aceA mutants also produced a thicker exopolysaccharide layer; that is, a phenotype consistent with aerobic denitrification. A bioinformatic survey across known bacterial genomes showed that only microorganisms capable of aerobic metabolism possess the glyoxylate shunt. This trend is consistent with the hypothesis that the GS plays a previously unrecognized role in allowing bacteria to tolerate oxidative stress. PMID:27036942

  4. Relation of atrial shunts to migraine in patients with ischemic stroke and peripheral emboli.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Peter; Nightingale, Simon; Pearson, Matthew; Morrison, Lindsay; Walsh, Kevin

    2006-09-15

    This study investigated whether the increased incidence of stroke in young subjects with migraine is because they have an increased prevalence of atrial right-to-left shunts. The investigators report the prevalence of clinically relevant atrial shunts in those with stroke and migraine compared with those with stroke but without migraine and also in historic control groups of subjects who had migraine with aura but no stroke and in population controls. Of 60 consecutive stroke patients, 42 (70%) had large- or medium-sized atrial shunts. Transcatheter shunt closure was performed in 39 patients, of whom 35 had patent foramen ovales (mean diameter 9.8 +/- 4.1 mm) and 4 had atrial septal defects. If atrial shunts were unrelated to stroke in patients with migraines, shunt prevalence in those with migraine and stroke would be the same as in those with migraine but without stroke. However, a much greater shunt prevalence was found in those with stroke and migraine with aura (84%) than in those with migraine with aura but no stroke (38.1%, p <0.001), population controls (12.2%, p <0.001), and those with stroke but no migraine (55.6%, p <0.05). Shunt prevalence was also significantly greater in patients who had stroke and migraine without aura (75%) than in population controls (p <0.001) and in those with migraine with aura but no stroke (p <0.05). In conclusion, the increased incidence of stroke in subjects with migraine compared with the general population is because they have a higher prevalence of large atrial shunts and hence an increased risk for paradoxic embolism. PMID:16950197

  5. Percutaneous Transjugular Direct Porto-caval Shunt in Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Quateen, A.; Pech, M.; Berg, T.; Bergk, A.; Podrabsky, P.; Felix, R.; Ricke, J.

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of direct porto-caval shunts in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in whom there is no access to the hepatic veins during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS). We included six consecutive patients with fulminant/acute Budd-Chiari syndrome (mean age: 35 years) in whom a conventional TIPSS was not possible due to inaccessible hepatic veins. We performed a direct porto-caval shunt via a transhepatic approach. Patients were followed up by means of clinical examination, laboratory investigations, and Doppler ultrasound. TIPSS implantation from the inferior vena cava (IVC) was successful in all six patients (100%). The median transhepatic shunt length was 9 cm (8-10 cm). No procedure-related complications were observed in our patients. Early shunt occlusion occurred in three out of six patients (50%). In all three of these patients, the stent used to stabilize the shunt ended 1-2 cm before reaching the IVC. All occlusions were successfully recanalized. One of these patients developed recurrent early shunt as well as mesenteric and splenic vein occlusions. She died 7 days after TIPSS placement due to an unmanageable coagulation disorder. The remaining five patients were followed up by planned clinical examination and laboratory investigations (mean follow-up time was 15 months; patient 1 was followed up for 13 months, patient 2 for 14 months, patient 3 for 15 months, and patients 4 and 5 for 16 months) and all displayed a complete and durable resolution of liver failure and ascites without reintervention. In patients with acute liver failure originating from BCS and inaccessible hepatic veins, a direct transhepatic porto-caval shunt can be performed safely and effectively under ultrasound guidance. Future studies in larger patient groups should investigate if the patency of transcaval TIPSS with long transhepatic shunt segments is similar compared to conventional TIPSS via the hepatic vein.

  6. The effects of dobutamine and dopamine on intrapulmonary shunt and gas exchange in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Tracey L; van Diepen, Sean; Bhutani, Mohit; Shanks, Miriam; Welsh, Robert C; Stickland, Michael K

    2012-08-15

    The development of intrapulmonary shunts with increased cardiac output during exercise in healthy humans has been reported in several recent studies, but mechanisms governing their recruitment remain unclear. Dobutamine and dopamine are inotropes commonly used to augment cardiac output; however, both can increase venous admixture/shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). It is possible that, as with exercise, intrapulmonary shunts are recruited with increased cardiac output during dobutamine and/or dopamine infusion that may contribute to the observed increase in Qs/Qt. The purpose of this study was to examine how dobutamine and dopamine affect intrapulmonary shunt and gas exchange. Nine resting healthy subjects received serial infusions of dobutamine and dopamine at incremental doses under normoxic and hyperoxic (inspired O(2) fraction = 1.0) conditions. At each step, alveolar-to-arterial Po(2) difference (A-aDo(2)) and Qs/Qt were calculated from arterial blood gas samples, intrapulmonary shunt was evaluated using contrast echocardiography, and cardiac output was calculated by Doppler echocardiography. Both dobutamine and dopamine increased cardiac output and Qs/Qt. Intrapulmonary shunt developed in most subjects with both drugs and paralleled the increase in Qs/Qt. A-aDo(2) was unchanged due to a concurrent rise in mixed venous oxygen content. Hyperoxia consistently eliminated intrapulmonary shunt. These findings contribute to our present understanding of the mechanisms governing recruitment of these intrapulmonary shunts as well as their impact on gas exchange. In addition, given the deleterious effect on Qs/Qt and the risk of neurological complications with intrapulmonary shunts, these findings could have important implications for use of dobutamine and dopamine in the clinical setting. PMID:22700799

  7. Staged Transcatheter Treatment of Portal Hypoplasia and Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckheimer, Elchanan Dagan, Tamir; Atar, Eli; Schwartz, Michael; Kachko, Ludmila; Superina, Riccardo; Amir, Gabriel; Shapiro, Rivka; Birk, Einat

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) with portal venous hypoplasia cause hyperammonemia. Acute shunt closure results in portal hypertension. A transcatheter method of staged shunt reduction to afford growth of portal vessels followed by shunt closure is reported. Methods: Pressure measurements and angiography in the CPSS or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during temporary occlusion of the shunt were performed. If vessels were diminutive and the pressure was above 18 mmHg, a staged approach was performed, which included implantation of a tailored reducing stent to reduce shunt diameter by {approx}50 %. Recatheterization was performed approximately 3 months later. If the portal pressure was below 18 mmHg and vessels had developed, the shunt was closed with a device. Results: Six patients (5 boys, 1 girl) with a median age of 3.3 (range 0.5-13) years had CPSS portal venous hypoplasia and hyperammonemia. Five patients underwent staged closure. One patient tolerated acute closure. One patient required surgical shunt banding because a reducing stent could not be positioned. At median follow-up of 3.8 (range 2.2-8.4) years, a total of 21 procedures (20 transcatheter, 1 surgical) were performed. In all patients, the shunt was closed with a significant reduction in portal pressure (27.7 {+-} 11.3 to 10.8 {+-} 1.8 mmHg; p = 0.016), significant growth of the portal vessels (0.8 {+-} 0.5 to 4.0 {+-} 2.4 mm; p = 0.037), and normalization of ammonia levels (202.1 {+-} 53.6 to 65.7 {+-} 9.6 {mu}mol/L; p = 0.002) with no complications. Conclusion: Staged CPSS closure is effective in causing portal vessel growth and treating hyperammonemia.

  8. Correlation of experimental rCBF determinations in goats with flow measurements from a Doppler-modified carotid artery shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, C.M.; Silvidi, J.A.; Becker, J.A.; Miller, B.V.; Bernstein, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    A carotid artery shunt system has been developed that continuously monitors blood flow rates by embedding a Doppler crystal in the shunt wall. The crystal ranges through a liquid lens that enables it to be placed without violation of the shunt lumen. Because the crystal is at a fixed angle (45 degrees) to the axis of blood flow and the diameter of the lumen remains constant, a linear relationship exists between flow rates and the Doppler velocity signal. This shunt system was previously tested in vitro using a pulsatile pump and was found to be accurate to within 4.7% of the actual flow rate. In the present study, animal (goat) experiments were performed consisting of simultaneous carotid shunt flow and bilateral rCBF measurements by the radiolabeled microsphere technique to determine in vivo the accuracy of this Doppler modified shunt and to ascertain the ability of shunt flow to increase in the face of acute contralateral carotid occlusion. Data from five animals show that in vivo shunt flow can be recorded to within 13% of control rCBF and that shunt flow increases nearly 50% under conditions of distal demand (contralateral carotid occlusion). This device may prove useful in laboratory studies of carotid shunt dynamics and in clinical practice to quickly detect correctable shunt flow abnormalities.

  9. Lp(a) is not associated with diabetes but affects fibrinolysis and clot structure ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Marianne; Kalies, Inge; Bergström, Göran; Schmidt, Caroline; Legnehed, Anne; Hultén, Lillemor Mattsson; Amrot-Fors, Lena; Gustafsson, David; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a low density lipoprotein (LDL) with one apolipoprotein (a) molecule bound to the apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL. Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of Lp(a) to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both known for increased CVD risk, is controversial. In a population based study on type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development in women, Lp(a) plasma levels showed the well known skewed distribution without any relation to diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. A modified clot lysis assay on a subset of 274 subjects showed significantly increased clot lysis times in T2DM subjects, despite inhibition of PAI-1 and TAFI. Lp(a) plasma levels significantly increased the maximal peak height of the clot lysis curve, indicating a change in clot structure. In this study Lp(a) is not related to the development of T2DM but may affect clot structure ex vivo without a prolongation of the clot lysis time. PMID:24937703

  10. Tunable acoustic waveguide based on vibro-acoustic metamaterials with shunted piezoelectric unit cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Byung-Jin; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, Dooho; Park, Kwang-Chun; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new class of acoustic waveguides with tunable bandgaps (TBs) by using vibro-acoustic metamaterials with shunted periodic piezoelectric unit cells. The unit metamaterial cells that consist of a single crystal piezoelectric transducer and an electrical shunt circuit are designed to induce a strong vibro-acousto-electrical coupling, resulting in a tunable acoustic bandgap as well as local structural resonance and Bragg scattering bandgaps. The present results show that the TB frequency can be actively controlled and the transmission loss of the acoustic wave can be greatly improved by simply changing the inductance values in the shunt circuit.

  11. A Case of Discontinued Proximal Limb of a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt With Patent Fibrous Tract.

    PubMed

    Bermo, Mohammed; Leung, Alan S; Matesan, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    Radionuclide shuntogram is important in the evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts complications such as mechanical failure, malpositioning, pseudocyst, or overdrainage. We present here a case of congenital hydrocephalus and posterior fossa cyst with multiple shunt procedures and revisions with breakage of the proximal tube of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt but preserved CSF drainage through the patent fibrous tract. Careful correlation with SPECT/CT images helped confirm the breakage and exclude CSF leak outside of the tract, which was suspected on planar images. PMID:26914568

  12. Optimization of shunt isolation processing for silicon solar cells via laser and chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, H. L.; Zhong, S. H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, W. Z.

    2014-08-01

    We employ laser scribing combined with chemical etching process to isolate the shunts in industrial off-spec or non-prime crystalline solar cells. Liquid crystal sheet and Infrared camera measurements have been carried out to reveal the existence of the shunts and hot spot temperature under reverse bias. Following laser scribing with proper laser parameters, chemical etching has been used to further optimize the isolation effect. Through illuminated current-voltage characteristic measurements, the improved open circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency have been obtained. These results demonstrate that this combined shunt isolation process has great potential for its application in the solar cells.

  13. Microvascular right-to-left pulmonary shunt demonstrated by a radionuclide method

    SciTech Connect

    Kjoller, E.; Pedersen, F.; Svendsen, T.L.; Sorensen, S.S. )

    1991-01-01

    A 37-yr-old man with angiolymphoid hyperplasia (Kimura's syndrome), who had been treated unsuccessfully for suspected asthma, was investigated due to a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation (86%). Right heart catheterization and angiography of the pulmonary artery failed to demonstrate any right-to-left shunts. However, simultaneous scintigraphy over the lungs, kidneys, and head after injection of 150 MBq technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin i.v. and inhalation of 150 MBq krypton-81m demonstrated a right-to-left shunt in the lungs probably caused by precapillary pulmonary arteriovenous shunts.

  14. Treatment of Syringomyelia due to Chiari Type I Malformation with Syringo-Subarachnoid-Peritoneal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Akakın, Akın; Yılmaz, Baran; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-01-01

    Chiari type I malformation is a tonsillar herniation more than 3 mm from the level of foramen magnum, with or without concurrent syringomyelia. Different surgical treatments have been developed for syringomyelia secondary to Chiari's malformations: craniovertebral decompression with or without plugging of the obex, syringo-subarachnoid, syringo-peritoneal, and theco-peritoneal shunt placement. Shunt placement procedures are useful for neurologically symptomatic large-sized syrinx. In this paper, authors define the first successful treatment of a patient with syringomyelia due to Chiari type I malformation using a pre-defined new technique of syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt with T-tube system. PMID:25932303

  15. Primary ventriculo-peritoneal shunts in treatment of hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Stark, G. D.; Drummond, M. B.; Poneprasert, S.; Robarts, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    In 50 children suffering from open myelomeningocele, a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was employed as the primary procedure for control of hydrocephalus. In 11 cases the system was ultimately replaced by a ventriculo-atrial shunt, though this may not always have been necessary. In the remaining 39 patients satisfactory control of hydrocephalus was achieved. Obstruction, particularly of the peritoneal catheter, occurred frequently in the first 6 months but no revisions were required after 2 years. It is concluded that while ventriculo-peritoneal and ventriculo-atrial shunts achieve comparable success in controlling hydrocephalus, the former, due to the relatively innocuous complications, offers significant long-term advantages. PMID:4593818

  16. Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 isolated from Tibetan kefir grains: a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Fei; Wang, Xiaojun; Sui, Yujie; Yang, Longfei; Wang, Jinfeng

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. The Lp27 isolate survived a 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and grew normally in 0.3% oxgall. In addition, the Lp27 isolate exhibited an adhesion ratio of 9.5 ± 2.5% with Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the Lp27 isolate was sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol, and was resistant to vancomycin with a minimum inhibitory value of 23µg/mL. The Lp27 isolate inhibited cholesterol absorption through downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression in Caco-2 cells. The Lp27 isolate was fed to hypercholesterolemic rats at a dose of 10(9) cfu/d for 4wk. The Lp27 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations, but no change was observed in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased in the Lp27-fed group. The expression of NPC1L1 in the duodenum and jejunum was significantly decreased following Lp27 feeding. These results indicate that Lp27 might be an effective cholesterol-lowering probiotic and a possible mechanism for the cholesterol-reducing effects of probiotics. PMID:23498003

  17. Gene and pathway identification with Lp penalized Bayesian logistic regression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Gartenhaus, Ronald B; Tan, Ming; Jiang, Feng; Jiao, Xiaoli

    2008-01-01

    Background Identifying genes and pathways associated with diseases such as cancer has been a subject of considerable research in recent years in the area of bioinformatics and computational biology. It has been demonstrated that the magnitude of differential expression does not necessarily indicate biological significance. Even a very small change in the expression of particular gene may have dramatic physiological consequences if the protein encoded by this gene plays a catalytic role in a specific cell function. Moreover, highly correlated genes may function together on the same pathway biologically. Finally, in sparse logistic regression with Lp (p < 1) penalty, the degree of the sparsity obtained is determined by the value of the regularization parameter. Usually this parameter must be carefully tuned through cross-validation, which is time consuming. Results In this paper, we proposed a simple Bayesian approach to integrate the regularization parameter out analytically using a new prior. Therefore, there is no longer a need for parameter selection, as it is eliminated entirely from the model. The proposed algorithm (BLpLog) is typically two or three orders of magnitude faster than the original algorithm and free from bias in performance estimation. We also define a novel similarity measure and develop an integrated algorithm to hunt the regulatory genes with low expression changes but having high correlation with the selected genes. Pathways of those correlated genes were identified with DAVID . Conclusion Experimental results with gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed methods can be utilized to identify important genes and pathways that are related to cancer and build a parsimonious model for future patient predictions. PMID:18834526

  18. A broken heart: Right-to-left shunt in the setting of normal cardiac pressures

    PubMed Central

    Gomperts, Natalie; Fowler, Robert; Horlick, Eric; McLaughlin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common structural cardiac variant occurring in approximately 30% of the general population. Patients are usually asymptomatic because the defect is flap-like and does not permit significant left-to-right shunting. However, pathological conditions that result in cardiac rotation or higher than normal right atrial pressures can reverse the normal left atrial to right atrial pressure gradient and cause a right-to-left shunt through a PFO. If the right-to-left shunt is persistent, systemic hypoxemia or paradoxical emboli may result. The present report describes a case of refractory hypoxemia in a critically ill patient with a PFO who had a right-to-left shunt with normal right-sided cardiac pressures. PMID:18340396

  19. A broken heart: right-to-left shunt in the setting of normal cardiac pressures.

    PubMed

    Gomperts, Natalie; Fowler, Robert; Horlick, Eric; McLaughlin, Peter

    2008-03-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common structural cardiac variant occurring in approximately 30% of the general population. Patients are usually asymptomatic because the defect is flap-like and does not permit significant left-to-right shunting. However, pathological conditions that result in cardiac rotation or higher than normal right atrial pressures can reverse the normal left atrial to right atrial pressure gradient and cause a right-to-left shunt through a PFO. If the right-to-left shunt is persistent, systemic hypoxemia or paradoxical emboli may result. The present report describes a case of refractory hypoxemia in a critically ill patient with a PFO who had a right-to-left shunt with normal right-sided cardiac pressures. PMID:18340396

  20. [Extracorporeal ventriculoatrial shunt with the use of one-way ball valve].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shigeki; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Hosoi, Kazuki; Toyota, Shingo; Takakura, Shuji; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Masato; Morisako, Toshitaka; Karasawa, Jun; Ninaga, Hideo; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2002-04-01

    We developed a simple system of an "extracorporeal" ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt using a one-way ball valve (Acty valve II, Kaneka Medix) to release the patient from postoperative constraint during the ventricular drainage. The system is constructed in such a way that the ventricular drainage tube is connected to the central venous catheter via a one-way valve. The CSF is regulated by using the valve and is diverted into the systemic circulation as in the conventional ventriculoatrial shunt. After 2 or 3 weeks of CSF diversion through the extracorporeal VA shunt, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is placed if hydrocephalus is apparent by temporary occlusion of the system. We applied this system to 4 patients with hydrocephalus, and we found it useful and free from adverse effects. The patient was freed from physical constraint involved in conventional ventricular drainage and an effective program of early rehabilitation was able to be started. PMID:11968827

  1. Assessment of the intracardiac left to right shunts with a single scintillation probe

    SciTech Connect

    Tendera, M.; Bartoszewski, A.; Foremny, J.; Salamon, A.; Wodniecki, J.; Malecka-Tendera, E. )

    1989-08-01

    In order to assess the accuracy of pulmonary time-activity curves obtained at bedside with a single scintillation probe and Technetium-99m-labelled erythrocytes, pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (Qp:Qs) was calculated for radionuclide and hemodynamic investigations in 104 patients with suspected intracardiac left to right shunts. Cardiac catheterization confirmed the presence of shunts in 76 patients. Pulmonary time-activity curve was 100% sensitive, 88% specific, and 96% accurate in detecting the shunt. Correlation between the radionuclide and hemodynamic Qp:Qs was excellent (r = 0.93). Results were classified in four quantitative categories according to the Qp:Qs values. In 76 patients (73%) radionuclide and hemodynamic data fell in the same category. We conclude that radionuclide pulmonary time-activity curves generated with a scintillation probe is a reliable method in quantitative assessment of intracardiac left to right shunts.

  2. Noninvasive prediction of shunt operation outcome in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yasunori; Kazui, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Ishii, Ryouhei; Wada, Tamiki; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Canuet, Leonides; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Musha, Toshimitsu; Matsuzaki, Haruyasu; Imajo, Kaoru; Kanemoto, Hideki; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Nomura, Keiko; Yoshiyama, Kenji; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive deterioration and urinary incontinence in elderly individuals. These symptoms can be improved by shunt operation in some but not all patients. Therefore, discovering predictive factors for the surgical outcome is of great clinical importance. We used normalized power variance (NPV) of electroencephalography (EEG) waves, a sensitive measure of the instability of cortical electrical activity, and found significantly higher NPV in beta frequency band at the right fronto-temporo-occipital electrodes (Fp2, T4 and O2) in shunt responders compared to non-responders. By utilizing these differences, we were able to correctly identify responders and non-responders to shunt operation with a positive predictive value of 80% and a negative predictive value of 88%. Our findings indicate that NPV can be useful in noninvasively predicting the clinical outcome of shunt operation in patients with iNPH. PMID:25585705

  3. Lactobacillus paracasei Lp6 favors immune modulation induced by allergoid treatment in ragweed sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, C; Lazzarin, F; Lanuti, P; Marchisio, M; Miscia, S; Rossi, C; Braga, M; Mistrello, G; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could be used as adjuvant for specific immunotherapy (SIT), as various studies conducted on humans and animals converge to define LAB as anti-Th2 modulators and Treg inducers. In the present study we evaluated the effects of LAB, in particular Lactobacillus paracasei Lp6 (Lp6), in a mouse model of ragweed (RW) allergy. Groups of Balb/c mice, experimentally sensitized towards ragweed, were treated by viable Lp6 or by RWallergoid with or without co-administration of Lp6. A control group was sham-sensitized with PBS and sham-treated with water and a group was sensitized with RW and treated with water. Serum IgE, RW-induced release of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 from splenocytes and the frequency of CD4CD25 regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing Foxp3 or IL-10 were evaluated in various groups. RW-allergoid treatment induced a reduction of serum IgE, with a decrease in RW-induced release of IL-4, and an increase in IL-10 and IFN-gamma, along with a significant change in the frequency of Tregs, both CD25+ and -. The joint RWallergoid+ Lp6 treatment induced the highest degree of suppression of allergen-driven IL-4, the greatest reduction of IL-4/IFN-gamma and IL-4/IL-10 ratios and the most significant increase of Foxp3 and IL-10 expressing Tregs. The study shows that Lp6 strengthens the immune modulation induced by allergoid-SIT in RW-sensitized mice, essentially characterized by a differential induction of Tregs associated to a reduction of IL-4; data converge to define a role of SIT adjuvant for Lp6. PMID:22230395

  4. Treatment of portal hypertension by subtotal splenectomy and central splenorenal shunt.

    PubMed Central

    Petroianu, A.

    1988-01-01

    A method is proposed to reduce portal hypertension utilizing subtotal splenectomy and a central splenorenal shunt. The advantages of this method are: diversion of the splenic component of the portal circulation, creation of a shunt for the portal blood into the systemic circulation, preservation of the splenic function and correction of the manifestations of the hypersplenism. Two cases are presented who remain well four years after surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:3420056

  5. Accuracy of the transpulmonary ultrasound dilution method for detection of small anatomic shunts.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R; Krivitski, N; Peacock, K; Durward, A; Simpson, J M; Tibby, S M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the qualitative and quantitative accuracy of transpulmonary ultrasound dilution (UD) (COstatus™, Transonic Systems) for the detection of small anatomic shunts. It was a prospective, observational study in a multi-disciplinary pediatric intensive care unit. Seventy-three critically ill children (67 post cardiac surgery), with a median (IQR) age of 10 (3-50.3) months and a median (IQR) weight of 8 (3.43-13) kg were enrolled. Ultrasound dilution (UD) measurements were performed on patients within 1 h of undergoing two-dimensional echocardiography, which was used as the comparator technique. Shunt was diagnosed by characteristic changes on the UD curve shape, and was considered "test-positive" only if two or more measurements suggested the presence of the shunt. The UD technology also provided an estimate of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (Qp:Qs). 12/73 (16.4 %) patients had a shunt identified by both UD and echocardiography. The overall accuracy (95 % CI) was 86.1 % (75.6-96.6 %), with a sensitivity of 85.7 % (57.2-98.2 %) and specificity of 86.4 % (75.0-94.0 %). The estimated Qp:Qs ranged from 0.7 to 1.4, which was consistent qualitatively with the echocardiographic findings on color flow doppler. Shunt was detected by UD alone in eight children; six of these had clinical conditions known to compromise dilution curve analysis (valve regurgitation, asymmetric pulmonary blood flow). Shunt was detected by echocardiography alone in two children; in both cases the shunt was tiny. UD is an accurate method for the detection of small anatomical shunts, both qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:25240251

  6. Experimental Percutaneous Extrahepatic Portacaval Shunt Creation by Transjugular Approach in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Chang Kyu; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Anai, Hiroshi; Timmermans, Hans; Niyyati, Mahtab; Corless, Christopher L.; Correa, Luiz O.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of the creation of a percutaneous extrahepatic portacaval shunt (PEPS) in swine by a transjugular approach and to find a suitable stent-graft to use in PEPS. In 12 swine, the extrahepatic portal vein (PV) was entered from the inferior vena cava (IVC) by a needle system introduced from the transjugular approach. A catheter introduced through the transhepatic approach served as a target. Five types of stent-graft consisting of homemade Z stents and a polytetrafluoethylene cover were explored for PEPS creation. Eight animals had follow-up venograms up to 6 weeks or until the shunt became severely stenotic. Gross and histologic examinations were performed after the final follow-up venography. The PV punctures and stent-graft placement were difficult, but the PEPS was established in all animals. In four animals, the stent-graft failed to adequately cover the tract, causing severe hemorrhage. Only two shunts remained patent up to 6 weeks. The other shunts exhibited severe stenosis or occlusion. At gross examination, all shunts traversed the liver parenchyma of the caudate lobe surrounding the IVC. The extravascular PEPS portion was 4 mm to 2 cm long. All shunts entered the PV close to the splenomesenteric junction and exhibited neointimal formation. Shunt stenoses were caused by neointimal hyperplasia and occlusions by a superimposed thrombus. PEPS can be created by the transjugular approach in swine, but only the PV shunt entrance is extrahepatic. None of the tested rigid stent-grafts were suitable for PEPS creation. A short flexible stent-graft with flanged ends is suggested for further exploration.

  7. Superconducting FCL using a combined inducted magnetic field trigger and shunt coil

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2007-10-16

    A single trigger/shunt coil is utilized for combined induced magnetic field triggering and shunt impedance. The single coil connected in parallel with the high temperature superconducting element, is designed to generate a circulating current in the parallel circuit during normal operation to aid triggering the high temperature superconducting element to quench in the event of a fault. The circulating current is generated by an induced voltage in the coil, when the system current flows through the high temperature superconducting element.

  8. Deletion of Rbpj from postnatal endothelium leads to abnormal arteriovenous shunting in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Corinne M.; Cuervo, Henar; Ding, Vivianne W.; Kong, Yupeng; Huang, Eric J.; Wang, Rong A.

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are tortuous vessels characterized by arteriovenous (AV) shunts, which displace capillaries and shunt blood directly from artery to vein. Notch signaling regulates embryonic AV specification by promoting arterial, as opposed to venous, endothelial cell (EC) fate. To understand the essential role of endothelial Notch signaling in postnatal AV organization, we used inducible Cre-loxP recombination to delete Rbpj, a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, from postnatal ECs in mice. Deletion of endothelial Rbpj from birth resulted in features of AVMs by P14, including abnormal AV shunting and tortuous vessels in the brain, intestine and heart. We further analyzed brain AVMs, as they pose particular health risks. Consistent with AVM pathology, we found cerebral hemorrhage, hypoxia and necrosis, and neurological deficits. AV shunts originated from capillaries (and possibly venules), with the earliest detectable morphological abnormalities in AV connections by P8. Prior to AV shunt formation, alterations in EC gene expression were detected, including decreased Efnb2 and increased Pai1, which encodes a downstream effector of TGFβ signaling. After AV shunts had formed, whole-mount immunostaining showed decreased Efnb2 and increased Ephb4 expression within AV shunts, suggesting that ECs were reprogrammed from arterial to venous identity. Deletion of Rbpj from adult ECs led to tortuosities in gastrointestinal, uterine and skin vascular beds, but had mild effects in the brain. Our results demonstrate a temporal requirement for Rbpj in postnatal ECs to maintain proper artery, capillary and vein organization and to prevent abnormal AV shunting and AVM pathogenesis. PMID:25209249

  9. Rheolytic Thrombectomy of an Acutely Thrombosed Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Link, Johann; Hoepfner, Michael; Loeser, Christian; Heller, Martin

    1996-04-15

    As an alternative to chemical thrombolysis, an acutely occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt in a 72-year-old woman was successfully recanalized using a 5 Fr rheolytic catheter system. No adjunctive thrombectomy treatment was necessary. The underlying stenotic leason was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and a Palmaz stent. Immediately after the intervention optimal shunt flow was achieved. Ascites vanished within a few days and no further bleeding complications appeared.

  10. PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt Active Power Filter--a report.

    PubMed

    Karuppanan, P; Mahapatra, Kamala Kanta

    2012-09-01

    The authors acknowledge certain errors in their recently published paper titled "PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt active power filter--A report.The ambiguity in band width calculation of adaptive hysteresis controller and control aspects of dc-link voltage issues are addressed. The shunt APF system is validated through extensive simulation and the results are support features of the proposed technique. PMID:23012711

  11. Mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm: an unusual complication of ventriculo-atrial shunt

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Elliot T.; Callaghan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A 23-year-old man with a previous ventriculo-atrial shunt for a pinealoma developed a febrile illness and heart murmur. The condition was thought to be caused by subacute bacterial endocarditis. Further investigation, however, revealed a mycotic left pulmonary artery aneurysm, which was treated by means of a left pneumonectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. Such an aneurysm represents yet another complication of ventriculo-atrial shunting for hydrocephalus. Images PMID:15216218

  12. Aortopulmonary collateral arteries mimicking symptomatic ductal shunting in a preterm infant.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, J. R.; Silove, E. D.

    1995-01-01

    A preterm infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia presented with clinical and Doppler echocardiographic features suggesting a left-to-right ductal shunt. The duct was ligated surgically. Clinical and echocardiographic signs did not change after ligation. Detailed colour Doppler examination ultimately showed several aortopulmonary collateral arteries giving rise to continuous turbulent flow in the main and left pulmonary arteries, similar to that seen with left-to-right ductal shunting. Images PMID:7662466

  13. Vibration and wave propagation attenuation for metamaterials by periodic piezoelectric arrays with high-order resonant circuit shunts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wanlu; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Beam or plate metamaterials with periodic piezoelectric arrays have attracted more and more attention in recent years for wave propagation attenuation and the corresponding vibration reduction. Conventional designs use resistive shunt (R-shunt) and resistor-inductor shunt (RL-shunt). An innovative metamaterial with a high-order resonant shunt circuit is proposed and investigated for vibration and wave propagation attenuation in this paper. The proposed high-order resonant shunt circuit can introduce two local resonances in series around the tuning frequency to broaden the attenuation bandwidth, or can create two separate resonances to achieve two separate bandgaps. Finite element modeling of the beam metamaterial with wave propagation and vibration in the transverse direction is established. Simulations have been conducted to compare the vibration attenuation performances among R-shunt, RL-shunt, and the proposed high-order shunt. An impedance-based method has been presented for the parameter design of electrical components in the proposed high-order shunt for bandgaps at two desired frequencies.

  14. The collateral caval shunt as an alternative to classical shunt procedures in patients with recurrent duodenal varices and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes from variceal structures are severe complications in patients with portal hypertension. Endoscopic sclerotherapy and variceal ligation are the treatment options preferred for upper variceal bleeding owing to extrahepatic portal hypertension due to portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Recurrent duodenal variceal bleeding in non-cirrhotic patients with diffuse porto-splenic vein thrombosis and subsequent portal cavernous transformation represent a clinical challenge if classic shunt surgery is not possible or suitable. In this study, we represent a case of recurrent bleeding of duodenal varices in a non-cirrhotic patient with cavernous transformation of the portal vein that was successfully treated with a collateral caval shunt operation. PMID:24965047

  15. Optimal Surgical Management Using a Classic Blalock-Taussig Shunt for an Infected Pseudoaneurysm After a Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt Procedure.

    PubMed

    Okada, Noritaka; Murayama, Hiroomi; Hasegawa, Hiroki

    2016-05-01

    We present 2 cases of a 3-month-old girl and boy who were diagnosed with an infected pseudoaneurysm 2 months after undergoing left-sided modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (mBTS) operations for pulmonary atresia. Because the shunts in both cases were nearly obstructed, they underwent a 2-stage surgical approach: classic BTS operations through a right thoracotomy to establish sufficient pulmonary flow and infected graft removal through a median sternotomy after close observation of the state of the aneurysms. By utilizing autologous tissue from a different thoracic entry, both patients were successfully managed and recovered without any recurrence of infection. PMID:27106441

  16. Successful ventricle to direct heart shunt placement as a salvage cerebrospinal fluid diversion technique. Case report.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Eric M; Giles, Stephen G; Song, Howard K; Litvack, Zachary N; Golshani, Kiarash J; Nemecek, Andrew N

    2009-06-01

    The authors report a complex case in a 35-year-old woman who underwent shunt placement at birth for myelomeningocele. She had previously undergone more than 30 shunt revisions, with placement of the distal catheter in the peritoneum multiple times, and also in the pleura, the gall bladder, and the upper venous system. All shunts had failed and the possible placement sites were now anatomically hostile. A median sternotomy was performed as the next option. The catheter was placed directly into the appendage of the right atrium and secured with a pursestring suture. One month postoperatively, the patient presented with a large pericardial effusion after the distal catheter migrated out of the atrium and into the pericardial space. A repeat sternotomy was performed to drain the pericardial CSF collection. The catheter was reinserted into the atrial appendage, and a tunnel was created in the atrial wall to fix the device more securely. At 1 year postoperatively, the patient had no further symptoms of shunt obstruction or cardiac tamponade, and imaging studies suggested that the shunt system was functional. The authors report the first successful ventricle to direct heart shunt in an adult. PMID:19485739

  17. Is sternotomy superior to thoracotomy for modified Blalock–Taussig shunt?

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Sachin; Kumar, Manikala Vinod; Muthukkumaran, Subramanian; Airan, Balram

    2014-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is sternotomy approach superior to a thoracotomy approach for a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt procedure? More than 58 papers were found using the search as described below, of which 11 papers represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Three of seven papers compared the sternotomy and thoracotomy approaches. The operative approach was a significant predictor of shunt failure. The criterion used to define early shunt failure was either the complete occlusion during hospitalization or the need to return to the operating room for a second shunt. The studies that compared the thoracotomy and sternotomy approaches observed increased shunt failure rates in the thoracotomy group. The sternotomy approach was associated with advantages like less pulmonary artery distortion, ease of technical performance, cosmetic advantage of a single sternotomy incision, ease of ligation of patent ductus, less phrenic nerve injury, less collateral formation in chest wall adhesions and less thoracotomy induced scoliosis. However, other papers studied either the sternotomy approach only or the thoracotomy approach and drew conclusions regarding risk factors for operative morbidity and mortality. We conclude that the sternotomy approach is beneficial to neonates and infants undergoing modified Blalock–Taussig shunt when compared with the conventional thoracotomy approach. PMID:24336782

  18. Prevention options for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections: a retrospective analysis during a five-year period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Liu, Qin; Jiang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Shunt infection is the most common and dreaded complication in patients with hydrocephalus. For the purpose of reducing the high morbidity and mortality, how to prevent is a vital step. A retrospective analysis of 384 CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt procedures was undertaken from 2006 to 2010 in our neurosurgery department. Infection diagnosis was established by subjecting the CSF to biochemical and microbiological parameters. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, various treatment procedures and outcome were evaluated. The infection rate of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was 12.5% in 2006, which dropped to 2% and stabilized at lower level from 2008. The most common causes of hydrocephalus were traumatic injury and brain tumor. Fever and consciousness disturbance were the major clinical symptoms. Gram-negative rods episodes was the most frequently isolated microorganisms accounting for 58%, followed by S. aureus , S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. With the removal of shunt and intravenous antibiotics therapy, 82% of the patients survived. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to the carbopenem antibiotics and vancomycin. The mean length of hospital stay was 47 days. Prompt shunt removal and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis seems to be essential for the survival of patients with VP shunt infection. PMID:26770643

  19. Current-to-voltage converter for linearity correction of low shunt resistance photovoltaic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Makai, J.P.; Makai, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    The most accurate absolute calibration of radiometric transfer standard detectors is carried out by cryogenic radiometers at a usually high irradiance level. A radiometric scale can be maintained by these calibrated detectors in a given irradiance range if they are linear or their nonlinearity is predictable in this range. The linearity of photovoltaic quantum detectors can be affected among others by their shunt resistance and the applied circuitry. Many of the radiometric quality large-area photodiodes exhibit very low shunt resistance in comparison to Si detectors. When used with a traditional current-to-voltage converter the requirement of the ideal short-circuit operation is not always met. Consequently, part of the photoinduced current flows through the shunt resistance of the detector as a shunt current, and only the rest produces the output voltage. This shunt current is highly temperature dependent and is generally proportional to the output voltage causing a nonlinear deviation of the output signal if the feedback resistor of the current-to-voltage converter, i.e., the sensitivity is changed. To practically eliminate the shunt current the bootstrapping technique was applied to these detectors, it enhanced the linear range of sensitivity by more than two decades. The circuit theory and the noise sources are detailed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Bedside nuclear probe for detection and quantification of left to right intracardiac shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Gould, B A; Turner, J; Keeling, D H; Ring, N J; Cox, R R; Marshall, A J

    1988-01-01

    A cadmium telluride nuclear probe with an Elscint gamma camera was used to detect and measure left to right intracardiac shunts at the bedside in 34 patients. Fifteen also had right heart catheterisation and oximetric measurement of the shunt. For the nuclear technique 740 MBq (20 mCi) of technetium-99m pertechnetate was injected into the right antecubital vein and the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (QP:QS) was measured by the gamma variate technique. Data were not obtained in four patients because the nuclear probe failed in three patients and one storage disc was corrupted. Data from the gamma camera were lost in another patient. When the size of the shunt measured by the nuclear probe was compared with that measured by the oximetric technique the mean difference (SD of mean difference) was 0.36 (SD 0.78) and when it was compared with the gamma camera it was 0.08 (SD 0.67). Analysis of scatter plots showed that the larger the shunt, the larger the discrepancy. Twenty four of 29 data sets showed complete agreement between the nuclear probe and gamma camera on the size of the shunt. Any differences were small. These data indicate that left to right intracardiac shunts may be measured accurately by a nuclear probe at the bedside in either the coronary care unit or outpatient department. PMID:2835974

  1. Prevention options for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections: a retrospective analysis during a five-year period

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xing; Liu, Qin; Jiang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Shunt infection is the most common and dreaded complication in patients with hydrocephalus. For the purpose of reducing the high morbidity and mortality, how to prevent is a vital step. A retrospective analysis of 384 CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt procedures was undertaken from 2006 to 2010 in our neurosurgery department. Infection diagnosis was established by subjecting the CSF to biochemical and microbiological parameters. The patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics, various treatment procedures and outcome were evaluated. The infection rate of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was 12.5% in 2006, which dropped to 2% and stabilized at lower level from 2008. The most common causes of hydrocephalus were traumatic injury and brain tumor. Fever and consciousness disturbance were the major clinical symptoms. Gram-negative rods episodes was the most frequently isolated microorganisms accounting for 58%, followed by S. aureus , S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. With the removal of shunt and intravenous antibiotics therapy, 82% of the patients survived. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to the carbopenem antibiotics and vancomycin. The mean length of hospital stay was 47 days. Prompt shunt removal and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis seems to be essential for the survival of patients with VP shunt infection. PMID:26770643

  2. Analysis of error floor of LDPC codes under LP decoding over the BSC

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chilappagari, Shashi; Vasic, Bane; Stepanov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    We consider linear programming (LP) decoding of a fixed low-density parity-check (LDPC) code over the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The LP decoder fails when it outputs a pseudo-codeword which is not a codeword. We propose an efficient algorithm termed the instanton search algorithm (ISA) which, given a random input, generates a set of flips called the BSC-instanton and prove that: (a) the LP decoder fails for any set of flips with support vector including an instanton; (b) for any input, the algorithm outputs an instanton in the number of steps upper-bounded by twice the number of flips in the input. We obtain the number of unique instantons of different sizes by running the ISA sufficient number of times. We then use the instanton statistics to predict the performance of the LP decoding over the BSC in the error floor region. We also propose an efficient semi-analytical method to predict the performance of LP decoding over a large range of transition probabilities of the BSC.

  3. Destruction of LP XM46 using the molten salt destruction process. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-04-01

    The preliminary experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant LP XM46 (the new designation for LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of LP XM46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The purpose of these initial Phase 1 runs was to collect information on the applicability of the Molten Salt Destruction Process for the destruction of LP XM46, identify the key technical uncertainties, and to plan future runs. The tentative results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, indicate that: (1) LP XM46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration; and (2) under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the LP XM46 is converted to NOx, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO.

  4. LP2, a differentiation-associated lipid-binding protein expressed in bovine lens.

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, C; Wistow, G

    1996-01-01

    A 13 kDa protein from bovine lens was identified and characterized by protein microsequencing and by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Its complete sequence shows that this protein belongs to a family of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), including myelin and adipocyte P2, that are associated with cellular differentiation. The bovine lens protein, designated LP2, shows very close similarity to human epidermal FABP (eFABP) and human eFABP was detected in human lens, suggesting that the two proteins might be orthologous. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to compare expression patterns of LP2 with those for actin and for the differentiation markers gamma B-crystallin and gamma s-crystallin in lens. Actin was most abundant in the relatively undifferentiated epithelial cells and decreased with lens cell differentiation. In contrast gamma B-crystallin and gamma s-crystallin were detected only in fibres (nuclear and cortical respectively). LP2 transcripts were detected most abundantly in fibre cells and apparently increased with cellular differentiation. Molecular modelling confirms that the sequence of LP2 fits the tertiary template of adipocyte P2 but reveals the presence of two close pairs of cysteine residues that might be susceptible to intramolecular disulphide bond formation under appropriate oxidizing conditions. LP2 is thus another potential target for oxidative stress during cataract formation in lens. PMID:8947466

  5. Small quasi-static displacements associated with shallow LP seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thun, J.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic long-period (LP) events are still not completely understood, in part because our source models are poorly constrained. In particular individual LP events are usually inverted using a very limited bandwidth, which might mask important aspects of the source. Following advances from earthquake seismology where sources are inverted using joint static and dynamic data we investigate the possibility of using seismometers as deformation sensors, where 'static' displacements are hypothesised to be in the micrometre range (Bean et al. 2014). We use data from high-density networks on a variety of volcanoes. The first component of this study focuses on the extraction of small static displacement steps from seismometer data. The main challenges we face include low signal-to-noise ratios and ambiguity of the extracted ground motion due to the tilt-sensitivity of the instruments. We use a combination of laboratory experiments on seismometers and numerical simulations to investigate the processing steps needed to perform the 'step' extraction task and to guide the interpretation of the resulting data. The method is applied to signals recorded near the summits of Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) and Mt Etna (Italy), which exhibit ramp-like displacement waveforms, coincidently associated by 'dynamic' LP recordings. Our interim conclusion is that these LP sources likely have a measurable static component in the source. Our next step is to use this static component to better constrain LP source inversions.

  6. Hyperglucagonemia and hyperkinetic circulation after portocaval shunt in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kravetz, D.; Arderiu, M.; Bosch, J.; Fuster, J.; Visa, J.; Casamitjana, R.; Rodes, J.

    1987-02-01

    The study was aimed at investigating whether increased portal venous inflow (PVI) after portocaval shunt (PCS) in the rat is the result of selective splanchnic vasodilatation or whether it is part of a generalized circulatory disturbance. Rats with PCS and sham-operated controls were studied 2 wk after surgery by measuring cardiac output (CO), PVI, and hepatic artery flow (HAF) with radioactive microspheres (V Cr and UC). Plasma glucagon (GL) was measured by radioimmunoassay. PCS rats had increased CO and reduced arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance. PVI was markedly increased, but this appeared to be part of a generalized circulatory disturbance, since when PVI is expressed as percent of CO no difference is observed between PCS and sham-operated rats, indicating the absence of a preferential splanchnic vasodilatation. GL increased after PCS, and significant correlations were observed between GL and CO and between GL and PVI. HAF increased after PCS but did not compensate the loss of portal flow, evidence by a lower total hepatic flow in PCS rats. These results suggest that PCS induces a hyperkinetic circulatory state in which increased PVI represents its splanchnic manifestation and that increased GL release may be in part responsible for these hemodynamic changes.

  7. Scaling of electromagnetic transducers for shunt damping and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Zilletti, Michele

    2014-04-01

    In order for an electromagnetic transducer to operate well as either a mechanical shunt damper or as a vibration energy harvester, it must have good electromechanical coupling. A simple two-port analysis is used to derive a non-dimensional measure of electromechanical coupling, which must be large compared with unity for efficient operation in both of these applications. The two-port parameters for an inertial electromagnetic transducer are derived, from which this non-dimensional coupling parameter can be evaluated. The largest value that this parameter takes is approximately equal to the square of the magnetic flux density times the length of wire in the field, divided by the mechanical damping times the electrical resistance. This parameter is found to be only of the order of one for voice coil devices that weigh approximately 1 kg, and so such devices are generally not efficient, within the definition used here, in either of these applications. The non-dimensional coupling parameter is found to scale in approximate proportion to the device's characteristic length, however, and so although miniaturised devices are less efficient, greater efficiency can be obtained with large devices, such as those used to control civil engineering structures.

  8. Integrated fuel cell stack shunt current prevention arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Roche, Robert P.; Nowak, Michael P.

    1992-01-01

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cells juxtaposed with one another in the stack and each including a pair of plate-shaped anode and cathode electrodes that face one another, and a quantity of liquid electrolyte present at least between the electrodes. A separator plate is interposed between each two successive electrodes of adjacent ones of the fuel cells and is unified therewith into an integral separator plate. Each integral separator plate is provided with a circumferentially complete barrier that prevents flow of shunt currents onto and on an outer peripheral surface of the separator plate. This barrier consists of electrolyte-nonwettable barrier members that are accommodated, prior to the formation of the integral separator plate, in corresponding edge recesses situated at the interfaces between the electrodes and the separator plate proper. Each barrier member extends over the entire length of the associated marginal portion and is flush with the outer periphery of the integral separator plate. This barrier also prevents cell-to-cell migration of any electrolyte that may be present at the outer periphery of the integral separator plate while the latter is incorporated in the fuel cell stack.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of a capacitive micromachined shunt switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firebaugh, Samara L.; Charles, Harry K.; Edwards, Richard L.; Keeney, Allen C.; Wilderson, Samuel F.

    2004-07-01

    The design and fabrication of a capacitive shunt switch are described. The switch is based on a bridge structure that can be modulated using electrostatic actuation. The switch has two states: when the bridge is up the signal passes through with less than 0.1 dB insertion loss. When the bridge is down the signal is attenuated by 15-20 dB at 20 GHz. The residual stress of the bridge material is critical to operation of these switches. This stress was tightly controlled by varying the temperature of the plating bath. Different bridge widths and shapes are compared. ``Bowtie'' shaped bridges are demonstrated to have increased insertion loss and similar isolation compared to straight bridges. These devices were observed to be sensitive to packaging stress, resulting in more than doubling the actuation voltage. This work also describes the development of a test fixture that facilitates standard microwave connections for testing the devices without a probe station. The test fixture was observed to have an insertion loss of less than 3 dB up to 20 GHz. .

  10. Geometric Studies of Shunt and Lead Orientation in EEC Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, F. M.; Solin, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Electric field sensors are ubiquitous in modern technology, from field effect transistors (FETs) in circuit boards to point-of-care testing (POCT) devices used in detecting the presence of specific protein markers in blood. The transport properties of these devices are limited by two general categories: intrinsic material properties and extrinsic geometric effects. Devices with a maximum electric field resolution of 3.05V/cm were previously reported. The metal semiconductor hybrid (MSH) devices are constructed by forming a Schottky interface between a mesa of nGaAs and Ti, while four ohmic leads surround the perimeter of the mesa and are used for four point resistance measurements. These devices exhibit extraordinary electroconductance (EEC) and make it possible to correlate measured four point resistance to changes in the local electric field. While maximizing the EEC response by optimizing the intrinsic material properties has been theoretically investigated, we present a phenomenological study of the impact of lead orientation and shunt geometry in the sensing capabilities of these devices. S.A.S. is a co-founder of and has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  11. Supraorbital photoplethysmographic monitoring during carotid endarterectomy with the use of an internal shunt: an added dimension of safety.

    PubMed

    Pearce, H J; Becchetti, J J; Brown, H J

    1980-03-01

    Photoplethysmograph (PPG) has added a new dimension of safety to carotid endarterectomy operations. Used to monitor adequate shunt blood flow during carotid endarterectomy, the PPG has proven to be a sensitive, reliable, and accurate device. Temporary intraoperative shunt occlusion is immediately indicated by marked amplitude reductions in the supraorbital artery pulse waveform. The cause of the occlusion is usually found to be impingment of the distal end of the shunt against the arterial wall, which is easily corrected by proximal positioning of the shunt. Also, occasionally occlusion will occur from kinking of the internal carotid artery distal to the shunt, which is corrected by slight proximal retraction on the artery. Repositioning retractors in the upper extent of the operative field will alleviate any occlusions from retractor pressure on the internal carotid artery. Without a method of sensing hemodynamically significant decreases in shunt flow during operation for carotid endarterectomy, there exists a risk of prolonged unrecognized intraoperative cerebral ischemia. PMID:7361275

  12. Effects of isradipine and other calcium antagonists on arteriovenous-shunt flow in anesthetized rabbits and cats

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, R.P.

    1989-04-17

    The effects of vasodilators on arteriovenous (AV)-shunt flow was investigated in anesthetized cats and rabbits, using the tracer microsphere method. In cats, the calcium antagonist isradipine reduced AV-shunt flow; verapamil showed a similar tendency and nicardipine was without effect. Dihydralazine strongly increased, but nitroglycerin and dipyridamole decreased AV-shunt flow. In rabbits, the effects of isradipine and verapamil were similar to those seen in cats. Sodium nitroprusside had no effect, whereas prazosin, minoxidil, and the potassium-channel activator cromakalim increased AV-shunt flow. The contrasting effects of drugs sharing the same mechanism of action suggest that target-tissue selectivity is more important than the mechanism of action. An increase of AV-shunt flow is unlikely to be beneficial but could be associated with a number of undesirable side effects. It might negatively affect migraine sufferers and, if AV-shunt dilatation shows no tolerance development, it represents an unnecessary hemodynamic burden for the heart.

  13. Lp stability for entropy solutions of scalar conservation laws with strict convex flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimurthi; Ghoshal, Shyam Sundar; Veerappa Gowda, G. D.

    Here we consider the scalar convex conservation laws in one space dimension with strictly convex flux which is in C1. Existence, uniqueness and L1 contractivity were proved by Kružkov [14]. Using the relative entropy method, Leger showed that for a uniformly convex flux and for the shock wave solutions, the L2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded by the L2 norm of the initial perturbation. Here we generalize the result to Lp norm for all 1⩽p<∞. Also we show that for the non-shock wave solution, Lp norm of the perturbed solution relative to the modified N-wave is bounded by the Lp norm of the initial perturbation for all 1⩽p<∞.

  14. Ventriculo-bipleural shunt as last resort in a 4-year-old child in whom a VP and VA shunt failed.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Miriam; Unterberg, Andreas; Bchli, Heidi

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the unusual case of a 4-year-old boy who had a complex history of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and who underwent more than 40 surgeries related to this condition. In the course of trying to treat his condition, ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculoatrial, and ventriculopleural shunts were inserted and failed. The child presented with a dysfunction of his shunt system. A ventriculopleural shunt was inserted, but within days the patient developed dyspnea as a clinical symptom of pleural effusion that required repeated thoracentesis. A bipleural drainage system was inserted, and no relevant pleural effusions developed during the follow-up period. Although the authors' experience is based on a single case, they do suggest bipleural drainage in patients with clinically relevant pleural effusions when the more common alternatives are not a good choice. Bipleural drainage might particularly be an option in children, who are prone to pleural effusion because of the smaller absorbing pleural surface. The authors reviewed the English-language literature on PubMed dating back to 1952. To their knowledge, this is the only published case in which a patient was treated with a ventriculo-bipleural shunt. PMID:26613270

  15. Spinal arteriovenous shunts: accuracy of shunt detection, localization, and subtype discrimination using spinal magnetic resonance angiography and manual contrast injection using a syringe.

    PubMed

    Unsrisong, Kittisak; Taphey, Siriporn; Oranratanachai, Kanokporn

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT The object of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fast 3D contrast-enhanced spinal MR angiography (MRA) using a manual syringe contrast injection technique for detecting and evaluating spinal arteriovenous shunts (AVSs). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 15 patients and 20 spinal MRA and catheter angiography studies. The accuracy of using spinal MRA to detect spinal AVS, localize shunts, and discriminate the subtype and dominant arterial feeder of the AVS were studied. RESULTS There were 14 pretherapeutic and 6 posttherapeutic follow-up spinal MRA and catheter spinal angiography studies. The spinal AVS was demonstrated in 17 of 20 studies. Spinal MRA demonstrated 100% sensitivity for detecting spinal AVS with no false-negative results. A 97% accuracy rate for AVS subtype discrimination and shunt level localization was achieved using this study's diagnostic criteria. The detection of the dominant arterial feeder was limited to 9 of these 17 cases (53%). CONCLUSIONS The fast 3D contrast-enhanced MRA technique performed using manual syringe contrast injection can detect the presence of a spinal AVS, locate the shunt level, and discriminate AVS subtype in most cases, but is limited when detecting small arterial feeders. PMID:26682599

  16. Effects of topography and crustal heterogeneities on the source estimation of LP event at Kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cesca, S.; Battaglia, J.; Dahm, T.; Tessmer, E.; Heimann, S.; Okubo, P.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to improve the modelling of the source mechanism associated with the generation of long period (LP) signals in volcanic areas. Our intent is to evaluate the effects that detailed structural features of the volcanic models play in the generation of LP signal and the consequent retrieval of LP source characteristics. In particular, effects associated with the presence of topography and crustal heterogeneities are here studied in detail. We focus our study on a LP event observed at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in 2001 May. A detailed analysis of this event and its source modelling is accompanied by a set of synthetic tests, which aim to evaluate the effects of topography and the presence of low velocity shallow layers in the source region. The forward problem of Green's function generation is solved numerically following a pseudo-spectral approach, assuming different 3-D models. The inversion is done in the frequency domain and the resulting source mechanism is represented by the sum of two time-dependent terms: a full moment tensor and a single force. Synthetic tests show how characteristic velocity structures, associated with shallow sources, may be partially responsible for the generation of the observed long-lasting ringing waveforms. When applying the inversion technique to Kilauea LP data set, inversions carried out for different crustal models led to very similar source geometries, indicating a subhorizontal cracks. On the other hand, the source time function and its duration are significantly different for different models. These results support the indication of a strong influence of crustal layering on the generation of the LP signal, while the assumption of homogeneous velocity model may bring to misleading results. ?? 2008 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  17. Capillary tone: cyclooxygenase, shear stress, luminal glycocalyx, and hydraulic conductivity (Lp)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    Control of capillary hydraulic conductivity (Lp) is the physiological mechanism that underpins systemic hydration. Capillaries form the largest surface of endothelial cells in any species with a cardiovascular system and all capillaries are exposed to the flow-induced force, shear stress (τ). Vasoactive molecules such as prostacyclin (cyclooxygenase product, COX) are released from endothelial cells in response to τ. Little is known about how COX activity impacts capillary Lp. The purpose here was to assess Lp in situ following an acute Δτ stimulus and during COX1/COX2 inhibition. Mesenteric true capillaries (TC) of Rana pipiens (pithed) were cannulated for Lp assessment using the modified Landis technique. Rana were randomized into Control and Test groups. Two capillaries per animal were used (perfusate, 10 mg·mL−1 BSA/frog Ringer's; superfusate, frog Ringer's or indomethacin (10−5 mol·L−1) mixed in frog Ringer's solution). Three distinct responses of Lp to indomethacin (TC2) were demonstrated (TC1 and TC2 medians: Test Subgroup 1, 3.0 vs. 1.8; Test Subgroup 2, 18.2 vs. 2.2; Test Subgroup 3, 4.2 vs. 10.2 × 10−7 cm·sec−1·cm H2O−1). Multiple regression analysis revealed a relationship between capillary Lp and systemic red blood cell concentration or hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, and Δτ (Test Subgroup 1, R2 = 0.59, P < 0.0001; Test Subgroup 2, R2 = 0.96, P = 0.002), but only during COX inhibition. Maintaining red blood cell and plasma protein levels within a normal range may control barrier function in a healthy state. Recovering barrier function may be an unrecognized benefit of transfusions during blood loss or edema formation. PMID:25896981

  18. T1-201 per rectum: A noninvasive method for evaluating portosystemic shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Verdickt, X.; Reding, P.; Tshiamala, P.; Ham, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt is one of the most important complications of liver cirrhosis. Unfortunately, current methods for detecting and quantifying this shunt are either non-specific or associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical value of a new non-traumatic method which consisted of administrating T1-201 per rectum and monitoring the absorbed activity using a camera and a computer system. The method assumes that in the absence of portosystemic shunt, most of the absorbed activity will be fixed in the liver while in the presence of this shunt, some of the activity will be fixed in the myocardium. The ratio of heart to liver activity can therefore be used to evaluate the importance of the portosystemic shunt. 34 subjects have been studied. The ratio of heart to liver activity at the 25th minute after the tracer administration is higher in patients with liver cirrhosis (n=22, m=.9, s.d.=.37) than in patients with steatosis (n=10, m=.28, s.d.=.03). In two healthy subjects investigated the H/L ratio was .27 and .30. The reproducibility of the test was evaluated in 8 subjects and showed a good reproducibility (mean of difference =.03, range=.01 to .07). Patients with esophageal varices had always a high H/L ratio while some patients with liver cirrhosis without esophageal varices had also high H/L ratio, probably due to the presence of intrahepatic shunt. The authors' results showed the value of this new non-traumatic test for detecting and quantifying extra- as well as intrahepatic portosystematic shunt.

  19. Arteriovenous shunting blood flow is intravitally observed in the stomach after thermal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Go; Ishikawa, Hideki; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Tanabe, Minoru; Otani, Yoshihide; Shimazu, Motohide; Kubota, Tetsuro; Kitajima, Masaki

    2002-12-01

    Microcirculatory disturbance of the gastric wall is a crucial factor in the development of gastric mucosal lesions induced by Helicobacter pylori, anti-inflammatory drugs and stress. Opening of the arteriovenous shunting channel after thermal injury is one of the possible mechanisms to reduce mucosal blood flow. However, no in vivo observation of arteriovenous shunting blood flow in the stomach has been reported. To assess gastric microcirculatory disturbance, especially arteriovenous shunting blood flow after thermal injury by in vivo microsciopy, male Wistar rats were anesthetized and thermal injury was inflicted on the back skin. Gastric microvascular images were observed by in vivo microscopy. Rolling of leukocytes labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester were counted and blood flow dynamics were observed by flow of a micro dye, monastral blue B (MBB). The endothelial damage was assessed by deposits of MBB 5 min after the administration. Arteriovenous shunting blood flow is difficult to detect by normal methods, but it could be observed by How of MBB after thermal injury. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the ratio of arteriovenous shunting blood flow detection between the control (no injury) (0%; n = 15) and thermal injury (5 hrs after thermal injury) (28.6%; n = 14) groups. In the thermal injury group, the percentage of rolling leukocytes and the area of monastral blue B deposits increased, and the venular walls tended to be irregular. The total length of erosion increased time-dependently after thermal injury, and the length at 5 hrs was approximately 2 times larger than that at 2 hrs. Arteriovenous shunting blood flow is intravitally observed after thermal injury. A-V shunting blood flow can be a cause of mucosal hypoperfusion. It is suggested that the microcirculatory disturbance seen 5 hrs after thermal injury is contributed to the final step of erosion formation. PMID:12528924

  20. Gauged attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts: results in 160 dogs and 15 cats.

    PubMed

    Wolschrijn, C F; Mahapokai, W; Rothuizen, J; Meyer, H P; van Sluijs, F J

    2000-04-01

    Portosystemic shunts were ligated over a gauged stainless steel rod in 160 dogs and 15 cats, using a midline celiotomy. The diameter of the rod varied with the size of the shunt and the diameter of the portal vein cranial to the shunt. Shunts were narrowed to the smallest diameter that did not cause signs of portal hypertension such as cyanosis of the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. A slight discoloration was accepted only if the heart rate, end-expiratory CO2%, or arterial blood pressure (if available) did not deviate more than 15% from the values that were recorded at the beginning of the surgical procedure. The perioperative mortality (0-30 days) was 29%. The most common cause of death was euthanasia because of hypoplasia of the portal vein cranial to the shunt. Animals with intrahepatic shunts had a significantly lower probability of survival than animals with extrahepatic portocaval or portoazygos shunts. In dogs, large breed and a high body weight were also significant risk factors for non-survival. Age had a significant effect on risk of non-survival, with an increased risk for older dogs, irrespective of the breed of the dog (large breed vs. small breed). The probability of survival without recurrence of hepatoencephalopathy (HE) after 1 and 4 years was 61.3% and 55.7%, respectively. The only variable that was significantly associated with non-recurrence of HE was the breed of the dog, there being a lower probability for large breeds. Among the animals that survived surgery for more than 30 days, there was a significant higher probability of recurrence of HE in cats than in dogs. PMID:10789517

  1. 78 FR 32294 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., License No. 02/02-0662,02/02...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., License No. 02/02-0662,02/02-0661; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that...

  2. Post-TIPS Hepatic Encephalopathy Treated by Occlusion Balloon-Assisted Retrograde Embolization of a Coexisting Spontaneous Splenorenal Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Shioyama, Yasukazu; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Horihata, Koushi; Kimura, Masashi; Nishida, Norifumi; Kishi, Kazushi; Terada, Masaki; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1996-11-15

    A 51-year-old man with posthepatitis cirrhosis underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for bleeding of recurrent esophageal varices. The patient had a coexisting, spontaneous, splenorenal shunt. He subsequently developed hepatic encephalopathy, presumably due to excessive portosystemic shunting. Since medical management resulted in no significant improvement, the splenorenal shunt was embolized from the jugular vein approach via renal vein access during temporary balloon occlusion. Within a few days, the patient's hepatic encephalopathy resolved. Twelve months later the patient showed no recurrence of encephalopathy and had maintained a patent TIPS.

  3. Long Period (LP) volcanic earthquake source location at Merapi volcano by using dense array technics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxian, Jean Philippe; Budi Santoso, Agus; Laurin, Antoine; Subandriyo, Subandriyo; Widyoyudo, Wiku; Arshab, Ghofar

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, Merapi shows unusual activity compared to last decades. Powerful phreatic explosions are observed; some of them are preceded by LP signals. In the literature, LP seismicity is thought to be originated within the fluid, and therefore to be representative of the pressurization state of the volcano plumbing system. Another model suggests that LP events are caused by slow, quasi-brittle, low stress-drop failure driven by transient upper-edifice deformations. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of LP events is fundamental for better understanding the physical processes occurring in the conduit, as well as for the monitoring and the improvement of eruption forecasting. LP events recorded at Merapi have a spectral content dominated by frequencies between 0.8 and 3 Hz. To locate the source of these events, we installed a seismic antenna composed of 4 broadband CMG-6TD Güralp stations. This network has an aperture of 300 m. It is located on the site of Pasarbubar, between 500 and 800 m from the crater rim. Two multi-parameter stations (seismic, tiltmeter, S-P) located in the same area, equipped with broadband CMG-40T Güralp sensors may also be used to complete the data of the antenna. The source of LP events is located by using different approaches. In the first one, we used a method based on the measurement of the time delays between the early beginnings of LP events for each array receiver. The observed differences of time delays obtained for each pair of receivers are compared to theoretical values calculated from the travel times computed between grid nodes, which are positioned in the structure, and each receiver. In a second approach, we estimate the slowness vector by using MUSIC algorithm applied to 3-components data. From the slowness vector, we deduce the back-azimuth and the incident angle, which give an estimation of LP source depth in the conduit. This work is part of the Domerapi project funded by French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (https://sites.google.com/site/domerapi2).

  4. The elevation of apoB in hypercholesterolemic patients is primarily attributed to the relative increase of apoB/Lp-PLA2

    PubMed Central

    Tellis, Constantinos C.; Moutzouri, Eliza; Elisaf, Moses; Wolfert, Robert L.; Tselepis, Alexandros D.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Plasma Lp-PLA2 is mainly associated with apolipoprotein (apo)B-containing lipoproteins, primarily with low density lipoproteins (LDLs). Importantly, only a proportion of circulating lipoproteins contain Lp-PLA2. We determined the plasma levels of Lp-PLA2-bound apoB (apoB/Lp-PLA2) in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. The effect of simvastatin therapy was also addressed. The plasma apoB/Lp-PLA2 concentration in 50 normolipidemic controls and 53 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia at baseline and at 3 months posttreatment with simvastatin (40 mg/day) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of the apoB-containing lipoproteins that do not bind Lp-PLA2 [apoB/Lp-PLA2(−)] was calculated by subtracting the apoB/Lp-PLA2 from total apoB. The apoB/Lp-PLA2 levels were 3.6-fold higher, while apoB/Lp-PLA2(−) were 1.3-fold higher in patients compared with controls. After 3 months of simvastatin treatment apoB/Lp-PLA2 and apoB/Lp-PLA2(−) levels were reduced by 52% and 33%, respectively. The elevation in apoB-containing lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic patients is mainly attributed to the relative increase in the proatherogenic apoB/Lp-PLA2, while simvastatin reduces these particles to a higher extent compared with apoB/Lp-PLA2(−). Considering that Lp-PLA2 is proatherogenic, the predominance of apoB/Lp-PLA2 particles in hypercholesterolemic patients may contribute to their higher atherogenicity and incidence of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24092915

  5. [Repeat endovascular interventions after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (tips) procedures].

    PubMed

    Shipovskiĭ, V N; Tsitsiashvili, M Sh; Saakian, A M; Monakhov, D V; Khuan, Ch; Nechaev, A I

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedures preformed in a total of fifty-nine patients diagnosed with and hence operated on for class B and C hepatocirrhosis (according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification), portal hypertension, grade 3 varicosely dilated oesophageal veins, or ascites. Of these, there were 12 women and 47 men (average age 56.3 years). Three types of stents were used: matrix stents (PERICO), self-expanding (ZA-stents, OptiMedsinus-SuperFlex- Visualstents, Zilverstents, SMART), and coated self-expanding stents (Gore Viatorr TIPS Endoprosthesis). Six (11 %) TIPS procedures ended in failure. Of the remaining 53 successful TIPS attempts, thirteen patients developed an in-stent thrombosis at various terms postoperatively, with one patient having experienced it twice Within four postoperative days, thrombosis occurred in three patients, at terms varying from one month to three months in five patients, and from 6 to 12 months in a further five patients. More often thromboses were encountered with the matrix stents (n = 3) 23.0% (PERICO) and self-expanding stents (n = 8) in 61.0% (OptiMed sinus-SuperFlex-Visual). Thromboses were clinically manifested by oesophageal variceal haemorrhage. An in-stent thrombosis was confirmed by means of ultrasonographic duplex scanning (lack of arterial blood flow). The primary stent patency rate following TIPS procedures amounted to 67%. with the secondary assisted graft patency rate equalling 89%. Restoration of the stent's lumen after TIPS procedures by means of endovascular recanalization, rheolytic thrombectomy, balloon angioplasty, and a stent-in-stent technique appears to be a minimally invasive, rather efficient method and virtually the only way to preserve the stent's patency. This technique makes it possible to decrease the rate of recurrent oesophageal variceal haemorrhage. PMID:21032871

  6. Sarcopenia associated with portosystemic shunting is reversed by follistatin

    PubMed Central

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan; McCullough, Arthur J.; Muc, Sean; Schneyer, Alan; Bennett, Carole D.; Dodig, Milan; Kalhan, Satish C.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims The distinct role of portosystemic shunting (PSS) in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia (skeletal muscle loss) that occurs commonly in cirrhosis is unclear. We have previously shown increased expression of myostatin (inhibitor of skeletal muscle mass) in the portacaval anastamosis (PCA) rat model of sarcopenia of PSS. The present study was performed to examine the mechanisms of sarcopenia following PCA. Methods In PCA and sham operated pair fed control rats, the phenylalanine flooding dose method was used to quantify the fractional and absolute protein synthesis rates in the skeletal muscle over time and in response to follistatin, a myostatin antagonist. The expression of myostatin and markers of satellite cell (myocyte precursors) proliferation and differentiation were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Results The absolute synthesis rate (ASR) was lower at 2, 4, and 6 weeks (p <0.05) and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of skeletal muscle protein was significantly lower (p <0.05) at week 2 in the PCA rats compared to control rats. Expression of myostatin was elevated while markers of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were lower at 4 and 6 weeks after PCA. Follistatin increased skeletal muscle mass, muscle FSR and ASR, decreased expression of myostatin protein, and an increased expression of markers of satellite cell function. Conclusions Sarcopenia associated with PSS is caused by impaired protein synthesis and reduced satellite cell function due to increased myostatin expression. Confirming these alterations in human patients with cirrhosis will provide novel therapeutic targets for sarcopenia of liver disease. PMID:21145817

  7. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

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    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project), as amended in...

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  11. 76 FR 41239 - L&P Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission L&P Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of L&P Electric,...

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    ... its Associate Praesidian Capital Opportunity Fund III-A, LP to achieve pro rata allocation of... ADMINISTRATION Praesidian Capital Opportunity Fund III, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Praesidian...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Aspen Merchant Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

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    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P., Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Joint Application... that on December 3, 2010, Equitrans L.P. (Equitrans) and Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC (Big Sandy), 625... to section 7(b) of the NGA authorizing Equitrans to abandon by transfer the Big Sandy Pipeline,...

  15. 77 FR 11618 - Solutions Capital I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

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    ... from MCG Capital Corporation in Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., 195 Chatillon Road NE., Rome, GA, 30162... Solutions Capital I, L.P., has a greater than 10% equity interest in Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., thereby making Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., an Associate of Solutions Capital I, L.P., as defined in Sec....

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  1. 77 FR 38125 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...

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    ...). Seacoast Capital Partners III, L.P., proposes to provide debt/equity security financing to Fox Run Holdings, Inc., 1907 Stout Drive, Warminster, PA 18974 (``Fox Run''). The financing is brought within the... of Seacoast Capital Partners III, L.P., own more than ten percent of Fox Run, and therefore...

  2. 77 FR 60430 - Brigham Oil & Gas, L.P.; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brigham Oil & Gas, L.P.; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and... Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.204 (2012), Brigham Oil & Gas, L.P., (Brigham Oil &...

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  5. 77 FR 30002 - Regency Field Services LLC, v. DCP Black Lake Pipe Holdings, LP; Notice of Complaint

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  6. Simulations reveal adverse hemodynamics in patients with multiple systemic to pulmonary shunts.

    PubMed

    Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Murtuza, Bari; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Marsden, Alison

    2015-03-01

    For newborns diagnosed with pulmonary atresia or severe pulmonary stenosis leading to insufficient pulmonary blood flow, cyanosis can be mitigated with placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) between the innominate and pulmonary arteries. In some clinical scenarios, patients receive two systemic-to-pulmonary connections, either by leaving the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) open or by adding an additional central shunt (CS) in conjunction with the MBTS. This practice has been motivated by the thinking that an additional source of pulmonary blood flow could beneficially increase pulmonary flow and provide the security of an alternate pathway in case of thrombosis. However, there have been clinical reports of premature shunt occlusion when more than one shunt is employed, leading to speculation that multiple shunts may in fact lead to unfavorable hemodynamics and increased mortality. In this study, we hypothesize that multiple shunts may lead to undesirable flow competition, resulting in increased residence time (RT) and elevated risk of thrombosis, as well as pulmonary overcirculation. Computational fluid dynamics-based multiscale simulations were performed to compare a range of shunt configurations and systematically quantify flow competition, pulmonary circulation, and other clinically relevant parameters. In total, 23 cases were evaluated by systematically changing the PDA/CS diameter, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and MBTS position and compared by quantifying oxygen delivery (OD) to the systemic and coronary beds, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), WSS gradient (WSSG), and RT in the pulmonary artery (PA), and MBTS. Results showed that smaller PDA/CS diameters can lead to flow conditions consistent with increased thrombus formation due to flow competition in the PA, and larger PDA/CS diameters can lead to insufficient OD due to pulmonary hyperfusion. In the worst case scenario, it was found that multiple shunts can lead to a 160% increase in RT and a 10% decrease in OD. Based on the simulation results presented in this study, clinical outcomes for patients receiving multiple shunts should be critically investigated, as this practice appears to provide no benefit in terms of OD and may actually increase thrombotic risk. PMID:25531794

  7. Portal Cavernoma in the Era of Mesoportal Shunt (Rex) and Liver Transplant in Children.

    PubMed

    Chocarro, Gloria; Junco, Paloma Triana; Dominguez, Eva; Amesty, María Virginia; Cerezo, Vanesa Nuñez; Hernandez, Francisco; Murcia, Javier; Tovar, Juan Antonio; Lopez Santamaria, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Objective The mesoportal shunt (MPS) and liver transplantation (LT) have changed the scenario of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) since the MPS, the only "curative" technique, can now be offered in asymptomatic patients and also thrombotic complications of LT have increased the incidence of EHPVO. Material and Methods A retrospective study of patients undergoing surgery for EHPVO was conducted between 1990 and 2015. An analysis was done for the shunt permeability and clinical evolution over time. Results Of the 73 children with EHPVO, 39 were operated (12 posttransplant and 27 idiopathic). The median age at surgery was 9.36 years (range, 1.60-17.42 years). The MPS was the technique of choice; it was offered in 21 patients but eventually could be performed in only 18 (9 posttransplant and 9 idiopathic). The results of MPS were better in idiopathic (just one thrombosis successfully converted into mesocaval bypass). In the MPS after LT (n = 9), six shunts are permeable, two became thrombotic (one patient requiring retransplantation), and one late thrombosis occurred and the patient died eventually because of gastrointestinal bleeding. In the remaining patients (21 out of the 39), MPS was not performed because of intrahepatic cavernoma, portal vein hypoplasia, or insufficient length of vascular graft (especially in left lateral segment graft LT, since the portal vein is usually located in the right upper quadrant). They underwent 10 distal splenorenal shunts (DSRS) (1 posttransplant and 9 idiopathic), 5 proximal splenorenal shunts (PSRS) (1/4), 6 mesocaval shunts (1/5), and 1 modified Sugiura procedure. The results with DSRS have been favorable (one thrombosis, converted into mesocaval bypass). In the PSRS no thrombosis was identified and in the mesocaval shunt one early thrombosis occurred. Posttransplantation group had higher risk of shunt thrombosis, regardless of the surgical technique (chi-square, 0.021). The total increase of platelets after 6 months was not different in MPS as compared with other surgical techniques (analysis of variance, 0.110). Conclusions The MPS is the technique of choice in EHPVO for idiopathic thrombosis as well as secondary to LT. Not all cases are favorable for MPS, so the surgeon must consider the possibility of alternative techniques for EHPVO. The results in terms of shunt patency are much better in idiopathic cavernoma that posttransplant patients. PMID:26378482

  8. A 20 ampere shunt regulator for controlling individual magnets in a seriesed string

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.J.; Dobeck, N.; Jones, G.S.; O`Sullivan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    At the CEBAF accelerator, groups of dipole magnets are often connected together in series and powered from a single large constant-current regulated D-C supply, referred to locally as a {open_quotes}box{close_quotes} supply. Besides the economy realized, this configuration promotes correct field tracking of all elements of a beam transport channel. However, it is often desirable to vary the current in one element of a string independently of the others, particularly at the entrance and exits of transport channels. A 20 ampere programmable current shunt is described. Installed in parallel with the desired magnet, it permits shunting (bypassing) up to 5% of the string current around that magnet. The shunt regulator consists of a bank of MOSFET power transistors operated in linear mode. Regulation of current through the passbank is obtained by feedback from a manganin shunt maintained at a constant temperature for stability. The module is designed for remote operation and provides readbacks of various parameters useful for maintenance. To achieve complete electrical isolation, an onboard microprocessor provides remote communications via an opto-isolated serial data link. Constructional details and initial operating experience with the plug-in shunt are described.

  9. Modification of the iso-shunt lines for low inspired oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Petros, A J; Doré, C J; Nunn, J F

    1994-05-01

    Arterial PO2 (PaO2) has been related to inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2 range 0.21-0.60) in 20 patients, breathing spontaneously, while recovering from a range of conditions treated in an intensive therapy unit. There was a highly significant linear trend (P < 0.001) for the mean venous admixture ("virtual shunt"), calculated from the iso-shunt diagram (model A), to increase from 0.11 to 0.19 as FIO2 decreased from 0.60 to 0.21. As this appeared to be caused by relative ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch, we prepared a second model (model B) with a variable two-compartment relative V/Q mismatch in addition to a shunt. Regression of the degree of mismatch on the shunt gave good agreement between predicted and observed PaO2 values (mean bias -0.17 kPa, pooled within patient SD 1.22). Model B is now proposed to extend the applicability of the iso-shunt diagram for FIO2 values less than 0.35. Published postoperative PaO2 data from other workers showed good agreement with our final model (mean bias 0.10 kPa, pooled SD 0.41). The new diagram may therefore have wide applicability in the field of anaesthesia and intensive care. PMID:8198900

  10. The C57BL/6J Mouse Exhibits Sporadic Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongxia; Duarte, Joao M. N.; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Oldani, Graziano; Terraz, Sylvain; Toso, Christian; Gruetter, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice are the most widely used strain of laboratory mice. Using in vivo proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS), we have repeatedly observed an abnormal neurochemical profile in the brains of both wild-type and genetically modified mice derived from the C57BL/6J strain, consisting of a several fold increase in cerebral glutamine and two fold decrease in myo-inositol. This strikingly abnormal neurochemical “phenotype” resembles that observed in chronic liver disease or portosystemic shunting and appeared to be independent of transgene, origin or chow and was not associated with liver failure. As many as 25% of animals displayed the abnormal neurochemical profile, questioning the reliability of this model for neurobiology. We conducted an independent study to determine if this neurochemical profile was associated with portosystemic shunting. Our results showed that 100% of the mice with high brain glutamine displayed portosystemic shunting by concomitant portal angiography while all mice with normal brain glutamine did not. Since portosystemic shunting is known to cause alterations in gene expression in many organs including the brain, we conclude that portosystemic shunting may be the most significant problem associated with C57BL/6J inbreeding both for its effect on the central nervous system and for its systemic repercussions. PMID:23936100

  11. Surgical portosystemic shunts and the Rex bypass in children: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Sukru; Dugan, Christina; Frankenberg, Tamara; Hudgins, Lisa Cooper; Gagliardi, Rosemarie; Artis, A Tarik; Rodriguez-Laiz, Gonzalo; Gondolesi, Gabriel; Shneider, Benjamin L; Kerkar, Nanda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to illustrate the indications for, and types and outcomes of surgical portosystemic shunt (PSS) and/or Rex bypass in a single centre. Methods: Data were collected from children with a PSS and/or Rex bypass between 1992 and 2006 at Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York. Results: Median age at surgery was 10.7 years (range 0.3–22.0 years). Indications included: (i) refractory gastrointestinal bleeding in portal hypertension associated with (a) compensated cirrhosis (n= 12), (b) portal vein thrombosis (n= 10), (c) hepatoportal sclerosis (n= 3); (ii) refractory ascites secondary to Budd–Chiari syndrome (n= 3), and (iii) familial hypercholesterolaemia (n= 4). There were 20 distal splenorenal, four portacaval, three Rex bypass, two mesocaval, two mesoatrial and one proximal splenorenal shunts. At the last follow-up (median 2.9 years, range 0.1–14.1 years), one shunt (Rex bypass) was thrombosed. Two patients had died and two had required a liver transplant. These had a patent shunt at last imaging prior to death or transplant. Conclusions: Portosystemic shunts and Rex bypass have been used to manage portal hypertension with excellent outcomes. In selected children with compensated liver disease, PSS may act as a bridge to liver transplantation or represent an attractive alternative. PMID:19590656

  12. Successful endovascular repair of an unusual right-to-left shunt presenting with cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Nicholas L; Coon, Elizabeth A; Cetta, Frank; Taggart, Nathaniel W; Flemming, Kelly D

    2014-07-01

    Ischemic stroke due to congenital cardiopulmonary vasculature anomalies is rare in adults. We report a 54-year-old man with a stroke due to a unique right-to-left shunt who underwent successful endovascular treatment. This patient developed acute onset of right arm weakness with facial droop and aphasia which improved after intravenous thrombolysis. An MRI showed acute cerebral ischemia in the left middle cerebral artery and left posterior cerebral artery distribution. The patient developed recurrent stroke symptoms during agitated saline injection while undergoing a transthoracic echocardiogram which showed right-to-left shunting. Chest CT scan and conventional angiography revealed near occlusion of the superior vena cava. Head and upper limb venous return drained via a large left vertical vein into an anomalous left pulmonary vein into the left atrium. He underwent endovascular surgery to relieve the superior vena cava obstruction and to occlude the source of right-to-left shunt. While rare, congenital cardiopulmonary vascular anomalies may result in ischemic stroke in adults. CT angiography may be necessary to evaluate cardiopulmonary vasculature when right-to-left shunting is discovered on echocardiography in the setting of ischemic stroke. With large right-to-left shunts, agitated saline should be avoided. PMID:24472238

  13. Hypoxia and GABA shunt activation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Jouhten, Paula; Sarajärvi, Timo; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed that the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to definitive Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a significant increase in the serum level of 2,4-dihydroxybutyrate (2,4-DHBA). The metabolic generation of 2,4-DHBA is linked to the activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, an alternative energy production pathway activated during cellular stress, when the function of Krebs cycle is compromised. The GABA shunt can be triggered by local hypoperfusion and subsequent hypoxia in AD brains caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is a key enzyme in the GABA shunt, converting succinic semialdehyde (SSA) into succinate, a Krebs cycle intermediate. A deficiency of SSADH activity stimulates the conversion of SSA into γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), an alternative route from the GABA shunt. GHB can exert not only acute neuroprotective activities but unfortunately also chronic detrimental effects which may lead to cognitive impairment. Subsequently, GHB can be metabolized to 2,4-DHBA and secreted from the brain. Thus, the activation of the GABA shunt and the generation of GHB and 2,4-DHBA can have an important role in the early phase of AD pathogenesis. PMID:26617286

  14. Efficacy of Doppler Ultrasonography for Assessment of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Patency

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Sato, Morio; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kayo; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shioyama, Kazushi; Kishi, Yasukazu; Terada, Masaki; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Doppler ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive method for monitoring patency of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: Twenty-nine patients who had received TIPS for bleeding esophagogastric varices and/or refractory ascites with portal hypertension underwent Doppler US studies within 2 weeks after TIPS. Further studies were performed in 15 of them at 6 months, in 9 at 1 year, and in 4 at 2 years for a total of 57 US studies. The US findings were compared with the angiographic findings obtained at the same time. Results: In 45 of the 57 studies, shunt patency was found by Doppler US, correlating to 44 patencies and one occlusion on angiography. Doppler signal in the shunt could not be detected in 12 studies resulting in the diagnosis of shunt occlusion. This correlated with angiographic occlusion in 8 studies and patency in the remaining 4. All angiographically patent shunts that were occluded by Doppler US had various degrees of stenosis. A number of technical factors were found to be responsible for Doppler US false-positive or false-negative diagnoses, some related to the type of stent used. The Doppler US sensitivity was therefore 92%, the specificity 89%. Conclusion: Doppler US is a reliable noninvasive method to evaluate patency of TIPS.

  15. Vesical calculi formation on the slit valves of a migrated distal end of ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul; Dagla, Rajan; Agrawal, Lila Dhar; Sharma, Pramila

    2015-01-01

    Various complications of distal end of the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt have been described in the literature. We present, here, an extremely rare and potentially severe complication of vesical calculi formation on the slit valves of distal end of VP shunt which erosively migrated into the urinary bladder. Suprapubic cystolithotomy performed, peritoneal end of the tube found to be eroding and entering into the bladder with two calculi firmly stuck to slit valves in the distal end of the tubing were removed. Shunt was functional, therefore, it was pulled out and repositioned on the superior aspect of the liver; the urinary bladder was repaired. Patient did well postoperatively. This complication was revealed 1.5 years after the shunt was implanted. Although there were symptoms of dysuria and dribbling of urine of short duration, the patient did not show obvious peritoneal signs; suggesting that, penetration of a VP shunt into the urinary bladder can remain asymptomatic for a long period of time, disclosed late and can lead to considerable morbidity. Careful follow-up is important and management should be individualized.

  16. 78 FR 58300 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Texas Eastern Appalachia to Market Project The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or...

  17. 75 FR 43801 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (ECF) Model EC225LP Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the specified ECF Model EC225LP helicopters. This AD results from a mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) AD issued by the aviation authority of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which is the Technical Agent for the Member States of the European Community. The MCAI AD states there have been a ``few'' reports of......

  18. COS FUV Detector Response to New HV Management System at LP3 {LENA4}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This program uses a series of 205s WAVECALS and 60s DCE dumps to exercise the new HV Management System. We first ramp to the Maximum HV for Both Segment FUVA/FUVB = 178/175, we then transition to the minimum HV {A/B = 167/163} using the new HV management system, then transition back to the Maximum HV. The WAVECAL exposures at the Maximum HV will be taken with G160M/1611 {C1611} and the minimums are taken with G160M/1623 {C1623}. The CENWAVE change is required to allow time for the HV change. The sequence is repeated with FUVA ON {FUVB OFF}, and then with FUVB ON {FUVA OFF}. DCE Dumps are included before and after each WAVECAL.All exposures in the program should execute at the LP3 position, using the ALTERNATE lifetime position.This program will use a special HV Table with the following changes to the normal HV/Aperture table:CENWAVE Lifetime Position HVA/HVB--------------------------1611 Alternate {LP3} 178/1751623 Alternate {LP3} 167/163LP3 FUV aperture positions and SIAF file updates are not absolutely required, as these are all internals, but they are desired.

  19. 77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This proposed AD...

  20. 77 FR 32069 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes. This...