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1

[Lumboperitoneal shunt and normal pressure hydrocephalus in elderly subjects].  

PubMed

Forty six patients who had normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and who presented 2 or more of the 5 following preoperative signs: dementia with gait disturbances and urinary incontinence, gait disturbance as first sign, known etiology, positive lumbar puncture withdrawal test, presence of periventricular hypodensity on CT and absence of visible cerebral sulci, were treated by lumboperitoneal shunt. Postoperative results were evaluated at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year with 60.6 p. 100 of good results. Complications of LP shunts (26 p. 100) were mild and did not compromise the outcome. We emphasize the necessity of clinical selecting criteria before surgery and the value of LP shunt in the treatment of NPH. PMID:2688035

Philippon, J; Duplessis, E; Dorwling-Carter, D; Horn, Y E; Cornu, P

1989-01-01

2

Minimally-invasive treatment of communicating hydrocephalus using a percutaneous lumboperitoneal shunt*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the clinical value of a minimally-invasive treatment of communicating hydrocephalus using a percutaneous lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt. Method: The clinical and long-term follow-up data of 256 patients suffering from communicating hydrocephalus and undergoing percutaneous LP shunt during 1998 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: After the follow-up, which lasted 6 months to 10 years, 219 cases of communicating hydrocephalus recovered well (ventricular size returned to normal and symptoms completely disappeared), 25 cases were brought under control (ventricle size reduced by 50% and symptoms partially abated), and 12 cases showed no obvious changes. Fifteen obese subjects needed modifications of the shunt due to the obstruction of the abdominal end following wrapping, and one subject underwent extubation as the subject was unable to tolerate stimulation of the cauda equina. The effectiveness of shunting was 91.40% and the probability of shunt-tube obstruction, which occurs predominantly in the abdominal end, was only 5.85%, far lower than that of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Three subjects had a history of infection following VP shunting. Conclusion: LP shunting is minimally invasive and effective in treating communicating hydrocephalus, with fewer complications.

Jia, Lu; Zhao, Zhong-xin; You, Chao; Liu, Jia-gang; Huang, Si-qing; He, Min; Ji, Pei-gang; Duan, Jie; Zeng, Yi-jun; Li, Guo-ping

2011-01-01

3

[Laparoscopy-assisted ventriculoperitoneal and lumboperitoneal shunt surgery].  

PubMed

Recently, laparoscopy (also referred to as minimally invasive surgery) has been used during peritoneal catheter implantation in shunt placement for hydrocephalus; however, the procedure and devices for this technique have not yet been well established. We adopted umbilical and paraumbilical laparoscopy for peritoneal catheter insertion. In this paper, we describe the technique we used and its clinical results and benefits. Ten consecutive patients with hydrocephalus who underwent laparoscopic shunt surgery (6 cases of ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 4 of lumboperitoneal shunt) were enrolled for this study. The follow-up period ranged from 21 to 434 days (mean, 263 days). After a standard cranial/spinal procedure, an approximately 5-mm incision was made in the lateral side of the umbilicus, where the abdominal catheter was introduced subcutaneously. Thereafter, we inserted a laparoscope into the peritoneal cavity via a small incision beneath or just on the umbilicus. A shunt catheter was laparoscopically inserted through a peel-off cannula and placed after taking note of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the catheter tip. In all patients, the shunt was inserted with no complications, and good patency was achieved. Laparoscopy allows implantation of the catheter into the peritoneal cavity, and the outflow of CSF can be confirmed intraoperatively. Furthermore, the abdominal surgical wounds are minimal, even for obese patients, and fascia/muscle incisions are not needed. Laparoscopy-assisted shunt surgery for hydrocephalus is effective and safe and also has cosmetic advantages. PMID:22647510

Aoki, Tsukasa; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Matsuo, Ryota; Hosoo, Hisayuki; Tanno, Syougo; Miki, Shunichiro; Matsubara, Teppei; Matsumura, Akira

2012-06-01

4

Epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in a parturient with pseudotumor cerebri and lumboperitoneal shunt.  

PubMed

We present a case of successful epidural analgesia/anesthesia for labor and cesarean section in a parturient who developed pseudotumor cerebri during her pregnancy and was managed with lumboperitoneal shunt secondary to her visual complication. PMID:10869920

Kim, K; Orbegozo, M

2000-05-01

5

Treatment of delayed Chiari malformation and syringomyelia after lumboperitoneal shunt placement: Case report and treatment recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background: Delayed Chiari malformation with syringomyelia is an uncommon and sparsely reported complication after lumbar cisternal shunting. A number of treatments have been implemented with varying degrees of success. After review of these modalities, a treatment plan was devised and implemented. Case Description: A 15-year-old girl was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) and had placement of a Medtronic Spetzler lumboperitoneal shunt. She did well for 10 years and then developed a 3-week history of headache, balance problems, and sensory loss. Workup demonstrated a new Chiari malformation and cervical syrinx. She underwent initial placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, followed by ligation of the lumboperitoneal shunt. She then had a suboccipital decompression and duraplasty. Follow-up at 6 months showed relief of her symptoms and MRI demonstrated resolution of the Chiari malformation and syrinx. Conclusion: Delayed Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia after lumbar shunting is best treated with placement of a ventricular device and ligation of the lumbar shunt. The Chiari malformation and/or syrinx should be surgically addressed for persistent symptoms or progression of the structural abnormality.

Peleggi, Analise F.; Lovely, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

6

Lumboperitoneal Shunting as a Treatment for Slit Ventricle Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Slit ventricle syndrome (SVS) has been described in hydrocephalus patients who continue to have shunt malfunction-like symptoms in the presence of a functioning shunt system and small ventricles on imaging studies. These symptoms usually present years after shunt placement or revision and can consist of headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy and decreased cognitive skills. Treatments offered range from observation,

Hoang Le; Bakhtiar Yamini; David M. Frim

2002-01-01

7

Rapid Recovery of Visual Acuity after Lumboperitoneal Shunt Operation in Malignant Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension can cause rapid deterioration of visual acuity in some severe cases, and these cases are usually thought to have “malignant” form of this disease. Case. In this paper, we report on a 16-year-old girl who is a typical example for malignant idiopathic intracranial hypertension with a rapid recovery of visual acuity after lumboperitoneal shunt operation. Observations and Conclusions. Malignant form of idiopathic intracranial hypertension must be kept in mind in selected patients to avoid irreversible visual loss.

Bir, Levent Sinan; Degirmenci, Eylem; Erdogan, Cagdas; Bilgin, Selma; Coskun, Erdal

2011-01-01

8

Change of patient position using a transportation board during lumboperitoneal shunting. Technical note.  

PubMed

Lumboperitoneal shunt placement requires access to the lumbar theca in the lateral position, followed by subsequent laparotomy in the supine position. This position change and repeat draping are bothersome, especially in heavy patients, so we developed a method that facilitates changing the patient position while keeping the surgical drapes in place. An oblong plastic board covered with Teflon-coated glassfiber cloth and surrounded by a nylon-cloth sleeve is used. The sleeve can be easily moved over the board, so patients can be moved in the transverse direction with minimal pushing force. The patient is placed in the lateral position on the board on the operating table and draped from the back to the abdomen. After catheter insertion into the lumbar theca and introduction of a subcutaneous tunnel to the flank, the patient is pushed in the ventral direction, moved to the opposite edge of the operating table, and the position is changed from lateral to supine, leaving the original drape intact. Finally, a catheter is placed by laparotomy. We were able to change position easily in 20 patients weighing 47-85 kg (mean 69.6 kg). This technique reduces the labor required for position change and preserves sterility. PMID:19398864

Shimizu, Satoru; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Satoshi; Nakayama, Kenji; Fujii, Kiyotaka

2009-04-01

9

Frameless Stereotactic Ventricular Shunt Placement for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting effectively reverses symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts have traditionally been used in patients with IIH due to a frequently undersized ventricular system. However, the advent of image-guided stereotaxis has enabled effective ventricular catheter placement in patients with IIH. We describe the first large series of frameless stereotactic ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for

Graeme F. Woodworth; Matthew J. McGirt; Peter Elfert; Daniel M. Sciubba; Daniele Rigamonti

2005-01-01

10

LP Summer Student Program  

Cancer.gov

D  CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site LP Summer Student Program 2003/2004 Poster Day Images Past Student Images Summer Student Home About

11

Univariate Lp and lp Averaging, 0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present evidence that one can calculate generically combinatorially expensive Lp and lp averages, 0. < p < 1, in polynomial time by restricting the data to come from a wide class of statistical distributions. Our approach differs from the approaches in...

J. E. Lavery

2012-01-01

12

LP Past Summer Student Images  

Cancer.gov

D  CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site LP Past Summer Student Images Coming Soon Back to Summer Student Home About CCR | Clinical

13

Polytetrafluoroethylene sponge syringosubarachnoid shunt.  

PubMed

Syringomyelia is condition in which a cyst or cavity forms inside the spinal cavity. Its management always remains a difficult. A variety of surgical techniques have been used in management of syringomyelia. Syringosubarachnoid shunt remains an effective method in management of syringomyelia. Shunt tube obstruction remains an important complication of shunt procedure. We describe a novel technique of use of polytetrafluoroethylene sponge shunt for syringosubarachnoid shunt in patient with large syrinx and Chiari 1 malformation. Polytetrafluoroethylene sponge is a non irritant material with multiple porosities that is less susceptible to blockages or kinking. It could provide a good alternative technique in syringosubarachnoid shunting. PMID:21845589

Chagla, Aadil S; Kansal, Ritesh; Srikant, Balasubramaniam

2011-01-01

14

Shunt revision versus additional tube shunt implantation after failed tube shunt surgery in refractory glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To compare tube shunt revision with additional tube shunt after failed tube shunt surgery.METHODS:We identified 281 patients who underwent a primary tube shunt procedure from 1985 to 1998 at Indiana University and reviewed 33 eyes of 33 patients that had failed and required further surgery. Shunt revision was performed in 12, whereas an additional shunt was placed in 21 eyes.

Avanee A Shah; Darrell WuDunn; Louis B Cantor

2000-01-01

15

Communicating hydrocephalus due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt  

PubMed Central

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebrovascular disease with variable presentation. CVT rarely causes hydrocephalus. Communicating hydrocephalus due to CVT is extremely rare. We describe a patient of CVT presenting with chronic headache and communicating hydrocephalus. The patient was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. A 40 year old man presented with moderate to severe headache since six months and progressive visual loss since two months. Head Computed tomogram showed mild hydrocephalus without obstruction. Lumbar puncture (LP) demonstrated elevated pressure but was otherwise normal. Magnetic resonance venogram showed extensive CVT. Repeated CSF drainage and thecoperitoneal shunt did not relieve the severe headache hence a VP shunt was placed. Post shunt headache subsided with resolution of hydrocephalus. CVT can present as communicating hydrocephalus. Gradual reduction of intra-ventricular pressure by repeated LPs followed by VP shunt can safely treat hydrocephalus due to CVT.

Chakor, Rahul T.; Jakhere, Sandeep; Gavai, Bhakti Yeragi; Santhosh, N. S.

2012-01-01

16

Communicating hydrocephalus due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebrovascular disease with variable presentation. CVT rarely causes hydrocephalus. Communicating hydrocephalus due to CVT is extremely rare. We describe a patient of CVT presenting with chronic headache and communicating hydrocephalus. The patient was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. A 40 year old man presented with moderate to severe headache since six months and progressive visual loss since two months. Head Computed tomogram showed mild hydrocephalus without obstruction. Lumbar puncture (LP) demonstrated elevated pressure but was otherwise normal. Magnetic resonance venogram showed extensive CVT. Repeated CSF drainage and thecoperitoneal shunt did not relieve the severe headache hence a VP shunt was placed. Post shunt headache subsided with resolution of hydrocephalus. CVT can present as communicating hydrocephalus. Gradual reduction of intra-ventricular pressure by repeated LPs followed by VP shunt can safely treat hydrocephalus due to CVT. PMID:23349607

Chakor, Rahul T; Jakhere, Sandeep; Gavai, Bhakti Yeragi; Santhosh, N S

2012-10-01

17

LP-80 IMU program status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development history, system design features, performance, and hardware status are reviewed for the fourth-generation LP-80 strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) which is currently in full-scale development to meet the design objectives required for missiles, torpedoes, drones, and range instrumentation system applications. The LP-80 is fully self-contained and operates at all attitudes, providing digital processed outputs of angular rate and linear acceleration measured in the body axis frame. For range applications, the LP-80 is designed to provide linear velocities with respect to a space stabilized coordinate frame.

Jackson, Edward N.

18

Evaluation of Shunt Malfunction Using Shunt Site Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the usefulness of a separate reservoir placed at the site of the shunt in evaluation of shunt malfunction. Methods and Materials: A ventricular catheter was placed alongside the proximal catheter of the shunt and connected to a subgaleal reservoir in 17 patients, in 9 a double-lumen catheter with integrated reservoir and in 13 patients a dual catheter

S. Sood; A. I. Canady; Steven D. Ham

2000-01-01

19

Coagulopathy post peritoneovenous shunt.  

PubMed Central

In 1942, 53% of medically treated patients with cirrhosis were dead 6 months after the onset of ascites. Only 30% survived 1 year. This dismal outlook has improved only slightly with advances in medicine. Yet, some internists reject the peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) for this fatal condition even if they are aware that a diminished blood volume causes the abnormal sodium retention responsible for ascites. Their objections are based on life-threatening complications of PVS, especially post shunt coagulopathy (PSC). Blood shed into the peritoneal cavity becomes incoagulable. Such blood is immediately coagulated by a protocoagulant (soluble collagen) and concurrently lysed by tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) secreted by the peritoneal serosa. Wide zones of lysis surround peritoneal tissue placed on fibrin plates. Large volumes of ascitic fluid infused into circulating blood simulates the fate of blood shed into the peritoneal cavity with lysis playing the major role. Addition of ascitic fluid to normal platelet-rich plasma in vitro initiates clot lysis on thromboelastogram (TEG). Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) counteracts this lysis. EACA and clotting factors normalize the TEG and arrest PSC. Disposal of ascitic fluid at surgery prevents or ameliorates PSC. Mild PSC was encountered only twice in 150+ consecutive patients (1.3%) with only one case being clinically significant (0.6%). Severe PSC occurred seven times in 98 early shunt patients whose ascitic fluid was not discarded. Severe PSC requires shunt interruption and control of bleeding with clotting factors and EACA. Peritoneal lavage with saline prevents the recurrence of PSC on reopening the shunt. In four patients, EACA and clotting factors were adequate to arrest coagulopathy. Three earlier patients died of PSC before its cause and treatment were understood. Proper management eliminates this life-threatening complication, and PSC cannot be considered a deterrent to PVS. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is produced in experimental animals only by the injection of thrombin or thromboplastin. PSC is a distinct entity differing from DIC; EACA and not heparin is the antidote for PSC. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6.

LeVeen, H H; Ip, M; Ahmed, N; Hutto, R B; LeVeen, E G

1987-01-01

20

Uncommon manifestations of shunt infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shunt infection is one of the commonest and most troublesome cause of shunt failure. According to the etiology and clinical\\u000a presentations it has been divided into external and internal types.Method : We hereby present four pediatric cases, who presented with atypical manifestations not coinciding with the above mentioned\\u000a types of shunt infection. Three patients developed round, globular or diffuse fluctuant

Raj Kumar

2003-01-01

21

Analytic approximation of matrix functions in Lp  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of approximation of matrix functions of class Lp on the unit circle by matrix functions ana- lytic in the unit disk in the norm of Lp, 2 p < 1. For an m n matrix function in Lp, we consider the Hankel operator H : Hq(Cn) ! H2 (C m), 1=p + 1=q = 1=2. It

Laurent Baratchart; F. L. Nazarov; V. V. Peller

2009-01-01

22

Hypergraphic LP Relaxations for Steiner Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate hypergraphic LP relaxations for the Steiner tree problem, primarily the partition LP relaxation introduced by Könemann et al. [Math. Programming, 2009]. Specifically, we are interested in proving upper bounds on the integrality gap of this LP, and studying its relation to other linear relaxations. Our results are the following.

Chakrabarty, Deeparnab; Könemann, Jochen; Pritchard, David

23

Review: Surgical Shunts and Encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, surgical shunts have played an important role in the treatment of patients with portal hypertension associated with ascites and\\/or variceal esophageal bleeding. Today, in the era of liver transplantation most patients with end-stage liver disease and concomitant portal hypertension and associated problems are best treated by liver grafting. The successful introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS), performed by

Jürgen Klempnauer; Harald Schrem

2001-01-01

24

Hydrodynamic properties of hydrocephalus shunts: United Kingdom Shunt Evaluation Laboratory.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Although about 80% of properly diagnosed patients with hydrocephalus improve after implantation of any model of shunt, the remaining 20% may develop further complications because of inadequate shunt performance. Therefore, hydrocephalus shunts require careful independent laboratory evaluation. METHOD: Computer supported shunt testing, based on the new International Standard Organisation directives, characterises various aspects of pressure-flow performance of shunts such as variability with time, susceptibility to reflux, siphoning, temperature related behaviour, external pressure, the influence of a strong magnetic field (for example, MRI), presence of pulsation in differential pressure, particles in drained fluid, etc. RESULTS: Seven different models of valves, representing most common constructions, have been tested so far. Most contemporary valves have a hydrodynamic resistance which is too low. This may result in overdrainage both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100%-200%. Most shunts are very sensitive to the presence of air bubbles and small particles in drained fluid. Few shunt models offer reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure, preventing complications related to overdrainage. Valves with an antisiphon device may be blocked by raised subcutaneous pressure. All programmable valves are susceptible to overdrainage in an upright position. CONCLUSION: The behaviour of a valve during such testing is of immediate relevance to the surgeon and may not be adequately described in the manufacturer's product information. Images

Czosnyka, M; Czosnyka, Z; Whitehouse, H; Pickard, J D

1997-01-01

25

Programmable valve shunts: are they really better?  

PubMed

Programmable valve shunts allows selection of opening pressure of shunt valve. In the presented article, a unique complication pertaining to programmable shunts has been discussed. A 5-year-old boy who had tectal plate low grade glioma with obstructive hydrocephalus was managed with Codman programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunt. There was a spontaneous change in the opening pressure of the shunt valve leading to shunt malfunction. Routinely used household appliances produce a magnetic field strong enough to cause change in the setting of shunt valve pressure and may lead to valve malfunction. Other causes of programmable valve malfunction also discussed. PMID:22437300

Kataria, Rashim; Kumar, Vimal; Mehta, Veer Singh

2012-01-01

26

LP-DOS magnifies the PC screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a visually impaired computer user the author needed a simple solution that would allow him and others to see and use the vast range of PC text and graphics programs. He created LP-DOS (Large Print DOS). LP-DOS is a software package that can run on any PC or laptop. It can be used anywhere: business, home, or school. Once

D. Simkovitz

1992-01-01

27

Interactions of Liquid Propellant/LP XM46 With Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an effective spill response plan for liquid propellant/LP XM46 (LP) required an understanding of the potential interactions between soil and the propellant. Studies were designed to characterize potential hazards of initial contact of LP wi...

J. C. Pennington C. B. Price D. Gunnison D. W. Rathburn T. E. Myers

1994-01-01

28

75 FR 39680 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Company LP, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid Continent Market Center, L.L.C., Oasis Pipeline, LP (Not Consolidated); Notice of Baseline Filings July 2, 2010. Take notice that on June 29, 2010 and...

2010-07-12

29

78 FR 53745 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RP13-1245-000] Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Notice of Application On August 13, 2013, Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP (Gulf South) and Petal Gas Storage,...

2013-08-30

30

75 FR 8322 - EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP, Complainants, v...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL10-40-000] EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, Coaltrain Energy, LP, Complainants, v. PJM Interconnection, LLC...206 (2009), EPIC Merchant Energy NJ/PA, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC, and Coaltrain...

2010-02-24

31

Haemodynamics after distal splenorenal shunt.  

PubMed

Haemodynamic studies were made both preoperatively and 7--62 months after the operation in 17 cirrhotic patients subjected to distal splenorenal shunt. Patent shunt was demonstrated in all patients. Preoperatively all patients had hepatopetal portal flow. Postoperatively portography through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation demonstrated hepatopetal flow in nine patients and reversed flow in eight patients. Portal pressure was significantly decreased in both groups after the shunt (p less than 0.01). However, no differences in pre- and post-operative portal pressure were observed in the two patient groups. In patients with hepatopetal flow, minimal new collaterals without clear connection to gastroesophageal region could be demonstrated. Collateral formation in patients with reversed flow was more abandoned but, even in these cases, no connection to gastroesophageal region could be demonstrated. The results indicate that a continuous increase in liver resistance due to the progression of the liver disease is the main cause of changes in portal circulation. PMID:6538372

Kallio, H; Suoranta, H; Lempinen, M

1984-01-01

32

49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.838 Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt...

2011-10-01

33

21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt is a device that...

2013-04-01

34

Cystoventricular Shunting of Intracranial Arachnoid Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts were treated with direct shunting of the cyst to a lateral ventricle. The strategic goal of cystoventricular shunting is to establish physiologically normal intracranial pressure relationships, rather than cyst obliteration. Cystoventricular shunts were successful in treating single and multiple intracranial cysts in supratentorial and infratentorial locations and in patients with normal and enlarged lateral

Lori A. McBride; Ken R. Winston; Jane E. Freeman

2003-01-01

35

Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Infection by Neisseria sicca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neisseria sicca is considered to be a nonpathogenic oral saprophyte. Presented here is an unusual case of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection by N. sicca. Although medical management of the common community-acquired meningitides, including infection by Neisseria meningitidis, is often successful in patients with CSF shunts, removal and replacement of the infected shunt was necessary in this case.

Galina Hornyik

1994-01-01

36

Microprocessor-controlled digital shunt regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardware and software details of a microprocessor-controlled digital shunt regulator (DSR) for solar power systems are presented. The DSR is briefly described, solar cell array section simulators are outlined, the operation and design of the dissipative analog shunt regulator are given, and the description and design of shunt current comparators are presented. In addition, the need for a special

P. R. K. Chetty; W. M. Polivka; R. D. Middlebrook

1980-01-01

37

An autonomous shunt circuit for vibration damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the implementation of an autonomous switching resistor-inductor (R-L) shunt circuit for the control of structure vibration. The resulting switch shunt circuit, compared to present shunt circuit techniques, does not require a power for its operation and is almost as effective. Moreover, experiments show that the damping performance is robust against temperature variations due to environmental conditions, whereas present shunt circuits lose their damping performance. The proposed autonomous switching R-L shunt circuit requires a small number of electronic components, therefore making it a viable and effective solution for the control of structural vibration.

Niederberger, Dominik; Morari, Manfred

2006-04-01

38

NSKI DECOMPOSITION FOR HAAGERUP Lp-SPACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M be a von Neumann algebra (not necessarily semi-finite). We provide a generalization of the classical Kadec-Pe lczynski subsequence decomposition of bounded sequences in Lp(0, 1) to the case of the Haagerup Lp-spaces (1 ? p < ?). In particular, we prove that if (?n)n is a bounded sequence in the predual Mof M, then there exist a subsequence

NARCISSE RANDRIANANTOANINA

39

Kernel Lattice Parallelism (KeLP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

KeLP (Kernel Lattice Parallelism) is a framework for implementing portable scientific applications on distributed memory parallel computers. It is intended for applications with special needs, in particular, that adapt to data-dependent or hardware dependent conditions at run time. KeLP is currently used in full-scale applications including subsurface modeling, turbulence studies, and first principles simulation of real materials.

40

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for shunt malfunction: What to do with the shunt?  

PubMed Central

Background: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an effective surgical option for the treatment of shunt malfunction. The role of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion is not clearly understood at this time. We compare the effects of shunt-removal/ligation, shunt externalization or external ventricular drain placement, and no treatment to the indwelling shunt at the time of ETV. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 20 consecutive patients treated at our institution for shunt malfunction with ETV. Patient data were retrospectively evaluated for the effect that the fate of the shunt plays on ETV success rates. Results: In our series of 20 patients we had an overall success rate of 70% with using ETV for shunt malfunction. Patients who had their shunts ligated at the time of surgery had a success rate of 88%, in comparison to those whom the shunt was left untouched who had a success rate of 60%, or patients who had a perioperative external ventricular drain placed the success rate was 50%. Conclusions: This series of ETV for shunt malfunction performed at a single center by a single surgeon shows a success rate similar to the published literature range of 67 to 80 percent success whether the shunt is ligated or left undisturbed. It is not necessary to ligate the in situ shunt at the time of ETV; however, there may be a trend toward an improved success rate with shunt ligation. Further studies with a greater numbers of patients are warranted.

Neils, David M.; Wang, Huaping; Lin, Julian

2013-01-01

41

Microprocessor-controlled digital shunt regulator  

SciTech Connect

The hardware and software details of a microprocessor-controlled digital shunt regulator (DSR) for solar power systems are presented. The DSR is briefly described, solar cell array section simulators are outlined, the operation and design of the dissipative analog shunt regulator are given, and the description and design of shunt current comparators are presented. In addition, the need for a special timing function and its design is discussed. Attention is given to the description of the microprocessor-controller, hardware implementation, software programs, and interfacing. The operation of the complete DSR system is summarized. Experimental results of the model system are presented. Some possible extensions are suggested. In conclusion, for solar power systems a digital shunt regulator is superior to other types of shunt regulators, and the use of a microprocessor for the control of the digital shunt regulator results in improved system performance. System flexibility is the chief advantage of a microprocessor-based system.

Chetty, P.R.K.; Polivka, W.M.; Middlebrook, R.D.

1980-03-01

42

Unusual complications of ventriculo peritoneal shunt surgery  

PubMed Central

Ventriculo peritoneal (VP) shunt surgery is one of the common neurosurgical procedures employed in the management of hydrocephalus. Numerous complications related to this procedure are reported in the literature. Peritoneal catheter-related complications are the usual causes of the shunt malfunction. We report three unusual cases of peritoneal shunt catheter migration in children. Two cases are of anal and one vaginal extrusion. Possible mechanisms of migration and management strategies were discussed.

Teegala, Ramesh; Kota, Laxmi Prasanna

2012-01-01

43

Unusual complications of ventriculo peritoneal shunt surgery.  

PubMed

Ventriculo peritoneal (VP) shunt surgery is one of the common neurosurgical procedures employed in the management of hydrocephalus. Numerous complications related to this procedure are reported in the literature. Peritoneal catheter-related complications are the usual causes of the shunt malfunction. We report three unusual cases of peritoneal shunt catheter migration in children. Two cases are of anal and one vaginal extrusion. Possible mechanisms of migration and management strategies were discussed. PMID:23189000

Teegala, Ramesh; Kota, Laxmi Prasanna

2012-09-01

44

Parameter identification method for piezoelectric shunt damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric shunt damping is a method to reduce structural vibration by shunting a piezoelectric element with an electrical circuit. This paper proposes a method to identify the physical parameters that are required to design piezoelectric shunt damping systems. Employing self-sensing actuator methodology, the proposed method requires no additional sensor or actuator other than a simple bridge circuit. The parameters can be identified from a transfer function simply by linear least squares method. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, the shunt damping of the steel plate with the piezoelectric ceramic is performed based on the identified parameters.

Takagi, Kentaro; Nagase, Kenji; Oshima, Kazuhiko; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Luo, Zhi-Wei

2004-02-01

45

Implanted aqueous shunt devices for glaucoma surgery.  

PubMed

1. Posterior tube shunt implants address the problem of external bleb scarring by creating a large encapsulated area for filtration of aqueous humor posterior to the limbus. 2. These shunts consist of an open tube that is placed into the anterior chamber to shunt aqueous humor posteriorly into an area of encapsulation around an episcleral explant sutured to the globe 10 mm to 12 mm posterior to the limbus. 3. Posterior tube shunts are rarely used as the primary glaucoma surgical procedure: they are made of foreign materials, and surgery can be associated with a higher incidence of operative and postoperative complications. PMID:1542125

Krupin, T

46

49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.725 Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a...

2011-10-01

47

49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60 Section 236...Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting...

2011-10-01

48

49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236...All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter...

2012-10-01

49

75 FR 27551 - Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER07-125-001] Keystone Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Filing May 10, 2010. Take notice that on December 16, 2009, Keystone Energy Partners, LP submit for filing an Updated Market Power...

2010-05-17

50

Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lova...

R. D. Carr G. Lancia

2000-01-01

51

Sonographic localization of a nonpalpable shunt: Ultrasound-assisted ventricular shunt tap  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt malfunction, often requiring urgent management. A typical evaluation in the emergency room setting includes a thorough history and physical examination, noncontrasted head computed tomography (CT), shunt series, and occasionally a ventricular shunt tap. Case Description: We present the case of a 53-year-old male who initially presented to the ED in acute status epilepticus. His history was notable for seizures and multiple craniectomies and cranioplasties with subsequent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt secondary to traumatic brain injury. Imaging in the ED suggested possible shunt failure. No previous imaging was available for comparison, and therefore a ventricular shunt tap was attempted. Initially, the tap could not be performed, as the shunt was not palpable secondary to the thickness of his scalp and location of the reservoir near his complex cranial reconstruction site. We report, for the first time, the utility of emergency ultrasound (EUS) to aid in such an encounter. Conclusion: EUS revealed the exact location of his shunt reservoir, and therefore enabled the shunt tap, which ultimately led to the discovery of the patient's proximal shunt failure in a setting that may have otherwise been missed. The patient underwent urgent shunt revision with a good outcome.

Vega, Rafael A.; Buscher, Michael G.; Gonzalez, Michael S.; Tye, Gary W.

2013-01-01

52

Cystoperitoneal Shunting for Congenital Arachnoid Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1980 and 1982, 8 children with congenital arachnoid cysts were treated at the University of Florida, 2 patients presented with unusual clinical syndromes, including isosexual precocity and a cephalic movement disorder. Cystoperitoneal shunting in combination with ventriculoperitoneal shunting for associated hydrocephalus was employed in the treatment of all supratentorial lesions, and proved to be a safe, efficacious mode of

Barry J. Kaplan; J. Parker Mickle; Robert Parkhurst

1984-01-01

53

Current state of portosystemic shunt surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A switch to decompressive shunt procedures is mandatory if endoscopic therapy fails to control recurrent variceal hemorrhage. Surgical shunt procedures continue to be safe, highly effective, and durable procedures to treat variceal bleeding in patients with low operative risk and good liver function. Discussion In cirrhotics, elective operations using portal flow preserving techniques such as a selective distal splenorenal

Martin Wolff; Andreas Hirner

2003-01-01

54

The Treatment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is our impression that the management strategy for infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts varies significantly among pediatric neurosurgeons. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a practice survey on the treatment of shunt infections which was distributed to all active members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). Eighty-four of 129 ASPN members (65%)

William E. Whitehead; John R. W. Kestle

2001-01-01

55

On the Complexity of ID\\/LP Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern linguistic theory attributes surface complexity to interacting subsystems of constraints. For instance, the ID\\/LP grammar formalism separates constraints on immediate dominance from those on linear order. An ID\\/LP parsing algorithm by Shieber shows how to use ID and LP constraints directly in language processing, without expanding them into an intermediate context-free \\

G. Edward Barton Jr.

1985-01-01

56

The Computational Difficulty of ID\\/LP Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern linguistic theory attributes surface complexity to interacting subsystems of constraints. For instance, the ID\\/LP grammar formalism separates constraints on immediate dominance from those on linear order. Shieber's (1983) ID\\/LP parsing algorithm shows how to use ID and LP constraints directly in language processing, without expanding them into an intermediate \\

G. Edward Barton Jr.

1985-01-01

57

Truck operating experience in the LP--Gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of experience involving the use of LP-Gas in medium capacity trucks within the LP-Gas Industry itself. A brief evolution of the LP-Gas fuel systems themselves is given, and ''conversion'' as opposed to original equipment on medium sized trucks is discussed.

C. S. Jr

1973-01-01

58

77 FR 74179 - TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Baseline Filings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on December 6, 2012, the applicants listed above submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

2012-12-13

59

77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. PF12-17-000] Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific...Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector...and comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's...

2012-09-04

60

Trigonometric approximation in Lp-norm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We shall weaken the conditions of monotonicity given by Chandra [J. MathE Anal. Appl. 275 (2002) 13-26], where he investigated trigonometrical polynomials associated with f[set membership, variant]Lip([alpha],p) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1, p[greater-or-equal, slanted]1) to approximate f in Lp-norm to the degree of O(n-[alpha]) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1).

Leindler, László

2005-02-01

61

Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Peritoneal Catheter Knot Formation  

PubMed Central

The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a common procedure in pediatric neurosurgery that carries a risk of complications at cranial and abdominal sites. We report on the case of a child with shunt infection and malfunction. The peritoneal catheter was tethered within the abdominal cavity, precluding its removal. Subsequently, laparoscopic exploration identified a knot at the distal end of the peritoneal catheter around the omentum. A new VP shunt was inserted after the infection was healed. This type of complication occurs rarely, so there are a limited number of case reports in the literature. This report is complemented by a literature review.

Ul-Haq, Anwar; Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Alshanafey, Saud; Sabbagh, Mohamed Diya; Al Shail, Essam

2013-01-01

62

Shunting to the cranial venous sinus using the SinuShunt  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionA new shunting principle taking advantage of the knowledge of normal CSF dynamics has been developed. Experience and outcomeThe shunt has been used in more than 150 patients. The final version has shown a stable function in 45 patients. The physiological shunting principle has an expected and immediate clinical effect. We have not seen any over-drainage and any symptoms or

SvendErik Børgesen; Antonio Pieri; Johann Cappelen; Niels Agerlin; Flemming Gjerris

2004-01-01

63

Shunt Revisions in Children – Can They Be Avoided?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Shunt failure is by far the most frequent problem in children with shunts, and most of them will experience this condition at some point in their lives. In order to identify causes of shunt failure, and to compare multi-component and one-piece shunt systems, we analyzed retrospectively all pediatric shunt procedures in our Department during an 11-year period. The study

Per Ø. Enger; Frode Svendsen; Kristian Sommerfelt; Knut Wester

2005-01-01

64

Distal splenorenal shunt for portal hypertension.  

PubMed

A distal splenorenal shunt was performed electively in 25 patients with bleeding oesophageal varices. Early postoperative mortality was 16%. During the follow-up period (mean 41 months) three patients died, one of liver insufficiency and two of cardiac complications. Two patients of 17 survivors (12%) had endoscopically demonstrable varices. One of these patients had one upper gastrointestinal rebleeding period. The actual three year survival was 71%. Reverse portal blood flow was demonstrated postoperatively in eight of 17 patients (47%). In these cases the distal splenorenal shunt had in fact slowly turned to a total shunt. Even though in certain patients the original selectivity of the shunt is lost it gives a good long-term variceal decompression and certainly is a useful alternative in the treatment of selected good risk patients for bleeding oesophageal varices. PMID:6973313

Kallio, H; Lempinen, M

1981-01-01

65

An Investigation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Valves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report represents the results of phase II of an investigation involving the development and evaluation of tests which can be used to demonstrate that a given Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Shunt Valve will perform its intended regulating function. Included...

H. D. Keith X. Avula C. Schelich C. Watts

1981-01-01

66

Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent-Shunt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TJPSS) is a nonsurgical means of diverting blood from the portal circulation\\u000a through the hepatic parenchyma to the systemic circulation, thereby creating a portosystemic shunt. Hie internal jugular vein\\u000a is first entered percutaneously, and a catheter is passed through the superior vena cava, right atrium, inferior vena cava,\\u000a and, in most cases, the right hepatic vein

Dhiraj Tripathi; Peter C. Hayes; Doris N. Redhead; Rajiv Jalan

67

Hydrocephalus shunts and waves of intracranial pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of contemporary hydrocephalus valves are designed to introduce a low resistance to flow into the cerebrospinal\\u000a fluid (CSF) drainage pathway, and an therefore intended to stabilise intracranial pressure (ICP) at a level close to the shunt's\\u000a operating pressure. However, this goal cannot always be attained. Accelerated CSF drainage with vertical body posture in ventriculo-peritoneal\\u000a shunts is one reason

Z. H. Czosnyka; K. Cieslicki; Marek Czosnyka; J. D. Pickard

2005-01-01

68

Prophylactic antibiotics in pediatric shunt surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The optimal antibiotic prophylaxis for pediatric shunt-related procedures is not clear. There is much inconsistency among different medical centers. This paper summarizes and analyzes the various prophylactic antibiotic regiments used for shunt-related surgeries at different pediatric neurosurgery centers in the world.Materials and methods  A survey questionnaire was distributed through the Pediatric Neurosurgery list-server (an e-mail-based special interest group in pediatric neurosurgery).

N. Biyani; G. Grisaru-Soen; P. Steinbok; S. Sgouros; S. Constantini

2006-01-01

69

Neuroimaging of ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications in children.  

PubMed

The ventriculoperitoneal shunt is the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus. Despite its widespread use and safety record, it often malfunctions due to complications such as obstruction, breakage, migration and infection. This necessitates a systematic approach to diagnosing the etiology of shunt failure. Any evaluation should begin with an appraisal of the patient's symptoms. In acute malfunction, nausea, vomiting, irritability, seizures, headache, lethargy, coma and stupor are seen. In chronic malfunction, neuropsychological signs, feeding pattern changes, developmental delay, decline in school performance, headaches and increased head size are often seen. The next step in evaluation is a CT scan of the head to evaluate ventricular size. Prior imaging studies should be obtained for comparison; if the ventricles have enlarged over time, shunt malfunction is likely. If there is no such increase or dilation in the first place, other diagnoses are possible. However, "slit ventricle syndrome" should also be considered. When prior imaging is not available, pumping the reservoir, a radionuclide shuntogram, a shunt tap or even surgical exploration are options. The goals of this paper are to provide an algorithm for evaluating shunt malfunction and to illustrate the radiographic findings associated with shunt failure. PMID:22740019

Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Sahni, Deshdeepak; Viswanathan, Chitra

2012-06-28

70

Lp-PLA2: A New Kid on the Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease with focal rupture of vulnerable plaque responsible for ma- jor clinical events. Several population-based studies indicate an association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and cardiovascular events. Lp-PLA2 is emerging as a biomarker that may be a potential link between oxidized LDL cholesterol and multifocal plaque vulnerability. Content: Lp-PLA2 is produced by inflammatory cells of

Andrew Zalewski; Jeanenne J. Nelson; Lisa Hegg; Colin Macphee

2006-01-01

71

Hydrocephalus shunts and waves of intracranial pressure.  

PubMed

The majority of contemporary hydrocephalus valves are designed to introduce a low resistance to flow into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage pathway, and an therefore intended to stabilise intracranial pressure (ICP) at a level close to the shunt's operating pressure. However, this goal cannot always be attained. Accelerated CSF drainage with vertical body posture in ventriculo-peritoneal shunts is one reason for the ICP decreasing below the shunt's operating pressure. Another possible factor has been studied: the impact of the pulsating pattern in the ICP on the operating pressure. Six popular constructions of medium-pressure valves were studied (Radionics Low-profile, Delta, Hakim Precision, Holter, Integra In-line and Hakim NMT). Valves were mounted in the testing rig in the UK. Shunt Evaluation Laboratory and perfused with de-ionised water at a rate of 0.3 ml min(-1), and proximal pulsating pressures of different amplitudes (from 2 to 30mmHg peak-to-peak) and frequencies (70-10 cycles min(-1)) were superimposed. Laboratory findings were compared with clinical material containing recordings of ICP made in patients to diagnose reasons for ventriculomegaly. The mean operating pressure decreased in all valves when the simulated amplitude of heart pulsations increased. The rate of this decrease was dependent on the type of valve (variable from 2.5 to 5 mm Hg per increase in peak-to-peak amplitude by 10 mm Hg). The decrease was not related to the frequency of the wave. The relationship between pulse amplitude and ICP in 35 patients with blocked shunts was strong (R = 0.48; p < 0.03; slope 0.14) and in 25 patients with properly functioning shunts was non-significant (R = 0.057; p = 0.765). Two examples of decrease in mean ICP in the presence of increased vasogenic ICP waves in shunted patients are presented. The shunt operating pressure, which 'sets' the ICP in shunted patients may be influenced by the dynamics of a patient's ICP waveform. PMID:15742722

Czosnyka, Z H; Cieslicki, K; Czosnyka, M; Pickard, J D

2005-01-01

72

Lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase: their relationship with HDL subspecies Lp(AI) and Lp(AI,AII)  

Microsoft Academic Search

HDL subspecies Lp(A-I) and Lp(A-I,A-II) have different anti-atherogenic potentials. To determine the role of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) in regu- lating these particles, we measured these enzyme activities in 28 healthy subjects with well-controlled Type 1 diabetes, and studied their relationship with Lp(A-I) and Lp(A-I,A-II). LPL was positively correlated with the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), cholesterol, and phospholipid

Marian C. Cheung; Shalamar D. Sibley; Jerry P. Palmer; John F. Oram; John D. Brunzell

2003-01-01

73

Diffusional Atteriovenous Shunting in the Heart1  

PubMed Central

Previous indicator dilution experiments in isolated blood-perfused dog hearts suggested that there was intramyocardial diffusional shunting of water relative to a flow-limited solute, antipyrine. Two sets of studies have been done to assess the importance of this shunting, since it implies the possibility of a diffusional bypass for oxygen and other substances, which may be important in ischemia. Nonconsumed tracers were used to show the phenomenon. In the first set, bolus injections of 133Xe dissolved in saline were made into the coronary inflow and the tracer content of the organ recorded by an external gamma detector. The initial Xe washout was disproportionately rapid at low flows, and the late phase was also relatively retarded. In the second set, boluses of cool saline containing indocyanine green were injected into the coronary arterial inflow while coronary sinus outflow dilution curves were recorded via a thermistor and a dye densitometer over a wide range of flows. The thermal curves showed emergence of heat preceding the dye; the degree of precession was much greater at low flows, and, unlike the dye curves, the thermal dilution curves showed dramatic differences in shape at different flows. A model for ditfusional countercurrent exchange shows similar changes in residue curves and outflow dilution curves. The conclusion is that there is diffusional shunting of small lipid-soluble molecules whose diffusion coefficients in tissue are high. While the shunting of heat is great, the shunting of soluble gases will not be large and that of normal substrates will be negligible.

Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Yipintsoi, Tada; Knopp, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

74

Ocean noise triggering of LP events at Deception Island volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the austral winter 2009, swarms of long-period (LP) events with astonishingly regular interevent times were recorded at Deception Island volcano, Antarctica. Swarm events have similar waveforms, indicating the repeated activation of a non-destructive source process. These swarms may last up to a few hours, and characteristic inter-event times range from ~10 s to ~20 s for individual swarms. The amplitudes of the periodic LPs vary significantly over a short time scale, which makes an association with a steady state internal process complicate. On the other hand, we observe that LP inter-event times are approximate integer multiples of the dominant periods of the oceanic microseism, and propose that the periodicity observed in the occurrence times of LP events is the result of dynamic triggering of the LP source process by the effect of oceanic microtremors. A positive correlation between microseism amplitude and LP periodicity supports this idea. We attribute LP periodicity to the coincidence of sustained LP activity in an unstable hydrothermal system and external forcing by ocean noise that introduces periodic pressure variations in volcano fluids. We estimate the volumetric strain change generated by the oceanic microseism at the source location and conclude that strain of order 10-7 is sufficient to introduce clear periodicity in the LP sequences.

Stich, D.; Almendros, J.; Jiménez, V.; Mancilla, F.; Carmona, E.

2012-04-01

75

76 FR 50881 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain M7 Aerospace LP Models SA226-T, SA226-T(B...information identified in this AD, contact M7 Aerospace, LC, 10823 NE. Entrance Road,...

2011-08-17

76

78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue...13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. provided financing...financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is brought...

2013-07-29

77

LP--Gas engines for heavy duty trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond Reo Trucks, Inc. has been a builder and user of heavy duty LP-Gas engines for many years. During this time period, a considerable amount of experience has been acquired relating to the peculiarities of LP-Gas as an engine fuel and design details of the engines to utilize this excellent fuel. Unfortunately, many engines that have been converted to use

Ingerson; H. Jr

1973-01-01

78

Ion Beam Sputter Etched Ventricular Catheter for Hydrocephalus Shunt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved cerebrospinal fluid shunt in the form of a ventricular catheter for controlling the condition of hydrocephalus by relieving the excessive cerebrospinal fluid pressure is described. Method for fabricating the catheter and shunting the cerebral ...

B. A. Banks

1982-01-01

79

CT-Guided Transfemoral Portocaval Shunt Creation  

SciTech Connect

A patient with superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion presented with severe ascites and urgent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was requested. The patient had a chronically occluded SVC. An alternative to classic TIPS was employed using CT guidance to traverse the left portal vein to the inferior vena cava with a small gauge needle. Fluoroscopic guidance was then used to snare a wire placed through the needle and then work from the femoral vein to create a portocaval shunt that passed through the caudate lobe. This procedure was a technical success and improved the patient's ascites.

Bloch, Robert; Fontaine, Arthur; Borsa, John; Hoffer, Eric [Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Kowdley, Kris [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2001-03-15

80

Shunt malfunction after roller coaster ride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We report a case of shunt malfunction after a child was subjected to G forces during a roller coaster ride.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  The temporal sequence of events suggests proximal catheter obstruction with subsequent symptoms of raised intracranial pressure\\u000a immediately after experience with a G force ride. A shunt revision with catheter change led to resolution of symptoms, and\\u000a findings were consistent with

Christopher Gegg; Greg Olavarria; Jogi V. Pattisapu

2009-01-01

81

Programmable shunt-related suicide attempt.  

PubMed

The treatment of hydrocephalus has benefited recently from the use of programmable shunt valves. These devices can be adjusted using magnets to regulate how much spinal fluid is drained. However, it is unclear to what extent other environmental magnetic sources can affect programmable valves. We present the case of a man who attempted suicide by successfully turning his adjustable valve to a near-maximal setting using a hand-held electromagnet, and discuss other reported cases in order to better understand the effects of environmental magnets on programmable shunt valves. PMID:16868645

Turner, S G; Hall, W A

2006-07-31

82

77 FR 44113 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held...2012-13-51 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...to Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held...International Branch, send it to the attention of the person identified...

2012-07-27

83

76 FR 50489 - Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt, LP., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt, LP., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory...accreditation and approval of Saybolt, LP., as an approved commercial gauger and...151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Saybolt, LP., 414 Weschester, Corpus Christi,...

2011-08-15

84

77 FR 12867 - Accreditation of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border Protection Accreditation of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Laboratory AGENCY: U...ACTION: Notice of accreditation of Saybolt LP, as a commercial laboratory...pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12, Saybolt LP, 109 Woodland Dr., Laplace, LA...

2012-03-02

85

Complications with shunts in adults with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To assess the incidence of malfunction of shunts in adults with spina bifida who have shunts to control hydrocephalus.Design: A retrospective review of the medical notes and contact by questionnaire of adults with spina bifida to assess symptoms, function of shunts, frequency of operative procedures, and follow up.Subjects: 110 patients with shunts who attended Lord Mayor Treloar College for

Pat Tomlinson; I D Sugarman

1995-01-01

86

Percutaneous coil occlusion of ascending aorta to pulmonary artery shunts.  

PubMed

Two patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum each underwent early palliative surgery with a pulmonary valvotomy and an ascending aorta to pulmonary artery shunt. Adequate right ventricular growth and relief of pulmonary stenosis rendered the shunts unnecessary. The shunts were successfully occluded percutaneously with Gianturco coils. PMID:9631986

Lane, G K; Lucas, V W; Sklansky, M S; Kashani, I A; Rothman, A

1998-06-01

87

Passive underwater acoustic damping using shunted piezoelectric coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this technical note, the acoustic echo cancellations by a piezoelectric layer, coated to a rigid acoustic surface and shunted with various combinations of resistor, capacitor and inductor in series, have been investigated. A one-dimensional electro-acoustic model, enabling us to calculate the acoustic echo reduction for different shunting circuits, is established for the electrically shunted piezoelectric layer. It will be

J M Zhang; W Chang; V K Varadan; V V Varadan

2001-01-01

88

Energy Storage Options for Hybrid Diesel Electric Shunting Locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shunting locomotives are required to produce high powers during shunting operations but may be idle for many hours each day. A key issue with a hybrid conversion is battery life. Shunting locomotives are required to develop typically 1000hp to 2000hp for periods of perhaps a few minutes and the battery is sized for its capacity to deliver instantaneous power. This

Peter Wolfs

89

49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation...Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling circuit shall be inspected and tested at least once...

2011-10-01

90

Management of abdominal pseudocyst in shunt-dependent hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background: Abdominal pseudocyst (APC) is an uncommon manifestation of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt that is attributed to an inflammatory response, usually the result of infection. Case Description: A 13-year-old girl with a VP shunt presented with progressive abdominal distention, pain and vomiting. The shunt was inserted at infancy for congenital hydrocephalus. A shunt infection was treated with externalization of the shunt, antibiotics and subsequent shunt replacement. At the age of four, the shunt was revised for a distal malfunction. Nine years later, abdominal CT and ultrasound demonstrated large multiseptated cysts. The shunt was externalized and 1.8 L of sterile, xanthochromic peritoneal fluid was drained. The cerebrospinal fluid was clear, colorless, acellular and sterile with normal protein and glucose levels. Two days later, the distal portion of the shunt was replaced back into the pleural cavity. Five months later a pleural effusion formed. Thoracentesis was performed and there was no evidence of infection. The shunt was subsequently converted to a ventriculoatrial system. The patient has remained well for over 3.5 years. Conclusion: APC represents an important complication of VP shunts, with an unclear etiology that can occur nine years after shunt surgery. This paper presents an update on the management of APCs.

Yuh, Sung-Joo; Vassilyadi, Michael

2012-01-01

91

Evaluation and Management of Shunt Infections in Children with Hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shunt infections constitute one of the main risks of shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, which is the single most common type of surgery performed by pediatric neurosurgeons. Infectious complications are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality, lengthy hospitalizations, and high cost. Most modern series report infection rates approaching 10% of all shunt procedures. Despite the high incidence of this complication, optimal

Ann-Christine Duhaime

2006-01-01

92

Preliminary study of shunt related death in paediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocephalus is a condition commonly encountered in paediatric and adult neurosurgery and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting remains the treatment of choice for many cases. Despite improvements in shunt technology and technique, morbidity and mortality remain. The incidence of early shunt obstruction is high with later failures seen less frequently. This review aims to examine mortality associated with mechanical failure of

M. J Bryant; J McEniery; D. G Walker; R Campbell; B Lister; P Sargent; T. K Withers; J Baker; E Guazzo; R Rossato; D Anderson; F Tomlinson

2004-01-01

93

Shunt Impedance of the MBK Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a lot of kinds of multiple beam cavities used in klystron amplifiers. Ring, classic cylindrical and multiple barrel cavities have been researched using CST Microwave Studio 5.0 simulation code. Shunt impedance of klystron cavities determines the efficiency of interaction of electron beam with EM field. So Rsh\\/Q values of cavities of interest are considered

A. N. Sandaliv; Konstantin A. Zaytsev; Yaogen Ding; Bin Shin

2006-01-01

94

New bifurcation stenting technique: shunt stenting.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment of bifurcation lesions remains controversial. We describe a new technique we term shunt stenting. This technique incorporates both the new technology of drug-eluting stents and a novel procedure for optimizing the ostial side branch stent positioning. To date, early angiographic and clinical follow-up have been encouraging. PMID:15558760

Prasan, Ananth M; Pitney, Mark R; Ramsay, David; Jepson, Nigel S; Friedman, Daniel; Taylor, David; Giles, Robert W

2004-12-01

95

Clinical classification of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.  

PubMed

Aim: Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPS) is a rare anomaly in which the enteric blood bypasses the liver and drains into the systemic veins through various venous shunts. Patients with CEPS often have liver tumors and complications such as cardiac or other anomalies, but portosystemic encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding occur only occasionally. The clinical problems differ for each individual with CEPS, and establishing a prognosis can be very difficult. Methods: We reviewed the clinical features of 136 reported cases of CEPS and classified these cases according to their portosystemic shunts. Results: We classified portal blood flow directly into the inferior vena cava (IVC) as type A (88 cases), portal blood flow into the renal vein as type B (36 cases), and portal blood flow into the iliac vein via an inferior mesenteric vein as type C (12 cases). Type A patients were complicated with cardiac anomalies at a higher rate than other types. Type C patients had lower prevalences of cardiac anomalies and portosystemic encephalopathy than the other types, but the prevalence of gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly higher (P < 0.0001). The prognosis of CEPS has improved, and only six deaths have been previously reported, all of which occurred in type A patients. Conclusions: We reviewed the previously reported cases of CEPS. Classification according to the portosystemic shunt system might be useful for investigating the clinical features of CEPS. PMID:20618456

Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Niwa, Tetsu; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Saito, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi

2010-06-01

96

Shunting passenger trains : getting ready for departure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the problem of shunting train units on a railway station. Train units arrive at and depart from the station according to a given train schedule and in between the units may have to be stored at the station. The assignment of arriving to departing train units (called matching) and the scheduling of the movements to

Akker van den Marjan; Hilbrandt Baarsma; Johann Hurink; Maciej Modelski; Jacob Jan Paulus; Ingrid Reijnen; Dan Roozemond; Jan Schreuder; O. Bokhove; G. Meinsma; C. C. Stolk; M. H. Vellekoop

2008-01-01

97

Aqueous shunts in the treatment of glaucoma.  

PubMed

The main goal of surgical glaucoma treatment is to reduce the intraocular pressure. The standard procedure over the past 40 years has been trabeculectomy, first described in 1968. This procedure comes with a very high risk profile, and results in moderate long-term results at best. Tube shunt devices were introduced as an alternate means to divert fluid out of the glaucomatous eye, attempting to improve upon the poor long-term outcomes of trabeculectomy, particularly in refractory cases that had failed attempts at prior glaucoma surgeries. They are currently available in a handful of different designs and have evolved from representing a second- or third-line treatment in refractory cases, to their current standing of accepted first-line surgical intervention for many surgeons. The designs of the aqueous shunts are simple and installation involves straightforward principles of ophthalmic surgery. Recent additions to the literature, as well as the development of the Ex-PRESS Miniature Shunt, are changing the way shunts are employed in the treatment algorithm for surgical glaucoma. The outcomes of these procedures are encouraging, and support their use as first-line surgical options for the treatment of adult and juvenile glaucoma. PMID:20822388

Mosaed, Sameh; Minckler, Donald S

2010-09-01

98

Risk factors for acute shunt blockage in children after modified Blalock-Taussig shunt operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors relating to acute blockage of modified Blalock-Taussig shunts (MBTS) have not been well described in the literature.\\u000a Our aim was to determine the outcomes in patients early after undergoing MBTS operations and to identify potential risk factors\\u000a for acute shunt blockage in the early postoperative period. A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary referral congenital\\u000a cardiac unit. All

Malenke Gedicke; Gareth Morgan; Andrew Parry; Rob Martin; Rob Tulloh

2010-01-01

99

[Could tube shunt be as initial surgery for glaucoma management].  

PubMed

Tube shunt or glaucoma drainage device is often used in refractive cases when prior medical or surgical therapy has failed. With improving the biocompatibility of devices' materials and surgical technique, indications for tube shunt have broadened. This article discusses the update topic that could tube shunt be as initial surgery for glaucoma management? Based on large varieties of previously published results, tube shunt can be the first choice for refractive glaucoma, however, at prevent there still lack of strong evidences from multi-center randomized clinical trials especially from domestic research to support that tube shunt can substitute primary trabeculectomy for expanded use beyond refractory glaucoma. PMID:21055191

Zhang, Xiu-lan

2010-06-01

100

Decreased Electroporation Efficiency in Borrelia burgdorferi Containing Linear Plasmids lp25 and lp56: Impact on Transformation of Infectious B. burgdorferi  

PubMed Central

The presence of the linear plasmids lp25 and lp56 of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 was found to dramatically decrease the rate of transformation by electroporation with the shuttle vector pBSV2, an autonomously replicating plasmid that confers kanamycin resistance (P. E. Stewart, R. Thalken, J. L. Bono, and P. Rosa, Mol. Microbiol. 39:714-721, 2001). B. burgdorferi B31 clones had transformation efficiencies that were either low, intermediate, or high, and this phenotype correlated with the presence or absence of lp25 and lp56. Under the conditions utilized in this study, no transformants were detected in clones that contained both lp25 and lp56; the few kanamycin-resistant colonies isolated did not contain pBSV2, indicating that the resistance was due to mutation. Intermediate electroporation rates (10 to 200 colonies per ?g of DNA) were obtained with B31 clones that were either lp25? and lp56+ or lp25+ and lp56?. Clones in this group that initially contained lp25 lacked this plasmid in pBSV2 transformants, a finding consistent with selective transformation of lp25? variants. High transformation rates (>1,000 colonies per ?g of DNA) occurred in clones that lacked both lp25 and lp56. Sequence analysis indicated that lp25 and lp56 contain genes that may encode restriction and/or modification systems that could result in the low transformation rates obtained with strains containing these plasmids. The previously reported correlation between lp25 and infectivity in mice, coupled with the barrier lp25 presents to transformation, may explain the difficulty in obtaining virulent transformants of B. burgdorferi.

Lawrenz, Matthew B.; Kawabata, Hiroki; Purser, Joye E.; Norris, Steven J.

2002-01-01

101

Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

1995-09-01

102

Lp-PLA2: A new target for statin therapy.  

PubMed

Inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis and plaque vulnerability. Inflammatory-type markers have been evaluated for their association with atherosclerotic vascular disease and their ability to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a vascular-specific inflammatory enzyme that increases the risk of CVD events and stroke approximately twofold. A consensus panel recently recommended the measurement of Lp-PLA(2) in moderate-risk and high-risk patients for improved risk stratification and modification of low-density lipoprotein target levels. Lipid-lowering agents, particularly statins, lower Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity; therefore, Lp-PLA(2) may represent an important target of lipid-lowering therapy for reducing the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability. It is unknown whether lowering inflammatory markers such as Lp-PLA(2) will have a direct benefit on CVD events and mortality. A large morbidity and mortality trial was recently initiated to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of darapladib, an Lp-PLA(2) antagonist, in patients with high-risk coronary heart disease. PMID:20425268

Braun, Lynne T; Davidson, Michael H

2010-01-01

103

Thermal Shunts in Thermoelectric Energy Scavengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity for an additional component in thermoelectric generators and low-dimensional thermopiles for improving the efficiency\\u000a of energy scavengers is discussed. Energy scavengers usually work at a small temperature difference and high thermal resistance\\u000a of the heat source and sink, i.e., of the environment. The name “thermal shunt” is given to this component because, firstly,\\u000a it is connected thermally in

V. Leonov

2009-01-01

104

Endolymphatic mastoid shunt: A reevaluation of efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : The main goal of this paper was to statistically reevaluate the efficacy of the endolymphatic shunt procedure for Meniere’s disease. Methods : Thomsen et al (Arch Otolaryngol 1981;107:271-7) reported on the placebo effect in surgery for Meniere’s disease in a controlled double-blind study. Thirty patients with typical Meniere’s disease in whom medical treatment failed participated in the study.

D. BRADLEY WELLING; H. N. NAGARAJA

2000-01-01

105

Syringoperitoneal shunt for treatment of cord cavitation.  

PubMed Central

A series of twenty-nine patients with cord cavitation were treated by syringoperitoneal shunt. Twenty-two of them showed improvement after operation, five were unchanged and two worsened. Operation was performed in patients with post-traumatic cystic myelopathy, idiopathic syringomyelia, intramedullary tumours associated with cysts, and patients who had developed cystic myelopathy in association with spinal arachnoiditis. Pain improved in twenty patients, sensory symptoms and signs in eleven and weakness in ten. Images

Suzuki, M; Davis, C; Symon, L; Gentili, F

1985-01-01

106

Portacaval Shunt for Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy  

PubMed Central

Portal hypertensive gastropathy is a vascular disorder of the gastric mucosa distinguished by ectasia of the mucosal capillaries and submucosal veins without inflammation. During 1988 to 1993, 12 patients with biopsyproven cirrhosis (10 alcoholic, 2 posthepatitic) were evaluated and treated prospectively by portacaval shunt for active bleeding from severe portal hypertensive gastropathy. Eleven patients had been hospitalized for bleeding three to nine times previously, and one was bleeding uncontrollably for the first time. Requirement for blood transfusions ranged from 11 to 39 units cumulatively, of which 8 to 30 units were required specifically to replace blood lost from portal hypertensive gastropathy. Admission findings were ascites in 9 patients, jaundice in 8, severe muscle wasting in 10, hyperdynamic state in 9. Child's risk class was C in 7, B in 4, A in 1. Ten of the 12 patients had previously received repetitive endoscopic sclerotherapy for esophageal varices, which has been reported to precipitate portal hypertensive gastropathy. Eight patients had failed propranolol therapy for bleeding. Portacaval shunt was performed emergently in 11 patients and electively in 1, and permanently stopped bleeding in all by reducing the mean portal vein-inferior vena cava pressure gradient from 251 to 16 mm saline. There were no operative deaths, and two unrelated late deaths after 13 and 24 months. During 1 to 6.75 years of followup, all shunts remained patent by ultrasonography, the gastric mucosa reverted to normal On serial endoscopy, and there was no gastrointestinal bleeding. Recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy developed in only 8% of patients. Quality of life was generally good. It is concluded that portacaval shunt provides definitive treatment of bleeding portal hypertensive gastropathy by eliminating the underlying cause, and makes possible prolonged survival with an acceptable quality of life.

Collins, John Craig; Sarfeh, I. James

1997-01-01

107

Syringoperitoneal shunt for treatment of cord cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of twenty-nine patients with cord cavitation were treated by syringoperitoneal shunt. Twenty-two of them showed improvement after operation, five were unchanged and two worsened. Operation was performed in patients with post-traumatic cystic myelopathy, idiopathic syringomyelia, intramedullary tumours associated with cysts, and patients who had developed cystic myelopathy in association with spinal arachnoiditis. Pain improved in twenty patients, sensory

M Suzuki; C Davis; L Symon; F Gentili

1985-01-01

108

77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline...take comments on Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction...for the Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific...27-30, 2012 in Coos Bay, Roseburg,...

2012-09-27

109

LP1845 Liquid Gun Propellant Dermal Toxicity Studies: CHO/HGPRT Gene Mutation Assay of LP1846 Liquid Gun Propellant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate LP1846 Liquid Gun Propellant for toxicity and mutagenic activity at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Mutant (HGPRT-) cells were identified by ...

C. J. Rudd P. S. Lee

1990-01-01

110

Arterial-venous shunting in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Controversial data exist in the literature about the presence and clinical relevance of hepatic arterial-venous shunting. An interesting opportunity for reconsidering the problem has been provided by the use, in the study of liver function, of D-sorbitol, a substance whose first-pass hepatic extraction is very high in normal subjects, while being directly related to circulatory alterations in liver cirrhosis. Because of this property, the systemic bioavailability of D-sorbitol during hepatic arterial infusion can be assumed to reflect arterial-venous shunting. Thirteen biopsy-proven cirrhotic patients (ages 35-66 years), who required diagnostic arterial catheterization, entered the study. Patients were studied on two subsequent days, in which a sterile pyrogen-free solution (1.5%) of D-sorbitol was administered by direct low-rate infusion (15 mg/min for 20 min) into the hepatic artery and the systemic circulation, respectively. Urine samples were spontaneously collected for 8-hr periods before and during/after each infusion. The hepatic arterial bioavailability of D-sorbitol was calculated as the ratio between the net cumulative urinary outputs of D-sorbitol after infusions into the hepatic artery and the systemic vein. Observed values confirm the existence and the large variability (0-88.7%) of hepatic arterial-venous shunting in cirrhotic patients. PMID:9508535

Molino, G; Bar, F; Battista, S; Torchio, M; Niro, A G; Garello, E; Avagnina, P; Fava, C; Grosso, M; Spalluto, F

1998-01-01

111

Incidence and Risk Factors of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infections in Children: A Study of 333 Consecutive Shunts in 6 Years  

PubMed Central

The major aims of this study were to estimate the infection rate and recognize the risk factor for ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in children. To analyze shunt infection rate and identify risk factors, a retrospective cohort analysis of 333 consecutive VP shunt series was performed at Seoul National University Children's Hospital in Korea between January 2005 and February 2011. Overall, 35 shunts (10.5%) were infected, which represented an infection rate of 0.075 infection cases per shunt per year. VP shunt infection occurred at a median of 1 month (range, 6 days to 8 months) after insertion. An independent risk factor for shunt infection was undergoing an operation before the first year of life (relative risk 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-4.48). The most common causative microorganism was coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16 (45.7%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 8 (22.9%). Methicillin resistance rate was 83.3% among coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection rate was 10.5%. Infection was frequently caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus within two months after shunt surgery. Vancomycin may be considered as the preoperative prophylaxis for shunt surgery in a situation where methicillin resistance rate is very high.

Lee, Joon Kee; Seok, Joon Young; Lee, Joon Ho; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Hoan Jong

2012-01-01

112

Association of intraventricular hemorrhage secondary to prematurity with cerebrospinal fluid shunt surgery in the first year following initial shunt placement  

PubMed Central

Object The neurosurgical literature has conflicting findings regarding the association between indications for CSF shunt placement and subsequent shunt surgery. The object of this study was to identify baseline factors at the time of initial CSF shunt placement that are independently associated with subsequent surgery. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of children ages 0–18 years who underwent initial CSF shunt placement between January 1, 1997, and October 12, 2006, at a tertiary care children’s hospital. The outcome of interest was CSF shunt surgery (either for revision or infection) within 12 months after initial placement. Associations between subsequent CSF shunt surgery and indication for the initial shunt, adjusting for patient age and surgeon factors at the time of initial placement, were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Medical and surgical decisions, which varied according to surgeon, were examined separately in a univariate analysis. Results Of the 554 children in the study cohort, 233 (42%) underwent subsequent CSF shunt surgery, either for revision (167 patients [30%]) or infection (66 patients [12%]). In multivariate logistic regression modeling, significant risk factors for subsequent CSF shunt surgery included (compared with aqueductal stenosis) intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) secondary to prematurity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5) and other unusual indications (AOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.0–13.6). The patient’s age at initial CSF shunt placement was not significantly associated with increased odds of subsequent surgery after adjusting for other associated factors. Conclusions The occurrence of IVH is associated with increased odds of subsequent CSF shunt surgery within 12 months after shunt placement. Families of and care providers for children with IVH should be attuned to their increased risk of shunt failure.

Simon, Tamara D.; Whitlock, Kathryn B.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Kestle, John R. W.; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Dean, J. Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Langley, Marcie; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole

2012-01-01

113

Peritoneovenous shunt occlusion. Etiology, diagnosis, therapy.  

PubMed Central

Electronic pressure testing of every LeVeen valve has practically eliminated mechanical malfunction as a cause of shunt failure. Nonetheless, failures do occur and in a series of 240 cases, early or late shunt failure occurred in 29 patients. Thirty-five additional cases of failures were either referred by other physicians over a period of 6 years or information and x-rays were accumulated by direct contact. Shunt failure becomes manifest by a sudden reaccumulation of ascites in patients with a previously functioning shunt. In immediate failure, the ascites may fail to disappear after surgery or reaccumulate if removed. Ideally, caval clotting should be first excluded by x-ray visualization of the superior vena prior to injection of the shunt with contrast agent. Shuntograms are done with fine-bore needles. The venous pressure is also measured. The entry of contrast into the vena cava without pooling indicates a patent venous limb. The contrast will empty from the venous tubing with forceful inspiration if the entire system is patent. The venous tube will not clear if the valve or peritoneal collecting tubes are blocked. Only the valve and collecting tube need then be replaced if contrast enters the cava but does not leave the venous tubing. Occluded valves must not be flushed to restore patency since inflammatory exudate and cellular debris are erroneously identified as "fibrin flecks." Histology and culture are mandatory. Immediate and early failure are often caused by malposition of the venous tubing. Malplacements can often be diagnosed simply by chest x-rays. Intraoperative injection of methylene blue into the venous tubing establishes a satisfactory washout prior to wound closure. Fresh clots in the vena cava can be dissolved by the slow injection of streptokinase into the venous tubing. Other patent veins are chosen for access. Patients having repeat surgery after clotting must be heparinized to prevent a similar recurrence. Flushing blood clots from the cava can be fatal. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIGS. 3A and B. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 10. FIG. 11. FIG. 12. FIG. 13. FIGS. 14A and B. FIG. 15. FIG. 16. FIG. 17. FIG. 18. FIGS. 19A and B. FIGS. 20A and B.

LeVeen, H H; Vujic, I; d'Ovidio, N G; Hutto, R B

1984-01-01

114

Risk factors for recurrent shunt infections in children.  

PubMed

Risk factors for recurrent shunt-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infections were analyzed. A total of 58 children were treated for initial shunt infections (ISI): all children were treated with antibiotics and CSF drainage, either by removal of the shunt system and insertion of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter (44 children, 75.9%) or by externalization of the existing ventricular catheter (14 children, 24.1%). Recurrent shunt infections (RSI) were detected in 15 children: nine had been treated with shunt removal and insertion of a new EVD catheter and six had been treated with externalization of the existing ventricular catheter. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of RSI in children treated with externalization of the existing ventricular catheter. Thus, to reduce the risk of RSI, total shunt removal and insertion of a new EVD catheter is preferred. PMID:22516548

Yilmaz, Adem; Musluman, Ahmet Murat; Dalgic, Nazan; Cansever, Tufan; Dalkilic, Turker; Kundakci, Evren; Aydin, Yunus

2012-04-18

115

Adaptive resonant shunted piezoelectric devices for vibration suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new adaptation technique for R-L shunted piezoelectric patches (PZT) bonded on mechanical structures for single mode vibration suppression. For the implementation of the adaptive R-L shunt circuit, a new variable inductor circuit controlled by transistors is developed. Additionally, a new modeling method for shunted PZTs based on equivalent transformer and gyrator circuits is presented. This leads to a comprehensive model that simplifies the search for optimal shunt circuits. Furthermore, it allows simulating the system consisting of the structure, the PZT patch and a complex transistor or other non-linear shunts on standard electronic simulators like PSpice or Saber. Damping performance of R-L shunted piezoelectric devices is very sensitive to environmental factors changing the circuit"s resonance frequency corresponding to the damped vibration mode. This requires fast adaptive tuning of the R-L shunted circuit, which is implemented using a new adaptation technique. The tuning direction of this adaptation law is obtained by detecting the phase shift between the velocity of the mechanical structure and the current in the shunt circuit. As the exact value of the phase for this technique is not required, one can reduce the adaptation problem to multiplication and integration of current and velocity. The performance of the presented new adaptive R-L shunt is compared with the common adaptation law based on minimizing the RMS value of the strain and then experimentally verified. The adaptive R-L shunt, which minimizes the phase-shift, can tune to the optimal parameters within seconds, but it needs an additional velocity sensor. In contrast, the R-L shunt minimizing the RMS value works without extra sensors, but needs some minutes to tune optimally. The new adaptive R-L shunt circuit can be implemented in small analog electronic chips that allows integrating it in smart materials.

Niederberger, Dominik; Morari, Manfred; Pietrzko, Stanislaw J.

2003-08-01

116

21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components...Devices § 882.5550 Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid shunt is a device or...

2010-04-01

117

21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components...Devices § 882.5550 Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid shunt is a device or...

2009-04-01

118

[Atriocaval shunt. Report of two cases].  

PubMed

The mortality of grade V and VI liver trauma fluctuates between 30% and 70%. The atriocaval shunt, described by Shrock et al, in 1968, is a therapeutic option that, after being installed, allows to repair the suprahepatic veins and retrohepatic cava in a bloodless surgical field. Its use requires an experienced and skilled surgeon to obtain survival rates similar to those obtained with other methods. We report two male patients of 17 and 18 years old treated successfully with this technique after suffering a blunt and a penetrating liver trauma by a shotgun, respectively. PMID:15880188

Soto, Sebastián; Oettinger, Roberto

2005-05-05

119

Design and simulation of RF MEMS SPST shunt and SPDT shunt-shunt switches for X-band and Ku-band applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and simulation of RF MEMS SPST shunt and SPDT shunt-shunt switches with modified coplanar waveguide (CPW) configuration for X-band and Ku-band applications exhibiting high isolation and low insertion loss. By modifying the basic CPW structure for a six-strip membrane having length 720 ?m, the resonant frequency can be reduced from 33.5 GHz to 13.5 GHz with isolation as high as -30 dB(-63 dB at resonant frequency) in Ku-band. Similar results are also found in case SPST and SPDT switches with other membrane types.

Lenka, Manas K.; Sharma, Amit; Sharma, Jaibir; DasGupta, Amitava

2012-10-01

120

Shunted YBCO bi-crystal junctions for noise thermometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental results on YBCO thin film bi-crystal junctions in which additional metallic shunt resistors are added by in-situ evaporation of gold or silver. These junctions are intended for use in the development of an HTS Josephson noise thermometer for primary temperature scale use. The temperature dependence of the critical current and effective shunt resistance are reported and the

L. Hao; J. C. Gallop; R. P. Reed; J. C. Macfarlane; E. Romans

1997-01-01

121

Extrusion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter through an appendicovesicostomy.  

PubMed

Migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter is a rare but well-recognised complication in hydrocephalus treatment. Perforation into different organs or through natural or artificial orifices has been described. In this case, the shunt catheter has extruded through a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. PMID:20707685

De Jong, Lars; Van Der Aa, Frank; De Ridder, Dirk; Van Calenbergh, Frank

2010-08-13

122

Wirewound Shunts For Measurement Of Fast Current Impulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the operating principle, design features and measuring characteristics of wirewound shunts. Fast response and reduced thermal-resistance drift are the main goals to be achieved, although a sturdy structure is also required to meet the demands of an industrial laboratory environment. A low cost, making the shunt competitive to impulse current transformers, is another design objective. Useful in

Ryszard Malewski

1984-01-01

123

Shunting of Passenger Train Units in a Railway Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the problem of shunting passenger train units in a railway station. Shunting occurs whenever train units are temporarily not necessary to operate a given timetable. We discuss several aspects of this problem and focus on two subproblems. We propose mathematical models for these subproblems together with a solution method based on column generation. Furthermore, a

Richard Freling; Ramon M. Lentink; Leo G. Kroon; Dennis Huisman

2005-01-01

124

Glaucoma associated with epithelial downgrowth controlled with Molteno tube shunts.  

PubMed

We report two histopathologically proven cases of epithelial downgrowth in which the secondary glaucoma was controlled by a double-plate Molteno tube shunt and useful vision restored with a penetrating keratoplasty. The combination of a tube shunt and penetrating keratoplasty may be indicated to maintain useful vision in advanced cases of epithelial downgrowth associated with secondary glaucoma. PMID:1494431

Costa, V P; Katz, L J; Cohen, E J; Raber, I M

1992-12-01

125

Ventriculosubgaleal Shunts for Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Premature Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The early management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in premature infants is challenging and controversial. These infants need a temporary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure until they gain adequate weight, and the blood and protein levels in CSF are reasonably low before permanent shunt can be placed. Various options are available with their associated advantages and disadvantages. Ventriculosubgaleal shunts have been

Brian K. Willis; Cherukuri Ravi Kumar; Esther L. Wylen; Anil Nanda

2005-01-01

126

Thermal characterization of thermally-shunted heterojunction bipolar transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) are potentially useful in a number of microwave applications, but they are severely limited by a current distribution instability caused by electrothermal interaction and the use of a low thermal conductivity substrate. A novel thermal management technique called “thermal shunting” has been developed to reduce thermal resistance and junction temperature non-uniformity. Thermal resistance measurements for thermally-shunted

J. Sewell; L. L. Liou; D. Barlage; J. Barrette; C. Bozada; R. Dettmer; R. Fitch; T. Jenkins; R. Lee; M. Mack; G. Trombley; P. Watson

1996-01-01

127

Portacaval shunt in a calf: clinical, pathologic, and ultrasonographic findings.  

PubMed

A calf with a previous history of lameness was presented for weakness and anorexia. Increased liver enzymes and difficulty in assessing the portal system by ultrasonography were compatible with liver disease. Doppler ultrasonography revealed an extrahepatic portacaval shunt. This is the first ultrasonographic description of extrahepatic portacaval shunt in a ruminant. PMID:17494368

Buczinski, Sébastien; Duval, Julie; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Francoz, David; Fecteau, Gilles

2007-04-01

128

Vibration control via shunted embedded piezoelectric fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community has put significant efforts into the manufacturing of sensors and actuators made of piezoceramic fibers with interdigitated electrodes. These allow for increased conformability, integrability in laminate structures and offer high coupling factors. They are of particular interest for damping applications. This paper presents a comparison between piezoceramic monolithic actuators and Active Fiber Composites (AFCs) for shunt damping. For this purpose, the different actuators were bonded on aluminum cantilever plates, respectively embedded in a glass fiber composite cantilever plate. The vibration suppression was attained by converting the electric charge by means of the converse piezoelectric effect and dissipated through robust resonant shunt circuits. A new circuit topology was used, which enables efficient damping even with low piezoelectric capacitance. An integrated FE model was implemented for prediction of the natural frequencies, the optimum values for the electric components and the resulting damping performance. Patches working in the direct 3-3 mode show much better specific damping performance than the 3-1 actuated patch. The comparison between monolithic and AFC actuators shows that AFCs fulfill integrability and performance requirements for the planned damping applications.

Belloli, Alberto; Niederberger, Dominik; Kornmann, Xavier; Ermanni, Paolo; Morari, Manfred; Pietrzko, Stanislaw

2004-07-01

129

The "H-graft" in portacaval shunt in dogs.  

PubMed

When working experimentally on dogs we have investigated the possibility of using an autogenous vein graft and polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) prosthesis in the construction of the portacaval shunt. The portacaval shunt flow has been examined under similar hemodynamic conditions by experimenting on surviving dogs with the internal jugular vein and the above prosthesis. This study presents methods of research, hemodynamic measurements and the technique of portacaval shunt construction. After performance of the arteriovenous mesenteric-renal fistula we have succeeded in raising partially the portal vein pressure with the increase in the venous blood flow markedly higher. The portacaval shunt flow and the mesenteric-renal fistula have been verified by aortography and on autopsy. The jugular vein employed in the construction of the portacaval shunt remained unobstructed in 6 dogs (75 per cent) and the Gore-Tex prosthesis in 4 (50 per cent). PMID:7603080

Grga, A; Matici?, Z; Hlevnjak, D; Hofman, B

130

Neonatal Blalock-Taussig shunt: technical aspects and postoperative management.  

PubMed

A systemic-pulmonary artery shunt in neonates with decreased pulmonary blood flow is technically demanding. We describe our surgical technique, postoperative management, and results in 19 neonates who underwent a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt between April 2003 and March 2006. Prostaglandin infusion was required in 8 patients who were critically cyanosed, and 5 were on inotropic support preoperatively. A 3.5 or 4.0-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft was anastomosed with 8/0 polypropylene suture. Postoperatively, systemic pressure was kept slightly higher than normal, and heparin was started early. One patient required revision of the shunt, and one was reexplored for bleeding. There were 2 hospital deaths (mortality, 11%) in patients with preoperative hemodynamic instability. The mean follow-up period was 12 months, with no late postoperative shunt blockage or death. Meticulous surgical technique and judicious use of heparin and inotropic agents improved the outcome and reduced the incidence of shunt blockage and reexploration for bleeding. PMID:18245697

Swain, Sunil K; Dharmapuram, Anil K; Reddy, Pramod; Ramdoss, Nagarajan; Raghavan, Sreekanth S; Kona, Samba M

2008-01-01

131

Portasystemic shunt fraction quantification with colonic iodine-123 iodoamphetamine  

SciTech Connect

Portasystemic shunting was quantified in dogs with (/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine (IMP) administered transrectally into the colon and monitored externally with a gamma camera. IMP was absorbed rapidly and unchanged from the colon. After direct injection into the portal vein, IMP was almost completely extracted by the liver on the first pass, and the washout half-life was approximately 60 min. Based on these kinetic data, computer simulation of this biologic system was carried out. Errors associated with simplified models are calculated. The simplest model with insignificant error, which assumed that the tracer behaved like microspheres, was used to quantitate portasystemic shunt fraction in animals with surgically created shunts. Results were compared with the standard of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin infused into a branch of inferior mesenteric vein. For shunt fractions ranging from 0 to 100%, an excellent correlation was seen, indicating that this approach is potentially a simple, noninvasive method of portasystemic shunt fraction quantification.

Yen, C.K.; Pollycove, M.; Crass, R.; Lin, T.H.; Baldwin, R.; Lamb, J.

1986-08-01

132

Shunt attachment and method for interfacing current collection systems  

DOEpatents

A composite brush to shunt attachment wherein a volatile component of a composite but mostly metallic brush, used for current collection purposes, does not upon welding or brazing, adversely affect the formation of the interfacial bond with a conductive shunt which carries the current from the zone of the brush. The brush to shunt attachment for a brush material of copper-graphite composite and a shunt of copper, or substituting silver for copper as an alternative, is made through a hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The HIP process includes applying high pressure and temperature simultaneously at the brush to shunt interface, after it has been isolated or canned in a metal casing in which the air adjacent to the interface has been evacuated and the interfacial area has been sealed before the application of pressure and temperature. 6 figs.

Denney, P.E.; Iyer, N.C.; Hannan, W.F. III.

1992-12-08

133

Cyclophotocoagulation versus sequential tube shunt as a secondary intervention following primary tube shunt failure in pediatric glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the efficacy of a sequential tube shunt versus transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation following failure of an initial tube shunt on maximal medical therapy in treatment of refractory childhood glaucoma. Methods A nonrandomized retrospective chart review was conducted of 17 eyes of 14 pediatric patients (less than 18 years old) with refractory glaucoma treated with either sequential tube shunt (Group A) or diode cyclophotocoagulation (Group B) following initial failed tube shunt. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) ?22 mm Hg on medical therapy, no visually devastating complications, and no further glaucoma surgery performed or recommended. Results Of the 17 eyes, 8 had a sequential tube shunt and 9 underwent diode cyclophotocoagulation as a secondary procedure. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a successful outcome of 75% and 62.5% at 12 months and 24 months, respectively, for Group A, and 66.7% at both 12 and 24 months for Group B (p = 0.48) Corneal decompensation or graft failure was noted in 3/8 eyes (38%) in Group A. Cataract surgery was performed in 2/5 phakic eyes (40%) in Group B. One eye in each group progressed to no light perception. Conclusions Diode cyclophotocoagulation and sequential tube shunt following primary tube shunt failure in childhood glaucoma showed similar efficacy and complication rates. However, the small sample size of this study warrants further evaluation of these two procedures following failure of a tube shunt device in pediatric glaucoma.

Sood, Shalini; Beck, Allen D.

2009-01-01

134

76 FR 76475 - Praesidian Capital Opportunity Fund III, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Praesidian Capital Opportunity Fund III, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section...Praesidian Capital Opportunity Fund III, LP, 419 Park Avenue South, New York, NY...Praesidian Capital Opportunity Fund III, LP proposes to transfer assets between...

2011-12-07

135

77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Groves, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch,...

2012-10-23

136

78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...airworthiness directive (AD) for all Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Groves, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch,...

2013-02-19

137

77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...airworthiness directive (AD) for all Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...this proposed AD, contact Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box 2206,...

2012-09-20

138

77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held...directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Groves, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch,...

2012-07-30

139

75 FR 57844 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2010-20-04 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously...This AD applies to Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously...information to ATTN: Mike Borfitz, Aerospace Engineer, International...for related information. Material Incorporated by...

2010-09-23

140

77 FR 74884 - Cambria Investment Management, L.P. and Cambria ETF Trust; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...30302; 812-13959] Cambria Investment Management, L.P. and Cambria ETF...Applicants: Cambria Investment Management, L.P. (``Cambria...series of certain open-end management investment companies to issue...

2012-12-18

141

75 FR 27334 - Regency Intrastate Gas LP; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-20-000] Regency Intrastate Gas LP; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on April 30, 2010, Regency Intrastate Gas LP (Regency) submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-05-14

142

75 FR 33799 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 4, 2010, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-06-15

143

Criteria of cyclic compactness of the sets from Lp - spaces, associated with vector measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the conditional expectations in the Lp-modules associated with a partition of unity of a Boolean algebra. Cyclic compactness criteria of the subsets of Lp found in terms of convergent nets of conditional expectations.

Chilin, V.; Rakhimov, B.; Rakhimov, A.

2013-09-01

144

47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations. 74.1204 Section...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations...1204 Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations. (a) An...

2009-10-01

145

Development of an energy-efficient LP gas pressure regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines microenergy conservation, where the energy conserved is used for driving electronic devices such as a microcomputer meter for LP gas. Here we consider how to conserve energy from flowing high-pressure gas. In this study, we collected the emitted energy and converted it to electrical energy which could be easily reused. We built an experimental system, and verified

K. Misawa; Y. Miho; K. Watanabe

2007-01-01

146

Fire Service Training. LP and Compressed Gas Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of a series of instructional outlines intended for use in a training program for firemen with no previous formal training, this curriculum guide discusses safety precautions for liquefied petroleum (LP) and compressed gas emergencies. During its twelve hours of instruction it covers (1) terminology; (2) the chemical composition of the gases;…

North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

147

Further developments in LP-based optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe developments that have transformed the LP (linear programming) approach into a truly general-purpose OPF (optimal power flow) solver, with computational and other advantages over even recent nonlinear programming (NLP) methods. it is pointed out that the nonseparable loss-minimization problem can now be solved, giving the same results as NLP on power systems of any size and type.

O. Alsac; J. Bright; M. Prais; B. P Stott

1990-01-01

148

MARKAL — Ein LP-Modell für die Internationale Energieagentur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung MARKAL ist ein LP-Modell der Energieversorgung, mit dem für die Internationale Energieagentur Rechnungen zur langfristigen Technologiepolitik zur Öleinsparung durchgeführt werden. Als Mehrperiodenmodell deckt es einen Planungszeitraum von 40 Jahren ab und umfaßt alle wesentlichen Sektoren und Umwandlungsprozesse der Energiewirtschaft. Optimierungsrechnungen, die die Energieversorgung der wesentlichen westlichen Industriestaaten umfassen, zeigen unter anderem auf, daß die Chancen einer substantiellen Öleinsparung skeptisch

G. Egberts

1981-01-01

149

Fire Service Training. LP and Compressed Gas Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series of instructional outlines intended for use in a training program for firemen with no previous formal training, this curriculum guide discusses safety precautions for liquefied petroleum (LP) and compressed gas emergencies. During its twelve hours of instruction it covers (1) terminology; (2) the chemical composition of the gases;…

North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

150

On The Marriage of Lp-norms and Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies on time series are based on two categories of distance functions. The first category consists of the Lp-norms. They are metric distance functions but cannot support local time shifting. The second category con- sists of distance functions which are capable of handling local time shifting but are non- metric. The first contribution of this paper is the proposal

Lei Chen; Raymond T. Ng

2004-01-01

151

Current status of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts.  

PubMed Central

The use of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has emerged as an important nonoperative modality for variceal bleeding, intractable ascites, and for selected cases of hepatic venous obstruction. We believe that TIPS should be viewed as a 'bridge' to liver transplantation and should be carried out only in experienced centres. The adverse haemodynamic changes on the cardiopulmonary system after TIPS should be borne in mind. Prospective trials to evaluate the role of TIPS versus sclerotherapy in variceal bleeding will be watched with interest. There is, however, an urgent need to improve long-term results of TIPS as stent thrombosis and stenosis occur frequently. We advocate routine surveillance to detect these problems at an early stage.

Patel, N. H.; Chalasani, N.; Jindal, R. M.

1998-01-01

152

Emergency portacaval shunt for variceal hemorrhage. A prospective study.  

PubMed Central

Emergency portacaval shunt for variceal bleeding is associated with a high operative mortality, particularly if used as a last resort. Because of this, a strong case has been made against emergency shunt. This report describes an experience with emergency portacaval shunt for the treatment of variceal bleeding when used systematically after hemodynamic stabilization and control of the bleeding episode with balloon tamponade, if necessary, in patients with mild or moderate liver disease. The population studied comprised 62 consecutive patients who rebled from varices while participating in a controlled trial of propranolol for the prevention of rebleeding. Of the 62 patients, nine died of massive hemorrhage and 53 survived the hemorrhage. Of the 53 survivors, 11 had severe liver disease and were not considered for shunt surgery. Of the remaining 42 patients with mild or moderate liver disease, 36 had emergency central portacaval shunt. The interval between endoscopic diagnosis of variceal bleeding and surgery averaged 19 +/- 3 hours (mean +/- SE). The operative mortality rate, defined as in-hospital mortality, was 19%. One- and 2-year survival rates were 78% and 71%, respectively. The incidence of postoperative hepatic encephalopathy was 36%; all patients responded favorably to protein restriction and lactulose. Thus, under specific conditions, emergency portacaval shunt results in an acceptable long-term survival rate. In patients with mild or moderate liver disease, emergency portacaval shunt should be considered when other forms of treatment for the prevention of variceal rebleeding have failed.

Villeneuve, J P; Pomier-Layrargues, G; Duguay, L; Lapointe, R; Tanguay, S; Marleau, D; Willems, B; Huet, P M; Infante-Rivard, C; Lavoie, P

1987-01-01

153

Research on spark discharge of floating roof tank shunt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to quantitatively analyze the spark discharge risk of floating roof tank shunts, the breakdown voltage of shunt has been calculated by Townsend theory, the shunt spark discharge experiment is carried out by using 1.2/50 ?s impulse voltage wave, and the relationship between breakdown voltage of shunt spark discharge and air gap is analyzed. It has been indicated by theoretical analysis and experimental study that the small gap is more easily cause spark discharge than the big gap when the contact between shunt and tank shell is poor. When air gap distance is equal to 0.1 cm, average breakdown voltage is 5280 V. When the air gap distance is less than 0.3 cm, experiment data agree well with Townsend theory. Therefore, in the condition of small gap, Townsend theory can be used to calculated breakdown voltage of shunt. Finally, based on the above conclusions, improvements for avoiding the spark discharge risk of shunt of floating roof tanks have been proposed.

Bi, Xiaolei; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Gao, Xin; Hu, Haiyan; Liu, Juan

2013-03-01

154

78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity...SUMMARY: Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied...Jane Barnett, Shell Energy North America (US), L.P., 1000 Main, Level 12,...

2013-03-07

155

75 FR 70939 - Approval of SAYBOLT LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Border Protection Approval of SAYBOLT LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory...of accreditation and approval of Saybolt LP, as a commercial gauger and laboratory...CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Saybolt LP, 780B Primos Avenue, Folcroft, PA...

2010-11-19

156

76 FR 9807 - Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Protection Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory...of accreditation and approval of Saybolt LP, as a commercial gauger and laboratory...CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Saybolt LP, 2610 S. Federal Highway, Fort...

2011-02-22

157

77 FR 12868 - Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Border Protection Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger AGENCY: U.S...ACTION: Notice of approval of Saybolt LP, as a commercial gauger...pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, Saybolt LP, 905C Eastern Blvd., Clarksville,...

2012-03-02

158

77 FR 47428 - Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Protection Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory...of accreditation and approval of Saybolt LP, as a commercial gauger and laboratory...CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Saybolt LP, 201 Deerwood Glen Drive, Deer...

2012-08-08

159

Association of freezing tolerance to LpCBFIIIb and LpCBFIIIc gene polymorphism in perennial ryegrass accessions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CBF/DREB related genes are considered important genes for regulation of abiotic stress in plants. In this study, CBF/DREB genes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), also known as LpCBF genes, were resequenced from several cultivated and landrace plants from a worldwide collection. The same pla...

160

Recurrent ventriculoperitoneal shunt pseudocyst in a nine-year-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A case of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt pseudocyst in a 9-year-old girl diagnosed using computed tomography is reported. Two attempts at relocation of the shunt failed to prevent reaccumulation of cerebrospinal fluid. A ventriculoatrial shunt was then performed with a successful outcome. Such pseudocysts should be part of the differential diagnosis of abdominal processes in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. If

F. J. Baumgartner; T. C. Moore; J. Mitchner

1990-01-01

161

Postnatal Chest Wall Deformities after Fetal Thoracoamniotic Shunting for Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Large macrocystic congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAMs) can be treated with thoracoamniotic (TA) shunting to reduce CCAM volume. Two CCAM fetuses treated with TA shunt had postnatal radiographic rib deformities. Study Design: Retrospective review of prenatal TA shunting for large macrocystic CCAMs evaluated for the presence of rib deformities. Comparison groups not eligible for TA shunting included nonshunted CCAMs

Aziz M. Merchant; William Peranteau; R. Douglas Wilson; Mark P. Johnson; Michael W. Bebbington; Holly L. Hedrick; Alan W. Flake; N. Scott Adzick

2007-01-01

162

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants: long-term follow-up and shunt-related complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: A retrospective analysis of 42 preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage was performed in order to evaluate shunt-related problems in neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Patients and methods: Within the last 15 years, 76 infants with intraventricular hemorrhage were treated primarily by external ventricular drainage, and 42 needed permanent shunting. Shunting was performed 28-101 days after the patients' birth, ventriculoatrial shunts

Andrea Reinprecht; Wolfgang Dietrich; Angelika Berger; Gerhard Bavinzski; Manfred Weninger; Thomas Czech

2001-01-01

163

Comparison of total versus partial revision of primary ventriculoperitoneal shunt failures  

PubMed Central

Background: Optimal surgical management of patients presenting with primary shunt failure in the era of neuroendoscopy remains complex. The value of replacing the entire shunt system as opposed to a single shunt component has not been assessed extensively. Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of all patients who underwent their first shunt revision due to mechanical obstruction between September 2007 and December 2011 were reviewed. Shunt revisions were classified as total (entire shunt replaced) or partial (only malfunctioning component replaced). Patients having a minimum follow-up of 1 year after primary shunt revision were included in the study. Kaplan-Meier (shunt survival curves) and log-rank analysis were used to compare failure rates between partially and totally revised shunts. Results: Records of 62 patients in whom cause of primary shunt failure was obstruction (P roximal or distal) were analyzed retrospectively. At the end of follow-up period, 26 out of 28 partial revision group and 22 out of 34 total revision group had shunt failure. The median survival of the shunt in the partial revision and total revision groups was 60 and 270 days, respectively. The method (partial/total revision) related difference in shunt survival duration was statistically significant as shown by log-rank analysis (log-rank test value = 5.94 and P < 0.05). Conclusion: Partial revision of shunt predisposes to accelerated shunt failure as compared with total revision in cases of obstructed ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

Singh, Ishwar; Rohilla, Seema; Kumawat, Manjulata; Goel, Manish

2013-01-01

164

Baseline Neuropsychological Profile and Cognitive Response to Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate neurocognitive changes and predict neurocognitive outcome after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). Background: Reports of neurocognitive response to shunting have been variable and studies that predict cognitive outcomes after shunting are limited. We reviewed our experience with cognitive outcomes for INPH patients who were selected for shunting based on abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure

George Thomas; Matthew J. McGirt; Graeme Woodworth; Jennifer Heidler; Daniele Rigamonti; Argye E. Hillis; Michael A. Williams

2005-01-01

165

The Ex-Press Mini Glaucoma Shunt: Technique and Experience  

PubMed Central

The Ex-Press Mini Glaucoma Shunt has been available internationally for almost a decade with almost 35,000 implantations world wide. The device shunts aqueous from the anterior chamber to a subconjunctival reservoir in a similar fashion as trabeculectomy, without removal of any sclera or iris tissue. Developments in ophthalmic surgery have been focused on smaller incisions to improve patient outcomes and visual recovery. The Ex-Press is an example of these developments. This article will review the surgical technique for implanting the Ex-Press Mini Glaucoma Shunt and will highlight the clinical experience with the device.

Sarkisian, Steven R.

2009-01-01

166

ASSOCIATION OF LP-PLA2 ACTIVITY WITH ALLELE-SPECIFIC LP(a) LEVELS IN A BI-ETHNIC POPULATION  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] have been implicated as cardiovascular disease risk factors, and are differentially regulated across ethnicity. We investigated the association between Lp-PLA2 activity and allele-specific apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] levels in a bi-ethnic population. Methods Lp-PLA2 activity, Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels were determined in 224 African Americans and 336 Caucasians. Results Lp-PLA2 activity level was higher among Caucasians compared to African Americans (173 ± 41 vs. 141 ± 39 nmol/min/ml, P<0.001), and positively associated with Lp(a), total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B-100, and negatively with HDL cholesterol levels in both ethnic groups. The association between Lp-PLA2 activity and Lp(a) was stronger among African Americans compared to Caucasians (R=0.238, ?1=3.48, vs. R=0.111, ?1=1.93, respectively). The Lp-PLA2 activity level was significantly associated with allele-specific apo(a) levels for smaller (<26 K4 repeats) apo(a) sizes in both ethnic groups (P=0.015 for African Americans, P=0.038 for Caucasians). In contrast, for larger (>26 K4 repeats) apo(a) sizes, high Lp-PLA2 activity levels were associated with higher allele-specific apo(a) levels in African Americans (P=0.009), but not in Caucasians. Conclusion The association between Lp-PLA2 activity and allele-specific apo(a) levels differs across African American-Caucasian ethnicity.

Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Wei; Pearson, Thomas A.; Berglund, Lars

2010-01-01

167

Changes in intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes after shunt implantation and adjustment of shunt valve opening pressure in normal pressure hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Background  We have previously reported that the intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes were elevated in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus\\u000a (NPH) patients responding to shunt surgery. Whether or not shunt implantation or adjustment of the shunt valve opening pressure\\u000a modifies the intracranial pulse pressure amplitudes in NPH patients remains to be established. This report summarises our\\u000a observations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Thirteen patients with

Per Kristian Eide; Wilhelm Sorteberg

2008-01-01

168

Failure of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: part II: overdrainage, loculation, and abdominal complications.  

PubMed

Complications from cerebrospinal fluid shunts are common and can present with a variety of signs and symptoms. In this second part of a two-part review, shunt overdrainage, loculation of the ventricular system in patients with shunts, and abdominal complications related to ventriculoperitoneal shunts are discussed. Familiarity with these types of shunt failure is essential for neurologists and pediatricians because they are often the first to evaluate and triage these children. PMID:16504785

Browd, Samuel R; Gottfried, Oren N; Ragel, Brian T; Kestle, John R W

2006-03-01

169

Transient ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction after chronic constipation: case report and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Significant constipation in patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus may often be enough to bring a subclinical shunt malfunction\\u000a to clinical attention or even to be the cause of temporary distal peritoneal shunt malfunction. The treatment of the constipation\\u000a may address the symptomatic shunt dysfunction so as to avoid operative intervention. The pathogenesis of distal shunt malfunction\\u000a and its management in such

Dattatraya Muzumdar; Enrique C. G. Ventureyra

2007-01-01

170

Spontaneous spinal epidural haemorrhage complicating transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunting.  

PubMed Central

A patient with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension who developed acute spinal cord compression following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunting is described. Radiological and pathological examinations revealed an epidural haematoma. Images Figure

McLellan, S.; de Silva, R.; Sandercock, P. A.; Hayes, P. C.; Dillon, J.; Redhead, D.

1997-01-01

171

Vibration damping with shunted piezoceramics: Fundamentals and technical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the damping performance of shunted piezoceramics for passive LR-networks, negative capacitance shunts (LRC) and the SSDI-switching technique. The calculations are based on a general description for mechanical structures with piezoelectric elements. Normalized parameters are introduced and the damping performance described by the generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient. For every electrical shunting the optimal network parameters are determined and the resulting maximum damping is compared.Additionally, a squealing disc brake and a bladed disc model are studied as technical applications. Practical realizations for the inclusion of the piezoelements and measurements are presented which validate the calculated damping performance. In particular, it is shown that the shunted piezoceramics are capable to suppress the brake squealing.

Neubauer, Marcus; Wallaschek, Jörg

2013-03-01

172

Shunt capacitor effect on electrical distribution system reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the security & reliability of a distribution system, as much power as feasible must go through a given transmission line. This can be achieved by using shunt capacitors as compensators. These shunt capacitive compensators improve the load carrying capability of the line by controlling the reactive power flow. Consequently, the capacitor existence can not be ignored in evaluating system reliability. The paper applies the state-space method to calculate the reliability indices for compensated & uncompensated systems with different success criteria. The importance of using shunt capacitors to improve the level of distribution system reliability is illustrated in addition to their original function as reactive power controllers. Our procedure, based on a Markov process, is applied to a numerical example, and indicates that system reliability is improved when using shunt capacitors.

Sallam, Abdelhay A.; Desouky, Mohamed; Desouky, Hussien

1994-03-01

173

21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4545 Shunt system implantation instrument...Classification. Class I (general controls). When made only of surgical grade stainless steel, the device is exempt from the...

2013-04-01

174

Adaptive multi-mode resonant piezoelectric shunt damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple-modes of structural vibration can be suppressed through the connection of an electrical impedance to the terminals of a bonded piezoelectric transducer. The so-called resonant shunts, one commonly used class of shunt impedances, provide good nominal damping performance but they are highly sensitive to variations in transducer capacitance and structural resonance frequencies. This paper introduces a new technique for the online adaptation of multi-mode resonant shunts. By minimizing the relative phase difference between a vibration reference signal and the shunt current, circuit component values can be optimally tuned online. Experiments on a cantilever beam validate the proposed technique and demonstrate the simplicity of implementation. The adaptive law converges quickly and maintains optimal performance in the presence of environmental uncertainties.

Niederberger, Dominik; Fleming, Andrew; Moheimani, S. O. Reza; Morari, Manfred

2004-10-01

175

49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at least two discrete conductors, and each shall be of sufficient conductivity and maintained in such condition that the track relay will be in...

2011-10-01

176

Cross-Species Functionality of Pararetroviral Elements Driving Ribosome Shunting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) belong to distinct genera of pararetroviruses infecting dicot and monocot plants, respectively. In both viruses, polycistronic translation of pregenomic (pg) RNA is initiated by shunting ribosomes that bypass a large region of the pgRNA leader with several short (s)ORFs and a stable stem-loop structure. The shunt requires translation of a

Mikhail M. Pooggin; Johannes Fütterer; Thomas Hohn; Peter Sommer

2008-01-01

177

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections with gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Infection causes major morbidity and mortality in patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts. The prognosis of CSF shunt infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been thought to be particularly poor. The authors reviewed all GNB shunt infections treated at Children's Memorial Hospital from January 1986 to January 1990 (n = 23). Of these infections 20 (87%) occurred within 4 weeks after shunt revision (median, 10 days). The most frequent symptoms were fever, lethargy, and irritability; the illness was not severe in the majority of these patients. Escherichia coli was isolated from 12 of 23 patients (52%), Klebsiella pneumoniae from 5 (22%), and mixed GNB from 3 (13%) patients. Initial treatment always included immediate shunt removal, externalized ventricular drainage, and intravenous antibiotics. Extraventricular drainage revision and/or intraventricular antibiotics were required in four patients whose CSF cultures were persistently positive for GNB. At admission, these patients had CSF glucose levels of < 10 mg/dl and CSF positive for GNB by Gram's stain. The overall cure rate was 100%, and no recurrence was observed; however, a subsequent infection with a different organism developed in four patients. Only 2 of 19 patients (11%) who were followed up suffered apparent CNS damage. One patient died of unrelated causes shortly after treatment. Our findings indicate that 1) patients with GNB CSF shunt infections often appear relatively well at presentation; 2) CSF positive for GNB by Gram's stain and very low CSF glucose levels predict continued positive CSF cultures, despite appropriate antibiotic therapy; and 3) GNB CSF shunt infections can be successfully treated by prompt shunt removal, extraventricular drainage, and intravenous antibiotics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8264883

Stamos, J K; Kaufman, B A; Yogev, R

1993-11-01

178

Lp-PLA 2 as a Marker of Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation lies at the base of endothelial dysfunction, eventually leading to plaque formation. The degree of inflammation\\u000a defines the “vulnerability” of plaque to rupture. Numerous strategies have been adopted to identify and eventually treat high-risk\\u000a vulnerable plaque. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has emerged as one such candidate marker of inflammation that may play a direct role in the formation of

Sabha Bhatti; Abdul Hakeem; Mehmet Cilingiroglu

2010-01-01

179

Quantifying lung shunting during planning for radio-embolization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed for accurate quantification of lung uptake during shunt studies for liver cancer patients undergoing radio-embolization. The current standard for analysis of [99mTc]-MAA shunt studies is subjective and highly variable. The technique proposed in this work involves a small additional peripheral intravenous injection of macroaggregated albumin (MAA) and two additional static acquisitions (before and after injection) to quantify the absolute activity in the lungs as a result of arterio-venous shunting. Such quantification also allows for estimates of absorbed dose to lung tissue at the time of treatment based on MIRD formalism. The method was used on six radio-embolization patients attending the department for lung shunt analysis. Quantitative values for each were compared to a previously validated technique using fully quantitative SPECT/CT imaging, treated as the gold standard. The average difference between absolute activity shunted to the lungs calculated by the proposed technique compared to the previously validated technique was found to be 2%, with a range of (1-8)%. The proposed method is simple and fast, allowing for accurate quantification of lung shunting and estimates of absorbed dose to lung tissue at treatment, and may one day be used in a one-stop procedure for planning and therapy in a single interventional procedure.

Willowson, Kathy; Bailey, Dale L.; Baldock, Clive

2011-07-01

180

Portacaval Shunt Established in Six Dogs Using Magnetic Compression Technique  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Installing the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension is relatively safe, but complications are still high. To explore a new method of portacaval shunt, the magnetic compression technique was introduced into the shunting procedure. Methods A portal-inferior vena cava shunt was performed on 6 male mongrel dogs by two hemocompatible Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, parent and daughter. The parent magnet was applied to the inferior vena cava guided by a catheter through the femoral vein. The daughter magnet was moved to the anastomosis position on the portal vein with a balloon catheter through the splenic vein. After the daughter magnet reached the target position, the two magnets acted to compress the vessel wall and hold it in place. Five to 7 days later, under X-ray guidance, the magnets were detached from the vessel wall with a rosch-uchida transjugular liver access set. One month later, histological analysis and portal venography were performed. Results 5-7 days after the first surgery, a mild intimal hyperplasia in the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, and continuity of the vascular adventitia from the portal vein to the inferior vena cava as observed. During the second surgery, the contrast media could be observed flowing from the portal vein into the inferior vena cava. Portal venography revealed that the portosystemic shunt was still present one month after the second surgery. Conclusions Magnamosis via a device of novel design was successfully used to establish a portacaval shunt in dogs.

Yan, Xiaopeng; Fan, Chao; Ma, Jia; Li, Jianhui; Dong, Dinghui; Wang, Haohua; Ma, Feng; Zheng, Xinglong; Lv, Yi

2013-01-01

181

Collateral ablation improves portal perfusion after partial portacaval shunt.  

PubMed

Small-diameter portacaval H-grafts (partial shunts) effectively abolish bleeding from esophageal varices. Goals are 1) to prevent variceal hemorrhage by subtotal portal decompression, and 2) to minimize postshunt encephalopathy by maintaining substantial residual pressure and prograde flow in the portal vein. To reduce spontaneous shunting of portal blood away from the liver, we advocate ablation of collateral vessels after partial shunts. Others have performed partial shunts without collateral ablation. We postulated that ablation of collateral vessels would augment portal perfusion pressure and preserve prograde portal flow after partial shunts. In 15 patients undergoing 8 or 10 mm portacaval H-grafts, portal pressure was measured intraoperatively before and after ligation of principal venous collaterals. In another 13 patients, collateral embolization was performed during postoperative portography. The degree of portal perfusion was scored. Pressure measurements demonstrated a mean rise in portal pressure of 2.8 cm saline after ligation (P = 0.025). Angiographic perfusion scores after embolization improved by a mean of 0.57 points on a 4 point scale (P = 0.032). We conclude that intraoperative collateral ligation augments residual portal pressures and that postoperative collateral embolization improves portal flow patterns. Since both observed effects have been associated with decreased postshunt encephalopathy rates, ablation of collateral vessels must be an integral component of the partial portacaval shunt. PMID:7668459

Collins, J C; Conroy, R M; Sarfeh, I J

1995-10-01

182

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis--a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts.  

PubMed

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction, most commonly associated with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It has not previously been reported as a complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We describe the clinical features of shunt-associated SEP and the important management considerations. Two children presented with small bowel obstruction after long-standing VP shunting of hydrocephalus. Neither had a history of recent shunt infection/revision nor evidence of shunt malfunction. In each case, the bowel was "cocooned" in a fibrous sheath with a notable absence of parietal adhesions. Both children were managed by meticulous adhesiolysis accompanied by shunt exteriorization. Both had prolonged ileus and required total parenteral nutrition. One required further laparotomy at which adhesiolysis was accompanied by irrigation with icodextrin 4% and systemic high-dose methylprednisolone. Weaning of steroids was accompanied by the introduction of azathioprine. A notable feature of intestinal obstruction because of SEP was severe pain despite adequate decompression. The restrictive "cocoon" that envelops the bowel prevents bowel dilatation and accounts for atypical radiologic findings in these cases. PMID:18485933

Sigaroudinia, Mandana O; Baillie, Colin; Ahmed, Shiban; Mallucci, Connor

2008-05-01

183

Smell of danger: an analysis of LP-gas odorization  

SciTech Connect

LP-gas derives warning properties from the odorants ethyl mercaptan or thiophane. Laboratory tests have implied that the average person has the ability to smell the odors before leaking LP-gas reaches one-fifth its lower limit of flammability. Generally, however, laboratory tests ignore or discard persons with a poor sense of smell, especially the elderly and persons with certain types of hyposmia. Some persons who apparently can smell the warning agents when directed may otherwise fail to notice or identify them. Elderly men seem particularly vulnerable to instances of incidental anosmia and olfactory agnosia. Psychophysical testing of the warning agents has been rather unsophisticated. There exists neither a standard protocol for testing nor adequate specification of the perceptual properties that might make one warning agent better than another. Without such developments, improvement in warning agents will fail to occur. Possible improvements include increases in concentration, the use of blends to insure more uniform delivery of agent and, to decrease the perceptual vulnerability of relatively insensitive people, use of agents with favorable psychophysical (stimulus-response) functions and use of agents with favorable adaptation characteristics. Even without a change in existing products, it seems advisable to learn more about the vulnerability of LP-gas users and to employ educational means to reduce risks.

Cain, W.S.; Turk, A.

1985-03-01

184

Smell of danger: an analysis of LP-gas odorization.  

PubMed

LP-gas derives warning properties from the odorants ethyl mercaptan or thiophane. Laboratory tests have implied that the average person has the ability to smell the odors before leaking LP-gas reaches one-fifth its lower limit of flammability. Generally, however, laboratory tests ignore or discard persons with a poor sense of smell, especially the elderly and persons with certain types of hyposmia. Some persons who apparently can smell the warning agents when directed may otherwise fail to notice or identify them. Elderly men seem particularly vulnerable to instances of incidental anosmia and olfactory agnosia. Psychophysical testing of the warning agents has been rather unsophisticated. There exists neither a standard protocol for testing nor adequate specification of the perceptual properties that might make one warning agent better than another. Without such developments, improvement in warning agents will fail to occur. Possible improvements include increases in concentration, the use of blends to insure more uniform delivery of agent and, to decrease the perceptual vulnerability of relatively insensitive people, use of agents with favorable psychophysical (stimulus-response) functions and use of agents with favorable adaptation characteristics. Even without a change in existing products, it seems advisable to learn more about the vulnerability of LP-gas users and to employ educational means to reduce risks. PMID:3887879

Cain, W S; Turk, A

1985-03-01

185

A comparative study of shunt hybrid and shunt active power filters for single-phase applications: Simulation and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of the single-phase shunt active power filter (SPSAPF) and the single-phase shunt hybrid power filter (SPSHPF) that adopt both an indirect current control scheme with a unipolar pulse width modulation (U-PWM) strategy. The SPSHPF topology includes, in addition to the components of the SPSAPF, a power factor correction capacitor connected

Salem Rahmani; Kamal Al-haddad; Hadi Youssef Kanaan

2006-01-01

186

Otogenic pneumocephalus associated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.  

PubMed

Otogenic pneumocephalus is a condition of intracranial air originating from the middle ear or mastoid air cells. This communication between the intracranial cavity and the pneumatic cavities is usually associated with trauma after cranial fractures or iatrogenic trauma. We present a rare case of otogenic pneumocephalus arising in the left posterior fossa from wellpneumatized mastoid air cells. The patient complained of roaring tinnitus that developed 29 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion due to brain tumor surgery. High resolution computed tomography scan of the temporal bones revealed a large pneumocephalus below the left tentorium, and a bony dehiscent route was clearly identified in a sagittal view. A left mastoidectomy with preservation of the posterior wall of the external auditory canal was performed, and the expected bony dehiscent site was identified in the posterior fossa dura plate, just posterior to the posterior semicircular canal, below the Donaldson's line. This communication was sealed with a temporalis muscle plug from the deep temporalis muscle fascia and bone dust. Pneumocephalus may be caused by negative intracranial pressure in a patient with very well-pneumatized mastoid bone, and it can be a possible cause of 'wind-like' sound in the ear. PMID:20072696

Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Won Il; Park, Mi-Na; Choi, Hyun Seung; Kim, Na Hyun; Han, Su-Jin

2009-12-31

187

Shunt switched resistor regulator with diode snubber  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a shunt switched resistor regulator power supply for supplying a variable amount of power to a load comprising: a rectifier means for accepting AC input voltage and converting it to DC output voltage at a positive and a negative terminal; first, second, third, and fourth nodes wherein the first and the fourth nodes are coupled to the positive and negative terminals, respectively; a current limiting resistor coupled between the first and second nodes; a capacitor coupled between the second and fourth nodes; a resistor having parasitic inductance coupled between the second and third nodes; a switch coupled between the third and fourth nodes; and a diode having its anode coupled to the third node and having its cathode coupled to the second node; means coupled to the load terminals for sensing the power being delivered to the load and for controlling the switch to have a duty cycle which results in the desired load current flowing through and a desired voltage appearing across the load in accordance with control input signals received at a control input.

Ekstrand, J.

1989-03-21

188

Otogenic Pneumocephalus Associated with a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt  

PubMed Central

Otogenic pneumocephalus is a condition of intracranial air originating from the middle ear or mastoid air cells. This communication between the intracranial cavity and the pneumatic cavities is usually associated with trauma after cranial fractures or iatrogenic trauma. We present a rare case of otogenic pneumocephalus arising in the left posterior fossa from wellpneumatized mastoid air cells. The patient complained of roaring tinnitus that developed 29 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion due to brain tumor surgery. High resolution computed tomography scan of the temporal bones revealed a large pneumocephalus below the left tentorium, and a bony dehiscent route was clearly identified in a sagittal view. A left mastoidectomy with preservation of the posterior wall of the external auditory canal was performed, and the expected bony dehiscent site was identified in the posterior fossa dura plate, just posterior to the posterior semicircular canal, below the Donaldson's line. This communication was sealed with a temporalis muscle plug from the deep temporalis muscle fascia and bone dust. Pneumocephalus may be caused by negative intracranial pressure in a patient with very well-pneumatized mastoid bone, and it can be a possible cause of 'wind-like' sound in the ear.

Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Won Il; Park, Mi-Na; Choi, Hyun Seung; Kim, Na Hyun

2009-01-01

189

Cost of preventing variceal rebleeding with transjugular intrahepatic portal systemic shunt and distal splenorenal shunt  

PubMed Central

Background and aims We examined the cost and cost effectiveness of distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS) and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the prevention of variceal rebleeding. Subjects Participants in randomized controlled trial comparing DSRS to TIPS. Methods Quality of life (QOL) measured using SF-36 preceding randomization and yearly thereafter. Cost utility analysis was performed using Data Treeage ®. Costs for both in- and out-patient events and interventions were obtained for each patient. Costs using coated stents were estimated using different rates of stenosis. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were determined at 1, 3 and 5 years. Results The average yearly costs of managing patients after TIPS and DSRS over 5 years were similar, $16,363 and $13,492 respectively. Cost of TIPS for surviving patients exceeded the cost of DSRS at years 3 and 5 but not significantly. ICERs per life saved favored TIPS at year 5 ($61,000). If coated rather than bare stents were used the cost-effectiveness of TIPS increased slightly. Conclusions TIPS is as effective as DSRS in preventing variceal rebleeding and may be more cost effective. TIPS, in all aspects, is equal to DSRS in the prevention of variceal rebleeding in patients who are medical failures.

Boyer, Thomas D; Henderson, J Michael; Heerey, Adrienne M; Arrigain, Susana; Konig, Vicky; Jason, Connor; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Galloway, John; Rikkers, Layton F; Jeffers, Lennox

2009-01-01

190

Utility of Lp-PLA2 in lipid-lowering therapy.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a vascular-specific inflammatory marker. It is so named because of its association with low-density lipoprotein in plasma. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Lp-PLA2 is recognized as a risk marker in primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. Elevated Lp-PLA2 levels are associated with the increased risk for cardiovascular events, even after multivariable adjustment for traditional risk factors. Patients with dyslipidemia are shown to benefit largely from the modification of Lp-PLA2. The degree of coronary artery disease (0-, 1-, 2-, or 3-vessel disease) and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly correlated to Lp-PLA2 levels. The low biologic fluctuation and high vascular specificity of Lp-PLA2 make it possible to use a single measurement in clinical decision making, and it also permits clinicians to follow the Lp-PLA2 marker serially. Simvastatin significantly reduces macrophage content, lipid retention, and the intima to media ratio but increased the content of smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic lesions. Statin treatment markedly reduced Lp-PLA2 in both plasma and atherosclerotic plaques with attenuation of the local inflammatory response and improved plaque stability due to reduced inflammation and decreased apoptosis of macrophages. Darapladib, an inhibitor of Lp-PLA2 when added to lipid-lowering therapy such as statins, offers great benefit in the reduction of plaque formation. This article explores the atherosclerotic process at molecular level, role of Lp-PLA2 in atherosclerosis, the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on Lp-PLA2, effect of direct Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib in the atherosclerosis process, the therapeutic implications of Lp-PLA2 as risk marker, and finally the net effect on plaque stabilization. PMID:20634673

Racherla, Sreekanth; Arora, Rohit

2012-03-01

191

Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) for Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement.  

PubMed

Background Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may facilitate safer shunt placement and lower distal obstruction rate than is seen in conventional surgery.Objective We reviewed our 2-year experience in SILS for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement to evaluate its usefulness and safety.Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients older than 18 years with dilated ventricle and syndromes of hydrocephalus. A total of 31 patients underwent 31 primary ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement surgery and two underwent revision surgery. All the procedures were performed by the SILS technique.Results The entire duration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation ranged from 45 to 80 minutes, with mean operation time of 65 ± 15.3 minutes. No major laparoscopy-related complications were noted. Shunt infection, peritonitis, and distal catheter malfunction occurred in one case (3.2%), proximal malfunction in one case (3.2%), and subcutaneous emphysema occurred in two cases (6.4%). The emphysema resolved within 2 days. Cosmetic results were "very good to good" in 17 patients (54.8%) and "satisfactory" in 14 patients (45.2%). The abdominal scars in most cases were nearly invisible.Conclusion SILS is a safe and effective technique for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and can be accomplished with no higher risk of shunt infection and distal malfunction. Without an additional port, SILS allows good visualization of the peritoneal cavity to avoid major intra-abdominal complications. Only one 6-mm incision at the umbilicus area is required and is almost invisible after wound healing. PMID:23444132

Hong, Wei-Chen; Lai, Peng-Sheng; Chien, Yin-Hsuan; Tu, Yong-Kwang; Tsai, Jui-Chang

2013-02-26

192

Failure of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: part I: Obstruction and mechanical failure.  

PubMed

Ventricular shunts are commonly employed to treat children with hydrocephalus. Complications from shunts are common and can present with a variety of signs and symptoms. This pair of reviews discusses the common findings in patients with shunt malfunction, including physical examination and imaging findings. Part I of the series discusses obstruction and mechanical failure of shunts; Part II discusses overdrainage, loculation, and abdominal complications of shunts. An understanding of the presentation and etiology of shunt dysfunction is critical for neurologists and pediatricians who often are the first to evaluate and triage these children. PMID:16458818

Browd, Samuel R; Ragel, Brian T; Gottfried, Oren N; Kestle, John R W

2006-02-01

193

Interaction of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Leader Protein (EBNA-LP) with HS1-Associated Protein X-1: Implication of Cytoplasmic Function of EBNA-LP  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) consists of W1W2 repeats and a unique C-terminal Y1Y2 domain and has been suggested to play an important role in EBV-induced transformation. To identify the cellular factors interacting with EBNA-LP, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen, using EBNA-LP cDNA containing four W1W2 repeats as bait and an EBV-transformed human peripheral blood lymphocyte cDNA library as the source of cellular genes. Our results were as follows. (i) All three cDNAs in positive yeast colonies were found to encode the same cellular protein, HS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1), which is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of B-cell signal transduction and apoptosis. (ii) Mutational analysis of EBNA-LP revealed that the association with HAX-1 is mediated by the W1W2 repeat domain. (iii) A purified chimeric protein consisting of glutathione S-transferase fused to EBNA-LP specifically formed complexes with HAX-1 transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. (iv) When EBNA-LP and HAX-1 were coexpressed in COS-7 cells, EBNA-LP was specifically coimmunoprecipitated with HAX-1. (v) Careful cell fractionation experiments of an EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell line revealed that EBNA-LP is localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. (vi) When EBNA-LP containing four W1W2 repeats was expressed in COS-7 cells, EBNA-LP was detected mainly in the nucleus by immunofluorescence assay. Interestingly, when EBNA-LP containing a single W1W2 repeat was expressed in COS-7 cells, EBNA-LP was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm and was colocalized with HAX-1. These results indicate that EBNA-LP is in fact present and may have a significant function in the cytoplasm, possibly by interacting with and affecting the function of HAX-1.

Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kaori; Igarashi, Mie; Morita, Tomoko; Tanaka, Michiko; Suzuki, Mikiko; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Matsuda, Go; Kato, Kentaro; Kanamori, Mikiko; Hirai, Kanji

2000-01-01

194

Narrow-diameter portacaval shunts for management of variceal bleeding.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, we have developed and refined a method for partial portosystemic shunting for the control of bleeding esophageal varices in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. The narrow-diameter interposition portacaval H-graft using 8 mm polytetrafluoroethylene has been performed in 32 patients at our institution with low operative mortality (6.3%) and nearly complete cessation of variceal bleeding (96.7%) over a mean follow-up period of 43 months. In comparison with total shunts, diminished rates of postshunt encephalopathy (13% versus 40%) have been observed. Prograde portal blood flow has been preserved in 90% of 30 patients studied by perioperative portography. Shunt patency with continued prograde flow has been demonstrated at up to 9 years of follow-up. Investigators at three other centers have studied partial shunting using substantially similar techniques, with similar findings. Based on these results, we conclude that narrow-diameter shunts provide effective, long-lasting treatment for variceal hemorrhage due to portal hypertension in the alcoholic. PMID:8042325

Collins, J C; Rypins, E B; Sarfeh, I J

195

Shunt insufficiency due to knot formation in the peritoneal catheter.  

PubMed

The authors report a rare case of the peripheral obstruction of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Premature baby was operated on hydrocephalus due to germinal matrix bleeding. After two months of implantation of venticuloperitoneal shunt peripheral insufficiency of the system was emerged. During the shunt revision extensive knot formation became visible. We simply cut the catheter above the knot and the working shunt was replaced into the abdominal cavity. The postoperative course was uneventful and the baby was free of complaints for more than one year. The pathomechanism of knot formation is not clear thus the discovery of the problem during the operation is an unexpected event. In our opinion tight knot cannot be spontaneously formed intraabdominally. Loose knots can be developed and can reduce the capacity of liquor flow. We think that the knot tightens during pulling out. Longer peritoneal catheters can precipitate multiple looping and/or axial torquations and increase the peripheral resistance of the shunt. In such cases when the pulling out is challenged conversion to laparotomy is suggested. PMID:23971361

Fekete, Gábor; Nagy, Andrea; Pataki, István; Bognar, László; Novák, László

2013-07-30

196

Lp-PLA2 inhibitors (GlaxoSmithKline).  

PubMed

GlaxoSmithKline is investigating a series of substituted pyrimidin-4-ones, including SB-435495, as reversible inhibitors of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) for the potential treatment of atherosclerosis [339220], [422380]. This series is being developed alongside a series of irreversible inhibitors such as SB-222657 and derivatives of SB-253514 [339220], [401355]. SB-435495 was discovered through the use of gene technology provided by Human Genome Sciences (HGS) [400047]. By October 2001, phase II trials of SB-435495 had been initiated [424613]. PMID:15957087

Booker, M L

2001-10-01

197

LP/WLP Hybrid Scheme for Quality Improvement of TCX Coders Operating at Low Bit Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a switchable linear prediction (LP)/warped linear prediction (WLP) hybrid scheme for the transform coded excitation (TCX) coder, which is adopted as a core codec in AMR-WB+ and USAC. The proposed algorithm selects either an LP or WLP filter on a per-frame basis. To provide a smooth transitions between LP and WLP frames, a window switching scheme is developed using sine and rectangular windows. In addition, a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based classification module is used to determine the prediction mode. Through a subjective listening test it was confirmed that the proposed LP/WLP switching scheme offers improved sound quality.

Lee, Tung-Chin; Park, Young-Cheol; Youn, Dae-Hee

198

Predicting shunt currents in stacks of bipolar plate cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for predicting shunt currents in stacks of undivided and divided bipolar plate cells. The method is an efficient way of solving the coupled sets of algebraic equations that arise from using circuit analog models to represent the current paths in stacks of undivided or divided bipolar plate cells. These algebraic equations can be either linear or nonlinear depending upon the current-potential relationships used in the model (i.e., nonlinear circuit elements can be included). The method is used to show the importance of including nonsymmetrical resistances and nonlinear circuit elements in the models. Also, the method is used to predict the shunt currents for a nine cell stack of pilot plant scale bipolar plate, membrane chlor-alkali cells. It is shown that these predictions agree qualitatively with measured values. Finally, the method is used to predict the shunt currents for stacks of 60 and 120 of these cells.

White, R. E.; Walton, C. W.; Burney, H. S.; Beaver, R. N.

1986-03-01

199

A new control approach for switching shunt damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new control approach for piezoelectric switching shunt damping. Recently, semi-active controllers have been used to switch piezoelectric materials in order to damp vibration. These switching shunt circuits allow a small implementation and require only little power supply. However, the control laws to switch these shunts are derived heuristically and therefore it remains unclear, if a better control law for a given shunt topology exists. We present a new control approach based on the Hybrid System Framework. This allows the modelling of the switched composite system as a hybrid system. Once the hybrid system description is obtained, a receding horizon optimal control problem can be solved in order to get the optimal switching sequence. As the computation time to solve this optimisation problem is too long for real-time applications, we will show that the problem can be solved off-line and the solution stored in a look-up table. This allows a real-time implementation of the switch controller. Moreover, control rules can be derived from this look-up table, and we will demonstrate that in some situations the controllers proposed in previous papers generate near optimal switching. In this paper, we will investigate several shunt topologies with switches and compare the performance between the heuristically derived control laws and the optimal new control laws. Simulations and experiments show the improvement with the new controllers. This is very promising, since this new control approach can be applied for more complex shunt circuits with many switches, where the derivation of a switching law would be very difficult.

Niederberger, Dominik; Morari, Manfred; Pietrzko, Stanislaw

2004-07-01

200

A late complication of CSF shunting: acquired Chiari I malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Acquired Chiari I malformation developing after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting is an intriguing late complication of CSF\\u000a shunt surgery and not only raises questions as to its pathogenesis but also poses many queries about the possible adverse\\u000a effects on the subsequent child development as well as on the indications and possibilities of surgical correction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We report a series

Massimo Caldarelli; Federica Novegno; Concezio Di Rocco

2009-01-01

201

Upward Migration of a Peritoneal Catheter Following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt  

PubMed Central

We present an unusual case of peritoneal catheter migration following a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. A 7-month-old infant, who had suffered from intraventricular hemorrhage at birth, was shunted for progressive hydrocephalus. The peritoneal catheter, connected to an 'ultra small, low pressure valve system' (Strata®; PS Medical,Gola, CA, USA) at the subgaleal space, was placed into the peritoneal cavity about 30 cm in length. The patient returned to our hospital due to scalp swelling 21 days after the surgery. Simple X-ray images revealed total upward migration and coiling of the peritoneal catheter around the valve. Possible mechanisms leading to proximal upward migration of a peritoneal catheter are discussed.

Cho, Kyung Rae; Yeon, Je Young

2013-01-01

202

Syringomyelia with quadriparesis in CSF shunt malfunction: a case illustration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Shunt malfunction typically presents with headaches, vomiting, and impaired consciousness. Paraparesis has been rarely reported\\u000a as the initial manifestation of valve dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case illustration  A 17-year-old boy was admitted with invalidating quadriparesis that after neuroimaging evaluation was found to be produced\\u000a by communicating syringomyelia attributed to shunt malfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion and conclusion  Persistence of the central canal in association with communicating hydrocephalus may

Juan F. Martínez-Lage; Fernando Alarcón; Antonio López López-Guerrero; Matías Felipe-Murcia; Antonio Ruíz-Espejo Vilar; María-José Almagro

2010-01-01

203

Shunt-related headaches: the slit ventricle syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this work is to review the pathophysiology and treatment of severe headache disorders in patients having a\\u000a shunt for hydrocephalus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The literature on the management of the slit ventricle syndrome is reviewed as well as an assessment of personal experiences\\u000a over a 30-year period in the management of severe headache disorders in shunted patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  If

Harold L. Rekate

2008-01-01

204

Endoscopic management of brainstem injury due to ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  We report a patient who suffered from brainstem injury following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement in the fourth ventricle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  A 20-year-old man with complex hydrocephalus and trapped fourth ventricle underwent a subocciptal placement of a VP shunt.\\u000a Postprocedure patient developed double vision. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the catheter was penetrating the dorsal\\u000a brainstem at the level of the pontomedullary junction.

J. Torrez-Corzo; R. Rodriguez-Della Vecchia; J. C. Chalita-Williams; L. Rangel-Castilla

2009-01-01

205

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) occlusion and the role of biliary venous fistulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the pathology and pathogenic mechanisms involved in the occlusion of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunts.Methods: Thirty-four patients with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt who had at least two portographic assessments of shunt function were the subjects of this study. The contents of any shunt demonstrating >70% stenosis were biopsied before balloon dilatation. Further

Rajiv Jalan; David J. Harrison; Doris N. Redhead; Peter C. Hayes

1996-01-01

206

Maternal postpartum Group B Beta-hemolytic streptococcus ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Women with cerebrospinal fluid shunts require special management during the course of pregnancy. Case report. We describe a case of delayed postpartum ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection by Group B streptococcus in a 19-year-old who presented complaining of headache and a fever. The CSF culture from the shunt tap and the distal shunt tip both grew Group B Beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Conclusion.

Jason M. Kane; Kevin Jackson; James H. Conway

2004-01-01

207

Laparoscopic Hysteropexy in a Patient with Spina Bifida and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic repair of pelvic organ prolapse in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts has not been previously described. The optimum management of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts undergoing laparoscopy is uncertain. We describe the case of a 21-year-old female patient with spina bifida and ventriculoperitoneal shunt who underwent laparoscopic hysteropexy for severe pelvic organ prolapse. The implications of performing laparoscopy on patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts are reviewed along with strategies to reduce potential intraoperative complications.

Askari, Reza; Kasturi, Seshadri; Ravangard, Samadh F.

2011-01-01

208

Negative results - Congenital Convulsive syncope after bidirectional Glenn shunts: physiological implications for a neurological event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Neurological complications after cavopulmonary connections like bidirectional Glenn shunt and Fontan connection are occasionally encountered in the postoperative period. We discuss such a case of bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt which developed convulsive syncope postoperatively. Case: A 5-year-old cyanotic girl diagnosed as tricuspid atresia with pulmonary stenosis without any spell history underwent bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt on the way to

Rajnish Duara; Sumanta Shekhar Padhi; Anand Padmanabhan Iyer; Chandrabhanu Parija; Soman Rema Krishna Manohar

2010-01-01

209

A 6-18 GHz 20 W SPDT switch using shunt discrete PIN diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broadband high power SPDT switch using shunt discrete PIN diodes is presented. By using shunt SPDT switch configuration, high power performance can be obtained. A novel structure, in which matching sections are added outside of shunt PIN diodes, provides broadband characteristics. The insertion loss of the fabricated MIC switch is less than 2.0 dB at 6 to 18 GHz,

Tomonori SHIGEMATSU; Noriharu SUEMATSU; N. Takeuchi; Yoshitada IYAMA; Akihito MIZOBUCHI

1997-01-01

210

Mesocaval and distal splenorenal shunts: Effect on hepatic function, hepatic hemodynamics, and portal systemic encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of the mesocaval interposition shunt (n=12) and the distal splenorenal shunt (n=9) on the wedged hepatic venous pressure, the estimated hepatic blood flow, quantitative hepatic function, and the rate of portal systemic encephalopathy was evaluated in 21 patients who had bled from esophageal varices. After mesocaval shunt the wedged hepatic venous pressure was significantly reduced by 42%

R. Herz; H. J. Halbfaß; M. Rössle; D. Waldmann; W. Gerok

1985-01-01

211

Does Age or other Factors Influence the Incidence of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infections?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some studies indicate that infants, especially those less than 1 month of age have a higher incidence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. To look at age as well as other variables that might relate to the rate of shunt infection, we reviewed the records of all patients undergoing a ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion or revision at our institution from January 1, 1985,

Steven E. Davis; Michael L. Levy; J. Gordon McComb; Lena Masri-Lavine

1999-01-01

212

Treatment of Staphylococcus epidermidis Ventriculo–Peritoneal Shunt Infection with Linezolid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacterial meningitis frequently complicates ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunts used for hydrocephalus. Linezolid, an oxazolidinone, is active against Gram-positive cocci, and has excellent CSF penetration. We present a 22-year-old woman who was cured of a Staphylococcus epidermidis VP shunt infection via shunt removal and intravenous linezolid.

C. J. Gill; M. A. Murphy; D. H. Hamer

2002-01-01

213

Scrotal migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion may be associated with migration into the abdominal wall, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, vagina, scrotum, and mediastinum. Migration of the VP shunt into the scrotum has been rarely reported. We present a 1 year old boy with cerebrospinal fluid hydrocele due to the migration of a VP shunt catheter into the right side scrotum. PMID:22675718

Mohammadi, Afshin; Hedayatiasl, Abbas; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad

2012-06-01

214

Decreased Electroporation Efficiency in Borrelia burgdorferi Containing Linear Plasmids lp25 and lp56: Impact on Transformation of Infectious B. burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of the linear plasmids lp25 and lp56 of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 was found to dramatically decrease the rate of transformation by electroporation with the shuttle vector pBSV2, an autonomously replicating plasmid that confers kanamycin resistance (P. E. Stewart, R. Thalken, J. L. Bono, and P. Rosa, Mol. Microbiol. 39:714-721, 2001). B. burgdorferi B31 clones had transformation efficiencies that

Matthew B. Lawrenz; Hiroki Kawabata; Joye E. Purser; Steven J. Norris

2002-01-01

215

Automated Test Assembly Using lp_Solve Version 5.5 in R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews the use of the software program lp_solve version 5.5 for solving mixed-integer automated test assembly (ATA) problems. The program is freely available under Lesser General Public License 2 (LGPL2). It can be called from the statistical language R using the lpSolveAPI interface. Three empirical problems are presented to…

Diao, Qi; van der Linden, Wim J.

2011-01-01

216

Calling the LP-Solve Linear Program Software From Excel, S-Plus and R.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present software that allows Excel, S-Plus and R to call the functions in the lp(underline)solve system. Lp(underline)solve is free software (licensed under the Gnu Lesser GPL) that solves linear and mixed-integer linear programs of moderate size (on t...

S. E. Buttrey

2003-01-01

217

75 FR 69063 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-29-003] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing November 4, 2010. Take notice that on November 3...Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-11-10

218

75 FR 49917 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-29-001] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing August 6, 2010. Take notice that on July 29, 2010, Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-08-16

219

75 FR 38802 - Copano Pipelines/Upper Gulf Coast, L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Copano Pipelines/Upper Gulf Coast, L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing June 28, 2010. Take notice that on June 24...Copano Pipelines/Upper Gulf Coast, L.P. submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-07-06

220

75 FR 37785 - Crosstex North Texas Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-39-000] Crosstex North Texas Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing June 23, 2010. Take notice that on June 21, 2010, Crosstex North Texas Pipeline, L.P. submitted a baseline filing of its FERC Operating Statement for services...

2010-06-30

221

75 FR 69428 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-29-003] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing November 4, 2010. Take notice that on November 3...Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-11-12

222

75 FR 61462 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-29-002] Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing September 29, 2010. Take notice that on September...Enbridge Pipelines (North Texas) L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-10-05

223

75 FR 63452 - Lobo Pipeline Company L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR11-57-001] Lobo Pipeline Company L.P.; Notice of Baseline Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on October 1, 2010, Lobo Pipeline Company L.P. submitted a revised baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-10-15

224

On Dual Approaches to Efficient Optimization of LP Computable Risk Measures for Portfolio Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the original Markowitz model for portfolio optimization the risk is measured by the variance. Several polyhedral risk measures have been introduced leading to Linear Programming (LP) computable portfolio optimization models in the case of discrete random variables represented by their realizations under specified scenarios. The LP models typically contain the number of constraints (matrix rows) proportional to the number

Wlodzimierz Ogryczak; Tomasz Sliwinski

2011-01-01

225

76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RP11-2136-000; RP11-2137-000] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical...Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed revised tariff records in Docket Nos. RP11-2136-000 and RP11-2137-000, proposing...

2011-07-11

226

Immunological crossreactivity between Lp(a) and the third component of complement  

SciTech Connect

Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet little is known about its physiological role. During the authors investigation of the site of synthesis of Lp(a), they made the observation that the third component of complement (C3) reacts with antisera to Lp(a). Hep G-2 cells or rhesus liver organ cultures were labelled using TVS-methionine in serum-free, methionine-free DMEM. The labelled media were immunoprecipitated with antisera raised in the goat and the rabbit against Lp(a) and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). The immunoprecipitates were subjected to electrophoresis on 2.5 - 16% gradient gels and visualized by autoradiography. All antisera consistently precipitated a significant amount of C3. This reaction with C3 could be inhibited by competition with pure preparations of Lp(a) and apo(a) or by preincubation of the medium with antiserum to C3. In addition, immunoprecipitation of C3 by anti-C3 was inhibited by competition with both apo(a) and Lp(a). No cross-reactivity was observed with antisera to apoB, apoE, normal rabbit serum, or purified non-specific rabbit IgG. This unexpected crossreactivity between Lp(a) and C3, observed in vitro, may have biological relevance and suggests a possible relationship between Lp(a) and the immune system.

Fless, G.M.; ZumMallen, M.E.

1987-05-01

227

77 FR 3762 - Magellan Pipeline Company, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR12-7-000] Magellan Pipeline Company, L.P.; Notice of Petition...Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2011), Magellan Pipeline Company, L.P. (Magellan) filed a petition for a declaratory...

2012-01-25

228

78 FR 26358 - TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. OR13-17-000] TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take...CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP filed a petition seeking a declaratory...

2013-05-06

229

76 FR 28026 - TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OR11-7-000] TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that on May 2, 2011, TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (TransCanada Keystone) filed a request for waiver of the...

2011-05-13

230

78 FR 18973 - Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR13-40-000] Bridgeline Holdings, L.P.; Notice of...12, 2013, Bridgeline Holdings, L.P. filed for approval...FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov, or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659...00 p.m. Eastern Time on Monday, April...

2013-03-28

231

Embolization of nonvariceal portosystemic collaterals in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous embolization of large portosystemic collaterals was performed in three patients following placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to improve hepatopetal portal flow. Improved hepatic portal perfusion was achieved in these cases, thereby theoretically reducing the risk of chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Arias, Mercedes; Longo, Jesus Maria; Alejandre, Pedro Luis [Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Clinica Universitaria, Facultad de Medicine (Spain); Betes, Maria Teresa [Universidad de Navarra, Department of Gastroenterology, Clinica Universitaria, Facultad de Medicina (Spain); Elizalde, Arlette Maria [Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Clinica Universitaria, Facultad de Medicine (Spain)

1997-03-15

232

Ionic Conductances of Extracellular Shunt Pathway in Rabbit Ileum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unidirectional influxes of Na, K, and C1 into isolated strips of rabbit ileum are comprised of movements across the mucosal membrane of the epithelial cells and ionic diffusion into an extracellular shunt pathway. A large fraction of the Na influx across the mucosal membrane alone is inhibited by Li, suggesting the participation of a carrier mechanism in the influx

RAYMOND A. FRIZZELL; STANLEY G. SCHULTZ

1972-01-01

233

Shunt active power filter with improved dynamic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a shunt active power filter (APF) with improved dynamic performance. When the value of load current changes rapidly, the typical APF transient response is too slow, and the line current suffers from dynamic distortion. This distortion causes an increase in harmonic content in the line current, which is dependent on a time constant. The APF control current

Krzysztof Piotr Sozanski

2008-01-01

234

Recurrent intraspinal arachnoid cyst treated with a shunt procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A case of a recurrent arachnoid cyst in the thoracic region in a 13-year-old boy is reported. At the first operation, complete removal of the cyst proved impossible. At a second operation four years later, it was still impossible to remove the cyst so we performed a shunt procedure with drainage through a Hakim valve to the right atrium.

F. Jensen; V. Knudsen; S. Troelsen

1977-01-01

235

Transjugular Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Bleeding Stomal Varices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomal variceal bleeding is a challenging complication of portal hypertension with no clear consensus regarding the optimal form of treatment. Treatment options range from local measures such as pressure dressings, suture ligation, and injection sclerotherapy to more invasive surgical interventions including stomal revision, portosystemic shunts, and liver transplantation (1± 3). Local measures are often effective in controlling the initial hemorrhagic

Paul A. Johnson; Jacqueline Laurin

1997-01-01

236

Discrete shunt controls in a Newton optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A penalty-based discretization algorithm is proposed. The algorithm consistently provides a near-optimal discrete solution for shunt controls without combinatorial search. It has been implemented in a production grade Newton optimal power flow program and tested on two actual power networks. Tests showed that the algorithm provides near-optimal discrete solutions

Wen-hsing E. Liu; A. D. Papalexopoulos; W. F. Tinney

1992-01-01

237

Resonantly shunted piezoelectric layers as passive vibration control devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of resonant shunting on the vibration behaviour of a duralumin cantilever beam is experimentally investigated with reference to the reduction of response amplitude and additive damping and the change in resonance frequency. The overall reduction in tip amplitude is around 4% for a peizoceramic layer with electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k31) equal to 0.30. However, higher values (

S. B. KANDAGAL; SUNETRA SARKAR; KARTIK VENKATRAMAN

2001-01-01

238

Clinical experience with Ex-press Mini Glaucoma Shunt implantation.  

PubMed

In this prospective study we wanted to report our experience and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ex-press Mini-Glaucoma Shunt implantation under a superficial scleral flap, as a newly and improved surgical technology in a treatment of POAG (Primary open-angle glaucoma) and refractory glaucoma. 44 eyes (35 patients) underwent an implantation of Ex-Press Mini Glaucoma Shunt. We had 21 patients with POAG (60%) and 14 patients with PEXG-pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (40%). The follow-up period was 8.62 + 7.48 months (range 2-22 months). Main outcome measures included postoperative IOP control, postoperative medications and early postoperative complications. The IOP was measured in the following postoperative time-points of 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The mean IOP values 1 year postoperatively were reduced for 52.8% compared to preoperative values and the use of medications were reduced for 77%. We had complications like postoperative hypotony (3.5%), choroidal ablation (7%), intraocular hemorrhage (3.5%) and postoperative shunt closure (3.5%). The Ex PRESS Mini Glaucoma Shunt implanted under a superficial scleral flap is relatively safe and effective surgical procedure and provides satisfactory IOP control and medication reduction. However, device related complications remain still a problem. PMID:22220401

Gavri?, Morena; Gabri?, Nikica; Jagi?, Jurica; Covi?, Ana

2011-09-01

239

CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING TOWARDS SHUNTS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING TOWARDS SHUNTS IN THEIR PRESENT-DAY POSITIONS, STORAGE SHED, AND MACHINE SHOP. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

240

Almost periodic solution of shunting inhibitory CNNs with delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Banach fixed point theorem, we obtain a sufficient condition for the existence of almost periodic solution of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks dxijdt=?aijxij??Ckl?Nr(i,j)Cijklfxkl(t??)xij+Lij(t), the global attractivity of SICNNs is also obtained. An example is given to illustrate that the condition of our results are feasible.

Anping Chen; Jinde Cao

2002-01-01

241

Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection due to Corynebacterium xerosis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a neonate who developed ventriculitis following insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Corynebacterium xerosis was isolated from CSF and from the tip of the catheter after it was removed. The isolate was resistant to multiple antibiotics, but the infant responded to treatment with vancomycin. PMID:8089521

Gaskin, P R; StJohn, M A; Cave, C T; Clarke, H; Bayston, R; Levett, P N

1994-05-01

242

A Gender Recognition System using Shunting Inhibitory Convolutional Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we employ shunting inhibitory convolutional neural networks to develop an automatic gender recognition system. The system comprises two modules: a face detector and a gender classifier. The human faces are first detected and localized in the input image. Each detected face is then passed to the gender classifier to determine whether it is a male or female.

Fok Hing Chi Tivive; Abdesselam Bouzerdoum

2006-01-01

243

Shunting of Passenger Train Units: An Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a new model for the Train Unit Shunting Prob- lem. This model is capable of solving the matching and parking subprob- lems in an integrated manner, requiring a reasonable amount of computa- tion time. Furthermore, the model incorporates complicating details from practice, such as trains composed of several train units and tracks that can be

Leo G. Kroon; Ramon M. Lentink; Alexander Schrijver

2008-01-01

244

Extracardiac Fontan operation after late bidirectional Glenn shunt.  

PubMed

The outcomes of 33 consecutive extracardiac Fontan operations performed between 1999 and 2008 in patients who mostly had initial Glenn shunts beyond infancy were reviewed. Preoperatively, the median oxygen saturation was 76.2% and mean pulmonary artery pressure was 10.5 mm Hg. The median age was 4.1 years at Glenn shunt procedure and 10 years at Fontan operation. The duration of chest tube drainage was longer in these patients than in series where Glenn shunts were created at a younger age. All patients received warfarin for 1 year, then warfarin and/or aspirin. At follow-up (median, 14 months), there was no significant ventricular dysfunction. Median oxygen saturation at the last follow-up was 92%. All patients in sinus rhythm preoperatively continued in this status. There was no Fontan failure or mortality. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I or II, although objective cardiopulmonary exercise evaluation in 8 patients showed impaired exercise tolerance. Despite a trend towards prolonged pleural effusion, there was no adverse outcome in the short or intermediate term. Long-term follow-up is required to see whether delayed creation of a Glenn shunt is associated with late disadvantages. PMID:20519294

Ganigara, Madhusudan; Prabhu, Atul; Varghese, Roy; Pavithran, Sreeja; Valliatu, John; Nair, Raghavan Suresh Kumar

2010-06-01

245

Surgical treatment for neonatal Ebstein's anomaly with circular shunting  

PubMed Central

We report a case of surgical treatment for neonatal Ebstein's anomaly with circular shunting. A prenatal diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly was made at 30 weeks of gestation. In addition to severe tricuspid regurgitation, severe pulmonary regurgitation was also noted, resulting in a ‘circular shunt’. At 38 weeks and 2 days of gestation, the baby was delivered by Caesarean section. A two-stage palliative operation was planned. As the first palliation, the pulmonary artery was ligated 1 h after birth to eliminate the circular shunt. Lipo-prostaglandin E1 was administrated continuously to keep the ductus arteriosus patent. Four days after first operation, modified Starnes operation was performed as the second-stage palliation. The tricuspid valve was closed by an ePTFE patch with 3-mm fenestration. Pulmonary blood flow was supplied by a right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt with a 3.5-mm diameter ePTFE graft. The infant's postoperative haemodynamic status was stable. The patient is being followed up carefully and is scheduled to have a univentricular repair in the future.

Yanase, Yohsuke; Watanabe, Manabu; Ishikawa, Natsuya; Higami, Tetsuya

2012-01-01

246

Surgical treatment for neonatal Ebstein's anomaly with circular shunting.  

PubMed

We report a case of surgical treatment for neonatal Ebstein's anomaly with circular shunting. A prenatal diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly was made at 30 weeks of gestation. In addition to severe tricuspid regurgitation, severe pulmonary regurgitation was also noted, resulting in a 'circular shunt'. At 38 weeks and 2 days of gestation, the baby was delivered by Caesarean section. A two-stage palliative operation was planned. As the first palliation, the pulmonary artery was ligated 1 h after birth to eliminate the circular shunt. Lipo-prostaglandin E(1) was administrated continuously to keep the ductus arteriosus patent. Four days after first operation, modified Starnes operation was performed as the second-stage palliation. The tricuspid valve was closed by an ePTFE patch with 3-mm fenestration. Pulmonary blood flow was supplied by a right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt with a 3.5-mm diameter ePTFE graft. The infant's postoperative haemodynamic status was stable. The patient is being followed up carefully and is scheduled to have a univentricular repair in the future. PMID:22374289

Yanase, Yohsuke; Watanabe, Manabu; Ishikawa, Natsuya; Higami, Tetsuya

2012-02-27

247

Aqueous shunts: single-plate Molteno vs ACTSEB.  

PubMed

A retrospective study was done to compare the results of the single-plate Molteno implant surgery with those of the anterior chamber tube shunt to an encircling band procedure in eyes with refractory glaucoma. Both Molteno implant and anterior chamber tube shunt to an encircling band are made of silicone. There were 19 eyes in the Molteno group, 17 eyes in the anterior chamber tube shunt to an encircling band group, with at least 6 months of follow-up. Preoperative intraocular pressure in the Molteno group and anterior chamber tube shunt to an encircling band group was 47.5 +/- 11.4 and 46.5 +/- 10.3 mmHg, respectively. Intraocular pressure at 6 months postoperatively was 20.4 +/- 15.1 and 15.5 +/- 10.4 mmHg, respectively. The difference in pressure reduction between the two groups was not significant statistically. Serious complication rate for 6 months was 11% and 47%, respectively. PMID:7493245

Kim, D M; Lim, K H

1995-06-01

248

Integration of high frequency current shunts in power electronic circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of power electronic converters employ some kind of current measurement. Current transformers and current sensors employing Hall elements are convenient to use since they are galvanically isolated, and have therefore very good noise characteristics. Shunts on the other hand are very cost effective since it only involves placing a low value resistance in the circuit and amplifying the

J. A. Ferreira; W. A. Cronje; W. A. Relihan

1995-01-01

249

Ionic Conductances of Extracellular Shunt Pathway in Rabbit Ileum  

PubMed Central

The unidirectional influxes of Na, K, and Cl into isolated strips of rabbit ileum are comprised of movements across the mucosal membrane of the epithelial cells and ionic diffusion into an extracellular shunt pathway. A large fraction of the Na influx across the mucosal membrane alone is inhibited by Li, suggesting the participation of a carrier mechanism in the influx process. The partial ionic shunt conductances of Na, K, and Cl account for at least 82% of the total tissue conductance. The calculated shunt permeabilities (P) are (in centimeters per hour) PK = 0.040, PNa = 0.035, and PCl = 0.019, so that PK:PNa:PCl = 1.14:1.00:0.55. Diffusion potentials across the tissue resulting from isotonic replacement of NaCl in the mucosal solution with mannitol or KCl are described by the Goldman constant-field equation together with the above permeabilities of the shunt pathway. These observations are not consistent with permeation through a fixed-charge pore but can be explained by a model featuring constant ionic partition into a neutral-polar pore that traverses the tight junction. Such a pore may be lined with either fixed dipoles or fixed dipolar ions oriented such that electronegative groups influence the permselective properties of the diffusion pathway. The essential feature of both models is that electroneutrality is maintained by means of fixed membrane components and does not depend upon the presence of mobile counterions.

Frizzell, Raymond A.; Schultz, Stanley G.

1972-01-01

250

Enterococcal Bacteremia After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts (TIPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze a series of patients with Enterococcus faecium infection following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in order to define the risk factors, outcome, and role of treatment including hepatic transplantation. This study is a case series from a tertiary referral center for liver transplantation. The medical records of four patients referred to one

Robert S. Brown; Lynne Brumage; Hal F. Yee; John R. Lake; John P. Roberts; Kenneth A. Somberg

1998-01-01

251

Impact of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt on orthotopic liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is being increasingly utilized prior to liver transplantation for portal hypertensive bleeding refractory to sclerotherapy or as initial management of variceal bleeding. The impact of TIPS on subsequent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of TIPS on OLT in terms of operative transfusion requirements, operative

Fabrice Menegaux; Edward Baker; Emmet B. Keeffe; Humberto Monge; Hiroto Egawa; Carlos O. Esquivel

1994-01-01

252

Complications and subsequent removal of retained shunt hardware after endoscopic third ventriculostomy: case series.  

PubMed

This case series highlights multiple complications and subsequent removal of retained shunt hardware in pediatric patients after successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Removal or retention of existing shunt hardware following ETV represents an important dilemma. Prior studies have reported infections and organ perforation related to nonfunctioning shunts but none in the context of successful ETV. Data obtained in 3 children with hydrocephalus treated at the authors' institution were retrospectively reviewed after the patients experienced complications due to retained shunt hardware following ETV. Etiologies of hydrocephalus included tectal glioma and intraventricular hemorrhage. All 3 patients had a history of multiple shunt revisions and underwent urgent ETV in the setting of a shunt malfunction. In each case, the entire shunt system was left in situ, but it became the source of subsequent complications. Two of the 3 patients presented with the shunt infected by gram-negative bacilli 10 days and 4.5 months postoperatively, respectively. The remaining patient experienced wound dehiscence over the shunt valve 4.5 months after ETV. In all patients, the complications were managed successfully by removing the shunt hardware. None of the patients required repeat shunt insertion from the time of removal throughout the follow-up period (mean 24 months, range 9-36 months). During the study period, a total of 6 patients with indwelling shunt hardware underwent ETV with the expectation of being shunt independent. Among these 6 patients, 3 experienced no complications from the retained hardware whereas 3 patients (50%) ultimately experienced adverse consequences related to retained hardware. This case series illustrates complications involving retained shunt hardware after successful ETV. These examples support consideration of shunt removal at the time of ETV in the appropriate context. PMID:23560795

Pindrik, Jonathan; Jallo, George I; Ahn, Edward S

2013-04-05

253

Partial versus total portacaval shunt in alcoholic cirrhosis. Results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Results of the first prospective randomized clinical trial comparing partial and total portacaval shunt for variceal hemorrhage are reported. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Total portacaval shunts produce subnormal portal pressures, completely diverting hepatic portal flow. Partial shunts maintain higher pressures and preserve hepatopedal flow. No randomized trials of these two approaches have been performed. METHODS: Alcoholic patients with cirrhosis (n = 30) and variceal hemorrhage treated at one institution were randomized to receive partial (8-mm diameter portacaval H grafts with collateral ablation, n = 14) or total shunts (16-mm diameter grafts, n = 16). Portography was performed after operation and then yearly. Investigators blinded to shunt type assessed encephalopathy; hospitalizations were reviewed. RESULTS: Child's class, age, and operative urgency were similar for the two groups. Two patients (with total shunts) died within 30 days. Hepatopedal flow was maintained in 13 partial and 0 total shunt patients (p < 0.0001). Shunt gradients were 16 +/- 5 compared with 6 +/- 3 cm saline after partial and total shunts (p < 0.0001). There were no shunt thromboses or variceal hemorrhages. Encephalopathy-free survival was significantly greater after partial shunts (p = 0.013; life table analysis). Five total compared with zero partial shunt patients required hospitalization for coma (p = 0.02). Long-term survival was not different for the two groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Partial shunts control variceal hemorrhage while maintaining hepatopedal flow and elevated portal pressures. By minimizing encephalopathy rates, partial shunts provide improved quality of survival compared with total shunts. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Sarfeh, I J; Rypins, E B

1994-01-01

254

The runaway binary LP 400-22 is leaving the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectroscopy, astrometry, radio and X-ray observations of the runaway binary LP 400-22. We refine the orbital parameters of the system based on our new radial velocity observations. Our parallax data indicate that LP 400-22 is significantly more distant (3? lower limit of 840 pc) than initially predicted. LP 400-22 has a tangential velocity in excess of 830 km s-1; it is unbound to the Galaxy. Our radio and X-ray observations fail to detect a recycled millisecond pulsar companion, indicating that LP 400-22 is a double white dwarf system. This essentially rules out a supernova runaway ejection mechanism. Based on its orbit, a Galactic Centre origin is also unlikely. However, its orbit intersects the locations of several globular clusters; dynamical interactions between LP 400-22 and other binary stars or a central black hole in a dense cluster could explain the origin of this unusual binary.

Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.; Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Agüeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig O.; Kenyon, S. J.; Panei, J. A.; Camilo, Fernando

2013-10-01

255

Optical spectroscopy of DPVs and the case of LP Ara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of our spectroscopic campaign of a group of intermediate mass interacting binaries dubbed ``Double Periodic Variables'' (DPVs), characterized by orbital light curves and additional long photometric cycles recurring roughly after 33 orbital periods (Mennickent et al. 2003, 2005). They have been interpreted as interacting, semi-detached binaries showing cycles of mass loss into the interstellar medium (Mennickent et al. 2008, Mennickent & Ko?aczkowski 2009). High resolution Balmer and helium line profiles of DPVs can be interpreted in terms of mass flows in these systems. A system solution is given for LP Ara, based on modeling of the ASAS V-band orbital light curve and the radial velocity of the donor star.

Mennickent, Ronald E.; Graczyk, Darek; Ko?aczkowski, Zbigniew; Michalska, Gabriela; Barría, Daniela; Niemczura, Ewa

2011-07-01

256

Pleural flap for treating perigraft leak after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt.  

PubMed

Plasa oozing through the graft after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is a troublesome complication. We encountered a massive leak following a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt in a 2 1/2 year-old-girl which required reexploration. The leak was treated by wrapping the polytetrafluoroethylene shunt with the parietal pleura flap harvested from the adjacent chest wall. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Covering of the polytetrafluoroethylene shunt with parietal pleura appears to stop plasma leak through the graft following a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. PMID:12022570

Ugurlu, Baran Sevket; Sariosmanoglu, Osman Nejat; Metin, Sadik Kivanc; Hazan, Eyup; Oto, Oztekin

2002-05-01

257

76 FR 25732 - Emergence Capital Partners SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...  

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2011-05-05

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2010-12-17

259

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2011-05-18

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2011-12-21

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-10-19

262

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-06-07

263

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-12-21

264

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-08-28

265

LP1845 Liquid Gun Propellant Dermal Toxicity Studies: Evaluation of the Potential of LP1846 Liquid Gun Propellant to Induce Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in the in vitro Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contractor assessed the ability of the test material, LP 1846 Liquid Gun Propellant (LP1846), to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in primary cultures of male Fischer-344 (F-344) rat hepatocytes. Compound LP1846 was tested at concentrations of 0....

J. P. Bakke R. Finch

1990-01-01

266

Recanalisation of an occluded modified Blalock-Taussig shunt by balloon dilatation.  

PubMed Central

A four year old boy with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect had an acute cyanotic episode three years after undergoing a right-sided, 6 mm diameter, modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. On admission no continuous murmur could be heard from the shunt and the typical high velocity, continuous flow profile of the shunt could not be identified by Doppler echocardiography. At catheterisation a right subclavian artery angiogram confirmed shunt occlusion. From the subclavian artery, an 0.035 inch wire was used to enter the occluded shunt and then the pulmonary artery. Balloon angioplasty of the entire length of the shunt was performed with 6 mm diameter balloon. After angioplasty the arterial oxygen saturation increased from 63% to 83%. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin followed by warfarin. Repeat catheterisation and angiography eight days later confirmed wide patency of the shunt. Images

Sreeram, N; Walsh, K; Peart, I

1993-01-01

267

75 FR 64306 - Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-10-19

268

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-02-09

269

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-03-26

270

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-05-14

271

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2011-10-28

272

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-09-08

273

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2012-04-06

274

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-09-08

275

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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-12-13

276

Characterization of the apoLp-III/LPS complex: insight in the mode of binding interaction  

PubMed Central

Apolipoproteins are able to associate with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), potentially providing protection against septic shock. To gain insight in the molecular details of this binding interaction, apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) from Galleria mellonella was used as a model. The binding of apoLp-III to LPS was optimal around 37–40 °C, close to the LPS phase transition temperature. ApoLp-III formed complexes with LPS from E. coli (serotype O55:B5) with a diameter of 24 nm, a molecular weight of ~390 kDa, containing four molecules of apoLp-III and 24 molecules of LPS. The LPS-bound form of the protein was substantially more resistant to guanidine-induced denaturation compared to unbound protein. The denaturation profile displayed a multiphase character with a steep drop in secondary structure between 0–1 M guanidine, and a slower decrease above 1 M guanidine HCl. In contrast, apoLp-III bound to detoxified LPS was only slightly more resistant to guanidine HCl induced denaturation compared to unbound protein. Analysis of size-exclusion FPLC elution profiles of mixtures of apoLp-III with LPS or detoxified LPS indicated a much weaker binding interaction with detoxified LPS compared to intact LPS. These results indicate that apoLp-III initially interacts with exposed carbohydrate regions, but that the lipid A region is required for a more stable LPS binding interaction.

Oztug, Merve; Martinon, Daisy; Weers, Paul M.M.

2012-01-01

277

Fine spectra of upper triangle triple band matrices over the sequence spaces lp, (0 < p < ?)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operator A(r, s, t) on sequence space on lp is defined A(r,s,t)x = (rxk-1+sxk+txk+)k = ? where x = (xk)\\isinvlp with (0 < p < 1). The main purpose of this paper is to determine the fine spectrum with respect to the Goldberg's classification of the operator A(r, s, t) defined by a triple sequential band matrix over the sequence space lp. Additionally, we give the approximate point spectrum, defect spectrum and compression spectrum of the matrix operator A(r, s, t) over the space lp.

Ba?ar, Feyzi; Karaisa, Ali

2012-08-01

278

Performance comparison of a left shunt UPQC and a right shunt UPQC applied to enhance fault-ride-through capability of a fixed speed wind generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of voltage-ride through capability of a fixed speed induction generator (FSIG) with the help of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is examined. The performance of the left-shunt (LS) and right-shunt (RS) UPQC are compared under both full and partial voltage restoration. From the comparative study, the rating of the UPQCs is determined.

N. G. Jayanti; M. Basu; M. F. Conlon; K. Gaughan

2007-01-01

279

[Symptomatic hepatic arterioportal shunt resolved through conservative treatment].  

PubMed

Arterioportal shunt in the liver is a rare vascular disorder that may be due to congenital vascular malformation (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia), trauma, iatrogenic causes (after a hepatic biopsy) or neoplasm. Initial treatment consists of transcatheter arterial embolization with different kinds of materials. We present the case of a 64-year-old woman with signs of portal hypertension and severe diarrhea. Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography and angiography revealed arterioportal fistulae between the hepatic artery and right portal vein. Transcatheter arterial embolization with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate surgical glue (Glubran) was successfully performed. After 2 years of follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic. Transcatheter arterial embolization with Glubran should be considered as a therapeutic option in arterioportal shunts and could be a definitive therapy. PMID:16584694

Núñez-Rodríguez, M H; Calero, H; Velicia-Llames, R; García-Pajares, F; Sánchez-Antolín, G; Caro-Patón, A

2006-04-01

280

Direct current superconducting quantum interferometers with asymmetric shunt resistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated asymmetrically shunted Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). While keeping the total resistance R identical to a comparable symmetric SQUID with R-1=R1-1+R2-1, we shunted only one of the two Josephson junctions with R=R1,2/2. Simulations predict that the optimum energy resolution ? and thus also the noise performance of such an asymmetric SQUID can be 3-4 times better than that of its symmetric counterpart. Experiments at a temperature of 4.2 K yielded ?~32 ? for an asymmetric SQUID with an inductance of 22 pH. For a comparable symmetric device, ?=110 ? was achieved, confirming our simulation results.

Rudolph, M.; Nagel, J.; Meckbach, J. M.; Kemmler, M.; Siegel, M.; Ilin, K.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

2012-07-01

281

Failure of a Torkildsen shunt after functioning for 50 years.  

PubMed

Mechanical obstruction is a severe complication of ventricular catheter use. Its incidence was shown to be high in the 1960s and 1970s, with up to 41% of the catheters becoming obstructed within 10 years after surgery. The authors present what is to their knowledge the first reported case of a patient with failure of a Torkildsen shunt after 50 years of functioning. A 60-year-old woman presented with increasing gait ataxia, decline in cognitive functions (including short-term memory loss), and slight urinary incontinence. The diagnosis of hydrocephalus and thus malfunction of the Torkildsen shunt implanted 50 years previously was confirmed by MR images, which revealed a prominent triventricular hydrocephalus. The patient subsequently underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), the current surgical treatment of choice, resulting in total resolution of her neurological symptoms and amelioration of cerebral tissue distension. Decrease in ventricle dilation and success of the ETV were confirmed on postoperative follow-up MR images. PMID:19715420

Zinn, Pascal O; Bozinov, Oliver; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Reisch, Robert; Ya?argil, M Gazi; Bertalanffy, Helmut

2010-04-01

282

Temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunt: useless or beneficial in piggy back liver transplantation?  

PubMed

The role of intraoperative porto-caval shunts in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is controversial. Aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an intraoperative, porto-caval catheter-shunt on graft function and survival following cava sparing OLT. Four hundred and forty-eight piggy back liver transplantations with or without a temporary spontaneous porto-caval shunt between 1997 and 2010 were analyzed (shunt n = 274 vs. no shunt n = 174). Lab MELD scores and donor risk indices (DRI) were calculated. Hepatic injury (ALT, AST), -function (bilirubin, prothrombin ratio), postreperfusion liver blood flow and graft survival were registered [mean follow-up: 50.5 (0-163.0) months]. The impact of a shunt on graft survival was determined using multivariate analysis. Usage of a porto-caval shunt was associated with reduced hepatic injury (ALT, AST), whereas graft function was not affected. The shunt group showed a significantly increased portal venous blood flow after reperfusion. Retransplantation rate was decreased (7.7% vs. 20.1%, P = 0.001) and long-term graft survival was significantly increased with a porto-caval shunt (hazard ratio 2.1, P < 0.001). This effect was even more pronounced for marginal organs. Usage of intraoperative porto-caval catheter-shunts is beneficial in cava sparing OLT and is associated with reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury and improved organ survival in particular for recipients of marginal organs. PMID:23237579

Pratschke, Sebastian; Meimarakis, Georgios; Bruns, Christiane J; Kaspar, Michael; Prix, Niclas; Zachoval, Reinhart; Guba, Markus; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Loehe, Florian; Angele, Martin K

2012-11-29

283

Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants With Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Requiring Shunt Insertion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes among extremely low birth weight infants who had severe intraventricular hemorrhage that required shunt insertion compared with infants without shunt insertion. METHODS Infants who were born in 1993–2002 with birth weights of 401 to 1000 g were enrolled in a very low birth weight registry at medical centers that participate in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, and returned for follow-up at 18 to 22 months’ corrected age were studied. Eighty-two percent of survivors completed follow-up, and 6161 children were classified into 5 groups: group 1, no intraventricular hemorrhage/no shunt (n = 5163); group 2, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3/no shunt (n = 459); group 3, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3/shunt (n = 103); group 4, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 4/no shunt (n = 311); and group 5, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 4/shunt (n = 125). Group comparisons were evaluated with ?2 and Wilcoxon tests, and regression models were used to compare outcomes after adjustment for covariates. RESULTS Children with severe intraventricular hemorrhage and shunts had significantly lower scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development IIR compared with children with no intraventricular hemorrhage and with children with intraventricular hemorrhage of the same grade and no shunt. Infants with shunts were at increased risk for cerebral palsy and head circumference at the <10th percentile at 18 months’ adjusted age. Greatest differences were observed between children with shunts and those with no intraventricular hemorrhage on these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This large cohort study suggests that extremely low birth weight children with severe intraventricular hemorrhage that requires shunt insertion are at greatest risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes at 18 to 22 months compared with children with and without severe intraventricular hemorrhage and with no shunt. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine whether adverse outcomes persist or improve over time.

Adams-Chapman, Ira; Hansen, Nellie I.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rose

2009-01-01

284

Modernisation Issues of Diesel-Electric Shunting Locomotive Power Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research concentrates on the modernisation issues of inefficient diesel-electric shunting locomotives, produced in the former Soviet Union. The existing diesel-generator unit, serving as an onboard power plant can be replaced by hybridised units, with an energy storage unit acting as a peaking power source for dynamic modes. By integrating an energy storage unit into the power plant, the locomotive traction drive becomes hybridised, consuming less fuel during transients and idling.

Hoimoja, Hardi; Jalakas, Tanel; Rosin, Argo; Rassylkin, Anton

2010-01-01

285

A Design and Optimization of the Fully Automatic Shunting Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the design of the fully automatic mechanism for shunting of cylindrical parts is presented. The virtual prototype (VP) of the design was modeled in Pro/Engineer program and selected members of the mechanism were modeled in ANSYS program as the flexible bodies. The VP was imported into MSC. ADAMS, where particular structural and dynamic parameters will be optimized. At this solution, the MATLAB program will be also utilized.

Sapietova, A.; Dekys, V.

286

“Chloride-shunt” syndrome: An overlooked cause of renal hypercalciuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a 7-year-old boy with the normotensive form of “chloride-shunt” syndrome is described. An unusual feature was the clinical presentation with lithiasis, caused by marked hypercalciuria of renal origin. The present studies were carried out to investigate the nature of the renal tubular defect. Indices for proximal and distal sodium chloride reabsorption were increased during hypotonic saline diuresis.

Juan Rodríguez-Soriano; Alfredo Vallo; María Jesús Domínguez

1989-01-01

287

[Recurrent enterococcal bacteremia associated with a transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic shunt].  

PubMed

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) are an accepted technique for controlling the complications of portal hypertension. Although the incidence of TIPS-associated bacteremia appears to be low (2%), this complication has a high mortality. We report one case of recurrent enterococcal bacteremia associated with TIPS and regression of TIPS thrombus after antibiotherapy. The antibiotic regimen is similar to that given in bacterial endocardites. PMID:15671940

Passeron, Amélie; Mihaïla-Amrouche, Liliana; Perreira Rocha, Elsa; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Capron, Loïc

2004-12-01

288

Properties of normal metal shunted YBCO bi-crystal junctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental results on YBCO thin film bi-crystal junctions in which additional metallic shunt resistors are added by in-situ thin film evaporation of gold or silver. The current-voltage characteristics have been measured, as well as the broad band noise in the system between 1 Hz and 100 kHz, using a HTS dc SQUID as a low-noise preamplifier. The influence

Ling Hao; John Gallop; Richard Reed; John Macfalane; E. Romans

1997-01-01

289

Narrow-diameter portacaval shunts for management of variceal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, we have developed and refined a method for partial portosystemic shunting for the control of bleeding esophageal varices in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. The narrow-diameter interposition portacaval H-graft using 8 mm polytetraffuoroethylene has been performed in 32 patients at our institution with low operativ mortality (16.3%) and nearly complete cessation of variceal bleeding (96.7%) over a mean

John Craig Collins; Eric B. Rypins; I. James Sarfeh

1994-01-01

290

Successful treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunts (Abernethy type 2) by living donor liver transplantation after surgical shunt ligation.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in a patient (7-year-old boy) with Abernethy type 2 congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunts (CEPS). This patient underwent a surgical shunt ligation as the first treatment for pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary hypertension was improved and controlled successfully 4 years after the first operation. However, pulmonary hypertension recurred gradually because of multiple intrahepatic portosystemic shunts; therefore, LDLT was performed as a radical treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. His pulmonary arterial pressure was also controlled 22 months after LDLT, the postoperative continuous intravenous prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) treatment could be withdrawn successfully. We suggest that clinicians carefully follow up the recurrent portosystemic shunt and cardiopulmonary disorders secondary to Abernethy type 2 CEPS. PMID:19761556

Iida, Taku; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Doi, Hiraku; Yagi, Shintaro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Imai, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Okamoto, Shinya; Uemoto, Shinji

2009-09-15

291

A prospective trial of transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunts versus small-diameter prosthetic H-graft portacaval shunts in the treatment of bleeding varices.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors compare transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunts (TIPS) to small-diameter prosthetic H-graft portacaval shunts (HGPCS). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunts have been embraced as a first-line therapy in the treatment of bleeding varices due to portal hypertension, although they have not been compared to operatively placed shunts in a prospective trial. METHODS: In 1993, the authors began a prospective, randomized trial to compare TIPS with HGPCSs. All patients had bleeding varices and had failed nonoperative management. Shunting was undertaken as definitive therapy in all. Failure of shunting was defined as an inability to accomplish shunting despite repeated attempts, unexpected liver failure leading to transplantation, irreversible shunt occlusion, major variceal rehemorrhage, or death. Mortality and failure rates were analyzed at 30 days (early) and after 30 days (late) using Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: There were 35 patients in each group, with no difference in age, gender, Child's class, etiology of cirrhosis, urgency of shunting, or incidence of ascites or encephalopathy between groups. In two patients, TIPS could not be placed despite repeated attempts. Transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic stent shunts reduced portal pressures from 32 +/- 7.5 mmHg (standard deviation) to 25 +/- 7.5 mmHg (p < 0.01), whereas HGPCS reduced them from 30 +/- 4.6 mmHg to 19 +/- 5.3 mmHg (p < 0.01; paired Student's test). Irreversible occlusion occurred in three patients after placement of TIPS. Total failure rate after TIPS placement was 57%; after HGPCS placement, it was 26% (p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Both TIPS and HGPCS reduced portal pressure. Placement of TIPS resulted in more deaths, more rebleeding, and more than twice the treatment failures. Mortality and failure rates promote the application of HGPCS over TIPS.

Rosemurgy, A S; Goode, S E; Zwiebel, B R; Black, T J; Brady, P G

1996-01-01

292

Nhlh1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is very tightly linked to the mouse looptail (Lp) mutation.  

PubMed

Looptail (Lp) is a mutation on the distal portion of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 1 that affects neurulation in mouse and is phenotypically expressed by appearance of an open neural tube along the entire antero-posterior axis of the embryo (craniorachischisis). Nhlh1, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, is expressed in the developing neural tube in structures affected by the Lp mutation and has been regionally assigned to the distal part of mouse Chr 1. Using a large panel of looptail animals from an (Lp/+ x SWR/J)F1 x SWR/J segregating backcross progeny, we have determined that Nhlh1 maps very close to Lp, with no recombinant detected in 500 informative animals tested; both map within a 0.6-cM segment defined as D1Mit113/Apoa2/Fcer1 gamma-(0.4 cM)-Nhlh1/Lp-(0.2 cM)-Fcer1 alpha/D1Mit149/Spna1. Nucleotide sequencing of Nhlh1 cDNA clones from wild type (WT) and Lp/Lp embryos failed to identify sequence alterations associated with the mutant phenotype. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA from WT and Lp/Lp embryos failed to identify specific rearrangements at or near the Nhlh1 locus, and Northern RNA blotting and RT-PCR evaluation of Nhlh1 mRNA expression indicated that both the levels and types of Nhlh1 mRNAs produced in WT and Lp/Lp embryos were indistinguishable. These studies suggest that Nhlh1 and Lp are not allelic. Nevertheless, Nhlh1 is the Chr 1 marker most tightly linked to Lp identified to date and can, therefore, be used as an excellent entry probe to clone the Lp region. PMID:8563167

Mullick, A; Groulx, N; Trasler, D; Gros, P

1995-10-01

293

Cost-effective analysis of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus surgical portacaval shunt for variceal bleeding in early cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage carries significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. The optimal prevention strategy for rebleeding in these patients remains controversial with respect to the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus a portocaval surgical shunt (PC). We sought to determine the long-term cost-effectiveness of these two treatments. A Markov state transition decision analysis was created and Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis performed to follow patients with early cirrhosis who have an upper gastrointestinal bleed despite medical therapy into either TIPS or PC. Patients were followed throughout the transition states until either death or survival. Probabilities of gastrointestinal rebleed, hepatic encephalopathy, surgical and TIPS-related complications as well as death were obtained from an extensive literature review. Costs were derived from average Medicare reimbursements. The main outcome was dollars per life-year saved. For patients with mild to moderate cirrhosis with upper gastrointestinal variceal bleed, the average cost per life year saved was $17,771 (SD = 471) and $21,438 (SD = 308) for TIPS and PC, respectively. The average life expectancy was 5.0 years and 7.0 years for TIPS and PC, respectively. This yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness rate for portocaval shunt of $3,299 per life year saved. Compared with TIPS, surgical PC shunt resulted in improved survival with minimal increase in cost. Therefore, given the low incremental cost of PC, it should be adopted as a cost-effective strategy in managing this patient population. PMID:21337874

Pierce, Damon S; Sperry, Jason; Nirula, Raminder

2011-02-01

294

78 FR 19758 - Stetson Capital Fund LP and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the benefit of eligible employees of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP and its affiliates...Fund LP (the ``Existing Fund'') and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP (``DPW''). Filing...pursuant to delegated authority. Kevin M. O'Neill, Deputy Secretary. [FR...

2013-04-02

295

75 FR 76317 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously...proposed AD, contact Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box...on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221...INFORMATION CONTACT: Mike Borfitz, Aerospace Engineer,...

2010-12-08

296

75 FR 73069 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, LLC, Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, LP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Katy Storage and Transportation, LP, et al.; Notice of Baseline Filings November 18, 2010. Enstor Grama Ridge Storage Docket...17, 2010, the applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-11-29

297

75 FR 65467 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Enterprise Intrastate L.P; Notice of Baseline Filings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intrastate, LLC; Enterprise Intrastate L.P; Notice of Baseline Filings October 18, 2010. Take notice that on October 15, 2010, the applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

2010-10-25

298

76 FR 19339 - Southcross Gulf Coast Transmission Ltd.; Southcross Mississippi Pipeline, L.P.; Southcross CCNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pipeline, L.P.; Southcross CCNG Transmission Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on March 29, 2011, the applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

2011-04-07

299

Incomplete deployment of the Vena Tech LP filter--case series and concerns.  

PubMed

The Vena Tech LP vena cava filter (B Braun, Evanston, Illinois) has been FDA approved since 2001 and is a permanent vena cava filtration device. It replaced the previous Vena tech LGM filter also manufactured by B Braun. The LGM filter had 2 case series reporting a high incidence of incomplete deployment of the filter, especially when placed from a jugular approach. Design changes were made to this device and the LP filter introduced. The LP filter has also been reported to have incompletely deployed both in peer reviewed literature as well as the FDA MAUDE website. We present here 3 cases of incomplete deployment of the Vena Tech LP filter and review the cases previously described as well as attempt to present possible etiologies for incomplete deployment. PMID:21527468

Contractor, Sohail; Esmaeili, Azadeh; Reina, Diego; Deitch, Edwin

2011-04-28

300

6. ROOF OF TURBINE BUILDING AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. ROOF OF TURBINE BUILDING AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM FROM NORTH END OF TURBINE BUILDING ROOF - Portland General Electric Company, Turbine Building, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

301

Generalization of the sequence space l(p) derived by weighted mean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequence space l(p) was introduced and studied by Maddox [I.J. Maddox, Spaces of strongly summable sequences, Quart. J. Math. Oxford (2) 18 (1967) 345-355]. In the present paper, the sequence spaces l(u,v;p) of non-absolute type which is derived by the generalized weighted mean is defined and proved that the spaces l(u,v;p) and l(p) are linearly isomorphic. Besides this, the [beta]- and [gamma]-duals of the space l(u,v;p) are computed and the basis of that space is constructed. Further, it is established that the sequence space lp(u,v) has AD property and given f-dual of the space lp(u,v). Finally, the matrix mappings from the sequence spaces l(u,v;p) to the sequence space [mu] and from the sequence space [mu] to the sequence space l(u,v;p) are characterized.

Altay, Bilal; Basar, Feyzi

2007-06-01

302

75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET...port, the Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET...operated floating LNG transfer and regasification unit...pipelines to four existing offshore pipelines (Dauphin...facilitate movement of personnel, equipment,...

2010-03-22

303

Chemoembolic Hepatopulmonary Shunt Reduction to Allow Safe Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Lobectomy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization represents an emerging transcatheter treatment option for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Elevation of the hepatopulmonary shunt fraction risks nontarget radiation to the lungs and may limit the use of {sup 90}Y therapy in patients with locally advanced disease with vascular invasion, who often demonstrate increased shunting. We present two cases in which patients with HCC and portal vein invasion resulting in elevated hepatopulmonary shunt fractions underwent chemoembolic shunt closure to allow safe {sup 90}Y radioembolization. Both patients demonstrated excellent tumor response and patient survival. On this basis, we propose a role for chemoembolic reduction of the lung shunt fraction before {sup 90}Y radioembolization in patients with extensive tumor-related hepatopulmonary shunting.

Gaba, Ron C., E-mail: rgaba@uic.edu [University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section in Interventional Radiology (United States); VanMiddlesworth, Kyle A. [Midwestern University School of Medicine (United States)

2012-12-15

304

Ascending transaqueductal cystoventriculoperitoneal shunting in dandy-walker malformation: technical note.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for Dandy-Walker malformation is still controversial. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting, cystoperitoneal shunting or combinations are the most common surgical options in the management of this clinical entity. Endoscopic procedures like ventriculocystostomy, 3rd ventriculostomy or endoscopy-assisted shunt surgeries have become the focus of recent publications. We describe a new transcystic endoscopic technique, with the usage of a single ascending transaqueductal shunt catheter with additional holes, whereby both the posterior fossa cyst and supratentorial ventricular compartments are drained effectively. By using this new technique complications associated with combined shunting can be avoided. In addition, by equalizing the pressure within the supra- and infratentorial compartments, the upward or downward herniations associated with single-catheter shunting can be prevented. PMID:23941970

Unal, Omer Faruk; Aras, Yavuz; Aydoseli, Aydin; Akcakaya, Mehmet Osman

2013-08-13

305

Biological Laser Printing (BioLP) for High Resolution Cell Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological laser printing, or BioLP, is a modified laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique that has the demonstrated\\u000a ability to print cells from living cultures and paraffin-embedded fixed tissue sections. Detailed studies have been published\\u000a that demonstrate the energy conversion layer used by BioLP to absorb incident laser energy and promote forward transfer of\\u000a biological materials prevents damage to the

Bradley R. Ringeisen; C. M. Othon; Xingjia Wu; D. B. Krizman; M. M. Darfler; J. J. Anders; P. K. Wu

306

Using Gavish-Grave LP to Formulate the Directed Black and White Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black and white traveling salesman problem (BWTSP) is a new class of NP-hard problem arising from work on airline scheduling\\u000a and telecommunication fiber networks. The existing Ghiani LP for the undirected BWTSP contains an exponential number of constraints.\\u000a For a special case of the directed BWTSP whose L?=?+??, the LP with polynomial number of constraints could be obtained by

He Jiang; Xianchao Zhang; Mingchu Li; Haoyang Che

2007-01-01

307

Therapeutic modulation of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2).  

PubMed

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a calcium-independent phospholipase A2 that circulates in plasma in association with lipoprotein particles, whereas in atherosclerotic plaques it is co-localized with macrophages. Lp-PLA2 generates two proinflammatory mediators, lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids, which play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions and formation of a necrotic core, leading to more vulnerable plaques. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that increased circulating levels of Lp-PLA2 predict an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Furthermore, histologic examination of diseased human coronary arteries reveals intense presence of the enzyme in atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture. These considerations suggest Lp-PLA2 as a promising therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 are increased in various types of hyperlipidemias, while hypolipidemic drugs reduce plasma Lp-PLA2 activity and mass along with the improvement of plasma lipid profile. A selective inhibitor of Lp-PLA2 activity, darapladib, has been developed and studies in animal models and humans have shown that it effectively and safely reduces Lp-PLA2 activity in plasma and in atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, in animal models darapladib decreases plaque area and necrotic core area whereas in humans it prevents the expansion of necrotic core volume. Whether the results obtained from the use of darapladib in studies in vitro, as well as in preclinical and clinical studies would translate into benefits on cardiovascular event outcomes, awaits to be proved in 2 ongoing phase 3 trials. PMID:22074435

Tselepis, Alexandros F; Rizzo, Manfredi; Goudevenos, Ioannis A

2011-11-01

308

Relations between $\\\\beta$ and $\\\\delta$ for QP and LP in Compressed Sensing Computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many compressed sensing applications, linear programming (LP) has been\\u000aused to reconstruct a sparse signal. When observation is noisy, the LP\\u000aformulation is extended to allow an inequality constraint and the solution is\\u000adependent on a parameter $\\\\delta$, related to the observation noise level.\\u000aRecently, some researchers also considered quadratic programming (QP) for\\u000acompressed sensing signal reconstruction and the

Jun Zhang; Jun Wang; Guangwu Xu

2010-01-01

309

Ultraviolet four-wave mixing in the LP02 fiber mode.  

PubMed

We report UV four-wave mixing in the LP02 mode of a photonic crystal fiber when pumped by a frequency-doubled 532 nm microchip laser in the normal dispersion regime. A pure LP02 mode was generated for the pump light by a broadband all-fiber mode converter. Ultraviolet signal wavelengths as short as 342 nm were generated. PMID:24081042

Chen, Y; Wadsworth, W J; Birks, T A

2013-10-01

310

Relationship of the oxidative pentose shunt pathway to lipid synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tissue activities of the oxidative pentose shunt enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.44), in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster are not dependent on the amount of flux through the oxidative pentose shunt pathway. An oxidative pentose shunt deficiency effects about a 40% reduction in the NADPH concentration in early third instar larvae, resulting in a

B. W. Geer; D. L. Lindel; D. M. Lindel

1979-01-01

311

Slit ventricle syndrome after cyst-peritoneal shunting for the treatment of intracranial arachnoid cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious complications following installation of a cyst-peritoneal shunt in an 8-year-old boy with asymptomatic arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa are reported. Highly elevated intracranial pressure without association of ventriculomegaly seen in this patient indicates slit ventricle syndrome caused by malfunction of the cyst-peritoneal shunt. This phenomenon is worth recognizing as a possible consequence of cyst-peritoneal shunting for the

Nobuhiko Aoki; Tatsuo Sakai; Yoshihiro Umezawa

1990-01-01

312

Syringo-subarachnoid shunt for syringomyelia associated with Chiari malformation (type 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The authors report the surgical results of 28 patients with syringomyelia associated with Chiari malformation (type 1). 28 patients underwent 34 operative procedures. Syringo-subarachnoid shunt was performed in 28 patients, foramen magnum decompression with syringo-subarachnoid shunt in three, ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in one, terminal syringostomy in one, and foramen magnum decompression with terminal syringostomy in one. In an average postoperative

T. Isu; Y. Iwasaki; M. Akino; H. Abe

1990-01-01

313

Method for Multiple Mode Piezoelectric Shunting with Single PZT Transducer for Vibration Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a method for passive piezoelectric shunt-damping of multiple vibration modes using a single piezoelectric transducer (PZT). The method, which is different from other multiple-mode shunting (Edberg et al., 1992; Hollkamp, 1994), is to employ a blocking circuit in series with each parallel resistor-inductor shunt circuit designed to control one structural mode. The blocking circuit consists of one parallel

Shu-Yau Wu

1998-01-01

314

Embolization of portal-systemic shunts in cirrhotic patients with chronic recurrent hepatic encephalopathy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of embolization of portal-systemic shunts in cirrhotic patients with chronic recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (CRHE). Methods. Seven cirrhotic patients with CRHE refractory to medical treatment (3 men and 4 women, mean age 66 years) were studied. Five patients had splenorenal shunts, 1 had a gastrorenal shunt, and 1 had an intrahepatic portal vein-hepatic vein shunt. Shunt embolization was performed using stainless steel coils, with a percutaneous transhepatic portal vein approach in 4 patients and a transrenal vein approach in 3 patients. Results. After embolization, the shunt disappeared in 4 patients on either ultrasound pulsed Doppler monitoring or portography. Complications observed in the 7 patients were fever, transient pleural effusion, ascites, and mild esophageal varices. For 3-6 months after embolization, the 4 patients whose shunts disappeared showed minimal or no reappearance of a shunt, and had no recurrence of encephalopathy. The serum ammonia levels decreased and electroencephalograms also improved. One of the 4 patients, who developed mild esophageal varices, required no treatment. Treatment was effective in 3 of the 4 patients (75%) who underwent embolization via a transhepatic portal vein. Conclusion. Transvascular embolization of shunts improved the outcome in 4 of 7 patients. The most effective embolization was achieved via the percutaneous transhepatic portal vein approach.

Sakurabayashi, Shin; Sezai, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Masanori; Oka, Hiroshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Police Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology (Japan)

1997-03-15

315

Thrombosed Mesocaval Shunt: Salvage by Mechanical Thrombolysis. Case Report and Review of the Literature  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of a 27-year-old male who presented with acute mesocaval shunt thrombosis, which was successfully managed by mechanical thrombolysis. Shunt thrombosis was suspected when the patient showed clinical signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice in the immediate postoperative period. Doppler sonography showed absence of flow across the shunt, suggestive of thrombosis, which was mechanically thrombolyzed by a percutaneous approach. The portocaval pressure gradient noted at the end of procedure was <5 mm Hg. The shunt remained patent at the end of 3 months' follow-up.

Baijal, Sanjay Saran, E-mail: ssbaijal@sgpgi.ac.in; Mohan, Suyash; Singh, Jagadeesh R.; Verma, Ashish [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis (India)

2008-07-15

316

RNA Elements Directing Translation of the Duck Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase via Ribosomal Shunting?  

PubMed Central

The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) reverse transcriptase (P) is translated from the downstream position on a bicistronic mRNA, called the pregenomic RNA, through a poorly characterized ribosomal shunt. Here, the positions of the discontinuous ribosomal transfer during shunting were mapped, and RNA elements important for shunting were identified as a prelude to dissecting the shunting mechanism. Mutations were introduced into the DHBV genome, genomic expression vectors were transfected into cells which support reverse transcription, and P translation efficiency was defined as the ratio of P/mRNA. Five observations were made. First, ribosomes departed from sequences that comprise the RNA stem-loop called ? that is key to viral replication, but the known elements of ? were not needed for shunting. Second, at least two landing sites for ribosomes were found on the mRNA. Third, all sequences upstream of ?, most sequences between the cap and the P AUG, and sequences within the P-coding region were dispensable for shunting. Fourth, elements on the mRNA involved in reverse transcription or predicted to be involved in shunting on the basis of mechanisms documented in other viruses, including short open reading frames near the departure site, were not essential for shunting. Finally, two RNA elements in the 5? portion of the mRNA were found to assist shunting. These observations are most consistent with shunting being directed by signals that act through an uncharacterized RNA secondary structure. Together, these data indicate that DHBV employs either a novel shunting mechanism or a major variation on one of the characterized mechanisms.

Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E.

2011-01-01

317

RNA elements directing translation of the duck hepatitis B Virus polymerase via ribosomal shunting.  

PubMed

The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) reverse transcriptase (P) is translated from the downstream position on a bicistronic mRNA, called the pregenomic RNA, through a poorly characterized ribosomal shunt. Here, the positions of the discontinuous ribosomal transfer during shunting were mapped, and RNA elements important for shunting were identified as a prelude to dissecting the shunting mechanism. Mutations were introduced into the DHBV genome, genomic expression vectors were transfected into cells which support reverse transcription, and P translation efficiency was defined as the ratio of P/mRNA. Five observations were made. First, ribosomes departed from sequences that comprise the RNA stem-loop called ? that is key to viral replication, but the known elements of ? were not needed for shunting. Second, at least two landing sites for ribosomes were found on the mRNA. Third, all sequences upstream of ?, most sequences between the cap and the P AUG, and sequences within the P-coding region were dispensable for shunting. Fourth, elements on the mRNA involved in reverse transcription or predicted to be involved in shunting on the basis of mechanisms documented in other viruses, including short open reading frames near the departure site, were not essential for shunting. Finally, two RNA elements in the 5' portion of the mRNA were found to assist shunting. These observations are most consistent with shunting being directed by signals that act through an uncharacterized RNA secondary structure. Together, these data indicate that DHBV employs either a novel shunting mechanism or a major variation on one of the characterized mechanisms. PMID:21507974

Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E

2011-04-20

318

Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt.  

PubMed

Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment. PMID:23774155

Nzwalo, Hipólito; Carrapatoso, Leonor; Ferreira, Fátima; Basilio, Carlos

2013-06-01

319

Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.  

PubMed

A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA?mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

2012-02-01

320

Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

2012-02-01

321

Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam  

SciTech Connect

A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2012-02-15

322

Lp(a) lipoprotein levels as a predictor of risk for thrombogenic events in patients with Behçet's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To investigate whether plasma levels of Lp(a) lipoprotein (Lp(a)) are predictors of defective fibrinolytic activity, leading to thrombosis, in patients with Behçet's disease. METHODS--Plasma Lp(a) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, lipids and lipoproteins by enzymatic methods, and apolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogen (turbidimetric method), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and D-dimer levels by enzyme immunoassay.

A Orem; O De?er; O Memi?; S Bahadir; E Ovali; G Cim?it

1995-01-01

323

Moment-tensor inversion of LP events recorded on Etna in 2004 using constraints obtained from wave simulation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistent occurrence of long period (LP) events at Mt Etna became apparent with the installation of the first fixed broad-band seismic network in late 2003. Repeating similar LP events from Nov. `03 to Sept. `04 indicate a non-destructive source process. We perform moment tensor (MT) inversions on a stacked high S\\/N ratio representative LP signal, conducting a grid search

Ivan Lokmer; Christopher J. Bean; Gilberto Saccorotti; Domenico Patanè

2007-01-01

324

Moment-tensor inversion of LP events recorded on Etna in 2004 using constraints obtained from wave simulation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistent occurrence of long period (LP) events at Mt Etna became apparent with the installation of the first fixed broad-band seismic network in late 2003. Repeating similar LP events from Nov. ‘03 to Sept. ‘04 indicate a non-destructive source process. We perform moment tensor (MT) inversions on a stacked high S\\/N ratio representative LP signal, conducting a grid search

Ivan Lokmer; Christopher J. Bean; Gilberto Saccorotti; Domenico Patanè

2007-01-01

325

Antibiotic-Impregnated Shunt Catheters for the Treatment of Infantile Hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) components decrease shunt infections by preventing bacterial colonization that occurs during implantation. Despite studies showing improved efficacy in preventing infection however, concern still exists regarding using AIS components in infants, especially premature ones. In this study, clinical outcomes were assessed in infants with hydrocephalus (<1 year) following AIS placement. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted

Daniel M. Sciubba; Joseph C. Noggle; Benjamin S. Carson; George I. Jallo

2008-01-01

326

Creation of transcatheter aortopulmonary and cavopulmonary shunts using magnetic catheters: feasibility study in swine.  

PubMed

Surgical shunts are the basic form of palliation for many types of congenital heart disease. The Glenn shunt (superior cavopulmonary connection) and central shunt (aortopulmonary connection) represent surgical interventions that could potentially be accomplished by transcatheter techniques. We sought to investigate the efficacy of using neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnetic catheters to create transcatheter cavopulmonary and aortopulmonary shunts. NdFeB magnets were machined and integrated into catheters. "Target" catheters were placed in the pulmonary arteries (PAs), and radiofrequency "perforation" catheters were placed in either the descending aorta (DAo) for central shunts or the superior vena cava (SVC) for Glenn shunts. The magnet technique or "balloon target" method was used to pass wires from the DAo or the SVC into the PA. Aortopulmonary and cavopulmonary connections were then created using Atrium iCAST covered stents. Magnet catheters were used to perforate the left pulmonary artery from the DAo, thereby establishing a transcatheter central shunt. Given the orientation of the vasculature, magnetic catheters could not be used for SVC-to-PA connections; however, perforation from the SVC to the right pulmonary artery was accomplished with a trans-septal needle and balloon target. Transcatheter Glenn or central shunts were successfully created in four swine. PMID:19365662

Levi, Daniel S; Danon, Saar; Gordon, Brent; Virdone, Nicky; Vinuela, Fernando; Shah, Sanjay; Carman, Greg; Moore, John W

2009-04-14

327

A Comparison of Voltage Stability Indices for Placing Shunt FACTS Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location of shunt compensation devices is important for the enhancement of the voltage stability for practical power systems. This paper presents a comparison of several voltage stability indices in electric power system to identify the weakest bus\\/ area of the system. Shunt FACTS controller is introduced at the weakest bus in IEEE 14-bus test system and its effectiveness is assessed

A. R. Phadke; S. K. Bansal; K. R. Niazi

2008-01-01

328

Enterocutaneous fistulae presenting as a late complication of a non-functioning Ventriculo- Peritoneal shunt catheter.  

PubMed

A patient with spina bifida and hydrocephalus who had undergone multiple shunt revisions, presented with a 9 month history of chronic discharging sinuses related to a retained shunt catheter not visible on x-ray. This case report demonstrates the importance of clinical history and investigation in patients with retained catheters presenting with cutaneous sinuses. PMID:22347747

McGrogan, Damian; Shoakazemi, Alireza; Suttner, Nigel

2011-05-01

329

Enterocutaneous fistulae presenting as a late complication of a non-functioning Ventriculo- Peritoneal shunt catheter  

PubMed Central

A patient with spina bifida and hydrocephalus who had undergone multiple shunt revisions, presented with a 9 month history of chronic discharging sinuses related to a retained shunt catheter not visible on x-ray. This case report demonstrates the importance of clinical history and investigation in patients with retained catheters presenting with cutaneous sinuses.

McGrogan, Damian; Shoakazemi, Alireza; Suttner, Nigel

2011-01-01

330

A modification of Winter's shunt in the treatment of pediatric low-flow priapism  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeCavernous shunt operations available for treating priapism are frequently unsuitable for children owing to high chances of persistent venous leak that results in postoperative erectile dysfunction. In this article, a modification of Winter's shunt, which is suitable for treating low-flow priapism in children, is described.

Venkatachalam Raveenthiran

2008-01-01

331

Linezolid for the Treatment of a Heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus Shunt Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as the cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections is a disconcerting phenomenon that often requires the use of alternative antimicrobials due to resistance against commonly used agents. The following is a case report describing the successful treatment of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by a heteroresistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus with linezolid. Linezolid may have utility

Aaron M. Cook; Christian N. Ramsey; Craig A. Martin; Thomas Pittman

2005-01-01

332

Therapy for Foetal Pericardial Tumours: Survival following in utero Shunting, and Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first case of foetal pericardial teratoma, treated successfully in utero by pericardio-amniotic shunting, and review the relevant literature. Foetal treatment improves survival in case of hydrops. Foetal pericardio-amniotic shunting could possibly be an alternative to serial pericardiocentesis.

R. Devlieger; A. Hindryckx; T. Van Mieghem; A. Debeer; L. De Catte; M. Gewillig; L. Gucciardo; J. Deprest; B. Meyns

2009-01-01

333

Shunt capacitor sizing for radial distribution feeders with distorted substation voltages  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that a major portion of power system losses occur at the distribution level. Some of these losses can be eliminated by proper selection of shunt capacitors on primary feeders via power factor correction. The objective of this paper is to present an algorithm for optimizing shunt capacitor sizes on radial distribution lines with nonsinusoidal substation voltages,

Y. Baghzouz; S. Ertem

1990-01-01

334

Outlet fenestration for isolated fourth ventricle with and without an internal shunt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional shunting of isolated fourth ventricle is notorious for leading to frequent and severe complications. We present four patients with isolated fourth ventricle who have been treated with open posterior fossa surgery together with either outlet fenestration alone or outlet fenestration and a fourth ventricle-spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) shunt. A survey of the relevant literature did not yield any other

Carmen Dollo; Andrew Kanner; Vitaly Siomin; Liat Ben-Sira; Jacob Sivan; Shlomo Constantini

2001-01-01

335

Cost and Outcome in a Series of Shunted Premature Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines cost and outcome in a series of 50 low birthweight infants who suffered severe intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage and subsequently required ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Although nearly one third of these children might achieve some degree of self-sufficiency, a cost-benefit analysis in this shunted population is not encouraging.

Jack E. McCallum; David Turbeville

1994-01-01

336

Design of CMOS based ultra wideband low noise amplifier using active shunt feedback technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents design technique of CMOS based UWB low noise amplifier using active shunt feedback technique at 0.18µm technology. The proposed low noise amplifier is able to provide high gain with flatness at ultra wideband (UWB) range, which yet consumes small power with simple and compact design model. This LNA is implemented using Cascode amplifier topology with active shunt

Ashish Bharade; Hemant Ghyvat; D. S. Ajnar; Pramod Jain

2011-01-01

337

Compact Hybrid Resonator With Series and Shunt Resonances Used in Miniaturized Filters and Balun Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid resonant circuit is proposed in this paper. The circuit is a combination of a shunt resonant circuit and series resonant circuit. With this combination, lower resonant frequency is achieved as compared to the single shunt and series resonant circuits. As a result, a compact resonator with smaller size can be achieved as compared to the conventional quarter- and

Tao Yang; Masaya Tamura; Tatsuo Itoh

2010-01-01

338

How shunting inhibition affects the discharge of lumbar motoneurones: a dynamic clamp study in anaesthetized cats  

PubMed Central

In the present work, dynamic clamp was used to inject a current that mimicked tonic synaptic activity in the soma of cat lumbar motoneurones with a microelectrode. The reversal potential of this current could be set at the resting potential so as to prevent membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization. The only effect of the dynamic clamp was then to elicit a constant and calibrated increase of the motoneurone input conductance. The effect of the resulting shunt was investigated on repetitive discharges elicited by current pulses. Shunting inhibition reduced very substantially the firing frequency in the primary range without changing the slope of the current–frequency curves. The shift of the I–f curve was proportional to the conductance increase imposed by the dynamic clamp and depended on an intrinsic property of the motoneurone that we called the shunt potential. The shunt potential ranged between 11 and 37 mV above the resting potential, indicating that the sensitivity of motoneurones to shunting inhibition was quite variable. The shunt potential was always near or above the action potential voltage threshold. A theoretical model allowed us to interpret these experimental results. The shunt potential was shown to be a weighted time average of membrane voltage. The weighting factor is the phase response function of the neurone that peaks at the end of the interspike interval. The shunt potential indicates whether mixed synaptic inputs have an excitatory or inhibitory effect on the ongoing discharge of the motoneurone.

Brizzi, L; Meunier, C; Zytnicki, D; Donnet, M; Hansel, D; d'Incamps, B Lamotte; van Vreeswijk, C

2004-01-01

339

Pruritus possibly associated with a portosystemic shunt in a bichon frise puppy  

PubMed Central

A bichon frise puppy was presented with generalized pruritus. At 22 weeks, a portosystemic shunt was diagnosed. Correction of the shunt led to resolution of the pruritus. Pruritus associated with hepatobiliary disease is well documented in humans; this case suggests that hepatobiliary disease may be associated with pruritus in dogs.

Waisglass, Stephen E.; Gillick, Avery; Cockshutt, Joanne; Hall, Jan A.

2006-01-01

340

Realization of three phase cascaded H-Bridge multi-level inverter as Shunt Active Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a three-phase cascaded H-Bridge MLI as Shunt Active Filter intended for installation on industrial and utility of power distribution system is widely accepted and implemented as a solution to the power quality problems in utility, industry and commercial applications. This paper proposes the design of a shunt active power filter under the condition of voltage sag, unbalanced

N. Chellammal; Ravitheja Gurram; K. N. V. Prasad

2011-01-01

341

Link between the CSF shunt and achievement in adults with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESA few enterprising adults with shunt treated spina bifida live independently in the community, have a job in competitive employment, and drive to work in their own car. By contrast others with similar disability but lacking their motivation remain dependent on care and supervision. The aim of this study was to identify events in the history of their shunt which

Gillian M Hunt; Pippa Oakeshott; Sally Kerry

1999-01-01

342

Serial Neuropsychological Assessment and Evidence of Shunt Malfunction in Spina Bifida: A Longitudinal Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele is often accompanied by hydrocephalus (MMH), making it a potentially unstable neurological condition requiring shunt placement and possible revisions. Serial neuropsychological assessment is an important tool in monitoring children with MMH, as cognitive changes can indicate shunt malfunction and hydrocephalus. We present the case of a girl with MMH who had five neuropsychological assessments (ages 5, 7, 11, 12,

Melissa A. Matson; E. Mark Mahone; T. Andrew Zabel

2005-01-01

343

Superior vena caval obstruction associated with long-term peritoneovenous shunting.  

PubMed Central

The first described case of superior vena caval obstruction associated with a chronically implanted peritoneovenous shunt occurred in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome eight months after placement, and necessitated operative portal decompression and shunt removal. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Eckhauser, F E; Strodel, W E; Knol, J A; Turcotte, J G

1979-01-01

344

Normal-pressure hydrocephalus: current understanding of diagnostic tests and shunting  

SciTech Connect

Normal-pressure hydrocephalus is no longer difficult to diagnose or treat-cranial computed tomographic scanning has made the diagnosis of ventricular enlargement straightforward, and shunt placement often helps the patient whose condition can be traced to a specific cause. Predicting accurately whether a patient will benefit from a shunt, however, is still problematic.

Black, P.M.

1982-02-01

345

Electroacoustic absorbers: bridging the gap between shunt loudspeakers and active sound absorption.  

PubMed

The acoustic impedance at the diaphragm of an electroacoustic transducer can be varied using a range of basic electrical control strategies, amongst which are electrical shunt circuits. These passive shunt techniques are compared to active acoustic feedback techniques for controlling the acoustic impedance of an electroacoustic transducer. The formulation of feedback-based acoustic impedance control reveals formal analogies with shunt strategies, and highlights an original method for synthesizing electric networks ("shunts") with positive or negative components, bridging the gap between passive and active acoustic impedance control. This paper describes the theory unifying all these passive and active acoustic impedance control strategies, introducing the concept of electroacoustic absorbers. The equivalence between shunts and active control is first formalized through the introduction of a one-degree-of-freedom acoustic resonator accounting for both electric shunts and acoustic feedbacks. Conversely, electric networks mimicking the performances of active feedback techniques are introduced, identifying shunts with active impedance control. Simulated acoustic performances are presented, with an emphasis on formal analogies between the different control techniques. Examples of electric shunts are proposed for active sound absorption. Experimental assessments are then presented, and the paper concludes with a general discussion on the concept and potential improvements. PMID:21568400

Lissek, Hervé; Boulandet, Romain; Fleury, Romain

2011-05-01

346

A New Look at Myelomeningoceles: Functional Level, Vertebral Level, Shunting, and the Implications for Fetal Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Previous reports have sug- gested that 80% to 85% of patients who have a myelome- ningocele (MMC) and undergo surgical repair after birth develop hydrocephalus and require the placement of a ventricular shunt. However, the rate of shunting as a function of spinal level is not well established. We sought to determine the distribution of postnatally re- paired MMC

Natalie E. Rintoul; Leslie N. Sutton; Anne M. Hubbard; Brian Cohen; Jeanne Melchionni; Patrick S. Pasquariello; N. Scott Adzick

347

Acute modified Blalock-Taussing shunt obstruction successfully treated with urokinase and heparin  

PubMed Central

Acute modified Blalock-Tuassig shunt obstruction due to thrombosis may be life-threatening. We report non-invasive relief of shunt obstruction with thrombolysis and heparinisation, a potentially life-saving intervention that is applicable in all settings, including outside tertiary paediatric cardiology centres.

Mizzi, J; Grech, V

2005-01-01

348

The effect of alignment on the pressure\\/flow characteristics of flow control shunt valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object: The proper functioning of shunt valves in vivo is dependent on many factors, including the valve itself, the antisiphon device (if included), patency of inlet and outlet tubing and location of the valve. Two general categories of shunt valves are available today, the differential-pressure valve (with or without antisiphon device) and the flow-control valve. We have previously shown that

Paul C. Francel; John Honeycutt; Paul Tompkins

2001-01-01

349

Shunt Resistance Variation for a Constant Power Supply in UHF RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of short reader-to-tag distances, shunt resistance diverts current in order to protect the chip but this affects the chip power supply and the delta radar cross section. This paper presents a shunt resistance law variation which keeps a constant power supply in the RFID chip and the impact of this law on the delta radar cross section.

E. Colin; A. Moretto; S. Abou Chakra; C. Ripoll

2009-01-01

350

Aggressive Management of Shunt Infection: Combined Intravenous and Intraventricular Antibiotic Therapy for Twelve or Less Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This report is limited to patients with a single cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infected by a single organism, and compares two treatment protocols. Methods: In the initial protocol (1975–1991), patients underwent removal of the shunt system and received intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics. Intraventricular antibiotics were administered twice daily to those with external ventricular drainage. When CSF was cultured 48

Hector E. James; John S. Bradley

2008-01-01

351

Instantiating a mechatronic valve schedule for a hydrocephalus shunt.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is caused by blockage or reabsorption difficulty that upsets the natural balance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, resulting in a build-up of the fluid in the ventricles of the brain. One of the recent advances in the treatment of hydrocephalus is the invention of a mechatronic valve. The desirability of such valve lies in the potential of having shunt that not only control hydrocephalus but also seeks to treat it. In contrast to current valves, such a valve is regulated based on a time based schedule not on the differential pressure across the valve. Thus the effectiveness of such valve is highly dependant on selecting an appropriate valve schedule that delivers personal dynamic treatment for every individual patient. Providing such a schedule is likely to be one of the obstacles facing the implementation of the mechatronic valve. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to help in developing such a schedule that dynamically change based on the patients' own intracranial pressure data and a novel figure of merit, thus providing the physician with an easy tool that facilitate the use of the mechatronic valve. The algorithm was implemented in M ATLAB and Simulink. Real ICP data for three hydrocephalus patients (before shunting) were used to test this algorithm and the resulted schedules along with the resulted intracranial pressure data have illustrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in providing schedule that maintain ICP within the normal limits. PMID:19963474

Momani, Lina; Alkharabsheh, Abdel Rahman; Al-Zuibi, Nayel; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

2009-01-01

352

Physiologic determinants of operative survival after portacaval shunt.  

PubMed Central

Twenty cirrhotic patients with bleeding from esophageal varices were studied before, during, and after portacaval shunt. There were 12 survivors and eight nonsurvivors. Preoperative determination of hepatic function and classification by Child's criteria correctly predicted outcome only in those with very good and those with very poor hepatic function. However, the majority of patients had intermediate liver function, and their operative survival could not be predicted on this basis. Other parameters, however, did distinguish between survivors and nonsurvivors. Survivors had better preoperative cardiac contractility, shorter operations, less severe preoperative and intraoperative blood loss, and fewer emergency operations. Intraoperatively, survivors maintained cardiac index and oxygen delivery while nonsurvivors did not. After operation, survivors had increased cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption above preoperative values, while nonsurvivors failed to attain this. Analysis of these data suggests that determination of preoperative hepatic function alone will not provide accurate prediction of outcome from portacaval shunt, because there are multiple factors that determine outcome. The determinants identifed in this study were 1) preoperative hepatic function, 2) degree of hemodynamic compensation from preoperative bleeding and shock, 3) magnitude of the intraoperative oxygen deficits, 4) hemodynamic reserve allowing for the compensatory postoperative state, and 5) nutritional status.

Waxman, K; Shoemaker, W C

1983-01-01

353

Trabecular meshwork bypass tube shunt: initial case series  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study describes a prospective consecutive case series of the initial six eyes of five patients undergoing implantation of the trabecular bypass tube shunt. Methods: A prospective consecutive case series. The initial six eyes of five patients with uncontrolled open angle glaucoma who had never previously undergone ocular surgery. Implantation of the trabecular bypass tube shunt measuring 150 ?m outer diameter and 50 ?m inner diameter was performed with the distal end placed in Schlemm’s canal and the proximal end in the anterior chamber. The main outcome measures were visual acuity, intraocular pressure, glaucoma medication use. Results: The tube was successfully implanted in five of six eyes. In four eyes longer term follow up of 5–9 months showed no loss of visual acuity with decreased intraocular pressure from preoperative levels (mean 23.4–16.5 mm Hg) and reduced requirement of glaucoma medications (mean 3–0.5). In a subset of two eyes, there was no measured increase in aqueous flare or reduction of endothelial cell count. In one eye the tube was explanted because of presumed misplacement by excessive bleeding during surgery. Two eyes showed a diffuse bleb. Conclusions: This study reports the initial experience with a novel approach to surgical glaucoma therapy. This very small tube allows a direct communication to be established between the anterior chamber and Schlemm’s canal, effecting a trabecular bypass. In this small number of eyes this procedure reduced intraocular pressure and the need for glaucoma medications without appreciable side effects.

Spiegel, D; Kobuch, K

2002-01-01

354

Destruction of LP XM46 using the molten salt destruction process. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant LP XM46 (the new designation for LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of LP XM46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The purpose of these initial Phase 1 runs was to collect information on the applicability of the Molten Salt Destruction Process for the destruction of LP XM46, identify the key technical uncertainties, and to plan future runs. The tentative results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, indicate that: (1) LP XM46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration; and (2) under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the LP XM46 is converted to NOx, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

1994-04-01

355

Circulating and PBMC Lp-PLA2 Associate Differently with Oxidative Stress and Subclinical Inflammation in Nonobese Women (Menopausal Status)  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity in circulation and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in nonobese women and according to menopausal status. Lp-PLA2 activity, a marker for cardiovascular risk is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighty postmenopausal women (53.0±4.05 yr) and 96 premenopausal women (39.7±9.25 yr) participated in this study. Lp-PLA2 activities, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and IL-1? in plasma as well as in PBMCs were measured. Plasma ox-LDL was also measured. Postmenopausal women demonstrated higher circulating levels of ox-LDL and IL-6, as well as IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? in PBMCs, than premenopausal women. In both groups, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity positively correlated with Lp-PLA2 activity in PBMCs and plasma ox-LDL. In premenopausal women, Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs positively correlated with IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? in PBMCs. In postmenopausal women, plasma ox-LDL positively correlated with PBMC cytokine production. In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women according to plasma ox-LDL level (median level: 48.715 U/L), a significant increase in Lp-PLA2 activity in the plasma but not the PBMCs was found in the high ox-LDL subgroup. Plasma Lp-PLA2 activity positively correlated with unstimulated PBMC Lp-PLA2 activity in the low ox-LDL subgroup (r?=?0.627, P<0.001), whereas in the high ox-LDL circulating Lp-PLA2 activity positively correlated with plasma ox-LDL (r?=?0.390, P?=?0.014) but not with Lp-PLA2 activity in PBMCs. Conclusions/Significance The lack of relation between circulating Lp-PLA2 activity and Lp-PLA2 activity in PBMCs was found in postmenopausal women with high ox-LDL. This may indicate other sources of circulating Lp-PLA2 activity except PBMC in postmenopausal women with high ox-LDL. We also demonstrated that circulating Lp-PLA2 and PBMC secreted Lp-PLA2 associate differently with markers of oxidative stress and sub clinical inflammation in nonobese women, particularly according to the menopausal states.

Kim, Oh Yoen; Lee, Yonghee; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Sweeney, Gary; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

2012-01-01

356

Investigating the source characteristics of long-period (LP) seismic events recorded on Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatic and hydrothermal processes play a significant role in generating seismicity at active volcanoes. These signals can be recorded at the surface and can be used to obtain an insight into the volcano's internal dynamics. Long period (LP) events are of particular interest as they often accompany or precede volcanic eruptions, but they are still not well understood. Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion Island, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world however LP events are rarely recorded there. A seismic network of 20 broadband seismometers has been operational on Piton de la Fournaise volcano since November 2009. Between November 2009 and January 2011 the volcano erupted five times, but only 15 LP events were recorded. Three of these eruptions were preceded by LP events, and several LP events were recorded during an intrusive phase. A family of three repeating LP events exists within the dataset. In order to characterize these events we locate and perform moment tensor inversion on the LP family. The LP events are located within the summit crater at shallow depths (< 200 m below the surface). Inversions show that the source mechanism is best represented by a tensile crack with horizontal crack geometry. We also investigate the relationship between LP occurrence and eruptive characteristics (size of the eruption, deformation of the edifice, etc.), and we find that the events exist only during flank eruptions and can be generated by the activity of the hydrothermal system and/or by the deformation inside the crater.

Zecevic, Megan; De Barros, Louis; Bean, Christopher J.; O'Brien, Gareth S.; Brenguier, Florent

2013-05-01

357

Antibiotic-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts—a multi-centre British paediatric neurosurgery group (BPNG) study using historical controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection remains a significant problem. The introduction of antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS)\\u000a systems in the prevention of shunt infection may represent a potential advance; however, there are no randomized controlled\\u000a trials to establish a robust evidence-based practice. Previously published single-institution cohort studies have provided\\u000a varying results on the efficacy of AIS systems in the prevention of shunt infection. In

Jothy Kandasamy; Kerry Dwan; John C. Hartley; Michael D. Jenkinson; Caroline Hayhurst; Sylvia Gatscher; Dominic Thompson; Darach Crimmins; Conor Mallucci

2011-01-01

358

Ventricular enlargement due to acute hypernatremia in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.  

PubMed

Patients requiring CSF shunts frequently have comorbidities that can influence water and electrolyte balances. The authors report on a case involving a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in a patient who underwent intravenous hyperhydration and withdrawal of vasopressin substitution prior to scheduled high-dose chemotherapy regimen for a metastatic suprasellar germinoma. After acute neurological deterioration, the patient underwent CT scanning that demonstrated ventriculomegaly. A shunt tap revealed no flow and negative opening pressure. Due to suspicion of proximal shunt malfunction, the comatose patient underwent immediate surgical exploration of the ventricle catheter, which was found to be patent. However, acute severe hypernatremia was diagnosed during the procedure. After correction of the electrolyte disturbances, the patient regained consciousness and made a good recovery. Although rare, the effects of acute severe hypernatremia on brain volume and ventricular size should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure. PMID:19911884

Andres, Robert H; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Kuhlen, Dominique; Mariani, Luigi

2010-07-01

359

Noise control in a duct system with online-tuned shunted piezoeletric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an application of resonant piezoelectric shunt damping to reduce sound radiated by a clamped square aluminium plate. The plate is mounted in a duct system and excited by plane waves. The sound radiation of the plate is evaluated by measuring the volume velocity and radiated sound power. Results show a significant reduction of the radiated sound power, if the resonant shunt circuit is tuned around the first natural frequency of the plate. Additionally, the performance of the online-tuned resonant shunt for varying operating conditions is compared with a not online-tuned shunt. It is shown that the online-tuned shunt keeps optimal noise reduction for varying temperature.

Niederberger, Dominik; Pietrzko, Stanislaw; Morari, Manfred

2004-07-01

360

PFO and Right-to-Left Shunting in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) with right-to-left shunt has a prevalence of 10% to 34% in the general population. It can cause an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and paradoxical peripheral or coronary embolization. Its influence on migraine and several other diseases and conditions is currently under debate. Attention has recently been turned to the correlation between PFO and obstructive sleep apnea. Thus far, studies on the prevalence of right-to-left shunts as a surrogate for PFO in these patients were limited by small sample sizes and the results have been conflicting. Here, we evaluate the prevalence of right-to-left shunting (RLS) through transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in a large patient group with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: One hundred consecutive patients (mean age 59.5 y) with OSA underwent TCD with intravenous injection of agitated saline. The grading of right-to-left-shunts was in accordance with the Spencer PFO Grading Scale. Results: RLS was detected in 72 of 100 patients (72%). Thirty-four out of these 72 patients (47%) had a shunt grade I or II; 15 (21%) had a shunt Grade III or IV; and 23 (32%) had a large shunt (Grade V or V+). In 47 of 72 patients (65%), a right-to-left shunt was detectable at rest without Valsalva maneuver. Conclusion: The prevalence of a RLS in patients with OSA is high. Provided other intracardiac or pulmonary shunts were absent, the high prevalence of a RLS suggests a high prevalence of PFO in patients with OSA. Citation: Guchlerner M; Kardos P; Liss-Koch E; Franke J; Wunderlich N; Bertog S; Sievert H. PFO and right-to-left shunting in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):375–380.

Guchlerner, Marina; Kardos, Peter; Liss-Koch, Eva; Franke, Jennifer; Wunderlich, Nina; Bertog, Stefan; Sievert, Horst

2012-01-01

361

Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgery in Patients With a Prior Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: The Department of Veterans Affairs Experience  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The estimated prevalence of hydrocephalus in all age groups is between 1% and 1.5%. Placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt in such patients offers them relatively normal lives. There are minimal data concerning the risk of postoperative complications in patients with shunts who undergo subsequent major visceral operations. We hypothesized that healthy adults who had VP shunts placed for acquired conditions and later underwent surgery for gastric or colon cancer would frequently have dense, shunt-related adhesions and high rates of adverse outcomes, particularly infection. METHODS: We assumed that all veterans were healthy on entry into military service. We searched national Department of Veterans Affairs databases from October 1994 through September 2003 to identify all Department of Veterans Affairs patients with shunts for acquired conditions and a curative-intent operation for stomach or colon cancer. We conducted chart reviews to determine their clinical courses. RESULTS: Five patients had codes for VP shunt, gastric cancer, and gastrectomy; 3 met our inclusion criteria. Fourteen had codes for VP shunt, colon cancer, and colectomy; 4 met our criteria. One of the evaluable gastrectomy patients had dense, shunt-related adhesions. None of the colectomy patients had notable adhesions. There were no postoperative complications in any of the seven patients. CONCLUSION: We believe this is the first report analyzing the clinical course of adults with VP shunts who later had major abdominal cancer surgery. The presence of a shunt was associated with dense adhesions in 1 (14%) of the 7 patients in this series, but not with an increased risk of postoperative complications.

Wadhwa, Shilpi; Hanna, George K.; Barina, Andrew R.; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Virgo, Katherine S.

2012-01-01

362

Ventricle shunting in young H-Tx rats with inherited congenital hydrocephalus: a quantitative histological study of cortical grey matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shunt surgery is the usual treatment for infantile hydrocephalus, but its precise effects on ventricles and cortex are not well understood. Infant H-Tx rats with inherited hydrocephalus, which have progressive enlargement of the lateral ventricles and thinned cerebral cortex, have been used to study the effect of ventriculosubcutaneous shunts by quantitative light microscopy. Two groups of rats received shunts at

N. G. Harris; H. C. Jones; S. Patel

1994-01-01

363

Small-diameter H-graft Portacaval Shunt for Variceal Hemorrhage: Experience at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Portosystemic shunts remain to be a good means for preventing recurrent variceal hemorrhage in a certain number of patients who fail to respond to other therapeutic modalities. Total portal decompression is no longer recommended owing to the high incidence of postoperative encephalopathy and liver failure. Distal splenorenal shunt is too technically demanding. A small-diameter H-graft portacaval shunt (SDHGPCS)

Suvit Sriussadaporn

364

Treatment of patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites using LeVeen shunt with titanium tip: Comparison with therapeutic paracentesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been suggested that insertion of a titanium tip at the venous end of the LeVeen shunt drastically reduces the rate of shunt obstruction. To assess whether the LeVeen shunt with titanium tip improves the results obtained with therapeutic paracentesis, 81 patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites were randomly assigned to therapy with paracentesis plus intravenous albumin (42

Angels Gines; Ramon Planas; Paolo Angeli; Carlos Guarner; Francesco Salerno; Pere Gines; Joan Saló; Nivardo Rodriguez; Eugeni Domenech; German Soriano; Luis Anibarro; Miguel Angel Gassull; Angelo Gatta; Vicente Arroyo; Juan Rodes

1995-01-01

365

Effects of topography and crustal heterogeneities on the source estimation of LP event at Kilauea volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The main goal of this study is to improve the modelling of the source mechanism associated with the generation of long period (LP) signals in volcanic areas. Our intent is to evaluate the effects that detailed structural features of the volcanic models play in the generation of LP signal and the consequent retrieval of LP source characteristics. In particular, effects associated with the presence of topography and crustal heterogeneities are here studied in detail. We focus our study on a LP event observed at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in 2001 May. A detailed analysis of this event and its source modelling is accompanied by a set of synthetic tests, which aim to evaluate the effects of topography and the presence of low velocity shallow layers in the source region. The forward problem of Green's function generation is solved numerically following a pseudo-spectral approach, assuming different 3-D models. The inversion is done in the frequency domain and the resulting source mechanism is represented by the sum of two time-dependent terms: a full moment tensor and a single force. Synthetic tests show how characteristic velocity structures, associated with shallow sources, may be partially responsible for the generation of the observed long-lasting ringing waveforms. When applying the inversion technique to Kilauea LP data set, inversions carried out for different crustal models led to very similar source geometries, indicating a subhorizontal cracks. On the other hand, the source time function and its duration are significantly different for different models. These results support the indication of a strong influence of crustal layering on the generation of the LP signal, while the assumption of homogeneous velocity model may bring to misleading results. ?? 2008 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

Cesca, S.; Battaglia, J.; Dahm, T.; Tessmer, E.; Heimann, S.; Okubo, P.

2008-01-01

366

Effects of topography and crustal heterogeneities on the source estimation of LP event at Kilauea volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study is to improve the modelling of the source mechanism associated with the generation of long period (LP) signals in volcanic areas. Our intent is to evaluate the effects that detailed structural features of the volcanic models play in the generation of LP signal and the consequent retrieval of LP source characteristics. In particular, effects associated with the presence of topography and crustal heterogeneities are here studied in detail. We focus our study on a LP event observed at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in 2001 May. A detailed analysis of this event and its source modelling is accompanied by a set of synthetic tests, which aim to evaluate the effects of topography and the presence of low velocity shallow layers in the source region. The forward problem of Green's function generation is solved numerically following a pseudo-spectral approach, assuming different 3-D models. The inversion is done in the frequency domain and the resulting source mechanism is represented by the sum of two time-dependent terms: a full moment tensor and a single force. Synthetic tests show how characteristic velocity structures, associated with shallow sources, may be partially responsible for the generation of the observed long-lasting ringing waveforms. When applying the inversion technique to Kilauea LP data set, inversions carried out for different crustal models led to very similar source geometries, indicating a subhorizontal cracks. On the other hand, the source time function and its duration are significantly different for different models. These results support the indication of a strong influence of crustal layering on the generation of the LP signal, while the assumption of homogeneous velocity model may bring to misleading results.

Cesca, S.; Battaglia, J.; Dahm, T.; Tessmer, E.; Heimann, S.; Okubo, P.

2008-03-01

367

Association of Carotid Plaque Lp-PLA2 with Macrophages and Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection among Patients at Risk for Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background We previously showed that the burden of Chlamydia pneumoniae in carotid plaques was significantly associated with plaque interleukin (IL)-6, and serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), suggesting that infected plaques contribute to systemic inflammatory markers in patients with stroke risk. Since lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mediates inflammation in atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that serum Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels and plaque Lp-PLA2 may be influenced by plaque C. pneumoniae infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-two patients underwent elective carotid endarterectomy. Tissue obtained at surgery was stained by immunohistochemistry for Lp-PLA2 grade, macrophages, IL-6, C. pneumoniae and CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Serum Lp-PLA2 activity and mass were measured using the colorimetric activity method (CAM™) and ELISA, respectively. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by HPLC. Eleven (26.2%) patients were symptomatic with transient ischemic attacks. There was no correlation between patient risk factors (smoking, coronary artery disease, elevated cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, hypertension and family history of genetic disorders) for atherosclerosis and serum levels or plaque grade for Lp-PLA2. Plaque Lp-PLA2 correlated with serum homocysteine levels (p?=?0.013), plaque macrophages (p<0.01), and plaque C. pneumoniae (p<0.001), which predominantly infected macrophages, co-localizing with Lp-PLA2. Conclusions The significant association of plaque Lp-PLA2 with plaque macrophages and C. pneumoniae suggests an interactive role in accelerating inflammation in atherosclerosis. A possible mechanism for C. pneumoniae in the atherogenic process may involve infection of macrophages that induce Lp-PLA2 production leading to upregulation of inflammatory mediators in plaque tissue. Additional in vitro and in vivo research will be needed to advance our understanding of specific C. pneumoniae and Lp-PLA2 interactions in atherosclerosis.

Atik, Berna; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Dean, Deborah

2010-01-01

368

Infection rates following initial cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement across pediatric hospitals in the United States  

PubMed Central

Object Reported rates of CSF shunt infection vary widely across studies. The study objective was to determine the CSF shunt infection rates after initial shunt placement at multiple US pediatric hospitals. The authors hypothesized that infection rates between hospitals would vary widely even after adjustment for patient, hospital, and surgeon factors. Methods This retrospective cohort study included children 0–18 years of age with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement performed between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) longitudinal administrative database from 41 children's hospitals. For each child with 24 months of follow-up, subsequent CSF shunt infections and procedures were determined. Results The PHIS database included 7071 children with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement during this time period. During the 24 months of follow-up, these patients had a total of 825 shunt infections and 4434 subsequent shunt procedures. Overall unadjusted 24-month CSF shunt infection rates were 11.7% per patient and 7.2% per procedure. Unadjusted 24-month cumulative incidence rates for each hospital ranged from 4.1 to 20.5% per patient and 2.5–12.3% per procedure. Factors significantly associated with infection (p < 0.05) included young age, female sex, African-American race, public insurance, etiology of intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory complex chronic condition, subsequent revision procedures, hospital volume, and surgeon case volume. Malignant lesions and trauma as etiologies were protective. Infection rates for each hospital adjusted for these factors decreased to 8.8–12.8% per patient and 1.4–5.3% per procedure. Conclusions Infections developed in > 11% of children who underwent uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placements within 24 months. Patient, hospital, and surgeon factors contributed somewhat to the wide variation in CSF shunt infection rates across hospitals. Additional factors may contribute to variation in CSF shunt infection rates between centers, but further study is needed. Benchmarking and future prospective multicenter studies of CSF shunt infection will need to incorporate these and other patient, hospital, and surgeon factors.

Simon, Tamara D.; Hall, Matthew; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Albert, J. Elaine; Jeffries, Howard E.; LaFleur, Bonnie; Dean, J. Michael; Kestle, John R. W.

2010-01-01

369

Depletion of Preb1LpA1 and LpA4 Particles by Mast Cell Chymase Reduces Cholesterol Efflux From Macrophage Foam Cells Induced by Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of the LpA1-containing particles present in HDL 3 and plasma to a minimal degree of proteolysis by the neutral protease chymase from exocytosed rat mast cell granules (granule remnants) leads to a reduction in the high-affinity component of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a role for mast cell chymase

Miriam Lee; Arnold von Eckardstein; Leena Lindstedt; Gerd Assmann; Petri T. Kovanen

370

Post-traumatic hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm and arterioportal shunt.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 21-year-old man who suffered from a blunt abdominal trauma. Initial imaging revealed a liver laceration at the right lobe, a perirenal hematoma of the right kidney and a hematoma of the right adrenal gland. Follow-up MDCT-scan on day 10 after admission showed at the arterial-phase contrast-enhanced study perfusion alterations and two hepatic pseudoaneurysms. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed and treated angiographically with superselective coil embolization. A follow-up CT-scan on day 17 showed at a nontreated area an arterioportal shunt and a wedge-shaped transient hepatic parenchymal enhancement. This was confirmed angiographically and subsequently treated with coil embolization. PMID:20957889

Maes, J; D'Archambeau, O; Snoeckx, A; Op de Beeck, B; Voormolen, M; Parizel, P M

371

Increasing transmission loadability by the application of shunt capacitors  

SciTech Connect

The companies located in the eastern portion of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) have installed oil-fired generation to meet strict environmental requirements. In an attempt to reduce the use of oil, PJM has been purchasing energy from systems to the west of PJM where the primary fuel is coal. These west-to-east energy transfers have increased the loading on the 500kV transmission system. The heavy loadings have resulted in voltage limitations on the 500kV system that limit flows to well below the thermal capability. Results of an analysis of this problem and recommendations for removing the voltage limitations are presented. It is primarily recommended to use shunt capacitors to supply the transmission system reactive losses.

Palmer, R.

1981-05-01

372

Syringo-Subarachnoid-Peritoneal Shunt Using T-Tube for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

Various surgical procedures for the treatment of post-traumatic syringomyelia have been introduced recently, but most surgical strategies have been unreliable. We introduce the concept and technique of a new shunting procedure, syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt. A 54-year-old patient presented to our hospital with a progressive impairment of motion and position sense on the right side. Sixteen years before this admission, he had been treated by decompressive laminectomy for a burst fracture of L1. On his recent admission, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the whole spine revealed the presence of a huge syrinx extending from the medulla to the L1 vertebral level. We performed a syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt, including insertion of a T-tube into the syrinx, subarachnoid space and peritoneal cavity. Clinical manifestations and radiological findings improved after the operation. The syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt has several advantages. First, fluid can communicate freely between the syrinx, the subarachnoid space, and the peritoneal cavity. Secondly, we can prevent shunt catheter from migrating because dural anchoring of the T-tube is easy. Finally, we can perform shunt revision easily, because only one arm of the T-tube is inserted into the intraspinal syringx cavity. We think that this procedure is the most beneficial method among the various shunting procedures.

Kim, Seon-Hwan; Youm, Jin-Young; Kwon, Hyon-Jo

2012-01-01

373

Portasystemic shunting versus liver transplantation for the Budd-Chiari syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Over 12 years, 22 patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome were treated surgically. Eighteen underwent a mesenterico-caval shunt (MCS); two, a side-to-side portacaval shunt; one, a mesenterico-atrial shunt (MAS); and one, a liver transplantation (OLT). One patient died after operation from the precipitating condition, and two MCS grafts that thrombosed were restored. All 21 surviving patients remain well, free from ascites, and all shunts are patent after a mean follow-up of 5.6 +/- 1 years, five patients with more than 10 years' follow-up. This long-term survival achieved by portasystemic shunts suggests that they have a major role in the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome. The authors prefer the mesenterico-caval shunt using a jugular graft. This ensures a total portasystemic shunt, avoids subhepatic surgery, and reduces the long-term risk of prosthetic graft thrombosis. The MAS was reserved for cases with complete caval thrombosis. Patients with significant degrees of caval compression were satisfactorily decompressed by MCS. In patients not promptly treated, the disease progresses to cirrhosis, and such patients must be evaluated for transplantation similarly to those with other hepatopathies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A and B.

Bismuth, H; Sherlock, D J

1991-01-01

374

Portasystemic shunting versus liver transplantation for the Budd-Chiari syndrome.  

PubMed

Over 12 years, 22 patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome were treated surgically. Eighteen underwent a mesenterico-caval shunt (MCS); two, a side-to-side portacaval shunt; one, a mesenterico-atrial shunt (MAS); and one, a liver transplantation (OLT). One patient died after operation from the precipitating condition, and two MCS grafts that thrombosed were restored. All 21 surviving patients remain well, free from ascites, and all shunts are patent after a mean follow-up of 5.6 +/- 1 years, five patients with more than 10 years' follow-up. This long-term survival achieved by portasystemic shunts suggests that they have a major role in the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome. The authors prefer the mesenterico-caval shunt using a jugular graft. This ensures a total portasystemic shunt, avoids subhepatic surgery, and reduces the long-term risk of prosthetic graft thrombosis. The MAS was reserved for cases with complete caval thrombosis. Patients with significant degrees of caval compression were satisfactorily decompressed by MCS. In patients not promptly treated, the disease progresses to cirrhosis, and such patients must be evaluated for transplantation similarly to those with other hepatopathies. PMID:1953111

Bismuth, H; Sherlock, D J

1991-11-01

375

75 FR 73075 - Calpine Texas Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Calpine Texas Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline...Pipeline, L.P. (Calpine Texas) filed a motion to extend the date for filing its next...participate in this rate proceeding must file a motion to intervene or to protest this...

2010-11-29

376

77 FR 45596 - Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. EL12-88 -000] Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation...and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against...

2012-08-01

377

77 FR 25133 - Foreign-Trade Zone 126, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Brightpoint North America L.P...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Manufacturing Authority, Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Notice of Approval On March 2...behalf of Brightpoint North America L.P., to produce cell phone kits under FTZ procedures within FTZ 126--Site 23, in...

2012-04-27

378

78 FR 10128 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI Pursuant to its authority...Site 1 of Subzone 70T and remove Site 3 of the subzone at the Marathon Petroleum Company LP refinery in Detroit, Michigan....

2013-02-13

379

77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...2\\ KTRR intends to commence railroad operations and TSRR, et al., intend to continue in control of KTRR prior to...

2012-05-23

380

77 FR 24723 - AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for IRESSA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0370] AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for...for IRESSA (gefitinib) Tablets held by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP (AstraZeneca), 1800 Concord Pike, P.O. Box...

2012-04-25

381

76 FR 19351 - XO Energy MW, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3214-000] XO Energy MW, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of XO Energy MW, LP's application for market-based rate authority,...

2011-04-07

382

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA(2)): a novel and promising biomarker for cardiovascular risks assessment.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis and its manifestations namely cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although intensified interventions have been applied, the residual cardiovascular (CV) risks are still very high. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA(2)) is a novel and unique biomarker highly specific for vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Both pro-atherogenic property of Lp-PLA(2) and positive correlation with CV events have already been demonstrated by a large number of scientific and clinical studies. Currently, in the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guideline, Lp-PLA(2) has been recommended as an adjunct to traditional risk factors in assessing future CV risks. Encouragingly, darapladib, an orally Lp-PLA(2) specific inhibitor, has been tested in basic research and preclinical trials and the outcomes are quite striking. Additionally, there are two phase III ongoing clinical trials in evaluating the efficacy and safety of darapladib on cardiovascular outcomes. With regard to the potential values of Lp-PLA(2) in risk stratification, therapeutic regimen establishment and prognosis evaluation in patients with moderate or high risk, our present review is going to summarize the relevant data about the bio-chemical characteristics of Lp-PLA(2), the actions of Lp-PLA(2) on atherosclerosis and the results of Lp-PLA(2) in scientific research and clinical studies. PMID:23478277

Cai, Anping; Zheng, Dongdan; Qiu, Ruofeng; Mai, Weiyi; Zhou, Yingling

2013-01-01

383

Thermal-Hydraulic Post-Test Analysis of OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 Experiment. International Agreement Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 and SCDAP/MOD1 against the OECD LOFT experiment LP-FP-2 is presented. LP-FP-2 studies the hypothetical release of fission products and their transport following a large-break LOCA scenario. The report comprises a general descr...

J. J. Pena S. Enciso F. Reventos

1992-01-01

384

Stent-graft to treat intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt causing encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts (IPSVS) are rare, and angiographic intervention to treat IPSVS has been limited. To our knowledge, we present the first case of an IPSVS between the right portal vein and inferior vena cava accompanied by intractable encephalopathy that was successfully obliterated using a stent-graft deployed in the inferior vena cava to disconnect the portal and systemic venous circulation. Our patient, a 58-year-old woman, has shown no evidence of recurrent portosystemic venous shunt or encephalopathy for 30 months. We believe this intervention to be a useful alternative therapy for this type of shunt. PMID:18507115

Machida, Haruhiko; Ueno, Eiko; Isobe, Yoshinori; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Tomimatsu, Masahiko; Endo, Hitoshi

385

[Anal migration of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt catheter. Apropos of 3 cases].  

PubMed

Three cases of abdominal catheter migration through the anus following ventriculo-peritoneal shunt are described. Two cases involved hydrocephalus secondary to tuberculous meningitis and the third myelomeningocele. Among the reasons for migration, the length of the abdominal catheter, trauma during the operation and infection must be taken into consideration. One patient was suffering from meningitis at the time of admission, while the two others were asymptomatic. Treatment involved removing the peritoneal catheter in 2 cases and the entire shunt system in the patient with meningitis. The shunt was replaced one to two weeks later. The outcome was favourable in all three cases. PMID:8524443

Sami, A; Ait Ben Ali, S; Choukry, M; Achouri, M; Naja, A; Ouboukhlik, A; Elkamar, A; Elazhari, A; Boucetta, M

1995-01-01

386

Congenital hepatic arteriovenous fistula with intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and aortic stenosis in a dog.  

PubMed

Examination of a 2-month-old male golden retriever presented to the hospital revealed malnutrition, ascites, cardiac murmur and hyperammonemia. Identification of subaortic stenosis and hepatic arteriovenous fistula was made through ultrasonography and angiocardiography. In addition, intrasurgical mesenteric portography showed an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. The dog did not show portal hypertension and secondary multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Surgical correction was attempted after medical treatment. The hepatic artery branch which was connected to the hepatic arteriovenous fistula was separated, and completely ligated using silk ligature. However, the separation of the intrahepatic shunt blood vessel was unsuccessful and the dog died 15 hr postoperatively. PMID:15107561

Koide, Kazuyoshi; Koide, Yukiko; Wada, Yasuhiro; Nakaniwa, Shigeki; Yamane, Yoshihisa

2004-03-01

387

Waste Package Neutron Absorber, Thermal Shunt, and Fill Gas Selection Report  

SciTech Connect

Materials for neutron absorber, thermal shunt, and fill gas for use in the waste package were selected using a qualitative approach. For each component, selection criteria were identified; candidate materials were selected; and candidates were evaluated against these criteria. The neutron absorber materials evaluated were essentially boron-containing stainless steels. Two candidates were evaluated for the thermal shunt material. The fill gas candidates were common gases such as helium, argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and dry air. Based on the performance of each candidate against the criteria, the following selections were made: Neutron absorber--Neutronit A978; Thermal shunt--Aluminum 6061 or 6063; and Fill gas--Helium.

V. Pasupathi

2000-01-28

388

Transumbilical approach for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in infants and small children: a 6-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Improved cosmesis has been demonstrated using a transumbilical incision for placement of the peritoneal end of a ventriculoperitoneal\\u000a shunt. We now present our experience with this technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  From January 2005 until present, a prospective cohort of 25 children underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with\\u000a the peritoneal shunt catheter being introduced into the peritoneum via an incision into

R. Shane Tubbs; Lilian C. Azih; Martin M. Mortazavi; Joshua J. Chern; Todd Hankinson; W. Jerry Oakes; Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

389

Mutual locking, chaos and devils staircase in two Josephson tunnel junctions with a common resistive shunt  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the phase-locking in a pair of individually biased, resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junctions, coupled by a common resistive or capacitive shunt, on an analog computer. Under certain conditions locking is found to occur at all rational frequency ratios. A critical line is found in parameter space along which the steps form a complete devils staircase having a fractal dimension of 0.87. Beyond the critical line bifurcations occur on all steps following the Feigenbaum sequence to chaos. The Feigenbaum constants are recovered to a fair accuracy. Preliminary experiments with two Josephson tunnel junctions shunted on the chip by a gold-indium film are discussed.

Jensen, H.D.; Larsen, A.; Mygind, J.; Levinsen, M.T.

1989-03-01

390

Intraparenchymal Pericatheter Cyst as a Complication of a Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunt in a Premature Infant  

PubMed Central

A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is a standard surgical management for hydrocephalus, but complications may impede the management of this disease. Obstruction of the catheter is one of the most common complications and manifests clinically in various ways. Intraparenchymal cyst development after shunt malfunction has been reported by several authors, but the underlying mechanism and optimal treatment methods are debatable. The authors report a case of intraparenchymal cyst formation around a proximal catheter in a premature infant after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt and discuss its pathogenesis and management.

Rim, Hae-Ri; Kwon, Soon-Hak; Kim, Heng-Mi

2011-01-01

391

Reconstruction of the optical properties of inhomogeneous medium from photoacoustic signal with lp sparsity regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reconstruct the optical properties in the inhomogeneous medium from the photoacoustic (PA) signal is discussed. The forward modeling of the propagations of the excitation light and of the photoacoustic pressure is carried out with the finite element method. The inverse problem is formulated with a linear equation relating the optical properties and time-domain PA signals. By solving the inverse problem, the distribution of the optical properties in the optically inhomogeneous medium is reconstructed. The measurement noise and the mismatches between the actual measurement conditions and the forward model cause artifacts in the reconstructed image. To reduce the artifacts and to obtain high resolved reconstructed image, we uses the lp sparsity regularization method which minimizes the lp norm of the solution of the inverse problem. It is demonstrated by some numerical simulations that the regularization method using the lp norm obtains a sparse distribution of the changes in the optical properties. The images reconstructed with the lp sparsity regularization are compared those with truncated singular value decomposition.

Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya

2013-03-01

392

Environmentally induced cracking of LP turbine rotor steel: Laboratory data and life prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests performed within the framework of a COST 505 cooperation program, on 2CrlNi LP steam turbine rotor steel exposed to water environments at different temperatures (25, 80, 160 degrees C), showed that the material is susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cra...

G. Gabetta V. De Angelis C. Rinaldi S. Ragazzoni

1990-01-01

393

76 FR 63294 - Chevron Products Company v. SFPP, L.P. ; Notice of Complaint  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OR12-1-000; Docket No. IS11-585-000] Chevron Products Company v. SFPP, L.P. ; Notice of Complaint Take...Interstate Commerce Act (ICA), and 49 USC App. 13(1), Chevron Products Company (Complainants) filed a complaint...

2011-10-12

394

76 FR 35880 - Chevron Products Company v. SFPP, L.P.; Notice of Complaint  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR11-16-000] Chevron Products Company v. SFPP, L.P.; Notice of Complaint Take...Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.1(a), Chevron Products Company (Complaint) filed a formal complaint...

2011-06-20

395

76 FR 35881 - Chevron Products Company v. SFPP, L.P.; Notice of Complaint  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR11-15-000] Chevron Products Company v. SFPP, L.P.; Notice of Complaint Take...Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.1(a), Chevron Products Company (Complainant) filed a formal complaint...

2011-06-20

396

HeLP MN Seniors: Workshops to Improve the Health Literacy Skills of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health literacy in the senior adult population is a concern to many who provide consumer health information. The Health Literacy Program for Minnesota Seniors (HeLP MN Seniors) is an evidence-based health literacy program designed to increase the health literacy skills of the senior population. Those interested in presenting the materials to their communities can take advantage of the freely available

Anne Beschnett

2011-01-01

397

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vessels, such as tanks, cylinders, or...vehicles from bulk storage containers shall...200 250 1 New storage containers of the...industry as âskid tanksâ) shall be designed...manufacturer of the tank. (n) When LP-Gas...Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers To...

2013-07-01

398

78 FR 23552 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion Cove Point), 120 Tredegar Street...authorization to construct, modify, own and operate certain facilities to...for the export at its existing Cove Point LNG terminal in Calvert...section 7 of the NGA, Dominion Cove Point seeks authority to...

2013-04-19

399

78 FR 52556 - Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt, LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Notice is hereby given, pursuant to CBP regulations, that Saybolt, LP, has been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of May 22,...

2013-08-23

400

[A study on the relationship between Lp(a) and arteriosclerotic cerebral infarction].  

PubMed

Using a 1:1 matched case control study, we analysed the data of 105 arteriosclerotic cerebral infarction cases and controls to detect the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and Lp(a). The results showed that the average level of Lp(a) in cases was (238.38 mg/L), significantly higher than that of controls (149.98 mg/L t = 3.96, P < 0.001). Comparing the levels of different age groups and sex, no significant difference, except the group over 70 years, which was higher than that in other groups was found. Dose-response analysis also showed that the OR value was positively correlated with the Lp(a). Multi-variable logistic regression model indicated that Lp(a) was an independent risk factor with OR = 1.93. Another risk factor was TG. However, LDL-C, HDL-C were found to be the protective factors of arteriosclerotic cerebral infarction, with an OR = 0.32. PMID:10322706

Tan, Y; Yao, C; Shen, J

1998-02-01

401

Survival associated pathway identification with group Lp penalized global AUC maximization  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated that genes in a cell do not act independently. They interact with one another to complete certain biological processes or to implement certain molecular functions. How to incorporate biological pathways or functional groups into the model and identify survival associated gene pathways is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative gradient based method for survival analysis with group Lp penalized global AUC summary maximization. Unlike LASSO, Lp (p < 1) (with its special implementation entitled adaptive LASSO) is asymptotic unbiased and has oracle properties [1]. We first extend Lp for individual gene identification to group Lp penalty for pathway selection, and then develop a novel iterative gradient algorithm for penalized global AUC summary maximization (IGGAUCS). This method incorporates the genetic pathways into global AUC summary maximization and identifies survival associated pathways instead of individual genes. The tuning parameters are determined using 10-fold cross validation with training data only. The prediction performance is evaluated using test data. We apply the proposed method to survival outcome analysis with gene expression profile and identify multiple pathways simultaneously. Experimental results with simulation and gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed procedures can be used for identifying important biological pathways that are related to survival phenotype and for building a parsimonious model for predicting the survival times.

2010-01-01

402

Single spin asymmetries in lp{yields}hX processes: A test of factorization  

SciTech Connect

Predictions for the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA), A{sub N}, are given for the inclusive processes lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X and lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}j}et+X, which could be measured in operating or future experiments. These estimates are based on the Sivers distributions and the Collins fragmentation functions which fit the azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes (lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}l'}hX). The factorization in terms of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMD factorization)--which supplies the theoretical framework in which SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are analyzed--is assumed to hold also for the lp{yields}hX inclusive process at large P{sub T}. A measurement of A{sub N} would then provide a direct test of the validity of the TMD factorization in this case and would have important consequences for the study and understanding of SSAs in pp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X processes.

Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Prokudin, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); D'Alesio, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Melis, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Murgia, F. [INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, C.P. 170, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

2010-02-01

403

Distributed Processing of Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search in High Dimensional Lp Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We addressed an efficient algorithm for approximate nearest neighbor search in high dimensional Lp space. Efficient computation of the search is important since the computational complexity of approximate nearest neighbor search grows as the size of dataset increases. We introduced an index called randomized neighbor search table and derived an algorithm that utilizes hyperspheres. Our simulation result shows that the

Toshio OKA; Tomonori AOYAMA

404

Xilinx V4 Package Reliability: Properties and Reliability of LP2 Underfill Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Xilinx V4 is a strong candidate for the next-generation FPGA for NASA applications. The major concern regarding the V4 is its non-hermeticity. Due to the non-hermeticity, the underfill material, LP2, will be directly exposed to the LEO environment, al...

J. Suh R. P. Dillon

2012-01-01

405

78 FR 44943 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Any questions regarding this application should be directed to Jaime L. Sanabria, EcoEl[eacute]ctrica, L.P., Road 337...ntilde]uelas, PR 00624, (787) 759-0202, or by email at jaime.sanabria@ecoelectrica.com. EcoEl[eacute]ctrica...

2013-07-25

406

A novel cold-adapted lipase, LP28, from a mesophilic Streptomyces strain.  

PubMed

Fossil fuel is limited but its usage has been growing rapidly, thus the fuel is predicted to be completely running out and causing an unbearable global energy crisis in the near future. To solve this potential crisis, incorporating with increasing environmental concerns, significant attentions have been given to biofuel production in the recent years. With the aim of isolating a microbial biocatalyst with potential application in the field of biofuel, a lipase from Streptomyces sp. CS628, LP28, was purified using hydroxyapatite column chromatography followed by a gel filtration. Molecular weight of LP28 was estimated to be 32,400 Da by SDS-PAGE. The activity was the highest at 30 °C and pH 8.0 and was stable at pH 6.0-8.0 and below 25 °C. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl decanoate (C10), a medium chain substrate. Furthermore, LP28 non-specifically hydrolyzed triolein releasing both 1,2- and 1,3-diolein. More importantly, LP28 manifestly catalyzed biodiesel production using palm oil and methanol; therefore, it can be a potential candidate in the field of biofuel. PMID:21909676

Simkhada, Jaya Ram; Yoo, Hah Young; Cho, Seung Sik; Choi, Yun Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Don Hee; Yoo, Jin Cheol

2011-09-10

407

Serum Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations in insulin dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the serum concentrations of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in insulin dependent diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Paediatric and medical outpatient clinic at a university hospital. PATIENTS--76 insulin dependent diabetic patients: 41 with microalbuminuria (20 males, 21 females) and 35 controls without microalbuminuria (18 males, 17 females). The two groups were similar with respect to age, duration of disease, and haemoglobin A1c concentrations before the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Serum concentrations of Lp(a) lipoprotein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and B. RESULTS--Median serum Lp(a) lipoprotein concentration was 10.0 mg/100 ml in the microalbuminuric group and 4.9 mg/100 ml in the control group (p = 0.007). 17 (41%) of the microalbuminuric patients and five (14%) of the control patients had Lp(a) lipoprotein values above the upper quartile of a normal population. Median serum triglycerides concentrations in the microalbuminuric and control groups were 1.15 mmol/l and 0.88 mmol/l respectively (p = 0.03). Median very low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 0.52 mmol/l in the microalbuminuric group and 0.40 mmol/l in the control group (p = 0.03). No significant differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and B were found between the groups. CONCLUSIONS--Serum concentrations of Lp(a) lipoprotein are twice as high in insulin dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria as in those without microalbuminuria. Increased concentrations of Lp(a) lipoprotein might partly explain the increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease observed among patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Kapelrud, H; Bangstad, H J; Dahl-J?rgensen, K; Berg, K; Hanssen, K F

1991-01-01

408

Molecular characterization and structural instability of the industrially important composite metabolic plasmid pLP712.  

PubMed

The widely used plasmid-free Lactococcus lactis strain MG1363 was derived from the industrial dairy starter strain NCDO712. This strain carries a 55.39 kb plasmid encoding genes for lactose catabolism and a serine proteinase involved in casein degradation. We report the DNA sequencing and annotation of pLP712, which revealed additional metabolic genes, including peptidase F, d-lactate dehydrogenase and ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (E3 complex). Comparison of pLP712 with other large lactococcal lactose and/or proteinase plasmids from L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 (pSK11L, pSK11P) and the plant strain L. lactis NCDO1867 (pGdh442) revealed their close relationship. The plasmid appears to have evolved through a series of genetic events as a composite of pGdh442, pSK11L and pSK11P. We describe in detail a scenario by which the metabolic genes relevant to the growth of its host in a milk environment have been unified on one replicon, reflecting the evolution of L. lactis as it changed its biological niche from plants to dairy environments. The extensive structural instability of pLP712 allows easy isolation of derivative plasmids lacking genes for casein degradation and/or lactose catabolism. Plasmid pLP712 is transferable by transduction and conjugation, and both of these processes result in significant molecular rearrangements. We report the detailed molecular analysis of insertion sequence element-mediated genetic rearrangements within pLP712 and several different mechanisms, including homologous recombination and adjacent deletion. Analysis of the integration of the lactose operon into the chromosome highlights the fluidity of the MG1363 integration hotspot and the potential for frequent movement of genes between plasmids and chromosomes in Lactococcus. PMID:23023974

Wegmann, Udo; Overweg, Karin; Jeanson, Sophie; Gasson, Mike; Shearman, Claire

2012-09-28

409

76 FR 76802 - Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 02/02-0646] Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...Notice is hereby given that Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P., 45 Rockefeller Center...13 CFR 107.730). Riverside Micro-Cap Fund II, L.P. proposes to provide...

2011-12-08

410

77 FR 70812 - United States v. Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P., Veolia Environnement S.A. and Veolia ES...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P., Veolia...Columbia in United States of America v. Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P., Veolia...alleging that the proposed acquisition by Star Atlantic Waste Holdings, L.P. of...

2012-11-27

411

A Zero-Sequence Modified Admittance Relay for High-Voltage Shunt Reactor Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solid-state relay designed to rapidly detect internal faults in grounded EHV shunt reactors is described. Detailed descriptions of the theory of operation, functional design, and practical development are presented with the aid of phasor, block, and sch...

L. E. Eilts

1973-01-01

412

Diagnosis of infected modified Blalock-Taussig shunt by computed tomography.  

PubMed

Accurate localization of infection after pediatric cardiac operation is essential for correct decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of infection and endocarditis of a Blalock-Taussig shunt. Localization by computed tomography led to successful surgical intervention. PMID:7733725

Turner, S W; Wyllie, J P; Hamilton, J R; Bain, H H

1995-05-01

413

In vitro Micro-Volume Procedure for Rapid Measurement of Erythrocytic Hexose Monophosphate Shunt Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A radiometric micro-volume procedure for measurement of erythrocytic hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity in intact cells in in vitro is described. The procedure is rapid, allowing 200 individual HMS determinations in a single experiment of 5 hr dura...

J. K. Baird J. E. Decker-Jackson D. E. Davidson

1984-01-01

414

Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Assessment of Acquired Left Ventricular to Right Atrial Shunt (Gerbode Defect)  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old man was readmitted 1 year after bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement for recurrent endocarditis. Transthoracic 2-dimensional color Doppler revealed a novel finding of a left-to-right shunt from the left ventricular outflow tract to the right atrium immediately superior to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve consistent with an acquired Gerbode defect. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography was used to accurately delineate the course of the shunt. To avoid overestimating right ventricular systolic pressure by mistaking such a shunt for an eccentric jet of tricuspid regurgitation, it is important to accurately differentiate the two. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography now provides rapid, detailed 3-dimensional appreciation of the origin and course of such shunts with easy facility of orienting views to the flows of interest by cropping. Such information can help design optimal surgical or catheter-based therapy.

Yared, Kibar; Solis, Jorge; Passeri, Jonathan; King, Mary Etta E.; Levine, Robert A.

2010-01-01

415

A large spontaneous splenorenal shunt in a patient with liver cirrhosis and uncomplicated portal hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss, on the basis of a thorough review of the literature, the case of a 70-year-old woman with probable cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B and C, uncomplicated portal hypertension (without ascites, encephalopathy or bleeding varices), splenomegaly and hypersplenism, and an unusual, spontaneous, large splenorenal shunt and recanalization of the umbilical vein. The tortuous and varicose splenorenal shunt was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound and CT investigations. A duplex Doppler ultrasonography evaluation was performed to study shunt flow direction and velocity. No gastroesophageal varices were identified on endoscopic examination. The clinical relevance of spontaneous splenorenal shunt, often associated with fundic gastric varices, is discussed. PMID:10754366

Iannello, S; Libertini, L; Martini, R; Spina, S; Busacca, G; Ricciardi, N; Andreozzi, G; Belfiore, F

1999-01-01

416

Investigation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Valves: Test Results for Twenty-Five Valves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the result of an investigation of design and implement a bench test for cerebrospinal fluid shunt valves. The original contract was extended for the purpose of utilizing the bench test to analyze 25 additional commercially available h...

H. D. Keith R. L. Lu C. C. Fu S. Shao

1982-01-01

417

Intrapulmonary shunting in the biliary atresia/polysplenia syndrome: reversal after liver transplantation.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and seventy three children, including 93 with biliary atresia, received liver grafts at Addenbrooke's Hospital between 1983 and 1993. Of these, only seven developed cyanosis due to intrapulmonary shunting as a complication of their liver disease, and all seven of these had the biliary atresia/polysplenia syndrome. Intrapulmonary shunting was confirmed by a radioisotope scan in four children. Only one child with the syndrome did not have cyanosis when undergoing transplantation. Seven of the eight children are alive 6-54 months after transplantation, with normal pulmonary and hepatic function. Cyanosis recurred in one child who developed chronic rejection with liver failure. In conclusion: (a) there is a strong association between the biliary atresia/polysplenia syndrome and cyanosis due to intrapulmonary shunting; (b) intrapulmonary shunting is fully reversible after successful liver transplantation; and (c) cyanosis, once present, is progressive, and these children should be considered for liver transplantation as soon as it occurs.

Fewtrell, M S; Noble-Jamieson, G; Revell, S; Valente, J; Friend, P; Johnston, P; Rasmussen, A; Jamieson, N; Calne, R Y; Barnes, N D

1994-01-01

418

Use of the Denver pleuroperitoneal shunt in the treatment of chylothorax secondary to filariasis.  

PubMed Central

A 57 year old woman developed a chylothorax as a result of having had filariasis as a child. This failed to respond to conservative measures but was successfully managed by means of a Denver pleuroperitoneal shunt. Images

Kitchen, N D; Hocken, D B; Greenhalgh, R M; Kaplan, D K

1991-01-01

419

Calcified right atrial and pulmonary artery mass after ventriculoatrial shunt insertion.  

PubMed

Insertion of ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts is an effective method of draining cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebral ventricle to the right atrium and significantly improves the survival of patients with hydrocephalus. Some patients who received a VA shunt subsequently developed complications, including thrombus formation around the intracardiac end of the catheter and thromboembolism. The relative rarity of complications and the long latency between shunt insertion and the development of symptoms in VA shunt recipients may result in misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The case presented suggests that such patients may require routine echocardiography at regular intervals. Otherwise, the indwelling foreign body may become the source of a life-threatening thrombotic mass, if not recognised and treated appropriately. PMID:22299300

Mujanovic, Emir; Bergsland, Jacob; Jurcic, Stjepan; Avdic, Sevleta; Stanimirovic-Mujanovic, Sanja; Kabil, Emir

2011-01-01

420

Ventriculovascular shunts via the femoral vein: a temporary feasible alternative in pediatric hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Ventriculovascular shunts via the femoral vein have been described as a feasible alternative for cerebrospinal fluid diversion in those complex cases of hydrocephalus in which other accesses are discarded. However, experience is short. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report 2 cases of hydrocephalic children who were developed several complications related to ventriculoperitoneal and ventriculoatrial shunts and who successfully managed by means of ventriculovascular shunts via the femoral vein. Both patients underwent vascular catheter placement through a venotomy performed in the common femoral vein. Catheter advance was controlled under fluoroscopic guidance. Distal catheters were joined by means of a straight connector, and a loop was accommodated in a subcutaneous pocket in the inguinal region to avoid future complications. The femoral vein is a successful alternative approach for distal catheter placement in ventriculovascular shunts when other accesses are ruled out. PMID:21034961

Gutiérrez-González, Raquel; Rivero-Garvía, Mónica; Márquez-Rivas, Javier

2010-11-01

421

Urethral protrusion of the abdominal catheter of ventriculoperitoneal shunt: Case report of extremely rare complication  

PubMed Central

Hydrocephalus in its various forms constitutes one of the major problems in pediatric neurosurgical practice. The placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most common form of treatment for hydrocephalus, so that all neurosurgeons struggle with shunt malfunctions and their complications. Well-known complications are connected with the use of the valve systems (malfunction, infectious, overdrainage, secondary craniosynostosis, etc.). We report an unusual case of protruding abdominal catheter from the urethra. This girl had received a VP shunt for hydrocephalus following surgery of posterior fossa medulloblastoma 4 years ago. After admission, the entire system was removed, antibiotic treatment was administered for 2 weeks, and a new VP shunt was placed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This complication is extremely rare.

Yazar, Ugur; Kanat, Ayhan; Akca, Nezih; Gazioglu, Gurkan; Arda, Irfan S.; Kazdal, Hizir

2012-01-01

422

Methodological Parameters Influence the Detection of Right-to-Left Shunts by Contrast Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Contrast transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is a new method to detect intracardiac right-to-left shunts, such as the patent foramen ovale. However, the methodology of the procedure varies considerably among investigators. This study was undertaken to assess the influence of methodological parameters on the results of the contrast transcranial Doppler examination in the detection of right-to-left shunts. Methods—A total of

J. J. Schwarze; D. Sander; C. Kukla; I. Wittich; V. L. Babikian; J. Klingelhofer

2010-01-01

423

Superconducting FCL using a combined inducted magnetic field trigger and shunt coil  

DOEpatents

A single trigger/shunt coil is utilized for combined induced magnetic field triggering and shunt impedance. The single coil connected in parallel with the high temperature superconducting element, is designed to generate a circulating current in the parallel circuit during normal operation to aid triggering the high temperature superconducting element to quench in the event of a fault. The circulating current is generated by an induced voltage in the coil, when the system current flows through the high temperature superconducting element.

Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

2007-10-16

424

Single-phase Shunt Active Filter interfacing renewable energy sources with the power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a single-phase Shunt Active Filter combined with a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) connected to a solar panel array. The Shunt Active Filter's power stage consists of a two-leg IGBT inverter commanded by a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) with control based on the Theory of Instantaneous Reactive Power (p-q Theory). The MPPT is based on a step-up

Pedro Neves; D. Goncalves; J. G. Pinto; Renato Alves; João L. Afonso

2009-01-01

425

Capacity Release by Shunt Capacitor Placement on Distribution Feeders: A New Voltage-Dependent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new voltage-dependent methodology for shunt-capacitor compensation of primary distribution feeders is presented. A generalized computer-based procedure is described for optimally sizing and placing any specified number of fixed shunt capacitors while accounting for voltage variation along the feeder. The procedure is applied to a physically-existing feeder with known P, Q loads to yield results for capacity release exactly comparable

J. J. Grainger; S. H. Lee

1982-01-01

426

PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt Active Power Filter--a report.  

PubMed

The authors acknowledge certain errors in their recently published paper titled "PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt active power filter--A report.The ambiguity in band width calculation of adaptive hysteresis controller and control aspects of dc-link voltage issues are addressed. The shunt APF system is validated through extensive simulation and the results are support features of the proposed technique. PMID:23012711

Karuppanan, P; Mahapatra, Kamala Kanta

2012-09-01

427

Shunt-related craniocerebral disproportion: treatment with cranial vault expanding procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts, one with myelomeningocele–hydrocephalus and the other with a subdural fluid\\u000a collection, were given a cerebrospinal (CSF) extracranial shunt. All four patients developed features of CSF overdrainage\\u000a following shunting and were treated by cranial vault expanding procedures. Before undergoing decompressive craniotomy, the\\u000a patients were treated by a variety of procedures, including changing of obstructed ventricular

Juan F. Martínez-Lage; Antonio Ruiz-Espejo Vilar; Miguel A. Pérez-Espejo; María-José Almagro; Javier Ros de San Pedro; Matías Felipe Murcia

2006-01-01

428

Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: risk factors and long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Shunt infection (SI) is an enduring problem in pediatric neurosurgery. Its occurrence is variable in the different series that were published, according to the definition retained. In addition, long-term data, which could help to evaluate the incidence of delayed SI, as well as the developmental outcome after SI, are scarce in the literature.Materials and methods  We reviewed retrospectively children shunted for

Matthieu Vinchon; Patrick Dhellemmes

2006-01-01

429

The Role of Bacterial Biofilms in Infections of Catheters and Shunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Catheters and shunts are tubes which are used to manage the flow of fluids into, within, and out of the body. Intravascular\\u000a catheters deliver fluids and medications directly into the bloodstream, while urinary catheters drain waste fluids. In some\\u000a cases devices such as cerebral ventricular shunts drain fluid from the brain, to another part of the body, such as the

Trine Rolighed Thomsen; Luanne Hall-Stoodley; Claus Moser; Paul Stoodley

430

3T magnetic resonance imaging testing of externally programmable shunt valves  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure of externally programmable shunt-valves (EPS-valves) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may lead to unexpected changes in shunt settings, or affect the ability to reprogram the valve. We undertook this study to examine the effect of exposure to a 3T MRI on a group of widely used EPS-valves. Methods: Evaluations were performed on first generation EPS-valves (those without a locking mechanism to prevent changes in shunt settings by external magnets other than the programmer) and second generation EPS-valves (those with a locking mechanisms). Fifteen new shunt-valves were divided into five groups of three identical valves each, and then exposed to a series of six simulated MRI scans. After each of the exposures, the valves were evaluated to determine if the valve settings had changed, and whether the valves could be reprogrammed. The study produced 18 evaluations for each line of shunt-valves. Results: Exposure of the first generation EPS-valves to a 3T magnetic field resulted in frequent changes in the valve settings; however, all valves retained their ability to be reprogrammed. Repeated exposure of the second generation EPS-valves has no effect on shunt valve settings, and all valves retained their ability to be interrogated and reprogrammed. Conclusions: Second generation EPS-valves with locking mechanisms can be safely exposed to repeated 3T MRI systems, without evidence that shunt settings will change. The exposure of the first generation EPS-valves to 3T MRI results in frequent changes in shunt settings that necessitate re-evaluation soon after MRI to avoid complications.

Zabramski, Joseph M.; Preul, Mark C.; Debbins, Josef; McCusker, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

431

Infection of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Causative Pathogens, Clinical Features, and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This retrospective chart review describes the clinical features, pathogens, and outcomes of 46 patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infections collected over 16 years. The overall CSF shunt infection rate was 2.1%, broken down into 1.7 and 9.3% in adult and pediatric groups, respectively. Fever and progressive consciousness disturbance were the most prominent clinical features in the adult patient

Kuo-Wei Wang; Wen-Neng Chang; Teng-Yuan Shih; Chi-Ren Huang; Nai-Wen Tsai; Chen-Sheng Chang; Yao-Chung Chuang; Po-Chou Liliang; Thung-Ming Su; Cheng-Shyuan Rau; Yu-Duan Tsai; Ben-Chung Cheng; Pi-Lien Hung; Chin-Jung Chang; Cheng-Hsien Lu

432

Treatment of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting Complications in a Nigerian Neurosurgery Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: For a century since the first cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion for the treatment of hydrocephalus has routinely been performed. A lot of common and rare complications following this procedure have been reported in 24–47% of the cases. The aim of this paper was to present our experience with the treatment of hydrocephalus in our

Edward O. Komolafe; Augustine A. Adeolu; Morenikeji A. Komolafe

2008-01-01

433

PhLP3 modulates CCT-mediated actin and tubulin folding via ternary complexes with substrates.  

PubMed

Many ATP-dependent molecular chaperones, including Hsp70, Hsp90, and the chaperonins GroEL/Hsp60, require cofactor proteins to regulate their ATPase activities and thus folding functions in vivo. One conspicuous exception has been the eukaryotic chaperonin CCT, for which no regulator of its ATPase activity, other than non-native substrate proteins, is known. We identify the evolutionarily conserved PhLP3 (phosducin-like protein 3) as a modulator of CCT function in vitro and in vivo. PhLP3 binds CCT, spanning the cylindrical chaperonin cavity and contacting at least two subunits. When present in a ternary complex with CCT and an actin or tubulin substrate, PhLP3 significantly diminishes the chaperonin ATPase activity, and accordingly, excess PhLP3 perturbs actin or tubulin folding in vitro. Most interestingly, however, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PhLP3 homologue is required for proper actin and tubulin function. This cellular role of PhLP3 is most apparent in a strain that also lacks prefoldin, a chaperone that facilitates CCT-mediated actin and tubulin folding. We propose that the antagonistic actions of PhLP3 and prefoldin serve to modulate CCT activity and play a key role in establishing a functional cytoskeleton in vivo. PMID:16415341

Stirling, Peter C; Cuéllar, Jorge; Alfaro, Gabriel A; El Khadali, Fatima; Beh, Christopher T; Valpuesta, José M; Melki, Ronald; Leroux, Michel R

2006-01-16

434

Interposition mesocaval shunt for bleeding oesophageal varices in moderate and poor risk cirrhotics.  

PubMed

A series of 45 mesocaval interposition shunt operations for bleeding oesophageal varices in Child's class B and C cirrhotics is presented. Twelve operations were carried out electively and 33 as emergencies. The primary mortality rates were 8% and 48% in these groups, respectively. Eleven (39%) of the 28 survivors died during a follow-up of 5 months to 4 years. Cumulative overall survival was 48% at one year and 33% at four years. Mortality was influenced more by surgery if performed as an emergency than the functional reserve of the liver. Continued alcoholism after surgery correlated with late mortality. Two cases of variceal rebleeding occurred in the primary survivor group (7%); both of them had shunt occlusion. Shunt patency rate was 89%. All patients had some degree of encephalopathy before surgery, but severe or chronic cases were not observed during the follow-up. Ascites when present preoperatively always disappeared after shunt. As a technically relatively simple procedure, mesocaval interposition shunt effectively prevents variceal rebleeding and ascites formation, thus offering improvement also in the quality of life. In elective cases an acceptably low mortality is achieved even in poor risk patients. In emergency cases mesocaval shunt provides about 50% chance of survival, if conservative methods to stop the bleeding fail. PMID:6976149

Järvinen, H; Kallio, H; Lempinen, M

1981-01-01

435

Syringomyelia as a presenting feature of shunt dysfunction: Implications for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of syringomyelia continues to be an enigma. The patency of the central canal and its role in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia continues to elicit controversy. The case reported here provides an opportunity to retest some of the hypotheses of syringomyelia. A 33 year old female presented with sensory disturbances over the left upper extremity and trunk and was diagnosed to have panventriculomegaly with communicating syringomyelia. She was initially treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. As there was no change in her neurological status following shunt, this was followed by foramen magnum decompression with excision of an arachnoid veil covering the fourth ventricular outlet. She had clinical and radiological improvement after foramen magnum decompression. Five months later she had reappearance of the symptoms of syringomyelia and was found to have shunt dysfunction and holocord syrinx. She improved following shunt revision. This case is being reported to highlight the following points: 1. In patients with communicating syringomyelia and hydrocephalus, shunt dysfunction can present with symptoms of syringomyelia without the classical clinical features of shunt dysfunction, 2. In patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord acts as an “exhaust valve” for the ventricular system, and, 3. studies about the patency of the central canal are reviewed in the context of this case and the role of the central canal in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia is reviewed.

Muthukumar, Natarajan

2012-01-01

436

Syringomyelia as a presenting feature of shunt dysfunction: Implications for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of syringomyelia continues to be an enigma. The patency of the central canal and its role in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia continues to elicit controversy. The case reported here provides an opportunity to retest some of the hypotheses of syringomyelia. A 33 year old female presented with sensory disturbances over the left upper extremity and trunk and was diagnosed to have panventriculomegaly with communicating syringomyelia. She was initially treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. As there was no change in her neurological status following shunt, this was followed by foramen magnum decompression with excision of an arachnoid veil covering the fourth ventricular outlet. She had clinical and radiological improvement after foramen magnum decompression. Five months later she had reappearance of the symptoms of syringomyelia and was found to have shunt dysfunction and holocord syrinx. She improved following shunt revision. This case is being reported to highlight the following points: 1. In patients with communicating syringomyelia and hydrocephalus, shunt dysfunction can present with symptoms of syringomyelia without the classical clinical features of shunt dysfunction, 2. In patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord acts as an "exhaust valve" for the ventricular system, and, 3. studies about the patency of the central canal are reviewed in the context of this case and the role of the central canal in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia is reviewed. PMID:23741127

Muthukumar, Natarajan

2012-01-01

437

Corrections of Enghoff's dead space formula for shunt effects still overestimate Bohr's dead space.  

PubMed

Dead space ratio is determined using Enghoff's modification (VdB-E/Vt) of Bohr's formula (VdBohr/Vt) in which arterial is used as a surrogate of alveolar PCO2. In presence of intrapulmonary shunt Enghoff's approach overestimates dead space. In 40 lung-lavaged pigs we evaluated the Kuwabara's and Niklason's algorithms to correct for shunt effects and hypothesized that corrected VdB-E/Vt should provide similar values as VdBohr/Vt. We analyzed 396 volumetric capnograms and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples to calculate VdBohr/Vt and VdB-E/Vt. Thereafter, we corrected the latter for shunt effects using Kuwabara's (K) VdB-E/Vt and Niklason's (N) VdB-E/Vt algorithms. Uncorrected VdB-E/Vt (mean±SD of 0.70±0.10) overestimated VdBohr/Vt (0.59±0.12) (p<0.05), over the entire range of shunts. Mean (K) VdB-E/Vt was significantly higher than VdBohr/Vt (0.67±0.08, bias -0.085, limits of agreement -0.232 to 0.085; p<0.05) whereas (N)VdB-E/Vt showed a better correction for shunt effects (0.64±0.09, bias 0.048, limits of agreement -0.168 to 0.072; p<0.05). Neither Kuwabara's nor Niklason's algorithms were able to correct Enghoff's dead space formula for shunt effects. PMID:23827851

Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Santos, Arnoldo; Böhm, Stephan H; Borges, Joao Batista; Hedenstierna, Göran; Tusman, Gerardo

2013-07-01

438

Portosystemic encephalopathy due to meso-iliac shunt in a patient without cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatic encephalopathy most commonly occurs in patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, however, the disorder can also occur in the presence of intra or extrahepatic shunts when the intrahepatic circulation is effectively bypassed. The majority of extrahepatic shunts described to date develop between a mesenteric vein and inferior vena cava. Herein we report a novel case of a superior mesenteric vein to left internal iliac vein shunt that led to hepatic encephalopathy in a 57 year old woman with no apparent underlying liver disorder. The patient presented with confusion, disorientation and hyperammonemia. Work-up for parenchymal liver disease was negative and liver biopsy findings did not show significant liver disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a serpiginous 1 cm wide shunt that diverted superior mesenteric vein blood from the portal confluence to the left internal iliac vein. Surgical closure of the shunt led to marked improvement of the patient with resolution of hepatic encephalopathy. This report is the first description of a portosystemic shunt, likely congenital, linking these two vessels resulting in clinically significant hepatic encephalopathy. The findings emphasize that abdominal and pelvic imaging should be considered in patients with signs of hepatic encephalopathy that have none to minimal hepatic disease.

Ali, Sobia; Stolpen, Alan H.; Schmidt, Warren N.

2009-01-01

439

Current-to-voltage converter for linearity correction of low shunt resistance photovoltaic detectors  

SciTech Connect

The most accurate absolute calibration of radiometric transfer standard detectors is carried out by cryogenic radiometers at a usually high irradiance level. A radiometric scale can be maintained by these calibrated detectors in a given irradiance range if they are linear or their nonlinearity is predictable in this range. The linearity of photovoltaic quantum detectors can be affected among others by their shunt resistance and the applied circuitry. Many of the radiometric quality large-area photodiodes exhibit very low shunt resistance in comparison to Si detectors. When used with a traditional current-to-voltage converter the requirement of the ideal short-circuit operation is not always met. Consequently, part of the photoinduced current flows through the shunt resistance of the detector as a shunt current, and only the rest produces the output voltage. This shunt current is highly temperature dependent and is generally proportional to the output voltage causing a nonlinear deviation of the output signal if the feedback resistor of the current-to-voltage converter, i.e., the sensitivity is changed. To practically eliminate the shunt current the bootstrapping technique was applied to these detectors, it enhanced the linear range of sensitivity by more than two decades. The circuit theory and the noise sources are detailed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Makai, J.P.; Makai, J.J. [Division of Optics and Electronics, Research Institute for Technical Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1047 Budapest Foti ut 56 (Hungary)

1996-06-01

440

An alternative physiological role for the EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens cLP6a  

PubMed Central

Background Efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily in bacteria are involved in antibiotic resistance and solvent tolerance but have an unknown physiological role. EmhABC, a RND-type efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain cLP6a, extrudes hydrophobic antibiotics, dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including phenanthrene. The effects of physico-chemical factors such as temperature or antibiotics on the activity and expression of EmhABC were determined in order to deduce its physiological role(s) in strain cLP6a in comparison to the emhB disruptant strain, cLP6a-1. Results Efflux assays conducted with 14C-phenanthrene showed that EmhABC activity is affected by incubation temperature. Increased phenanthrene efflux was measured in cLP6a cells grown at 10°C and decreased efflux was observed at 35°C compared with cells grown at the optimum temperature of 28°C. Membrane fatty acids in cLP6a cells were substantially altered by changes in growth temperature and in the presence of tetracycline. Changed membrane fatty acids and increased membrane permeability were associated with ~30-fold increased expression of emhABC in cLP6a cells grown at 35°C, and with increased extracellular free fatty acids. Growth of P. fluorescens cLP6a at supra-optimal temperature was enhanced by the presence of EmhABC compared to strain cLP6a-1. Conclusions Combined, these observations suggest that the EmhABC efflux pump may be involved in the management of membrane stress effects such as those due to unfavourable incubation temperatures. Efflux of fatty acids replaced as a result of membrane damage or phospholipid turnover may be the primary physiological role of the EmhABC efflux pump in P. fluorescens cLP6a.

2011-01-01

441

Scrotal perforation of peritoneal catheter: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts  

PubMed Central

Abstract: The standard treatment for the hydrocephalus is ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) operation that diverts the excess accumulated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the ventricles or other CSF containing spaces to another area. The VPS operation has been reportedly associated with risk factor for different organs due to peritoneal catheter migration including umbilicus, anus, vagina, mouth, intestine, internal jugular vein, chest, liver. Case: A 45-day-old male infant was admitted to emergency department of Imam Reza hospital (Kermanshah Iran) with a history of fever, restlessness, leakage of clear fluid through diaper from 2 days ago which exited; appearing from tip of the white tube extruding from scrotum. The infant was born with the myelomeningocele and paraplegia. Therefore, he had previously undergone a surgery at the age of 3 days. One week later the infant developed progressive hydrocephalus and a medium–pressure VP shunt was inserted. He was discharged 3 days later with good health condition and the sutures were removed 12 days later. After a month the infant was brought to the emergency department in ill condition with the symptoms described above. At the PE fever detected and wet diaper was seen and by shunt pump compression clear fluid emerged from the tip of catheter. The CSF analysis revealed meningitis, no growth of pathologic organism 48 hours post-culture. The patient was hospitalized and appropriate antibiotic treatment was started. 10 days later CSF became acellular and the shunt was removed and another VP shunt was inserted contralaterally. After 4 days scrotal orifice was cured and the infant discharged. Previous stories have reported many VS shunt-associated complications such as mechanical failure, functional failure, infections, obstruction, disconnection, migration, hematoma, and slit ventricle syndrome. Mechanical failures consist of obstruction, fracture, disconnection, migration. A search performed in the PubMed showed that until 2006 there has been no report of any case of scrotal skin perforation. Removing the shunt or replacing it with another one can be a good option for the management of any VS shunt failure. In case of leaking fluid, proximal diversion is recommended, while following the treatment of any infection, a new shunt insertion in another site is recommended. Keywords: Hydrocephalus, Ventriculoperitoneal shunt, Infant, Scrotal perforation, Peritoneal catheter

Saeidi Borojeni, Hamid Reza; Fakheri, Taravat; Saeidi Borojeni, Sepehr

2012-01-01

442

Effects of isradipine and other calcium antagonists on arteriovenous-shunt flow in anesthetized rabbits and cats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of vasodilators on arteriovenous (AV)-shunt flow was investigated in anesthetized cats and rabbits, using the tracer microsphere method. In cats, the calcium antagonist isradipine reduced AV-shunt flow; verapamil showed a similar tendency and nicardipine was without effect. Dihydralazine strongly increased, but nitroglycerin and dipyridamole decreased AV-shunt flow. In rabbits, the effects of isradipine and verapamil were similar to those seen in cats. Sodium nitroprusside had no effect, whereas prazosin, minoxidil, and the potassium-channel activator cromakalim increased AV-shunt flow. The contrasting effects of drugs sharing the same mechanism of action suggest that target-tissue selectivity is more important than the mechanism of action. An increase of AV-shunt flow is unlikely to be beneficial but could be associated with a number of undesirable side effects. It might negatively affect migraine sufferers and, if AV-shunt dilatation shows no tolerance development, it represents an unnecessary hemodynamic burden for the heart.

Hof, R.P.

1989-04-17

443

Development of a Pressure Regulator to Conserve Energy Emitting in LP Gas Pressure Regulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of electronics devices yields circuits which operates with low power consumption. This paper is aimed at describing a novel power supply system to such the devices. The energy levels diverged by mechanical vibration, pressure drops by regulators, thermal diverged, are low in the mechanical field but high enough to operate the electronics devices above. Here we describe a novel energy collecting method from pressure regulators in which high pressure is regulated to constant low pressure. In the regulation, energy is diverged. The method converts gas flow to rotation by a pneumatic motor and generates electric power by a generator connected with the motor. An LP gas regulator under normal use in a house, diverges about 30W energy. The devices developed here collected about 9W energy which is enough high for operating electronics devices around LP gas including intelligent gas meter.

Kurihara, Yosuke; Misawa, Keigo; Watanabe, Kajiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki

444

Gene identification and survival prediction with Lp Cox regression and novel similarity measure.  

PubMed

In this paper, Cox's proportional hazards model with Lp penalty method is developed for simultaneous gene selection and survival prediction. Lp penalty shrinks coefficients and produces some coefficients that are exactly zero, and therefore can be used to identify survival related downstream genes. We also define a novel similarity measure to hunt the regulatory genes that their gene expression changes may be low but they are highly correlated with the selected genes. Experimental results with gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed procedures can be used for identifying important gene clusters that are related to time to death due to cancer and for building parsimonious model for predicting the survival of future patients. PMID:20052904

Liu, Zhenqiu; Jiang, Feng

2009-01-01

445

Identification of Major Phosphorylation Sites of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Leader Protein (EBNA-LP): Ability of EBNA-LP To Induce Latent Membrane Protein 1 Cooperatively with EBNA-2 Is Regulated by Phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is a phosphoprotein suggested to play important roles in EBV-induced immortalization of B cells. One of the potential functions of EBNA-LP is a cooperative induction with EBNA-2 of viral and cellular gene expression, including that of the genes for viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and cellular cyclin D2. We report here

AKIHIKO YOKOYAMA; MICHIKO TANAKA; GO MATSUDA; KENTARO KATO; MIKIKO KANAMORI; HIROSHI KAWASAKI; HISASHI HIRANO; ISSAY KITABAYASHI; MISAO OHKI; KANJI HIRAI; YASUSHI KAWAGUCHI

2001-01-01

446

Frühe postoperative Dysfunktion eines modifizierten Blalock-Taussig-Shunts: Erfolgreiche Therapie mit Angioplastie und Stentimplantation in der Arteria subclavia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Summary   A newborn with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and transposition of the great arteries was palliated with\\u000a a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt at 5 days of age. Three days postoperatively arterial oxygen saturations dropped significantly.\\u000a Thrombosis of the shunt was suspected. Angiography revealed stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery related to the creation\\u000a of the shunt. The patient was

M. Peuster; C. Fink; B. Windhagen-Mahnert; T. Paul; G. Hausdorf

2000-01-01

447

Efficacy of Shunt Surgert for Refractory Low Flow Priapism: A Report on the Incidence of Failed Detumescence and Erectile Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe reported success rate for surgical cavernosa-to-spongiosum shunts in patients with refractory low flow priapism is variable and yet it is reported to be as high as 100% in terms of achieving detumescence. The long-term potency rate after the introduction of the shunt procedure is also as high as 50%. We reviewed the efficacy of various shunts in terms of

RANDY G. NIXON; JEFFREY L. O’CONNOR; DOUGLAS F. MILAM

2003-01-01

448

Functional evaluation of ventriculo-atrial and ventriculo-peritoneal shunts with 99m Tc-pertechnetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more ventriculo-atrial shunt operations are being carried out on every type of hydrocephalus and in every age group. Thus, the need for a simple, repeatable and atraumatic examination of the shunt function is increasing. The examination method of Bueno, in which 99mTc-pertechnetate is injected into the shunt system, has been adapted for our use. Here, the isotope is

M. Frick; H. Rösler; J. Kinser

1974-01-01

449

LP MOVPE growth and characterization of high Al content Al x Ga 1? x N epilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality AlxGa1?xN layers have been grown on sapphire (0001) by low pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (LP MOVPE) at 1180°C. The aluminum content covers a wide composition range varying from 0 to 65%. In order to ameliore the quality of these epilayers especially for high aluminum content (XsAl >0.35), growth conditions are carefully optimized. The growth rate of AlGaN

C. Touzi; F. Omnès; B. El Jani; P. Gibart

2005-01-01

450

The Right Axillary Artery Approach for the Impella Recover LP 5.0 Microaxial Pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

he Impella Recover LP 5.0 (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) is a new intravascular microaxial blood pump used for short-term mechanical support in cases of acutely reduced left ventricular function. As a ventric- ular unloading catheter, it supports the myocardium with up to 5 L\\/minute for up to 10 days (European Community marked, United States Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption).

Thomas Sassard; Aurelien Scalabre; Eric Bonnefoy; Ingrid Sanchez; Fadi Farhat; Olivier Jegaden

2010-01-01

451

50-to-67GHz ESD-protected power amplifiers in digital 45nm LP CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the first mm-wave PAs in 45 nm LP CMOS with state-of-the-art values for output power and with adequate ESD protection a demonstrated. The first of the two PAs to be described consists of two common-source (CS) stages, together with matching networks at the input, output and between the stages. The second PA uses the same interstage matching

K. Raczkowski; S. Thijs; W. De Raedt; B. Nauwelaers; P. Wambacq

2009-01-01

452

Advanced LP turbine installation at 1300 MW nuclear power station Unterweser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on Preussen Elektra AG's Unterweser power plant. The steam turbine-generator features a disk-type LP turbine rotor design developed in the late 1960's to early 1970's. This rotor design has been installed in 19 nuclear power plants. The 47 rotors in these plants have been in operation for an average of almost 10 years. The design of the

G. Jacobsen; H. Oeynhausen; H. Termuehlen

1991-01-01

453

Lead geochronology of zircon by LaserProbe-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LP-ICPMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

LaserProbe-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LP-ICPMS) provides a sensitive, fast, and simple means to determine 207 Pb \\/ 206 Pb ages in single zircon grains. A Nd:YAG laser is used to irradiate the zircon surface and leaves a cylindrical pit of 30-60 m, from which the vaporised materials are transported by argon gas to a Fisons-VG PQII+ ICPMS for analysis.

Rui Feng; Nuno Machado; John Ludden

1993-01-01

454

Assessment of PDA shunt and systemic blood flow in newborns using cardiac MRI.  

PubMed

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains common in preterm newborns, but uncertainty over optimal management is perpetuated by clinicians' inability to quantify its true haemodynamic impact. Our aim was to develop a technique to quantify ductal shunt volume and the effect of PDA on systemic blood flow volume in neonates. Phase contrast MRI sequences were optimized to quantify left ventricular output (LVO) and blood flow in the distal superior vena cava (SVC) (below the azygos vein insertion), descending aorta (DAo) and azygos vein. Total systemic flow was measured as SVC + DAo-azygos flow. Echo measures were included and correlated to shunt volumes. 75 infants with median (range) corrected gestation 33(+6) (26(+4) -38(+6) ) weeks were assessed. PDA was present in 15. In 60 infants without PDA, LVO matched total systemic flow (mean difference 2.06 ml/kg/min, repeatability index 13.2%). In PDA infants, ductal shunt volume was 7.9-74.2% of LVO. Multiple linear regression analysis correcting for gestational age showed that there was a significant association between ductal shunt volume and decreased upper and lower body flow (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001). However, upper body blood flow volumes were within the control group 95% confidence limits in all 15 infants with PDA, and lower body flow volumes within the control group limits in 12 infants with PDA. Echocardiographic assessment of reversed diastolic flow in the descending aorta had the strongest correlation with ductal shunt volume. We have demonstrated that quantification of shunt volume is feasible in neonates. In the presence of high volume ductal shunting the upper and lower body flow volume are somewhat reduced, but levels remain within or close to the normal range for preterm infants. PMID:23412748

Broadhouse, Kathryn M; Price, Anthony N; Durighel, Giuliana; Cox, David J; Finnemore, Anna E; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Groves, Alan M

2013-02-15

455

Arteriovenous shunting blood flow is intravitally observed in the stomach after thermal injury in rats.  

PubMed

Microcirculatory disturbance of the gastric wall is a crucial factor in the development of gastric mucosal lesions induced by Helicobacter pylori, anti-inflammatory drugs and stress. Opening of the arteriovenous shunting channel after thermal injury is one of the possible mechanisms to reduce mucosal blood flow. However, no in vivo observation of arteriovenous shunting blood flow in the stomach has been reported. To assess gastric microcirculatory disturbance, especially arteriovenous shunting blood flow after thermal injury by in vivo microsciopy, male Wistar rats were anesthetized and thermal injury was inflicted on the back skin. Gastric microvascular images were observed by in vivo microscopy. Rolling of leukocytes labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester were counted and blood flow dynamics were observed by flow of a micro dye, monastral blue B (MBB). The endothelial damage was assessed by deposits of MBB 5 min after the administration. Arteriovenous shunting blood flow is difficult to detect by normal methods, but it could be observed by How of MBB after thermal injury. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the ratio of arteriovenous shunting blood flow detection between the control (no injury) (0%; n = 15) and thermal injury (5 hrs after thermal injury) (28.6%; n = 14) groups. In the thermal injury group, the percentage of rolling leukocytes and the area of monastral blue B deposits increased, and the venular walls tended to be irregular. The total length of erosion increased time-dependently after thermal injury, and the length at 5 hrs was approximately 2 times larger than that at 2 hrs. Arteriovenous shunting blood flow is intravitally observed after thermal injury. A-V shunting blood flow can be a cause of mucosal hypoperfusion. It is suggested that the microcirculatory disturbance seen 5 hrs after thermal injury is contributed to the final step of erosion formation. PMID:12528924

Yoshida, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Go; Ishikawa, Hideki; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Tanabe, Minoru; Otani, Yoshihide; Shimazu, Motohide; Kubota, Tetsuro; Kitajima, Masaki

2002-12-01

456

Implementation of an artificial neuronal network to predict shunt necessity in carotid surgery.  

PubMed

In carotid surgery, it could be useful to know which patient will tolerate carotid cross-clamping in order to minimize the risks of perioperative strokes. In this clinical study, an artificial neuronal network (ANN) was applied and compared with conventional statistical methods to assess the value of various parameters to predict shunt necessity. Eight hundred and fifty patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy for a high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis under local anesthesia were analyzed regarding shunt necessity using a standard feed-forward, backpropagation ANN (NeuroSolutions); NeuroDimensions, Gainesville, FL) with three layers (one input layer, one hidden layer, one output layer). Among the input neurons, preoperative clinical (n = 9) and intraoperative hemodynamic (n = 3) parameters were examined separately. The accuracy of prediction was compared to the results of a regression analysis using the same variables. In 173 patients (20%) a shunt was used because hemispheric deficits or unconsciousness occurred during cross-clamping. With the ANN, not needing a shunt was predicted by preoperative and intraoperative parameters with an accuracy of 96% and 91%, respectively, where the regression analysis showed an accuracy of 98% and 96%, respectively. Those patients who needed a shunt were identified by preoperative parameters in 9% and by intraoperative parameters in 56% when the ANN was used. Regression analysis predicted shunt use correctly in 10% using preoperative parameters and 41% using intraoperative parameters. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters are more suitable than preoperative parameters to indicate shunt necessity where the application of an ANN provides slightly better results compared to regression analysis. However, the overall accuracy is too low to renounce perioperative neuromonitoring methods like local anesthesia. PMID:18761224

Aleksic, Marko; Luebke, Thomas; Heckenkamp, Joerg; Gawenda, Michael; Reichert, Viktor; Brunkwall, Jan

2008-09-01

457

Outcomes of CSF shunting in children: comparison of Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network cohort with historical controls.  

PubMed

Object The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN), which comprises 7 pediatric neurosurgical centers in North America, provides a unique multicenter assessment of the current outcomes of CSF shunting in nonselected patients. The authors present the initial results for this cohort and compare them with results from prospective multicenter trials performed in the 1990s. Methods Analysis was restricted to patients with newly diagnosed hydrocephalus undergoing shunting for the first time. Detailed perioperative data from 2008 through 2012 for all HCRN centers were prospectively collected and centrally stored by trained research coordinators. Historical control data were obtained from the Shunt Design Trial (1993-1995) and the Endoscopic Shunt Insertion Trial (1996-1999). The primary outcome was time to first shunt failure, which was determined by using Cox regression survival analysis. Results Mean age of the 1184 patients in the HCRN cohort was older than mean age of the 720 patients in the historical cohort (2.51 years vs 1.60 years, p < 0.0001). The distribution of etiologies differed (p < 0.0001, chi-square test); more tumors and fewer myelomeningoceles caused the hydrocephalus in the HCRN cohort patients. The hazard ratio for first shunt failure significantly favored the HCRN cohort, even after the model was adjusted for the prognostic effects of age and etiology (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.96). Conclusions Current outcomes of shunting in general pediatric neurosurgery practice have improved over those from the 1990s, although the reasons remain unclear. PMID:23909616

Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Butler, Jerry; Browd, Samuel R; Drake, James M; Holubkov, Richard; Kestle, John R W; Limbrick, David D; Simon, Tamara D; Tamber, Mandeep S; Wellons, John C; Whitehead, William E

2013-08-02

458

Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage with the Fourth Ventricular Hemorrhage : Risk Factors Associated with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt  

PubMed Central

Objective The purposes of this study are to investigate the factors that may be related to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt in patients with cerebellar hematoma and the effect of severe fourth ventricular hemorrhage, causing obstructive hydrocephalus on subsequent VP shunt performance. Methods This study included 31 patients with spontaneous cerebellar hematoma and concomitant fourth ventricular hemorrhage, who did not undergo a surgical evacuation of hematoma. We divided this population into two groups; the VP shunt group, and the non-VP shunt group. The demographic data, radiologic findings, and clinical factors were compared in each group. The location of the hematoma (whether occupying the cerebellar hemisphere or the vermis) and the degree of the fourth ventricular obstruction were graded respectively. The intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score was used to assess the IVH severity. Results Ten out of 31 patients underwent VP shunt operations. The midline location of cerebellar hematoma, the grade of fourth ventricle obstruction, and IVH severity were significantly correlated with that of VP shunt operation (p=0.015, p=0.013, p=0.028). The significant variables into a logistic regression multivariate model resulted in statistical significance for the location of cerebellar hemorrhage [p=0.05; odds ratio (OR), 8.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00 to 67.0], the grade of fourth ventricle obstruction (p=0.044; OR, 19.26; 95% CI, 1.07 to 346.6). Conclusion The location of the cerebellar hematoma on CT scans and the degree of fourth ventricle obstruction by IVH were useful signs for the selection of VP shunt operation in patients with spontaneous cerebellar hematoma and concomitant acute hydrocephalus.

Shin, Donguk; Woo, Hyun-Jin

2012-01-01

459

Accurate modal gain control in a multimode erbium doped fiber amplifier incorporating ring doping and a simple LP?? pump configuration.  

PubMed

We experimentally validate a numerical model to study multimode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (MM-EDFAs). Using this model, we demonstrate the improved performance achievable in a step index MM-EDFA incorporating a localized erbium doped ring and its potential for Space Division Multiplexed (SDM) transmission. Using a pure LP?? pump beam, which greatly simplifies amplifier construction, accurate modal gain control can be achieved by carefully tuning the thickness of the ring-doped layer in the active fiber and the pump power. In particular, by optimizing the erbium-ring-doped structure and the length of active fiber used, over 20dB gain for both LP?? and LP?? signals with a maximum gain difference of around 2 dB across the C band are predicted for a pure LP?? pump beam delivering 250 mW power at 980 nm. PMID:23037207

Kang, Qiongyue; Lim, Ee-Leong; Jung, Yongmin; Sahu, Jayanta K; Poletti, Francesco; Baskiotis, Catherine; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Richardson, David J

2012-09-10

460

A minimally invasive temporary cavernoso-saphenous shunt in the management of priapism after failed conservative treatment.  

PubMed

Priapism is an urological emergency with detrimental consequences, if not managed expeditiously. Though a rare condition with an incidence between 0.3 and 1.5 per 100,000 population, its management options are limited and decision making could be challenging. We present a case of late presenting priapism for which the initial routine clinical care (aspiration, intracavernosal injection, and distal shunt) failed to relieve erection. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by a temporary cavernoso-saphenous shunt using carotid shunt and repeated heparin flushes. This novel surgical treatment offers an alternate method of relieving priapism, avoiding the long-term undesired effects associated with permanent proximal shunts such as cavernoso-venous grafts. Moreover, interval flushes (and/or repeated aspirations) with heparin ensures patency of this new shunt during the perioperative period. The patient recovered without any complications and the shunt was removed after one week. He has regained partial erection, however refused to have further treatment. Temporary cavernoso-saphenous shunt using carotid shunt offers an alternate option of management of priapism in patients with failed initial conservative treatment and distal shunts. PMID:22142185

Mains, Edward; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Ahmad, Sarfraz; El-Mokadem, Ismail; Nabi, Ghulam

2011-12-05

461

What is a shunt? Concepts of central shunts and effective flow and a method for graphical presentation of circulatory quantities and their interrelations.  

PubMed

The terminologies commonly used in descriptions of abnormal patterns of blood flow in patients with congenital heart defects are valid only in the case of simple abnormal communications in an otherwise essentially normal cardiac anatomy. In more complex cases the expressions are unambiguous and elucidatory only when qualified further, but then the terminology becomes cumbersome. Much might be gained in clarity by considering the combined ventricular output as having four components: two are essential, and equal in size; they constitute the effective flows to the systemic and pulmonary arterial trees of blood from the pulmonary and systemic veins, respectively. The other two are recirculated systemic and pulmonary flows and may or may not exist; they may be referred to as blue and red shunts, respectively. Here, 'shunt' is defined as a by-pass of the capillary system to which a given blood flow is destined. The red and blue shunts are both central--as distinct from peripheral ones, where the by-pass links arteries and veins in one of the two circulations. Adoption of the concepts of central shunts and effective flow as defined here would facilitate a rational and consistent quantitative analysis of the circulation in individual cases irrespective of variations in cardiac anatomy. It would also make it possible to present in instantly understandable diagrams the magnitudes and interrelations of such variables as the oxygen consumption, the blood's oxygen capacity and the oxygen contents of the blood in the great vessels connecting the heart and the two circulations, the combined ventricular output and its components, the mean pressure difference across the pulmonary circulation and the pulmonary vascular resistance. A graph blank for such a presentation is proposed, and its application in cases with and without central shunts is exemplified. PMID:6929619

Zetterqvist, P

1980-01-01

462

The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in LP-BPM5 murine retroviral disease progression  

PubMed Central

Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunomodulatory intracellular enzyme involved in tryptophan degradation. IDO is induced during cancer and microbial infections by cytokines, ligation of co-stimulatory molecules and/or activation of pattern recognition receptors, ultimately leading to modulation of the immune response. LP-BM5 murine retroviral infection induces murine AIDS (MAIDS), which is characterized by profound and broad immunosuppression of T- and B-cell responses. Our lab has previously described multiple mechanisms regulating the development of immunodeficiency of LP-BM5-induced disease, including Programmed Death 1 (PD-1), IL-10, and T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Immunosuppressive roles of IDO have been demonstrated in other retroviral models, suggesting a possible role for IDO during LP-BM5-induced retroviral disease progression and/or development of viral load. Methods Mice deficient in IDO (B6.IDO?/?) and wildtype C57BL/6 (B6) mice were infected with LP-BM5 murine retrovirus. MAIDS and LP-BM5 viral load were assessed at termination. Results As expected, IDO was un-inducible in B6.IDO?/? during LP-BM5 infection. B6.IDO?/? mice infected with LP-BM5 retrovirus succumbed to MAIDS as indicated by splenomegaly, serum hyper IgG2a and IgM, decreased responsiveness to B- and T-cell mitogens, conversion of a proportion of CD4+ T cells from Thy1.2+ to Thy1.2-, and increased percentages of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells. LP-BM5 infected B6.IDO?/? mice also demonstrated the development of roughly equivalent disease kinetics as compared to infected B6 mice. Splenic viral loads of B6 and B6.IDO?/? mice were also equivalent after infection as measured by LP-BM5-specific Def Gag and Eco Gag viral mRNA, determined by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate IDO neither plays an essential role, nor is required, in LP-BM5-induced disease progression or LP-BM5 viral load.

2013-01-01

463

Lp(a) and LDL induce apoptosis in human endothelial cells and in rabbit aorta: Role of oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lp(a) and LDL induce apoptosis in human endothelial cells and in rabbit aorta: Role of oxidative stress.BackgroundAtherogenic lipoproteins cause injury to the vascular wall in the early phase of atherogenesis. We assessed the effects of native (nLDL) and oxidized (oxLDL) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] on O2? formation and cell death in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Jan Galle; Reinhard Schneider; Alexandra Heinloth; Christoph Wanner; Peter R. Galle; Ernst Conzelmann; Stephanie Dimmeler; Kathrin Heermeier

1999-01-01

464

Bacteremia and "Endotipsitis" following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify all cases of bacteremia and suspected endotipsitis after Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) at our institution and to determine risk factors for their occurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent TIPS in our institution between 1996 and 2009. Data included: indications for TIPS, underlying liver disease, demographics, positive blood cultures after TIPS, microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: 49 men and 47 women were included with a mean age of 55.8 years (range 15-84). Indications for TIPS included variceal bleeding, refractory ascites, hydrothorax and hepatorenal syndrome. Positive blood cultures after TIPS were found in 39/96 (40%) patients at various time intervals following the procedure. Seven patients had persistent bacteremia fitting the definition of endotipsitis. Staphylococcus species grew in 66% of the positive cultures, Candida and enterococci species in 15% each of the isolates, and 3% cultures grew other species. Multi-variate regression analysis identified 4 variables: hypothyroidism, HCV, prophylactic use of antibiotics and the procedure duration as independent risk factors for positive blood cultures following TIPS (P < 0.0006, 0.005, 0.001, 0.0003, respectively). Prophylactic use of antibiotics before the procedure was associated with a decreased risk for bacteremia, preventing mainly early infections, occurring within 120 d of the procedure. CONCLUSION: Bacteremia is common following TIPS. Risk factors associated with bacteremia include failure to use prophylactic antibiotics, hypothyroidism, HCV and a long procedure. Our results strongly support the use of prophylaxis as a means to decrease early post TIPS infections.

Mizrahi, Meir; Roemi, Lilach; Shouval, Daniel; Adar, Tomer; Korem, Maya; Moses, Alon; Bloom, Alan; Shibolet, Oren

2011-01-01

465

Colour Doppler sonography of hepatic haemangiomas with arterioportal shunts  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the frequency of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow using colour Doppler sonography (CDS) on hepatic haemangiomas with arterioportal shunt (APS), and to investigate possible factors that may affect the capability of CDS to depict such findings. Methods The study included 45 patients (35 men, 10 women; mean age, 56 years) with hepatic haemangiomas with APS on CT or MRI. Locating the tumour on greyscale sonography, the depth, size and echogenicity of the tumour were evaluated. CT or MR images were evaluated for fatty liver. CDS was performed to determine the presence of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow. Differences in frequency of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow according to the depth, size, echogenicity and fatty liver were evaluated by Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. Results On CDS, intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow were found in 66.7% and 60%, respectively. The tumour depth was the significant variable that affected the capability of CDS to depict such findings. The frequencies of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow were as high as 88% and 80% for shallow (?30 mm) lesions, and they were 40% and 35% for deep (>30 mm) lesions (p=0.0012; p=0.0051). Conclusion CDS can commonly depict intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow in patients with hepatic haemangiomas with APS. Therefore, CDS should be routinely performed when an incidental mass is encountered during the screening sonography, especially when the lesion is shallow.

Lim, K J; Kim, K W; Jeong, W K; Kim, S Y; Jang, Y J; Yang, S; Lee, J J

2012-01-01

466

Reduction of astrogliosis and microgliosis by cerebrospinal fluid shunting in experimental hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background Reactive gliosis has the potential to alter biomechanical properties of the brain, impede neuronal regeneration and affect plasticity. Determining the onset and progression of reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis due to hydrocephalus is important for designing better clinical treatments. Methods Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were evaluated as the severity of hydrocephalus increased with age in hydrocephalic H-Tx rats and control littermates. Previous studies have suggested that gliosis may persist after short-term drainage (shunt treatment) of the cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore shunts were placed in 15d hydrocephalic rats that were sacrificed after 6d (21d of age) or after 21d (36d of age). Tissue was processed for Western blot procedures and immunohistochemistry, and probed for the astrocytic protein, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and for microglial protein, Isolectin B4 (ILB4). Results In the parietal cortex of untreated hydrocephalic animals, GFAP levels increased significantly at 5d and at 12d compared to age-matched control rats. There was a continued increase in GFAP levels over control at 21d and at 36d. Shunting prevented some of the increase in GFAP levels in the parietal cortex. In the occipital cortex of untreated hydrocephalic animals, there was a significant increase over control in levels of GFAP at 5d. This trend continued in the 12d animals, although not significantly. Significant increases in GFAP levels were present in 21d and in 36d animals. Shunting significantly reduced GFAP levels in the 36d shunted group. Quantitative grading of immuno-stained sections showed similar changes in GFAP stained astrocytes. Immuno-stained microglia were altered in shape in hydrocephalic animals. At 5d and 12d, they appeared to be developmentally delayed with a lack of processes. Older 21d and 36d hydrocephalic animals exhibited the characteristics of activated microglia, with thicker processes and enlarged cell bodies. Following shunting, fewer activated microglia were present. Histologic examination of the periventricular area and the periaqueductal area showed similar findings with the 21d and 36d animals having increased populations of both astrocytes and microglia which were reduced following shunting with a more dramatic reduction in the long term shunted animals. Conclusion Overall, these results suggest that reactive astrocytosis and microgliosis are associated with progressive untreated ventriculomegaly, but that shunt treatment can reduce the gliosis occurring with hydrocephalus.

Miller, Janet M; McAllister II, James P

2007-01-01

467

Predictors of in-hospital shunt-dependent hydrocephalus following rupture of cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

The development of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a well-recognised complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and negatively impacts on outcomes among survivors. This study aimed to identify early predictors of shunt dependency in a large administrative dataset of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients. We reviewed the National Hospital Morbidity Database in Australia for the years 1998 to 2008 and investigated the incidence of ventricular shunt placement following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage admissions. Putative risk factors were evaluated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of outcome. The following variables were considered: poor admission neurological grade; aneurysm location; intracerebral haemorrhage; intraventricular haemorrhage; acute hydrocephalus requiring the insertion of an external ventricular drain; surgical clipping; endovascular coiling; meningitis; and prolonged period of external ventricular drainage. A total of 10807 patients hospitalised for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified. Among them, 701 (6.5%) required a permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure during the same admission as the aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. On multivariate analysis, poor admission neurological grade, acute hydrocephalus, the presence of intraventricular haemorrhage, ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm, surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, meningitis, and a prolonged period of external ventricular drainage were significant predictors of shunt dependency. A patient with a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm was unlikely to develop shunt dependency (odds ratio 0.58; 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.73; p < 0.001). PMID:23517672

Lai, Leon; Morgan, Michael K

2013-03-19

468

Long-term results of small-diameter proximal splenorenal venous shunt: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate recurrent variceal hemorrhage and long-term survival rates of patients treated with partial proximal splenorenal venous shunt. METHODS: Patients with variceal hemorrhage who were treated with small-diameter proximal splenorenal venous shunt in Ruijin Hospital between 1996 and 2009 were included in this study. Shunt diameter was determined before operation using Duplex Doppler ultrasonography. Peri-operative and long-term results in term of rehemorrhage, encephalopathy and mortality were followed up. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients with Child A and B variceal hemorrhage received small-diameter proximal splenorenal venous shunt with a diameter of 7-10 mm. After operation, the patients’ mean free portal pressure (P < 0.01) and the flow rate of main portal vein (P < 0.01) decreased significantly compared with that before operation. The rates of rebleeding and mortality were 6.12% (6 cases) and 2.04% (2 cases), respectively. Ninety-one patients were followed up for 7 mo-14 years (median, 48.57 mo). Long-term rates of rehemorrhage and encephalopathy were 4.40% (4 cases) and 3.30% (3 cases), respectively. Thirteen patients (14.29%) died mainly due to progressive hepatic dysfunction. Five- and ten-year survival rates were 82.12% and 71.24%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Small-diameter proximal splenorenal venous shunt affords protection against variceal rehemorrhage with a low occurrence of encephalopathy in patients with normal liver function.

Chen, Hao; Yang, Wei-Ping; Yan, Ji-Qi; Li, Qin-Yu; Ma, Di; Li, Hong-Wei

2011-01-01

469

[Clinical evaluation of coronary artery fistula and coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunt].  

PubMed

Coronary artery fistula and coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunts were observed in 16 cases out of 462 consecutive cases in which coronary angiography was performed. 9 of these cases had coronary artery fistula, 5 of the cases had coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunts. 2 cases had both of these conditions. Coronary artery fistula has a draining vein originating from the coronary artery and an entering vein terminating in the cardiac chamber or the pulmonary artery. Coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunts have no such veins, and contrast material used in the injection phase of coronary angiography escapes directly into the cardiac chamber. 2 cases of coronary artery fistula, 2 cases of coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunts, and 1 case involving the both of these conditions showed positive results in submaximal exercise tolerance tests, and no significant arteriosclerotic changes in the coronary artery. These factors lead us to suggest that coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunts cause cardiac ischemia for the same reason that coronary artery fistula does. PMID:2320796

Higuchi, H; Takeuchi, M; Shiozaki, A; Tanaka, T; Fukui, A; Kawahira, S; Houda, N; Nakano, T

1990-02-01

470

Right lower quadrant abdominal pain in a patient with prior ventriculoperitoneal shunting: consider the tip!  

PubMed

Introduction. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is the treatment of choice for nonobstructive hydrocephalus. In patients with such a device, right lower quadrant abdominal pain can puzzle the surgeon, posing a differential diagnostic problem among appendicitis, nonsurgical colicky pain, and primary shunt catheter tip infection. Treatment is different in either case. Presentation of Case. We hereby present a case of a young woman with prior ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning who presented to our department with right lower quadrant abdominal pain. The patient underwent a 24-hour observation including a neurosurgery consult in order to exclude acute appendicitis and VP shunt tip infection. Twenty four hours later, the patient's symptomatology improved, and she was discharged with the diagnosis of atypical colicky abdominal pain seeking a gastroenterologist consult. Discussion. This case supports that when a patient with prior VP shunting presents with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, differential diagnosis can be tricky for the surgeon. Conclusion. Apart from acute appendicitis, primary or secondary VP catheter tip infection must be considered because the latter can be disastrous. PMID:22454641

Charalampoudis, Petros

2012-02-20

471

Clinical and radiologic manifestations of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPS) is a rare condition in which the portomesenteric blood drains into a systemic vein, bypassing the liver through a complete or partial shunt. Most often, the diagnosis is made primarily with Doppler ultrasonography. Computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used for further classification of the shunt and assessment of accompanying anomalies. Conventional angiography is necessary when results of the other tests disagree or are inconclusive. CEPS is classified into two types according to the pattern of anastomoses between the portal vein and systemic vein. In type 1, intrahepatic portal venous supply is absent; in type 2, intrahepatic portal venous supply is preserved. Type 1 usually occurs in girls with associated malformations, such as situs ambiguous with polysplenia and congenital heart defects. Associated anomalies are less frequent in type 2, and symptoms usually develop later without a gender preference. Hepatic encephalopathy and liver dysfunction are possible complications of both types and usually develop during adulthood. Both types are also associated with regenerative hepatic nodules. The clinical setting and imaging appearance of these nodules can help one avoid misdiagnosis. Definitive treatment of CEPS is determined by the type of shunt. Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for symptomatic type 1 CEPS; surgical closure or embolization of the shunt is the therapeutic approach for type 2. PMID:21571652

Alonso-Gamarra, Eduardo; Parrón, Manuel; Pérez, Ana; Prieto, Consuelo; Hierro, Loreto; López-Santamaría, Manuel

472

Risk factors for tube shunt exposure: a matched case-control study.  

PubMed

Purpose. To evaluate potential risk factors for developing tube shunt exposure in glaucoma patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-one cases from 41 patients that had tube shunt exposure from 1996 to 2005 were identified from the Robert Cizik Eye Clinic and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Each case was matched with 2 controls of the same gender and with tube shunts implanted within 6 months of the index case. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Results. The study cohort includes a total of 121 eyes from 121 patients. The mean age was 63.6?±?19.7 years, ranging from 1 to 96 years. The average time to exposure was 19.29?±?23.75 months (range 0.36-85.74 months). Risk factors associated with tube exposure were Hispanic ethnicity (P = 0.0115; OR?=?3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.7), neovascular glaucoma (P = 0.0064; OR?=?28.5; 95% CI, 2.6-316.9), previous trabeculectomy (P = 0.0070; OR?=?5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7), and combined surgery (P = 0.0381; OR?=?3.7; 95% CI, 1.1-12.7). Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity, neovascular glaucoma, previous trabeculectomy, and combined surgery were identified as potential risk factors for tube shunt exposure. These potential risk factors should be considered when determining the indication for performing tube shunt implantation and the frequency of long-term followup. PMID:23970955

Koval, Michael S; El Sayyad, Fouad F; Bell, Nicholas P; Chuang, Alice Z; Lee, David A; Hypes, Stephen M; Grover, Davinder S; Baker, Laura A; Huddleston, Stephen M; Budenz, Donald L; Feldman, Robert M

2013-07-21

473

A 20 ampere shunt regulator for controlling individual magnets in a seriesed string  

SciTech Connect

At the CEBAF accelerator, groups of dipole magnets are often connected together in series and powered from a single large constant-current regulated D-C supply, referred to locally as a {open_quotes}box{close_quotes} supply. Besides the economy realized, this configuration promotes correct field tracking of all elements of a beam transport channel. However, it is often desirable to vary the current in one element of a string independently of the others, particularly at the entrance and exits of transport channels. A 20 ampere programmable current shunt is described. Installed in parallel with the desired magnet, it permits shunting (bypassing) up to 5% of the string current around that magnet. The shunt regulator consists of a bank of MOSFET power transistors operated in linear mode. Regulation of current through the passbank is obtained by feedback from a manganin shunt maintained at a constant temperature for stability. The module is designed for remote operation and provides readbacks of various parameters useful for maintenance. To achieve complete electrical isolation, an onboard microprocessor provides remote communications via an opto-isolated serial data link. Constructional details and initial operating experience with the plug-in shunt are described.

Martin, E.J.; Dobeck, N.; Jones, G.S.; O`Sullivan, M.K. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

1996-08-01

474

Migration of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter into the heart. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Migration of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt tubing is known to occur in a wide of variety of locations. The authors report an unusual complication involving a previously confirmed intraperitoneal shunt catheter that migrated into the heart and pulmonary vasculature. Radiographic evidence suggested that this occurred secondary to cannulation of a segment of the external jugular vein with a shunt trochar during tunneling of the distal catheter. This is the sixth reported case of a peritoneal shunt tube migrating proximally into the heart. The authors review the literature regarding migration of distal tubing into the heart and pulmonary artery. Based on imaging studies obtained in the present case, the authors posit that the mechanism for this unusual type of shunt migration is inadvertent penetration of either the internal or external jugular vein during the initial tunneling procedure. Negative intrathoracic pressure and slow venous flow then draws the catheter out of the peritoneum and into the vasculature. The distal catheter then migrates into the right side of the heart and pulmonary artery. Diagnosis and management of this type of complication is discussed. PMID:14758952

Fewel, Matthew E; Garton, Hugh J L

2004-02-01

475

Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain in a Patient with Prior Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting: Consider the Tip!  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is the treatment of choice for nonobstructive hydrocephalus. In patients with such a device, right lower quadrant abdominal pain can puzzle the surgeon, posing a differential diagnostic problem among appendicitis, nonsurgical colicky pain, and primary shunt catheter tip infection. Treatment is different in either case. Presentation of Case. We hereby present a case of a young woman with prior ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning who presented to our department with right lower quadrant abdominal pain. The patient underwent a 24-hour observation including a neurosurgery consult in order to exclude acute appendicitis and VP shunt tip infection. Twenty four hours later, the patient's symptomatology improved, and she was discharged with the diagnosis of atypical colicky abdominal pain seeking a gastroenterologist consult. Discussion. This case supports that when a patient with prior VP shunting presents with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, differential diagnosis can be tricky for the surgeon. Conclusion. Apart from acute appendicitis, primary or secondary VP catheter tip infection must be considered because the latter can be disastrous.

Charalampoudis, Petros

2012-01-01

476

Suppression of electric field domains in semiconductor superlattices with side shunting layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have numerically studied the electronic transport properties of a weakly-coupled semiconductor superlattice that possesses a conductive side shunting layer, using a model that includes lateral dynamics in each quantum well of the superlattice [1]. Depending on the lateral size of the superlattice quantum wells and the quality of the connection between the shunt layer and the superlattice, the shunt may inhibit the formation of electric field domains in the superlattice under conditions of negative differential resistance (NDR). We determine conditions to achieve a stable spatially-uniform electric field distribution, an important condition for practical NDR devices such as superlattice THz oscillators. For a superlattice with small lateral extent, a high quality shunt stabilizes the uniform field configuration in the entire structure, whereas a lower quality shunt leads to current oscillations and/or static field domains. We characterize the bifurcations associated with the transitions between these different behaviors. [1] A. Amann and E. Sch"oll, Phys. Rev. B 72, 165319 (2005).

Xu, Huidong; Amann, Andreas; Schöll, Eckehard; Teitsworth, Stephen

2009-03-01

477

[Residual shunt after percutaneous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus by Rashkind's device. Echographic aspects, outcome, prognostic factors and management].  

PubMed

Percutaneous occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with the double umbrella Rashkind prosthesis is an alternative to surgery. The authors report the results of a series of 40 patients aged 16 to 203 months, who underwent transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus between January 1989 and March 1993. These children were followed up regularly, clinically and by echocardiography to determine the presence or absence of a residual shunt. Immediately after implantation, angiography showed a residual shunt in 75% of cases. However, the shunt progressively regressed during follow-up. Three types of shunt were described using colour Doppler based on the diameter of the transductal jet at its origin and its extension in the pulmonary artery: type I, a wide jet (> 3 mm), type II, or minimal shunt, with a jet diameter of 2 to 3 mm and an extension to the pulmonary valve (flame-like), and finally the type III, or punctiform shunt with a jet diameter < 2 mm and extension in the main pulmonary artery < 1.5 cm. During follow-up, a transition between the 3 types was observed in 37% of cases. Kaplan-Meier actuarial analysis showed a residual shunt rate of 33% at one year and 19% at 2 years after implantation. The search for predictive factors of residual shunt showed that very young patients at the time of catheterisation was the only indicator of a residual shunt (p = 0.03). Occlusion of a patent ductus arteriosus with a Rashkind device is a reliable method which gives good results. The essential problem remains that of a residual shunt but this disappears in 3/4 of patients during follow-up. When the shunt persists, a 1 to 2 year interval is advised before considering implantation of a second occluder. PMID:7857177

Godart, F; Rey, C; Jarrar, M; Francart, C; Vaksmann, G; Brevière, G M

1994-05-01

478

Use of percutaneous endoscopy to place syringopleural or cystoperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid shunts: technical note.  

PubMed

The authors describe a technique for percutaneous endoscopic shunt placement to treat clinically symptomatic spinal cysts. Seven patients underwent the procedure--five with syringomyelia, one with a symptomatic perineurial cyst, and one with a large arachnoid cyst. In all patients the shunt was successfully placed, and clinical improvement occurred in six. In four patients the entire procedure was performed endoscopically, whereas in three conversion to an open surgical exposure was required for safe access of a syrinx cavity. Overall, however, the pleural or peritoneal catheter was successfully placed endoscopically in all