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Sample records for luminance controlled pupil

  1. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  2. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  3. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  4. Personality and Pupil Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray

    Pupil control behavior is conceptualized as a continuum ranging from custodialism, which views students as irresponsible and undisciplined and needing strictness and punishment, to humanism, which emphasizes a democratic atmosphere in which students are capable of self-discipline and are treated accordingly. The theoretical framework for this…

  5. Pupil Control As an Institutional Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    This study of pupil control attitudes was based on the assumption that public school teachers and college education instructors hold divergent views on pupil control. These divergent views would then be imposed on the preservice teachers. The Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) Scale and the Dogmatism Scale, Form E, were randomly distributed to 100…

  6. Pupil Control as an Institutional Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Differences in attitudes toward pupil control between university educators and cooperating pupil school teachers were measured to determine if student teachers might be receiving conflicting sets of expectations. The results of the study confirm that college supervisors have a more humanistic attitude toward pupil control than cooperating teachers…

  7. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    Pupil control is regarded as an integrative theme to explain the collection of extensive observations made in schools. This report attempts to define and measure pupil control behavior, a companion concept to pupil control ideology. (Author/WM)

  8. The effect of controlled photopigment excitations on pupil aperture.

    PubMed

    Viénot, Françoise; Bailacq, Solenne; Rohellec, Jean Le

    2010-09-01

    In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains melanopsin which has been identified recently in the body and dendrites of a few ganglion cells. The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are good candidates for controlling the tonic pupil aperture but their spectral sensitivity is close to those of rods and S-cones which are other candidates. Our study aims at identifying the stimulus for the pupil response when the luminance is constant and the spectrum of the light changes. A light booth was equipped with five types of coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs): Blue, Cyan, Green, Orange and Red. The intensity of each LED type could be adjusted to control the light spectrum. Illumination pairs were prepared ensuring the exclusive variation of excitation of one receptor type and silent substitution for others. Because the range of the possible controlled changes of excitation was narrow, we also prepared illumination pairs ensuring silent substitution for luminance rather than for L-cones and M-cones independently. Photographs of the observer's eyes were taken following one minute of adaptation to each illumination and the ratio of pupil to iris diameter was measured. No differential pupillary response was observed with a variation of rod, melanopsin or S-cone excitation alone. A differential pupillary response could only be obtained with a variation of the melanopsin stimulus of sufficient high contrast with or without a concurrent variation of rods. PMID:20883331

  9. Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Nankivil, Derek; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Lujan, Brandon J.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the collection efficiency of back-scattered light, and to minimize aberrations and vignetting, the lateral position of the scan pivot of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal scanner should be imaged to the center of the ocular pupil. Additionally, several retinal structures including Henle’s Fiber Layer (HFL) exhibit reflectivities that depend on illumination angle, which can be controlled by varying the pupil entry position of the OCT beam. In this work, we describe an automated method for controlling the lateral pupil entry position in retinal OCT by utilizing pupil tracking in conjunction with a 2D fast steering mirror placed conjugate to the retinal plane. We demonstrate that pupil tracking prevents lateral motion artifacts from impeding desired pupil entry locations, and enables precise pupil entry positioning and therefore control of the illumination angle of incidence at the retinal plane. We use our prototype pupil tracking OCT system to directly visualize the obliquely oriented HFL. PMID:26417510

  10. Teacher Militancy and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Charles E.; Willower, Donald J.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that highly militant teachers would favor strict control of students was tested using the Attitudinal Militancy Scale and the Pupil Control Ideology Form. Responses from 229 secondary school teachers from six school districts in the northeastern United States did not support the hypothesis. (PP)

  11. Some Comments on Inquiries on Schools and Pupil Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.

    This speech, by the co-author of a bibliography of studies of pupil control, reviews literature on that subject, differentiating between studies on Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) and Pupil Control Behavior (PCB), describing instances of their interrelationship, and weighing the various merits of PCI and PCB instruments. The author concludes that…

  12. Teacher Pupil Control Ideology--Behavior Congruence and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.; Heckert, J. Wayne

    The hypothesis that teacher pupil control ideology-behavior congruence would be positively related to teacher job satisfaction was tested. The rationale for the hypothesis was that teachers whose beliefs and behaviors concerning pupil control were consistent would be likely to be contented with their work. Pupil control was seen as a central…

  13. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    An attempt is made to define and measure pupil control "behavior." In order to measure pupil control behavior, an instrument called the Pupil Control Behavior (PCB) Form was developed and tested. The 31 custodial and 34 humanistic items were randomized, and the initial version of the PCB Form was administered in 20 schools in Illinois (13…

  14. Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Lee O.; Seitz, Reynolds C.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses recent court litigation concerning legal rights and responsibilities of pupils covering procedural due process, grooming and appearance, regulation of speech and publications, liability for pupil injuries, and racial integration. (JF)

  15. Educators' Pupil-Control Ideology as a Predictor of Educator's Reactions to Pupil Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenburg, Fred C.

    Given the importance of pupil control in the school's social system, it would seem reasonable to predict a significant relationship between educators' pupil control ideology and their reactions to disruptive behavior incidents. This study examines whether humanistically oriented educators would prefer to levy less punitive measures on disruptive…

  16. Pupil Control Ideology and Teacher Influence in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Ronald

    A study investigated whether pupil control ideology of teachers differentially affected their operational behavior in the classroom. Elementary school teachers employed in a suburban St. Louis district (N=260) responded to the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI). From this group 20 were selected to comprise two experimental groups: those with…

  17. Are Creative Teachers More Humanistic in Their Pupil Control Ideologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Gerald; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the verbal creative thinking abilities of fluency, flexibility, and originality are negatively related to authoritarian pupil control orientations as measured by the Pupil Control Ideology Form (Willower, Eidell & Hoy, 1967). (Author/RK)

  18. Pupil Control Ideology among Prospective South African and Indian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherian, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of teacher training programmes is to instil a humanistic ideology into the school curriculum. Unfortunately however, this is not always able to change the culture of a school. The Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) scale was designed to measure the pupil control orientation of the respondents (teachers) on a humanistic-custodial continuum.…

  19. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases involving pupils. Such cases increased one-third in 1982, with much of the increase attributable to litigation concerning the rights of handicapped students. A 1982 U.S. Supreme Court case defining the congressional mandate of an "appropriate education" for such students may help reduce the controversy in this area.…

  20. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.; Bielsky, Donald J.

    Litigation having to do with pupils occurred with greater frequency in 1980 than in the past. The greatest increase dealt with the handicapped and with substantive rights of students. Cases involving handicapped students generally focused on parent requests for residential treatment, extended-year programs, and in-class assistance for their…

  1. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    This chapter reviews court decisions in education during 1986 that addressed issues related to student rights and the jurisdiction of schools with respect to pupils. The first section of the review covers the issues of public school assignment, tuition, transportation, and compulsory attendance. This is followed by short discussions of cases…

  2. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    Cases involving searches of public school pupils in order to obtain evidence of drug sales or use, and litigation challenging the punishments meted out to students found with drugs, continued to occupy the attention of courts in 1989. Also continuing a trend seen in previous years, religion-based challenges to state regulation of both home…

  3. Pupil Control Ideology: Comparative Perspectives--United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalian, A.

    1979-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the Pupil Control Ideology Scale (PCI) and the sex of the teacher, level of teaching (preschool, elementary, secondary), as well as level of school bureaucracy based on the Moeller scale. (Author/RTS)

  4. The Relationship of Pupil Control Ideology to Students' Rights Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lynn

    As a result of increased court intervention in favor of students' rights, a review of a sample of teachers concerning their attitudes about student control was examined. Taking into consideration the teachers' attitudes concerning student rights, the Pupil Control Ideology test and the Students' Rights Acceptance Scale were used as measurement…

  5. Pupil Control Ideology and the Salience of Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The explanatory power of the combined biographical variables of teacher age, experience, sex, organizational status, and academic qualifications for variances in pupil control ideology (PCI) is seriously questioned, since as little as 6 percent of PCI variance may be explained by reference to these particular variables. (Author)

  6. Faculty Informal Structure, Pupil Control Ideology and Pluralistic Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Louis J.; Willower, Donald J.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 296 faculty members completed three versions of the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) form and a sociometric scale. Findings revealed positive relationships between the individual teacher's PCI and his perception of the PCI both of members of his informal group and of teachers in the school district. (Author)

  7. High School Mathematics Teachers: Grading Practice and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicmanec, Karen Mauck; Johanson, George; Howley, Aimee

    Survey data gathered from 230 respondents from a random sample of 500 Ohio public school teachers explores the association between teachers' practice of assigning grades based on nonachievement grading factors and teachers' pupil control orientation (PCI). Responding high school mathematics teachers provided information that relates to the use of…

  8. The Relationship between Pupil Control Ideology and Academic Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between pupil control ideology and academic optimism. Information was generated through responses to a questionnaire emailed to teachers in two school districts in Central New Jersey. The districts were categorized GH, as determined by the State's district factor grouping. The research concludes that…

  9. Pupil Control Ideology as a Source of Stress: The Student Teacher's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan R.

    One type of adaptation made by each student teacher is the development of attitudes toward controlling pupils. The student teachers' attitudes toward pupil control may be at odds with those of other educators and this difference in attitude, particularly in the case of the cooperating teacher, can cause stress. Attitudes toward pupil control can…

  10. An Investigation into the Test Reliability of the Pupil Control Ideology Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Patrick V.; Byrd-Gaffney, Sharon

    The Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI) is one of the major instruments used by researchers interested in the study of school climate. Pupil control is a central feature of the organizational life of schools, and each school appears to have a prevailing ideology of pupil control. The PCI is a self-report instrument used to measure an educator's…

  11. The Relationship Between the Change in Pupil Control Ideology of Student Teachers and the Student Teachers's Perception of the Cooperating Teacher's Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Blankenship, Jacob W.

    A sample of 108 elementary student teachers was administered the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI Form) before and after student teaching. The student teachers' perceptions of their cooperating teachers' pupil control ideology were measured using a modification of the same form. "Socialization pressure," the difference between the student's…

  12. Integrated Luminal and Cytosolic Aspects of the Calcium Release Control

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Irina

    2003-01-01

    We propose here a unitary approach to the luminal and cytosolic control of calcium release. A minimal number of model elements that realistically describe different data sets are combined and adapted to correctly respond to various physiological constraints. We couple the kinetic properties of the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor/calcium channel with the dynamics of Ca2+ and K+ in both the lumen and cytosol, and by using a detailed simulation approach, we propose that local (on a radial distance ∼2 μm) calcium oscillations in permeabilized cells are driven by the slow inactivation of channels organized in discrete clusters composed of between six and 15 channels. Moreover, the character of these oscillations is found to be extremely sensitive to K+, so that the cytosolic and luminal calcium variations are in or out of phase if the store at equilibrium has tens or hundreds μM Ca2+, respectively, depending on the K+ gradient across the reticulum membrane. Different patterns of calcium signals can be reproduced through variation of only a few parameters. PMID:12609854

  13. Teachers' Theoretical Orientations toward Reading and Pupil Control Ideology: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Timothy G.; Wilcox, Brad; Madrigal, J. L.; Roberts, Susan; Hintze, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Examines relationships between 418 elementary school teachers' theoretical beliefs toward reading instruction and their attitudes about pupil control. Uses the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile (TORP) and the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI) for data collection. Finds as teachers' scores moved toward the whole language end of the TORP…

  14. Development of Teachers' Theoretical Orientations toward Reading and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Timothy G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines relationships between theoretical beliefs toward reading instruction and attitudes about pupil control. Uses the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile (TORP) and Pupil Control Ideology (PCI). Finds that (1) as teachers moved toward the whole language end of the TORP scale, PCI scores were more humanistic; and (2) teachers oriented…

  15. Preservice Students' Attitudes toward Pupil Control as They Develop throughout the Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Joyce E.; McIntyre, D. John

    This study used repeated measures of the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) instrument to examine the change in student teacher orientation toward pupil control ideology occurring during a three semester field experience. The instrument was given to elementary and secondary education majors at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale five different…

  16. A Correlation of Biology Teachers' Pupil Control Ideology and Their Classroom Teaching Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; Blankenship, Jacob W.

    The Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI Form) and the Biology Classroom Activity Checklist (BCAC) were used to determine the relationship between teachers' stated pupil control ideology and the extent to which their students reported the use of inquiry methods in the classroom. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 168 teachers and…

  17. A Test Reliability Analysis of an Abbreviated Version of the Pupil Control Ideology Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Patrick V.

    A reliability analysis was conducted of an abbreviated, 10-item version of the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), using the Cronbach's alpha technique (L. J. Cronbach, 1951) and the computation of the standard error of measurement. The PCI measures a teacher's orientation toward pupil control. Subjects were 168 preservice teachers from one private…

  18. THE SCHOOL AND PUPIL CONTROL IDEOLOGY. THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY STUDIES, NUMBER 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILLOWER, DONALD J.; AND OTHERS

    QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES FROM EDUCATORS IN 13 URBAN, SUBURBAN, AND RURAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS (12 IN PENNSYLVANIA AND ONE IN NEW YORK STATE) WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE INFLUENCE OF ROLE AND PERSONALITY FACTORS IN THE PUPIL CONTROL IDEOLOGY OF PUBLIC SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS. PUPIL CONTROL IDEOLOGY WAS CONCEPTUALIZED AS A CONTINUUM, RANGING FROM…

  19. A Study of Pupil Control Ideology: A Person-Oriented Approach to Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Responses of urban school teachers to the Pupil Control Ideology questionnaire were studied using Latent Class Analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that the best fitting model to the data is a two-cluster solution. In particular, the pupil control ideology of the sample delineates into two clusters of teachers, those with humanistic and…

  20. A Comparison of Pupil Control Iedology of Science and Non-Science Secondary Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan R.

    This paper examines data on pupil control ideology (PCI) from two separate research studies involving secondary student teachers. A comparison was made of the results of the studies contrasting two student teaching populations: (1) eight weeks science (N=19) and (2) sixteen weeks non-science (N=22). The pupil control ideology of the secondary…

  1. Assessing Visual Delays using Pupil Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Stark (1962) demonstrated vigorous pupil oscillations by illuminating the retina with a beam of light focussed to a small spot near the edge of the pupil. Small constrictions of the pupil then are sufficient to completely block the beam, amplifying the normal relationship between pupil area and retinal illuminance. In addition to this simple and elegant method, Stark also investigated more complex feedback systems using an electronic "clamping box" which provided arbitrary gain and phase delay between a measurement of pupil area and an electronically controlled light source. We have replicated Stark's results using a video-based pupillometer to control the luminance of a display monitor. Pupil oscillations were induced by imposing a linear relationship between pupil area and display luminance, with a variable delay. Slopes of the period-vs-delay function for 3 subjects are close to the predicted value of 2 (1.96-2.39), and the implied delays range from 254 to 376 508 to 652 milliseconds. Our setup allows us to extend Stark's work by investigating a broader class of stimuli.

  2. The Relationship Between Student Alienation and Extent of Faculty Agreement on Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearin, Wiley H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Results supported hypothesis that schools with high agreement among staff on pupil control ideology would have less student alienation than those schools with low agreement. A 20-item, multiple-choice instrument was used to measure humanistic or custodial teacher orienation and the Kolesar's Pupil Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ) to measure student…

  3. Characteristics of Master Teachers: Personality Factors, Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Rozanne; Lipka, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of differences among 29 secondary school teachers rated by 501 secondary school students, other teachers, and administrators as master teachers or rated as not-so-masterful found no significant differences in teacher locus of control, pupil control ideology, and self-concept but did find differences in personality factors. (SLD)

  4. Pupils' Self-Perceptions: The Role of Teachers' Judgment Controlling for Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Pansu, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to study the relationship between teachers' judgment and pupils' self-perceptions controlling for the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Three studies were conducted among third-grade pupils. Study 1 (n = 585) focused on pupils' perceptions of their scholastic competence. Teachers' judgment and BFLPE were found to have an…

  5. Job Satisfaction of the Public School Teacher, A Function of Subculture Consensus with Respect to Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuskiewicz, Vincent D.; Donaldson, William S.

    This empirical study evaluated several factors believed to be related to job satisfaction: teachers' own attitudes toward pupil control, teachers' perceptions of their colleagues and, principals' attitudes toward pupil control. Coefficients of correlation,, t-tests of selected variables, and multivariate regression techniques were used in testing…

  6. An Analysis of the Dimensionality of the Pupil Control Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The present study replicated an earlier investigation using the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI). The findings were congruent with earlier results. Consequently, it was recommended that the PCI should be refined and that the 10 item, unidimensional scale should be used in future investigations. (Author/LMO)

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Pupil Control Ideology: The Custodializing Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn; Morton, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study is to examine the impact of primarily bureaucratic socialization; and demographic, experiential, and philosophical orientations (beliefs about key educational concepts) variables on teacher candidates' pupil control ideology (PCI) during a pre-service teacher education program. The relationship between…

  8. The Relationships between Pupil Control Ideology, Self-Concept and Teacher Personality: Dimensions of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; And Others

    A study examined the personality characteristics and self-concepts of 110 teachers-in-training to see how these variables related to the subjects' humanistic versus authoritarian orientations toward pupil control. It was found that the humanistically oriented educators tended to be emotionally stable, realistic, expedient, happy-go-lucky,…

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Other Predictors of Pupil Control Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn W.; Morton, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine a variety of demographic, experiential, and philosophical orientation variables that may be predictive of pupil control ideologies (PCI) for teacher candidates at the beginning of a pre-service program. In particular, it sets out to provide empirically grounded generalizations regarding the relationship between…

  10. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  11. Researcher-Identified and Emergent Predictors of Pupil Control Ideologies: A Canadian Beginning Teacher Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn; Windle, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to identify the direction of pupil control ideology (PCI) shifts during participants' beginning teaching years, and (b) to identify a broader range of "emergent" (participant-identified) predictors of PCI that beginning teachers saw as accounting for the tendency for their classroom learning…

  12. The First Five Years of Teaching. Their Effect on Pupil Control Ideology and Commitment to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, John T.

    This paper reports some findings of a longitudinal study of a group of teachers during their final year of teacher training in 1972 through their first five years of teaching. The two features focused upon as indices of socialization are pupil control ideology and commitment to teaching. The major characteristics that are analyzed are sex,…

  13. Histone Demethylase KDM6A Controls the Mammary Luminal Lineage through Enzyme-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Wang, Chaochen; Robinson, Gertraud W; Ge, Kai; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2016-08-15

    Establishment of the mammary luminal cell lineage is controlled primarily by hormones and through specific transcription factors (TFs). Previous studies have linked histone methyltransferases to the differentiation of mammary epithelium, thus opening the possibility of biological significance of counteracting demethylases. We have now demonstrated an essential role for the H3K27me3 demethylase KDM6A in generating a balanced alveolar compartment. Deletion of Kdm6a in the mammary luminal cell lineage led to a paucity of luminal cells and an excessive expansion of basal cells, both in vivo and in vitro The inability to form structurally normal ducts and alveoli during pregnancy resulted in lactation failure. Mutant luminal cells did not exhibit their distinctive transcription factor pattern and displayed basal characteristics. The genomic H3K27me3 landscape was unaltered in mutant tissue, and support for a demethylase-independent mechanism came from mice expressing a catalytically inactive KDM6A. Mammary tissue developed normally in these mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments demonstrated KDM6A binding to putative enhancers enriched for key mammary TFs and H3K27ac. This study demonstrated for the first time that the mammary luminal lineage relies on KDM6A to ensure a transcription program leading to differentiated alveoli. Failure to fully implement this program results in structurally and functionally impaired mammary tissue. PMID:27215382

  14. Tourette Syndrome: Complementary Insights from Measures of Cognitive Control, Eyeblink Rate, and Pupil Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Jordan A.; Wendelken, Carter; Mathews, Carol A.; Marco, Elysa J.; Schreier, Herbert; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) have severe motoric and vocal tics that interfere with all aspects of their lives, while others have mild tics that pose few problems. We hypothesize that observed tic severity reflects a combination of factors, including the degree to which dopaminergic (DA) and/or noradrenergic (NE) neurotransmitter systems have been affected by the disorder, and the degree to which the child can exert cognitive control to suppress unwanted tics. To explore these hypotheses, we collected behavioral and eyetracking data from 26 patients with TS and 26 controls between ages 7 and 14, both at rest and while they performed a test of cognitive control. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use eyetracking measures in patients with TS. We measured spontaneous eyeblink rate as well as pupil diameter, which have been linked, respectively, to DA and NE levels in the central nervous system. Here, we report a number of key findings that held when we restricted analyses to unmedicated patients. First, patients’ accuracy on our test of cognitive control accounted for fully 50% of the variance in parentally reported tic severity. Second, patients exhibited elevated spontaneous eyeblink rates compared to controls, both during task performance and at rest, consistent with heightened DA transmission. Third, although neither task-evoked pupil dilation nor resting pupil diameter differed between TS patients and controls, pupil diameter was positively related to parentally reported anxiety levels in patients, suggesting heightened NE transmission in patients with comorbid anxiety. Thus, with the behavioral and eyetracking data gathered from a single task, we can gather objective data that are related both to tic severity and anxiety levels in pediatric patients with TS, and that likely reflect patients’ underlying neurochemical disturbances. PMID:26175694

  15. Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-03-22

    We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression.

  16. Tailoring of Luminous Transmittance upon Switching for Thermochromic VO2 Films by Thickness Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Jin, Ping; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki

    2004-01-01

    The difference in luminous transmittance (Δ Tlum) upon switching of VO2 films strongly affects its solar controllability when used as a thermochromic window. It was found that Δ Tlum is controllable by film thickness. Optical calculation for a VO2 film on quartz glass revealed that the low-temperature semiconductor phase exhibits lower Tlum than the high-temperature metallic phase for thickness below 50 nm, while the relationship is reversed above 50 nm. The calculation was confirmed by film deposition and measurement. Maximum Δ Tlum is located near 80 nm. An enhanced Δ Tlum contributes largely to solar efficiency.

  17. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  18. Beam control for LINC-NIRVANA: from the binocular entrance pupil to the combined focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T.; Trowitzsch, J.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. To meet the tight requirements that result from long exposure interferometric imaging over a large field of view, active control beyond fringe tracking and adaptive optics has to be in place in the telescope and in the instrument domain. The incoming beams of the binocular telescope have to be controlled along the entire optical path, from the entrance pupil to the combined focal plane. The beams have to coincide in the focal plane of the science detector, their pointing origins, offsets, orientations, plate scales, and distortions have to match each other and must not change during the observation. Non-common path effects between AO and science channel, flexure and thermal effects have to be compensated and offioading requests from the adaptive optics and fringe tracking systems have to be arbitrated without introducing unwanted optical path length differences or changes in the geometry of the binocular entrance pupil. Beam Control aspects include pointing, co-pointing and field derotation, active optics and collimation control. In this presentation, the constraints for coherent imaging over a 1.5 arcminute field of view are discussed together with a concept for a distributed control scheme.

  19. Orientation detection of a single molecule using pupil filter with electrically controllable polarization pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the orientation of single molecules using a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope with a polarization filter consisting of a polarizer and a compact polarization mode converter. The polarization filter electrically controls the pattern of polarization filtering. Since the polarization of the fluorescence from a single molecule highly depends on the angle between the observation direction and the molecular direction, polarization pattern filtering at the pupil plane of the objective lens allows the orientation of a single molecule to be visualized. Using this system, we demonstrated the orientation detection of single molecules.

  20. Parafoveal Target Detectability Reversal Predicted by Local Luminance and Contrast Gain Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Beard, Bettina L.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    This project is part of a program to develop image discrimination models for the prediction of the detectability of objects in a range of backgrounds. We wanted to see if the models could predict parafoveal object detection as well as they predict detection in foveal vision. We also wanted to make our simplified models more general by local computation of luminance and contrast gain control. A signal image (0.78 x 0.17 deg) was made by subtracting a simulated airport runway scene background image (2.7 deg square) from the same scene containing an obstructing aircraft. Signal visibility contrast thresholds were measured in a fully crossed factorial design with three factors: eccentricity (0 deg or 4 deg), background (uniform or runway scene background), and fixed-pattern white noise contrast (0%, 5%, or 10%). Three experienced observers responded to three repetitions of 60 2IFC trials in each condition and thresholds were estimated by maximum likelihood probit analysis. In the fovea the average detection contrast threshold was 4 dB lower for the runway background than for the uniform background, but in the parafovea, the average threshold was 6 dB higher for the runway background than for the uniform background. This interaction was similar across the different noise levels and for all three observers. A likely reason for the runway background giving a lower threshold in the fovea is the low luminance near the signal in that scene. In our model, the local luminance computation is controlled by a spatial spread parameter. When this parameter and a corresponding parameter for the spatial spread of contrast gain were increased for the parafoveal predictions, the model predicts the interaction of background with eccentricity.

  1. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  2. Pupil shaping and coherence control in an EUV mask-imaging microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Benk, Markus P.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2013-09-01

    We are investigating the effect of pupil-fill patterns and partial coherence settings on EUV reticle images on the new SEMATECH High-NA Actinic Reticle review Project (SHARP), to deepen our understanding of its performance, and improve the emulation of image formation in arbitrary printing tools. SHARP is an EUV mask microscope developed as the successor of the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). It is equipped with a unique, MEMS-based Fourier synthesis illuminator that generates arbitrary, customized pupil fill patterns to control the illumination partial coherence. The high-magnification objective lenses are an array of interchangeable Fresnel zoneplates with 4×NA values ranging from 0.25 to 0.625. We have used SHARP to inspect isolated and dense features with half pitch as low as 55 nm using lenses with a range of NA values, and common illumination patterns, such as annular, dipole and QUASAR™. We will show the effect of illumination on important, measured pattern parameters, including contrast, normalized image log-slope, and depth of focus. We have also studied the effect of partial coherence on the imaging of on multilayer roughness observed in bright mask regions, a topic important for expanding our understanding of the causes of LER.

  3. miR-221/222 control luminal breast cancer tumor progression by regulating different targets

    PubMed Central

    Dentelli, Patrizia; Traversa, Matteo; Rosso, Arturo; Togliatto, Gabriele; Olgasi, Cristina; Marchiò, Caterina; Provero, Paolo; Lembo, Antonio; Bon, Giulia; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Falcioni, Rita; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2014-01-01

    α6β4 integrin is an adhesion molecule for laminin receptors involved in tumor progression. We present a link between β4 integrin expression and miR-221/222 in the most prevalent human mammary tumor: luminal invasive carcinomas (Lum-ICs). Using human primary tumors that display different β4 integrin expression and grade, we show that miR-221/222 expression inversely correlates with tumor proliferating index, Ki67. Interestingly, most high-grade tumors express β4 integrin and low miR-221/222 levels. We ectopically transfected miR-221/222 into a human-derived mammary tumor cell line that recapitulates the luminal subtype to investigate whether miR-221/222 regulates β4 expression. We demonstrate that miR-221/222 overexpression results in β4 expression downregulation, breast cancer cell proliferation, and invasion inhibition. The role of miR-221/222 in driving β4 integrin expression is also confirmed via mutating the miR-221/222 seed sequence for β4 integrin 3′UTR. Furthermore, we show that these 2 miRNAs are also key breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion regulators, via the post-transcriptional regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) and of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM-17). We further confirm these data by silencing ADAM-17, using a dominant-negative or an activated STAT5A form. miR-221/222-driven β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 did not occur in MCF-10A cells, denoted “normal” breast epithelial cells, indicating that the mechanism is cancer cell-specific.   These results provide the first evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism that regulates β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 expression, thus controlling breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Pre-miR-221/222 use in the aggressive luminal subtype may be a powerful therapeutic anti-cancer strategy. PMID:24736554

  4. Large pupils predict goal-driven eye movements.

    PubMed

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Siebold, Alisha; Donk, Mieke; Vitu, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Here we report that large pupils predict fixations of the eye on low-salient, inconspicuous parts of a visual scene. We interpret this as showing that mental effort, reflected by a dilation of the pupil, is required to guide gaze toward objects that are relevant to current goals, but that may not be very salient. When mental effort is low, reflected by a constriction of the pupil, the eyes tend to be captured by high-salient parts of the image, irrespective of top-down goals. The relationship between pupil size and visual saliency was not driven by luminance or a range of other factors that we considered. Crucially, the relationship was strongest when mental effort was invested exclusively in eye-movement control (i.e., reduced in a dual-task setting), which suggests that it is not due to general effort or arousal. Our finding illustrates that goal-driven control during scene viewing requires mental effort, and that pupil size can be used as an online measure to track the goal-drivenness of behavior. PMID:25867221

  5. Cognitive and Ocular Factors Jointly Determine Pupil Responses under Equiluminance

    PubMed Central

    Brascamp, Jan; Nuiten, Stijn; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic) changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic) pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software. PMID:27191166

  6. Cognitive and Ocular Factors Jointly Determine Pupil Responses under Equiluminance.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Tomas; de Gee, Jan Willem; Brascamp, Jan; Nuiten, Stijn; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic) changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic) pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software. PMID:27191166

  7. Participation of health workers, school teachers and pupils in the control of rheumatic fever: evaluation of a training programme.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S D; Grover, A; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Wahi, P L

    1992-07-01

    In a rural community block of north India we initiated a programme for control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD). This included a training campaign for all 74 health workers, 773 school teachers and 12,500 older pupils (class V to X) to enable them to suspect and refer cases of RF/RHD and counsel them about secondary prophylaxis. Training material was used by project staff, medical officers and teachers to convey that this serious disease with onset between 5 and 15 years can be recognized by four simple criteria: fever with joint pain or swelling; breathlessness and fatigue; involuntary face and limb movements. One year later we evaluated awareness generated by training by administering a questionnaire to random samples in the intervention area and in a noncontiguous control area. Health workers, teachers and pupils of the intervention block were significantly better aware of the nature, severity and presentation of the disease and reported having recognized cases whom they had referred for diagnosis, prophylaxis and counselled for follow up. We conclude that a training protocol incorporating simple messages can effectively create practical awareness for RF/RHD control among teachers, health workers and pupils in a rural community. PMID:1428137

  8. Microbial sensing by goblet cells controls immune surveillance of luminal antigens in the colon.

    PubMed

    Knoop, K A; McDonald, K G; McCrate, S; McDole, J R; Newberry, R D

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of luminal substances across the intestinal epithelium to the immune system is a critical event in immune surveillance, resulting in tolerance to dietary antigens and immunity to pathogens. How this process is regulated is largely unknown. Recently goblet cell-associated antigen passages (GAPs) were identified as a pathway delivering luminal antigens to underlying lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells in the steady state. Here, we demonstrate that goblet cells (GCs) form GAPs in response to acetylcholine (ACh) acting on muscarinic ACh receptor 4. GAP formation in the small intestine was regulated at the level of ACh production, as GCs rapidly formed GAPs in response to ACh analogs. In contrast, colonic GAP formation was regulated at the level of GC responsiveness to ACh. Myd88-dependent microbial sensing by colonic GCs inhibited the ability of colonic GCs to respond to Ach to form GAPs and deliver luminal antigens to colonic LP-antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Disruption of GC microbial sensing in the setting of an intact gut microbiota opened colonic GAPs, and resulted in recruitment of neutrophils and APCs and production of inflammatory cytokines. Thus GC intrinsic sensing of the microbiota has a critical role regulating the exposure of the colonic immune system to luminal substances. PMID:25005358

  9. Pupil Transportation Cost Control Opportunities. Public Affairs Focus, Issue Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponessa, Joan M.

    The New Jersey State government could reduce pupil transportation aid payments to local school districts by between $35 million and $50 million by eliminating support for questionable expenditures and by using the funding formula adopted in the Quality Education Act of 1990. This report describes how these dollar savings can be achieved. The major…

  10. Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhnen, Anne; Meerholz, Klaus; Hagemann, Malte; Brinkmann, Matthias; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using polymer blends as a single emissive layer often suffer from large color shifts with changing operational voltage. Until now, such devices cannot stand the critical demands of lighting industry. In this contribution, we introduce a pulse-width-modulation-based driver concept, enabling the user to simultaneously and independently adjust color and luminance of a single device with two contacts. This concept makes color-shifting OLEDs highly interesting for "mood-light" applications.

  11. Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollar, Dewey H.

    The purpose of this NEFP satellite study is to provide an overview of pupil transportation. The first phase of the study discusses the early legal and financial bases for student transportation, the second the current status of student transportation, and the third the future status of student transportation needs and financing for 1980.…

  12. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate’s diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  13. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate's diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  14. Wave-Optics Analysis of Pupil Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Bos, Brent J.

    2006-01-01

    Pupil imaging performance is analyzed from the perspective of physical optics. A multi-plane diffraction model is constructed by propagating the scalar electromagnetic field, surface by surface, along the optical path comprising the pupil imaging optical system. Modeling results are compared with pupil images collected in the laboratory. The experimental setup, although generic for pupil imaging systems in general, has application to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) optical system characterization where the pupil images are used as a constraint to the wavefront sensing and control process. Practical design considerations follow from the diffraction modeling which are discussed in the context of the JWST Observatory.

  15. Investigation of color constancy in 4.5-month-old infants under a strict control of luminance contrast for individual participants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined color constancy in infants using a familiarization paradigm. We first obtained isoluminance in each infant as defined by the minimum motion paradigm and used these data to control the luminance of stimuli in the main experiments. In the familiarization phase of the main experiment, two identical smiling face patterns were presented side by side in surrounding patches of various colors, presented on a computer-controlled display. The colors in the stimuli simulated the chromaticity of color chips (OSA uniform color scale) under a certain illuminant. The chromaticity of the whole pattern was changed to simulate illuminant color changes in the test phase except for one of the smiling face patterns that preserved its chromaticity and luminance. If infants had color constancy, they would perceive the face without any change in the chromaticity and luminance as a novel object surface and would show preference for it. Two types of illuminant changes were applied, from 6500 to 10,000 K and from 6500 to 4500 K, in correlated color temperature. The luminance contrast between the background and the face patterns remained constant across the illuminant changes. Our results showed that 4.5-month-old infants preferred the pattern that did not change its chromaticity under both types of illuminant color changes. This finding suggests that 4.5-month-olds may have color constancy under the strict control of luminance contrast. PMID:23419408

  16. Luminous presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The Luminous Presence project examines the use of standard film language in the framing, angle and of points of view of holographic subjects though eight digital holographic stereograms; seven 25 x 25 cm, Hail, Water, Rain, Snow, Sun, Text, Imprint and 1.5 x 1 m, Luminous Presences i. However, before embarking on a discussion of how filmic language can be used in digital holograms it is first important to explain why this line of investigation could be fruitful. Undoubtedly several of the compositional practices which sprung up and evolved throughout the development of the diverse forms of the holographic medium have contributed to a unique hologram pictorial language, however it is well known that the reading of visual imagery of any type relies a great deal on the viewer's knowledge of and experience of other images .The lens-recorded imagery of film is a far more familiar language than that of holograms and the correlation between certain filmic pictorial conventions and emotional responses are well documented and understood. ii . In short the language of film contains a highly nuanced vocabulary of shot types and lens types (which may be criticised as being formulaic) yet are effective in lending emotion to figures.

  17. [Pupil and melanopsin photoreception].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    photoreceptor cells, and to evaluate the relative contribution of pupil light response using the control, instigated pharmacological blockade of neurotransmission (PB) model and a transgenic model of retinal degeneration (Tg) rabbit. Although rod and cone photoreceptors disappeared in the PB and Tg models, miosis was still induced during exposure to blue light (470 nm). The greater sustained constriction of pupils to blue light in eyes with outer retinal damage reflects mRGC activation. Our study also indicated that some histologically-identified RGCs were consistent with the characteristics and structures of mRGC. Clinically, in age-related macular degeneration patients, there was no reliable recordable pupil response to red light, even at the brightest intensity but a blue light evoked a sustained pupil constriction. However, in glaucoma patients, there was no reliable recordable pupil response to the brightest intensity of blue light. These preliminary recordings in human subjects demonstrate that changes in the pupil responses to chromatic stimuli are readily detectable and easily quantifiable with standard instruments of clinical testing. We hypothesize that changes in the transient pupil response to red light and low intensity blue light may be more sensitive to cone and rod disease, whereas changes in the sustained pupil response to bright blue light may be more sensitive to optic nerve disease. Ongoing studies of the pupil are aimed at optimizing stimulus conditions that elicit pupil responses that can better localize the site of damage to rods, cones, and RGCs, to quantify the extent of disease. PMID:23631256

  18. Beginning Teachers' Pupil Control Ideologies: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Beliefs about Education, Mentorship, Induction, and Principal Leadership Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn; Windle, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study examined changes in beginning teachers' pupil control ideologies (PCI). Quantitative analyses were conducted with regard to shifts in PCI that may be associated with internal beliefs about education and with external factors such as mentorship, induction programs, and school leadership style. Follow-up interviews facilitated a…

  19. Pupil Control Ideology and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Assessment. A Paper Presented to the National Association of Elementary School Principals, April, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleberry, James B.

    The school is viewed as a social system, composed of human beings interlocked in a network of social relationships and possessing a system of shared orientations which serve as standards for human behavior. Two related concepts are discussed: (1) pupil control ideology, conceptualized along a continuum ranging from "custodialism" to "humanism;"…

  20. The Effects of Parental Involvement, Trust in Parents, Trust in Students and Pupil Control Ideology on Conflict Management Strategies of Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Mehmet; Savas, Ahmet Cezmi

    2012-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the effects of parental involvement, teachers' trust in parents and students, and teachers' pupil control ideology on the conflict management strategies used by teachers in classroom management. Data were collected from a sample of 254 teachers through paper and pencil questionnaires. Data were analyzed with…

  1. Investigation of Color Constancy in 4.5-Month-Old Infants under a Strict Control of Luminance Contrast for Individual Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined color constancy in infants using a familiarization paradigm. We first obtained isoluminance in each infant as defined by the minimum motion paradigm and used these data to control the luminance of stimuli in the main experiments. In the familiarization phase of the main experiment, two identical smiling face patterns…

  2. Eye Movement Control during Scene Viewing: Immediate Effects of Scene Luminance on Fixation Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…

  3. A binocular pupil model for simulation of relative afferent pupil defects and the swinging flashlight test.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Claudio M; Stark, Lawrence W

    2006-03-01

    Many important intracranial neural pathways are involved in the control of the two muscles of the human pupil and the observation and analysis of pupil responses to light or other stimuli is of great interest in many clinical procedures. The binocular pupil model presented in this document has a topology encompassing much of the complexity of the pupil system neurophysiology. The dynamic parameters of the model were matched against pupil experiments under multiple conditions. It is employed here to simulate responses to the swinging flashlight test, a procedure which is routinely practiced in ophthalmology to diagnose different degrees of relative afferent pupil defects often a consequence of severe optic nerve diseases or retinal dysfunctions. Other, not light-dependent, pupil stimuli are briefly discussed. PMID:16404612

  4. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  5. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. PMID:25754528

  6. Pupil size and social vigilance in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ebitz, R. Becket; Pearson, John M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Complex natural environments favor the dynamic alignment of neural processing between goal-relevant stimuli and conflicting but biologically salient stimuli like social competitors or predators. The biological mechanisms that regulate dynamic changes in vigilance have not been fully elucidated. Arousal systems that ready the body to respond adaptively to threat may contribute to dynamic regulation of vigilance. Under conditions of constant luminance, pupil diameter provides a peripheral index of arousal state. Although pupil size varies with the processing of goal-relevant stimuli, it remains unclear whether pupil size also predicts attention to biologically salient objects and events like social competitors, whose presence interferes with current goals. Here we show that pupil size in rhesus macaques both reflects the biological salience of task-irrelevant social distractors and predicts vigilance for these stimuli. We measured pupil size in monkeys performing a visual orienting task in which distractors—monkey faces and phase-scrambled versions of the same images—could appear in a congruent, incongruent, or neutral position relative to a rewarded target. Baseline pupil size under constant illumination predicted distractor interference, consistent with the hypothesis that pupil-linked arousal mechanisms regulate task engagement and distractibility. Notably, pupil size also predicted enhanced vigilance for social distractors, suggesting that pupil-linked arousal may adjust the balance of processing resources between goal-relevant and biologically important stimuli. The magnitude of pupil constriction in response to distractors closely tracked distractor interference, saccade planning and the social relevance of distractors, endorsing the idea that the pupillary light response is modulated by attention. These findings indicate that pupil size indexes dynamic changes in attention evoked by both the social environment and arousal. PMID:24834026

  7. The Pupil Premium: Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The pupil premium was introduced by the Coalition government in April 2011 to provide additional funding for disadvantaged pupils. The main difference between the premium and previous funding for disadvantaged pupils is that the premium is linked to individual pupils. On July 1, 2015, The Pupil Premium Summit organized by the Education Endowment…

  8. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  9. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  10. Issues in Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    The primary purpose of this book is to present the critical issues in pupil transportation that will confront pupil transportation supervisors in local school districts. The following issues are discussed: (1) demands for extended service from community pressure groups; (2) reductions in budget requests by governing bodies; (3) unrest among driver…

  11. Integrating Physically Handicapped Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Intended for regular class teachers working with mainstreamed physically handicapped pupils, the article offers guidelines regarding school organization, conditions directly affecting the pupil, and classroom considerations. A brief review of the major conditions (such as allergies, cerebral palsy, and muscular dystrophy) is presented. (CL)

  12. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  13. Pupils' Definitions of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Suzanne; Hennessy, Eilis

    2002-01-01

    Although there has been a growing interest in research on bullying in the last decade the majority of studies have used definitions of bullying and victimisation derived from researchers' perceptions of the problem. The aim of the present study was to examine pupils' definitions of bullying in school. The participants were 166 pupils in the top…

  14. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  15. An investigation of pupil-based cognitive load measurement with low cost infrared webcam under light reflex interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyuan; Epps, Julien; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Using the task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) to index cognitive load can contribute significantly to the assessment of memory function and cognitive skills in patients. However, the measurement of pupillary response is currently limited to a well-controlled lab environment due to light reflex and also relies heavily on expensive video-based eye trackers. Furthermore, commercial eye trackers are usually dedicated to gaze direction measurement, and their calibration procedure and computing resource are largely redundant for pupil-based cognitive load measurement (PCLM). In this study, we investigate the validity of cognitive load measurement with (i) pupil light reflex in a less controlled luminance background; (ii) a low-cost infrared (IR) webcam for the TEPR in a controlled luminance background. ANOVA results show that with an appropriate baseline selection and subtraction, the light reflex is significantly reduced, suggesting the possibility of less constrained practical applications of PCLM. Compared with the TEPR from a commercial remote eye tracker, a low-cost IR webcam achieved a similar TEPR pattern and no significant difference was found between the two devices in terms of cognitive load measurement across five induced load levels. PMID:24110409

  16. Binocular luminence interactions due to near responses at suprathreshold conditions: psychophysical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, J. M.; Jimenez, J. R.; Del Barco, L. J.; Hita, Enrique

    2001-08-01

    Binocular and monocular finger reaction times were measured for circular broad-band stimuli for natural and artificial pupils. Luminance polarity changes were presented at the fovea respect to a reference stimulus under suprathreshold conditions. As in previous studies, binocular reaction times were shorter than monocular with both pupil types. Nevertheless, this binocular summation effect was less marked with the artificial case, becoming more pronounced for dark variations. These result suggest that the near- responses mechanism at the peristriate area of the occipital and at the inferior parietal lobe could support an important role on luminance interactions within the visuomotor pathway.

  17. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  18. Pupil projects involving satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G.

    1984-05-01

    The techniques used by pupils at Kettering School, UK, to monitor the USSR space program (using NASA-supplied NORAD radar data and radio transmissions from the spacecraft) are reviewed, and some results are summarized. The main methods used by the pupils include plotting plane spacings, determining orbital periods, and monitoring transmissions from meteorological and navigation satellites and cosmonaut voice communications. The programs covered are briefly characterized, and a glossary of terms is provided.

  19. Pupil size in diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Karavanaki, K; Davies, A G; Hunt, L P; Morgan, M H; Baum, J D

    1994-01-01

    Sympathetic function was studied in 101 diabetic children and 102 age and sex matched control children, as part of a longitudinal study of the evolution of microvascular disease in the population of diabetic children and adolescents in Avon County. The median (range) age of the diabetic population was 13.5 (6.0-17.2) years, the duration of diabetes was 4.0 (0.4-13.9) years, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1) was 10.9 (7.0-18.1)%. Pupillary adaptation in darkness, as an index of sympathetic neuropathy, was measured using a Polaroid portable pupillometer. Diabetic children had a significantly smaller median pupillary diameter, measured as the pupil/iris ratio and expressed as a percentage, than control children (median (range) 62.9 (50.3-72.1) v 65.9 (52.2-73.8)). Pupillary diameter was significantly related to diabetes duration (r = -0.22), HbA1 (r = -0.34), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.25), diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.49), and mean albumin/creatinine ratio on random urine samples (r = -0.26). Pupillary diameter was not related to age (r = -0.1). Eight (7.9%) diabetic and four (3.9%) control children were identified as having abnormal pupillary dilation in darkness. In comparison with the rest of the diabetic population, these diabetic children had longer diabetes duration and poorer glycaemic control. Polaroid pupillometry has demonstrated subclinical autonomic neuropathy in a population of diabetic children and adolescents. These abnormalities were related to poor metabolic control, long diabetes duration, and also to other indices of microvascular disease. PMID:7726610

  20. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics systems typically include an optical relay that simultaneously images the science field to be corrected and also a set of pupil planes conjugate to the deformable mirror of the system. Often, in the optical spaces where DM's are placed, the pupils are aberrated, leading to a displacement and/or distortion of the pupil that varies according to field position--producing a type of anisoplanatism, i.e., a degradation of the AO correction with field angle. The pupil aberration phenomenon is described and expressed in terms of Seidel aberrations. An expression for anisoplanatism as a function of pupil distortion is derived, an example of an off-axis parabola is given, and a convenient method for controlling pupil-aberration-generated anisoplanatism is proposed.

  1. Planning and Measuring Luminance Contrast in Staircases.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D; Gundersen, Kristoffer; Strengen, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian legislation has requirements concerning luminance contrast for different elements in staircases. This paper investigates how architects work to meet the requirements, how to measure the actual built luminance contrasts and finally 21 staircases are measured using two different methods. The results show that some architects do not reflect on luminance contrasts at all, some use their "experience" and some try to measure the reflectance value of different materials during planning. The investigations also reveal that there is not any official predefined way to control luminance contrast, and this investigation shows that different approaches will give different results. To perform the measuring of the built staircases, it has been necessary to develop a defined measuring method. The results of the measuring generally shows that only a few of the staircases studied fully meet the legislation requirements. PMID:27534331

  2. Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Magdalena M.; Frei, Luisa S.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18–79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m2. We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

  3. On the necessity of correcting peripheral target luminance for pupillary area

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, H.E.; Katz, L.M.

    1982-10-01

    Despite the decrease in pupillary area for peripheral targets, retinal illuminance remains fairly constant to about 80 deg visual angle. Constant illuminance is maintained in the retinal periphery because the light that enters the pupil is concentrated into smaller retinal images. The correction of the peripheral target luminances for pupillary area is therefore unnecessary except under certain conditions.

  4. Results of a Survey of Pupils and Teachers Regarding Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max

    To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…

  5. Faith Schools and Pupils' Progress through Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshanew, Tilaye; Schagen, Ian; Evans, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The impact of faith schools on the performance and progress of their pupils has been studied using data from the National Pupil Database (NPD). The value-added analysis was carried out using multilevel modelling, controlling for prior attainment as well as a range of background variables, including ethnicity, sex, eligibility for free school meals…

  6. Frequency analysis of a task-evoked pupillary response: Luminance-independent measure of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Causse, Mickaël; Scannella, Sébastien; Dehais, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Pupil diameter is a widely-studied cognitive load measure, which, despite its convenience for non-intrusive operator state monitoring in complex environments, is still not available for in situ measurements because of numerous methodological limitations. The most important of these limitations is the influence of pupillary light reflex. Hence, there is the need of providing a pupil-based cognitive load measure that is independent of light conditions. In this paper, we present a promising technique of pupillary signal analysis resulting in luminance-independent measure of mental effort that could be used in real-time without a priori on luminous conditions. Twenty-two participants performed a short-term memory task under different screen luminance conditions. Our results showed that the amplitude of pupillary dilation due to load on memory was luminance-dependent with higher amplitude corresponding to lower-luminance condition. Furthermore, our experimentation showed that load on memory and luminance factors express themselves differently according to frequency. Therefore, as our statistical analysis revealed, the ratio between low (0-1.6 Hz) and high frequency (1.6-4 Hz) bands (LF/HF ratio) of power spectral densities of pupillary signal is sensitive to the cognitive load but not to luminance. Our results are promising for the measurement of load on memory in ecological settings. PMID:25941013

  7. Teacher Development and Pupil Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flutter, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The principle of "pupil voice" has attained a high profile over the past decade and its key principles of encouraging pupil consultation and participation are evident in official policy and guidance in many countries around the world. While there has been official endorsement of the notions that pupils have a right to voice their opinions and…

  8. Learning a Musical Instrument: The Influence of Interpersonal Interaction on Outcomes for School-Aged Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in recent years have increasingly placed an emphasis on seeking pupils' perceptions of educational settings. Alongside this shift towards attaching value to the pupil viewpoint has been a growing interest concerning how interpersonal relationships, manifested as control or responsiveness between teachers and pupils or parents and…

  9. Pupil diameter reflects uncertainty in attentional selection during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Joy J.; Blumenfeld, Zachary; Tyson, Terence L.; Minzenberg, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Pupil diameter has long been used as a metric of cognitive processing. However, recent advances suggest that the cognitive sources of change in pupil size may reflect LC-NE function and the calculation of unexpected uncertainty in decision processes (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005; Yu and Dayan, 2005). In the current experiments, we explored the role of uncertainty in attentional selection on task-evoked changes in pupil diameter during visual search. We found that task-evoked changes in pupil diameter were related to uncertainty during attentional selection as measured by reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (Experiments 1-2). Control analyses demonstrated that the results are unlikely to be due to error monitoring or response uncertainty. Our results suggest that pupil diameter can be used as an implicit metric of uncertainty in ongoing attentional selection requiring effortful control processes. PMID:26300759

  10. Cryogenic Pupil Alignment Test Architecture for Aberrated Pupil Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Kubalak, David A.; Antonille, Scott; Ohl, Raymond; Hagopian, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A document describes cryogenic test architecture for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) integrated science instrument module (ISIM). The ISIM element primarily consists of a mechanical metering structure, three science instruments, and a fine guidance sensor. One of the critical optomechanical alignments is the co-registration of the optical telescope element (OTE) exit pupil with the entrance pupils of the ISIM instruments. The test architecture has been developed to verify that the ISIM element will be properly aligned with the nominal OTE exit pupil when the two elements come together. The architecture measures three of the most critical pupil degrees-of-freedom during optical testing of the ISIM element. The pupil measurement scheme makes use of specularly reflective pupil alignment references located inside the JWST instruments, ground support equipment that contains a pupil imaging module, an OTE simulator, and pupil viewing channels in two of the JWST flight instruments. Pupil alignment references (PARs) are introduced into the instrument, and their reflections are checked using the instrument's mirrors. After the pupil imaging module (PIM) captures a reflected PAR image, the image will be analyzed to determine the relative alignment offset. The instrument pupil alignment preferences are specularly reflective mirrors with non-reflective fiducials, which makes the test architecture feasible. The instrument channels have fairly large fields of view, allowing PAR tip/tilt tolerances on the order of 0.5deg.

  11. THE TOTAL LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY OF LUMINOUS BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E N

    1925-09-18

    Methods are described for measuring the light emitted by an emulsion of luminous bacteria of given thickness, and calculating the light emitted by a single bacterium, measuring 1.1 x 2.2 micra, provided there is no absorption of light in the emulsion. At the same time, the oxygen consumed by a single bacterium was measured by recording the time for the bacteria to use up .9 of the oxygen dissolved in sea water from air (20 per cent oxygen). The luminescence intensity does not diminish until the oxygen concentration falls below 2 per cent, when the luminescence diminishes rapidly. Above 2 per cent oxygen (when the oxygen dissolving in sea water from pure oxygen at 760 mm. Hg pressure = 100 per cent) the bacteria use equal amounts of oxygen in equal times, while below 2 per cent oxygen it seems very likely that rate of oxygen absorption is proportional to oxygen concentration. By measuring the time for a tube of luminous bacteria of known concentration saturated with air (20 per cent oxygen) to begin to darken (2 per cent oxygen) we can calculate the oxygen absorbed by one bacterium per second. The bacteria per cc. are counted on a blood counting slide or by a centrifugal method, after measuring the volume of a single bacterium (1.695 x 10(-12) cc.). Both methods gave results in good agreement with each other. The maximum value for the light from a single bacterium was 24 x 10(-14) lumens or 1.9 x 10(-14) candles. The maximum value for lumen-seconds per mg. of oxygen absorbed was 14. The average value for lumen-seconds per mg. O(2) was 9.25. The maximum values were selected in calculating the efficiency of light production, since some of the bacteria counted may not be producing light, although they may still be using oxygen. The "diet" of the bacteria was 60 per cent glycerol and 40 per cent peptone. To oxidize this mixture each mg. of oxygen would yield 3.38 gm. calories or 14.1 watts per second. 1 lumen per watt is therefore produced by a normal bacterium which

  12. Pupils' Attitudes to Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynas, Wendy

    1986-01-01

    A study involving interviews on mainstreaming with 50 hearing impaired, and 40 non impaired students as well as 45 teachers revealed problems for ordinary pupils (including disruption in their own education), for handicapped students (including excessive noise levels), and teachers (including requirements of extra time). (CL)

  13. Pupil Transportation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anthony R.

    The safest means of transportation in the United States is the school bus fleet. Each school day, over 350,000 school buses transport about 22,000,000 children ages 3 to 21--from wheelchair pupils to varsity football players--to and from school in weather conditions ranging from those for Fairbanks, Alaska, to those typical of Cave Creek, Arizona.…

  14. Pupil Evaluation Team Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ray; And Others

    This handbook is designed to assist educators in Maine to implement the Pupil Evaluation Team (PET) process. PET is described as a group composed of parents, school professionals, and representatives of agencies responsible for determining special education needs of exceptional students. Chapters deal with: (1) the role of the PET chairperson…

  15. Make pupils young researchers!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouhier, Armelle

    2015-04-01

    With the 2011 educational reform in France, a new course has been created in secondary schools : Methods & Practices in Science (MPS). The main goal was to improve the pupils working methods in science, including laboratory and field works. In addition, the pedagogy develops pupils autonomy and creativity, a key factor in a research process. Three teachers are working together (Mathematics, Physics and Geology-Biology), showing how different disciplines complement one another. Eventually, this is aimed at attracting more students in scientific sections. This course is optional, in the "seconde" class in French secondary schools (i.e., for 15 years old students). For the next class, they will have to choose between scientific, economic and literature sections : it is a useful option for them to decide which section has their preference. In my high-school in Clermont-Ferrand, we have chosen a research subject on hydrogeology & water quality improvement in region "Auvergne". The pupils will have to develop and set up appropriate tools to check and improve the water quality, related to different disciplines : - Geology & Biology: hydrogeology, effects of different pollutants on aquatic life, solutions to improve water quality (example of the natural water treatment zone in the lake of "Aydat, Auvergne, France"). - Physics & Chemistry: water potability criteria, pollution tests in water, water treatment plants working. - Mathematics: algorithm development, modeling on excel of the dispersion of pollutants The pedagogy of this course is new in French high-schools : pupils work in groups of three, so as to develop cooperation and autonomy. The teachers give the guidelines at the beginning of each working session, and answer the students questions when necessary. The evaluation is competence-based : instead of a mark, which is the main evaluation method in France, the pupils have to evaluate their own skills. Then, the teachers make an evaluation, and the global process is

  16. Estrogen Receptor α Controls a Gene Network in Luminal-Like Breast Cancer Cells Comprising Multiple Transcription Factors and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cicatiello, Luigi; Mutarelli, Margherita; Grober, Oli M.V.; Paris, Ornella; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Ravo, Maria; Tarallo, Roberta; Luo, Shujun; Schroth, Gary P.; Seifert, Martin; Zinser, Christian; Luisa Chiusano, Maria; Traini, Alessandra; De Bortoli, Michele; Weisz, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Luminal-like breast tumor cells express estrogen receptor α (ERα), a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that controls their proliferation, survival, and functional status. To identify the molecular determinants of this hormone-responsive tumor phenotype, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was performed in estrogen stimulated MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 cells by integrating time-course mRNA expression profiling with global mapping of genomic ERα binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel sequencing, microRNA expression profiling, and in silico analysis of transcription units and receptor binding regions identified. All 1270 genes that were found to respond to 17β-estradiol in both cell lines cluster in 33 highly concordant groups, each of which showed defined kinetics of RNA changes. This hormone-responsive gene set includes several direct targets of ERα and is organized in a gene regulation cascade, stemming from ligand-activated receptor and reaching a large number of downstream targets via AP-2γ, B-cell activating transcription factor, E2F1 and 2, E74-like factor 3, GTF2IRD1, hairy and enhancer of split homologue-1, MYB, SMAD3, RARα, and RXRα transcription factors. MicroRNAs are also integral components of this gene regulation network because miR-107, miR-424, miR-570, miR-618, and miR-760 are regulated by 17β-estradiol along with other microRNAs that can target a significant number of transcripts belonging to one or more estrogen-responsive gene clusters. PMID:20348243

  17. The Most Luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Woosley, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations have revealed a stunning diversity of extremely luminous supernovae, seemingly increasing in radiant energy without bound. We consider simple approximate limits for what existing models can provide for the peak luminosity and total radiated energy for non-relativistic, isotropic stellar explosions. The brightest possible supernova is a Type I explosion powered by a sub-millisecond magnetar with field strength B ∼ few × {10}13 G. In extreme cases, such models might reach a peak luminosity of 2× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and radiate a total energy of up to 4× {10}52 {erg}. Other less luminous models are also explored, including prompt hyper-energetic explosions in red supergiants, pulsational-pair instability supernovae, pair-instability supernovae, and colliding shells. Approximate analytic expressions and limits are given for each case. Excluding magnetars, the peak luminosity is near 3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 for the brightest models and the corresponding limit on total radiated energy is 3× {10}51 {erg}. Barring new physics, supernovae with a light output over 3× {10}51 erg must be rotationally powered, either during the explosion itself or after, the most obvious candidate being a rapidly rotating magnetar. A magnetar-based model for the recent transient event, ASASSN-15lh is presented that strains, but does not exceed the limits of what the model can provide.

  18. Analysis of Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Reacting to Pupil Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Gary M.; Kleucker, Joy

    Teacher-pupil interaction is an integral part of most classroom instruction. A teacher frequently initiates an interaction by making a statement or by asking a question about the lesson. The statement or question is then typically followed by a student response. Though the value of pupil-teacher interaction has often been extolled, interactions…

  19. Pupil-Led Historical Enquiry: What Might This Actually Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The current National Curriculum for history requires pupils to "identify and investigate specific historical questions, making and testing hypotheses for themselves". While Kate Hammond relished the encouragement that this gave to her pupils to engage in the process of historical enquiry, she was keen to develop a much clearer sense of what…

  20. Lidar Luminance Quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard; DeMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses challenges in lidar imaging, particularly with the detection scheme and the shapes of the detected signals. Ideally, the echoed pulse widths should be extremely narrow to resolve fine detail at high event rates. However, narrow pulses require wideband detection circuitry with increased power dissipation to minimize thermal noise. Filtering is also required to shape each received signal into a form suitable for processing by a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) followed by a time-to-digital converter (TDC). As the intervals between the echoes decrease, the finite bandwidth of the shaping circuits blends the pulses into an analog signal (luminance) with multiple modes, reducing the ability of the CFD to discriminate individual events

  1. SCOPE OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ECKERSON, LOUISE OMWAKE; SMITH, HYRUM M.

    PART I OF THIS PAMPHLET DESCRIBES THE INTERPROFESSIONAL RESEARCH COMMISSION ON PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES, WHICH WAS STARTED IN 1962 BY THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND FINANCED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH FOR A 5-YEAR PROGRAM. THE REST OF THE PAMPHLET DEALS WITH STATISTICS AND SPECIFIC PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES. OF THE 60,000…

  2. Pupil Participation and Curriculum Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadas, Jayashree; Kulkarni, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated relationship between lesson content and participation of pupils in rural India primary schools. Spontaneous participation in teacher-directed classrooms (N=136) was shown to be correlated with time spent by teachers in relating textbook content to pupils' natural experience. Experiments and teaching aids were also useful in drawing…

  3. What Are the Earth and the Heavenly Bodies Like? A Study of Objectual Conceptions among Norwegian Deaf and Hearing Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roald, Ingvild; Mikalsen, Oyvind

    2000-01-01

    Addresses deaf pupils' conceptions of directly-observed phenomena of the earth and sky. Studies 7-, 9-, 11-, and 17-year-old deaf pupils and uses 9-year-old Norwegian pupils with normal hearing as the control group. Reports that the children's conceptions are scientifically accepted. Indicates that the shape of the sign representing an object may…

  4. A binocular pupil model for simulation of relative afferent pupil defect, RAPD.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Claudio M; Stark, Lawrence W

    2004-01-01

    The human pupil is an important element studied in many clinical procedures. The binocular pupil model presented has a topology encompassing much of the complexity of the pupil system neurophysiology. The dynamic parameters of the model were matched against pupil experiments under multiple conditions. It simulates responses to the swinging flashlight test for different degrees of relative afferent pupil defects, RAPD. PMID:17271776

  5. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR).

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Pearson, Candice A; Anderson, Alexandra M; Zele, Andrew J; Feigl, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent models. PMID:26620343

  6. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Pearson, Candice A.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Zele, Andrew J.; Feigl, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent models. PMID:26620343

  7. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  8. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  9. Pupils' perceptions of a good teacher: a developmental perspective from Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Kutnick, P; Jules, V

    1993-11-01

    The study reports on a large-scale survey of pupils' perceptions of a good teacher in the Caribbean republic of Trinidad and Tobago. An essay-based, interpretive mode of research was used to elicit and identify constructs used by pupils between ages 7 and 17. The sample was a proportional, stratified, clustered, yet randomly selected representation of primary and secondary schools across the two islands. 1633 essays were content analysed and coded for age developmental comparison. Factor analysis showed no consistent underlying groupings of the 166 conceptual items by age, thus analysis was undertaken within logically constructed sets of items that are described: physical and personal characteristics of the teacher, quality of the relationship between teacher and pupil, control of behaviour by teacher, descriptions of the teaching process, and expected educational and other outcomes obtained by pupils due to teacher efforts. Results showed a general increase in number of conceptual items (and words per essay) by age, but this confuses four further criteria of item used. The four criteria were: age constancy, characteristics of younger pupils, characteristics of 11-13 year-olds, and characteristics of the oldest pupils. All ages perceived good teachers by physical presentation (clothing and appearance), teachers' care for pupils, descriptive teaching actions, and trustworthiness. Younger pupils focused on appearance, subjects taught, and assertion of physical punishment. Mid-aged pupils focused on the range of classroom control used by teachers (including distributive and retributive punishments), actions involved in the teaching process, and a growing awareness of the individual needs of pupils. Oldest pupils understood that good teachers must be well trained and highly motivated, should be sensitive and responsive to the needs of pupils, draw the pupils into the learning process, and have a major responsibility in preparing the pupil for the world of work and

  10. An evaluation of organic light emitting diode monitors for medical applications: Great timing, but luminance artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Elze, Tobias; Taylor, Christopher; Bex, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to the dominant medical liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors control the display luminance via separate light-emitting diodes for each pixel and are therefore supposed to overcome many previously documented temporal artifacts of medical LCDs. We assessed the temporal and luminance characteristics of the only currently available OLED monitor designed for use in the medical treatment field (SONY PVM2551MD) and checked the authors’ main findings with another SONY OLED device (PVM2541). Methods: Temporal properties of the photometric output were measured with an optical transient recorder. Luminances of the three color primaries and white for all 256 digital driving levels (DDLs) were measured with a spectroradiometer. Between the luminances of neighboring DDLs, just noticeable differences were calculated according to a perceptual model developed for medical displays. Luminances of full screen (FS) stimuli were compared to luminances of smaller stimuli with identical DDLs. Results: All measured luminance transition times were below 300 μs. Luminances were independent of the luminance in the preceding frame. However, for the single color primaries, up to 50.5% of the luminances of neighboring DDLs were not perceptually distinguishable. If two color primaries were active simultaneously, between 36.7% and 55.1% of neighboring luminances for increasing DDLs of the third primary were even decreasing. Moreover, luminance saturation effects were observed when too many pixels were active simultaneously. This effect was strongest for white; a small white patch was close to 400 cd/m2, but in FS the luminance of white saturated at 162 cd/m2. Due to different saturation levels, the luminance of FS green and FS yellow could exceed the luminance of FS white for identical DDLs. Conclusions: The OLED temporal characteristics are excellent and superior to those of LCDs. However, the OLEDs revealed severe

  11. Optimized shaped pupil masks for pupil with obscuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, Alexis; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Delorme, Jacques-Robert

    2012-09-01

    The main components of the SPICA coronagraphic instrument have initially been bar-code apodizing masks, i.e. shaped pupils optimized in one dimension. Their free-standing designs make them manufacturable without a glass substrate, which implies an absolute achromaticity and no additional wavefront errors. However, shaped pupils can now be optimized in two dimensions and can thus take full advantage of the geometry of any arbitrary aperture, in particular obstructed apertures such as SPICA's. Hence, 2D shaped pupils often have higher throughputs while offering the same angular resolutions and contrast. Alternatively, better resolutions or contrast can be obtained for the same throughput. Although some of these new masks are free-standing, this property cannot be constrained if the optimization problem has to remain convex linear. We propose to address this issue in different ways, and we present here examples of freestanding masks for a variety of contrasts, and inner working angles. Moreover, in all other coronagraphic instruments, contrast smaller than 10-5 can only be obtained if a dedicated adaptive optics system uses one or several deformable mirrors to compensate for wavefront aberrations. The finite number of actuators sets the size of the angular area in which quasi-static speckles can be corrected. This puts a natural limit on the outer working angle for which the shaped pupils are designed. The limited number of actuators is also responsible for an additional diffracted energy, or quilting orders, that can prevent faint companions to be detected. This effect can and must be taken into account in the optimization process. Finally, shaped pupils can be computed for a given nominal phase aberration pattern in the pupil plane, although the solutions depend in this case on the observation wavelength. We illustrate this possibility by optimizing an apodizer for the James Webb space telescope, and by testing its chromaticity and its robustness to phase changes.

  12. Spectropolarimetry of hot, luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.

    1994-01-01

    I review polarimetric observations of presumably single, hot luminous stars. The stellar types discussed are OB stars. B(e) supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBV), Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, and type II supernovae (SN). It is shown that variable, intrinsic polarization is a common phenomenon in that part of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram which these stars occupy. However, much observational work remains to be done before we can answer the most basic, statistical questions about the polarimetric properties of different groups of hot, luminous stars. Insight into the diagnostic power of polarization observations has been gained, but cannot be exploited without detailed models. Thus, while polarimetric observations do tell us that the mass-loss processes of all types of massive stars are time-dependent and anisotropic, the significance that this might have for the accuracy of their stellar parameters and evolutionary paths remains elusive.

  13. Impact of Some Environmental Education Outdoor Activities on Nigerian Primary School Pupils' Environmental Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Olatundun, Sunday Adekojo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of outdoor educational activities on pupils' knowledge of some environmental issues and problems. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Four hundred and eighty primary 5 pupils from 12 randomly selected primary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, constituted the subjects…

  14. Pupil and Staff Perceptions of Rewards at a Pupil Referral Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of both pupils and staff at a pupil referral unit (PRU) towards the reward system currently in use. The main aims were to establish whether teachers and pupils perceived the same rewards as effective, to determine whether staff and pupils perceived that rewards changed behaviour, and finally whether…

  15. Pupil Dilations Reflect Why Rembrandt Biased Female Portraits Leftward and Males Rightward

    PubMed Central

    Schirillo, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Portrait painters are experts at examining faces and since emotional content may be expressed differently on each side of the face, consider that Rembrandt biased his male portraits to show their right-cheek more often and female portraits to show their left-cheek more often. This raises questions regarding the emotional significance of such biased positions. I presented rightward and leftward facing male and female portraits. I measured observers’ pupil size while asking observers to report how (dis)pleasing they found each image. This was a methodological improvement over the type of research initially done by Eckhard Hess who claimed that pupils dilate to pleasant images and constrict to unpleasant images. His work was confounded since his images’ luminances and contrasts across conditions were inconsistent potentially affecting pupil size. To overcome this limitation I presented rightward or leftward facing male and female portraits by Rembrandt to observers in either their original or mirror-reversed position. I found that in viewing male portraits pupil diameter was a function of arousal. That is, larger pupil diameter occurred for images rated both low and high in pleasantness. This was not the case with female portraits. I discuss these findings in regard to the perceived dominance of males and how emotional expressions may be driven by hemispheric laterality. PMID:24454285

  16. A wearable infrared video pupillography with multi-stimulation of consistent illumination for binocular pupil response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Ou-Yang; Ko, Mei Lan; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Huang, Ting-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The pupil response to light can reflect various kinds of diseases which are related to physiological health. Pupillary abnormalities may be influenced on people by autonomic neuropathy, glaucoma, diabetes, genetic diseases, and high myopia. In the early stage of neuropathy, it is often asymptomatic and difficulty detectable by ophthalmologists. In addition, the position of injured nerve can lead to unsynchronized pupil response for human eyes. In our study, we design the pupilometer to measure the binocular pupil response simultaneously. It uses the different wavelength of LEDs such as white, red, green and blue light to stimulate the pupil and record the process. Therefore, the pupilometer mainly contains two systems. One is the image acquisition system, it use the two cameras modules with the same external triggered signal to capture the images of the pupil simultaneously. The other one is the illumination system. It use the boost converter ICs and LED driver ICs to supply the constant current for LED to maintain the consistent luminance in each experiments for reduced experimental error. Furthermore, the four infrared LEDs are arranged nearby the stimulating LEDs to illuminate eyes and increase contrast of image for image processing. In our design, we success to implement the function of synchronized image acquisition with the sample speed in 30 fps and the stable illumination system for precise measurement of experiment.

  17. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  18. Pupil Commentary on Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Bronwen

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on data generated through interviews with Years 7 to 10 pupils in New Zealand to propose that pupils experience assessment for learning as embedded in, and accomplished through, interactions with peers and teachers. Pupil commentary indicated they perceived assessment for learning as having cognitive, social relationship and…

  19. Environmental Education: Pupils' Perspectives on Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research about pupils' experiences of environmental education in UK secondary schools. The study focused on six pupils aged 13- to 14-years-old and nearing the end of their compulsory geography education. Geography provided a relevant a curricular context for exploring pupils' experiences of environmental…

  20. Public Education Resources and Pupil Performance Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottheim, David; And Others

    This report details three models quantifying the relationships between educational means (resources) and ends (pupil achievements) to analyze resource allocation problems within school districts: (1) the Pupil Performance Model; (2) the Goal Programming Model; and (3) the Operational Structure of a School and Pupil Performance Model. These models…

  1. Mapping and correcting the influence of gaze position on pupil size measurements.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A

    2016-06-01

    Pupil size is correlated with a wide variety of important cognitive variables and is increasingly being used by cognitive scientists. Pupil data can be recorded inexpensively and non-invasively by many commonly used video-based eye-tracking cameras. Despite the relative ease of data collection and increasing prevalence of pupil data in the cognitive literature, researchers often underestimate the methodological challenges associated with controlling for confounds that can result in misinterpretation of their data. One serious confound that is often not properly controlled is pupil foreshortening error (PFE)-the foreshortening of the pupil image as the eye rotates away from the camera. Here we systematically map PFE using an artificial eye model and then apply a geometric model correction. Three artificial eyes with different fixed pupil sizes were used to systematically measure changes in pupil size as a function of gaze position with a desktop EyeLink 1000 tracker. A grid-based map of pupil measurements was recorded with each artificial eye across three experimental layouts of the eye-tracking camera and display. Large, systematic deviations in pupil size were observed across all nine maps. The measured PFE was corrected by a geometric model that expressed the foreshortening of the pupil area as a function of the cosine of the angle between the eye-to-camera axis and the eye-to-stimulus axis. The model reduced the root mean squared error of pupil measurements by 82.5 % when the model parameters were pre-set to the physical layout dimensions, and by 97.5 % when they were optimized to fit the empirical error surface. PMID:25953668

  2. 78 FR 70964 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Combined license... for four consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation...

  3. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of receipt... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  4. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  5. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  6. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation.

    PubMed

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination. The results indicated faster reaction times and larger pupil diameter to the presentation of combined auditory and visual stimuli than the same stimuli when presented in isolation. Moreover, the responses to the multisensory condition exceeded the linear summation of the responses obtained in each unimodal condition. Importantly, faster reaction times corresponded to larger pupil dilation, suggesting that also the latter can be a reliable measure of multisensory processes. This study will serve as a foundation for the investigation of auditory-visual integration in populations where simple reaction times cannot be collected, such as developmental and clinical populations. PMID:27189316

  7. What Do the Pupils Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Alison

    2012-01-01

    What pupils think about mathematics often features in discussion between mathematics educators. But, how often is "what learners think about their mathematics lessons" a feature of enquiry? It could be a "high risk" strategy to garner honest comment that relates to the "classroom experience". Notions of "risk" apart, the process of collecting data…

  8. Insurance: Pupils' Pamphlet. II C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji).

    The document presents a study guide for students learning insurance protection and the various types of insurance businesses. The pupils' pamphlet is to be used in coordination with the teacher's guide. Case studies, worksheets, description of basic principles, and examples of policy forms are provided for the different types of insurance: (1)…

  9. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  10. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation

    PubMed Central

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination. The results indicated faster reaction times and larger pupil diameter to the presentation of combined auditory and visual stimuli than the same stimuli when presented in isolation. Moreover, the responses to the multisensory condition exceeded the linear summation of the responses obtained in each unimodal condition. Importantly, faster reaction times corresponded to larger pupil dilation, suggesting that also the latter can be a reliable measure of multisensory processes. This study will serve as a foundation for the investigation of auditory-visual integration in populations where simple reaction times cannot be collected, such as developmental and clinical populations. PMID:27189316

  11. School Lights and Problem Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treichel-Arehart, Joan

    1974-01-01

    Pilot project results indicate that under certain conditions, fluorescent lighting may cause or aggravate hyperactivity in school children. Drawing on observations made in photobiological research, a new type of lighting was developed. Teachers in two experimental classrooms reported improvement in hyperactive pupils, which was also verified by…

  12. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  13. Middle School Pupils Write Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    A sixth-grade student teacher developed and implemented a unit on creative writing, and one lesson in the unit on writing legends was particularly successful. A discussion of Davy Crockett and the legends surrounding his life, began the lesson. The student teacher then introduced trade books from the library station for the pupils to read.…

  14. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  15. Pupils teach to pupils about genetics or global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuny, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    The idea of this project is to put pupils in a teaching situation. Classes of teenagers go to primary schools and animate a science workshop. Junior pupils are separated in small groups and they attend two different sessions in the same half-day. The whole workshop consists of 4 sessions. Each session is organized with an activity (microscope observation, counting of chromosomes, drawing of a curve, etc.) in which senior pupils coach the younger, and ends with a debate or an assessment. The first experiment of this type of project was realized with a class of 14 to 15 year old pupils on the theme: How do your parents transmit your characteristics? The four sessions are attended in disorder but when knowledge of other sessions are necessary, senior pupils explain them at the beginning of the session. Junior pupils have a notebook to write their activities and to note their conclusions. Session 1: What did my father give to make me? Drawing and measuring microscopic observations of human spermatozoons. Conclusion: my father gave a spermatozoon which measures less than one mm long, this spermatozoon met my mother's egg and it made my first cell. Session 2: What does the program that made me look like? Microscope observation of blood cells, identification of chromosomes in the core. On microscope pictures, counting of chromosomes. Conclusion: My program is in each cell of my body, inside the core. Sometimes, in this core, we can observe short sticks that are called chromosomes. All human beings have the same number of chromosomes in their cells: 46. Session 3: Where do my chromosomes come from? Counting of chromosomes in spermatozoons or ovums and playing with sets of chromosomes to deduct sex of a baby. Conclusion: Daddy gave me 23 chromosomes and mummy gave me 23 chromosomes too. My program is then constituted from half of daddy's program and half of mummy's program. My brothers and sisters also have half and half, but not the same halves! Session 4: Where is the

  16. The luminal connection

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Interconnection of epithelial tubules is a crucial process during organogenesis. Organisms have evolved sets of molecular and cellular strategies to generate an interconnected tubular network during animal development. Spatiotemporal control of common cellular strategies includes dissolution of the basement membrane, apoptosis, rearrangements of cell adhesion junctions, and mesenchymal-like invasive cellular behaviors prior to tubular interconnection. Different model systems exhibit varying degrees of active invasive-like behaviors that precede tubular interconnection, which may reflect changes in cell polarity or differential adhesive cell states. Studies in this newly-emerging field of tubular interconnections will provide a greater understanding of pediatric diseases and cancer metastasis, as well as generate fundamentally new insights into lumen formation pathology, or lumopathies. PMID:23820023

  17. Disciplinary Technologies and Pupil Redisposition: School Equipment and Homework Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaborowski, Katrin U.; Breidenstein, Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores disciplinary technologies and pupil redisposition through school and teacher focus on school equipment and homework diaries. During our field research in two contrasting secondary schools, we experienced the importance of missing school equipment to teacher and school control. We also concluded that forgotten or missing school…

  18. Chromospheres of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Avrett, Eugene

    2015-08-01

    Ultraviolet imaging of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) reveals a complex variable chromospheric structure. Such atmospheres in luminous cool stars can affect features in the optical spectrum. Constructing semi-empiricalmodel atmospheres of luminous stars including the temperature rise due to a chromosphere allows us to predict potential effects on optical transitions. The radiative transfer code, PANDORA, calculates line strengths in a LTE or non-LTE formulation, spherical symmetry, and includes velocity fields when present. Various aspects of the line calculations and their impact on equivalent widths will be discussed including developing appropriate chromospheric models, comparison to a pure radiative equilibrium model, transitions sensitive to non-LTE and the effects of a realistic spherical non-LTE approximation as compared to a plane-parallel approximation. We discuss the extent to which a chromosphere can impact the determination of stellar abundances.

  19. Neural Correlates of Fast Pupil Dilation in Nonhuman Primates: Relation to Behavioral Performance and Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, R.E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pupil dilation in humans has been previously shown to correlate with cognitive workload, whereby increased frequency of dilation is associated with increased degree of difficulty of a task. It has been suggested that frontal oculomotor brain areas control cognitively-related pupil dilations, but this has not been confirmed due to lack of animal models of cognitive workload and task-related pupil dilation. This is the first report of a wavelet analysis applied to continuous measures of pupil size used to detect the onset of abrupt pupil dilations and the frequency of those dilations in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing a trial-unique delayed match to sample (DMS) task. An additional unique finding shows that electrophysiological recordings in the same animals revealed correlated firing of neurons in frontal cortex with different components of pupil dilation during task performance. It is further demonstrated that the frequency of fast pupil dilations (but not rate of eye movements) correlated with cognitive workload during task performance. Such correlations suggest that frontal neuron encoding of pupil dilation provides critical feedback to other brain areas involved in the processing of complex visual information. PMID:20226215

  20. Multi-level aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils' feelings of safety.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. AIMS. To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social cohesion between and within schools, in order to explain a pupil's feelings of safety at school. SAMPLES. Data were collected aided by a national Dutch survey in secondary education carried out via the Internet. In 2008, digital questionnaires were completed by about 78,800 pupils, 6,200 teachers and educational support staff, and 600 school managers. METHODS. Data were checked for reliability and representativity. Social cohesion was indicated by self-reported measures of individual pupils and by aggregating scale and item scores of school managers, teachers, and other support staff within schools. Multi-level analysis using individual pupil data and school-level data was performed using MLwiN. RESULTS. A pupil's age, educational attainment level, experience of mild physical violence, prosocial rules of conduct and joint control of these rules, and school measures against playing truant, show positive influences on a pupil's feelings of safety at school. Negative influences are exerted by not feeling most at home in The Netherlands, peers taking drugs and weapons into school, and by experiencing social violence, severe physical violence, and sexual violence. Negative school effects exist simultaneously in severe physical violence experienced by teachers and other staff, and in curriculum differentiation applied by teachers and other staff; a positive school effect is school size. Some interaction effects between pupil and school-level variables were explored. CONCLUSIONS. The variance at school level is relatively low compared with the variance at pupil level. However, a much higher percentage of variance at school level than at

  1. Retinal Ganglion Cell Adaptation to Small Luminance Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Graña, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate the wide input range over which the visual system operates within the narrow output range of spiking neurons, the retina adjusts its sensitivity to the mean light level so that retinal ganglion cells can faithfully signal contrast, or relative deviations from the mean luminance. Given the large operating range of the visual system, the majority of work on luminance adaptation has involved logarithmic changes in light level. We report that luminance gain controls are recruited for remarkably small fluctuations in luminance as well. Using spike recordings from the rat optic tract, we show that ganglion cell responses to a brief flash of light are modulated in amplitude by local background fluctuations as little as 15% contrast. The time scale of the gain control is rapid (<125 ms), at least for on cells. The retinal locus of adaptation precedes the ganglion cell spike generator because response gain changes of on cells were uncorrelated with firing rate. The mechanism seems to reside within the inner retinal network and not in the photoreceptors, because the adaptation profiles of on and off cells differed markedly. The response gain changes follow Weber's law, suggesting that network mechanisms of luminance adaptation described in previous work modulates retinal ganglion cell sensitivity, not just when we move between different lighting environments, but also as our eyes scan a visual scene. Finally, we show that response amplitude is uniformly reduced for flashes on a modulated background that has spatial contrast, indicating that another gain control that integrates luminance signals nonlinearly over space operates within the receptive field center of rat ganglion cells. PMID:20538771

  2. Improving vision by pupil masking.

    PubMed

    Bonaque-González, Sergio; Ríos-Rodríguez, Susana; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-07-01

    We propose an alternative solution to improve visual quality by spatially modulating the amplitude of light passing into the eye (related to the eye's transmittance), in contrast to traditional correction of the wavefront phase (related to the local refractive power). Numerical simulations show that masking the aberrated areas at the pupil plane should enhance visual function, especially in highly aberrated eyes. This correction could be implemented in practice using customized contact or intraocular lenses. PMID:27446688

  3. Improving vision by pupil masking

    PubMed Central

    Bonaque-González, Sergio; Ríos-Rodríguez, Susana; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    We propose an alternative solution to improve visual quality by spatially modulating the amplitude of light passing into the eye (related to the eye's transmittance), in contrast to traditional correction of the wavefront phase (related to the local refractive power). Numerical simulations show that masking the aberrated areas at the pupil plane should enhance visual function, especially in highly aberrated eyes. This correction could be implemented in practice using customized contact or intraocular lenses. PMID:27446688

  4. Measuring Pupil Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This paper advocates categorization of engagement on the basis of a logical relationship with the outcomes of a study and the use of student attributes that are logically related to engagement and/or achievement as covariables. Results from a study involving nine engagement categories, measures of formal reasoning ability, locus of control and…

  5. Pupil measures of alertness and mental load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backs, Richard W.; Walrath, Larry C.

    1988-01-01

    A study of eight adults given active and passive search tasks showed that evoked pupillary response was sensitive to information processing demands. In particular, large pupillary diameter was observed in the active search condition where subjects were actively processing information relevant to task performance, as opposed to the passive search (control) condition where subjects passively viewed the displays. However, subjects may have simply been more aroused in the active search task. Of greater importance was that larger pupillary diameter, corresponding to longer search time, was observed for noncoded than for color-coded displays in active search. In the control condition, pupil diameter was larger with the color displays. The data indicate potential usefulness of pupillary responses in evaluating the information processing requirements of visual displays.

  6. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. PMID:25288586

  7. Luminance meter for photopic and scotopic measurements in the mesopic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpak, M.; Kärhä, P.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Ikonen, E.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a design and realization of a dual-channel luminance meter for simultaneous measurement of luminance with photopic and scotopic weightings. Such measurements are useful in mesopic conditions, i.e. when the luminance is in the range of 0.005-5 cd m-2. The instrument is a spot luminance meter with two spectrally weighted channels. The collected light is detected with silicon detectors and a computer-controlled dual-channel switched-integration amplifier. The instrument is characterized for relative spectral responsivity against a calibrated spectroradiometer using a radiance source based on an integrating sphere with input from a monochromator. An absolute luminance responsivity calibration is made against a sphere-based luminance standard at a level close to the high end of the mesopic range. The standard uncertainty in luminance responsivity calibration is 0.3% for the photopic channel and 0.6% for the scotopic channel. In addition, characterization measurements were carried out for the instrument’s linearity, stray light sensitivity and polarization dependence. The results show very good noise performance, allowing fast measurements over the whole mesopic range. The noise equivalent power was measured to be approximately 20 fW Hz-1/2, equal to a noise equivalent luminance of 30 µcd m-2 Hz-1/2. Estimated uncertainty of measurements for typical light sources is 2.2% (k = 2) at the lowest luminance levels of the mesopic range.

  8. School Outcomes: Sharing the Responsibility between Pupil and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanassoulis, Emmanuel; Portela, Maria Da Conceicao A. Silva

    2002-01-01

    Uses a Data Envelopment Analysis based approach to decompose pupil underattainment into that attributable to the school the pupil attends and that attributable to the pupil. Approach measures pupil attainment in terms of value added. Results suggest that at current levels of school effectiveness, a pupil's own application accounts for the major…

  9. Stochastic analysis of the control of the movement of the spacecraft in the vicinity of the colinear libration point by means of the forces of luminous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukyanov, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the possible investigation of the utilization of the solar radiation pressure for the spacecraft motion control in the vicinity of collinear libration point of planar restricted ring problem of three bodies. The control is realized by changing the solar sail area at its permanent orientation. In this problem the influence of the trajectory errors and the errors of the execution control is accounted. It is worked out, the estimation method of the solar sail sizes, which are necessary for spacecraft keeping in the vicinity of collinear libration point during the certain time with given probability. The main control parameters were calculated for some examples in case of libration points of the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems.

  10. Pupil Mimicry Correlates With Trust in In-Group Partners With Dilating Pupils.

    PubMed

    Kret, M E; Fischer, A H; De Dreu, C K W

    2015-09-01

    During close interactions with fellow group members, humans look into one another's eyes, follow gaze, and quickly grasp emotion signals. The eye-catching morphology of human eyes, with unique eye whites, draws attention to the middle part, to the pupils, and their autonomic changes, which signal arousal, cognitive load, and interest (including social interest). Here, we examined whether and how these changes in a partner's pupils are processed and how they affect the partner's trustworthiness. Participants played incentivized trust games with virtual partners, whose pupils dilated, remained static, or constricted. Results showed that (a) participants trusted partners with dilating pupils and withheld trust from partners with constricting pupils, (b) participants' pupils mimicked changes in their partners' pupils, and (c) dilation mimicry predicted trust in in-group partners, whereas constriction mimicry did not. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is in-group bounded and possibly evolved in and because of group life. PMID:26231910

  11. Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry.

    PubMed

    Burns, S A; Elsner, A E

    1993-02-01

    Changes in the effective optical density of the cones are sufficient to explain changes in color matches with retinal illuminance and pupil entry. We performed three experiments. In the first experiment, six observers made color matches under both bleached and unbleached conditions to a series of six standard wavelengths. The effects of bleaching could be modeled by a decrease in optical density of the L and M cone photopigments. Slight spectral shifts in the peak wavelengths of the photopigments were required for different observers. In the second experiment we varied retinal illuminance of the color-matching field from 2.4 to 5.4 log Td for a series of long-wavelength primaries. The shape of the color match versus the intensity function was unchanged by the wavelength composition of the matching field. In the third experiment we measured the change in color match with retinal illuminance for different pupil entry positions. At low luminances there was a marked dependence of the color match on pupil entry positions. At high illuminance there was only a small dependence. The half-bleach illuminance values varied as expected from the Stiles-Crawford I effect. We conclude that for wavelengths > 540 nm, changes in color matches with bleaching and pupil entry can be explained by changes in the effective optical density of the cones. PMID:8478748

  12. Pupils as Active Participants: Diamond Ranking as a Tool to Investigate Pupils' Experiences of Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative carried out in a Finnish primary school. Twenty-four 5th grade pupils and their teacher participated in the study. The research initiative was guided by two questions: (1) How do pupils experience their classroom practices? (2) How can pupils participate in the process of developing…

  13. Temporal characteristics of melanopsin inputs to the human pupil light reflex.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel S; Feigl, Beatrix; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Rods, cones and melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) operate in concert to regulate pupil diameter. The temporal properties of intrinsic ipRGC signalling are distinct to those of rods and cones, including longer latencies and sustained signalling after light offset. We examined whether the melanopsin mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) and pupil constriction were dependent upon the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between successive light pulses and the temporal frequency of sinusoidal light stimuli. Melanopsin excitation was altered by variation of stimulus wavelength (464 nm and 638 nm lights) and irradiance (11.4 and 15.2 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)). We found that 6s PIPR amplitude was independent of ISI and temporal frequency for all melanopsin excitation levels, indicating complete summation. In contrast to the PIPR, the maximum pupil constriction increased with increasing ISI with high and low melanopsin excitation, but time to minimum diameter was slower with high melanopsin excitation only. This melanopsin response to briefly presented pulses (16 and 100 ms) slows the temporal response of the maximum pupil constriction. We also demonstrate that high melanopsin excitation attenuates the phasic peak-trough pupil amplitude compared to conditions with low melanopsin excitation, indicating an interaction between inner and outer retinal inputs to the pupil light reflex. We infer that outer retina summation is important for rapidly controlling pupil diameter in response to short timescale fluctuations in illumination and may occur at two potential sites, one that is presynaptic to extrinsic photoreceptor input to ipRGCs, or another within the pupil control pathway if ipRGCs have differential temporal tuning to extrinsic and intrinsic signalling. PMID:25497360

  14. Luminal pulse velocity in a superluminal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Heisuke; Tomita, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the physical meaning of pulse peak in fast and slow light media, we investigated propagation of differently shaped pulses experimentally, controlling the sharpness of the pulse peak. Symmetric behavior with respect to fast and slow light was observed in traditional Gaussian pulses; that is, propagated pulses were advanced or delayed, respectively, whereas the pulse shape remained unchanged. This symmetry broke down when the pulse peak was sharpened; in the fast light medium, the sharp pulse peak propagated with luminal velocity, and the transmitted pulse deformed into a characteristic asymmetric profile. In contrast, in the slow light medium, a time-delayed smooth peak appeared with a bending point at t =0 . This symmetry breaking with respect to fast and slow light is a universal characteristic of pulse propagation in causal dispersive systems. The sharp pulse peak can be recognized as a bending nonanalytical point and may be capable of transferring information.

  15. The Voice of the Pupils: An Experimental Comparison of Decisions Made by Elected Pupil Councils, Pupils in Referenda, and Teaching Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilljam, Mikael; Esaiasson, Peter; Lindholm, Torun

    2010-01-01

    This article tests whether the form of decision-making used in school environments affects pupils' views on the legitimacy of the decisions made, and of the decision-making procedure. Building on political science theory on democratic decision-making, it compares pupils' reactions towards decisions made by pupil councils, by pupils via referendum,…

  16. "The Joy of Reading"--An Intervention Program to Increase Reading Motivation for Pupils with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovli, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an intensive reading intervention on reading motivation. The intervention program, ("Joy of Reading"), was implemented in six 2nd grade special education classes for pupils with learning disabilities, compared to a control group (n = 108 pupils in total). The intervention program was created…

  17. Melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response in the peripheral retina.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel S; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) regulate pupil size by integrating extrinsic rod and cone signals with intrinsic melanopsin-mediated phototransduction. Light adapted pupil diameter is determined by the corneal flux density (CFD), and for central visual field stimulation the melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) follows this same CFD relationship. Rods, cones, and ipRGCs vary in size, density, and distribution across the retina, but how these differences affect the amplitude and timing of the extrinsic and intrinsic pupil light reflex in the central and peripheral retina is unknown. We determined the relationship between stimulus area and photon flux with stimuli constant for CFD, irradiance, or area at central (0°) and peripheral (20°) eccentricities with high and low melanopsin excitation. We show that the pupil constriction amplitude was similar at both eccentricities and the time to minimum diameter increased as melanopsin excitation increased. In contrast, the peripheral PIPR follows a CFD relationship but with lower amplitude compared with that at the fovea. This indicates differences in the spatial and temporal characteristics of extrinsic and intrinsic ipRGC inputs to the pupil control pathway for the central and peripheral retina. The eccentricity-dependent change in PIPR amplitude may be analogous to the hill of vision observed in visual perimetry; such knowledge is an important precursor to the development of pupil perimetry paradigms to measure the PIPR in select regions of the visual field. PMID:27271992

  18. ID4 controls luminal lineage commitment in normal mammary epithelium and inhibits BRCA1 function in basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura A; Holliday, Holly; Swarbrick, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are key regulators of development and tumorigenesis. One member of this family, ID4, controls lineage commitment during mammary gland development by acting upstream of key developmental pathways. Recent evidence suggests an emerging role for ID4 as a lineage-dependent proto-oncogene that is overexpressed and amplified in a subset of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs), conferring poor prognosis. Several lines of evidence suggest ID4 may suppress BRCA1 function in BLBC and in doing so, define a subset of BLBC patients who may respond to therapies traditionally used in BRCA1-mutant cancers. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the requirement for ID4 in mammary lineage commitment and the role for ID4 in BLBC. We address current shortfalls in this field and identify important areas of future research. PMID:27412917

  19. Properties of unusually luminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tony Shih Arng

    This thesis is a theoretical study of the progenitors, event rates, and observational properties of unusually luminous supernova (SN), and aims to identify promising directions for future observations. In Chapter 2, we present model light curves and spectra of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) over a range of progenitor masses and envelope structures for Pop III stars. We calculate the rates and detectability of PISNe, core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and Type Ia SNe at the Epoch of Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which can be used to determine the contribution of Pop III versus Pop II stars toward ionizing the universe. Although CCSNe are the least intrinsically luminous supernovae, Chapter 5 shows that a JWST survey targeting known galaxy clusters with Einstein radii > 35" should discover gravitationally lensed CCSNe at redshifts exceeding z = 7--8. In Chapter 3, we explain the Pop II/I progenitors of observed PISNe in the local universe can be created via mergers in runaway collisions in young, dense star clusters, despite copious mass loss via line-driven winds. The PISN rate from this mechanism is consistent with the observed volumetric rate, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could discover ~102 such PISNe per year. In Chapter 4, we identify 10 star clusters which may host PISN progenitors with masses up to 600 solar masses formed via runaway collisions. We estimate the probabilities of these very massive stars being in eclipsing binaries to be ≳ 30%, and find that their transits can be detected even under the contamination of the background cluster light, due to mean transit depths of ~10 6 solar luminosities. In Chapter 6, we show that there could be X-ray analogues of optically super-luminous SNe that are powered by the conversion of the kinetic energy of SN ejecta into radiation upon its collision with a dense but optically-thin circumstellar shell. We find shell configurations that can convert a large fraction of the SN

  20. Pupil Master Record System: History and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. J.; Skees, W. D.

    The Montgomery County, Maryland Public Schools, working with Operations Research, Incorporated, developed a Pupil Master File (PLMF). PLMF is one of the several applications included within the Pupil Subsystem of the district's overall computerized School Information System. The PLMF is designed to provide: 1) a master file which enables users to…

  1. Pupil Appraisal Handbook. Bulletin 1508. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This bulletin serves as a guide for the conduct of pupil appraisal services in Louisiana. It includes procedures, standards, and criteria for identifying children eligible for special education and/or related services. In addition, a general description of pupil appraisal services encompasses personnel, responsibilities, rights of students and…

  2. Pupil Assessment Issues: A Teacher Educator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses the problems that prevent secondary school physical education teachers from using the theoretically sound pupil assessment practices that are taught in professional preparation courses. It suggests that teacher education programs must focus on making pupil assessment a priority throughout the program and instruct teachers on…

  3. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  4. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  5. Visual Behavior in Teacher-Pupil Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry

    1976-01-01

    The visual behavior of teacher-pupil pairs during a cooperative learning task is studied by describing teacher-pupil visual behavior; checking whether cultural variations in gaze or differences attributable to sex could be observed; checking whether variations in gaze were a function of linguistic competence, rather than cultural mores; and…

  6. Pupils' Representations of Models of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Mariana P.; Pestana, Maria Elisa M.

    1991-01-01

    The pencil-and-paper assignment "Represent water in its three states using a model" was given to pupils (n=227) from eighth to twelfth grades. The findings show that the dominant model used was the space filling type; movement of particles was indicated by a minority of pupils; size of the model changed when drawn in different states. (Author/KR)

  7. Secondary Modern Schools: Are Their Pupils Disadvantaged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind; Marsh, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    There are still 10 English local educational authorities (LEAs) that are wholly selective and a further 10 with some grammar and secondary modern schools. This article examines the academic performance of pupils in secondary modern schools and the funding of these schools using national data sets matching pupils' performance at Key Stage 2 and…

  8. NAT THE RAT - PUPIL'S BOOK. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROJAS, PAULINE M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXPERIMENTAL EDITION OF "NAT THE RAT" REPRESENTS LEVEL TWO OF THE "MIAMI LINGISTIC READERS" DESIGNED TO BE USED IN TEACHING BEGINNING READING TO PUPILS WHOSE PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE WAS OTHER THAN ENGLISH. THE FIVE MAJOR CHARACTERS IN THE STORY ARE INTRODUCED ON THE FIRST FIVE PAGES OF THE PUPILS' BOOK. ILLUSTRATIONS (BLACK AND WHITE) TO REINFORCE…

  9. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  10. Properties of artificial neurons that report lightness based on accumulated experience with luminance

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Yaniv; Rukmini, Dhara V.; Monson, Brian B.; Purves, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The responses of visual neurons in experimental animals have been extensively characterized. To ask whether these responses are consistent with a wholly empirical concept of visual perception, we optimized simple neural networks that responded according to the cumulative frequency of occurrence of local luminance patterns in retinal images. Based on this estimation of accumulated experience, the neuron responses showed classical center-surround receptive fields, luminance gain control and contrast gain control, the key properties of early level visual neurons determined in animal experiments. These results imply that a major purpose of pre-cortical neuronal circuitry is to contend with the inherently uncertain significance of luminance values in natural stimuli. PMID:25404912

  11. Luminous efficiency functions at higher intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Lawrence Kent

    Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation. Both measurement techniques were performed using the same optical system and the same seven healthy adults as subjects. Measurements were taken at four reference stimulus intensities, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 foot-lamberts. Luminous efficiency was found to depend on both the technique and the reference stimulus intensity with which the measurements were taken. For heterochromatic brightness matching, luminous efficiency increased for longer wavelengths as reference intensity increased. Peak luminous efficiency shifted from approximately 540nm to greater than 600nm with increasing intensity for all seven subjects. Peak luminous efficiency was constant for flicker photometry across all intensities but the function narrowed slightly at 100 foot-lamberts.

  12. Rhodopsin and Melanopsin Contributions to the Early Redilation Phase of the Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) entirely control the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) from 6 s post-stimulus to the plateau during redilation after light offset. However, the photoreceptor contributions to the early redilation phase of the PIPR (< 6 s post-stimulus) have not been reported. Here, we evaluated the photoreceptor contributions to the early phase PIPR (0.6 s to 5.0 s) by measuring the spectral sensitivity of the criterion PIPR amplitude in response to 1 s light pulses at five narrowband stimulus wavelengths (409, 464, 508, 531 and 592 nm). The retinal irradiance producing a criterion PIPR was normalised to the peak and fitted by either a single photopigment nomogram or the combined melanopsin and rhodopsin spectral nomograms with the +L+M cone photopic luminous efficiency (Vλ) function. We show that the PIPR spectral sensitivity at times ≥ 1.7 s after light offset is best described by the melanopsin nomogram. At times < 1.7 s, the peak PIPR sensitivity shifts to longer wavelengths (range: 482 to 498 nm) and is best described by the combined photoreceptor nomogram, with major contributions from melanopsin and rhodopsin. This first report of melanopsin and rhodopsin contributions to the early phase PIPR is in line with the electrophysiological findings of ipRGC and rod signalling after the cessation of light stimuli and provides a cut-off time for isolating photoreceptor specific function in healthy and diseased eyes. PMID:27548480

  13. The Impact of Auditory Spectral Resolution on Listening Effort Revealed by Pupil Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Matthew B.; Edwards, Jan R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study measured the impact of auditory spectral resolution on listening effort. Systematic degradation in spectral resolution was hypothesized to elicit corresponding systematic increases in pupil dilation, consistent with the notion of pupil dilation as a marker of cognitive load. Design Spectral resolution of sentences was varied with 2 different vocoders: (1) a noise channel vocoder with a variable number of spectral channels; and (2) a vocoder designed to simulate front-end processing of a cochlear implant, including peak-picking channel selection with variable synthesis filter slopes to simulate spread of neural excitation. Pupil dilation was measured after subject-specific luminance adjustment and trial-specific baseline measures. Mixed-effects growth curve analysis was used to model pupillary responses over time. Results For both types of vocoder, pupil dilation grew with each successive degradation in spectral resolution. Within each condition, pupillary responses were not related to intelligibility scores, and the effect of spectral resolution on pupil dilation persisted even when only analyzing trials in which responses were 100% correct. Conclusions Intelligibility scores alone were not sufficient to quantify the effort required to understand speech with poor resolution. Degraded spectral resolution results in increased effort required to understand speech, even when intelligibility is at 100%. Pupillary responses were a sensitive and highly granular measurement to reveal changes in listening effort. Pupillary responses might potentially reveal the benefits of aural prostheses that are not captured by speech intelligibility performance alone, as well as the disadvantages that are overcome by increased listening effort. PMID:25654299

  14. Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Naylor, Graham; Ohlenforst, Barbara; Jansma, Elise P.; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment is relatively unknown. Objectives To 1) review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive method to evaluate parasympathetic dysfunction, 2) review the evidence relating hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity and 3) seek evidence of possible connections between hearing impairment and the pupil light reflex. Methods Literature searches were performed in five electronic databases. All selected articles were categorized into three sections: pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction, hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity, pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Results Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. Among them, 36 articles addressed the pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction. We summarized the information in these data according to different types of parasympathetic-related diseases. Most of the studies showed a difference on at least one pupil light reflex parameter between patients and healthy controls. Two articles discussed the relationship between hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity. Both studies reported a reduced parasympathetic activity in the hearing impaired groups. The searches identified no results for pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Discussion and Conclusions As the first systematic review of the evidence, our findings suggest that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive tool to assess the presence of parasympathetic dysfunction. Maximum constriction velocity and relative constriction amplitude appear to be the most sensitive parameters. There are only two studies investigating the

  15. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  16. Urban Density and Pupil Attainment. CEE DP 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2007-01-01

    We explore the association between urban density and pupil attainment using three cohorts of pupils in schooling in England. Although--as widely recognised--attainment in dense urban places is low on average, this is not because urban environments disadvantage pupils, but because the most disadvantaged pupils with low average attainments attend…

  17. Teachers' and Pupils' Perceptions of Creativity across Different Key Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The new Secondary Curriculum (implemented in 2008) saw greater emphasis on creativity within the National Curriculum for England. Since this term has been boldly stated, how have teachers and pupils responded to it in the classroom? This study draws on responses from a range of pupils in different Key Stages (2 (pupils aged 7-11), 3 (pupils aged…

  18. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  19. MODELING PROXIMAL TUBULE CELL HOMEOSTASIS: TRACKING CHANGES IN LUMINAL FLOW

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Alan M.; Sontag, Eduardo D.

    2009-01-01

    During normal kidney function, there are are routinely wide swings in proximal tubule fluid flow and proportional changes in Na+ reabsorption across tubule epithelial cells. This "glomerulotubular balance" occurs in the absence of any substantial change in cell volume, and is thus a challenge to coordinate luminal membrane solute entry with peritubular membrane solute exit. In this work, linear optimal control theory is applied to generate a configuration of regulated transporters that could achieve this result. A previously developed model of rat proximal tubule epithelium is linearized about a physiologic reference condition; the approximate linear system is recast as a dynamical system; and a Riccati equation is solved to yield the optimal linear feedback that stabilizes Na+ flux, cell volume, and cell pH. The first observation is that optimal feedback control is largely consigned to three physiologic variables, cell volume, cell electrical potential, and lateral intercellular hydrostatic pressure. Parameter modulation by cell volume stabilizes cell volume; parameter modulation by electrical potential or interspace pressure act to stabilize Na+ flux and cell pH. This feedback control is utilized in a tracking problem, in which reabsorptive Na+ flux varies over a factor of two. The resulting control parameters consist of two terms, an autonomous term and a feedback term, and both terms include transporters on both luminal and peritubular cell membranes. Overall, the increase in Na+ flux is achieved with upregulation of luminal Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-glucose cotransport, with increased peritubular Na+−3HCO3− and K+ − Cl− cotransport, and with increased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. The configuration of activated transporters emerges as testable hypothesis of the molecular basis for glomerulotubular balance. It is suggested that the autonomous control component at each cell membrane could represent the cytoskeletal effects of luminal flow. PMID:19280266

  20. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  1. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  2. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  3. Problematising Pupil Voice Using Visual Methods: Findings from a Study of Engaged and Disaffected Pupils in an Urban Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Hilary; Mason, Carolynne; Busher, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how pupils and teachers in an 11-16 mixed secondary school in an area of urban disadvantage in the UK experience pupil voice. It used visual methods to unpick some of the ways in which official and unofficial discourses of pupil voice, engagement, discipline and inclusion were played out in this school. A typology of pupils,…

  4. Pupil diameter as predictor of cognitive load: A novel tool for geoscience education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Pupils can truly serve as windows to the mind. Since the early part of the last decade, pupillometry, the study of pupils in response to cognitive tasks, have gained traction in psychophysiological studies. Muscles of the iris work in tandem with the autonomic nervous system in response to light condition to either dilate or contract the pupil, usually between 2 to 7 mm. Along with this response to light conditions, the pupils also contract or dilate in response to emotional or mental response. Therefore, for a cognitive task, if the ambient brightness is controlled, pupil dilation reflects the cognitive load associated with the task. Simple tasks such as counting, memorizing, multiplying and visual searching have been found to have pupillometry profiles reflective of the cognitive load involved with such tasks. In this study, we investigate whether pupil diameter can be used for education research where tasks can be more complex. In particular, we look at two specific types of tasks common in geoscience and several other STEM fields: graph reading and spatial problem solving.

  5. Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age?

    PubMed

    Daneault, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hébert, Marc; Teikari, Petteri; Mure, Ludovic S; Doyon, Julien; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie

    2012-06-01

    Many nonvisual functions are regulated by light through a photoreceptive system involving melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are maximally sensitive to blue light. Several studies have suggested that the ability of light to modulate circadian entrainment and to induce acute effects on melatonin secretion, subjective alertness, and gene expression decreases during aging, particularly for blue light. This could contribute to the documented changes in sleep and circadian regulatory processes with aging. However, age-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated. We measured pupil size in 16 young (22.8±4 years) and 14 older (61±4.4 years) healthy subjects during 45-second exposures to blue (480 nm) and green (550 nm) monochromatic lights at low (7×10(12) photons/cm2/s), medium (3×10(13) photons/cm2/s), and high (10(14) photons/cm2/s) irradiance levels. Results showed that young subjects had consistently larger pupils than older subjects for dark adaptation and during all light exposures. Steady-state pupil constriction was greater under blue than green light exposure in both age groups and increased with increasing irradiance. Surprisingly, when expressed in relation to baseline pupil size, no significant age-related differences were observed in pupil constriction. The observed reduction in pupil size in older individuals, both in darkness and during light exposure, may reduce retinal illumination and consequently affect nonvisual responses to light. The absence of a significant difference between age groups for relative steady-state pupil constriction suggests that other factors such as tonic, sympathetic control of pupil dilation, rather than light sensitivity per se, account for the observed age difference in pupil size regulation. Compared to other nonvisual functions, the light sensitivity of steady-state pupil constriction appears to

  6. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  7. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly

  8. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats’ ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  9. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  10. Compatibility of a Diffractive Pupil and Coronagraphic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Rusian; Pluzhnyk, Yevgeniy; Guyon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Detection and characterization of exo-earths require direct-imaging techniques that can deliver contrast ratios of 10(exp 10) at 100 milliarc-seconds or smaller angular separation. At the same time, astrometric data is required to measure planet masses and can help detect planets and constrain their orbital parameters. To minimize costs, a single space mission can be designed using a high efficiency coronograph to perform direct imaging and a diffractive pupil to calibrate wide-field distortions to enable high precision astrometric measurements. This paper reports the testing of a diffractive pupil on the high-contrast test bed at the NASA Ames Research Center to assess the compatibility of using a diffractive pupil with coronographic imaging systems. No diffractive contamination was found within our detectability limit of 2x10(exp -7) contrast outside a region of 12lambda/D and 2.5x10(exp -6) within a region spanning from 2 to 12lambda/D. Morphology of the image features suggests that no contamination exists even beyond the detectability limit specified or at smaller working angles. In the case that diffractive contamination is found beyond these stated levels, active wavefront control would be able to mitigate its intensity to 10(exp -7) or better contrast.

  11. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... change of control of EFH, EFCH, or Luminant as a result of this internal restructuring. No physical... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 119), and a correction notice was published on January 10, 2013 (78 FR 2295). No... Proposed Internal Restructuring and Indirect Transfer of License I Luminant Generation Company...

  12. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  13. Robust pupil center detection using a curvature algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, D.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Determining the pupil center is fundamental for calculating eye orientation in video-based systems. Existing techniques are error prone and not robust because eyelids, eyelashes, corneal reflections or shadows in many instances occlude the pupil. We have developed a new algorithm which utilizes curvature characteristics of the pupil boundary to eliminate these artifacts. Pupil center is computed based solely on points related to the pupil boundary. For each boundary point, a curvature value is computed. Occlusion of the boundary induces characteristic peaks in the curvature function. Curvature values for normal pupil sizes were determined and a threshold was found which together with heuristics discriminated normal from abnormal curvature. Remaining boundary points were fit with an ellipse using a least squares error criterion. The center of the ellipse is an estimate of the pupil center. This technique is robust and accurately estimates pupil center with less than 40% of the pupil boundary points visible.

  14. Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD Physiologist of the pupil.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H Stanley; Kardon, Randy H

    2006-06-01

    Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD has devoted a long and vigorous professional life to understanding the workings of the pupil of the human eye. Her interest in the pupil began in 1940 when she went to work as a technician in the pupillography laboratory of Professor Otto Lowenstein at New York University. It culminated in her widely admired textbook The Pupil, published in 1993. Among her many contributions, Loewenfeld provided rigorous observations about Adie tonic pupil, anisocoria in optic tract lesions, Argyll Robertson pupil, oculomotor paresis with cyclic spasms, and innovations in electronic recordings of pupil movement. PMID:16845317

  15. The Effect of Unilateral Mean Luminance on Binocular Combination in normal and amblyopic vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Jia, Wuli; Huang, Chang-Bing; Hess, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Luminance plays a modulating role in the processes of several visual tasks, which in turn provides significant information for the understanding of visual processing. Here, using a binocular phase combination paradigm, we studied the effect of unilateral changes in mean luminance on binocular combination in both normal and amblyopic vision. We found, in normal observers, attenuation of one eye's stimulus luminance with neutral density filters produces binocular phase combination similar to those of amblyopic subjects. Correspondingly, in amblyopic observers, reduction of the fellow eye's stimulus luminance produces binocular phase combination similar to those of normal subjects. These phenomena could be explained by an attenuated contribution of the filtered eye to the binocular phase percept due to reduced gain-control. The findings have major implications both for the study of binocular combination and for amblyopia treatment. PMID:23774670

  16. Influence of background size, luminance and eccentricity on different adaptation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gloriani, Alejandro H; Matesanz, Beatriz M; Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Arranz, Isabel; Issolio, Luis; Mar, Santiago; Aparicio, Juan A

    2016-08-01

    Mechanisms of light adaptation have been traditionally explained with reference to psychophysical experimentation. However, the neural substrata involved in those mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Our study analyzed links between psychophysical measurements and retinal physiological evidence with consideration for the phenomena of rod-cone interactions, photon noise, and spatial summation. Threshold test luminances were obtained with steady background fields at mesopic and photopic light levels (i.e., 0.06-110cd/m(2)) for retinal eccentricities from 0° to 15° using three combinations of background/test field sizes (i.e., 10°/2°, 10°/0.45°, and 1°/0.45°). A two-channel Maxwellian view optical system was employed to eliminate pupil effects on the measured thresholds. A model based on visual mechanisms that were described in the literature was optimized to fit the measured luminance thresholds in all experimental conditions. Our results can be described by a combination of visual mechanisms. We determined how spatial summation changed with eccentricity and how subtractive adaptation changed with eccentricity and background field size. According to our model, photon noise plays a significant role to explain contrast detection thresholds measured with the 1/0.45° background/test size combination at mesopic luminances and at off-axis eccentricities. In these conditions, our data reflect the presence of rod-cone interaction for eccentricities between 6° and 9° and luminances between 0.6 and 5cd/m(2). In spite of the increasing noise effects with eccentricity, results also show that the visual system tends to maintain a constant signal-to-noise ratio in the off-axis detection task over the whole mesopic range. PMID:27210038

  17. Characterization of halogen lamps as secondary standard of luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. A. R.; Sanchez, O., Jr.; Ferreira, A. F. G., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a study of lamps characterization concerning its lamp output, current and voltage drift during seasoning and regarding the use of theses lamps as luminous flux secondary standard. The 200W halogen lamps are seasoned for 30 hours and during the seasoning period the relative drift of the lamp illuminance, current and voltage are measured at each 3 minutes. The illuminance is measured using a photometer with detector head, the lamp voltage is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and the current is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and 0.1 Ohms standard resistor. The lamp current is controlled by a calibrated current power source with stability better than 1 mA. To reduce the stray light, baffles are positioned between the lamp and the detector head. The alignment of experimental assembly is made by a He-Ne Laser. Data of illuminance, current and voltage is acquired by software built in Labview database. Among the 5 lamps seasoned, the best result presents the variation of illuminance of 0.04% per hour. This lamp is chosen to become the secondary standard and its luminous flux is measured using an Ulbricht integrating sphere. This method allows the laboratory to create secondary standard of luminous flux for its routine test and measurements and to supply theses standards for Brazilian industry.

  18. Clear-cornea cataract surgery: pupil size and shape changes, along with anterior chamber volume and depth changes. A Scheimpflug imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate, by high-precision digital analysis of data provided by Scheimpflug imaging, changes in pupil size and shape and anterior chamber (AC) parameters following cataract surgery. Patients and methods The study group (86 eyes, patient age 70.58±10.33 years) was subjected to cataract removal surgery with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation (pseudophakic). A control group of 75 healthy eyes (patient age 51.14±16.27 years) was employed for comparison. Scheimpflug imaging (preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively) was employed to investigate central corneal thickness, AC depth, and AC volume. In addition, by digitally analyzing the black-and-white dotted line pupil edge marking in the Scheimpflug “large maps,” the horizontal and vertical pupil diameters were individually measured and the pupil eccentricity was calculated. The correlations between AC depth and pupil shape parameters versus patient age, as well as the postoperative AC and pupil size and shape changes, were investigated. Results Compared to preoperative measurements, AC depth and AC volume of the pseudophakic eyes increased by 0.99±0.46 mm (39%; P<0.001) and 43.57±24.59 mm3 (36%; P<0.001), respectively. Pupil size analysis showed that the horizontal pupil diameter was reduced by −0.27±0.22 mm (−9.7%; P=0.001) and the vertical pupil diameter was reduced by −0.32±0.24 mm (−11%; P<0.001). Pupil eccentricity was reduced by −39.56%; P<0.001. Conclusion Cataract extraction surgery appears to affect pupil size and shape, possibly in correlation to AC depth increase. This novel investigation based on digital analysis of Scheimpflug imaging data suggests that the cataract postoperative photopic pupil is reduced and more circular. These changes appear to be more significant with increasing patient age. PMID:25368512

  19. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon. PMID:27500655

  20. Pupil Size Changes as an Active Information Channel for Biofeedback Applications.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Jan; Strauch, Christoph; Georgi, Juliane; Huckauf, Anke

    2016-09-01

    Pupil size is usually regarded as a passive information channel that provides insight into cognitive and affective states but defies any further control. However, in a recent study (Ehlers et al. 2015) we demonstrate that sympathetic activity indexed by pupil dynamics allows strategic interference by means of simple cognitive techniques. Utilizing positive/negative imaginings, subjects were able to expand pupil diameter beyond baseline variations; albeit with varying degrees of success and only over brief periods. The current study provides a comprehensive replication on the basis of considerable changes to the experimental set-up. Results show that stricter methodological conditions (controlled baseline settings and specified user instructions) strengthen the reported effect, whereas overall performance increases by one standard deviation. Effects are thereby not restricted to pupillary level. Parallel recordings of skin conductance changes prove a general enhancement of induced autonomic arousal. Considering the stability of the results across studies, we conclude that pupil size information exceeds affective monitoring and may constitute an active input channel in human-computer interaction. Furthermore, since variations in pupil diameter reliably display self-induced changes in sympathetic arousal, the relevance of this parameter is strongly indicated for future approaches in clinical biofeedback. PMID:27113096

  1. Pupil and Salivary Indicators of Autonomic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christa J.; Colombo, John; Unruh, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated tonic pupil size has been reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Among the possible sources of this dysregulation are disruptions in the feedback loop between norepinephrine (NE) and hypothalamic systems. In the current study, we examined afternoon levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a putative correlate of NE) and cortisol (used to assess stress-based responses) in two independent samples of children with ASD. We found a larger pupil size and lower sAA levels in ASD, compared to typical and clinical age-matched controls. This was substantiated at the individual level, as sAA levels were strongly correlated with tonic pupil size. Relatively little diurnal variation in sAA taken in the home environment in the ASD group was also observed, while typical controls showed a significant linear increase throughout the day. Results are discussed in terms of potential early biomarkers and the elucidation of underlying neural dysfunction in ASD. PMID:22644965

  2. Suzuki Meets Polya: Teaching Mathematics to Young Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlewood, Donald G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes how Suzuki's methods of teaching young pupils to play the violin can be combined with Polya's ideas on problem solving to teach mathematics to elementary school pupils. Six references are listed. (YP)

  3. Optimal pupil design for confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Yogesh G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2010-02-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy may enable screening and diagnosis of skin cancers noninvasively and in real-time, as an adjunct to biopsy and pathology. Current instruments are large, complex, and expensive. A simpler, confocal line-scanning microscope may accelerate the translation of confocal microscopy in clinical and surgical dermatology. A confocal reflectance microscope may use a beamsplitter, transmitting and detecting through the pupil, or a divided pupil, or theta configuration, with half used for transmission and half for detection. The divided pupil may offer better sectioning and contrast. We present a Fourier optics model and compare the on-axis irradiance of a confocal point-scanning microscope in both pupil configurations, optimizing the profile of a Gaussian beam in a circular or semicircular aperture. We repeat both calculations with a cylindrical lens which focuses the source to a line. The variable parameter is the fillfactor, h, the ratio of the 1/e2 diameter of the Gaussian beam to the diameter of the full aperture. The optimal values of h, for point scanning are 0.90 (full) and 0.66 for the half-aperture. For line-scanning, the fill-factors are 1.02 (full) and 0.52 (half). Additional parameters to consider are the optimal location of the point-source beam in the divided-pupil configuration, the optimal line width for the line-source, and the width of the aperture in the divided-pupil configuration. Additional figures of merit are field-of-view and sectioning. Use of optimal designs is critical in comparing the experimental performance of the different configurations.

  4. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  5. Differences in Pupil Achievement in Kenya: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors employed multilevel analyses procedures to examine pupil, class and school levels factors that influenced pupil achievement in Kenya. Pupil's age, pupil's socioeconomic background and pupil-teacher ratio were important factors in the prediction of pupil achievement. The provinces with the largest between-school variation…

  6. Post-illumination pupil response after blue light: Reliability of optimized melanopsin-based phototransduction assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; te Lindert, Bart H W; Bijlenga, Denise; Coppens, Joris E; Gómez-Herrero, Germán; Bruijel, Jessica; Kooij, J J Sandra; Cajochen, Christian; Bourgin, Patrice; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2015-10-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells have recently been shown highly relevant to the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits that regulate alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. A quantitative assessment of functionality of the melanopsin-signaling pathway could be highly relevant in order to mechanistically understand individual differences in the effects of light on these regulatory systems. We here propose and validate a reliable quantification of the melanopsin-dependent Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) after blue light, and evaluated its sensitivity to dark adaptation, time of day, body posture, and light exposure history. Pupil diameter of the left eye was continuously measured during a series of light exposures to the right eye, of which the pupil was dilated using tropicamide 0.5%. The light exposure paradigm consisted of the following five consecutive blocks of five minutes: baseline dark; monochromatic red light (peak wavelength: 630 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)) to maximize the effect of subsequent blue light; dark; monochromatic blue light (peak wavelength: 470 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)); and post-blue dark. PIPR was quantified as the difference between baseline dark pupil diameter and post-blue dark pupil diameter (PIPR-mm). In addition, a relative PIPR was calculated by dividing PIPR by baseline pupil diameter (PIPR-%). In total 54 PIPR assessments were obtained in 25 healthy young adults (10 males, mean age ± SD: 26.9 ± 4.0 yr). From repeated measurements on two consecutive days in 15 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 27.8 ± 4.3 yrs) test-retest reliability of both PIPR outcome parameters was calculated. In the presence of considerable between-subject differences, both outcome parameters had very high test-retest reliability: Cronbach's α > 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.85. In 12 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 26.5

  7. Oscillations and latency in the clamped pupil light reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, John G.; Ohira, Toru; Steck, Jeff; Crate, John; Longtin, Andre

    1993-11-01

    It is shown that the pupil latency can be estimated from pupil cycling measurements when the pupil light reflex is clamped with piecewise constant negative feedback. The solution of the mathematical model previously shown to describe these oscillations is utilized to develop a variety of strategies to estimate latency and to evaluate the effects of noise on these estimates. The results demonstrate that the pupil latency shows considerable variation.

  8. An Exploratory Study on How Primary Pupils Approach Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Marja-Ilona; de Vries, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of systems thinking among 27 primary pupils (8-10 years old) and their teacher. The study included a pre-test for the teacher and the pupils, lesson planning, the actual lesson and a post-test for the pupils. The research focused on finding an answer to three questions: (1) do pupils see a system as a structure…

  9. System and measurement method for binocular pupillometry to study pupil size variability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective and noninvasive examination of pupil size variability can be used to assess the activity of the autonomous nervous system. We designed a system that enables binocular, fast, and accurate recordings of different types of pupil variabilities, which are synchronous with other biosignals. This type of measurement system is needed to extend the scope of pupillometry applications. Methods In the proposed system, the left and right eyes are independently and interchangeably illuminated to generate alternating images, which are successively acquired by a single camera. The system is composed of four functional modules: the image acquisition module, the image processing unit, the light stimulator, and the controller. The proposed image processing algorithm approximates the shape of the pupil using the best-fit ellipse. The user control panel (controller) precisely sets the stimuli parameters and controls the entire measurement procedure. Results The computer-based binocular system records the pupil size during the pupil light reflexes (direct and indirect) and spontaneous pupil size fluctuations, at a sampling rate up to 75 Hz, with a resolution better than 0.02 mm. Our initial laboratory tests confirmed that the new system is fast and precise (system accuracy better than 0.5% and repeatability better than 4%). Conclusions The proposed system’s unique geometry and construction, and the method it uses to detect images from each eye, allows us to monitor the right and left eyes using a single camera with no overlap between the images. The system does not require a very experienced operator, because it is relatively simple and easy to use. Importantly, it is comfortable for the subjects. Additionally, the presented system can operate with other bio-measurement systems using a synchronous signal. These system capabilities can expand the scope of pupillometry research applications. PMID:24899167

  10. Influence of high ambient illuminance and display luminance on readability and subjective preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Andrén, Börje; Guo, Yi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Drott, Anton; Hermann, David S.

    2015-03-01

    Many devices, such as tablets, smartphones, notebooks, fixed and portable navigation systems are used on a (nearly) daily basis, both in in- and outdoor environments. It is often argued that contextual factors, such as the ambient illuminance in relation to characteristics of the display (e.g., surface treatment, screen reflectance, display luminance …) may have a strong influence on the use of such devices and corresponding user experiences. However, the current understanding of these influence factors is still rather limited. In this work, we therefore focus in particular on the impact of lighting and display luminance on readability, visual performance, subjective experience and preference. A controlled lab study (N=18) with a within-subjects design was performed to evaluate two car displays (one glossy and one matte display) in conditions that simulate bright outdoor lighting conditions. Four ambient luminance levels and three display luminance settings were combined into 7 experimental conditions. More concretely, we investigated for each display: (1) whether and how readability and visual performance varied with the different combinations of ambient luminance and display luminance and (2) whether and how they influenced the subjective experience (through self-reported valence, annoyance, visual fatigue) and preference. The results indicate a limited, yet negative influence of increased ambient luminance and reduced contrast on visual performance and readability for both displays. Similarly, we found that the self-reported valence decreases and annoyance and visual fatigue increase as the contrast ratio decreases and ambient luminance increases. Overall, the impact is clearer for the matte display than for the glossy display.

  11. Elementary Public School Pupil Rating of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research on elementary school pupils' ratings of teacher effectiveness. Concludes adequate research exists to generalize that pupils can rate reliably, pupils may be no more vulnerable than others to rating leniency and halo, psychometric characteristics and factor structures of rating scales resemble those of college students,…

  12. Modulation of stimulus contrast on the human pupil orienting response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-An; Munoz, Douglas P

    2014-09-01

    The sudden appearance of a novel stimulus initiates a series of responses to orient the body for appropriate actions, including not only shifts of gaze and attention, but also transient pupil dilation. Modulation of pupil dynamics by stimulus properties is less understood, although its effects on other components of orienting have been extensively explored. Microstimulation of the superior colliculus evoked transient pupil dilation, and the initial component of pupil dilation evoked by microstimulation was similar to that elicited by the presentation of salient sensory stimuli, suggesting a coordinated role of the superior colliculus on this behavior, although evidence in humans is yet to be established. To examine pupil orienting responses in humans, we presented visual stimuli while participants fixated on a central visual spot. Transient pupil dilation in humans was elicited after presentation of a visual stimulus in the periphery. The evoked pupil responses were modulated systematically by stimulus contrast, with faster and larger pupil responses triggered by higher contrast stimuli. The pupil response onset latencies for high contrast stimuli were similar to those produced by the light reflex and significantly faster than the darkness reflex, suggesting that the initial component of pupil dilation is probably mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic pathway. The contrast modulation was pronounced under different levels of baseline pupil size. Together, our results demonstrate visual contrast modulation on the orienting pupil response in humans. PMID:24911340

  13. Academic Outcomes in School Classes with Markedly Disruptive Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the degree to which average academic outcomes in secondary school classes are associated with the inclusion of markedly disruptive pupils. Findings are based on two separate studies among pupils in Norwegian secondary schools. The first study included a relatively large sample of 2,332 pupils from…

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 17: Pupil Transportation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 17 of the 10-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on pupil transportation safety. The purpose and objectives of a pupil transportation safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pupil transportation and policies…

  15. Secondary Transition Experiences for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the views and experiences of key stakeholders regarding inclusion into secondary phase schooling for pupils with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs). Six Year 6 pupils met the criteria for admission to a mainstream secondary school with attached specialist provision for ASCs. Three pupils transferred to this school, whilst…

  16. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  17. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  18. Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

  19. On Pupils' Self-Confidence in Mathematics: Gender Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Anu; Hannula, Markku; Maijala, Hanna; Pehkonen, Erkki

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will concentrate on pupils' self-confidence in mathematics, which belongs to pupils' mathematical beliefs in themselves, and beliefs on achievement in mathematics. Research described consists of a survey of more than 3000 fifth-graders and seventh-graders. Furthermore, 40 pupils participated in a qualitative follow-up study…

  20. Adie's Tonic Pupil in Systemic Sclerosis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Anusha; Panda, Bijnya Birajita; Sirka, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare association of Adie's tonic pupil in a patient with systemic sclerosis who was otherwise systemically stable. This paper is an effort to unravel whether the tonic pupil and systemic sclerosis are an association by chance (which may be the case) or systemic sclerosis is the source of the tonic pupil. PMID:26421204

  1. What Makes an Exemplary Teacher of Science? The Pupils' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen; Mant, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires were completed by 5044 12-year-old pupils in Oxfordshire state schools and initially used to identify classes where the pupils were more positive and enthusiastic about their science lessons than the majority. The teachers of these classes were identified and the views of their pupils as to what happens in their science lessons…

  2. Pupils' Perspectives on the Lived Pedagogy of the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse; Hilppö, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a pedagogical action research initiative that explores what constitutes the "lived pedagogy" of the classroom from the pupils' perspective. Photography and group interviews were utilised to allow pupils to express their perspectives. The results show that pupils considered situations meaningful when they were able…

  3. Pupils and School History in France and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audigier, Francois; Fink, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes five studies, based on questionnaires and interviews with pupils in primary and lower secondary schools, in France and in Switzerland, over the past two decades. It explores the ways in which pupils' attitudes to history change during the transition between primary and secondary school, and investigates pupils' views about the…

  4. Researching the Pupil Voice: What Makes a Good Teaching Assistant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Ken; Sleightholme, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale research project concerning the views of pupils on what comprises a good teaching assistant (TA). The study indicates that pupils clearly valued the support given to them by TAs. The pupils outlined the main personal and professional characteristics they wanted to see in, as well as the kinds of support they…

  5. Learning Mathematics--Letting the Pupils Have Their Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Pupil voice is an emerging force for change and improvement in many UK schools, but what is not fully understood is how best to access pupil voice within the specific context of secondary mathematics departments. This paper presents a research project designed to use pupils as co-researchers in increasing knowledge about how to improve learning in…

  6. Guidelines For Pupil Services. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This guide offers articles giving advice and information about pupil services. It serves to blend theory and practice in reporting on promising practices in the pupil services disciplines in Wisconsin. Material and suggestions are adaptable elsewhere, and serve to stimulate professional activity in the pupil services field. Major articles focus on…

  7. Constructions of Racism by British Chinese Pupils and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Francis, Becky

    2005-01-01

    British Chinese pupils stand out as a high achieving group within the British education system and yet very little theoretical or policy attention has been given to these pupils' identities and experiences of education. In this paper we consider British Chinese pupils' (and parents') reports of their experiences of racism/s and their views on the…

  8. Relationship among Demographic Variables and Pupils' Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adeyinka; Tella, Adedeji; Adika, L. O.; Toyobo, Majekodunmi Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Pupils reasoning ability is a sine-qua-non to the evaluation of their performance in learning and an indicator of their potential predictors of future performance. Method: The study examined the relationship among demographic variables and reasoning ability of primary school pupils. It drew four hundred pupils from ten (10)…

  9. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  10. Teacher management behaviors and pupil task involvement during small group laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Warren

    A major concern of many beginning and experienced teachers is that of classroom management and control. This article describes recent research into defining classroom management procedures that are used by high school science teachers and their relationship to pupil ontaskness. The classroom is conceptualized as a manipulable behavioral system. This construct arises directly from Barker's (1968) ecological psychology, the classroom and its occupants being conceptualized as a behavior setting. The behaviors of the teacher and the pupils are an integral part of the unit (behavior setting), which in turn coerces certain behaviors from its participants. Thus settings, and, in particular, subsettings, are seen as more important determiners of social behavior than the personality of individual teacher or pupil. The methodology employed in this research has involved the extensive use of video in naturalistic science classrooms. Tapes of both teacher and pupil behaviors were continuously and independently recorded. Intensive analysis using electronic recording instruments interfaced with the computer has allowed the collection and sophisticated analysis of the observational data. Data relating to teacher management behavior in small group settings have been analyzed and the relationships to pupil task involvement have been explored.

  11. Including Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Pupils in a Mainstream Comprehensive: A Study of the Behaviour of Pupils and Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Jeremy; Woof, Catherine; Melling, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A group of twelve pupils from an emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) school were transferred to a mainstream comprehensive school. They were supported by a specialist teacher and two Educational Support Assistants. The behaviour of the pupils was monitored. The behaviour of the EBD pupils was found to be very similar to that of the other…

  12. Teachers on Perceived Traits and Academic Achievements of Regular Pupils and Pupils with Special Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesar, Irena; Cuk, Ivan; Pecek, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    When looking for answers to the question of academic (non)achievement of regular pupils and pupils with special needs, it is necessary to take into account the extraordinary complexity of factors, ranging from psychological across instructional to home environment variables. The academic achievement is not only a reflection of the pupil's…

  13. The Impact of the Teacher's Role and Pupils' Ethnicity and Prior Knowledge on Pupils' Performance and Motivation to Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oortwijn, Michiel; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul

    2008-01-01

    How can the teacher bring about effective cooperative learning (CL) in multiethnic elementary classrooms? To answer this question we hypothesized that when the teacher stimulates pupils' helping behaviour (experimental group), this increases pupils' performance and CL motivation more than when the teacher lets pupils fend for themselves (control…

  14. School and Pupil Effects on Secondary Pupils' Feelings of Safety in School, around School, and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2013-01-01

    In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical…

  15. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  16. Objective Lens Optimized for Wavefront Delivery, Pupil Imaging, and Pupil Ghosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olzcak, Gene

    2009-01-01

    An interferometer objective lens (or diverger) may be used to transform a collimated beam into a diverging or converging beam. This innovation provides an objective lens that has diffraction-limited optical performance that is optimized at two sets of conjugates: imaging to the objective focus and imaging to the pupil. The lens thus provides for simultaneous delivery of a high-quality beam and excellent pupil resolution properties.

  17. Experimental research of the pupil light reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanowska, Wioletta; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Hachol, Andrzej

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports the method of recording the Pupil Light Reflex with using a CCD linear sensor as a detector. The system allows to obtain a linear resolution 0,005 mm and a temporary resolution 11 ins. The principle of measuring method and example results of PLR study are presented.

  18. Pupil Consultation: The Importance of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedder, David; McIntyre, Donald

    2006-01-01

    We studied how teachers use ideas that pupils offer when they are consulted. Six teachers (two each in English, Maths and Science) and their Year 8 classes at three secondary schools were involved. In this paper we explore the importance of social capital for understanding the processes and dispositions that underpin classroom consultation.…

  19. Pupil Personnel Services: Material Review List Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Anthony

    This list of materials provides recommendations to counselors and guidance personnel for the purchase of materials for pupil personnel services programs in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DDDS). The listing, based on staff reviews in each of the six DDDS regions, is divided into 10 content areas: (1) assessment and evaluation; (2)…

  20. Creativity and Pupils' Experience of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullingford, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of interviews with children, this article links what we know about the way in which they learn with their views of creativity. Whilst pupils have a crisp view of the nature of creativity, which links them to well-established philosophical views, this contrasts both with the vaguer notions of the term and with their experience…

  1. Developing Pupils' Performance in Team Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including…

  2. Emerging Trends in Administering Pupil Personnel Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, John G.

    This paper discusses developments in pupil personnel services in Canadian schools. These services are defined as professional services, other than classroom instruction and school administration, that are offered by the school to help students attain their maximum personal development, and further, to facilitate the efforts of parents and teachers…

  3. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  4. Psychometric Aspects of Pupil Monitoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Geerlings, Hanneke

    2009-01-01

    Pupil monitoring systems support the teacher in tailoring teaching to the individual level of a student and in comparing the progress and results of teaching with national standards. The systems are based on the availability of an item bank calibrated using item response theory. The assessment of the students' progress and results can be further…

  5. Key Stage 3 Pupils' Views about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in literacy teaching have tended to target the needs of primary, rather than high school pupils and focus on technical, rather than affective aspects of reading. This paper describes a questionnaire-based study undertaken to identify perceptions and views held by Key Stage 3 readers of different ages, genders and abilities.…

  6. Secondary School Pupils Perceptions of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barmby, Patrick; Defty, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of data collected by Durham University's YELLIS project, over the period of 1999 to 2004. Included in this data was the degree to which pupils in England at the end of their secondary education "liked" or "disliked" different subjects, and their expected examination grades in these subjects. The authors' study…

  7. Diagnostics of Pupils' Attitude to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminli, Tovuz

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the pedagogical diagnostics, in particular, the diagnostics of pupils' attitude to education. It is considered reasonable to apply the practice of development of an individual pedagogical and psychological map for productive implementation of the pedagogical diagnostics and…

  8. Shared Reading, the Pupil, and the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Pupil/teacher interaction provides opportunities for many kinds of learning experiences. Within the reading curriculum, there are a plethora of activities in oral communication and working together harmoniously. Thus from every day experiences, the teacher may communicate verbally what he/she has read in an interesting, informative manner on the…

  9. Teachers' and Pupils' Definitions of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Paul; Cowie, Helen; Cossin, Fabienne; de Bettencourt, Rita; Lemme, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Background: Comparison of teachers' and pupils' definitions of bullying is important for considering the implications for reports of its incidence in schools, for the study of developmental trends in children's and adolescents' perceptions of the phenomenon and for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions designed to combat bullying. Aims: To…

  10. North Yorkshire Schools' Responses to Pupil Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John; McLennan, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This was a research project carried out in North Yorkshire schools by the loss and bereavement research group of the Educational Psychology Service. The background was an interest in how schools responded to bereaved pupils, whether they had a structured response, trained staff and training needs, from where they sought support and the level of…

  11. Grouping Pupils for Language Arts Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    A major task involved in teaching pupils is to group them wisely for instruction. Most elementary schools group learners in terms of a self-contained classroom. While it may seem extreme, all curriculum areas on each grade in the elementary school may be departmentalized. In some ways, departmentalization harmonizes more with a separate subjects…

  12. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  13. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  14. School Support for Lower Achieving Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study in four Scottish schools (with differing socio-economic and school-effectiveness ratings) of how lower achieving students experience schooling. Emphasis is on the available pupil-support systems: learning support, behavioral support, and guidance services. (DB)

  15. Exploring Pupils' Beliefs about Designers and Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebell, Donna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an investigation into pupil beliefs about designers and designing conducted as part of a research project focusing on Designerly Activity in Secondary Design and Technology which builds upon a pilot study (Barlex and Trebell in "Int J Technol Design Educ," 2007). Four research questions drove this element…

  16. Parents of Excluded Pupils: Customers, Partners, Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Gale; Pirrie, Anne; McCluskey, Gillean; Cullen, MairiAnn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data drawn from interviews with a range of service providers and with the parents of pupils permanently excluded from alternative provision in England. The findings are considered in the context of recent policy developments in the area of children and families. These include the neo-liberal framing of parents as customers…

  17. Innovative Solutions to Challenges in Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jonathan; Burkybile, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    States have had to budget increasing amounts for mandated pupil-transportation services as their state transportation aid has been slashed dramatically. Among school districts, cooperation and coordination through shared services (consortia) have resulted in safer, more reliable, and more efficient transportation. Implementation advice is…

  18. Pupils dilate for vocal or familiar music.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Previous research reveals that vocal melodies are remembered better than instrumental renditions. Here we explored the possibility that the voice, as a highly salient stimulus, elicits greater arousal than nonvocal stimuli, resulting in greater pupil dilation for vocal than for instrumental melodies. We also explored the possibility that pupil dilation indexes memory for melodies. We tracked pupil dilation during a single exposure to 24 unfamiliar folk melodies (half sung to la la, half piano) and during a subsequent recognition test in which the previously heard melodies were intermixed with 24 novel melodies (half sung, half piano) from the same corpus. Pupil dilation was greater for vocal melodies than for piano melodies in the exposure phase and in the test phase. It was also greater for previously heard melodies than for novel melodies. Our findings provide the first evidence that pupillometry can be used to measure recognition of stimuli that unfold over several seconds. They also provide the first evidence of enhanced arousal to vocal melodies during encoding and retrieval, thereby supporting the more general notion of the voice as a privileged signal. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123682

  19. Evolution of luminous IRAS galaxies: Radio imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent study of IRAS galaxies' optical morphologies, we found that luminous IR sources lie in the IR color-luminosity plane in groups which separate out by optical spectroscopic type and also by degree of tidal disturbance. We found that the most luminous steep-IR-spectrum sources are generally galaxies in the initial stages of a major tidal interaction. Galaxies with active nuclei were generally found to have flatter IR spectra, to cover a range of IR luminosity, and to be in the later stages of a tidal interaction. We proposed a sequence of events by which luminous IR sources evolve: they start as interacting or merging galaxies, some develop active nuclei, and most undergo extensive star-formation in their central regions. Another way to study these objects and their individual evolution is to study their radio morphologies. Radio emission may arise at a detectable level from supernovae in star-forming regions and/or the appearance of an active nucleus can be accompanied by a nuclear radio source (which may develop extended structure). Therefore, the compact radio structure may trace the evolution of the inner regions of IRAS-luminous sources. If the radio sources are triggered by the interactions, we would expect to find the radio morphology related to the optical 'interactivity' of the systems. Here, we explore using the radio emission of IRAS galaxies as a possible tracer of galaxy evolution. We present and discuss observations of the compact radio morphology of 111 luminous IRAS-selected active galaxies covering a wide range of IR and optical properties.

  20. Engineering near-field focusing of a microsphere lens with pupil masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Yue, Liyang; Wang, Zengbo

    2016-07-01

    Recent researches have shown small dielectric microspheres can perform as super-resolution lens to break optical diffraction limit for super-resolution applications. In this paper, we show for the first time that by combining a microsphere lens with a pupil mask, it is possible to precisely control the focusing properties of the lens, including the focusing spot size and focal length. Generally, the pupil mask can significantly reduce the spot size which means an improved resolution. The work is important for advancing microsphere-based super-resolution technologies, including fabrication and imaging.

  1. Hybrid super-resolving pupils with smooth profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá Ochoa, Noé; Landgrave, J. E. A.; Hermosillo, Y.; García-Márquez, J.; González-Vega, A.

    2011-08-01

    One form of achieving super-resolution consists in reducing the size of the Point Spread Function (PSF) of a diffraction-limited optical system. For this end, good results have been obtained by means of pupils with discontinuous profiles. When devices such as deformable mirrors are used to generate such pupils, however, these cannot be accurately reproduced. To overcome this limitation, we developed a method based on a Bessel series expansion to design pupils with smooth profiles, and found that, properly designed, pupils with continuous profiles will perform equally well, and in some respects better, than pupils with discontinuous ones.

  2. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.

    1973-01-01

    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  3. Combined conjugate and pupil adaptive optics in widefield microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Devin R.

    Traditionally, adaptive optics (AO) systems for microscopy have focused on AO at the pupil plane, however this produces poor performance in samples with both spatially-variant aberrations, such as non-flat sample interfaces, and spatially-invariant aberrations, such as spherical aberration due to a difference between the sample index of refraction and the sample for which the objective was designed. Here, we demonstrate well-corrected, wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopy by simultaneously correcting the two types of aberrations using two AO loops. Such an approach is necessary in wide-field applications where both types of aberration may be present, as each AO loop can only fully correct one type of aberration. Wide FOV corrections are demonstrated in a trans-illumination microscope equipped with two deformable mirrors (DMs), using a partitioned aperture wavefront (PAW) sensor to directly control the DM conjugated to the sample interface and a sensor-less genetic algorithm to control the DM conjugated to the objective's pupil.

  4. The Educational Achievement of Pupils with Immigrant and Native Mothers: Evidence from Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Eric S.; Lu, Yu-Lung

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of the Taiwan Assessment of Student Achievement data set to empirically evaluate whether the test score differentials between pupils with immigrant and native mothers are substantial across subjects, grades and years. Our results show that there exist test score differentials between the two groups after controlling for…

  5. The Impact of Drama on Pupils' Language, Mathematics, and Attitude in Two Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Mike; Merrell, Christine; Tymms, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on research which examined the impact of The National Theatre's Transformation drama project on young pupils' reading, mathematics, attitude, self-concept and creative writing in primary schools. Two of the schools taking part in Transformation were matched to two Control schools in the first two years of the project.…

  6. Pupil phase apodization for achromatic imaging of extra- solar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weidong

    2004-09-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in the visible and infrared region has generated great interest among scientists and the general public as well. However, this is a challenging problem. Difficulties of detecting a planet (faint source) are caused, mostly, by two factors: sidelobes caused by starlight diffraction from the edge of the pupil and the randomly scattered starlight caused by the phase errors from the imperfections in the optical system. While the latter difficulty can be corrected by high density active deformable mirrors with advanced phase sensing and control technology, the optimized strategy for suppressing the diffraction sidelobes is still an open question. In this thesis, I present a new approach to the sidelobe reduction problem: pupil phase apodization. It is based on a discovery that an anti-symmetric spatial phase modulation pattern imposed over a pupil or a relay plane causes diffracted starlight suppression sufficient for imaging of extra-solar planets. Numerical simulations with specific square pupil (side D) phase functions, such as f(x,y)=a[ln ((1+3)+ 2x/D)/((1+3)-2x/D) . ((1+3)+2y/D)/((1+3)-2y/D)] demonstrate annulling in at least one quadrant of the diffraction plane to the contrast level of better than 10-12 with an inner working angle down to 3.5λ/D (with a = 3 and 3 = 10-3). Furthermore, our computer experiments show that phase apodization remains effective throughout a broad spectrum (60% of the central wavelength) covering the entire visible light range. In addition to the specific phase functions that can yield deep sidelobe reduction on one quadrant; we also found that a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm can help to find small sized (101 x 101 element) discrete phase functions if regional sidelobe reduction is desired. Our simulation shows that a 101 x 101 segmented but gapless active mirror can also generate a dark region with Inner Working Distance about 2.8λ/D in one quadrant. Phase-only modulation has the additional

  7. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and

  8. Genomic Profiling in Luminal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gluz, Oleg; Hofmann, Daniel; Würstlein, Rachel; Liedtke, Cornelia; Nitz, Ulrike; Harbeck, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Summary The developments in gene expression analysis have made it possible to sub-classify hormone receptor-positive (luminal) breast cancer in different prognostic subgroups. This sub-classification is currently used in clinical routine as prognostic signature (e.g. 21-gene Onoctype DX®, 70-gene Mammaprint®). As yet, the optimal method for sub-classification has not been defined. Moreover, there is no evidence from prospective trials. This review explores widely used genomic signatures in luminal breast cancer, making a critical appraisal of evidence from retrospective/prospective trials. It is based on systematic literature search performed using Medline (accessed September 2013) and abstracts presented at the Annual Meeting of American Society of Clinical Oncology and San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. PMID:24550749

  9. Achromatic Emission Velocity Measurements in Luminous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. J.; Fulghum, S. F.; Rostler, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new velocity measurement instrument for luminous flows was developed by Science Research Laboratory for NASA. The SIEVE (Segmented Image Emission VElocimeter) instrument uses broadband light emitted by the flow for the velocity measurement. This differs from other velocimetry techniques in that it does not depend on laser illumination and/or light scattering from particles in the flow. The SIEVE is a passive, non-intrusive diagnostic. By moving and adjusting the imaging optics, the SIEVE can provide three-dimensional mapping of a flow field and determine turbulence scale size. A SIEVE instrument was demonstrated on an illuminated rotating disk to evaluate instrument response and noise and on an oxy-acetylene torch to measure flame velocities. The luminous flow in rocket combustors and plumes is an ideal subject for the SIEVE velocity measurement technique.

  10. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Lukash, V. S.; Stepanov, S. A.; Yangyang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  11. Orbital masses of nearby luminous galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kudrya, Yuri N. E-mail: yukudrya@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    We use observational properties of galaxies accumulated in the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog to derive a dark matter mass of luminous galaxies via motions of their companions. The data on orbital-to-stellar mass ratio are presented for 15 luminous galaxies situated within 11 Mpc from us: the Milky Way, M31, M81, NGC 5128, IC342, NGC 253, NGC 4736, NGC 5236, NGC 6946, M101, NGC 4258, NGC 4594, NGC 3115, NGC 3627, and NGC 3368, as well as for a composite suite around other nearby galaxies of moderate and low luminosity. The typical ratio for these galaxies is M {sub orb}/M {sub *} = 31, corresponding to the mean local density of matter Ω {sub m} = 0.09, i.e., one-third of the global cosmic density. This quantity seems to be rather an upper limit of dark matter density, since the peripheric population of the suites may suffer from the presence of fictitious unbound members. We note that the Milky Way and M31 halos have lower dimensions and lower stellar masses than those of the other 13 nearby luminous galaxies. However, the dark-to-stellar mass ratio for both the Milky Way and M31 is typical for other neighboring luminous galaxies. The distortion in the Hubble flow, observed around the Local Group and five other neighboring groups, yields their total masses within the radius of a zero velocity surface, R {sub 0}; these masses are slightly lower than the orbital and virial values. This difference may be due to the effect of dark energy producing a kind of 'mass defect' within R {sub 0}.

  12. Luminal Conversion and Immunoregulation by Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Bhanu Priya; Versalovic, James

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes are responsible for the synthesis of nutrients and metabolites that are likely important for the maintenance of mammalian health. Many nutrients and metabolites derived from the gut microbiota by luminal conversion have been implicated in the development, homeostasis and function of innate and adaptive immunity. These factors clearly suggest that intestinal microbiota may influence host immunity via microbial metabolite-dependent mechanisms. We describe how intestinal microbes including probiotics generate microbial metabolites that modulate mucosal and systemic immunity. PMID:26617521

  13. Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armus, Lee

    2014-01-01

    A major result of the IRAS survey was the discovery of a large population of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which emit a significant fraction of their bolometric luminosity in the far-infrared. LIRGs cover the full range of morphologies from isolated disk galaxies, to advanced mergers, exhibiting enhanced star-formation rates and a higher fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) compared to less luminous galaxies. A detailed study of low-redshift LIRGs is critical for our understanding of the cosmic evolution of galaxies and black holes, since LIRGs comprise the bulk of the cosmic far-infrared background and dominate the star-formation between 0.5 < z < 1. With ISO, it was possible to measure the full suite of infrared diagnostic lines in local normal and luminous infrared galaxies for the first time, but samples were small and observations challenging. With Herschel, we have been able to study large samples of low-redshift LIRGs, and even probe the physical conditions in poweful starburst galaxies out to significant redshifts. By combining the Herschel data with those from Spitzer, it is now possible to understand the heating and cooling of the dust and gas in complete samples of LIRGs for the first time. I will review recent results from a number of GTO, OTKP and GO programs in an attempt to summarize the advances we have made in understanding star formation and black hole accretion in LIRGs as a direct result of the Herschel mission.

  14. Pulsations and outbursts of luminous blue variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Guzik, J.A.; Soukup, M.S.; Despain, K.M.

    1997-06-01

    We propose an outburst mechanism for the most luminous stars in our and other galaxies. These million solar luminosity stars, with masses (after earlier mass loss) of between 20 and maybe 70 solar masses, are pulsationally unstable for both radial and low-degree nonradial modes. Some of these modes are ``strange,`` meaning mostly that the pulsations are concentrated near the stellar surface and have very rapid growth rates in linear theory. The pulsation driving is by both the high iron line opacity (near 150,000 K) and the helium opacity (near 30,000 K) kappa effects. Periods range from 5 to 40 days. Depending on the composition, pulsations periodically produce luminosities above the Eddington limit for deep layers. The radiative luminosity creates an outward push that readily eases the very low gamma envelope to very large outburst radii. A key point is that a super-Eddington luminosity cannot be taken up by the sluggish convection rapidly enough to prevent an outward acceleration of much of the envelope. As the helium abundance in the envelope stellar material increases by ordinary wind mass loss and the luminous blue variable outbursts, the opacity in the deep pulsation driving layers decreases. This makes the current Eddington luminosity even higher so that pulsations can then no longer give radiative luminosities exceeding the limit. For the lower mass and luminosity luminous blue variables there is considerably less iron line opacity driving, and pulsations are almost all caused by the helium ionization kappa effect.

  15. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration

    PubMed Central

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour. PMID:27493767

  16. Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration.

    PubMed

    Binetti, Nicola; Harrison, Charlotte; Coutrot, Antoine; Johnston, Alan; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact. Surprisingly, we find that preferred period of gaze duration is not dependent on fundamental characteristics such as gender, personality traits or attractiveness. However, we do find that subtle pupillary changes, indicative of physiological arousal, correlate with the amount of eye contact people find comfortable. Specifically, people preferring longer durations of eye contact display faster increases in pupil size when viewing another person than those preferring shorter durations. These results reveal that a person's preferred duration of eye contact is signalled by physiological indices (pupil dilation) beyond volitional control that may play a modulatory role in gaze behaviour. PMID:27493767

  17. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  18. Automated pupil remapping with binary optics

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Mansell, Justin

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for pupil remapping employing non-standard lenslet shapes in arrays; divergence of lenslet focal spots from on-axis arrangements; use of lenslet arrays to resize two-dimensional inputs to the array; and use of lenslet arrays to map an aperture shape to a different detector shape. Applications include wavefront sensing, astronomical applications, optical interconnects, keylocks, and other binary optics and diffractive optics applications.

  19. Automated pupil remapping with binary optics

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Mansell, J.

    1999-01-26

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for pupil remapping employing non-standard lenslet shapes in arrays; divergence of lenslet focal spots from on-axis arrangements; use of lenslet arrays to resize two-dimensional inputs to the array; and use of lenslet arrays to map an aperture shape to a different detector shape. Applications include wavefront sensing, astronomical applications, optical interconnects, keylocks, and other binary optics and diffractive optics applications. 24 figs.

  20. Pupils' Perceptions of Safety at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Helen; Oztug, Ozhan

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article was carried out in four secondary schools, two with a peer support system (PS) and two without (NPS) and involved a total of 931 pupils, (49.5 per cent males, and 50.5 per cent females). Participants were aged between 11 and 15 years of age, mean age 12.8 years. The aim was to compare the perceptions of safety…

  1. Armenian Pupils in the International Olympiads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulzadyan, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    A review of the state of school astronomical clubs and participation of Armenian pupils in the international astronomical Olympiads is given. Two international astronomical Olympiads are described: International Astronomical Olympiad (IAO) and International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA). The formation of astronomical clubs at some schools and efforts of the teachers lead to a number of achievements, including many gold, silver and bronze medals at international astronomical Olympiads, where the Armenian team is among the most successfull teams.

  2. Social Class and Race as Concomitants of Composite Halo in Teachers' Evaluation Rating of Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freijo, Tom D.; Jaeger, Richard M.

    1976-01-01

    Using teachers' ratings of more than 8,000 fourth grade pupils on 21 related behavior changes, it was found that teachers' ratings of high socioeconomic status (SES) pupils exhibited less composite halo than teachers' ratings of low SES pupils, and the SES of pupils had a greater effect on composite halo in ratings than the race of pupil or…

  3. Microstructure optimization of the composite phase ceramic phosphor for white LEDs with excellent luminous efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan Ru; Zhou, Sheng Ming; Yi, Xue Zhuan; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Hao, De Ming

    2015-12-01

    The two-phase MgAl2O4-Ce:YAG ceramic phosphor was fabricated by the solid-state reaction in vacuum, and it presented a better luminous efficacy than the single-phase transparent ceramic phosphor when directly combined with the blue light-emitting diodes. The addition of MgAl2O4 implemented the control of the grain sizes and the variation of microstructure, and the microstructure optimization further improved the luminous efficacy of the composite phase ceramic phosphor. A maximum luminous efficacy attaining 99 lm/W at the correlated color temperature 5000 K was obtained. The composite phase ceramic phosphor is expected to be a promising candidate for use in the high-power light source. PMID:26625030

  4. Pupil Diameter Changes in High Myopes after Collamer Lens Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Yang, Yabo; Su, Caipei; Yin, Houfa; Liu, Xue

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To observe the changes in pupil size under photopic and scotopic conditions after Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) implantations in eyes with high myopia. Methods The ICL was implanted in 90 eyes belonging to 45 patients with high myopia. Photopic pupil diameters, scotopic pupil diameters, anterior chamber depths, and ICL vaults were examined at the preoperative, postoperative 1-month, and postoperative 3-month stages. The preoperative and postoperative photopic pupil diameters and scotopic pupil diameters were also compared with each other to note the differences between them. The correlations between preoperative and postoperative pupil diameter changes under different light conditions and presurgical refractive error were analyzed alongside patient’s age and ICL vault. Results Pupil diameters at both postoperative 1-month and postoperative 3-month stages were smaller than those before operation in distinct light environments, as well as pupil constriction amplitude. Correlation analysis showed that there was a statistically significant correlation between pupil diameter changes under different light conditions and presurgical refractive error at 1 month and 3 months after ICL implantation; pupil diameter decreased more when presurgical refractive error powers were less myopic. Statistically significant correlations were not found, however, with patient’s age and ICL vault. Postoperative 1-month and mean postoperative 3-month anterior chamber depths were decreased when compared with preoperative anterior chamber depths. Statistically significant correlations were found in change in preoperative and postoperative anterior chamber depth and ICL vault. No statistically significant difference was found between ICL vault at the postoperative 1-month and postoperative 3-month stages. Conclusions Pupil diameter may decrease at the 1- and 3-month stages after ICL implantation under both photopic and scotopic conditions. This indicates that reduction

  5. Spanish-Speaking Pupils Classified as Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, John T.; Plakos, John

    A total of 47 pupils enrolled in grades 3-8 was selected for this study. Of these pupils, 17 were from a rural area and 30 were from an urban area. The pupils selected had to (1) be of Mexican descent, (2) be currently enrolled in educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes, and (3) have evidenced a problem in using the English language due to their…

  6. Relative Roles of Luminance and Fixation in Inducing Dissociated Vertical Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Ghadban, Rafif; Liebermann, Laura; Klaehn, Lindsay D.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Brodsky, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the roles of luminance and fixation in the pathophysiology of dissociated vertical divergence (DVD). Methods. Vertical eye position was measured in 6 subjects with DVD (ages 11–47 years, 5 females) and 6 controls (ages 16–40 years, 5 females) using video-oculography (VOG) under conditions of change in fixation and luminance. Results. Subjects with DVD showed the following VOG responses. When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter and bright light was shone into one eye to produce a marked binocular luminance disparity, we found some subjects had a small induced vertical divergence causing the illuminated eye to be lower than the nonilluminated eye (mean −1.6° ± 1.5°, P = 0.06 compared to no vertical divergence using the signed rank test). When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter, while alternate occlusion produced a mild binocular luminance disparity, we found a smaller vertical divergence of the eyes that was not statistically significant (1.2° ± 2.1°, P = 0.3). When alternate occlusion produced reversal of monocular fixation in the dark (with essentially no change in peripheral luminance disparity), there was a significant vertical divergence movement causing the covered eye to be relatively higher than the uncovered eye (7.2° ± 3.1°, P = 0.03). The amplitude of this vertical divergence was similar to that measured under conditions of alternate occlusion in a lighted room (where there also was a significant average relative upward movement of the covered eye of 8.1° ± 2.9°, P = 0.03). Control subjects showed no vertical divergence under any testing conditions. Conclusions. Dissociated vertical divergence is mediated primarily by changes in fixation and only to a minor degree by binocular luminance disparity. PMID:25537206

  7. Luminal B breast cancer subtype displays a dicotomic epigenetic pattern.

    PubMed

    Bediaga, Naiara G; Beristain, Elena; Calvo, Borja; Viguri, María A; Gutierrez-Corres, Borja; Rezola, Ricardo; Ruiz-Diaz, Irune; Guerra, Isabel; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-01-01

    Luminal B breast tumors have aggressive clinical and biological features, and constitute the most heterogeneous molecular subtype, both clinically and molecularly. Unfortunately, the immunohistochemistry correlate of the luminal B subtype remains still imprecise, and it has now become of paramount importance to define a classification scheme capable of segregating luminal tumors into clinically meaningful subgroups that may be used clinically to guide patient management. With the aim of unraveling the DNA methylation profiles of the luminal subtypes currently being most used in the clinical setting, we have quantified the DNA methylation level of 27,578 CpG sites in 17 luminal B (ER+, Ki67 ≥ 20 % or PgR < 20 % and HER2-), 8 luminal A (ER+ and Ki67 > 20 %) and 4 luminal B-HER2+ (ER+ and HER2+) breast cancer samples by using the Illumina Infinium methylation microarray approach. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed that DNA methylation stratifies luminal B samples in two categories with differing epigenetic and clinical features. One subgroup of luminal B samples showed a methylator phenotype and clustered with the lumB-HER tumors, while the other showed less methylated events, clustered with the luminal A. A 3 CpG marker panel capable of discriminating methylator versus non-methylator luminal B samples was identified and further validated in an independent cohort of patients. Our results provide evidence that DNA methylation and, more specifically, a panel of 3 CpG markers, enables the stratification of luminal B samples in two categories with differing epigenetic and clinical features and support the utilization of this panel for therapeutic stratification of patients with luminal breast cancer. PMID:27330889

  8. Should we Teach Primary Pupils about Chemical Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, George; Grammaticopoulou, Maria; Johnson, Phil Michael

    2010-08-01

    Thirty-six pupils from three sixth-grade classes (ages 11/12, n = 75) in Greece were interviewed pre- and post-intervention in a piece of research on explanations of chemical phenomena. Software concerning chemical phenomena was incorporated in a teaching scheme, where the particle theory was used. After a 13 hour intervention, pupils' explanations were categorized in five discrete categories. Only a few pupils could give satisfactory explanations, involving the integration of particle ideas at the level of atoms. The idea of chemical change seemed to be very difficult for the majority of pupils. Implications for the teaching of chemical phenomena at young ages are discussed.

  9. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil. PMID:25891121

  10. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Stawarz, Lukasz; Moderski, Rafal; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy ({gamma}-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of {gamma}-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and {gamma}-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  11. Nonlinear Pulsation Modeling of Luminous Blue Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Despain, Kate M.; Guzik, Joyce A.; Cox, Arthur N.

    1997-12-31

    Using an updated version of the Ostlie and Cox (1993) nonlinear hydrodynamics code, we show the results of Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) envelope models based on evolution models of initial mass 50-80 M solar. including mass loss. The models use OPAL opacities, contain 60-120 Lagrangian zones, include time dependent convection, and are given an initial photospheric radial velocity amplitude of 1 km/sec. Our goal is to explain the reason for the LBV instability strip and suggest a cause for LBV outbursts observed in massive stars in our Galaxy as well as the LMC and SMC.

  12. Luminous variables in the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.; Matsumoto, S.; Carter, B. S.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1999-03-01

    We report observations of variability amongst the stars of the `Quintuplet' cluster located about 30 pc in projection from the centre of the Galaxy. Two of the five cocoon star members, which may be protostars or peculiar Wolf-Rayet stars, are seen to vary slowly with moderate amplitude (0.4-0.5 mag). The bright star within the `Pistol' H ii region, suspected of being a luminous blue variable (LBV), has in fact been found to show variability, confirming its tentative classification. A second nearby presumed LBV also varies. One of the apparent Quintuplet members is likely to be a Mira variable along the same line of sight.

  13. Peripheral visual response time and retinal luminance-area relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to elucidate the stimulus luminance-retinal area relationship that underlies response time (RT) behavior. Mean RT was significantly faster to stimuli imaged beyond about 70 deg of arc from the fovea when their luminance was increased by an amount equal to the foveal stimulus luminance multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the peripheral stimuli and the line of sight. This and additional data are discussed in relation to previous psychophysical data and to possible response mechanisms.

  14. Pupil Participation and Pupil Perspective: "Carving a New Order of Experience."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Flutter, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Explores four observations of student participation and perspective: (1) pupils are not seen as consumers that can be consulted; (2) focus on student experiences and opinions in school improvement efforts; (3) students talk about forms of teaching/learning; and (4) more can be done to help students talk about learning. (CMK)

  15. Training Teachers to Support Pupils' Listening in Class: An Evaluation Using Pupil Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosskey, Liz; Vance, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    Many children with speech, language and communication needs are educated in mainstream schools. Current policy and practice includes training for school staff in facilitating the development of speaking and listening skills. This study evaluates one such training package that focuses on supporting pupils' listening skills, delivered in a…

  16. Teacher--Pupil Dialogue with Pupils with Special Educational Needs in the National Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Smith, Fay; Wall, Kate

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the interactive and discourse styles of a nationally representative sample of primary teachers (n =70) as they work with pupils who experience difficulties in literacy development during whole class and groupbased sections of the literacy hour. Using a computerized observation schedule and discourse…

  17. Entry pupil processing approaches for exo-planet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, David C.

    2005-08-01

    In contrast to standard Michelson interferometry, the idea of entry pupil processing is to somehow convert light gathered at each telescope (of a multi-spacecraft array) into data, then process the data from several telescopes to compute the mutual coherence values needed for image reconstruction. Some advantages are that weak beams of collected light do not have to be propagated to combiners, extreme precision relative path length control among widely separated spacecraft is unnecessary, losses from beam splitting are eliminated, etc. This paper reports our study of several entry pupil processing approaches, including direct electric field reconstruction, optical heterodyne systems and intensity correlation interferometry using the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect. For all these cases and for amplitude interferometry, we present image plane signal-to-noise (SNR) results for exo-planet imaging, both in the case of planet emissions and for imaging the limb of planets executing a transit across their stars. We particularly consider terrestrial-class planets at a range of 15 pc or less. Using the SNR and related models, we assess the relative advantages and drawbacks of all methods with respect to necessary aperture sizes, imager sensitivity, performance trends with increasing number of measurement baselines, relative performance in visible and in IR, relative positioning and path length control requirements and metrology requirements. The resulting comparisons present a picture of the performance and complexity tradeoffs among several imaging system architectures. The positive conclusion of this work is that, thanks to advances in optoelectronics and signal processing, there exist a number of promising system design alternatives for exo- planet imaging.

  18. Luminous Stars in Galaxies Beyond 3 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, B. C.; Wfc3 Science Oversight Committee

    2011-06-01

    I am mainly interested in the formation and destruction of young star clusters in nearby star forming galaxies such as the Antennae, M83, and M51. One of the first analysis steps is to throw out all those pesky stars that keep contaminating my young cluster samples. Recently, spurred on by our new Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science data of galaxies including M83, NGC 4214, M82, NGC 2841, and Cen A, we began taking a closer look at the stellar component. Questions we are addressing are: 1) what are the most luminous stars, 2) how can we use them to help study the destruction of star clusters and the population of the field, 3) what fraction of stars, at least the bright stars, are formed in the field, in associations, and in compact clusters. In this contribution we describe some of the beginning steps in this process. More specifically, we describe how we separate stars from clusters in our galaxies, and describe how candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and "Single Star" HII (SSHII) regions have been identified.

  19. The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Griffith, Roger; Yan, Lin; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Blain, Andrew; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Donoso, Emilio; Lake, Sean

    2012-08-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous. The objects are prominent in W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2 (W12drops). Followup spectroscopy shows that most of the sources have redshifts z>2. In combination with Herschel photometry, these redshifts lead to typical L_bol > 10^13 L_⊙, with ~10% exceeding 10^14 L_⊙. High resolution adaptive optics imaging shows these objects are typically unlensed. We request NOAO time to obtain redshifts and optical and near IR photometry of the complete all-sky sample of the brightest W12drops, all of which are in our Herschel program. This will fulfill the primary WISE objective of finding the most extreme luminous IR galaxies in the Universe. These superlative objects will be the most fruitful for detailed studies of the physics of star formation, AGN fueling, and feedback in the most active galaxies.

  20. Night vision goggle luminance disparity and the Pulfrich phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, Harry L.

    2004-09-01

    When night vision goggle (NVG) image intensifier tubes (I2Ts) are replaced during maintenance, the output luminances of the two channels must not exceed a ratio of 1.5 (brighter channel luminance divided by the dimmer channel luminance) in order to meet the current allowed binocular luminance disparity specification. Two studies were performed to investigate the validity of this requirement. The first study estimated thresholds of binocular luminance disparity detection for observers looking through NVGs. For eight observers, the 25% corrected-for-chance probability of detecting an ocular luminance difference, yielded an average ratio of 1.43 indicating that the current 1.5 specification is perhaps too loose. The second study investigated the Pulfrich phenomenon, a pseudo-stereo effect that can be induced by presenting luminance imbalances to the eyes. This study created NVG luminance imbalances using neutral density (ND) filters and then investigated whether or not the various imbalance levels were sufficient to cause the Pulfrich phenomenon to be perceived. Results indicated an imbalance ratio of 1.10 was insufficient to cause the effect to be seen, but a ratio of 1.26 was sufficient (p <= 0.0003) for the effect to be seen, at least part of the time. Based on these results, it is apparent the allowed binocular luminance disparity ratio should probably be tightened to at least 1.3 with a goal of 1.2.

  1. Luminance-model-based DCT quantization for color image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to approximate visibility thresholds for discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient quantization error based on the peak-to-peak luminance of the error image. Experimentally measured visibility thresholds for R, G, and B DCT basis functions can be predicted by a simple luminance-based detection model. This model allows DCT coefficient quantization matrices to be designed for display conditions other than those of the experimental measurements: other display luminances, other veiling luminances, and other spatial frequencies (different pixel spacings, viewing distances, and aspect ratios).

  2. Partitioning contrast or luminance disparity into perceived intensity and rotation.

    PubMed

    Hetley, Richard S; Stine, Wm Wren

    2011-01-01

    While most of the work on stereopsis focuses on geometric disparities, humans also respond to intensity (contrast or luminance) disparities in the absence of geometric disparities. A rectangular-wave grating viewed with an intensity disparity engenders two perceptions: a perceived intensity, and a perceived rotation of the individual bars of the grating (the Venetian blind effect). Measuring perceived intensity and perceived rotation in gratings with intensity disparities, we found that the two degrees of freedom from the intensities presented to each eye are conserved in the form of two perceptions: perceived intensity is related to the sum of the grating intensities and perceived rotation is related to the difference. Perceived rotation as a function of intensity disparity was then modeled as a simple difference in the neural response of each eye. Perceived contrast and brightness as a function of intensity disparity were modeled using the two-stage gain-control model. PMID:21864458

  3. Impact of Regular Soap Provision to Primary Schools on Hand Washing and E. coli Hand Contamination among Pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E.; Moe, Christine L.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Caruso, Bethany A.; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS. PMID:23939707

  4. Impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E; Moe, Christine L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS. PMID:23939707

  5. Eliciting Pupil Perspectives in Primary Mathematics: Possibilities and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Barber, Patti

    2014-01-01

    This article considers various approaches to consulting primary pupils about mathematics. This is done first through a literature review and second by drawing on our experience of designing and piloting pupil consultation in collaboration with staff in one primary school. Our concern is with the utility and drawbacks of the methods used rather…

  6. Pupil segmentation using active contour with shape prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukpai, Charles O.; Dlay, Satnam S.; Woo, Wai L.

    2015-03-01

    Iris segmentation is the process of defining the valid part of the eye image used for further processing (feature extraction, matching and decision making). Segmentation of the iris mostly starts with pupil boundary segmentation. Most pupil segmentation techniques are based on the assumption that the pupil is circular shape. In this paper, we propose a new pupil segmentation technique which combines shape, location and spatial information for accurate and efficient segmentation of the pupil. Initially, the pupil's position and radius is estimated using a statistical approach and circular Hough transform. In order to segment the irregular boundary of the pupil, an active contour model is initialized close to the estimated boundary using information from the first step and segmentation is achieved using energy minimization based active contour. Pre-processing and post-processing were carried out to remove noise and occlusions respectively. Experimental results on CASIA V1.0 and 4.0 shows that the proposed method is highly effective at segmenting irregular boundaries of the pupil.

  7. Pupil Mobility in Schools and Implications for Raising Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin; Taplin, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the causes of pupil mobility and good practice in schools to address mobility issues. Pupil mobility is defined as 'a child joining or leaving school at a point other than the normal age at which children start or finish their education at that school'. The first part draws upon evidence of a survey, which explores the views of…

  8. Identification of Physically Underdeveloped Pupils: Activities to Improve Their Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Screening tests consisting of observation procedures and simple physical exercises requiring only a chinning bar, stopwatch, and record forms are suggested for identifying pupils aged ten to seventeen who are underdeveloped in strength, flexibility, agility, or cardiorespiratory endurance. Classes should be divided into pairs with one pupil acting…

  9. The Importance of Engaging Pupils Actively in Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomela, Liisa; Juuti, Kalle; Ahtee, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating is a traditional method in teaching science that can raise interest and encourage pupils to think about a topic. While demonstrating, the teacher can focus the pupils' attention on the relevant facts and introduce scientific principles and concepts. Through discussion and actively making observations and inferences, rather than…

  10. Arizona Pupil Achievement Testing Statewide Report, June 1988 [and] Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    1988 is the eighth year of the Arizona Pupil Achievement Testing Program which is administered to fulfill the requirements of Arizona Revised Statutes Section 15-741 through Section 15-744. This legislation mandates that a nationally standardized norm-referenced achievement test be administered during April to all pupils enrolled in Arizona public…

  11. Utilizing a Graphic Organizer for Promoting Pupils' Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Fu-Pei; Lee, Sung-Tao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was utilizing a GO (graphic organizer) for promoting pupils' argumentation. The method of case study was employed. A total of eight fifth grade pupils from two classes were assigned (n = 4, two high achievers, two low achievers) with GOI (graphic organizer instruction), and the others (n = 4, 2 high achievers, 2 low…

  12. OHIO'S SYSTEM OF REGIONAL COORDINATORS FOR PUPIL TRANSPORTATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PARSONS, JOHN M.

    PRIOR TO 1965, A SCHOOL DISTRICT IN THE STATE OF OHIO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF THOSE PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS LIVING WITHIN ITS OWN BOUNDARIES. NEW LEGISLATION THAT YEAR LEGALIZED THE SPENDING OF TAX MONIES FOR TRANSPORTING PUPILS ATTENDING NONPUBLIC SCHOOLS, AND SERVED AS A MANDATE FOR ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, REQUIRING THE…

  13. Teachers and Tests: Assessing Pupils' Reading Achievement in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…

  14. Pupil Resilience in the Classroom: A Teacher's Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of a teacher's framework to identify a number of primary school classes in Malta characterized by high levels of pupil resilience, namely socio-emotional competence and educational engagement. The article starts by defining resilience as a proactive, contextual and relational phenomenon concerning all pupils,…

  15. Knowledge of Secondary School Pupils regarding Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of secondary school pupils in order to ascertain whether the current government public health and education policies are having any impact on pupils' sexual health. Design: Results obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study. Setting: Nineteen mixed-sex, state secondary…

  16. Learning: What Do Primary Pupils Think about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Taskin, Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The author aimed to explore primary pupils' perceptions of learning and to what extent they perceive learning is important to them. Fifty-five primary school pupils in Istanbul and Canakkale (Turkey) were interviewed. To analyze the data, A. Strauss and J. Corbin's (1998) grounded theory methodology was followed. NVivo 7 (QSR, Australia) a…

  17. Guidelines for Pupil Services. Volume 17, Number 2, Fall 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J., Ed.

    This bulletin, published three times annually, reports on promising practices in the pupil services disciplines serving Wisconsin youth, and stimulates professional activity in the pupil service field. This issue includes articles dealing with: (1) a teacher education program in communication skills; (2) a guide to counseling mentally handicapped…

  18. Education for Highly Gifted Pupils. Report of the Work Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasbroek, J. B., Ed.

    This report elucidates problem areas in the education of gifted pupils in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), places the problems in perspective with respect to actual educational provision, and offers guidelines for further research on developing gifted education. Chapter titles are as follows: "Survey of Educational Planning for Gifted Pupils in…

  19. Perspective reports of corporal punishment by pupils in Lesotho schools.

    PubMed

    Monyooe, L A

    1993-10-01

    This study surveyed reports of practices of corporal punishment at secondary schools in Lesotho by 60 randomly selected pupils. There were 34 males and 26 females, whose mean age was 21 years, with a range between 14 and 29 years. Responses to a questionnaire confirmed that punishment was associated with pupils' reports of academic impairment, psychological damage, and physical injury. PMID:8234604

  20. Should We Teach Primary Pupils about Chemical Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, George; Grammaticopoulou, Maria; Johnson, Phil Michael

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six pupils from three sixth-grade classes (ages 11/12, n = 75) in Greece were interviewed pre- and post-intervention in a piece of research on explanations of chemical phenomena. Software concerning chemical phenomena was incorporated in a teaching scheme, where the particle theory was used. After a 13 hour intervention, pupils'…

  1. Pupil Light Reflex Produced by Glare under Mesopic Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Elisa; Comastri, Silvia Ana; Issolio, Luis; Echarri, Rodolfo

    The amount of light captured by the eye depends on pupil size. Moreover, one of the factors determining the steady-state pupil size is ambient illumination and sudden increments of light reaching the retina cause a brisk and transient pupil constriction described as the dynamic Pupil Light Reflex response. In experiments where a glare source acts as transient conditioning field, a methodology to measure pupil diameter is required. In the present paper pupil diameter, in steady (0.5 cd/m2) and dynamic adaptation conditions, is measured. The dynamic state is originated by a transient peripheral glare source with three different illuminance levels (15, 30 and 60 lx). Ten eyes of 5 subjects (19, 36, 50, 53 and 52 years old) are considered. The measurements are made by means of a video of the pupil captured with a CCD while the sight is fixated in a chart. In the steady condition, the average pupil diameter for each subject varies between 4.8 and 7.2 mm from one subject to another. In the dynamic condition, latency time results to be independent both of the subject and of the glare level, adding evidence to the robustness of this parameter when radiation is not incident centrally.

  2. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  3. Guidelines For Pupil Services. Volume 16, Number 3. Fall, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J., Ed.

    This issue presents guidelines for pupil services by blending theory and practice. It reports on promising practices in pupil services disciplines in Wisconsin and stimulates professional activity in the field. Articles address guidance programs, learning disability services and self-concept through media production, and include a review of the…

  4. Matching Pupils and Teachers to Maximize Expected Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Joe H., Jr.; And Others

    To achieve a good teacher-pupil match, it is necessary (1) to predict the learning outcomes that will result when each student is instructed by each teacher, (2) to use the predicted performance to compute an Optimality Index for each teacher-pupil combination to indicate the quality of each combination toward maximizing learning for all students,…

  5. Edu-Mining for Book Recommendation for Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Ryo; Takeda, Keigo; Suda, Koji; Kakegawa, Junichi; Morihiro, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for recommending books to pupils based on a framework called Edu-mining. One of the properties of the proposed method is that it uses only loan histories (pupil ID, book ID, date of loan) whereas the conventional methods require additional information such as taste information from a great number of users which…

  6. An Empirical Study of Pupils' Attitudes to Computers and Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study which utilized a Likert type questionnaire to assess seven scales of secondary pupils' attitudes toward computers and robotics (school, leisure, career, employment, social, threat, future) and investigated pupils' scores on functions of their sex, general academic ability, course of study, and microcomputer experience. (MBR)

  7. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  8. Roma Pupils' Attitudes Towards Education--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Munda, Milanka

    2015-01-01

    When analysing the reasons behind the academic underachievement of Roma pupils, some teachers suggest that Roma people do not value education and that Roma children have negative attitudes towards school. With increasing frequency, Roma pupils from low socio-economic backgrounds are being researched and the research primarily adopts the…

  9. Exclusion in Schools in Northern Ireland: The Pupils' Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipe, Damian; Reynolds, Margaret; Milner, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education in Northern Ireland has been reviewing the procedures for suspending and expelling pupils from school. This article reports the views of a random sample of 114 children (11-16 years) towards the proposed changes. Pupils' thoughts on: dealing with misbehaviour; setting rules; the decision-making process; appropriate…

  10. Overcoming Obstacles: Approaches To Dealing with Problem Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Hayley; Hayes, Sid

    1998-01-01

    Discusses effects of feedback to pupils with behavior problems and reviews the literature on effective intervention strategies such as ignoring petty annoyances, clearly defining classroom rules established with pupil input, and providing feedback and praise to change behaviors and develop self-esteem. (DB)

  11. Modeling Pupils' Understanding and Explanations Concerning Changes in Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Koulaidis, Vasilios; Hatzinikitas, Agapitos

    2005-01-01

    The explanations of thirty primary pupils for changes in matter were recorded through individual, semi-structured interviews. The analysis of data pointed to the construction of a system for classifying pupils' explanations of changes in matter. A parallel analysis of data focused on the identification and interpretation of associations between…

  12. Pupils Think Sound Has Substance--Well, Sort of ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Physics is a subject where pupils hold a great number of deeply seated misconceptions. Sound is a prime example, as it requires the visualisation of a form of energy that moves imperceptibly through an invisible medium. This article outlines some of the common misconceptions that pupils hold regarding the nature of sound and how it is transmitted,…

  13. Comprehensive Pupil Personnel Services--Their Definition and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry L.; Menchinger, Frederick G.

    1970-01-01

    Comprehensive Pupil Personnel Services Team (CPPS) implies that all members of the team--teachers, administrators, counselors, specialists, etc.--have important contributions to make to meet schools promise of working for development of total human beings. Pupil Personnel Services must be an integral part of total educational program. (Author)

  14. Assessing Pupils' Intelligence through Self, Parental, and Teacher Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Arteche, Adriane; Furnham, Adrian; Trickot, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of self- and other-estimated intelligence in relation to tested cognitive ability and gender. Three groups of raters were examined: 187 (102 male, 85 female; mean age 14.33 years, SD = 0.32) pupils of single-sex comprehensive schools, 109 (55 mothers and 54 fathers) parents, and six teachers of the pupils. Pupils…

  15. Longitudinal Prediction of School Achievement for Metis and Eskimo Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, R.S.

    Research in this effort attempted to review evidence of the construct validity of certain measures of intellectual potential for Canadian native pupils, and to examine the relative predictive validity, over a four-year period, of several measures of general intellectual ability for a sample of Metis pupils at Faust, Alberta, and 2 samples of…

  16. Pupils' Documentation Enlightening Teachers' Practical Theory and Pedagogical Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative comprising two research cycles. The study explores what constitutes meaningful experiences in the classroom from the pupils' perspectives and how understanding pupils' perspectives can foster the development of teachers' practical theory and classroom actions. Photography and group…

  17. Japanese High School Teachers' Views on Pupil Misbehaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Japanese high school teachers' views of pupil misbehaviour in order to contribute to the growing international literature on discipline in schools. A total of 141 Japanese high school teachers completed a questionnaire which explored their views regarding the factors accounting for pupil misbehaviour, the frequency of…

  18. Public Education Resources and Pupil Performance Models: A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottheim, David; And Others

    This is a summary of a report which presents three models quantifying the relationships between educational means (resources) and ends (pupil achievements) to analyze resource allocation problems within school districts: (1) the Pupil Performance Model; (2) the Goal Programming Model; and (3) the Operational Structure of a School and Pupil…

  19. Pupil Voice: Comfortable and Uncomfortable Learnings for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Donald; Pedder, David; Rudduck, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The study explores how teachers use the ideas that pupils offer when consulted. Six teachers (two each in English, Maths and Science) and their Year 8 classes at three secondary schools were involved. The research was carried out in three stages. During the first stage the focus was on eliciting pupils ideas about classroom teaching and learning…

  20. Pupil Voice: Comfortable and Uncomfortable Learnings for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Donald; Pedder, David; Rudduck, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The study explores how teachers use the ideas that pupils offer when consulted. Six teachers (two each in English, Maths and Science) and their Year 8 classes at three secondary schools were involved. The research was carried out in three stages. During the first stage the focus was on eliciting pupils' ideas about classroom teaching and learning…

  1. Does Lego Training Stimulate Pupils' Ability to Solve Logical Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindh, Jorgen; Holgersson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-year regular robotic toys (lego) training on school pupils' performance. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the "constructionist theory," where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…

  2. Traditional Games and Pupils' Violent Behaviour in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Tatjana; Opic, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the impact of using traditional games with the purpose of decreasing violent behavior among pupils in elementary schools as well as improving their mutual relationships. The research was conducted among second-, third- and fourth-graders in elementary schools in Karlovac (a total of 232 pupils). In order to…

  3. How Pupils Use a Model for Abstract Concepts in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady; Donovan, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the way pupils of different age groups use a model to understand abstract concepts in genetics. Pupils from early childhood to late adolescence were taught about genes and DNA using an analogical model (the wool model) during their regular biology classes. Changing conceptual understandings of the…

  4. NIRCam pupil imaging lens actuator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles S.

    2009-08-01

    The near infrared camera (NIRCam) is one of four science instruments installed on the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is intended to conduct scientific observations over a five-year mission lifetime. NIRCam's requirements include operation at 37 Kelvin to produce high-resolution images in two-wave bands encompassing the range from 0.6 to 5 microns. The NIRCam instrument is also required to provide a means of imaging the primary mirror for ground testing, instrument commissioning, and diagnostics which have resulted in the development of the pupil imaging lens actuator assembly. This paper discusses the development of the pupil imaging lens (PIL) assembly, including the driving requirements for the PIL assembly, and how the design supports these conditions. Some of the design features included in the PIL assembly are the titanium isothermal optical flexure mounts with multi-axis alignment flexures, a counterbalanced direct drive rotary actuator, and a fail-safe retraction system with magnetic stowage stop. The paper also discusses how the PIL assembly was successfully tested to the demanding requirements typical for cryogenic instruments.

  5. Upgrading telescopes by active pupil wavefront correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, J. E.; Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Exit pupil correction of the Large Deployable Reflector's (a proposed IR to sub-mm space telescope) segmented primary can be done by reimaging it onto a like segmented surface at the exit pupil. This allows the primary to be more flexible, the adaptive element to be smaller, and the supporting structure to be cheaper than if all correction were performed at a stiffly supported primary. Piston, tilt, and decenter errors of an annulus of the primary and the equations for the required corrections are considered. To verify these, the perturbations with spline functions in the lens design program are simulated. Strehl ratios used to measure image quality show that a piston error of 1 mm is fully corrected over a 5 arcmin field for an f/10 system with a 0.7 n.a. primary at 30 micrometers. Limits of correction are also shown for tilt and decenter errors of segments. Tolerances are given for tilt and decenter errors of the remaining optics also.

  6. Why do animal eyes have pupils of different shapes?

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Martin S.; Sprague, William W.; Schmoll, Jürgen; Parnell, Jared A. Q.; Love, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a striking correlation between terrestrial species’ pupil shape and ecological niche (that is, foraging mode and time of day they are active). Species with vertically elongated pupils are very likely to be ambush predators and active day and night. Species with horizontally elongated pupils are very likely to be prey and to have laterally placed eyes. Vertically elongated pupils create astigmatic depth of field such that images of vertical contours nearer or farther than the distance to which the eye is focused are sharp, whereas images of horizontal contours at different distances are blurred. This is advantageous for ambush predators to use stereopsis to estimate distances of vertical contours and defocus blur to estimate distances of horizontal contours. Horizontally elongated pupils create sharp images of horizontal contours ahead and behind, creating a horizontally panoramic view that facilitates detection of predators from various directions and forward locomotion across uneven terrain. PMID:26601232

  7. Are Pupils in Special Education Too "Special" for Regular Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijl, Ysbrand J.; Pijl, Sip J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands special needs pupils are often referred to separate schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR) or the Learning Disabled (LD). There is an ongoing debate on how to reduce the growing numbers of special education placements. One of the main issues in this debate concerns the size of the difference in cognitive abilities between pupils in regular education and those eligible for LD or EMR education. In this study meta-analysis techniques were used to synthesize the findings from 31 studies on differences between pupils in regular primary education and those in special education in the Netherlands. Studies were grouped into three categories according to the type of measurements used: achievement, general intelligence and neuropsychological tests. It was found that pupils in regular education and those in special education differ in achievement and general intelligence. Pupils in schools for the educable mentally retarded in particular perform at a much lower level than is common in regular Dutch primary education.

  8. Why do animal eyes have pupils of different shapes?

    PubMed

    Banks, Martin S; Sprague, William W; Schmoll, Jürgen; Parnell, Jared A Q; Love, Gordon D

    2015-08-01

    There is a striking correlation between terrestrial species' pupil shape and ecological niche (that is, foraging mode and time of day they are active). Species with vertically elongated pupils are very likely to be ambush predators and active day and night. Species with horizontally elongated pupils are very likely to be prey and to have laterally placed eyes. Vertically elongated pupils create astigmatic depth of field such that images of vertical contours nearer or farther than the distance to which the eye is focused are sharp, whereas images of horizontal contours at different distances are blurred. This is advantageous for ambush predators to use stereopsis to estimate distances of vertical contours and defocus blur to estimate distances of horizontal contours. Horizontally elongated pupils create sharp images of horizontal contours ahead and behind, creating a horizontally panoramic view that facilitates detection of predators from various directions and forward locomotion across uneven terrain. PMID:26601232

  9. Understanding Problematic Pupil Behaviour: Perceptions of Pupils and Behaviour Coordinators on Secondary School Exclusion in an English City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Dave; Tucker, Stanley; Martyn, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    Background: The research reported in this article was commissioned by a consortium of inner-city schools located in central England. It was commissioned in response to the consortium's concerns regarding increasing referrals of negative pupil behaviour amongst its secondary school pupils in Key Stage 3 (ages 11-14), resulting in temporary and…

  10. Primary School Pupils' Views of Characteristics of Good Primary School Teachers: An Exploratory, Open Approach for Investigating Pupils' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakx, Anouke; Koopman, Maaike; de Kruijf, Judith; den Brok, Perry

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on results of a study on pupils' perceptions on teacher quality in primary education. Pupils' perceptions of desired characteristics of good teachers in primary education were compared to results of research into teacher quality from different perspectives: (1) perception studies of ideal teaching-and-learning environments;…

  11. Using Pupil Perspective Research to Inform Teacher Pedagogy: What Caribbean Pupils with Dyslexia Say about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Stacey

    2011-01-01

    The transformative potential of pupils' voices is well documented in past research by Pedder and McIntyre; and Cooper and McIntyre. In this qualitative research, I utilise a social constructivist framework by Vygotsky to ask pupils with dyslexia about the kinds of teacher strategies that they find helpful to their learning at secondary school in…

  12. Pupil Researchers Generation X: Educating Pupils as Active Participants--An Investigation into Gathering Sensitive Information from Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jenny E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmentally appropriate research techniques were uncovered by involving ten Year 7 pupils as researchers in a four-hour workshop that investigated the effectiveness of multiple methods in gathering sensitive information from early adolescents. The pupils learned about, tried and evaluated the methods of generating interview questions, peer and…

  13. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  14. Covariation of Color and Luminance Facilitate Object Individuation in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The ability to individuate objects is one of our most fundamental cognitive capacities. Recent research has revealed that when objects vary in color or luminance alone, infants fail to individuate those objects until 11.5 months. However, color and luminance frequently covary in the natural environment, thus providing a more salient and reliable…

  15. Effects of luminance and spatial noise on interferometric contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Nancy J.; Sharma, Vineeta

    1995-10-01

    Optical properties of the eye contribute to the reduced visibility of spatial patterns at low luminance. To study the limits of spatial vision when optical factors are minimized, we measured contrast-sensitivity functions (CSF's) for 543.5-nm laser interference fringes imaged directly on the retina. Measurements were made in the fovea at four luminance levels, ranging from 0.3 to 300 photopic trolands (Td). At each luminance the fraction of coherent light in the stimulus pattern was varied to assess the masking effects of laser speckle, which is visible as spatial noise in fields of coherent light. Compared with published CSF's obtained under natural viewing conditions, interferometric CSF's were similar in height but broader, with the range of visibility being extended to higher spatial frequencies. The masking effects of speckle were greatest at the highest luminance and were negligible at the lowest luminance. For low coherent fractions, contrast sensitivity improved over the entire luminance range at a rate consistent with a square-root law; with purely coherent light, sensitivity tended to level off at approximately 30 Td because of speckle masking. The results indicate that the optical quality of the eye reduces the spatial bandwidth of vision even at luminances near the foveal threshold. The change in interference fringe visibility with luminance is consistent with noise-limited behavior, and the masking

  16. (-)-Reboxetine inhibits muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ortells, Marcelo O; Feuerbach, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of (-)-reboxetine, a non-tricyclic norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor, with muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was studied by functional and structural approaches. The results established that (-)-reboxetine: (a) inhibits (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca(2+) influx in human (h) muscle embryonic (hα1β1γδ) and adult (hα1β1εδ) AChRs in a non-competitive manner and with potencies IC50=3.86±0.49 and 1.92±0.48 μM, respectively, (b) binds to the [(3)H]TCP site with ~13-fold higher affinity when the Torpedo AChR is in the desensitized state compared to the resting state, (c) enhances [(3)H]cytisine binding to the resting but activatableTorpedo AChR but not to the desensitized AChR, suggesting desensitizing properties, (d) overlaps the PCP luminal site located between rings 6' and 13' in the Torpedo but not human muscle AChRs. In silico mutation results indicate that ring 9' is the minimum structural component for (-)-reboxetine binding, and (e) interacts to non-luminal sites located within the transmembrane segments from the Torpedo AChR γ subunit, and at the α1/ε transmembrane interface from the adult muscle AChR. In conclusion, (-)-reboxetine non-competitively inhibits muscle AChRs by binding to the TCP luminal site and by inducing receptor desensitization (maybe by interacting with non-luminal sites), a mechanism that is shared by tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:23917086

  17. Enhancement of Luminous Efficacy by Random Patterning of Phosphor Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, Natalie; Masul, Hisashi; Diana, Frederic; Denbaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji

    We have demonstrated the ability to increase the luminous flux and luminous efficacy of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by randomly patterning the surface of the yellow phosphor matrix. The phosphor was moved away from the LED die by placing it on top of a silicone optic and then roughening the surface of the phosphor/resin mixture. It was found that the roughening increases the luminous flux and efficacy by 10% over the smooth, non-patterned phosphor mixture. The roughened sample’s operating voltage, luminous flux, luminous efficacy, CCT, color coordinates, and CRI were 3.2 V, 7.4 lm, 115.6 lm/W, 4244 K, (0.388, 0.448), and 61 at 20 mA, CW, and room temperature operation. A brief presentation on phosphor scattering is introduced to help explain the effect of the roughening.

  18. School and pupil effects on secondary pupils' feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2013-04-01

    In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical two-level model on risk and promotive variables by using national data from an Internet-based survey in all types of Dutch secondary education. The cross-sectional research involves 71,560 pupils from 185 schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel logistic regression analysis including latent variables are used to analyze the data. The results demonstrate that school size, pupil attainment level in education, and intactness of a pupil's family have positive effects on a pupil's feelings of safety in and around school and at home; overall negative effects concern the school's curricular differentiation and a pupil's playing truant and not feeling most at home in the Netherlands. A school's social, teaching, and instructional qualities and a pupil's being older, being a boy, and being baptized positively affect the feelings of safety in and around school. A school's safety policy and rules of conduct have no effects. Attending a church or mosque has negative effects on a pupil's feelings of safety around school and at home. The findings confirm part of the two-level model. The Internet-based data collection and feedback procedure enable each school to longitudinally assess and evaluate own results at school level; in addition, cross-sectional comparison of school results with national benchmarks is possible. PMID:23248356

  19. Contributions of contour frequency, amplitude, and luminance to the watercolor effect estimated by conjoint measurement.

    PubMed

    Gerardin, Peggy; Devinck, Frédéric; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The watercolor effect is a long-range, assimilative, filling-in phenomenon induced by a pair of distant, wavy contours of different chromaticities. Here, we measured joint influences of the contour frequency and amplitude and the luminance of the interior contour on the strength of the effect. Contour pairs, each enclosing a circular region, were presented with two of the dimensions varying independently across trials (luminance/frequency, luminance/amplitude, frequency/amplitude) in a conjoint measurement paradigm (Luce & Tukey, 1964). In each trial, observers judged which of the stimuli evoked the strongest fill-in color. Control stimuli were identical except that the contours were intertwined and generated little filling-in. Perceptual scales were estimated by a maximum likelihood method (Ho, Landy, & Maloney, 2008). An additive model accounted for the joint contributions of any pair of dimensions. As shown previously using difference scaling (Devinck & Knoblauch, 2012), the strength increases with luminance of the interior contour. The strength of the phenomenon was nearly independent of the amplitude of modulation of the contour but increased with its frequency up to an asymptotic level. On average, the strength of the effect was similar along a given dimension regardless of the other dimension with which it was paired, demonstrating consistency of the underlying estimated perceptual scales. PMID:24722563

  20. A new device for dynamic luminance mapping and glare risk assessment in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisuit, Apiparn; Münch, Mirjam; Deschamps, Laurent; Kämpf, Jérôme; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    High dynamic range imaging has been shown to be a reliable tool to assess luminance maps and glare risk probability in buildings. However, there are some limitations of image capturing time, especially when dealing with highly dynamic and contrasted daylight situations. We used a newly developed prototype of a digital camera which contains a high dynamic range pixel array chip, with a logarithmic scale for encoding. This type of camera allows to effectively assessing luminance, contrast and contrast directions, by taking only a single image or by performing real time recordings. The device was equipped with a fisheye lens and V-lambda filters to adapt the camera's spectral sensitivity to the human eye. After spectral as well as photometric calibration and vignetting correction, the device was tested to perform luminance mapping of real scenes. The results showed that luminance maps of a room can be efficiently assessed under dynamic daylight and mixed day- and electric lighting conditions in a very short time (i.e. 100 ms), when compared to classical HDR imaging techniques. This allows us to calculate glare indexes of a scene simultaneously. The camera opens a variety of new applications as a useful tool for architects, building designers and lighting experts. The device can be used to easily monitor daylight availability and glare indexes in existing buildings and further developments for advanced (day-) lighting control can be envisaged.

  1. Safety and efficacy of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation through a small pupil using minimal iris manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Kalantzis, George; Brouzas, Dimitris; Kontaxakis, Anastasios; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Diagourtas, Andreas; Georgalas, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the results of phacoemulsification through a small pupil using minimal iris manipulation versus phacoemulsification through a well-dilated pupil. Methods This prospective randomized control (comparative) study comprised 78 patients (group I) with a maximally dilated pupil size of ≤4.00 mm and 45 patients (group II) with dilated pupil size of ≥7.00 mm. In group I patients, only viscodilation and minimal push-and-pull iris stretching with two collar-button iris-retractor hooks were utilized without iris manipulation. Phacoemulsification was performed by two senior surgeons and the technique used consisted of either stop and chop or quick chop, infusion/aspiration of lens cortex, capsular bag refill with ocular viscoelastic devices, and implantation of an acrylic foldable intraocular lens. Patients were examined on the first day and 1 month postoperatively. Results Forty-six eyes of group I patients had pseudoexfoliation syndrome, eleven eyes had previous glaucoma surgery, 14 eyes had angle-closure or open-angle glaucoma, and seven eyes had posterior synechiae with iritis. In group I patients, the mean pupil size measured under an operating microscope was 3.2 mm preoperatively, 4.3 mm after viscoelastic and mechanical pupil dilation, and 4.1 mm at the end of a surgical procedure. Rupture of the zonular fibers occurred in six patients of group I and the intraocular lens was implanted in the sulcus. Small iris-sphincter rupture and small hemorrhages occurred in four eyes during pupillary manipulation, but they were not evident at the end of the surgery. In group II patients, no intraoperative complications occurred. Signs of significant corneal edema and iritis were observed more frequently in group I eyes (26 eyes and 20 eyes, respectively) on the first postoperative day in comparison with group II eyes (ten eyes and six eyes, respectively). Intraocular pressure was <20 mmHg in all eyes of both groups. One month

  2. Factors associated with pupil toilet use in kenyan primary schools.

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Caruso, Bethany A; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kramer, Michael R; Brumback, Babette A; Rheingans, Richard D; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils' use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils' use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils' use at specific facilities. We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98). Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children. PMID:25233014

  3. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ing-Marie; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Rosèn, Gunnar; Moström Åberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Young male and female workers are over-represented in statistics concerning negative outcomes of poor work environment and risky work. Young workers often have low awareness of risk, a lack of safety training, and inadequate introduction to the work. The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and experiences of pupils of vocational schools concerning potential work environment risks in their future work. Methods The study design was a dual one, and included a questionnaire and focus group interviews. The study group consisted of 239 pupils from 10 upper secondary schools, who were graduating pupils in four vocational programs: the Industrial Technology Programme, the Restaurant Management and Food Programme, the Transport Programme, and the Handicraft Programme (in which students specialize in wood products). The upper secondary schools were located in the central region of Sweden. Results The pupils had limited knowledge that employers must, by law, conduct risk analyses and prevent risks. Many felt that they themselves are mainly responsible for performing their tasks safely. Pupils in all programs mentioned acute risk as the greatest risk at work. The theoretical education about safety at work was provided in the 1st year of the 3-year vocational programs. Conclusion A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research. PMID:25379328

  4. Engaging Parents and Pupils in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Rod

    2016-04-01

    "The British National Space Centre partnership has recognised for some time that Space and Astronomy are particularly attractive subjects for school students and that including these in the science curriculum can have a positive effect on student interest in science. Drivers are that the number of young people studying science and engineering subjects at A-level and beyond is declining; young people should have an understanding of the importance of science and technology to the world around them; and that UK space industry (including technology, engineering, space science, Earth observation science) must renew itself." BRINGING SPACE INTO SCHOOL Professor Martin Barstow, University of Leicester Published by PPARC on behalf of the British National Space Centre Partnership October 2005 "It has become more and more difficult to persuade young people to follow a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) subjects. Across the EU, the number of graduates in STEM subjects has dropped from 24.3% in 2002 to 22.6% in 2011" (Source EUSTAT) It was Martin Barstow's report in 2005 that started my attempt to interest people in Science and Technology, At Ormiston Victory Academy (OVA) for the past two years, we have embarked on a program to enthuse pupils to study science related subject through the medium of Astronomy. We teach Edexcel GCSE Astronomy to a joint parent and pupil group. They study together and at the end of the course, both take the GCSE examination. The idea is that the pupils see that science is important to their parents and that a very practical facet of science is also fun. Astronomy is a multidisciplinary course bringing together elements of Science, Maths, Technology, Geography and History. It is hoped that the enthusiasm shown by the pupils will spill over into the mainstream subjects including maths. The parents get an idea of the work and level of knowledge required by their children to complete a GCSE level subject. They also report

  5. The Mesa Arizona Pupil Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer-based Pupil Tracking/Teacher Monitoring System was designed for Mesa Public Schools, Mesa, Arizona. The established objectives of the system were to: (1) facilitate the economical collection and storage of student performance data necessary to objectively evaluate the relative effectiveness of teachers, instructional methods, materials, and applied concepts; and (2) identify, on a daily basis, those students requiring special attention in specific subject areas. The system encompasses computer hardware/software and integrated curricula progression/administration devices. It provides daily evaluation and monitoring of performance as students progress at class or individualized rates. In the process, it notifies the student and collects information necessary to validate or invalidate subject presentation devices, methods, materials, and measurement devices in terms of direct benefit to the students. The system utilizes a small-scale computer (e.g., IBM 1130) to assure low-cost replicability, and may be used for many subjects of instruction.

  6. Pupil engineering for a confocal reflectance line-scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Yogesh G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2011-03-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy may enable screening and diagnosis of skin cancers noninvasively and in real-time, as an adjunct to biopsy and pathology. Current confocal point-scanning systems are large, complex, and expensive. A confocal line-scanning microscope, utilizing a of linear array detector can be simpler, smaller, less expensive, and may accelerate the translation of confocal microscopy in clinical and surgical dermatology. A line scanner may be implemented with a divided-pupil, half used for transmission and half for detection, or with a full-pupil using a beamsplitter. The premise is that a confocal line-scanner with either a divided-pupil or a full-pupil will provide high resolution and optical sectioning that would be competitive to that of the standard confocal point-scanner. We have developed a confocal line-scanner that combines both divided-pupil and full-pupil configurations. This combined-pupil prototype is being evaluated to determine the advantages and limitations of each configuration for imaging skin, and comparison of performance to that of commercially available standard confocal point-scanning microscopes. With the combined configuration, experimental evaluation of line spread functions (LSFs), contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and imaging performance is in progress under identical optical and skin conditions. Experimental comparisons between divided-pupil and full-pupil LSFs will be used to determine imaging performance. Both results will be compared to theoretical calculations using our previously reported Fourier analysis model and to the confocal point spread function (PSF). These results may lead to a simpler class of confocal reflectance scanning microscopes for clinical and surgical dermatology.

  7. [Photographic pupil diagnosis in Horner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krzizok, T; Gräf, M; Kraus, S

    1995-04-01

    In cases of miosis without other clinical signs and not contributory medical history it is often hard to differentiate Horner's syndrome. In these cases the pharmacological testing with cocaine eye drops is a well established and validated method. The physiological testing, i.e. the detection and measurement of a dilatation lag in Horner's syndrome, is not so common. For this reason we measured the dilatation of pupils in 22 Horner's syndromes and 16 physiological anisocorias to find limit ("cut off") values. We used flash photography and a commercial available camcorder and took photos in bright light (400 cd/m2) as well as 4 and 15 seconds after cessation of light stimulus in darkness. An anisocoria after 4 seconds of darkness greater than 0.6 mm distinguishes both groups with a sensitivity of 82% and a specifity of 69%. A dilatation speed of the smaller pupil during the first 4 seconds of darkness lower than 1.1 mm/4 sec is also a good threshold value. Because of the additional good correlation of these parameters to the anisocoria after cocaine the photographic methods are at least a supplement to pharmacological testing with cocaine, which is sometimes equivocal and always delays the localizing hydroxyamphetamine test. The advantage of using a camcorder is the immediate evaluation on a TV screen. Because of the similar price it is more useful to buy an infrared camera to perform real pupillography. Because of the missing possibility of magnification we prefer the evaluation of slides instead of Polaroid flash photographs. PMID:7783812

  8. Ethnic School Segregation and Self-Esteem: The Role of Teacher-Pupil Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirdag, Orhan; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Avermaet, Piet

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine whether school segregation is related to pupils' global self-esteem and whether this association is mediated by teacher-pupil relationships. Multilevel analyses based on a survey of 2,845 pupils (aged 10 to 12) in 68 primary schools in Belgian urban areas reveal that, for native-Belgian pupils, a higher proportion of immigrants…

  9. Pupil Mobility, Attainment, and Progress during Key Stage 1: A Study in Cautious Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Explores association between pupil mobility and attainment in national end of Key Stage 1 tests for 6000+ pupils in an English urban education authority. Indicates pupil mobility during the early years is associated with significantly lower levels of pupil attainment in reading, writing, and mathematics tests at age seven. (BT)

  10. Cooking and Hammering: Primary School Pupils' Concepts of Their Craft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müürsepp, Mare; Kikkull, Andry

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to clear the significance of craft skills for the pupils in age nine and twelve years. More than 200 pupils were asked to define, what are the most important skills for the pupils of their age. The results bring out that category of the skills related to craft subject is of the most presented categories in pupils' self…

  11. Issues Involved in Attempting to Develop Independent Learning in Pupils Working on Technological Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    This research addresses the impact of technological projects at high school on pupils' learning. The participants were sixty low-mid achieving pupils who worked for one year on final projects for matriculation exams. Data were collected through observations of laboratory lessons, interviews with pupils and teachers, and analysis of pupils'…

  12. Self-Esteem of Black and White Fifth Grade Pupils as a Function of Demographic Categorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Joan S.

    Do varying racial and social school mixtures significantly relate to self-esteem of black and white fifth-grade pupils? The purpose of the present study was to examine several facets of this question. Interrelationships were studied among pupil's self-esteem and the following demographic variables: school's racial composition, pupil's sex, pupil's…

  13. Sex Differences in Teacher-Pupil Interaction in First Grade Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenthal, Helen

    The patterns of teacher-pupil interaction during first-grade reading instruction as a function of pupil sex were investigated. A total of 439 boys and girls and 71 teachers comprised the sample. The study involved three major phases: measurement of teacher attitudes, classroom observation of teacher-pupil interaction, and measurement of pupils'…

  14. Investigation of Pupils' Levels of MVPA and VPA during Physical Education Units Focused on Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Lindsey; Fairclough, Stuart; Savory, Louise; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels of pupils during coeducational physical education units focused on direct instruction and tactical games models (TGM). Thirty-two children (11-12 years, 17 girls) were randomly assigned to either a direct instruction (control) or TGM…

  15. Fixed and dilated: the history of a classic pupil abnormality.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of ideas about the nature and mechanism of the fixed dilated pupil, paying particular attention to experimental conditions and clinical observations in the 19th century. Starting from Kocher's standard review in 1901, the authors studied German, English, and French texts for historical information. Medical and neurological textbooks from the 19th and 20th centuries were reviewed to investigate when and how this information percolated through neurological and neurosurgical practices. Cooper experimented with intracranial pressure (ICP) in a dog in the 1830s, but did not mention the pupils. He described dilated pupils in clinical cases without referring to the effect of light. Bright demonstrated to have some knowledge of the pupil sign (clinical observations). Realizing the unreliability of the pupil sign, Hutchinson in 1867-1868 tried to reason in which cases trepanation would be advisable. Von Leyden's 1866 animal experiments, in which he increased CSF volume by injecting protein solutions intracranially, was the first observation in which the association between fixed dilated pupils and increased ICP was established. Along with bradycardia and motor and respiratory effects, he noticed wide pupils were usually present in a comatose state. Asymmetrical dilation could not always be attributed to increased ICP, but to an oculomotor nerve lesion. Pagenstecher in 1871 extended knowledge by meticulously studying consecutive pupil phenomena with increasing pressure. In 1880, von Bergmann emphasized the significance of the ipsilateral dilation in experiments as well as in clinical cases. He distinguished the extent of pressure increase and its duration. Probably confusing irritation (epileptic head turning to the other side with pupil dilation) and lesion effects, he suggested a cortical area responsible for oculomotor phenomena, indicating what is now known as the frontal eye field. Naunyn and Schreiber (1881

  16. Response of the human pupil to geometrically changed light stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseler, Wolfgang

    2000-06-01

    Models of the human pupil response have been widely investigated. Yet, besides the well known model for the pupil diameter as a function of light intensity and some studies on the influence of wavelength, a model for the dependence of the pupil diameter on the geometry of an observed image is still missing. This paper describes an experimental setup to study the influence of the geometry of a light distribution stimulating the human eye and its pupil. Moreover, experimental results of the human pupil response as a function of the time and of geometric parameters of the stimulating field are presented. To measure the behavior of the pupil, a test person is positioned in front of a back-side illuminated diffusing pane. This pane approximates a Lambert-radiator. The illuminated area is adjustable to different circular aperture sizes. While varying both size and intensity, the pupil response of a test person is observed by an infrared CCD- camera. Electronic image processing is used to determine the diameter of the captured pupil in the image. The first step is to convert the gray-scale image into a binary image with an optimized threshold. Then, the two dimensional image is reduced to a one-dimensional column-image by collecting and adding all pixels of each row (parallel projection). This step enables a very effective frequency-domain analysis (Fourier transform) leading to the detection of the pupil diameter. The actual setup is able to process ten images per second with a resolution of 0.2 mm. Short-time effects of the pupil diameter can therefore be observed as well as long-time effects. It was found that previous results regarding the pupil diameter as function of the light intensity were confirmed. This indicates that the automatic system works well and the psycho-physical experiments are conducted reasonably. However, as a new result, it was found that the pupil response seems to be dependent on the aperture size of the stimulating field.

  17. Compact radio sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Rodrigo

    2007-08-01

    Radio interferometry is an observational technique of high sensitivity and incomparably high spatial resolution. Moreover, because radio waves can freely propagate through interstellar dust and gas, it allows the study of regions of the universe completely obscured at other wavelengths. This thesis reports the observational and theoretical results of my research during the past four years which are mostly based on interferometric radio data. The COLA sample is an infrared selected sample of active star forming galaxies. We conducted 6 cm VLA and VLBI snapshot observations of the northern half of this sample. The radio emission seen at VLA scales is consistent with being powered by star formation activity because it follows the far infrared to radio correlation. We detect 22% of the sample sources in our VLBI snapshots. Based on luminosity arguments, we argue that these sub-parsec VLBI sources are powered by AGN activity. Furthermore, we find that VLBI detections are preferentially found in sources whose VLA scale structures have the highest peak brightnesses suggesting a strong correlation between compact starburst and AGN activity. This observational result is consistent with the theoretical picture of an Eddington-limited nuclear starburst acting as the last valve in the pipeline transporting the gas from kiloparsec scales onto the accretion disc of a buried AGN. Arp 220 is the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy. For many years this source has been known to harbour a compact (~100 pc) cluster of unresolved 18 cm bright sources believed to be bright core collapse supernovae. Using multiwavelength VLBI observations, we obtained for the first time radio spectra for 18 of these sources. We find that over a half of them have spectra consistent with young supernovae. The rest can be better explained as older supernova remnants interacting with the high density starburst ISM. This finding allowed us to constrain the number of possible scenarios for the Arp 220

  18. The examination attainments of secondary school pupils who abuse solvents.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, O; Yule, W; Anderson, R

    1990-06-01

    A sample of 105 adolescents who had abused solvents and an equal number of controls matched for school, school year and sex were identified by means of a two-stage screening procedure involving (a) administration of a self-completed questionnaire to approximately 5,000 third, fourth and fifth year pupils in 16 secondary schools, and (b) individually conducted interviews. These two groups were followed up at the end of their final year of compulsory education when details of their fifth year public examination entries and results were obtained from their schools. The examination attainments of the solvent abusers were generally lower than those of the controls. They were more likely to leave school at Easter of their fifth year and a much higher proportion of them were not entered for any examinations. Those who were entered for exams were less likely to pass at O level and, regardless of the type of exam, much less likely to obtain higher examination grades. Poor examination attainments among the solvent abusers were associated with adverse domestic circumstances, frequent self-reported behaviour problems and low scores on educational tests administered at the time of transfer from primary to secondary school. After controlling for these factors, the difference between groups in examination attainments was no longer statistically significant. PMID:2378808

  19. Independence of color and luminance edges in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2009-01-01

    Form vision is traditionally regarded as processing primarily achromatic information. Previous investigations into the statistics of color and luminance in natural scenes have claimed that luminance and chromatic edges are not independent of each other and that any chromatic edge most likely occurs together with a luminance edge of similar strength. Here we computed the joint statistics of luminance and chromatic edges in over 700 calibrated color images from natural scenes. We found that isoluminant edges exist in natural scenes and were not rarer than pure luminance edges. Most edges combined luminance and chromatic information but to varying degrees such that luminance and chromatic edges were statistically independent of each other. Independence increased along successive stages of visual processing from cones via postreceptoral color-opponent channels to edges. The results show that chromatic edge contrast is an independent source of information that can be linearly combined with other cues for the proper segmentation of objects in natural and artificial vision systems. Color vision may have evolved in response to the natural scene statistics to gain access to this independent information. PMID:19152717

  20. Higher-order pupil aberrations in wide-angle and panoramic optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Hamid R.; Maxwell, Jonathan

    1996-08-01

    In optical systems with modest fields of view, pupil spherical aberration and pupil coma are the principal pupil aberrations of significance, but at extreme fields of view, astigmatic effects and field curvature and distortion effects of the pupil imagery play a part in understanding the subtleties of oblique object-image imagery. Biogon and fisheye wide angle lens systems have been investigated for their pupil aberration properties, along with the investigation of similar effects in a panoramic optical system.

  1. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. R.; Najarro, F.; Figer, D. F.

    2000-02-01

    H- and K-band moderate-resolution and 4 μm high-resolution spectra have been obtained for FMM 362, a bright star in the Quintuplet Cluster near the Galactic center. The spectral features in these bands closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known. The new spectra and previously obtained photometry imply a very high luminosity for FMM 362, L>=106 Lsolar, and a temperature of 10,000-13,000 K. Based on its luminosity, temperature, photometric variability, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM 362 is a luminous blue variable.

  2. Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sametoglu, Ferhat

    2008-11-01

    Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

  3. Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.

    2015-12-01

    Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are X-ray bright objects that are not coincident with the central nucleus of the host galaxy and which have luminosities that exceed the Eddington limit for a stellar mass black hole, typically L > 3 × 10^{39} erg s^{-1} for a black hole of 20 M_⊙. The nature of these objects is still unclear. However, it is possible that these sources do not form a single class of objects. Many ULXs may house stellar mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates, even if the physical mechanism for such high accretion rates is still not understood. Some ULXs may contain intermediate mass black holes (˜1 × 10^{2} - ˜1 × 10^{5} M_⊙). These elusive black holes are thought to be the building blocks of the more massive supermassive black holes, observed at the centre of many galaxies. Other ULXs may not be accreting black holes at all. Recent evidence for the different types of ULXs is presented in this paper.

  4. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  5. Marine transducing bacteriophage attacking a luminous bacterium.

    PubMed

    Keynan, A; Nealson, K; Sideropoulos, H; Hastings, J W

    1974-08-01

    The isolation and partial characterization of a marine bacteriophage attacking a strain of luminous bacteria is described, including some physical, biological, and genetic properties. It is a DNA phage of density of 1.52 with a long flexible tail and an apparently icosohedral head. With respect to stability in suspension, it has a rather specific requirement for the sodium ion in high concentration; it is further stabilized by the addition of calcium and magnesium ions. These same ions are likewise all required for both good plating efficiency and plaque uniformity. Although it goes through a typical lytic growth cycle (about 45 min), with a burst size of 100, and no stable lysogens have been isolated, it is nevertheless a transducing phage specifically for the tryptophan region, transducing several, but not all, independently isolated Trp(-) auxotrophs to protrophy. No other auxotrophs of a variety of amino acids were transduced by this phage to prototrophy. Phage infection does not change the normal expression of the luminescent system, and light remains at near normal levels until cell lysis occurs. PMID:16789143

  6. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  7. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  8. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference. PMID:24587408

  9. National Ignition Facility Beamline Pupil Relay Plane Location and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Korniski, R J; Lawson, J K

    2002-01-29

    Axial astigmatism can be introduced into the nominal design of an optical system by tilted and tilted-wedged plates. The pupil images in the National Ignition Facility experience many such components. Some ramifications will be explored.

  10. Familial myopathy with tubular aggregates associated with abnormal pupils.

    PubMed

    Shahrizaila, Nortina; Lowe, James; Wills, Adrian

    2004-09-28

    The authors describe familial tubular aggregate myopathy associated with abnormal pupils. Four family members from two generations had myopathy and pupillary abnormalities. The myopathologic findings consisted of tubular aggregates in many fibers but predominantly type I fibers. PMID:15452313

  11. Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a pupil function determination algorithm, termed embedded pupil function recovery (EPRY), which can be incorporated into the Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) algorithm and recover both the Fourier spectrum of sample and the pupil function of imaging system simultaneously. This EPRY-FPM algorithm eliminates the requirement of the previous FPM algorithm for a priori knowledge of the aberration in the imaging system to reconstruct a high quality image. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm by reconstructing high resolution, large field-of-view images of biological samples. We also illustrate that the pupil function we retrieve can be used to study the spatially varying aberration of a large field-of-view imaging system. We believe that this algorithm adds more flexibility to FPM and can be a powerful tool for the characterization of an imaging system’s aberration. PMID:24663835

  12. Authoritarian Personality and Control Ideologies of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtscheim, N.; Hoy, W. K.

    1976-01-01

    Hypotheses concerning the relationships among authoritarianism in personality, custodialism in pupil control ideology and autocracy in family ideology of elementary school educators were developed and tested. (Editor)

  13. Democratic Governance and Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruan, Joseph, A., Jr.; Cook, Malcolm

    Two hundred fifty-five students in grades 2 through 6 and 51 teachers participated in structured interviews to assess how democratic governance was practiced in their classrooms. Teachers also completed the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), which measures orientation toward control of pupils. Findings showed that students do not want to rule…

  14. SPEED: the segmented pupil experiment for exoplanet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, P.; Preis, Olivier; Gouvret, C.; Dejonghe, J.; Daban, J.-B.; Spang, A.; Martinache, F.; Beaulieu, M.; Janin-Potiron, P.; Abe, L.; Fantei-Caujolle, Y.; Mattei, D.; Ottogalli, S.

    2014-07-01

    Searching for nearby exoplanets with direct imaging is one of the major scientific drivers for both space and groundbased programs. While the second generation of dedicated high-contrast instruments on 8-m class telescopes is about to greatly expand the sample of directly imaged planets, exploring the planetary parameter space to hitherto-unseen regions ideally down to Terrestrial planets is a major technological challenge for the forthcoming decades. This requires increasing spatial resolution and significantly improving high contrast imaging capabilities at close angular separations. Segmented telescopes offer a practical path toward dramatically enlarging telescope diameter from the ground (ELTs), or achieving optimal diameter in space. However, translating current technological advances in the domain of highcontrast imaging for monolithic apertures to the case of segmented apertures is far from trivial. SPEED - the segmented pupil experiment for exoplanet detection - is a new instrumental facility in development at the Lagrange laboratory for enabling strategies and technologies for high-contrast instrumentation with segmented telescopes. SPEED combines wavefront control including precision segment phasing architectures, wavefront shaping using two sequential high order deformable mirrors for both phase and amplitude control, and advanced coronagraphy struggled to very close angular separations (PIAACMC). SPEED represents significant investments and technology developments towards the ELT area and future spatial missions, and will offer an ideal cocoon to pave the road of technological progress in both phasing and high-contrast domains with complex/irregular apertures. In this paper, we describe the overall design and philosophy of the SPEED bench.

  15. The impact of a school-based water supply and treatment, hygiene, and sanitation programme on pupil diarrhoea: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M C; Clasen, T; Dreibelbis, R; Saboori, S; Greene, L E; Brumback, B; Muga, R; Rheingans, R

    2014-02-01

    The impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) access on mitigating illness is well documented, although impact of school-based WASH on school-aged children has not been rigorously explored. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in Nyanza Province, Kenya to assess the impact of a school-based WASH intervention on diarrhoeal disease in primary-school pupils. Two study populations were used: schools with a nearby dry season water source and those without. Pupils attending 'water-available' schools that received hygiene promotion and water treatment (HP&WT) and sanitation improvements showed no difference in period prevalence or duration of illness compared to pupils attending control schools. Those pupils in schools that received only the HP&WT showed similar results. Pupils in 'water-scarce' schools that received a water-supply improvement, HP&WT and sanitation showed a reduction in diarrhoea incidence and days of illness. Our study revealed mixed results on the impact of improvements to school WASH improvements on pupil diarrhoea. PMID:23702047

  16. Production of Nitrogen Oxides by Laboratory Simulated Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, H.; Bailey, M.; Hallett, J.; Beasley, W.

    2007-12-01

    Restoration of the polar stratospheric ozone layer has occurred at rates below those originally expected following reductions in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) usage. Additional reactions affecting ozone depletion now must also be considered. This research examines nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced in the middle atmosphere by transient luminous events (TLEs), with NOx production in this layer contributing to the loss of stratospheric ozone. In particular, NOx produced by sprites in the mesosphere would be transported to the polar stratosphere via the global meridional circulation and downward diffusion. A pressure-controlled vacuum chamber was used to simulate middle atmosphere pressures, while a power supply and in-chamber electrodes were used to simulate TLEs in the pressure controlled environment. Chemiluminescence NOx analyzers were used to sample NOx produced by the chamber discharges- originally a Monitor Labs Model 8440E, later a Thermo Environment Model 42. Total NOx production for each discharge as well as NOx per ampere of current and NOx per Joule of discharge energy were plotted. Absolute NOx production was greatest for discharge environments with upper tropospheric pressures (100-380 torr), while NOx/J was greatest for discharge environments with stratospheric pressures (around 10 torr). The different production efficiencies in NOx/J as a function of pressure pointed to three different production regimes, each with its own reaction mechanisms: one for tropospheric pressures, one for stratospheric pressures, and one for upper stratospheric to mesospheric pressures (no greater than 1 torr).

  17. A new apparatus of infrared videopupillography for monitoring pupil size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, M.-L.; Huang, T.-W.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Sone, B.-S.; Huang, Y.-C.; Jeng, W.-D.; Chen, Y.-T.; Hsieh, Y.-F.; Tao, K.-H.; Li, S.-T.; Ou-Yang, M.; Chiou, J.-C.

    2013-09-01

    Glaucoma was diagnosed or tracked by the intraocular pressure (IOP) generally because it is one of the physiology parameters that are associated with glaucoma. But measurement of IOP is not easy and consistence under different measure conditions. An infrared videopupillography is apparatus to monitor the pupil size in an attempt to bypass the direct IOP measurement. This paper propose an infrared videopupillography to monitoring the pupil size of different light stimulus in dark room. The portable infrared videopupillography contains a camera, a beam splitter, the visible-light LEDs for stimulating the eyes, and the infrared LEDs for lighting the eyes. It is lighter and smaller than the present product. It can modulate for different locations of different eyes, and can be mounted on any eyeglass frame. An analysis program of pupil size can evaluate the pupil diameter by image correlation. In our experiments, the eye diameter curves were not smooth and jagged. It caused by the light spots, lone eyelashes, and blink. In the future, we will improve the analysis program of pupil size and seek the approach to solve the LED light spots. And we hope this infrared videopupillography proposed in this paper can be a measuring platform to explore the relations between the different diseases and pupil response.

  18. Pupil response as a predictor of blindsight in hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Sahraie, Arash; Trevethan, Ceri T; MacLeod, Mary Joan; Urquhart, James; Weiskrantz, Lawrence

    2013-11-01

    Significantly above-chance detection of stimuli presented within the field defect of patients with postgeniculate lesions is termed "blindsight." It has been proposed that those with blindsight are more likely to benefit from visual rehabilitation by repeated stimulation, leading to increased visual sensitivity within their field defect. Establishing the incidence of blindsight and developing an objective and reliable method for its detection are of great interest. Sudden onsets of a grating pattern in the absence of any change in light flux result in a transient constriction of the pupil, termed "pupil grating response." The existence of pupil grating responses for stimuli presented within the blindfield has previously been reported in a hemianopic patient and two monkeys with removal of the primary visual cortex unilaterally. Here, we have systematically investigated the presence of a spatial channel of processing at a range of spatial frequencies using a psychophysical forced-choice technique and obtained the corresponding pupil responses in the blindfield of 19 hemianopic patients. In addition, in 13 cases we determined the pupil responses in a sighted field location that matched the blindfield eccentricities. Our findings demonstrate that blindfield pupil responses are similar to those for the sighted field, but attenuated in amplitude. Pupillometry correctly characterized the presence or absence of a significant psychophysical response and thus is worth measuring in the cortically blindfields as a predictor of intact psychophysical capacity. The incidence of blindsight where detection performance had been investigated psychophysically over a range of spatial frequencies was 70%. PMID:24145420

  19. Pupil dilation using drops vs gel: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Moisseiev, E; Loberman, D; Zunz, E; Kesler, A; Loewenstein, A; Mandelblum, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy in pupil dilation and degree of discomfort between topical instillation of mydriatic drops and gel. Methods The study included 60 patients with no previous ocular history of trauma and surgery. One eye was dilated with two drops (tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 10%), and the other with one drop of gel (tropicamide 0.5%+phenylephrine 5%). Pupil size was measured by a Colvard pupillometer at baseline and 5, 15, 30, and 45 min following instillation. Pain upon instillation was measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Results There was no difference in pupil size at baseline. Use of the gel achieved greater mydriasis than drops (P=0.01), and was also associated with lower pain scores (P=0.003). In diabetic patients, pupil size was smaller at baseline and following instillation of drops and gel. Use of the gel achieved an even greater degree of pupil dilation in this subset of patients than drops (P=0.019). Conclusions Gel formulation achieved significantly greater pupil dilation than drops, despite a lower concentration of phenylephrine, and was also associated with significantly lower patient discomfort. This study is the first report of improved mydriatic efficacy in diabetic patients. PMID:25857606

  20. High-luminance LEDs replace incandescent lamps in new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David L.

    1997-04-01

    The advent of high luminance AlInGaP and InGaN LED technologies has prompted the use of LED devices in new applications formally illuminated by incandescent lamps. The luminous efficiencies of these new LED technologies equals or exceeds that attainable with incandescent sources, with reliability factors that far exceed those of incandescent sources. The need for a highly efficient, dependable, and cost effective replacement for incandescent lamps is being fulfilled with high luminance LED lamps. This paper briefly described some of the new applications incorporating high luminance LED lamps, traffic signals and roadway signs for traffic management, automotive exterior lighting, active matrix and full color displays for commercial advertising, and commercial aircraft panel lighting and military aircraft NVG compatible lighting.

  1. Single luminal epithelial progenitors can generate prostate organoids in culture

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Chee Wai; Shibata, Maho; Lei, Ming; Toivanen, Roxanne; Barlow, LaMont J.; Bergren, Sarah K.; Badani, Ketan K.; McKiernan, James M.; Benson, Mitchell C.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Shen, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic ability to display self-organizing morphogenetic properties in ex vivo culture may represent a general property of tissue stem cells. Here we show that single luminal stem/progenitor cells can generate prostate organoids in a three-dimensional culture system in the absence of stroma. Organoids generated from CARNs (castration-resistant Nkx3.1-expressing cells) or normal prostate epithelium exhibit tissue architecture containing luminal and basal cells, undergo long-term expansion in culture, and display functional androgen receptor signaling. Lineage-tracing demonstrates that luminal cells are favored for organoid formation, and generate basal cells in culture. Furthermore, tumor organoids can initiate from CARNs after oncogenic transformation, and from mouse models of prostate cancer, and can facilitate analyses of drug response. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the feasibility of organoid studies of human prostate tissue. Our studies underscore the progenitor properties of luminal cells, and identify in vitro approaches for studying prostate biology. PMID:25241035

  2. Cue Combination of Conflicting Color and Luminance Edges.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the color or luminance of a visual image potentially indicate object boundaries. Here, we consider how these cues to the visual "edge" location are combined when they conflict. We measured the extent to which localization of a compound edge can be predicted from a simple maximum likelihood estimation model using the reliability of chromatic (L-M) and luminance signals alone. Maximum likelihood estimation accurately predicted the pattern of results across a range of contrasts. Predictions consistently overestimated the relative influence of the luminance cue; although L-M is often considered a poor cue for localization, it was used more than expected. This need not indicate that the visual system is suboptimal but that its priors about which cue is more useful are not flat. This may be because, although strong changes in chromaticity typically represent object boundaries, changes in luminance can be caused by either a boundary or a shadow. PMID:27551364

  3. Cue Combination of Conflicting Color and Luminance Edges

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes in the color or luminance of a visual image potentially indicate object boundaries. Here, we consider how these cues to the visual “edge” location are combined when they conflict. We measured the extent to which localization of a compound edge can be predicted from a simple maximum likelihood estimation model using the reliability of chromatic (L−M) and luminance signals alone. Maximum likelihood estimation accurately predicted the pattern of results across a range of contrasts. Predictions consistently overestimated the relative influence of the luminance cue; although L−M is often considered a poor cue for localization, it was used more than expected. This need not indicate that the visual system is suboptimal but that its priors about which cue is more useful are not flat. This may be because, although strong changes in chromaticity typically represent object boundaries, changes in luminance can be caused by either a boundary or a shadow. PMID:27551364

  4. A qualitative study of a food intervention in a primary school: Pupils as agents of change.

    PubMed

    Ensaff, H; Canavon, C; Crawford, R; Barker, M E

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the impact of a school-based kitchen project at a large inner London school. Timetabled kitchen classroom sessions (90 min every fortnight) were held with all 7-9 year old pupils. Semi-structured focus group discussions (with 76 pupils, 16 parents) and interviews (with headteachers, catering managers and specialist staff) were conducted at the intervention school and a matched control school. Categories and concepts were derived using a grounded theory approach. Data analysis provided three main categories each with their related concepts: Pupil factors (enthusiasm and enjoyment of cooking, trying new foods, food knowledge and awareness, producing something tangible); School factors (learning and curriculum links, resource implications and external pressures) and Home factors (take home effects, confidence in cooking and self-esteem, parents' difficulties cooking at home with children). Children's engagement and the opportunity to cook supported increased food awareness, skills and food confidence. In the grounded theory that emerged, take home effects beyond the school gate dominate, as children act as agents of change and influence cooking and food choice at home. These short term outcomes have the potential to lead to longer term outcomes including changing eating behaviour and diet. PMID:26254277

  5. Luminal flow alteration in presence of the stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, E. S.; Hudrea, C. I.; Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Bosioc, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Luminally protruding struts alter blood flow, creating areas of recirculation, separation, and stagnation. The impact of flow alterations around struts vary as the strut geometrical parameters change. We quantified the influence of the luminal flow alterations due to the presence of the stent struts by performing two-dimensional numerical simulation. Idealized computer models can facilitate understanding of the in-stent restenosis that is impossible to achieve in vivo.

  6. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Sanders, D. B.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  7. FUSE Observations of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Young, P. R.; Ake, T. B.

    2000-12-01

    Luminous cool stars can address the evolution of magnetic activity and the dynamics of stellar winds and mass loss. The region of yellow supergiants in the HR diagram contains stars of intermediate mass both with coronas and those possessing a hot outer atmosphere in the presence of a strong wind (the ``hybrid'' stars). These hybrid objects hold particular significance for evolution studies because they represent the physically important connection between solar-like stars (with coronas and fast winds of low-mass loss rate) and the cool supergiant stars (Alpha Ori-like) with cool outer atmospheres and massive winds. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) measured the chromospheric and transition region emissions of the bright G2 Ib supergiant Beta Draconis (HD 159181) on 9 May 2000. Two exposures through the large aperture totaled 7695 s and were obtained in all channels covering the region λ λ 912-1180. Emission from chromospheric and transition region ions (C III, O VI, Si III, S IV, S VI) is detected along with a number of low ion stages. Profiles of strong lines are asymmetric suggesting the presence of a wind. A short exposure (3260 s) of Alpha Aquarii (HD 209750), a hybrid supergiant also of spectral type G2 Ib was obtained June 29, 2000. Dynamics of the atmospheres can be inferred from line profiles. The atmospheric temperature distribution, densities, and scale sizes can be evaluated from line fluxes to characterize the differences between a coronal star and a hybrid supergiant. FUSE is a NASA Origins mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Funding for this research is provided through NASA Contract NAS-532985.

  8. STAR FORMATION IN TWO LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Ashburn, Allison; Wright, Teresa; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Rubin, Vera C.; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Struve, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We examined star formation in two very luminous (M{sub V} = –22 to –23) Sc-type spiral galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, using ultra-deep Hα images. We combine these Hα images with UBV and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey JHK images and H I maps to explore the star formation characteristics of disk galaxies at high luminosity. Hα traces star formation in these galaxies to 4-6 disk scale lengths, but the lack of detection of Hα further out is likely due to the loss of Lyman continuum photons. Considering gravitational instabilities alone, we find that the gas and stars in the outer regions are marginally stable in an average sense, but considering dissipative gas and radial and azimuthal forcing, the outer regions are marginally unstable to forming spiral arms. Star formation is taking place in spiral arms, which are regions of locally higher gas densities. Furthermore, we have traced smooth exponential stellar disks over four magnitudes in V-band surface brightness and 4-6 disk scale lengths, in spite of a highly variable gravitational instability parameter. Thus, gravitational instability thresholds do not seem relevant to the stellar disk. One possibility for creating an exponential disk is that the molecular cloud densities and star formation rates have exponential profiles and this fact forces the stellar disk to build up such a profile. Another possibility is that the stellar disk is continuously adjusted to an exponential shape regardless of the star formation profile, for example, through global dynamical processes that scatter stars. However, such scattering processes are only known to operate in spiral systems, in which case they cannot explain the same dilemma of smooth exponential disks observed in dwarf irregular galaxies.

  9. Warm Molecular Gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J-1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J <= 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ~ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L IR, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 <~ J <~ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5-4), (6-5), (7-6), (8-7) and (10-9) transitions to L IR, log R midCO, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of -4.13 (\\equiv log R^SF_midCO) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R midCO higher and lower than R^SF_midCO, respectively. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Luminous red galaxies in hierarchical cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C.; Baugh, C. M.; Wake, D. A.; Lacey, C. G.; Benson, A. J.; Bower, R. G.; Pimbblet, K.

    2008-06-01

    Luminous red galaxies (LRGs) are much rarer and more massive than L* galaxies. Coupled with their extreme colours, LRGs therefore provide a demanding testing ground for the physics of massive galaxy formation. We present the first self-consistent predictions for the abundance and properties of LRGs in hierarchical structure formation models. We test two published models which use quite different mechanisms to suppress the formation of massive galaxies: the Bower et al. model which invokes `active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback' to prevent gas from cooling in massive haloes and the Baugh et al. model which relies upon a `superwind' to eject gas before it is turned into stars. Without adjusting any parameters, the Bower et al. model gives an excellent match to the observed luminosity function of LRGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (with a median redshift of z = 0.24) and to their clustering; the Baugh et al. model is less successful in these respects. Both models fail to match the observed abundance of LRGs at z = 0.5 to better than a factor of ~2. In the models, LRGs are typically bulge-dominated systems with stellar masses of ~2 × 1011h-1Msolar and velocity dispersions of σ ~ 250kms-1. Around half of the stellar mass in the model LRGs is already formed by z ~ 2.2 and is assembled into one main progenitor by z ~ 1.5; on average, only 25 per cent of the mass of the main progenitor is added after z ~ 1. LRGs are predicted to be found in a wide range of halo masses, a conclusion which relies on properly taking into account the scatter in the formation histories of haloes. Remarkably, we find that the correlation function of LRGs is predicted to be a power law down to small pair separations, in excellent agreement with observational estimates. Neither the Bower et al. nor the Baugh et al. model is able to reproduce the observed radii of LRGs.

  11. Evolution of local luminous compact blue galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabidoux, Katherine; Pisano, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a type of very blue, very compact star-forming galaxy that was common at z~1 but is rare in the local universe. While it is clear from this discrepancy that LCBGs must be a rapidly-evolving class of galaxy, it is not clear what type(s) of galaxy they become. Fortunately, since they are bright and nearby, the rare examples of z~0 LCBGs are easily studied across a large range of wavelengths. We have conducted a study of z~0 analogs to the z~1 LCBGs to investigate their galaxy-wide internal properties in order to determine what is triggering their current episode of star formation, for how long the star formation can continue, and what the galaxies may become once their star formation rates decrease from current levels. We have taken resolved H I observations of nine LCBGs and unresolved radio continuum observations of 35 LCBGs and combined this data with archival broad-band data to probe their global properties. We conclude that LCBGs are rotationally-supported, star-forming disk galaxies that, while they may be forming small central bulges or bars, are highly unlikely to evolve into dwarf elliptical, dwarf spheroidal, or elliptical galaxies on their own due to their masses and rotation velocities. LCBGs will likely fade to be spiral galaxies with lower surface brightnesses once their current episodes of star formation conclude. In addition, we have modeled the SEDs of the LCBGs in our sample to determine whether LCBGs' star formation is ramping up or winding down, and for how much longer their current active phase of star formation will last. We have begun to put together a picture of the current evolutionary stage of this class of galaxies, and have better constrained their future evolutionary paths.

  12. The Luminous Convolution Model for Galaxy Rotation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Shanon; Mucci, Maria; Sophia Cisneros Collaboration; Kennard Chng Collaboration; Meagan Crowley Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LCM takes as input only the observed luminous matter profile from galaxies, and allows us to confirm these observed data by considering frame-dependent effects from the luminous mass profile of the Milky Way. The LCM is useful when looking at galaxies that have similar total enclosed mass, but varying distributions. For example, variations in luminous matter profiles from a diffuse galaxy correlate to the LCM's five different Milky Way models equally well, but LCM fits for a centrally condensed galaxy distinguish between Milky Way models. In this presentation, we show how the rotation curve data of such galaxies can be used to constrain the Milky Way luminous mass modeling, by the physical characteristics of each galaxy used to interpret the fitting. Current Investigations will be presented showing how the convolved parameters of Keplerian predictions with rotation curve observations can be extracted with respect to the crossing location of the relative curvature versus the assumption of the luminous mass profiles from photometry. Since there currently exists no direct constraint to photometric estimates of the luminous mass in these systems, the LCM gives the first constraint based on the orthogonal measurement of Doppler shifted spectra from characteristic emitters.

  13. Luminous-flux measurements by an absolute integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastello, Maria Luisa; Miraldi, Elio; Pisoni, Paolo

    1996-08-01

    We present an original implementation of the absolute-sphere method recently proposed by Ohno. The luminous-flux unit, the lumen, is realized by means of an integrating sphere with an opening calibrated by a luminous-intensity standard placed outside. The adapted experimental setup permits one to measure luminous-flux values between 5 and 2500 lm with a significant improvement with respect to the simulated performances reported in the literature. Traditionally, the luminous-flux unit, the lumen, is realized by goniophotometric techniques in which the luminous-intensity distribution is measured and integrated over the whole solid angle. Thus sphere results are compared with those obtained with the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale goniophotometer. In particular, a set of standards, characterized by luminous-flux values of approximately 2000 lm, has been calibrated with both techniques. We highlight some of the problems encountered. Experimental results show that the agreement between the two methods is within the estimated uncertainty and suggest promising areas for future research.

  14. Dynamics of backlight luminance for using smartphone in dark environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Nooree; Jang, Jiho; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-02-01

    This study developed dynamic backlight luminance, which gradually changes as time passes for comfortable use of a smartphone display in a dark environment. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a user test was conducted to identify the optimal luminance by assessing the facial squint level, subjective glare evaluation, eye blink frequency and users' subjective preferences. Based on the results of the user test, the dynamics of backlight luminance was designed. It has two levels of luminance: the optimal level for initial viewing to avoid sudden glare or fatigue to users' eyes, and the optimal level for constant viewing, which is comfortable, but also bright enough for constant reading of the displayed material. The luminance for initial viewing starts from 10 cd/m2, and it gradually increases to 40 cd/m2 for users' visual comfort at constant viewing for 20 seconds; In the second stage, a validation test on dynamics of backlight luminance was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the developed dynamics. It involving users' subjective preferences, eye blink frequency, and brainwave analysis using the electroencephalogram (EEG) to confirm that the proposed dynamic backlighting enhances users' visual comfort and visual cognition, particularly for using smartphones in a dark environment.

  15. Shaped pupil design for future space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Zimmerman, Neil; Carlotti, Alexis; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Several years ago at Princeton we invented a technique to optimize shaped pupil (SP) coronagraphs for any telescope aperture. In the last year, our colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invented a method to produce these non-freestanding mask designs on a substrate. These two advances allowed us to design SPs for two possible space telescopes for the direct imaging of exoplanets and disks, WFIRST-AFTA and Exo-C. In December 2013, the SP was selected along with the hybrid Lyot coronagraph for placement in the AFTA coronagraph instrument. Here we describe our designs and analysis of the SPs being manufactured and tested in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed at JPL.We also explore hybrid SP coronagraph designs for AFTA that would improve performance with minimal or no changes to the optical layout. These possibilities include utilizing a Lyot stop after the focal plane mask or applying large, static deformations to the deformable mirrors (nominally for wavefront correction) already in the system.

  16. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy. PMID:26993279

  17. Visual detection of sampling and quantization artifacts on sinusoidal luminance gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelah, Adar; Campbell, Fergus W.

    1993-09-01

    The human visual system's response to luminance discontinuities on continuous image gradients is measured. It is argued that since quantization artifacts often appear on smooth gradients, the versatility of sinewave gratings in controlling gradient properties can be used to quantify worst-case situations. The threshold spatial dimensions of discrete steps, such as would appear in a staircase approximation to the grating, are determined under a variety of experimental conditions. The smallest threshold step size defines a critical sample size, which is used to calculate limits for artifact-free reconstruction of sinusoidal luminance gratings. Rather than employ ad hoc collections of test images, the methods and results described suggest a more general approach to achieving visually optimal allocation of imaging resources.

  18. Luminous efficiency enhancement in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an electron confinement layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Sung; Yoon, Ju-An; Yoo, Seung Il; Kim, Jin Wook; Yi, Seungjun; Zhu, Furong; Cheah, Kok Wai; Kim, Woo Young

    2015-09-01

    This study reports the results of blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) employing an electron confinement layer (ECL), tris-(phenylpyrazole)iridium (Ir(ppz)3) and a hole confinement layer (HCl), 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimiazole-2-yl)benzene (TPBi). The electrical and optical characteristics of PHOLEDs with different emissive layers, including current density, luminance, and luminous efficiency, were analyzed. The thickness of the individual emissive layer was optimized, however, and the total thickness of the emitting region was kept constant at 300 Å. This work reveals that the effective electron confinement, due to a large energy level offset between the electron confinement and emitting layers, helps to improve hole-electron current balance in the emitting region. The maximum external quantum efficiency of 23.40% at 1500 cd/m2 was achieved for PHOLEDs with an ECL, which is 60% higher than the structural identical control device without ECL.

  19. Improving the performance of an EEG-based motor imagery brain computer interface using task evoked changes in pupil diameter.

    PubMed

    Rozado, David; Duenser, Andreas; Howell, Ben

    2015-01-01

    For individuals with high degrees of motor disability or locked-in syndrome, it is impractical or impossible to use mechanical switches to interact with electronic devices. Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can use motor imagery to detect interaction intention from users but lack the accuracy of mechanical switches. Hence, there exists a strong need to improve the accuracy of EEG-based motor imagery BCIs attempting to implement an on/off switch. Here, we investigate how monitoring the pupil diameter of a person as a psycho-physiological parameter in addition to traditional EEG channels can improve the classification accuracy of a switch-like BCI. We have recently noticed in our lab (work not yet published) how motor imagery is associated with increases in pupil diameter when compared to a control rest condition. The pupil diameter parameter is easily accessible through video oculography since most gaze tracking systems report pupil diameter invariant to head position. We performed a user study with 30 participants using a typical EEG based motor imagery BCI. We used common spatial patterns to separate motor imagery, signaling movement intention, from a rest control condition. By monitoring the pupil diameter of the user and using this parameter as an additional feature, we show that the performance of the classifier trying to discriminate motor imagery from a control condition improves over the traditional approach using just EEG derived features. Given the limitations of EEG to construct highly robust and reliable BCIs, we postulate that multi-modal approaches, such as the one presented here that monitor several psycho-physiological parameters, can be a successful strategy in making BCIs more accurate and less vulnerable to constraints such as requirements for long training sessions or high signal to noise ratio of electrode channels. PMID:25816285

  20. Improving the Performance of an EEG-Based Motor Imagery Brain Computer Interface Using Task Evoked Changes in Pupil Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Rozado, David; Duenser, Andreas; Howell, Ben

    2015-01-01

    For individuals with high degrees of motor disability or locked-in syndrome, it is impractical or impossible to use mechanical switches to interact with electronic devices. Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can use motor imagery to detect interaction intention from users but lack the accuracy of mechanical switches. Hence, there exists a strong need to improve the accuracy of EEG-based motor imagery BCIs attempting to implement an on/off switch. Here, we investigate how monitoring the pupil diameter of a person as a psycho-physiological parameter in addition to traditional EEG channels can improve the classification accuracy of a switch-like BCI. We have recently noticed in our lab (work not yet published) how motor imagery is associated with increases in pupil diameter when compared to a control rest condition. The pupil diameter parameter is easily accessible through video oculography since most gaze tracking systems report pupil diameter invariant to head position. We performed a user study with 30 participants using a typical EEG based motor imagery BCI. We used common spatial patterns to separate motor imagery, signaling movement intention, from a rest control condition. By monitoring the pupil diameter of the user and using this parameter as an additional feature, we show that the performance of the classifier trying to discriminate motor imagery from a control condition improves over the traditional approach using just EEG derived features. Given the limitations of EEG to construct highly robust and reliable BCIs, we postulate that multi-modal approaches, such as the one presented here that monitor several psycho-physiological parameters, can be a successful strategy in making BCIs more accurate and less vulnerable to constraints such as requirements for long training sessions or high signal to noise ratio of electrode channels. PMID:25816285

  1. Morphological classification of local luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psychogyios, A.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Petty, S. M.; Evans, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We present analysis of the morphological classification of 89 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, using non-parametric coefficients and compare their morphology as a function of wavelength. We rely on images that were obtained in the optical (B- and I-band) as well as in the infrared (H-band and 5.8 μm). Our classification is based on the calculation of Gini and the second order of light (M20) non-parametric coefficients, which we explore as a function of stellar mass (M⋆), infrared luminosity (LIR), and star formation rate (SFR). We investigate the relation between M20, the specific SFR (sSFR) and the dust temperature (Tdust) in our galaxy sample. We find that M20 is a better morphological tracer than Gini, as it allows us to distinguish systems that were formed by double systems from isolated and post-merger LIRGs. The effectiveness of M20 as a morphological tracer increases with increasing wavelength, from the B to H band. In fact, the multi-wavelength analysis allows us to identify a region in the Gini-M20 parameter space where ongoing mergers reside, regardless of the band used to calculate the coefficients. In particular, when measured in the H band, a region that can be used to identify ongoing mergers, with minimal contamination from LIRGs in other stages. We also find that, while the sSFR is positively correlated with M20 when measured in the mid-infrared, i.e. star-bursting galaxies show more compact emission, it is anti-correlated with the B-band-based M20. We interpret this as the spatial decoupling between obscured and unobscured star formation, whereby the ultraviolet/optical size of an LIRG experience an intense dust-enshrouded central starburst that is larger that in the mid-infrared since the contrast between the nuclear to the extended disk emission is smaller in the mid-infrared. This has important implications for high redshift surveys of dusty sources, where sizes of galaxies

  2. Luminal perfusion of isolated gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, S J; Geibel, J; Boron, W F; Modlin, I M

    1994-04-01

    We have extended to rabbit gastric glands the technique for perfusing single isolated renal tubules. We isolated glands by hand dissection and used concentric glass pipettes to hold them and perfuse their lumina. Parietal cells (PCs), which tended to be located toward the gland opening, were identified by their pyramidal shape, large size, and autofluorescence. Chief cells (CCs) were identified by their round shape and smaller size. In some experiments, we perfused the lumen with hydroxypyrenetrisulfonate, a pH-sensitive fluorophore, at pH 7.4 and used digital image processing to monitor luminal pH (pH1). Solutions were buffered with N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid to pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. With fast perfusion, we found no evidence of decreased pH1, even with stimulation by 10 microM carbachol. With slow perfusion, pH1 often fell below the dye's sensitive range (pH < 5), especially at low perfusate buffering power. In other experiments, we loaded cells with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and monitored intracellular pH (pHi) in multiple individual PCs and CCs in a single gland. Mean pHi was 7.21 +/- 0.02 (n = 136 cells) for PCs and 7.27 +/- 0.03 (n = 103) for CCs. To examine the response to decreased pH1 and basolateral pH (pHb), we lowered pHb to 6.4 or lowered pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4. Lowering pHb to 6.4 for approximately 1 min caused pHi to fall reversibly by 0.39 +/- 0.05 (n = 53) in PCs and 0.58 +/- 0.03 (n = 50) in CCs. Lowering pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4 caused no significant pHi changes in PCs (n = 38 and 82) or in CCs (n = 44 and 77). Carbachol did not affect the response to changes in pH1 or pHb. We conclude that the apical surfaces of PCs and CCs are unusually resistant to extreme pH gradients. PMID:8178950

  3. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  4. Behavior Modification and Transfer in an Out-of-Control Classroom. Monograph Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, Michael E. J.; Purnell, Richard F.

    Three hypotheses were tested in this 6-week study: a) training in systematic application of strategies designed to reinforce desirable pupil behavior would enable the teacher to develop and maintain classroom control and increase pupil learning; b) desirable pupil behavior thus produced could be transferred from one classroom to another in which…

  5. Salmonella Transiently Reside in Luminal Neutrophils in the Inflamed Gut

    PubMed Central

    Loetscher, Yvonne; Wieser, Andreas; Lengefeld, Jette; Kaiser, Patrick; Schubert, Sören; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Stecher, Bärbel

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteric pathogens need to grow efficiently in the gut lumen in order to cause disease and ensure transmission. The interior of the gut forms a complex environment comprising the mucosal surface area and the inner gut lumen with epithelial cell debris and food particles. Recruitment of neutrophils to the intestinal lumen is a hallmark of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections in humans. Here, we analyzed the interaction of gut luminal neutrophils with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) in a mouse colitis model. Results Upon S. Tmwt infection, neutrophils transmigrate across the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. We detected a majority of pathogens associated with luminal neutrophils 20 hours after infection. Neutrophils are viable and actively engulf S. Tm, as demonstrated by live microscopy. Using S. Tm mutant strains defective in tissue invasion we show that pathogens are mostly taken up in the gut lumen at the epithelial barrier by luminal neutrophils. In these luminal neutrophils, S. Tm induces expression of genes typically required for its intracellular lifestyle such as siderophore production iroBCDE and the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2). This shows that S. Tm at least transiently survives and responds to engulfment by gut luminal neutrophils. Gentamicin protection experiments suggest that the life-span of luminal neutrophils is limited and that S. Tm is subsequently released into the gut lumen. This “fast cycling” through the intracellular compartment of gut luminal neutrophils would explain the high fraction of TTSS-2 and iroBCDE expressing intra- and extracellular bacteria in the lumen of the infected gut. Conclusion In conclusion, live neutrophils recruited during acute S. Tm colitis engulf pathogens in the gut lumen and may thus actively engage in shaping the environment of pathogens and commensals in the inflamed gut. PMID:22493718

  6. Preference for luminance histogram regularities in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Daniel; Schwarz, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan; Leder, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Natural scene luminance distributions typically have positive skew, and for single objects, there is evidence that higher skew is a correlate (but not a guarantee) of glossiness. Skewness is also relevant to aesthetics: preference for glossy single objects (with high skew) has been shown even in infants, and skewness is a good predictor of fruit freshness. Given that primate vision appears to efficiently encode natural scene luminance variation, and given evidence that natural scene regularities may be a prerequisite for aesthetic perception in the spatial domain, here we ask whether humans in general prefer natural scenes with more positively skewed luminance distributions. If humans generally prefer images with the higher-order regularities typical of natural scenes and/or shiny objects, we would expect this to be the case. By manipulating luminance distribution skewness (holding mean and variance constant) for individual natural images, we show that in fact preference varies inversely with increasing positive skewness. This finding holds for: artistic landscape images and calibrated natural scenes; scenes with and without glossy surfaces; landscape scenes and close-up objects; and noise images with natural luminance histograms. Across conditions, humans prefer images with skew near zero over higher skew images, and they prefer skew lower than that of the unmodified scenes. These results suggest that humans prefer images with luminances that are distributed relatively evenly about the mean luminance, i.e., images with similar amounts of light and dark. We propose that our results reflect an efficient processing advantage of low-skew images over high-skew images, following evidence from prior brain imaging results. PMID:25872178

  7. Study of lumineers' interfaces by means of optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade Borges, Erica; Fernandes Cassimiro-Silva, Patrícia; Osório Fernandes, Luana; Leônidas Gomes, Anderson Stevens

    2015-06-01

    OCT has been used to evaluate dental materials, and is employed here to evaluate lumineers for the first time. Lumineers are used as esthetical indirect restoration, and after wearing and aging, several undesirable features such as gaps, bubbles and mismatch can appear in which would only be seen by invasive analysis. The OCT (spectral domain SD-OCT, 930nm central wavelength) was used to evaluate noninvasively the lumineer- cement-tooth interface. We analyzed 20 specimens of lumineers-teeth that were prepared in bovine teeth and randomly allocated in 4 experimental groups (n=5) with two different cementation techniques and two different types of cementing agent (RelyX U200 and RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE, with the adhesive recommended by the manufacture). The lumineers were made of lithium disilicate and obtained using a vacuum injection technique. The analysis was performed by using 2D and 3D OCT images, obtained before and after cementing and the thermal cycling process to simulate thermal stress in a oral cavity. Initial measurements showed that the SD-OCT was able to see through the 500μm thick lumineer, as delivered by the fabricant, and internal stress was observed. Failures were found in the cementing process and also after ageing simulation by thermal cycling. The adhesive failures as bubbles, gaps and degradation of the cementation line are the natural precursors of other defects reported by several studies of clinical follow-up (detachments, fractures and cracks). Bubble dimensions ranging from 146 μm to 1427 μm were measured and the OCT was validated as an investigative and precise tool for evaluation of the lumineer-cement-tooth.

  8. LED light engine concept with ultra-high scalable luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, Christoph; de Boer, Dick; Bruls, Dominique; van der Eyden, Joost; Koole, Rolf; Li, Yun; Mirsadeghi, Mo; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van den Bergh, John-John; Van de Voorde, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although LEDs have been introduced successfully in many general lighting applications during the past decade, high brightness light source applications are still suffering from the limited luminance of LEDs. High power LEDs are generally limited in luminance to ca 100 Mnit (108 lm/m2sr) or less, while dedicated devices for projection may achieve luminance values up to ca 300 Mnit with phosphor converted green. In particular for high luminous flux applications with limited étendue, like in front projection systems, only very modest luminous flux values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps. In this paper we introduce a light engine concept based on a light converter rod pumped with blue LEDs that breaks through the étendue and brightness limits of LEDs, enabling LED light source luminance values that are more than 4 times higher than what can be achieved with LEDs so far. In LED front projection systems, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green light emitting modules, peak luminance values well above 1.2 Gnit have been achieved, enabling doubling of the screen brightness of LED based DLP projection systems, and even more when this technology is applied to other colors as well. This light source concept, introduced as the ColorSpark High Lumen Density (HLD) LED technology, enables a breakthrough in the performance of LED-based light engines not only for projection, where >2700 ANSI lm was demonstrated, but for a wide variety of high brightness applications.

  9. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. PMID:25943211

  10. Pupillometry reveals increased pupil size during indirect request comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Johanne; Hagoort, Peter; Meyer, Antje S

    2016-06-01

    Fluctuations in pupil size have been shown to reflect variations in processing demands during lexical and syntactic processing in language comprehension. An issue that has not received attention is whether pupil size also varies due to pragmatic manipulations. In two pupillometry experiments, we investigated whether pupil diameter was sensitive to increased processing demands as a result of comprehending an indirect request versus a direct statement. Adult participants were presented with 120 picture-sentence combinations that could be interpreted either as an indirect request (a picture of a window with the sentence "it's very hot here") or as a statement (a picture of a window with the sentence "it's very nice here"). Based on the hypothesis that understanding indirect utterances requires additional inferences to be made on the part of the listener, we predicted a larger pupil diameter for indirect requests than statements. The results of both experiments are consistent with this expectation. We suggest that the increase in pupil size reflects additional processing demands for the comprehension of indirect requests as compared to statements. This research demonstrates the usefulness of pupillometry as a tool for experimental research in pragmatics. PMID:26110545

  11. Effects of luminal glucose versus nonnutritive infusates on jejunal mass and absorption in the rat.

    PubMed

    Richter, G C; Levine, G M; Shiau, Y F

    1983-11-01

    These studies were designed to better understand the effects of luminal nutrition on intestinal mass and function. Parenterally nourished rats received a midjejunal infusion of either 0.9% saline, 10% glucose, 10% 3-O-methyl glucose, or 30% glucose. A fifth group underwent sham operation. After 7 days, intestinal mass and in vitro glucose and leucine uptake were measured in the intestine just distal to the infusion site. Luminal infusion led to greater intestinal mass in all groups compared to controls, but only the 10% and 30% glucose groups had significantly greater overall glucose uptake. Kinetic analysis revealed a greater apparent maximal transport rate in both glucose groups. The 30% glucose group had a greater apparent maximal transport rate for leucine and permeability for glucose and leucine. These data confirmed that "work load," in addition to luminal nutrition, maintains intestinal mass. However, adaptation of intestinal transport is more specific and appears to be regulated both by substrate metabolism and caloric density. PMID:6413290

  12. Background luminance affects the detection of microampere currents delivered to macaque striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Tehovnik, Edward J; Slocum, Warren M

    2009-07-01

    Monkeys detect electrical microstimulation delivered to the striate cortex (area V1). We examined whether the ability of monkeys to detect such stimulation is affected by background luminance. While remaining fixated on a spot of light centered on a monitor, a monkey was required to detect a 100 ms train of electrical stimulation delivered to a site within area V1 situated from 1 to 1.5 mm below the cortical surface. A monkey signaled the delivery of stimulation by depressing a lever after which it was rewarded with a drop of apple juice. Control trials were interleaved during which time no stimulation was delivered and the monkey was rewarded for not depressing the lever. Biphasic pulses were delivered at 200 Hz and the current ranged from 2 to 30 microA using 0.2 ms anode-first biphasic pulses. The background luminance level of the monitor could be varied from 0.005 to 148 cd/m(2). It was found that, for monitor luminance levels below 10 cd/m(2), the current threshold to evoke a detection response increased. We discuss the significance of this result with regard to phosphenes elicited from human V1 and in relation to visual perception. PMID:19558620

  13. Delayed Luminance and Chromatic Contrast Sensitivity in Infants with Spontaneously Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Rain; Robbins, Shira L.; Granet, David B.; Dobkins, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study assessed whether contrast sensitivity is affected in preterm infants with a history of spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, Stages 1–3). Specifically, we employed luminance (light/dark) and chromatic (red/green) stimuli, which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Methods Contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured using forced choice preferential looking testing in 21 infants with a history of ROP and 41 control preterm infants who were born prematurely but did not develop ROP, tested between 8 and 47 weeks (2–11 months) postterm age. Infants were presented with chromatic and luminance drifting sinusoidal gratings, which appeared randomly on the left or right side of the monitor on each trial. The contrast of the stimuli varied across trials and was defined in terms of root mean squared cone contrast for long- and medium-wavelength cones. Results Between 8 and 25 weeks postterm, ROP infants had significantly worse CS, and there was a trend for greater impairment for Luminance than Chromatic CS. This delay was not seen at older ages between 26 and 47 weeks postterm. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the concept that early maturation of the M pathway is vulnerable to biological insult, as in the case of ROP, to a greater extent than is the P pathway. PMID:23744448

  14. Excimer laser absorption on PMMA plate and on cornea: a practical approach using volume luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digulescu, Petre P.; Carstocea, Benone D.; Sterian, Livia

    2001-04-01

    Excimer laser refractive surgery used in Ophthalmology in order to treat the human eye refraction problems has been performed over 10 years around the world. However a systematic approach of the physical phenomena and especially of the absorption on the cornea during the laser treatment is missing in the literature and the doctors are usually using empiric nomograms in order to achieve good results. The theoretical approach is difficult because of the complexity of the phenomena interconnected each to the others. The UV excimer laser beam used to controllably ablate the cornea is highly absorbed in the air and also is supplementary absorbed in the plume generated almost instantaneous as consequence of the ablation on the cornea. Because of this non-linear proces the energy of the laser beam delivered to the eye must be calibrated before each intervention on a patient. The purpose of the present work is to develop a mathematical model of the excimer laser absorption on PMMA and on human cornea based on a new physical notion, the Volume Luminance. The Volume Luminance is defined as volume density of the intensity of laser radiation. A brief theory of the Volume Luminance is also presented.

  15. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weidong; Feng, Yongjia; Holst, Jens J.; Hartmann, Bolette; Yang, Hua; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Small intestine luminal nutrient sensing may be crucial for modulating physiological functions. However, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We used a model of enteral nutrient deprivation, or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), resulting in intestinal mucosal atrophy and decreased epithelial barrier function (EBF). We examined how a single amino acid, glutamate (GLM), modulates intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and EBF. Controls were chow-fed mice, T1 receptor-3 (T1R3)-knockout (KO) mice, and treatment with the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-5 antagonist MTEP. TPN significantly changed the amount of T1Rs, GLM receptors, and transporters, and GLM prevented these changes. GLM significantly prevented TPN-associated intestinal atrophy (2.5-fold increase in IEC proliferation) and was dependent on up-regulation of the protein kinase pAkt, but independent of T1R3 and mGluR5 signaling. GLM led to a loss of EBF with TPN (60% increase in FITC-dextran permeability, 40% decline in transepithelial resistance); via T1R3, it protected EBF, whereas mGluR5 was associated with EBF loss. GLM led to a decline in circulating glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during TPN. The decline was regulated by T1R3 and mGluR5, suggesting a novel negative regulator pathway for IEC proliferation not previously described. Loss of luminal nutrients with TPN administration may widely affect intestinal taste sensing. GLM has previously unrecognized actions on IEC growth and EBF. Restoring luminal sensing via GLM could be a strategy for patients on TPN.—Xiao, W., Feng, Y., Holst, J. J., Hartmann, B., Yang, H., Teitelbaum, D. H. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition. PMID:24497581

  16. Luminal Ca(2+) dynamics during IP3R mediated signals.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Lucia F; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2016-01-01

    The role of cytosolic Ca(2+) on the kinetics of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and on the dynamics of IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signals has been studied at large both experimentally and by modeling. The role of luminal Ca(2+) has not been investigated with that much detail although it has been found that it is relevant for signal termination in the case of Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptors. In this work we present the results of observing the dynamics of luminal and cytosolic Ca(2+) simultaneously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Combining observations and modeling we conclude that there is a rapid mechanism that guarantees the availability of free Ca(2+) in the lumen even when a relatively large Ca(2+) release is evoked. Comparing the dynamics of cytosolic and luminal Ca(2+) during a release, we estimate that they are consistent with a 80% of luminal Ca(2+) being buffered. The rapid availability of free luminal Ca(2+) correlates with the observation that the lumen occupies a considerable volume in several regions across the images. PMID:27232767

  17. An Exponential Luminous Efficiency Model for Hypervelocity Impact into Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, W. R.; Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Cooke, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The flash of thermal radiation produced as part of the impact-crater forming process can be used to determine the energy of the impact if the luminous efficiency is known. From this energy the mass and, ultimately, the mass flux of similar impactors can be deduced. The luminous efficiency, eta, is a unique function of velocity with an extremely large variation in the laboratory range of under 6 km/s but a necessarily small variation with velocity in the meteoric range of 20 to 70 km/s. Impacts into granular or powdery regolith, such as that on the moon, differ from impacts into solid materials in that the energy is deposited via a serial impact process which affects the rate of deposition of internal (thermal) energy. An exponential model of the process is developed which differs from the usual polynomial models of crater formation. The model is valid for the early time portion of the process and focuses on the deposition of internal energy into the regolith. The model is successfully compared with experimental luminous efficiency data from both laboratory impacts and from lunar impact observations. Further work is proposed to clarify the effects of mass and density upon the luminous efficiency scaling factors. Keywords hypervelocity impact impact flash luminous efficiency lunar impact meteoroid 1

  18. Luminance-dependent changes in mesopic visual contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    Spatial and temporal modulation transfer functions have been measured as a function of luminance at scotopic and mesopic levels. It is found that throughout the scotopic range the data can be accounted for by a two process visual system, with the processes having the following properties. Simple excitatory process This mechanism summates over somewhat less than 1 square degree of visual angle and over about 200 msec of time. These properties do not change with luminance, but the over-all sensitivity of the mechanism follows the De Vries—Rose law. The temporal properties of this mechanism follows those of the scotopic b-wave. At high luminances, the temporal, but not spatial, properties of this mechanism break down in a manner which had not been studied. Low-frequency inhibitory process This process is manifest as a decrease in sensitivity from that of the simple excitatory process. Its effect is observed only when both spatial and temporal frequency are low, suggesting that it has a larger (perhaps 3 ×) summation area in both space and time. The inhibitory process is not observed below a certain threshold luminance, which is highly dependent upon the configuration of the stimulus. For a suitable stimulus, this threshold will be well into the scotopic luminance range. It is suggested that these two processes represent psychophysical correlates of the centre and surround of retinal receptive fields. PMID:4702414

  19. Identification of a Novel Luminal Molecular Subtype of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Hassell, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular classification of human breast tumors has afforded insights into subtype specific biological processes, patient prognosis and response to therapies. However, using current methods roughly one quarter of breast tumors cannot be classified into one or another molecular subtype. To explore the possibility that the unclassifiable samples might comprise one or more novel subtypes we employed a collection of publically available breast tumor datasets with accompanying clinical information to assemble 1,593 transcript profiles: 25% of these samples could not be assigned to one of the current molecular subtypes of breast cancer. All of the unclassifiable samples could be grouped into a new molecular subtype, which we termed “luminal-like”. We also identified the luminal-like subtype in an independent collection of tumor samples (NKI295). We found that patients harboring tumors of the luminal-like subtype have a better prognosis than those with basal-like breast cancer, a similar prognosis to those with ERBB2+, luminal B or claudin-low tumors, but a worse prognosis than patients with luminal A or normal-like breast tumors. Our findings suggest the occurrence of another molecular subtype of breast cancer that accounts for the vast majority of previously unclassifiable breast tumors. PMID:25076125

  20. Luminal Ca2+ dynamics during IP3R mediated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Lucia F.; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2016-06-01

    The role of cytosolic Ca2+ on the kinetics of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and on the dynamics of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals has been studied at large both experimentally and by modeling. The role of luminal Ca2+ has not been investigated with that much detail although it has been found that it is relevant for signal termination in the case of Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors. In this work we present the results of observing the dynamics of luminal and cytosolic Ca2+ simultaneously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Combining observations and modeling we conclude that there is a rapid mechanism that guarantees the availability of free Ca2+ in the lumen even when a relatively large Ca2+ release is evoked. Comparing the dynamics of cytosolic and luminal Ca2+ during a release, we estimate that they are consistent with a 80% of luminal Ca2+ being buffered. The rapid availability of free luminal Ca2+ correlates with the observation that the lumen occupies a considerable volume in several regions across the images.

  1. Control of aldehyde synthesis in the luminous bacterium Beneckea harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulitzur, S; Hastings, J W

    1979-01-01

    Some of the Beneckea harveyi dim aldehyde mutants, all of which emit light upon addition of exogenous long-chain aldehyde, also emit light when myristic acid is added. Analysis of these myristic acid-responsive mutants indicates that they are blocked before fatty acid formation, whereas another class of mutants, which respond only to aldehyde, appear to be defective in the enzyme(s) involved in the conversion of acid to aldehyde. Evidence is presented that this activity, designated myristic acid reductase, is coinduced with luciferase and is involved in the recycling of acid produced in the luciferase reaction, with specificity for the C14 compounds. PMID:311359

  2. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-04

    structure formation. In these notes we will leave the discussion of feedback to lecture notes by Ferrara & Salvaterra and by Madau & Haardt in this same book and focus only on the aspects of the formation of the first objects. The advent of cosmological numerical hydrodynamics in particular allow a fresh new look at these questions. Hence, these notes will touch on aspects of theoretical cosmology to chemistry, computer science, hydrodynamics and atomic physics. For further reading and more references on the subject we refer the reader to other relevant reviews such as Barkana & Loeb 2001, and more recently Ciardi & Ferrara 2004, Glover 2004 and Bromm & Larson 2004. In these notes, we try to give a brief introduction to only the most relevant aspects. We will start with a brief overview of the relevant cosmological concepts in section 2, followed by a discussion of the properties of primordial material (with particular emphasis to its cooling and its chemistry) in section 3. We will then review the technique and the results of numerical simulations in sections 4 and 5: the former will deal with detailed 3D simulations of the formation of gaseous clouds which are likely to transform into luminous objects, while the latter will examine results (mostly from 1D codes) about the modalities of such transformation. Finally, in section 6 we will critically discuss the results of the previous sections, examining their consequences and comparing them to our present knowledge of the universe.

  3. Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization on Centrally Obscured Pupils: Design and First Laboratory Demonstration for the Subaru Telescope Pupil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Martinache, Frantz; Guyon, Olivier

    2009-11-01

    High-contrast coronagraphic imaging is challenging for telescopes with central obstructions and thick spider vanes, such as the Subaru Telescope. We present in this article the first laboratory demonstration of a high-efficiency PIAA-type coronagraph on such a pupil, using coronagraphic optics which will be part of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme-AO (SCExAO) system currently under assembly. Lossless pupil apodization is performed by a set of aspheric PIAA lenses specifically designed to also remove the pupil's central obstruction, coupled with a spider removal plate (SRP) which removes spider vanes by translating four parts of the pupil with tilted plane-parallel plates. An "inverse-PIAA" system, located after the coronagraphic focal plane mask, is used to remove off-axis aberrations and deliver a wide field of view. Our results validate the concept adopted for the SCExAO system, and show that the Subaru Telescope pupil can be properly apodized for high-contrast coronagraphic imaging as close as ≈1 λ/D with no loss of sensitivity. We also verify that off-axis aberrations in the system are in agreement with theory, and that the inverse PIAA system recovers a wide usable field of view for exoplanet detection and disks imaging.

  4. Pupil dilation patterns reflect the contents of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Olivia; Wheatley, Thalia

    2015-09-01

    The study of human consciousness has historically depended on introspection. However, introspection is constrained by what can be remembered and verbalized. Here, we demonstrate the utility of high temporal resolution pupillometry to track the locus of conscious attention dynamically, over a single trial. While eye-tracked, participants heard several musical clips played diotically (same music in each ear) and, later, dichotically (two clips played simultaneously, one in each ear). During dichotic presentation, participants attended to only one ear. We found that the temporal pattern of pupil dilation dynamics over a single trial discriminated which piece of music was consciously attended on dichotic trials. Deconvolving these pupillary responses further revealed the real-time changes in stimulus salience motivating pupil dilation. Taken together, these results show that pupil dilation patterns during single-exposure to dynamic stimuli can be exploited to discern the contents of conscious attention. PMID:26002764

  5. Wigner analysis of three dimensional pupil with finite lateral aperture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Oh, Se Baek; Zhai, Xiaomin; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Cao, Liang-Cai; Barbastathis, George; Luo, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) pupil is an optical element, most commonly implemented on a volume hologram, that processes the incident optical field on a 3D fashion. Here we analyze the diffraction properties of a 3D pupil with finite lateral aperture in the 4-f imaging system configuration, using the Wigner Distribution Function (WDF) formulation. Since 3D imaging pupil is finite in both lateral and longitudinal directions, the WDF of the volume holographic 4-f imager theoretically predicts distinct Bragg diffraction patterns in phase space. These result in asymmetric profiles of diffracted coherent point spread function between degenerate diffraction and Bragg diffraction, elucidating the fundamental performance of volume holographic imaging. Experimental measurements are also presented, confirming the theoretical predictions. PMID:25836443

  6. Mapping luminance onto lightness in vision and art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Most natural images span a large range of luminance values, often a thousand-to-one and sometimes a million-to-one (Heckaman and Fairchild, 2009). This luminance range must be mapped by the visual system onto a scale of perceived gray shades (called lightness) with a range of roughly thirty-to-one (90% to 3% reflectance). For the painter who wants to represent this scene on a canvas, the challenge is a bit different. The high-range scene must be represented using pigments with a range of only thirty-to-one. Let's begin with vision. Even without a high range in the scene, understanding the mapping of luminance onto lightness has proven elusive. But we can think of the problem as having two parts: Anchoring and scaling.

  7. Luminance Effects on Neural Mechanism at Photopic Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhao-Qi

    2011-05-01

    In order to obtain the influence of the luminance at photopic level on the neural mechanism, a neural contrast sensitivity function (NCSF) measurement system is established. The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of the visual system and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the eye's optical system are first measured with correspondent instruments respectively. Then the NCSF is calculated as the ratio of CSF to MTF. Four individual eyes are involved in the cases of green light and white light. With increasing luminance, the tendency of the variation of the CSFs is similar to that of the NCSFs, while the gain is larger than that of the NCSFs, especially in the region of higher spatial frequency. It is the NCSF, rather than CSF, that reflects tie luminance sensitivity in the retina-brain neural system, because the influence of the eye's optical system is excluded.

  8. Mesopic luminance assessed with minimally distinct border perception.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2015-01-01

    In photopic vision, the border between two fields is minimally distinct when the two fields are isoluminant; that is, when the achromatic luminance of the two fields is equal. The distinctness of a border between extrafoveal reference and comparison fields was used here as an isoluminance criterion under a variety of adaptation conditions ranging from photopic to scotopic. The adjustment was done by trading off the amount of blue against the amount of red in the comparison field. Results show that isoluminant border settings are linear under all constant adaptation conditions, though varying with state of adaptation. The relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance was modeled such that the linear sum of the suitably weighted scotopic and photopic luminance is constant for the mesopic isoluminant conditions. The relative weights change with adapting intensity in a sigmoid fashion and also depend strongly on the position of the border in the visual field. PMID:26223024

  9. Mesopic luminance assessed with minimally distinct border perception

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2015-01-01

    In photopic vision, the border between two fields is minimally distinct when the two fields are isoluminant; that is, when the achromatic luminance of the two fields is equal. The distinctness of a border between extrafoveal reference and comparison fields was used here as an isoluminance criterion under a variety of adaptation conditions ranging from photopic to scotopic. The adjustment was done by trading off the amount of blue against the amount of red in the comparison field. Results show that isoluminant border settings are linear under all constant adaptation conditions, though varying with state of adaptation. The relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance was modeled such that the linear sum of the suitably weighted scotopic and photopic luminance is constant for the mesopic isoluminant conditions. The relative weights change with adapting intensity in a sigmoid fashion and also depend strongly on the position of the border in the visual field. PMID:26223024

  10. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster.

    PubMed

    Geballe; Najarro; Figer

    2000-02-20

    H- and K-band moderate-resolution and 4 µm high-resolution spectra have been obtained for FMM 362, a bright star in the Quintuplet Cluster near the Galactic center. The spectral features in these bands closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known. The new spectra and previously obtained photometry imply a very high luminosity for FMM 362, L>/=106 L middle dot in circle, and a temperature of 10,000-13,000 K. Based on its luminosity, temperature, photometric variability, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM 362 is a luminous blue variable. PMID:10655174

  11. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation. PMID:19037352

  12. Youtube? SFBTube! - Through pupils to the people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Mareike; Dengg, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Humankind is strongly affected by natural hazards: Earthquakes and volcanoes shake the solid earth, storms and floods happen more and more frequently due to climate change, tsunamis threaten coastal areas. As the human population continues to expand, and stresses on the environment multiply, the need for an understanding of the fundamental issues becomes more urgent. A major task of Collaborative Research Centre "Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" and Collaborative Research Centre "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones" is to explain how the different components of the earth system interact and how they affect the world's population. Both Collaborative Research Centres implement a joint outreach program to communicate their research activities and results to the general public. In doing so, new strategies in public outreach are essential - considering the fast pace of changes in communication media and the increasing importance of edutainment as a way to reach the public and particularly the younger generations. Outreach materials have to be interesting, easy to understand and fun to explore, but without sacrificing the scientific content. Therefore, videos for the internet (e. g. Youtube) are one promising way to reach that target group. Blogs, podcasts, wikis or being part of social networks such as Facebook are further ways. But "being present where young people are" is not enough. You have to speak their language, too. To take another step forward we hence involve a critical part of the target audience actively into this new communication strategy. School students are able to contribute innovative views and their own language in presenting science to the public. In cooperation with pupils and teachers, we experiment with those new approaches to public outreach. Wherever it is possible, we are also making use of international cooperations of both Collaborative Research Centres with partner institutions in Latin America and Western

  13. A Shaped Pupil Lyot Coronagraph for WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Neil; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The baseline WFIRST-AFTA mission concept includes a shaped pupil coronagraph for imaging and spectroscopy of gas giants in nearby planetary systems. Our newest designs optimize over a three-stage Fourier propagation (shaped pupil apodizer, hard-edged focal plane mask, and Lyot stop) to generate small inner working angle (2.5 lambda/D), broadband (20%), high-contrast (< 10^-8) solutions. Here we describe our methods and performance predictions, in anticipation of testbed verification within the coming year.

  14. ESPRESSO APSU: simplify the life of pupil slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conconi, P.; Riva, M.; Pepe, F.; Zerbi, F. M.; Cabral, A.; Cristiani, S.; Megevand, D.; Landoni, M.; Spanó, P.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the Espresso Anamorphic pupil Slicer (APSU) implementation. ESPRESSO, the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations, will be installed on ESOs Very Large Telescope (VLT). In this work we will present the design and trade-off for the pupil slicing system introduced in order to increase the resolving power, effectively decreasing slit width. Its based onto simplified optical component that introduce large anamorphism while keeping low aberrations by means of cylindrical optics. We describe here the trade-off between slicing through two adjacent squared doublets and two achromatic prisms.

  15. Asymmetric effects of luminance and chrominance in the watercolor illusion.

    PubMed

    Coia, Andrew J; Crognale, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when the enclosing line has greater contrast with the background than the line that induces the spreading color. In most prior experiments with watercolor spreading, the luminance of both lines has been lower than the background. An achromatic version of the illusion exists where a dark line will spread while being bounded by either a darker or brighter line. In a previous study we measured the strength of the watercolor effect in which the colored inducing line was isoluminant to the background, and found an illusion for both brighter and darker achromatic outer contours. We also found the strength of spreading is stronger for bluish (+S cone input) colors compared to yellowish (-S cone input) ones, when bounded by a dark line. The current study set out to measure the hue dependence of the watercolor illusion when inducing colors are flanked with brighter (increment) as opposed to darker outer lines. The asymmetry in the watercolor effect with S cone input was enhanced when the inducing contrast was an increment rather than a decrement. Further experiments explored the relationship between the perceived contrast of these chromatic lines when paired with luminance increments and decrements and revealed that the perceived contrast of luminance increments and decrements is dependent on which isoluminant color they are paired with. In addition to known hue asymmetries in the watercolor illusion there are asymmetries between luminance increments and decrements that are also hue dependent. These latter asymmetries may be related to the perceived contrast of the hue/luminance parings. PMID:25309396

  16. Asymmetric effects of luminance and chrominance in the watercolor illusion

    PubMed Central

    Coia, Andrew J.; Crognale, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when the enclosing line has greater contrast with the background than the line that induces the spreading color. In most prior experiments with watercolor spreading, the luminance of both lines has been lower than the background. An achromatic version of the illusion exists where a dark line will spread while being bounded by either a darker or brighter line. In a previous study we measured the strength of the watercolor effect in which the colored inducing line was isoluminant to the background, and found an illusion for both brighter and darker achromatic outer contours. We also found the strength of spreading is stronger for bluish (+S cone input) colors compared to yellowish (−S cone input) ones, when bounded by a dark line. The current study set out to measure the hue dependence of the watercolor illusion when inducing colors are flanked with brighter (increment) as opposed to darker outer lines. The asymmetry in the watercolor effect with S cone input was enhanced when the inducing contrast was an increment rather than a decrement. Further experiments explored the relationship between the perceived contrast of these chromatic lines when paired with luminance increments and decrements and revealed that the perceived contrast of luminance increments and decrements is dependent on which isoluminant color they are paired with. In addition to known hue asymmetries in the watercolor illusion there are asymmetries between luminance increments and decrements that are also hue dependent. These latter asymmetries may be related to the perceived contrast of the hue/luminance parings. PMID:25309396

  17. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  18. Stochastic uncertainty models for the luminance consistency assumption.

    PubMed

    Corpetti, Thomas; Mémin, Etienne

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic formulation of the brightness consistency used in many computer vision problems involving dynamic scenes (for instance, motion estimation or point tracking) is proposed. Usually, this model, which assumes that the luminance of a point is constant along its trajectory, is expressed in a differential form through the total derivative of the luminance function. This differential equation linearly links the point velocity to the spatial and temporal gradients of the luminance function. However, when dealing with images, the available information only holds at discrete time and on a discrete grid. In this paper, we formalize the image luminance as a continuous function transported by a flow known only up to some uncertainties related to such a discretization process. Relying on stochastic calculus, we define a formulation of the luminance function preservation in which these uncertainties are taken into account. From such a framework, it can be shown that the usual deterministic optical flow constraint equation corresponds to our stochastic evolution under some strong constraints. These constraints can be relaxed by imposing a weaker temporal assumption on the luminance function and also in introducing anisotropic intensity-based uncertainties. We also show that these uncertainties can be computed at each point of the image grid from the image data and hence provide meaningful information on the reliability of the motion estimates. To demonstrate the benefit of such a stochastic formulation of the brightness consistency assumption, we have considered a local least-squares motion estimator relying on this new constraint. This new motion estimator significantly improves the quality of the results. PMID:21791410

  19. Probing the luminal microenvironment of reconstituted epithelial microtissues.

    PubMed

    Cerchiari, Alec E; Samy, Karen E; Todhunter, Michael E; Schlesinger, Erica; Henise, Jeff; Rieken, Christopher; Gartner, Zev J; Desai, Tejal A

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric microparticles can serve as carriers or sensors to instruct or characterize tissue biology. However, incorporating microparticles into tissues for in vitro assays remains a challenge. We exploit three-dimensional cell-patterning technologies and directed epithelial self-organization to deliver microparticles to the lumen of reconstituted human intestinal microtissues. We also develop a novel pH-sensitive microsensor that can measure the luminal pH of reconstituted epithelial microtissues. These studies offer a novel approach for investigating luminal microenvironments and drug-delivery across epithelial barriers. PMID:27619235

  20. [Endoscopic management of luminal stenosis in inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; García-Planella, Esther; Moreno De Vega, Vicente; Domènech, Eugeni; Boix, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    Luminal stenosis is frequent in Crohn's disease (CD) due to transmural involvement. Before any endoscopic treatment, the presence of neoplastic stenosis should always be excluded. Endoscopic balloon dilatation has been used in several series to treat benign stenosis, mainly in CD with involvement of the distal ileon, colon or surgical anastomosis, with success rates of 51% to 85%, although recurrence is high. The concomitant use of injected steroids (triamcinolone) after endoscopic dilatation produces longer-lasting results, but there are few published reports. In patients with luminal stenosis refractory to conventional endoscopy, three emerging techniques may be useful: self-expanding metallic stents, biodegradable endoprostheses and intralesional infliximab injection. PMID:22341673

  1. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  2. Fifteen Pupils' Positive Approach to Primary School Science: When Does It Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sarah; Ireson, Gren

    2010-01-01

    The decline in secondary school pupils' attitudes towards science is well documented. However, recent research has shown that pupils' attitudes to science appear to become fixed during their primary school years. This study investigated end of Key Stage 1 (Yr 2 (ages six to seven years)) and end of Key Stage 2 (Yr 6 (ages 10-11 years)) pupils'…

  3. Attitudes of Serbian and Slovenian Student Teachers towards Causes of Learning Underachievement amongst Roma Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The task of initial teacher education is to prepare student teachers (ST) to accept responsibility for improving the education of all pupils, including Roma pupils. Thus, knowledge of ST's attitudes regarding such pupils at the onset of initial teacher education is a key for the creation of teacher education programmes that challenge implicit…

  4. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  5. UK High School Pupils' Conceptions of Geography: Research Findings and Methodological Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores substantive and methodological issues in relation to pupils' conceptions of geography. It draws on an in-depth qualitative study with 13-14-year-old pupils from three secondary schools. Selected pupils were interviewed numerous times about their geography classroom experiences and ideas about the subject in general. A detailed…

  6. The Relationships between Pupils' Learning Styles and Their Performance in Mini Science Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate (i) the relationship between pupils' learning styles and their performance in mini science projects and (ii) the degree of enjoyment of pupils with different learning styles towards mini projects. A total of 80 pupils (7th grade-14 years of age) from two different primary schools participated in the study. The…

  7. Teacher Candidates Speak Out: Exploring Concerns Related to Pupil Learning and Efficacy When Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derosier, Sharline; Soslau, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that teachers' efficacy relates to pupil achievement. Strong efficacy, or a self-belief that one can positively impact pupil learning, is risked when teachers develop concerns related to pupil learning. This study explored the perceived concerns of teacher candidates (N = 3) throughout an eight-week clinical field experience.…

  8. Science Investigation: The Views of 14 to 16 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob; Cleaves, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports research about upper secondary school pupils' views about science investigations in school. Although researchers, teachers and examiners have expressed opinions about investigative work in science, there have been relatively few studies of pupils' experiences. The present study identified pupils' concerns about the limited time…

  9. Attitude Measurement of Pupils with Varying Reading Abilities Semantic Differential Using Concepts Presented by Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francies, Hallie Davis

    Measurement of pupil attitudes can be influenced by the pupil's ability and motivation to read, particularly for those students whose ability is below average. To obtain a valid measure of sixth grade pupil attitudes as they related to Family Life education, the reading factor needed to be eliminated as much as possible. A test utilizing…

  10. Pupil Services - The Team Approach. Part I: The Team. Part II: Record Keeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Toy F.

    This two-part guide recognizes the importance of pupil services to the educational process and presents the pupil services team approach as an effective means of providing comprehensive services to pupils. Part I emphasizes the need for a clear understanding of the team concept and discusses basic rules of a team operation. Various purposes for…

  11. Pupil Guidance: An Integral Part of Teacher Education and Development in Scotland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Hall, Stuart; Hall, John

    2007-01-01

    Many schools throughout the UK are experiencing challenging behaviour from pupils and high levels of absence and exclusion as they seek to implement initiatives aimed at raising pupil attainment [National Audit Office (2005). "Improving school attendance", London: The Stationery Office]. These initiatives often presuppose that pupils will receive…

  12. Gaining Views from Pupils with Autism about Their Participation in Drama Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyd, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Pupils with autism (aged 16-18) were interviewed as part of a study examining the participation of individuals with autism in drama education. This paper reflects on the approaches devised to gain views from ten pupils with autism who communicated in different ways. The procedure for gaining views from the pupils is explained, and the views they…

  13. Guidance for Year 6 Pupils. 2001 Revision. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies are designed to raise standards for all pupils. Though the skills they address are basic and need to be built up throughout the primary years, at the early stage of implementing the strategies, many older pupils will not have reached the standards expected of Year 6 pupils in future years. This…

  14. "What Rough Beast?" Conceptualising the Poetry Teacher in Ireland through the Eyes of the Pupil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Jennifer; Mannix McNamara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Pupils have a significant contribution to make in the construction of knowledge about teaching and learning in schools. Therefore, consultation with pupils should play a significant role in the pursuit of pedagogical advancement. This study explores pupils' conceptions of effective poetry teachers at Leaving Certificate level in Ireland. Taking a…

  15. Consistent and Inconsistent Pupils' Reasoning about Intensive Quantities: The Case of Density and Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassoulopoulos, Georgios; Kariotoglou, Petros; Koumaras, Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    Investigates whether pupils aged 12-15 years perceive physical quantities as intensive or extensive. Written questionnaires were administered to 300 pupils comprising four tasks for each intensive quantity, density and pressure. Analysis reveals three models of consistent pupils' reasoning. (Author/SOE)

  16. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  17. Linking Pupil and Teacher Competence in Reading and Mathematics in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article reports results derived from the national study of Grade 5 in Vietnamese primary schools in which teachers and pupils took tests in reading and mathematics. The test data were calibrated so that teacher and pupil results could be mapped onto the same continuum. Results showed that the overlapping tests for teachers and pupils were…

  18. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  19. Pupils' Image of "The Scientist" among Two Communities in Israel: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koren, Pazit; Bar, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The image of "the scientist" and its effect on the willingness to be a scientist and to follow a career in science were investigated in two different cultural populations of elementary and junior high school pupils in Israel: Hebrew-speaking (secular) pupils (N = 390) and Arabic-speaking Bedouin pupils (N = 185). Five different tools were employed…

  20. School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…