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Sample records for luminance controlled pupil

  1. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M.; Fein, G.; Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F.

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  2. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.M. ); Fein, G. ); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. )

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  3. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  4. Personality and Pupil Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray

    Pupil control behavior is conceptualized as a continuum ranging from custodialism, which views students as irresponsible and undisciplined and needing strictness and punishment, to humanism, which emphasizes a democratic atmosphere in which students are capable of self-discipline and are treated accordingly. The theoretical framework for this…

  5. Pupil Control As an Institutional Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    This study of pupil control attitudes was based on the assumption that public school teachers and college education instructors hold divergent views on pupil control. These divergent views would then be imposed on the preservice teachers. The Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) Scale and the Dogmatism Scale, Form E, were randomly distributed to 100…

  6. Pupil Control as an Institutional Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Differences in attitudes toward pupil control between university educators and cooperating pupil school teachers were measured to determine if student teachers might be receiving conflicting sets of expectations. The results of the study confirm that college supervisors have a more humanistic attitude toward pupil control than cooperating teachers…

  7. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    Pupil control is regarded as an integrative theme to explain the collection of extensive observations made in schools. This report attempts to define and measure pupil control behavior, a companion concept to pupil control ideology. (Author/WM)

  8. The effect of controlled photopigment excitations on pupil aperture.

    PubMed

    Viénot, Françoise; Bailacq, Solenne; Rohellec, Jean Le

    2010-09-01

    In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains melanopsin which has been identified recently in the body and dendrites of a few ganglion cells. The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are good candidates for controlling the tonic pupil aperture but their spectral sensitivity is close to those of rods and S-cones which are other candidates. Our study aims at identifying the stimulus for the pupil response when the luminance is constant and the spectrum of the light changes. A light booth was equipped with five types of coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs): Blue, Cyan, Green, Orange and Red. The intensity of each LED type could be adjusted to control the light spectrum. Illumination pairs were prepared ensuring the exclusive variation of excitation of one receptor type and silent substitution for others. Because the range of the possible controlled changes of excitation was narrow, we also prepared illumination pairs ensuring silent substitution for luminance rather than for L-cones and M-cones independently. Photographs of the observer's eyes were taken following one minute of adaptation to each illumination and the ratio of pupil to iris diameter was measured. No differential pupillary response was observed with a variation of rod, melanopsin or S-cone excitation alone. A differential pupillary response could only be obtained with a variation of the melanopsin stimulus of sufficient high contrast with or without a concurrent variation of rods. PMID:20883331

  9. Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Nankivil, Derek; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Lujan, Brandon J.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the collection efficiency of back-scattered light, and to minimize aberrations and vignetting, the lateral position of the scan pivot of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal scanner should be imaged to the center of the ocular pupil. Additionally, several retinal structures including Henle’s Fiber Layer (HFL) exhibit reflectivities that depend on illumination angle, which can be controlled by varying the pupil entry position of the OCT beam. In this work, we describe an automated method for controlling the lateral pupil entry position in retinal OCT by utilizing pupil tracking in conjunction with a 2D fast steering mirror placed conjugate to the retinal plane. We demonstrate that pupil tracking prevents lateral motion artifacts from impeding desired pupil entry locations, and enables precise pupil entry positioning and therefore control of the illumination angle of incidence at the retinal plane. We use our prototype pupil tracking OCT system to directly visualize the obliquely oriented HFL. PMID:26417510

  10. Teacher Militancy and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Charles E.; Willower, Donald J.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that highly militant teachers would favor strict control of students was tested using the Attitudinal Militancy Scale and the Pupil Control Ideology Form. Responses from 229 secondary school teachers from six school districts in the northeastern United States did not support the hypothesis. (PP)

  11. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    An attempt is made to define and measure pupil control "behavior." In order to measure pupil control behavior, an instrument called the Pupil Control Behavior (PCB) Form was developed and tested. The 31 custodial and 34 humanistic items were randomized, and the initial version of the PCB Form was administered in 20 schools in Illinois (13…

  12. Some Comments on Inquiries on Schools and Pupil Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.

    This speech, by the co-author of a bibliography of studies of pupil control, reviews literature on that subject, differentiating between studies on Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) and Pupil Control Behavior (PCB), describing instances of their interrelationship, and weighing the various merits of PCI and PCB instruments. The author concludes that…

  13. Teacher Pupil Control Ideology--Behavior Congruence and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.; Heckert, J. Wayne

    The hypothesis that teacher pupil control ideology-behavior congruence would be positively related to teacher job satisfaction was tested. The rationale for the hypothesis was that teachers whose beliefs and behaviors concerning pupil control were consistent would be likely to be contented with their work. Pupil control was seen as a central…

  14. Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Lee O.; Seitz, Reynolds C.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses recent court litigation concerning legal rights and responsibilities of pupils covering procedural due process, grooming and appearance, regulation of speech and publications, liability for pupil injuries, and racial integration. (JF)

  15. Educators' Pupil-Control Ideology as a Predictor of Educator's Reactions to Pupil Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenburg, Fred C.

    Given the importance of pupil control in the school's social system, it would seem reasonable to predict a significant relationship between educators' pupil control ideology and their reactions to disruptive behavior incidents. This study examines whether humanistically oriented educators would prefer to levy less punitive measures on disruptive…

  16. Pupil Control Ideology and Teacher Influence in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Ronald

    A study investigated whether pupil control ideology of teachers differentially affected their operational behavior in the classroom. Elementary school teachers employed in a suburban St. Louis district (N=260) responded to the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI). From this group 20 were selected to comprise two experimental groups: those with…

  17. Are Creative Teachers More Humanistic in Their Pupil Control Ideologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Gerald; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the verbal creative thinking abilities of fluency, flexibility, and originality are negatively related to authoritarian pupil control orientations as measured by the Pupil Control Ideology Form (Willower, Eidell & Hoy, 1967). (Author/RK)

  18. Pupil Control Ideology among Prospective South African and Indian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherian, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of teacher training programmes is to instil a humanistic ideology into the school curriculum. Unfortunately however, this is not always able to change the culture of a school. The Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) scale was designed to measure the pupil control orientation of the respondents (teachers) on a humanistic-custodial continuum.…

  19. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    This chapter reviews 1982 cases involving pupils. Such cases increased one-third in 1982, with much of the increase attributable to litigation concerning the rights of handicapped students. A 1982 U.S. Supreme Court case defining the congressional mandate of an "appropriate education" for such students may help reduce the controversy in this area.…

  20. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.; Bielsky, Donald J.

    Litigation having to do with pupils occurred with greater frequency in 1980 than in the past. The greatest increase dealt with the handicapped and with substantive rights of students. Cases involving handicapped students generally focused on parent requests for residential treatment, extended-year programs, and in-class assistance for their…

  1. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    This chapter reviews court decisions in education during 1986 that addressed issues related to student rights and the jurisdiction of schools with respect to pupils. The first section of the review covers the issues of public school assignment, tuition, transportation, and compulsory attendance. This is followed by short discussions of cases…

  2. Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufler, Henry S., Jr.

    Cases involving searches of public school pupils in order to obtain evidence of drug sales or use, and litigation challenging the punishments meted out to students found with drugs, continued to occupy the attention of courts in 1989. Also continuing a trend seen in previous years, religion-based challenges to state regulation of both home…

  3. Pupil Control Ideology: Comparative Perspectives--United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalian, A.

    1979-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the Pupil Control Ideology Scale (PCI) and the sex of the teacher, level of teaching (preschool, elementary, secondary), as well as level of school bureaucracy based on the Moeller scale. (Author/RTS)

  4. The Relationship of Pupil Control Ideology to Students' Rights Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lynn

    As a result of increased court intervention in favor of students' rights, a review of a sample of teachers concerning their attitudes about student control was examined. Taking into consideration the teachers' attitudes concerning student rights, the Pupil Control Ideology test and the Students' Rights Acceptance Scale were used as measurement…

  5. Pupil Control Ideology and the Salience of Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The explanatory power of the combined biographical variables of teacher age, experience, sex, organizational status, and academic qualifications for variances in pupil control ideology (PCI) is seriously questioned, since as little as 6 percent of PCI variance may be explained by reference to these particular variables. (Author)

  6. Faculty Informal Structure, Pupil Control Ideology and Pluralistic Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Louis J.; Willower, Donald J.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 296 faculty members completed three versions of the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) form and a sociometric scale. Findings revealed positive relationships between the individual teacher's PCI and his perception of the PCI both of members of his informal group and of teachers in the school district. (Author)

  7. High School Mathematics Teachers: Grading Practice and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicmanec, Karen Mauck; Johanson, George; Howley, Aimee

    Survey data gathered from 230 respondents from a random sample of 500 Ohio public school teachers explores the association between teachers' practice of assigning grades based on nonachievement grading factors and teachers' pupil control orientation (PCI). Responding high school mathematics teachers provided information that relates to the use of…

  8. The Relationship between Pupil Control Ideology and Academic Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between pupil control ideology and academic optimism. Information was generated through responses to a questionnaire emailed to teachers in two school districts in Central New Jersey. The districts were categorized GH, as determined by the State's district factor grouping. The research concludes that…

  9. Pupil Control Ideology as a Source of Stress: The Student Teacher's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan R.

    One type of adaptation made by each student teacher is the development of attitudes toward controlling pupils. The student teachers' attitudes toward pupil control may be at odds with those of other educators and this difference in attitude, particularly in the case of the cooperating teacher, can cause stress. Attitudes toward pupil control can…

  10. An Investigation into the Test Reliability of the Pupil Control Ideology Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Patrick V.; Byrd-Gaffney, Sharon

    The Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI) is one of the major instruments used by researchers interested in the study of school climate. Pupil control is a central feature of the organizational life of schools, and each school appears to have a prevailing ideology of pupil control. The PCI is a self-report instrument used to measure an educator's…

  11. The Relationship Between the Change in Pupil Control Ideology of Student Teachers and the Student Teachers's Perception of the Cooperating Teacher's Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Blankenship, Jacob W.

    A sample of 108 elementary student teachers was administered the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI Form) before and after student teaching. The student teachers' perceptions of their cooperating teachers' pupil control ideology were measured using a modification of the same form. "Socialization pressure," the difference between the student's…

  12. Integrated Luminal and Cytosolic Aspects of the Calcium Release Control

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Irina

    2003-01-01

    We propose here a unitary approach to the luminal and cytosolic control of calcium release. A minimal number of model elements that realistically describe different data sets are combined and adapted to correctly respond to various physiological constraints. We couple the kinetic properties of the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor/calcium channel with the dynamics of Ca2+ and K+ in both the lumen and cytosol, and by using a detailed simulation approach, we propose that local (on a radial distance ∼2 μm) calcium oscillations in permeabilized cells are driven by the slow inactivation of channels organized in discrete clusters composed of between six and 15 channels. Moreover, the character of these oscillations is found to be extremely sensitive to K+, so that the cytosolic and luminal calcium variations are in or out of phase if the store at equilibrium has tens or hundreds μM Ca2+, respectively, depending on the K+ gradient across the reticulum membrane. Different patterns of calcium signals can be reproduced through variation of only a few parameters. PMID:12609854

  13. A Comparison of Pupil Control Iedology of Science and Non-Science Secondary Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan R.

    This paper examines data on pupil control ideology (PCI) from two separate research studies involving secondary student teachers. A comparison was made of the results of the studies contrasting two student teaching populations: (1) eight weeks science (N=19) and (2) sixteen weeks non-science (N=22). The pupil control ideology of the secondary…

  14. Teachers' Theoretical Orientations toward Reading and Pupil Control Ideology: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Timothy G.; Wilcox, Brad; Madrigal, J. L.; Roberts, Susan; Hintze, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Examines relationships between 418 elementary school teachers' theoretical beliefs toward reading instruction and their attitudes about pupil control. Uses the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile (TORP) and the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI) for data collection. Finds as teachers' scores moved toward the whole language end of the TORP…

  15. Development of Teachers' Theoretical Orientations toward Reading and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Timothy G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines relationships between theoretical beliefs toward reading instruction and attitudes about pupil control. Uses the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile (TORP) and Pupil Control Ideology (PCI). Finds that (1) as teachers moved toward the whole language end of the TORP scale, PCI scores were more humanistic; and (2) teachers oriented…

  16. Preservice Students' Attitudes toward Pupil Control as They Develop throughout the Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Joyce E.; McIntyre, D. John

    This study used repeated measures of the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) instrument to examine the change in student teacher orientation toward pupil control ideology occurring during a three semester field experience. The instrument was given to elementary and secondary education majors at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale five different…

  17. A Correlation of Biology Teachers' Pupil Control Ideology and Their Classroom Teaching Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paul L.; Blankenship, Jacob W.

    The Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI Form) and the Biology Classroom Activity Checklist (BCAC) were used to determine the relationship between teachers' stated pupil control ideology and the extent to which their students reported the use of inquiry methods in the classroom. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 168 teachers and…

  18. A Test Reliability Analysis of an Abbreviated Version of the Pupil Control Ideology Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Patrick V.

    A reliability analysis was conducted of an abbreviated, 10-item version of the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), using the Cronbach's alpha technique (L. J. Cronbach, 1951) and the computation of the standard error of measurement. The PCI measures a teacher's orientation toward pupil control. Subjects were 168 preservice teachers from one private…

  19. THE SCHOOL AND PUPIL CONTROL IDEOLOGY. THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY STUDIES, NUMBER 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILLOWER, DONALD J.; AND OTHERS

    QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES FROM EDUCATORS IN 13 URBAN, SUBURBAN, AND RURAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS (12 IN PENNSYLVANIA AND ONE IN NEW YORK STATE) WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE INFLUENCE OF ROLE AND PERSONALITY FACTORS IN THE PUPIL CONTROL IDEOLOGY OF PUBLIC SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS. PUPIL CONTROL IDEOLOGY WAS CONCEPTUALIZED AS A CONTINUUM, RANGING FROM…

  20. A Study of Pupil Control Ideology: A Person-Oriented Approach to Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Responses of urban school teachers to the Pupil Control Ideology questionnaire were studied using Latent Class Analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that the best fitting model to the data is a two-cluster solution. In particular, the pupil control ideology of the sample delineates into two clusters of teachers, those with humanistic and…

  1. Assessing Visual Delays using Pupil Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Stark (1962) demonstrated vigorous pupil oscillations by illuminating the retina with a beam of light focussed to a small spot near the edge of the pupil. Small constrictions of the pupil then are sufficient to completely block the beam, amplifying the normal relationship between pupil area and retinal illuminance. In addition to this simple and elegant method, Stark also investigated more complex feedback systems using an electronic "clamping box" which provided arbitrary gain and phase delay between a measurement of pupil area and an electronically controlled light source. We have replicated Stark's results using a video-based pupillometer to control the luminance of a display monitor. Pupil oscillations were induced by imposing a linear relationship between pupil area and display luminance, with a variable delay. Slopes of the period-vs-delay function for 3 subjects are close to the predicted value of 2 (1.96-2.39), and the implied delays range from 254 to 376 508 to 652 milliseconds. Our setup allows us to extend Stark's work by investigating a broader class of stimuli.

  2. The Relationship Between Student Alienation and Extent of Faculty Agreement on Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearin, Wiley H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Results supported hypothesis that schools with high agreement among staff on pupil control ideology would have less student alienation than those schools with low agreement. A 20-item, multiple-choice instrument was used to measure humanistic or custodial teacher orienation and the Kolesar's Pupil Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ) to measure student…

  3. Characteristics of Master Teachers: Personality Factors, Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Rozanne; Lipka, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of differences among 29 secondary school teachers rated by 501 secondary school students, other teachers, and administrators as master teachers or rated as not-so-masterful found no significant differences in teacher locus of control, pupil control ideology, and self-concept but did find differences in personality factors. (SLD)

  4. Pupils' Self-Perceptions: The Role of Teachers' Judgment Controlling for Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressoux, Pascal; Pansu, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to study the relationship between teachers' judgment and pupils' self-perceptions controlling for the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Three studies were conducted among third-grade pupils. Study 1 (n = 585) focused on pupils' perceptions of their scholastic competence. Teachers' judgment and BFLPE were found to have an…

  5. Job Satisfaction of the Public School Teacher, A Function of Subculture Consensus with Respect to Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuskiewicz, Vincent D.; Donaldson, William S.

    This empirical study evaluated several factors believed to be related to job satisfaction: teachers' own attitudes toward pupil control, teachers' perceptions of their colleagues and, principals' attitudes toward pupil control. Coefficients of correlation,, t-tests of selected variables, and multivariate regression techniques were used in testing…

  6. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  7. An Analysis of the Dimensionality of the Pupil Control Ideology Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The present study replicated an earlier investigation using the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI). The findings were congruent with earlier results. Consequently, it was recommended that the PCI should be refined and that the 10 item, unidimensional scale should be used in future investigations. (Author/LMO)

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Pupil Control Ideology: The Custodializing Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn; Morton, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study is to examine the impact of primarily bureaucratic socialization; and demographic, experiential, and philosophical orientations (beliefs about key educational concepts) variables on teacher candidates' pupil control ideology (PCI) during a pre-service teacher education program. The relationship between…

  9. The Relationships between Pupil Control Ideology, Self-Concept and Teacher Personality: Dimensions of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; And Others

    A study examined the personality characteristics and self-concepts of 110 teachers-in-training to see how these variables related to the subjects' humanistic versus authoritarian orientations toward pupil control. It was found that the humanistically oriented educators tended to be emotionally stable, realistic, expedient, happy-go-lucky,…

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Other Predictors of Pupil Control Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn W.; Morton, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine a variety of demographic, experiential, and philosophical orientation variables that may be predictive of pupil control ideologies (PCI) for teacher candidates at the beginning of a pre-service program. In particular, it sets out to provide empirically grounded generalizations regarding the relationship between…

  11. Researcher-Identified and Emergent Predictors of Pupil Control Ideologies: A Canadian Beginning Teacher Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn; Windle, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to identify the direction of pupil control ideology (PCI) shifts during participants' beginning teaching years, and (b) to identify a broader range of "emergent" (participant-identified) predictors of PCI that beginning teachers saw as accounting for the tendency for their classroom learning…

  12. The First Five Years of Teaching. Their Effect on Pupil Control Ideology and Commitment to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, John T.

    This paper reports some findings of a longitudinal study of a group of teachers during their final year of teacher training in 1972 through their first five years of teaching. The two features focused upon as indices of socialization are pupil control ideology and commitment to teaching. The major characteristics that are analyzed are sex,…

  13. Histone Demethylase KDM6A Controls the Mammary Luminal Lineage through Enzyme-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Wang, Chaochen; Robinson, Gertraud W; Ge, Kai; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2016-08-15

    Establishment of the mammary luminal cell lineage is controlled primarily by hormones and through specific transcription factors (TFs). Previous studies have linked histone methyltransferases to the differentiation of mammary epithelium, thus opening the possibility of biological significance of counteracting demethylases. We have now demonstrated an essential role for the H3K27me3 demethylase KDM6A in generating a balanced alveolar compartment. Deletion of Kdm6a in the mammary luminal cell lineage led to a paucity of luminal cells and an excessive expansion of basal cells, both in vivo and in vitro The inability to form structurally normal ducts and alveoli during pregnancy resulted in lactation failure. Mutant luminal cells did not exhibit their distinctive transcription factor pattern and displayed basal characteristics. The genomic H3K27me3 landscape was unaltered in mutant tissue, and support for a demethylase-independent mechanism came from mice expressing a catalytically inactive KDM6A. Mammary tissue developed normally in these mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments demonstrated KDM6A binding to putative enhancers enriched for key mammary TFs and H3K27ac. This study demonstrated for the first time that the mammary luminal lineage relies on KDM6A to ensure a transcription program leading to differentiated alveoli. Failure to fully implement this program results in structurally and functionally impaired mammary tissue. PMID:27215382

  14. Tourette Syndrome: Complementary Insights from Measures of Cognitive Control, Eyeblink Rate, and Pupil Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Jordan A.; Wendelken, Carter; Mathews, Carol A.; Marco, Elysa J.; Schreier, Herbert; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) have severe motoric and vocal tics that interfere with all aspects of their lives, while others have mild tics that pose few problems. We hypothesize that observed tic severity reflects a combination of factors, including the degree to which dopaminergic (DA) and/or noradrenergic (NE) neurotransmitter systems have been affected by the disorder, and the degree to which the child can exert cognitive control to suppress unwanted tics. To explore these hypotheses, we collected behavioral and eyetracking data from 26 patients with TS and 26 controls between ages 7 and 14, both at rest and while they performed a test of cognitive control. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use eyetracking measures in patients with TS. We measured spontaneous eyeblink rate as well as pupil diameter, which have been linked, respectively, to DA and NE levels in the central nervous system. Here, we report a number of key findings that held when we restricted analyses to unmedicated patients. First, patients’ accuracy on our test of cognitive control accounted for fully 50% of the variance in parentally reported tic severity. Second, patients exhibited elevated spontaneous eyeblink rates compared to controls, both during task performance and at rest, consistent with heightened DA transmission. Third, although neither task-evoked pupil dilation nor resting pupil diameter differed between TS patients and controls, pupil diameter was positively related to parentally reported anxiety levels in patients, suggesting heightened NE transmission in patients with comorbid anxiety. Thus, with the behavioral and eyetracking data gathered from a single task, we can gather objective data that are related both to tic severity and anxiety levels in pediatric patients with TS, and that likely reflect patients’ underlying neurochemical disturbances. PMID:26175694

  15. Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-03-22

    We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression.

  16. Tailoring of Luminous Transmittance upon Switching for Thermochromic VO2 Films by Thickness Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Jin, Ping; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki

    2004-01-01

    The difference in luminous transmittance (Δ Tlum) upon switching of VO2 films strongly affects its solar controllability when used as a thermochromic window. It was found that Δ Tlum is controllable by film thickness. Optical calculation for a VO2 film on quartz glass revealed that the low-temperature semiconductor phase exhibits lower Tlum than the high-temperature metallic phase for thickness below 50 nm, while the relationship is reversed above 50 nm. The calculation was confirmed by film deposition and measurement. Maximum Δ Tlum is located near 80 nm. An enhanced Δ Tlum contributes largely to solar efficiency.

  17. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  18. Beam control for LINC-NIRVANA: from the binocular entrance pupil to the combined focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T.; Trowitzsch, J.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. To meet the tight requirements that result from long exposure interferometric imaging over a large field of view, active control beyond fringe tracking and adaptive optics has to be in place in the telescope and in the instrument domain. The incoming beams of the binocular telescope have to be controlled along the entire optical path, from the entrance pupil to the combined focal plane. The beams have to coincide in the focal plane of the science detector, their pointing origins, offsets, orientations, plate scales, and distortions have to match each other and must not change during the observation. Non-common path effects between AO and science channel, flexure and thermal effects have to be compensated and offioading requests from the adaptive optics and fringe tracking systems have to be arbitrated without introducing unwanted optical path length differences or changes in the geometry of the binocular entrance pupil. Beam Control aspects include pointing, co-pointing and field derotation, active optics and collimation control. In this presentation, the constraints for coherent imaging over a 1.5 arcminute field of view are discussed together with a concept for a distributed control scheme.

  19. Orientation detection of a single molecule using pupil filter with electrically controllable polarization pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the orientation of single molecules using a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope with a polarization filter consisting of a polarizer and a compact polarization mode converter. The polarization filter electrically controls the pattern of polarization filtering. Since the polarization of the fluorescence from a single molecule highly depends on the angle between the observation direction and the molecular direction, polarization pattern filtering at the pupil plane of the objective lens allows the orientation of a single molecule to be visualized. Using this system, we demonstrated the orientation detection of single molecules.

  20. Parafoveal Target Detectability Reversal Predicted by Local Luminance and Contrast Gain Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Beard, Bettina L.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    This project is part of a program to develop image discrimination models for the prediction of the detectability of objects in a range of backgrounds. We wanted to see if the models could predict parafoveal object detection as well as they predict detection in foveal vision. We also wanted to make our simplified models more general by local computation of luminance and contrast gain control. A signal image (0.78 x 0.17 deg) was made by subtracting a simulated airport runway scene background image (2.7 deg square) from the same scene containing an obstructing aircraft. Signal visibility contrast thresholds were measured in a fully crossed factorial design with three factors: eccentricity (0 deg or 4 deg), background (uniform or runway scene background), and fixed-pattern white noise contrast (0%, 5%, or 10%). Three experienced observers responded to three repetitions of 60 2IFC trials in each condition and thresholds were estimated by maximum likelihood probit analysis. In the fovea the average detection contrast threshold was 4 dB lower for the runway background than for the uniform background, but in the parafovea, the average threshold was 6 dB higher for the runway background than for the uniform background. This interaction was similar across the different noise levels and for all three observers. A likely reason for the runway background giving a lower threshold in the fovea is the low luminance near the signal in that scene. In our model, the local luminance computation is controlled by a spatial spread parameter. When this parameter and a corresponding parameter for the spatial spread of contrast gain were increased for the parafoveal predictions, the model predicts the interaction of background with eccentricity.

  1. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  2. Pupil shaping and coherence control in an EUV mask-imaging microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Benk, Markus P.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2013-09-01

    We are investigating the effect of pupil-fill patterns and partial coherence settings on EUV reticle images on the new SEMATECH High-NA Actinic Reticle review Project (SHARP), to deepen our understanding of its performance, and improve the emulation of image formation in arbitrary printing tools. SHARP is an EUV mask microscope developed as the successor of the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT). It is equipped with a unique, MEMS-based Fourier synthesis illuminator that generates arbitrary, customized pupil fill patterns to control the illumination partial coherence. The high-magnification objective lenses are an array of interchangeable Fresnel zoneplates with 4×NA values ranging from 0.25 to 0.625. We have used SHARP to inspect isolated and dense features with half pitch as low as 55 nm using lenses with a range of NA values, and common illumination patterns, such as annular, dipole and QUASAR™. We will show the effect of illumination on important, measured pattern parameters, including contrast, normalized image log-slope, and depth of focus. We have also studied the effect of partial coherence on the imaging of on multilayer roughness observed in bright mask regions, a topic important for expanding our understanding of the causes of LER.

  3. miR-221/222 control luminal breast cancer tumor progression by regulating different targets

    PubMed Central

    Dentelli, Patrizia; Traversa, Matteo; Rosso, Arturo; Togliatto, Gabriele; Olgasi, Cristina; Marchiò, Caterina; Provero, Paolo; Lembo, Antonio; Bon, Giulia; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Falcioni, Rita; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2014-01-01

    α6β4 integrin is an adhesion molecule for laminin receptors involved in tumor progression. We present a link between β4 integrin expression and miR-221/222 in the most prevalent human mammary tumor: luminal invasive carcinomas (Lum-ICs). Using human primary tumors that display different β4 integrin expression and grade, we show that miR-221/222 expression inversely correlates with tumor proliferating index, Ki67. Interestingly, most high-grade tumors express β4 integrin and low miR-221/222 levels. We ectopically transfected miR-221/222 into a human-derived mammary tumor cell line that recapitulates the luminal subtype to investigate whether miR-221/222 regulates β4 expression. We demonstrate that miR-221/222 overexpression results in β4 expression downregulation, breast cancer cell proliferation, and invasion inhibition. The role of miR-221/222 in driving β4 integrin expression is also confirmed via mutating the miR-221/222 seed sequence for β4 integrin 3′UTR. Furthermore, we show that these 2 miRNAs are also key breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion regulators, via the post-transcriptional regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) and of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM-17). We further confirm these data by silencing ADAM-17, using a dominant-negative or an activated STAT5A form. miR-221/222-driven β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 did not occur in MCF-10A cells, denoted “normal” breast epithelial cells, indicating that the mechanism is cancer cell-specific.   These results provide the first evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism that regulates β4 integrin, STAT5A, and ADAM-17 expression, thus controlling breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Pre-miR-221/222 use in the aggressive luminal subtype may be a powerful therapeutic anti-cancer strategy. PMID:24736554

  4. Large pupils predict goal-driven eye movements.

    PubMed

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Siebold, Alisha; Donk, Mieke; Vitu, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Here we report that large pupils predict fixations of the eye on low-salient, inconspicuous parts of a visual scene. We interpret this as showing that mental effort, reflected by a dilation of the pupil, is required to guide gaze toward objects that are relevant to current goals, but that may not be very salient. When mental effort is low, reflected by a constriction of the pupil, the eyes tend to be captured by high-salient parts of the image, irrespective of top-down goals. The relationship between pupil size and visual saliency was not driven by luminance or a range of other factors that we considered. Crucially, the relationship was strongest when mental effort was invested exclusively in eye-movement control (i.e., reduced in a dual-task setting), which suggests that it is not due to general effort or arousal. Our finding illustrates that goal-driven control during scene viewing requires mental effort, and that pupil size can be used as an online measure to track the goal-drivenness of behavior. PMID:25867221

  5. Cognitive and Ocular Factors Jointly Determine Pupil Responses under Equiluminance

    PubMed Central

    Brascamp, Jan; Nuiten, Stijn; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic) changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic) pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software. PMID:27191166

  6. Cognitive and Ocular Factors Jointly Determine Pupil Responses under Equiluminance.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Tomas; de Gee, Jan Willem; Brascamp, Jan; Nuiten, Stijn; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic) changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic) pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software. PMID:27191166

  7. Participation of health workers, school teachers and pupils in the control of rheumatic fever: evaluation of a training programme.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S D; Grover, A; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Wahi, P L

    1992-07-01

    In a rural community block of north India we initiated a programme for control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD). This included a training campaign for all 74 health workers, 773 school teachers and 12,500 older pupils (class V to X) to enable them to suspect and refer cases of RF/RHD and counsel them about secondary prophylaxis. Training material was used by project staff, medical officers and teachers to convey that this serious disease with onset between 5 and 15 years can be recognized by four simple criteria: fever with joint pain or swelling; breathlessness and fatigue; involuntary face and limb movements. One year later we evaluated awareness generated by training by administering a questionnaire to random samples in the intervention area and in a noncontiguous control area. Health workers, teachers and pupils of the intervention block were significantly better aware of the nature, severity and presentation of the disease and reported having recognized cases whom they had referred for diagnosis, prophylaxis and counselled for follow up. We conclude that a training protocol incorporating simple messages can effectively create practical awareness for RF/RHD control among teachers, health workers and pupils in a rural community. PMID:1428137

  8. Microbial sensing by goblet cells controls immune surveillance of luminal antigens in the colon.

    PubMed

    Knoop, K A; McDonald, K G; McCrate, S; McDole, J R; Newberry, R D

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of luminal substances across the intestinal epithelium to the immune system is a critical event in immune surveillance, resulting in tolerance to dietary antigens and immunity to pathogens. How this process is regulated is largely unknown. Recently goblet cell-associated antigen passages (GAPs) were identified as a pathway delivering luminal antigens to underlying lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells in the steady state. Here, we demonstrate that goblet cells (GCs) form GAPs in response to acetylcholine (ACh) acting on muscarinic ACh receptor 4. GAP formation in the small intestine was regulated at the level of ACh production, as GCs rapidly formed GAPs in response to ACh analogs. In contrast, colonic GAP formation was regulated at the level of GC responsiveness to ACh. Myd88-dependent microbial sensing by colonic GCs inhibited the ability of colonic GCs to respond to Ach to form GAPs and deliver luminal antigens to colonic LP-antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Disruption of GC microbial sensing in the setting of an intact gut microbiota opened colonic GAPs, and resulted in recruitment of neutrophils and APCs and production of inflammatory cytokines. Thus GC intrinsic sensing of the microbiota has a critical role regulating the exposure of the colonic immune system to luminal substances. PMID:25005358

  9. Pupil Transportation Cost Control Opportunities. Public Affairs Focus, Issue Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponessa, Joan M.

    The New Jersey State government could reduce pupil transportation aid payments to local school districts by between $35 million and $50 million by eliminating support for questionable expenditures and by using the funding formula adopted in the Quality Education Act of 1990. This report describes how these dollar savings can be achieved. The major…

  10. Simultaneous color and luminance control of organic light-emitting diodes for mood-lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhnen, Anne; Meerholz, Klaus; Hagemann, Malte; Brinkmann, Matthias; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using polymer blends as a single emissive layer often suffer from large color shifts with changing operational voltage. Until now, such devices cannot stand the critical demands of lighting industry. In this contribution, we introduce a pulse-width-modulation-based driver concept, enabling the user to simultaneously and independently adjust color and luminance of a single device with two contacts. This concept makes color-shifting OLEDs highly interesting for "mood-light" applications.

  11. Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollar, Dewey H.

    The purpose of this NEFP satellite study is to provide an overview of pupil transportation. The first phase of the study discusses the early legal and financial bases for student transportation, the second the current status of student transportation, and the third the future status of student transportation needs and financing for 1980.…

  12. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate's diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  13. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate’s diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  14. Wave-Optics Analysis of Pupil Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Bos, Brent J.

    2006-01-01

    Pupil imaging performance is analyzed from the perspective of physical optics. A multi-plane diffraction model is constructed by propagating the scalar electromagnetic field, surface by surface, along the optical path comprising the pupil imaging optical system. Modeling results are compared with pupil images collected in the laboratory. The experimental setup, although generic for pupil imaging systems in general, has application to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) optical system characterization where the pupil images are used as a constraint to the wavefront sensing and control process. Practical design considerations follow from the diffraction modeling which are discussed in the context of the JWST Observatory.

  15. Investigation of color constancy in 4.5-month-old infants under a strict control of luminance contrast for individual participants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined color constancy in infants using a familiarization paradigm. We first obtained isoluminance in each infant as defined by the minimum motion paradigm and used these data to control the luminance of stimuli in the main experiments. In the familiarization phase of the main experiment, two identical smiling face patterns were presented side by side in surrounding patches of various colors, presented on a computer-controlled display. The colors in the stimuli simulated the chromaticity of color chips (OSA uniform color scale) under a certain illuminant. The chromaticity of the whole pattern was changed to simulate illuminant color changes in the test phase except for one of the smiling face patterns that preserved its chromaticity and luminance. If infants had color constancy, they would perceive the face without any change in the chromaticity and luminance as a novel object surface and would show preference for it. Two types of illuminant changes were applied, from 6500 to 10,000 K and from 6500 to 4500 K, in correlated color temperature. The luminance contrast between the background and the face patterns remained constant across the illuminant changes. Our results showed that 4.5-month-old infants preferred the pattern that did not change its chromaticity under both types of illuminant color changes. This finding suggests that 4.5-month-olds may have color constancy under the strict control of luminance contrast. PMID:23419408

  16. Luminous presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The Luminous Presence project examines the use of standard film language in the framing, angle and of points of view of holographic subjects though eight digital holographic stereograms; seven 25 x 25 cm, Hail, Water, Rain, Snow, Sun, Text, Imprint and 1.5 x 1 m, Luminous Presences i. However, before embarking on a discussion of how filmic language can be used in digital holograms it is first important to explain why this line of investigation could be fruitful. Undoubtedly several of the compositional practices which sprung up and evolved throughout the development of the diverse forms of the holographic medium have contributed to a unique hologram pictorial language, however it is well known that the reading of visual imagery of any type relies a great deal on the viewer's knowledge of and experience of other images .The lens-recorded imagery of film is a far more familiar language than that of holograms and the correlation between certain filmic pictorial conventions and emotional responses are well documented and understood. ii . In short the language of film contains a highly nuanced vocabulary of shot types and lens types (which may be criticised as being formulaic) yet are effective in lending emotion to figures.

  17. [Pupil and melanopsin photoreception].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    photoreceptor cells, and to evaluate the relative contribution of pupil light response using the control, instigated pharmacological blockade of neurotransmission (PB) model and a transgenic model of retinal degeneration (Tg) rabbit. Although rod and cone photoreceptors disappeared in the PB and Tg models, miosis was still induced during exposure to blue light (470 nm). The greater sustained constriction of pupils to blue light in eyes with outer retinal damage reflects mRGC activation. Our study also indicated that some histologically-identified RGCs were consistent with the characteristics and structures of mRGC. Clinically, in age-related macular degeneration patients, there was no reliable recordable pupil response to red light, even at the brightest intensity but a blue light evoked a sustained pupil constriction. However, in glaucoma patients, there was no reliable recordable pupil response to the brightest intensity of blue light. These preliminary recordings in human subjects demonstrate that changes in the pupil responses to chromatic stimuli are readily detectable and easily quantifiable with standard instruments of clinical testing. We hypothesize that changes in the transient pupil response to red light and low intensity blue light may be more sensitive to cone and rod disease, whereas changes in the sustained pupil response to bright blue light may be more sensitive to optic nerve disease. Ongoing studies of the pupil are aimed at optimizing stimulus conditions that elicit pupil responses that can better localize the site of damage to rods, cones, and RGCs, to quantify the extent of disease. PMID:23631256

  18. Pupil Control Ideology and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Assessment. A Paper Presented to the National Association of Elementary School Principals, April, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleberry, James B.

    The school is viewed as a social system, composed of human beings interlocked in a network of social relationships and possessing a system of shared orientations which serve as standards for human behavior. Two related concepts are discussed: (1) pupil control ideology, conceptualized along a continuum ranging from "custodialism" to "humanism;"…

  19. The Effects of Parental Involvement, Trust in Parents, Trust in Students and Pupil Control Ideology on Conflict Management Strategies of Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Mehmet; Savas, Ahmet Cezmi

    2012-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the effects of parental involvement, teachers' trust in parents and students, and teachers' pupil control ideology on the conflict management strategies used by teachers in classroom management. Data were collected from a sample of 254 teachers through paper and pencil questionnaires. Data were analyzed with…

  20. Beginning Teachers' Pupil Control Ideologies: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Beliefs about Education, Mentorship, Induction, and Principal Leadership Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Glenn; Windle, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study examined changes in beginning teachers' pupil control ideologies (PCI). Quantitative analyses were conducted with regard to shifts in PCI that may be associated with internal beliefs about education and with external factors such as mentorship, induction programs, and school leadership style. Follow-up interviews facilitated a…

  1. Investigation of Color Constancy in 4.5-Month-Old Infants under a Strict Control of Luminance Contrast for Individual Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined color constancy in infants using a familiarization paradigm. We first obtained isoluminance in each infant as defined by the minimum motion paradigm and used these data to control the luminance of stimuli in the main experiments. In the familiarization phase of the main experiment, two identical smiling face patterns…

  2. Eye Movement Control during Scene Viewing: Immediate Effects of Scene Luminance on Fixation Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, John M.; Nuthmann, Antje; Luke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on eye movements during scene viewing has primarily focused on where the eyes fixate. But eye fixations also differ in their durations. Here we investigated whether fixation durations in scene viewing are under the direct and immediate control of the current visual input. Subjects freely viewed photographs of scenes in preparation…

  3. A binocular pupil model for simulation of relative afferent pupil defects and the swinging flashlight test.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Claudio M; Stark, Lawrence W

    2006-03-01

    Many important intracranial neural pathways are involved in the control of the two muscles of the human pupil and the observation and analysis of pupil responses to light or other stimuli is of great interest in many clinical procedures. The binocular pupil model presented in this document has a topology encompassing much of the complexity of the pupil system neurophysiology. The dynamic parameters of the model were matched against pupil experiments under multiple conditions. It is employed here to simulate responses to the swinging flashlight test, a procedure which is routinely practiced in ophthalmology to diagnose different degrees of relative afferent pupil defects often a consequence of severe optic nerve diseases or retinal dysfunctions. Other, not light-dependent, pupil stimuli are briefly discussed. PMID:16404612

  4. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  5. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. PMID:25754528

  6. Pupil size and social vigilance in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ebitz, R. Becket; Pearson, John M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Complex natural environments favor the dynamic alignment of neural processing between goal-relevant stimuli and conflicting but biologically salient stimuli like social competitors or predators. The biological mechanisms that regulate dynamic changes in vigilance have not been fully elucidated. Arousal systems that ready the body to respond adaptively to threat may contribute to dynamic regulation of vigilance. Under conditions of constant luminance, pupil diameter provides a peripheral index of arousal state. Although pupil size varies with the processing of goal-relevant stimuli, it remains unclear whether pupil size also predicts attention to biologically salient objects and events like social competitors, whose presence interferes with current goals. Here we show that pupil size in rhesus macaques both reflects the biological salience of task-irrelevant social distractors and predicts vigilance for these stimuli. We measured pupil size in monkeys performing a visual orienting task in which distractors—monkey faces and phase-scrambled versions of the same images—could appear in a congruent, incongruent, or neutral position relative to a rewarded target. Baseline pupil size under constant illumination predicted distractor interference, consistent with the hypothesis that pupil-linked arousal mechanisms regulate task engagement and distractibility. Notably, pupil size also predicted enhanced vigilance for social distractors, suggesting that pupil-linked arousal may adjust the balance of processing resources between goal-relevant and biologically important stimuli. The magnitude of pupil constriction in response to distractors closely tracked distractor interference, saccade planning and the social relevance of distractors, endorsing the idea that the pupillary light response is modulated by attention. These findings indicate that pupil size indexes dynamic changes in attention evoked by both the social environment and arousal. PMID:24834026

  7. The Pupil Premium: Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The pupil premium was introduced by the Coalition government in April 2011 to provide additional funding for disadvantaged pupils. The main difference between the premium and previous funding for disadvantaged pupils is that the premium is linked to individual pupils. On July 1, 2015, The Pupil Premium Summit organized by the Education Endowment…

  8. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  9. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  10. Issues in Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    The primary purpose of this book is to present the critical issues in pupil transportation that will confront pupil transportation supervisors in local school districts. The following issues are discussed: (1) demands for extended service from community pressure groups; (2) reductions in budget requests by governing bodies; (3) unrest among driver…

  11. Pupils' Definitions of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Suzanne; Hennessy, Eilis

    2002-01-01

    Although there has been a growing interest in research on bullying in the last decade the majority of studies have used definitions of bullying and victimisation derived from researchers' perceptions of the problem. The aim of the present study was to examine pupils' definitions of bullying in school. The participants were 166 pupils in the top…

  12. Integrating Physically Handicapped Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Intended for regular class teachers working with mainstreamed physically handicapped pupils, the article offers guidelines regarding school organization, conditions directly affecting the pupil, and classroom considerations. A brief review of the major conditions (such as allergies, cerebral palsy, and muscular dystrophy) is presented. (CL)

  13. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  14. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  15. An investigation of pupil-based cognitive load measurement with low cost infrared webcam under light reflex interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyuan; Epps, Julien; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Using the task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) to index cognitive load can contribute significantly to the assessment of memory function and cognitive skills in patients. However, the measurement of pupillary response is currently limited to a well-controlled lab environment due to light reflex and also relies heavily on expensive video-based eye trackers. Furthermore, commercial eye trackers are usually dedicated to gaze direction measurement, and their calibration procedure and computing resource are largely redundant for pupil-based cognitive load measurement (PCLM). In this study, we investigate the validity of cognitive load measurement with (i) pupil light reflex in a less controlled luminance background; (ii) a low-cost infrared (IR) webcam for the TEPR in a controlled luminance background. ANOVA results show that with an appropriate baseline selection and subtraction, the light reflex is significantly reduced, suggesting the possibility of less constrained practical applications of PCLM. Compared with the TEPR from a commercial remote eye tracker, a low-cost IR webcam achieved a similar TEPR pattern and no significant difference was found between the two devices in terms of cognitive load measurement across five induced load levels. PMID:24110409

  16. Binocular luminence interactions due to near responses at suprathreshold conditions: psychophysical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, J. M.; Jimenez, J. R.; Del Barco, L. J.; Hita, Enrique

    2001-08-01

    Binocular and monocular finger reaction times were measured for circular broad-band stimuli for natural and artificial pupils. Luminance polarity changes were presented at the fovea respect to a reference stimulus under suprathreshold conditions. As in previous studies, binocular reaction times were shorter than monocular with both pupil types. Nevertheless, this binocular summation effect was less marked with the artificial case, becoming more pronounced for dark variations. These result suggest that the near- responses mechanism at the peristriate area of the occipital and at the inferior parietal lobe could support an important role on luminance interactions within the visuomotor pathway.

  17. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  18. Pupil projects involving satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G.

    1984-05-01

    The techniques used by pupils at Kettering School, UK, to monitor the USSR space program (using NASA-supplied NORAD radar data and radio transmissions from the spacecraft) are reviewed, and some results are summarized. The main methods used by the pupils include plotting plane spacings, determining orbital periods, and monitoring transmissions from meteorological and navigation satellites and cosmonaut voice communications. The programs covered are briefly characterized, and a glossary of terms is provided.

  19. Pupil size in diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Karavanaki, K; Davies, A G; Hunt, L P; Morgan, M H; Baum, J D

    1994-01-01

    Sympathetic function was studied in 101 diabetic children and 102 age and sex matched control children, as part of a longitudinal study of the evolution of microvascular disease in the population of diabetic children and adolescents in Avon County. The median (range) age of the diabetic population was 13.5 (6.0-17.2) years, the duration of diabetes was 4.0 (0.4-13.9) years, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1) was 10.9 (7.0-18.1)%. Pupillary adaptation in darkness, as an index of sympathetic neuropathy, was measured using a Polaroid portable pupillometer. Diabetic children had a significantly smaller median pupillary diameter, measured as the pupil/iris ratio and expressed as a percentage, than control children (median (range) 62.9 (50.3-72.1) v 65.9 (52.2-73.8)). Pupillary diameter was significantly related to diabetes duration (r = -0.22), HbA1 (r = -0.34), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.25), diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.49), and mean albumin/creatinine ratio on random urine samples (r = -0.26). Pupillary diameter was not related to age (r = -0.1). Eight (7.9%) diabetic and four (3.9%) control children were identified as having abnormal pupillary dilation in darkness. In comparison with the rest of the diabetic population, these diabetic children had longer diabetes duration and poorer glycaemic control. Polaroid pupillometry has demonstrated subclinical autonomic neuropathy in a population of diabetic children and adolescents. These abnormalities were related to poor metabolic control, long diabetes duration, and also to other indices of microvascular disease. PMID:7726610

  20. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics systems typically include an optical relay that simultaneously images the science field to be corrected and also a set of pupil planes conjugate to the deformable mirror of the system. Often, in the optical spaces where DM's are placed, the pupils are aberrated, leading to a displacement and/or distortion of the pupil that varies according to field position--producing a type of anisoplanatism, i.e., a degradation of the AO correction with field angle. The pupil aberration phenomenon is described and expressed in terms of Seidel aberrations. An expression for anisoplanatism as a function of pupil distortion is derived, an example of an off-axis parabola is given, and a convenient method for controlling pupil-aberration-generated anisoplanatism is proposed.

  1. Planning and Measuring Luminance Contrast in Staircases.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D; Gundersen, Kristoffer; Strengen, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian legislation has requirements concerning luminance contrast for different elements in staircases. This paper investigates how architects work to meet the requirements, how to measure the actual built luminance contrasts and finally 21 staircases are measured using two different methods. The results show that some architects do not reflect on luminance contrasts at all, some use their "experience" and some try to measure the reflectance value of different materials during planning. The investigations also reveal that there is not any official predefined way to control luminance contrast, and this investigation shows that different approaches will give different results. To perform the measuring of the built staircases, it has been necessary to develop a defined measuring method. The results of the measuring generally shows that only a few of the staircases studied fully meet the legislation requirements. PMID:27534331

  2. Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Magdalena M.; Frei, Luisa S.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18–79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m2. We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

  3. On the necessity of correcting peripheral target luminance for pupillary area

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, H.E.; Katz, L.M.

    1982-10-01

    Despite the decrease in pupillary area for peripheral targets, retinal illuminance remains fairly constant to about 80 deg visual angle. Constant illuminance is maintained in the retinal periphery because the light that enters the pupil is concentrated into smaller retinal images. The correction of the peripheral target luminances for pupillary area is therefore unnecessary except under certain conditions.

  4. Results of a Survey of Pupils and Teachers Regarding Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max

    To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…

  5. Faith Schools and Pupils' Progress through Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshanew, Tilaye; Schagen, Ian; Evans, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The impact of faith schools on the performance and progress of their pupils has been studied using data from the National Pupil Database (NPD). The value-added analysis was carried out using multilevel modelling, controlling for prior attainment as well as a range of background variables, including ethnicity, sex, eligibility for free school meals…

  6. Frequency analysis of a task-evoked pupillary response: Luminance-independent measure of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Causse, Mickaël; Scannella, Sébastien; Dehais, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Pupil diameter is a widely-studied cognitive load measure, which, despite its convenience for non-intrusive operator state monitoring in complex environments, is still not available for in situ measurements because of numerous methodological limitations. The most important of these limitations is the influence of pupillary light reflex. Hence, there is the need of providing a pupil-based cognitive load measure that is independent of light conditions. In this paper, we present a promising technique of pupillary signal analysis resulting in luminance-independent measure of mental effort that could be used in real-time without a priori on luminous conditions. Twenty-two participants performed a short-term memory task under different screen luminance conditions. Our results showed that the amplitude of pupillary dilation due to load on memory was luminance-dependent with higher amplitude corresponding to lower-luminance condition. Furthermore, our experimentation showed that load on memory and luminance factors express themselves differently according to frequency. Therefore, as our statistical analysis revealed, the ratio between low (0-1.6 Hz) and high frequency (1.6-4 Hz) bands (LF/HF ratio) of power spectral densities of pupillary signal is sensitive to the cognitive load but not to luminance. Our results are promising for the measurement of load on memory in ecological settings. PMID:25941013

  7. Teacher Development and Pupil Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flutter, Julia

    2007-01-01

    The principle of "pupil voice" has attained a high profile over the past decade and its key principles of encouraging pupil consultation and participation are evident in official policy and guidance in many countries around the world. While there has been official endorsement of the notions that pupils have a right to voice their opinions and…

  8. Learning a Musical Instrument: The Influence of Interpersonal Interaction on Outcomes for School-Aged Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in recent years have increasingly placed an emphasis on seeking pupils' perceptions of educational settings. Alongside this shift towards attaching value to the pupil viewpoint has been a growing interest concerning how interpersonal relationships, manifested as control or responsiveness between teachers and pupils or parents and…

  9. Pupil diameter reflects uncertainty in attentional selection during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Joy J.; Blumenfeld, Zachary; Tyson, Terence L.; Minzenberg, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Pupil diameter has long been used as a metric of cognitive processing. However, recent advances suggest that the cognitive sources of change in pupil size may reflect LC-NE function and the calculation of unexpected uncertainty in decision processes (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005; Yu and Dayan, 2005). In the current experiments, we explored the role of uncertainty in attentional selection on task-evoked changes in pupil diameter during visual search. We found that task-evoked changes in pupil diameter were related to uncertainty during attentional selection as measured by reaction time (RT) and performance accuracy (Experiments 1-2). Control analyses demonstrated that the results are unlikely to be due to error monitoring or response uncertainty. Our results suggest that pupil diameter can be used as an implicit metric of uncertainty in ongoing attentional selection requiring effortful control processes. PMID:26300759

  10. Cryogenic Pupil Alignment Test Architecture for Aberrated Pupil Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Kubalak, David A.; Antonille, Scott; Ohl, Raymond; Hagopian, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A document describes cryogenic test architecture for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) integrated science instrument module (ISIM). The ISIM element primarily consists of a mechanical metering structure, three science instruments, and a fine guidance sensor. One of the critical optomechanical alignments is the co-registration of the optical telescope element (OTE) exit pupil with the entrance pupils of the ISIM instruments. The test architecture has been developed to verify that the ISIM element will be properly aligned with the nominal OTE exit pupil when the two elements come together. The architecture measures three of the most critical pupil degrees-of-freedom during optical testing of the ISIM element. The pupil measurement scheme makes use of specularly reflective pupil alignment references located inside the JWST instruments, ground support equipment that contains a pupil imaging module, an OTE simulator, and pupil viewing channels in two of the JWST flight instruments. Pupil alignment references (PARs) are introduced into the instrument, and their reflections are checked using the instrument's mirrors. After the pupil imaging module (PIM) captures a reflected PAR image, the image will be analyzed to determine the relative alignment offset. The instrument pupil alignment preferences are specularly reflective mirrors with non-reflective fiducials, which makes the test architecture feasible. The instrument channels have fairly large fields of view, allowing PAR tip/tilt tolerances on the order of 0.5deg.

  11. THE TOTAL LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY OF LUMINOUS BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E N

    1925-09-18

    Methods are described for measuring the light emitted by an emulsion of luminous bacteria of given thickness, and calculating the light emitted by a single bacterium, measuring 1.1 x 2.2 micra, provided there is no absorption of light in the emulsion. At the same time, the oxygen consumed by a single bacterium was measured by recording the time for the bacteria to use up .9 of the oxygen dissolved in sea water from air (20 per cent oxygen). The luminescence intensity does not diminish until the oxygen concentration falls below 2 per cent, when the luminescence diminishes rapidly. Above 2 per cent oxygen (when the oxygen dissolving in sea water from pure oxygen at 760 mm. Hg pressure = 100 per cent) the bacteria use equal amounts of oxygen in equal times, while below 2 per cent oxygen it seems very likely that rate of oxygen absorption is proportional to oxygen concentration. By measuring the time for a tube of luminous bacteria of known concentration saturated with air (20 per cent oxygen) to begin to darken (2 per cent oxygen) we can calculate the oxygen absorbed by one bacterium per second. The bacteria per cc. are counted on a blood counting slide or by a centrifugal method, after measuring the volume of a single bacterium (1.695 x 10(-12) cc.). Both methods gave results in good agreement with each other. The maximum value for the light from a single bacterium was 24 x 10(-14) lumens or 1.9 x 10(-14) candles. The maximum value for lumen-seconds per mg. of oxygen absorbed was 14. The average value for lumen-seconds per mg. O(2) was 9.25. The maximum values were selected in calculating the efficiency of light production, since some of the bacteria counted may not be producing light, although they may still be using oxygen. The "diet" of the bacteria was 60 per cent glycerol and 40 per cent peptone. To oxidize this mixture each mg. of oxygen would yield 3.38 gm. calories or 14.1 watts per second. 1 lumen per watt is therefore produced by a normal bacterium which

  12. Pupils' Attitudes to Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynas, Wendy

    1986-01-01

    A study involving interviews on mainstreaming with 50 hearing impaired, and 40 non impaired students as well as 45 teachers revealed problems for ordinary pupils (including disruption in their own education), for handicapped students (including excessive noise levels), and teachers (including requirements of extra time). (CL)

  13. Pupil Evaluation Team Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ray; And Others

    This handbook is designed to assist educators in Maine to implement the Pupil Evaluation Team (PET) process. PET is described as a group composed of parents, school professionals, and representatives of agencies responsible for determining special education needs of exceptional students. Chapters deal with: (1) the role of the PET chairperson…

  14. Pupil Transportation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anthony R.

    The safest means of transportation in the United States is the school bus fleet. Each school day, over 350,000 school buses transport about 22,000,000 children ages 3 to 21--from wheelchair pupils to varsity football players--to and from school in weather conditions ranging from those for Fairbanks, Alaska, to those typical of Cave Creek, Arizona.…

  15. Make pupils young researchers!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouhier, Armelle

    2015-04-01

    With the 2011 educational reform in France, a new course has been created in secondary schools : Methods & Practices in Science (MPS). The main goal was to improve the pupils working methods in science, including laboratory and field works. In addition, the pedagogy develops pupils autonomy and creativity, a key factor in a research process. Three teachers are working together (Mathematics, Physics and Geology-Biology), showing how different disciplines complement one another. Eventually, this is aimed at attracting more students in scientific sections. This course is optional, in the "seconde" class in French secondary schools (i.e., for 15 years old students). For the next class, they will have to choose between scientific, economic and literature sections : it is a useful option for them to decide which section has their preference. In my high-school in Clermont-Ferrand, we have chosen a research subject on hydrogeology & water quality improvement in region "Auvergne". The pupils will have to develop and set up appropriate tools to check and improve the water quality, related to different disciplines : - Geology & Biology: hydrogeology, effects of different pollutants on aquatic life, solutions to improve water quality (example of the natural water treatment zone in the lake of "Aydat, Auvergne, France"). - Physics & Chemistry: water potability criteria, pollution tests in water, water treatment plants working. - Mathematics: algorithm development, modeling on excel of the dispersion of pollutants The pedagogy of this course is new in French high-schools : pupils work in groups of three, so as to develop cooperation and autonomy. The teachers give the guidelines at the beginning of each working session, and answer the students questions when necessary. The evaluation is competence-based : instead of a mark, which is the main evaluation method in France, the pupils have to evaluate their own skills. Then, the teachers make an evaluation, and the global process is

  16. Estrogen Receptor α Controls a Gene Network in Luminal-Like Breast Cancer Cells Comprising Multiple Transcription Factors and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cicatiello, Luigi; Mutarelli, Margherita; Grober, Oli M.V.; Paris, Ornella; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Ravo, Maria; Tarallo, Roberta; Luo, Shujun; Schroth, Gary P.; Seifert, Martin; Zinser, Christian; Luisa Chiusano, Maria; Traini, Alessandra; De Bortoli, Michele; Weisz, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Luminal-like breast tumor cells express estrogen receptor α (ERα), a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that controls their proliferation, survival, and functional status. To identify the molecular determinants of this hormone-responsive tumor phenotype, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was performed in estrogen stimulated MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 cells by integrating time-course mRNA expression profiling with global mapping of genomic ERα binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel sequencing, microRNA expression profiling, and in silico analysis of transcription units and receptor binding regions identified. All 1270 genes that were found to respond to 17β-estradiol in both cell lines cluster in 33 highly concordant groups, each of which showed defined kinetics of RNA changes. This hormone-responsive gene set includes several direct targets of ERα and is organized in a gene regulation cascade, stemming from ligand-activated receptor and reaching a large number of downstream targets via AP-2γ, B-cell activating transcription factor, E2F1 and 2, E74-like factor 3, GTF2IRD1, hairy and enhancer of split homologue-1, MYB, SMAD3, RARα, and RXRα transcription factors. MicroRNAs are also integral components of this gene regulation network because miR-107, miR-424, miR-570, miR-618, and miR-760 are regulated by 17β-estradiol along with other microRNAs that can target a significant number of transcripts belonging to one or more estrogen-responsive gene clusters. PMID:20348243

  17. The Most Luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Woosley, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations have revealed a stunning diversity of extremely luminous supernovae, seemingly increasing in radiant energy without bound. We consider simple approximate limits for what existing models can provide for the peak luminosity and total radiated energy for non-relativistic, isotropic stellar explosions. The brightest possible supernova is a Type I explosion powered by a sub-millisecond magnetar with field strength B ∼ few × {10}13 G. In extreme cases, such models might reach a peak luminosity of 2× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and radiate a total energy of up to 4× {10}52 {erg}. Other less luminous models are also explored, including prompt hyper-energetic explosions in red supergiants, pulsational-pair instability supernovae, pair-instability supernovae, and colliding shells. Approximate analytic expressions and limits are given for each case. Excluding magnetars, the peak luminosity is near 3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 for the brightest models and the corresponding limit on total radiated energy is 3× {10}51 {erg}. Barring new physics, supernovae with a light output over 3× {10}51 erg must be rotationally powered, either during the explosion itself or after, the most obvious candidate being a rapidly rotating magnetar. A magnetar-based model for the recent transient event, ASASSN-15lh is presented that strains, but does not exceed the limits of what the model can provide.

  18. Pupil-Led Historical Enquiry: What Might This Actually Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The current National Curriculum for history requires pupils to "identify and investigate specific historical questions, making and testing hypotheses for themselves". While Kate Hammond relished the encouragement that this gave to her pupils to engage in the process of historical enquiry, she was keen to develop a much clearer sense of what…

  19. Analysis of Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Reacting to Pupil Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Gary M.; Kleucker, Joy

    Teacher-pupil interaction is an integral part of most classroom instruction. A teacher frequently initiates an interaction by making a statement or by asking a question about the lesson. The statement or question is then typically followed by a student response. Though the value of pupil-teacher interaction has often been extolled, interactions…

  20. SCOPE OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ECKERSON, LOUISE OMWAKE; SMITH, HYRUM M.

    PART I OF THIS PAMPHLET DESCRIBES THE INTERPROFESSIONAL RESEARCH COMMISSION ON PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES, WHICH WAS STARTED IN 1962 BY THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND FINANCED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH FOR A 5-YEAR PROGRAM. THE REST OF THE PAMPHLET DEALS WITH STATISTICS AND SPECIFIC PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES. OF THE 60,000…

  1. Pupil Participation and Curriculum Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadas, Jayashree; Kulkarni, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated relationship between lesson content and participation of pupils in rural India primary schools. Spontaneous participation in teacher-directed classrooms (N=136) was shown to be correlated with time spent by teachers in relating textbook content to pupils' natural experience. Experiments and teaching aids were also useful in drawing…

  2. Lidar Luminance Quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard; DeMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses challenges in lidar imaging, particularly with the detection scheme and the shapes of the detected signals. Ideally, the echoed pulse widths should be extremely narrow to resolve fine detail at high event rates. However, narrow pulses require wideband detection circuitry with increased power dissipation to minimize thermal noise. Filtering is also required to shape each received signal into a form suitable for processing by a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) followed by a time-to-digital converter (TDC). As the intervals between the echoes decrease, the finite bandwidth of the shaping circuits blends the pulses into an analog signal (luminance) with multiple modes, reducing the ability of the CFD to discriminate individual events

  3. What Are the Earth and the Heavenly Bodies Like? A Study of Objectual Conceptions among Norwegian Deaf and Hearing Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roald, Ingvild; Mikalsen, Oyvind

    2000-01-01

    Addresses deaf pupils' conceptions of directly-observed phenomena of the earth and sky. Studies 7-, 9-, 11-, and 17-year-old deaf pupils and uses 9-year-old Norwegian pupils with normal hearing as the control group. Reports that the children's conceptions are scientifically accepted. Indicates that the shape of the sign representing an object may…

  4. A binocular pupil model for simulation of relative afferent pupil defect, RAPD.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Claudio M; Stark, Lawrence W

    2004-01-01

    The human pupil is an important element studied in many clinical procedures. The binocular pupil model presented has a topology encompassing much of the complexity of the pupil system neurophysiology. The dynamic parameters of the model were matched against pupil experiments under multiple conditions. It simulates responses to the swinging flashlight test for different degrees of relative afferent pupil defects, RAPD. PMID:17271776

  5. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR).

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Pearson, Candice A; Anderson, Alexandra M; Zele, Andrew J; Feigl, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent models. PMID:26620343

  6. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Pearson, Candice A.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Zele, Andrew J.; Feigl, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent models. PMID:26620343

  7. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  8. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  9. Pupils' perceptions of a good teacher: a developmental perspective from Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Kutnick, P; Jules, V

    1993-11-01

    The study reports on a large-scale survey of pupils' perceptions of a good teacher in the Caribbean republic of Trinidad and Tobago. An essay-based, interpretive mode of research was used to elicit and identify constructs used by pupils between ages 7 and 17. The sample was a proportional, stratified, clustered, yet randomly selected representation of primary and secondary schools across the two islands. 1633 essays were content analysed and coded for age developmental comparison. Factor analysis showed no consistent underlying groupings of the 166 conceptual items by age, thus analysis was undertaken within logically constructed sets of items that are described: physical and personal characteristics of the teacher, quality of the relationship between teacher and pupil, control of behaviour by teacher, descriptions of the teaching process, and expected educational and other outcomes obtained by pupils due to teacher efforts. Results showed a general increase in number of conceptual items (and words per essay) by age, but this confuses four further criteria of item used. The four criteria were: age constancy, characteristics of younger pupils, characteristics of 11-13 year-olds, and characteristics of the oldest pupils. All ages perceived good teachers by physical presentation (clothing and appearance), teachers' care for pupils, descriptive teaching actions, and trustworthiness. Younger pupils focused on appearance, subjects taught, and assertion of physical punishment. Mid-aged pupils focused on the range of classroom control used by teachers (including distributive and retributive punishments), actions involved in the teaching process, and a growing awareness of the individual needs of pupils. Oldest pupils understood that good teachers must be well trained and highly motivated, should be sensitive and responsive to the needs of pupils, draw the pupils into the learning process, and have a major responsibility in preparing the pupil for the world of work and

  10. An evaluation of organic light emitting diode monitors for medical applications: Great timing, but luminance artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Elze, Tobias; Taylor, Christopher; Bex, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to the dominant medical liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors control the display luminance via separate light-emitting diodes for each pixel and are therefore supposed to overcome many previously documented temporal artifacts of medical LCDs. We assessed the temporal and luminance characteristics of the only currently available OLED monitor designed for use in the medical treatment field (SONY PVM2551MD) and checked the authors’ main findings with another SONY OLED device (PVM2541). Methods: Temporal properties of the photometric output were measured with an optical transient recorder. Luminances of the three color primaries and white for all 256 digital driving levels (DDLs) were measured with a spectroradiometer. Between the luminances of neighboring DDLs, just noticeable differences were calculated according to a perceptual model developed for medical displays. Luminances of full screen (FS) stimuli were compared to luminances of smaller stimuli with identical DDLs. Results: All measured luminance transition times were below 300 μs. Luminances were independent of the luminance in the preceding frame. However, for the single color primaries, up to 50.5% of the luminances of neighboring DDLs were not perceptually distinguishable. If two color primaries were active simultaneously, between 36.7% and 55.1% of neighboring luminances for increasing DDLs of the third primary were even decreasing. Moreover, luminance saturation effects were observed when too many pixels were active simultaneously. This effect was strongest for white; a small white patch was close to 400 cd/m2, but in FS the luminance of white saturated at 162 cd/m2. Due to different saturation levels, the luminance of FS green and FS yellow could exceed the luminance of FS white for identical DDLs. Conclusions: The OLED temporal characteristics are excellent and superior to those of LCDs. However, the OLEDs revealed severe

  11. Optimized shaped pupil masks for pupil with obscuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, Alexis; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Delorme, Jacques-Robert

    2012-09-01

    The main components of the SPICA coronagraphic instrument have initially been bar-code apodizing masks, i.e. shaped pupils optimized in one dimension. Their free-standing designs make them manufacturable without a glass substrate, which implies an absolute achromaticity and no additional wavefront errors. However, shaped pupils can now be optimized in two dimensions and can thus take full advantage of the geometry of any arbitrary aperture, in particular obstructed apertures such as SPICA's. Hence, 2D shaped pupils often have higher throughputs while offering the same angular resolutions and contrast. Alternatively, better resolutions or contrast can be obtained for the same throughput. Although some of these new masks are free-standing, this property cannot be constrained if the optimization problem has to remain convex linear. We propose to address this issue in different ways, and we present here examples of freestanding masks for a variety of contrasts, and inner working angles. Moreover, in all other coronagraphic instruments, contrast smaller than 10-5 can only be obtained if a dedicated adaptive optics system uses one or several deformable mirrors to compensate for wavefront aberrations. The finite number of actuators sets the size of the angular area in which quasi-static speckles can be corrected. This puts a natural limit on the outer working angle for which the shaped pupils are designed. The limited number of actuators is also responsible for an additional diffracted energy, or quilting orders, that can prevent faint companions to be detected. This effect can and must be taken into account in the optimization process. Finally, shaped pupils can be computed for a given nominal phase aberration pattern in the pupil plane, although the solutions depend in this case on the observation wavelength. We illustrate this possibility by optimizing an apodizer for the James Webb space telescope, and by testing its chromaticity and its robustness to phase changes.

  12. Spectropolarimetry of hot, luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.

    1994-01-01

    I review polarimetric observations of presumably single, hot luminous stars. The stellar types discussed are OB stars. B(e) supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBV), Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, and type II supernovae (SN). It is shown that variable, intrinsic polarization is a common phenomenon in that part of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram which these stars occupy. However, much observational work remains to be done before we can answer the most basic, statistical questions about the polarimetric properties of different groups of hot, luminous stars. Insight into the diagnostic power of polarization observations has been gained, but cannot be exploited without detailed models. Thus, while polarimetric observations do tell us that the mass-loss processes of all types of massive stars are time-dependent and anisotropic, the significance that this might have for the accuracy of their stellar parameters and evolutionary paths remains elusive.

  13. Impact of Some Environmental Education Outdoor Activities on Nigerian Primary School Pupils' Environmental Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Olatundun, Sunday Adekojo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of outdoor educational activities on pupils' knowledge of some environmental issues and problems. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Four hundred and eighty primary 5 pupils from 12 randomly selected primary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, constituted the subjects…

  14. Pupil and Staff Perceptions of Rewards at a Pupil Referral Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of both pupils and staff at a pupil referral unit (PRU) towards the reward system currently in use. The main aims were to establish whether teachers and pupils perceived the same rewards as effective, to determine whether staff and pupils perceived that rewards changed behaviour, and finally whether…

  15. Pupil Dilations Reflect Why Rembrandt Biased Female Portraits Leftward and Males Rightward

    PubMed Central

    Schirillo, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Portrait painters are experts at examining faces and since emotional content may be expressed differently on each side of the face, consider that Rembrandt biased his male portraits to show their right-cheek more often and female portraits to show their left-cheek more often. This raises questions regarding the emotional significance of such biased positions. I presented rightward and leftward facing male and female portraits. I measured observers’ pupil size while asking observers to report how (dis)pleasing they found each image. This was a methodological improvement over the type of research initially done by Eckhard Hess who claimed that pupils dilate to pleasant images and constrict to unpleasant images. His work was confounded since his images’ luminances and contrasts across conditions were inconsistent potentially affecting pupil size. To overcome this limitation I presented rightward or leftward facing male and female portraits by Rembrandt to observers in either their original or mirror-reversed position. I found that in viewing male portraits pupil diameter was a function of arousal. That is, larger pupil diameter occurred for images rated both low and high in pleasantness. This was not the case with female portraits. I discuss these findings in regard to the perceived dominance of males and how emotional expressions may be driven by hemispheric laterality. PMID:24454285

  16. A wearable infrared video pupillography with multi-stimulation of consistent illumination for binocular pupil response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Ou-Yang; Ko, Mei Lan; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Huang, Ting-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The pupil response to light can reflect various kinds of diseases which are related to physiological health. Pupillary abnormalities may be influenced on people by autonomic neuropathy, glaucoma, diabetes, genetic diseases, and high myopia. In the early stage of neuropathy, it is often asymptomatic and difficulty detectable by ophthalmologists. In addition, the position of injured nerve can lead to unsynchronized pupil response for human eyes. In our study, we design the pupilometer to measure the binocular pupil response simultaneously. It uses the different wavelength of LEDs such as white, red, green and blue light to stimulate the pupil and record the process. Therefore, the pupilometer mainly contains two systems. One is the image acquisition system, it use the two cameras modules with the same external triggered signal to capture the images of the pupil simultaneously. The other one is the illumination system. It use the boost converter ICs and LED driver ICs to supply the constant current for LED to maintain the consistent luminance in each experiments for reduced experimental error. Furthermore, the four infrared LEDs are arranged nearby the stimulating LEDs to illuminate eyes and increase contrast of image for image processing. In our design, we success to implement the function of synchronized image acquisition with the sample speed in 30 fps and the stable illumination system for precise measurement of experiment.

  17. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  18. Pupil Commentary on Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Bronwen

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on data generated through interviews with Years 7 to 10 pupils in New Zealand to propose that pupils experience assessment for learning as embedded in, and accomplished through, interactions with peers and teachers. Pupil commentary indicated they perceived assessment for learning as having cognitive, social relationship and…

  19. Environmental Education: Pupils' Perspectives on Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research about pupils' experiences of environmental education in UK secondary schools. The study focused on six pupils aged 13- to 14-years-old and nearing the end of their compulsory geography education. Geography provided a relevant a curricular context for exploring pupils' experiences of environmental…

  20. Public Education Resources and Pupil Performance Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottheim, David; And Others

    This report details three models quantifying the relationships between educational means (resources) and ends (pupil achievements) to analyze resource allocation problems within school districts: (1) the Pupil Performance Model; (2) the Goal Programming Model; and (3) the Operational Structure of a School and Pupil Performance Model. These models…

  1. Mapping and correcting the influence of gaze position on pupil size measurements.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A

    2016-06-01

    Pupil size is correlated with a wide variety of important cognitive variables and is increasingly being used by cognitive scientists. Pupil data can be recorded inexpensively and non-invasively by many commonly used video-based eye-tracking cameras. Despite the relative ease of data collection and increasing prevalence of pupil data in the cognitive literature, researchers often underestimate the methodological challenges associated with controlling for confounds that can result in misinterpretation of their data. One serious confound that is often not properly controlled is pupil foreshortening error (PFE)-the foreshortening of the pupil image as the eye rotates away from the camera. Here we systematically map PFE using an artificial eye model and then apply a geometric model correction. Three artificial eyes with different fixed pupil sizes were used to systematically measure changes in pupil size as a function of gaze position with a desktop EyeLink 1000 tracker. A grid-based map of pupil measurements was recorded with each artificial eye across three experimental layouts of the eye-tracking camera and display. Large, systematic deviations in pupil size were observed across all nine maps. The measured PFE was corrected by a geometric model that expressed the foreshortening of the pupil area as a function of the cosine of the angle between the eye-to-camera axis and the eye-to-stimulus axis. The model reduced the root mean squared error of pupil measurements by 82.5 % when the model parameters were pre-set to the physical layout dimensions, and by 97.5 % when they were optimized to fit the empirical error surface. PMID:25953668

  2. 78 FR 70964 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Combined license... for four consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation...

  3. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of receipt... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  4. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  5. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC....

  6. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation

    PubMed Central

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination. The results indicated faster reaction times and larger pupil diameter to the presentation of combined auditory and visual stimuli than the same stimuli when presented in isolation. Moreover, the responses to the multisensory condition exceeded the linear summation of the responses obtained in each unimodal condition. Importantly, faster reaction times corresponded to larger pupil dilation, suggesting that also the latter can be a reliable measure of multisensory processes. This study will serve as a foundation for the investigation of auditory-visual integration in populations where simple reaction times cannot be collected, such as developmental and clinical populations. PMID:27189316

  7. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation.

    PubMed

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and integrating information across the senses is an advantageous mechanism to efficiently respond to the environment. In this study, a simple auditory-visual detection task was employed to test whether pupil dilation, generally associated with successful target detection, could be used as a reliable measure for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination. The results indicated faster reaction times and larger pupil diameter to the presentation of combined auditory and visual stimuli than the same stimuli when presented in isolation. Moreover, the responses to the multisensory condition exceeded the linear summation of the responses obtained in each unimodal condition. Importantly, faster reaction times corresponded to larger pupil dilation, suggesting that also the latter can be a reliable measure of multisensory processes. This study will serve as a foundation for the investigation of auditory-visual integration in populations where simple reaction times cannot be collected, such as developmental and clinical populations. PMID:27189316

  8. What Do the Pupils Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Alison

    2012-01-01

    What pupils think about mathematics often features in discussion between mathematics educators. But, how often is "what learners think about their mathematics lessons" a feature of enquiry? It could be a "high risk" strategy to garner honest comment that relates to the "classroom experience". Notions of "risk" apart, the process of collecting data…

  9. Insurance: Pupils' Pamphlet. II C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji).

    The document presents a study guide for students learning insurance protection and the various types of insurance businesses. The pupils' pamphlet is to be used in coordination with the teacher's guide. Case studies, worksheets, description of basic principles, and examples of policy forms are provided for the different types of insurance: (1)…

  10. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  11. Middle School Pupils Write Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    A sixth-grade student teacher developed and implemented a unit on creative writing, and one lesson in the unit on writing legends was particularly successful. A discussion of Davy Crockett and the legends surrounding his life, began the lesson. The student teacher then introduced trade books from the library station for the pupils to read.…

  12. School Lights and Problem Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treichel-Arehart, Joan

    1974-01-01

    Pilot project results indicate that under certain conditions, fluorescent lighting may cause or aggravate hyperactivity in school children. Drawing on observations made in photobiological research, a new type of lighting was developed. Teachers in two experimental classrooms reported improvement in hyperactive pupils, which was also verified by…

  13. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  14. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  15. Pupils teach to pupils about genetics or global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuny, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    The idea of this project is to put pupils in a teaching situation. Classes of teenagers go to primary schools and animate a science workshop. Junior pupils are separated in small groups and they attend two different sessions in the same half-day. The whole workshop consists of 4 sessions. Each session is organized with an activity (microscope observation, counting of chromosomes, drawing of a curve, etc.) in which senior pupils coach the younger, and ends with a debate or an assessment. The first experiment of this type of project was realized with a class of 14 to 15 year old pupils on the theme: How do your parents transmit your characteristics? The four sessions are attended in disorder but when knowledge of other sessions are necessary, senior pupils explain them at the beginning of the session. Junior pupils have a notebook to write their activities and to note their conclusions. Session 1: What did my father give to make me? Drawing and measuring microscopic observations of human spermatozoons. Conclusion: my father gave a spermatozoon which measures less than one mm long, this spermatozoon met my mother's egg and it made my first cell. Session 2: What does the program that made me look like? Microscope observation of blood cells, identification of chromosomes in the core. On microscope pictures, counting of chromosomes. Conclusion: My program is in each cell of my body, inside the core. Sometimes, in this core, we can observe short sticks that are called chromosomes. All human beings have the same number of chromosomes in their cells: 46. Session 3: Where do my chromosomes come from? Counting of chromosomes in spermatozoons or ovums and playing with sets of chromosomes to deduct sex of a baby. Conclusion: Daddy gave me 23 chromosomes and mummy gave me 23 chromosomes too. My program is then constituted from half of daddy's program and half of mummy's program. My brothers and sisters also have half and half, but not the same halves! Session 4: Where is the

  16. The luminal connection

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Interconnection of epithelial tubules is a crucial process during organogenesis. Organisms have evolved sets of molecular and cellular strategies to generate an interconnected tubular network during animal development. Spatiotemporal control of common cellular strategies includes dissolution of the basement membrane, apoptosis, rearrangements of cell adhesion junctions, and mesenchymal-like invasive cellular behaviors prior to tubular interconnection. Different model systems exhibit varying degrees of active invasive-like behaviors that precede tubular interconnection, which may reflect changes in cell polarity or differential adhesive cell states. Studies in this newly-emerging field of tubular interconnections will provide a greater understanding of pediatric diseases and cancer metastasis, as well as generate fundamentally new insights into lumen formation pathology, or lumopathies. PMID:23820023

  17. Disciplinary Technologies and Pupil Redisposition: School Equipment and Homework Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaborowski, Katrin U.; Breidenstein, Georg

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores disciplinary technologies and pupil redisposition through school and teacher focus on school equipment and homework diaries. During our field research in two contrasting secondary schools, we experienced the importance of missing school equipment to teacher and school control. We also concluded that forgotten or missing school…

  18. Chromospheres of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Avrett, Eugene

    2015-08-01

    Ultraviolet imaging of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) reveals a complex variable chromospheric structure. Such atmospheres in luminous cool stars can affect features in the optical spectrum. Constructing semi-empiricalmodel atmospheres of luminous stars including the temperature rise due to a chromosphere allows us to predict potential effects on optical transitions. The radiative transfer code, PANDORA, calculates line strengths in a LTE or non-LTE formulation, spherical symmetry, and includes velocity fields when present. Various aspects of the line calculations and their impact on equivalent widths will be discussed including developing appropriate chromospheric models, comparison to a pure radiative equilibrium model, transitions sensitive to non-LTE and the effects of a realistic spherical non-LTE approximation as compared to a plane-parallel approximation. We discuss the extent to which a chromosphere can impact the determination of stellar abundances.

  19. Neural Correlates of Fast Pupil Dilation in Nonhuman Primates: Relation to Behavioral Performance and Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, R.E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pupil dilation in humans has been previously shown to correlate with cognitive workload, whereby increased frequency of dilation is associated with increased degree of difficulty of a task. It has been suggested that frontal oculomotor brain areas control cognitively-related pupil dilations, but this has not been confirmed due to lack of animal models of cognitive workload and task-related pupil dilation. This is the first report of a wavelet analysis applied to continuous measures of pupil size used to detect the onset of abrupt pupil dilations and the frequency of those dilations in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing a trial-unique delayed match to sample (DMS) task. An additional unique finding shows that electrophysiological recordings in the same animals revealed correlated firing of neurons in frontal cortex with different components of pupil dilation during task performance. It is further demonstrated that the frequency of fast pupil dilations (but not rate of eye movements) correlated with cognitive workload during task performance. Such correlations suggest that frontal neuron encoding of pupil dilation provides critical feedback to other brain areas involved in the processing of complex visual information. PMID:20226215

  20. Multi-level aspects of social cohesion of secondary schools and pupils' feelings of safety.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed; de Wit, Wouter

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. School safety and corresponding feelings of both pupils and school staff are beginning to receive more and more attention. The social cohesion characteristics of a school may be useful in promoting feelings of safety, particularly in pupils. AIMS. To conceptualize theoretically, and check empirically a two-level model of social cohesion between and within schools, in order to explain a pupil's feelings of safety at school. SAMPLES. Data were collected aided by a national Dutch survey in secondary education carried out via the Internet. In 2008, digital questionnaires were completed by about 78,800 pupils, 6,200 teachers and educational support staff, and 600 school managers. METHODS. Data were checked for reliability and representativity. Social cohesion was indicated by self-reported measures of individual pupils and by aggregating scale and item scores of school managers, teachers, and other support staff within schools. Multi-level analysis using individual pupil data and school-level data was performed using MLwiN. RESULTS. A pupil's age, educational attainment level, experience of mild physical violence, prosocial rules of conduct and joint control of these rules, and school measures against playing truant, show positive influences on a pupil's feelings of safety at school. Negative influences are exerted by not feeling most at home in The Netherlands, peers taking drugs and weapons into school, and by experiencing social violence, severe physical violence, and sexual violence. Negative school effects exist simultaneously in severe physical violence experienced by teachers and other staff, and in curriculum differentiation applied by teachers and other staff; a positive school effect is school size. Some interaction effects between pupil and school-level variables were explored. CONCLUSIONS. The variance at school level is relatively low compared with the variance at pupil level. However, a much higher percentage of variance at school level than at

  1. Retinal Ganglion Cell Adaptation to Small Luminance Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Graña, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate the wide input range over which the visual system operates within the narrow output range of spiking neurons, the retina adjusts its sensitivity to the mean light level so that retinal ganglion cells can faithfully signal contrast, or relative deviations from the mean luminance. Given the large operating range of the visual system, the majority of work on luminance adaptation has involved logarithmic changes in light level. We report that luminance gain controls are recruited for remarkably small fluctuations in luminance as well. Using spike recordings from the rat optic tract, we show that ganglion cell responses to a brief flash of light are modulated in amplitude by local background fluctuations as little as 15% contrast. The time scale of the gain control is rapid (<125 ms), at least for on cells. The retinal locus of adaptation precedes the ganglion cell spike generator because response gain changes of on cells were uncorrelated with firing rate. The mechanism seems to reside within the inner retinal network and not in the photoreceptors, because the adaptation profiles of on and off cells differed markedly. The response gain changes follow Weber's law, suggesting that network mechanisms of luminance adaptation described in previous work modulates retinal ganglion cell sensitivity, not just when we move between different lighting environments, but also as our eyes scan a visual scene. Finally, we show that response amplitude is uniformly reduced for flashes on a modulated background that has spatial contrast, indicating that another gain control that integrates luminance signals nonlinearly over space operates within the receptive field center of rat ganglion cells. PMID:20538771

  2. Improving vision by pupil masking.

    PubMed

    Bonaque-González, Sergio; Ríos-Rodríguez, Susana; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-07-01

    We propose an alternative solution to improve visual quality by spatially modulating the amplitude of light passing into the eye (related to the eye's transmittance), in contrast to traditional correction of the wavefront phase (related to the local refractive power). Numerical simulations show that masking the aberrated areas at the pupil plane should enhance visual function, especially in highly aberrated eyes. This correction could be implemented in practice using customized contact or intraocular lenses. PMID:27446688

  3. Improving vision by pupil masking

    PubMed Central

    Bonaque-González, Sergio; Ríos-Rodríguez, Susana; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    We propose an alternative solution to improve visual quality by spatially modulating the amplitude of light passing into the eye (related to the eye's transmittance), in contrast to traditional correction of the wavefront phase (related to the local refractive power). Numerical simulations show that masking the aberrated areas at the pupil plane should enhance visual function, especially in highly aberrated eyes. This correction could be implemented in practice using customized contact or intraocular lenses. PMID:27446688

  4. Measuring Pupil Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This paper advocates categorization of engagement on the basis of a logical relationship with the outcomes of a study and the use of student attributes that are logically related to engagement and/or achievement as covariables. Results from a study involving nine engagement categories, measures of formal reasoning ability, locus of control and…

  5. Pupil measures of alertness and mental load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backs, Richard W.; Walrath, Larry C.

    1988-01-01

    A study of eight adults given active and passive search tasks showed that evoked pupillary response was sensitive to information processing demands. In particular, large pupillary diameter was observed in the active search condition where subjects were actively processing information relevant to task performance, as opposed to the passive search (control) condition where subjects passively viewed the displays. However, subjects may have simply been more aroused in the active search task. Of greater importance was that larger pupillary diameter, corresponding to longer search time, was observed for noncoded than for color-coded displays in active search. In the control condition, pupil diameter was larger with the color displays. The data indicate potential usefulness of pupillary responses in evaluating the information processing requirements of visual displays.

  6. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. PMID:25288586

  7. Luminance meter for photopic and scotopic measurements in the mesopic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpak, M.; Kärhä, P.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Ikonen, E.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a design and realization of a dual-channel luminance meter for simultaneous measurement of luminance with photopic and scotopic weightings. Such measurements are useful in mesopic conditions, i.e. when the luminance is in the range of 0.005-5 cd m-2. The instrument is a spot luminance meter with two spectrally weighted channels. The collected light is detected with silicon detectors and a computer-controlled dual-channel switched-integration amplifier. The instrument is characterized for relative spectral responsivity against a calibrated spectroradiometer using a radiance source based on an integrating sphere with input from a monochromator. An absolute luminance responsivity calibration is made against a sphere-based luminance standard at a level close to the high end of the mesopic range. The standard uncertainty in luminance responsivity calibration is 0.3% for the photopic channel and 0.6% for the scotopic channel. In addition, characterization measurements were carried out for the instrument’s linearity, stray light sensitivity and polarization dependence. The results show very good noise performance, allowing fast measurements over the whole mesopic range. The noise equivalent power was measured to be approximately 20 fW Hz-1/2, equal to a noise equivalent luminance of 30 µcd m-2 Hz-1/2. Estimated uncertainty of measurements for typical light sources is 2.2% (k = 2) at the lowest luminance levels of the mesopic range.

  8. School Outcomes: Sharing the Responsibility between Pupil and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanassoulis, Emmanuel; Portela, Maria Da Conceicao A. Silva

    2002-01-01

    Uses a Data Envelopment Analysis based approach to decompose pupil underattainment into that attributable to the school the pupil attends and that attributable to the pupil. Approach measures pupil attainment in terms of value added. Results suggest that at current levels of school effectiveness, a pupil's own application accounts for the major…

  9. Stochastic analysis of the control of the movement of the spacecraft in the vicinity of the colinear libration point by means of the forces of luminous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukyanov, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the possible investigation of the utilization of the solar radiation pressure for the spacecraft motion control in the vicinity of collinear libration point of planar restricted ring problem of three bodies. The control is realized by changing the solar sail area at its permanent orientation. In this problem the influence of the trajectory errors and the errors of the execution control is accounted. It is worked out, the estimation method of the solar sail sizes, which are necessary for spacecraft keeping in the vicinity of collinear libration point during the certain time with given probability. The main control parameters were calculated for some examples in case of libration points of the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems.

  10. Pupil Mimicry Correlates With Trust in In-Group Partners With Dilating Pupils.

    PubMed

    Kret, M E; Fischer, A H; De Dreu, C K W

    2015-09-01

    During close interactions with fellow group members, humans look into one another's eyes, follow gaze, and quickly grasp emotion signals. The eye-catching morphology of human eyes, with unique eye whites, draws attention to the middle part, to the pupils, and their autonomic changes, which signal arousal, cognitive load, and interest (including social interest). Here, we examined whether and how these changes in a partner's pupils are processed and how they affect the partner's trustworthiness. Participants played incentivized trust games with virtual partners, whose pupils dilated, remained static, or constricted. Results showed that (a) participants trusted partners with dilating pupils and withheld trust from partners with constricting pupils, (b) participants' pupils mimicked changes in their partners' pupils, and (c) dilation mimicry predicted trust in in-group partners, whereas constriction mimicry did not. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is in-group bounded and possibly evolved in and because of group life. PMID:26231910

  11. Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry.

    PubMed

    Burns, S A; Elsner, A E

    1993-02-01

    Changes in the effective optical density of the cones are sufficient to explain changes in color matches with retinal illuminance and pupil entry. We performed three experiments. In the first experiment, six observers made color matches under both bleached and unbleached conditions to a series of six standard wavelengths. The effects of bleaching could be modeled by a decrease in optical density of the L and M cone photopigments. Slight spectral shifts in the peak wavelengths of the photopigments were required for different observers. In the second experiment we varied retinal illuminance of the color-matching field from 2.4 to 5.4 log Td for a series of long-wavelength primaries. The shape of the color match versus the intensity function was unchanged by the wavelength composition of the matching field. In the third experiment we measured the change in color match with retinal illuminance for different pupil entry positions. At low luminances there was a marked dependence of the color match on pupil entry positions. At high illuminance there was only a small dependence. The half-bleach illuminance values varied as expected from the Stiles-Crawford I effect. We conclude that for wavelengths > 540 nm, changes in color matches with bleaching and pupil entry can be explained by changes in the effective optical density of the cones. PMID:8478748

  12. Pupils as Active Participants: Diamond Ranking as a Tool to Investigate Pupils' Experiences of Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative carried out in a Finnish primary school. Twenty-four 5th grade pupils and their teacher participated in the study. The research initiative was guided by two questions: (1) How do pupils experience their classroom practices? (2) How can pupils participate in the process of developing…

  13. Temporal characteristics of melanopsin inputs to the human pupil light reflex.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel S; Feigl, Beatrix; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Rods, cones and melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) operate in concert to regulate pupil diameter. The temporal properties of intrinsic ipRGC signalling are distinct to those of rods and cones, including longer latencies and sustained signalling after light offset. We examined whether the melanopsin mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) and pupil constriction were dependent upon the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between successive light pulses and the temporal frequency of sinusoidal light stimuli. Melanopsin excitation was altered by variation of stimulus wavelength (464 nm and 638 nm lights) and irradiance (11.4 and 15.2 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)). We found that 6s PIPR amplitude was independent of ISI and temporal frequency for all melanopsin excitation levels, indicating complete summation. In contrast to the PIPR, the maximum pupil constriction increased with increasing ISI with high and low melanopsin excitation, but time to minimum diameter was slower with high melanopsin excitation only. This melanopsin response to briefly presented pulses (16 and 100 ms) slows the temporal response of the maximum pupil constriction. We also demonstrate that high melanopsin excitation attenuates the phasic peak-trough pupil amplitude compared to conditions with low melanopsin excitation, indicating an interaction between inner and outer retinal inputs to the pupil light reflex. We infer that outer retina summation is important for rapidly controlling pupil diameter in response to short timescale fluctuations in illumination and may occur at two potential sites, one that is presynaptic to extrinsic photoreceptor input to ipRGCs, or another within the pupil control pathway if ipRGCs have differential temporal tuning to extrinsic and intrinsic signalling. PMID:25497360

  14. Luminal pulse velocity in a superluminal medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Heisuke; Tomita, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the physical meaning of pulse peak in fast and slow light media, we investigated propagation of differently shaped pulses experimentally, controlling the sharpness of the pulse peak. Symmetric behavior with respect to fast and slow light was observed in traditional Gaussian pulses; that is, propagated pulses were advanced or delayed, respectively, whereas the pulse shape remained unchanged. This symmetry broke down when the pulse peak was sharpened; in the fast light medium, the sharp pulse peak propagated with luminal velocity, and the transmitted pulse deformed into a characteristic asymmetric profile. In contrast, in the slow light medium, a time-delayed smooth peak appeared with a bending point at t =0 . This symmetry breaking with respect to fast and slow light is a universal characteristic of pulse propagation in causal dispersive systems. The sharp pulse peak can be recognized as a bending nonanalytical point and may be capable of transferring information.

  15. The Voice of the Pupils: An Experimental Comparison of Decisions Made by Elected Pupil Councils, Pupils in Referenda, and Teaching Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilljam, Mikael; Esaiasson, Peter; Lindholm, Torun

    2010-01-01

    This article tests whether the form of decision-making used in school environments affects pupils' views on the legitimacy of the decisions made, and of the decision-making procedure. Building on political science theory on democratic decision-making, it compares pupils' reactions towards decisions made by pupil councils, by pupils via referendum,…

  16. "The Joy of Reading"--An Intervention Program to Increase Reading Motivation for Pupils with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovli, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an intensive reading intervention on reading motivation. The intervention program, ("Joy of Reading"), was implemented in six 2nd grade special education classes for pupils with learning disabilities, compared to a control group (n = 108 pupils in total). The intervention program was created…

  17. Melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response in the peripheral retina.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Daniel S; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) regulate pupil size by integrating extrinsic rod and cone signals with intrinsic melanopsin-mediated phototransduction. Light adapted pupil diameter is determined by the corneal flux density (CFD), and for central visual field stimulation the melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) follows this same CFD relationship. Rods, cones, and ipRGCs vary in size, density, and distribution across the retina, but how these differences affect the amplitude and timing of the extrinsic and intrinsic pupil light reflex in the central and peripheral retina is unknown. We determined the relationship between stimulus area and photon flux with stimuli constant for CFD, irradiance, or area at central (0°) and peripheral (20°) eccentricities with high and low melanopsin excitation. We show that the pupil constriction amplitude was similar at both eccentricities and the time to minimum diameter increased as melanopsin excitation increased. In contrast, the peripheral PIPR follows a CFD relationship but with lower amplitude compared with that at the fovea. This indicates differences in the spatial and temporal characteristics of extrinsic and intrinsic ipRGC inputs to the pupil control pathway for the central and peripheral retina. The eccentricity-dependent change in PIPR amplitude may be analogous to the hill of vision observed in visual perimetry; such knowledge is an important precursor to the development of pupil perimetry paradigms to measure the PIPR in select regions of the visual field. PMID:27271992

  18. ID4 controls luminal lineage commitment in normal mammary epithelium and inhibits BRCA1 function in basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura A; Holliday, Holly; Swarbrick, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are key regulators of development and tumorigenesis. One member of this family, ID4, controls lineage commitment during mammary gland development by acting upstream of key developmental pathways. Recent evidence suggests an emerging role for ID4 as a lineage-dependent proto-oncogene that is overexpressed and amplified in a subset of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs), conferring poor prognosis. Several lines of evidence suggest ID4 may suppress BRCA1 function in BLBC and in doing so, define a subset of BLBC patients who may respond to therapies traditionally used in BRCA1-mutant cancers. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the requirement for ID4 in mammary lineage commitment and the role for ID4 in BLBC. We address current shortfalls in this field and identify important areas of future research. PMID:27412917

  19. Properties of unusually luminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tony Shih Arng

    This thesis is a theoretical study of the progenitors, event rates, and observational properties of unusually luminous supernova (SN), and aims to identify promising directions for future observations. In Chapter 2, we present model light curves and spectra of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) over a range of progenitor masses and envelope structures for Pop III stars. We calculate the rates and detectability of PISNe, core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and Type Ia SNe at the Epoch of Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which can be used to determine the contribution of Pop III versus Pop II stars toward ionizing the universe. Although CCSNe are the least intrinsically luminous supernovae, Chapter 5 shows that a JWST survey targeting known galaxy clusters with Einstein radii > 35" should discover gravitationally lensed CCSNe at redshifts exceeding z = 7--8. In Chapter 3, we explain the Pop II/I progenitors of observed PISNe in the local universe can be created via mergers in runaway collisions in young, dense star clusters, despite copious mass loss via line-driven winds. The PISN rate from this mechanism is consistent with the observed volumetric rate, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could discover ~102 such PISNe per year. In Chapter 4, we identify 10 star clusters which may host PISN progenitors with masses up to 600 solar masses formed via runaway collisions. We estimate the probabilities of these very massive stars being in eclipsing binaries to be ≳ 30%, and find that their transits can be detected even under the contamination of the background cluster light, due to mean transit depths of ~10 6 solar luminosities. In Chapter 6, we show that there could be X-ray analogues of optically super-luminous SNe that are powered by the conversion of the kinetic energy of SN ejecta into radiation upon its collision with a dense but optically-thin circumstellar shell. We find shell configurations that can convert a large fraction of the SN

  20. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  1. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  2. Visual Behavior in Teacher-Pupil Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry

    1976-01-01

    The visual behavior of teacher-pupil pairs during a cooperative learning task is studied by describing teacher-pupil visual behavior; checking whether cultural variations in gaze or differences attributable to sex could be observed; checking whether variations in gaze were a function of linguistic competence, rather than cultural mores; and…

  3. Pupils' Representations of Models of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Mariana P.; Pestana, Maria Elisa M.

    1991-01-01

    The pencil-and-paper assignment "Represent water in its three states using a model" was given to pupils (n=227) from eighth to twelfth grades. The findings show that the dominant model used was the space filling type; movement of particles was indicated by a minority of pupils; size of the model changed when drawn in different states. (Author/KR)

  4. Secondary Modern Schools: Are Their Pupils Disadvantaged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind; Marsh, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    There are still 10 English local educational authorities (LEAs) that are wholly selective and a further 10 with some grammar and secondary modern schools. This article examines the academic performance of pupils in secondary modern schools and the funding of these schools using national data sets matching pupils' performance at Key Stage 2 and…

  5. NAT THE RAT - PUPIL'S BOOK. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROJAS, PAULINE M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXPERIMENTAL EDITION OF "NAT THE RAT" REPRESENTS LEVEL TWO OF THE "MIAMI LINGISTIC READERS" DESIGNED TO BE USED IN TEACHING BEGINNING READING TO PUPILS WHOSE PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE WAS OTHER THAN ENGLISH. THE FIVE MAJOR CHARACTERS IN THE STORY ARE INTRODUCED ON THE FIRST FIVE PAGES OF THE PUPILS' BOOK. ILLUSTRATIONS (BLACK AND WHITE) TO REINFORCE…

  6. Pupil Master Record System: History and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. J.; Skees, W. D.

    The Montgomery County, Maryland Public Schools, working with Operations Research, Incorporated, developed a Pupil Master File (PLMF). PLMF is one of the several applications included within the Pupil Subsystem of the district's overall computerized School Information System. The PLMF is designed to provide: 1) a master file which enables users to…

  7. Pupil Appraisal Handbook. Bulletin 1508. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This bulletin serves as a guide for the conduct of pupil appraisal services in Louisiana. It includes procedures, standards, and criteria for identifying children eligible for special education and/or related services. In addition, a general description of pupil appraisal services encompasses personnel, responsibilities, rights of students and…

  8. Pupil Assessment Issues: A Teacher Educator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses the problems that prevent secondary school physical education teachers from using the theoretically sound pupil assessment practices that are taught in professional preparation courses. It suggests that teacher education programs must focus on making pupil assessment a priority throughout the program and instruct teachers on…

  9. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  10. Properties of artificial neurons that report lightness based on accumulated experience with luminance

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Yaniv; Rukmini, Dhara V.; Monson, Brian B.; Purves, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The responses of visual neurons in experimental animals have been extensively characterized. To ask whether these responses are consistent with a wholly empirical concept of visual perception, we optimized simple neural networks that responded according to the cumulative frequency of occurrence of local luminance patterns in retinal images. Based on this estimation of accumulated experience, the neuron responses showed classical center-surround receptive fields, luminance gain control and contrast gain control, the key properties of early level visual neurons determined in animal experiments. These results imply that a major purpose of pre-cortical neuronal circuitry is to contend with the inherently uncertain significance of luminance values in natural stimuli. PMID:25404912

  11. Luminous efficiency functions at higher intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Lawrence Kent

    Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation. Both measurement techniques were performed using the same optical system and the same seven healthy adults as subjects. Measurements were taken at four reference stimulus intensities, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 foot-lamberts. Luminous efficiency was found to depend on both the technique and the reference stimulus intensity with which the measurements were taken. For heterochromatic brightness matching, luminous efficiency increased for longer wavelengths as reference intensity increased. Peak luminous efficiency shifted from approximately 540nm to greater than 600nm with increasing intensity for all seven subjects. Peak luminous efficiency was constant for flicker photometry across all intensities but the function narrowed slightly at 100 foot-lamberts.

  12. Rhodopsin and Melanopsin Contributions to the Early Redilation Phase of the Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) entirely control the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) from 6 s post-stimulus to the plateau during redilation after light offset. However, the photoreceptor contributions to the early redilation phase of the PIPR (< 6 s post-stimulus) have not been reported. Here, we evaluated the photoreceptor contributions to the early phase PIPR (0.6 s to 5.0 s) by measuring the spectral sensitivity of the criterion PIPR amplitude in response to 1 s light pulses at five narrowband stimulus wavelengths (409, 464, 508, 531 and 592 nm). The retinal irradiance producing a criterion PIPR was normalised to the peak and fitted by either a single photopigment nomogram or the combined melanopsin and rhodopsin spectral nomograms with the +L+M cone photopic luminous efficiency (Vλ) function. We show that the PIPR spectral sensitivity at times ≥ 1.7 s after light offset is best described by the melanopsin nomogram. At times < 1.7 s, the peak PIPR sensitivity shifts to longer wavelengths (range: 482 to 498 nm) and is best described by the combined photoreceptor nomogram, with major contributions from melanopsin and rhodopsin. This first report of melanopsin and rhodopsin contributions to the early phase PIPR is in line with the electrophysiological findings of ipRGC and rod signalling after the cessation of light stimuli and provides a cut-off time for isolating photoreceptor specific function in healthy and diseased eyes. PMID:27548480

  13. The Impact of Auditory Spectral Resolution on Listening Effort Revealed by Pupil Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Matthew B.; Edwards, Jan R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study measured the impact of auditory spectral resolution on listening effort. Systematic degradation in spectral resolution was hypothesized to elicit corresponding systematic increases in pupil dilation, consistent with the notion of pupil dilation as a marker of cognitive load. Design Spectral resolution of sentences was varied with 2 different vocoders: (1) a noise channel vocoder with a variable number of spectral channels; and (2) a vocoder designed to simulate front-end processing of a cochlear implant, including peak-picking channel selection with variable synthesis filter slopes to simulate spread of neural excitation. Pupil dilation was measured after subject-specific luminance adjustment and trial-specific baseline measures. Mixed-effects growth curve analysis was used to model pupillary responses over time. Results For both types of vocoder, pupil dilation grew with each successive degradation in spectral resolution. Within each condition, pupillary responses were not related to intelligibility scores, and the effect of spectral resolution on pupil dilation persisted even when only analyzing trials in which responses were 100% correct. Conclusions Intelligibility scores alone were not sufficient to quantify the effort required to understand speech with poor resolution. Degraded spectral resolution results in increased effort required to understand speech, even when intelligibility is at 100%. Pupillary responses were a sensitive and highly granular measurement to reveal changes in listening effort. Pupillary responses might potentially reveal the benefits of aural prostheses that are not captured by speech intelligibility performance alone, as well as the disadvantages that are overcome by increased listening effort. PMID:25654299

  14. Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Naylor, Graham; Ohlenforst, Barbara; Jansma, Elise P.; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment is relatively unknown. Objectives To 1) review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive method to evaluate parasympathetic dysfunction, 2) review the evidence relating hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity and 3) seek evidence of possible connections between hearing impairment and the pupil light reflex. Methods Literature searches were performed in five electronic databases. All selected articles were categorized into three sections: pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction, hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity, pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Results Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. Among them, 36 articles addressed the pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction. We summarized the information in these data according to different types of parasympathetic-related diseases. Most of the studies showed a difference on at least one pupil light reflex parameter between patients and healthy controls. Two articles discussed the relationship between hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity. Both studies reported a reduced parasympathetic activity in the hearing impaired groups. The searches identified no results for pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Discussion and Conclusions As the first systematic review of the evidence, our findings suggest that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive tool to assess the presence of parasympathetic dysfunction. Maximum constriction velocity and relative constriction amplitude appear to be the most sensitive parameters. There are only two studies investigating the

  15. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  16. Teachers' and Pupils' Perceptions of Creativity across Different Key Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The new Secondary Curriculum (implemented in 2008) saw greater emphasis on creativity within the National Curriculum for England. Since this term has been boldly stated, how have teachers and pupils responded to it in the classroom? This study draws on responses from a range of pupils in different Key Stages (2 (pupils aged 7-11), 3 (pupils aged…

  17. Urban Density and Pupil Attainment. CEE DP 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2007-01-01

    We explore the association between urban density and pupil attainment using three cohorts of pupils in schooling in England. Although--as widely recognised--attainment in dense urban places is low on average, this is not because urban environments disadvantage pupils, but because the most disadvantaged pupils with low average attainments attend…

  18. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  19. MODELING PROXIMAL TUBULE CELL HOMEOSTASIS: TRACKING CHANGES IN LUMINAL FLOW

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Alan M.; Sontag, Eduardo D.

    2009-01-01

    During normal kidney function, there are are routinely wide swings in proximal tubule fluid flow and proportional changes in Na+ reabsorption across tubule epithelial cells. This "glomerulotubular balance" occurs in the absence of any substantial change in cell volume, and is thus a challenge to coordinate luminal membrane solute entry with peritubular membrane solute exit. In this work, linear optimal control theory is applied to generate a configuration of regulated transporters that could achieve this result. A previously developed model of rat proximal tubule epithelium is linearized about a physiologic reference condition; the approximate linear system is recast as a dynamical system; and a Riccati equation is solved to yield the optimal linear feedback that stabilizes Na+ flux, cell volume, and cell pH. The first observation is that optimal feedback control is largely consigned to three physiologic variables, cell volume, cell electrical potential, and lateral intercellular hydrostatic pressure. Parameter modulation by cell volume stabilizes cell volume; parameter modulation by electrical potential or interspace pressure act to stabilize Na+ flux and cell pH. This feedback control is utilized in a tracking problem, in which reabsorptive Na+ flux varies over a factor of two. The resulting control parameters consist of two terms, an autonomous term and a feedback term, and both terms include transporters on both luminal and peritubular cell membranes. Overall, the increase in Na+ flux is achieved with upregulation of luminal Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-glucose cotransport, with increased peritubular Na+−3HCO3− and K+ − Cl− cotransport, and with increased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. The configuration of activated transporters emerges as testable hypothesis of the molecular basis for glomerulotubular balance. It is suggested that the autonomous control component at each cell membrane could represent the cytoskeletal effects of luminal flow. PMID:19280266

  20. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  1. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  2. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  3. Problematising Pupil Voice Using Visual Methods: Findings from a Study of Engaged and Disaffected Pupils in an Urban Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Hilary; Mason, Carolynne; Busher, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how pupils and teachers in an 11-16 mixed secondary school in an area of urban disadvantage in the UK experience pupil voice. It used visual methods to unpick some of the ways in which official and unofficial discourses of pupil voice, engagement, discipline and inclusion were played out in this school. A typology of pupils,…

  4. Pupil diameter as predictor of cognitive load: A novel tool for geoscience education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Pupils can truly serve as windows to the mind. Since the early part of the last decade, pupillometry, the study of pupils in response to cognitive tasks, have gained traction in psychophysiological studies. Muscles of the iris work in tandem with the autonomic nervous system in response to light condition to either dilate or contract the pupil, usually between 2 to 7 mm. Along with this response to light conditions, the pupils also contract or dilate in response to emotional or mental response. Therefore, for a cognitive task, if the ambient brightness is controlled, pupil dilation reflects the cognitive load associated with the task. Simple tasks such as counting, memorizing, multiplying and visual searching have been found to have pupillometry profiles reflective of the cognitive load involved with such tasks. In this study, we investigate whether pupil diameter can be used for education research where tasks can be more complex. In particular, we look at two specific types of tasks common in geoscience and several other STEM fields: graph reading and spatial problem solving.

  5. Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age?

    PubMed

    Daneault, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hébert, Marc; Teikari, Petteri; Mure, Ludovic S; Doyon, Julien; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie

    2012-06-01

    Many nonvisual functions are regulated by light through a photoreceptive system involving melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are maximally sensitive to blue light. Several studies have suggested that the ability of light to modulate circadian entrainment and to induce acute effects on melatonin secretion, subjective alertness, and gene expression decreases during aging, particularly for blue light. This could contribute to the documented changes in sleep and circadian regulatory processes with aging. However, age-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated. We measured pupil size in 16 young (22.8±4 years) and 14 older (61±4.4 years) healthy subjects during 45-second exposures to blue (480 nm) and green (550 nm) monochromatic lights at low (7×10(12) photons/cm2/s), medium (3×10(13) photons/cm2/s), and high (10(14) photons/cm2/s) irradiance levels. Results showed that young subjects had consistently larger pupils than older subjects for dark adaptation and during all light exposures. Steady-state pupil constriction was greater under blue than green light exposure in both age groups and increased with increasing irradiance. Surprisingly, when expressed in relation to baseline pupil size, no significant age-related differences were observed in pupil constriction. The observed reduction in pupil size in older individuals, both in darkness and during light exposure, may reduce retinal illumination and consequently affect nonvisual responses to light. The absence of a significant difference between age groups for relative steady-state pupil constriction suggests that other factors such as tonic, sympathetic control of pupil dilation, rather than light sensitivity per se, account for the observed age difference in pupil size regulation. Compared to other nonvisual functions, the light sensitivity of steady-state pupil constriction appears to

  6. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  7. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly

  8. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats’ ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  9. Compatibility of a Diffractive Pupil and Coronagraphic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Rusian; Pluzhnyk, Yevgeniy; Guyon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Detection and characterization of exo-earths require direct-imaging techniques that can deliver contrast ratios of 10(exp 10) at 100 milliarc-seconds or smaller angular separation. At the same time, astrometric data is required to measure planet masses and can help detect planets and constrain their orbital parameters. To minimize costs, a single space mission can be designed using a high efficiency coronograph to perform direct imaging and a diffractive pupil to calibrate wide-field distortions to enable high precision astrometric measurements. This paper reports the testing of a diffractive pupil on the high-contrast test bed at the NASA Ames Research Center to assess the compatibility of using a diffractive pupil with coronographic imaging systems. No diffractive contamination was found within our detectability limit of 2x10(exp -7) contrast outside a region of 12lambda/D and 2.5x10(exp -6) within a region spanning from 2 to 12lambda/D. Morphology of the image features suggests that no contamination exists even beyond the detectability limit specified or at smaller working angles. In the case that diffractive contamination is found beyond these stated levels, active wavefront control would be able to mitigate its intensity to 10(exp -7) or better contrast.

  10. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics. PMID:22312577

  11. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... change of control of EFH, EFCH, or Luminant as a result of this internal restructuring. No physical... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 119), and a correction notice was published on January 10, 2013 (78 FR 2295). No... Proposed Internal Restructuring and Indirect Transfer of License I Luminant Generation Company...

  12. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  13. Robust pupil center detection using a curvature algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, D.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Determining the pupil center is fundamental for calculating eye orientation in video-based systems. Existing techniques are error prone and not robust because eyelids, eyelashes, corneal reflections or shadows in many instances occlude the pupil. We have developed a new algorithm which utilizes curvature characteristics of the pupil boundary to eliminate these artifacts. Pupil center is computed based solely on points related to the pupil boundary. For each boundary point, a curvature value is computed. Occlusion of the boundary induces characteristic peaks in the curvature function. Curvature values for normal pupil sizes were determined and a threshold was found which together with heuristics discriminated normal from abnormal curvature. Remaining boundary points were fit with an ellipse using a least squares error criterion. The center of the ellipse is an estimate of the pupil center. This technique is robust and accurately estimates pupil center with less than 40% of the pupil boundary points visible.

  14. Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD Physiologist of the pupil.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H Stanley; Kardon, Randy H

    2006-06-01

    Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD has devoted a long and vigorous professional life to understanding the workings of the pupil of the human eye. Her interest in the pupil began in 1940 when she went to work as a technician in the pupillography laboratory of Professor Otto Lowenstein at New York University. It culminated in her widely admired textbook The Pupil, published in 1993. Among her many contributions, Loewenfeld provided rigorous observations about Adie tonic pupil, anisocoria in optic tract lesions, Argyll Robertson pupil, oculomotor paresis with cyclic spasms, and innovations in electronic recordings of pupil movement. PMID:16845317

  15. The Effect of Unilateral Mean Luminance on Binocular Combination in normal and amblyopic vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Jia, Wuli; Huang, Chang-Bing; Hess, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Luminance plays a modulating role in the processes of several visual tasks, which in turn provides significant information for the understanding of visual processing. Here, using a binocular phase combination paradigm, we studied the effect of unilateral changes in mean luminance on binocular combination in both normal and amblyopic vision. We found, in normal observers, attenuation of one eye's stimulus luminance with neutral density filters produces binocular phase combination similar to those of amblyopic subjects. Correspondingly, in amblyopic observers, reduction of the fellow eye's stimulus luminance produces binocular phase combination similar to those of normal subjects. These phenomena could be explained by an attenuated contribution of the filtered eye to the binocular phase percept due to reduced gain-control. The findings have major implications both for the study of binocular combination and for amblyopia treatment. PMID:23774670

  16. Influence of background size, luminance and eccentricity on different adaptation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gloriani, Alejandro H; Matesanz, Beatriz M; Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Arranz, Isabel; Issolio, Luis; Mar, Santiago; Aparicio, Juan A

    2016-08-01

    Mechanisms of light adaptation have been traditionally explained with reference to psychophysical experimentation. However, the neural substrata involved in those mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Our study analyzed links between psychophysical measurements and retinal physiological evidence with consideration for the phenomena of rod-cone interactions, photon noise, and spatial summation. Threshold test luminances were obtained with steady background fields at mesopic and photopic light levels (i.e., 0.06-110cd/m(2)) for retinal eccentricities from 0° to 15° using three combinations of background/test field sizes (i.e., 10°/2°, 10°/0.45°, and 1°/0.45°). A two-channel Maxwellian view optical system was employed to eliminate pupil effects on the measured thresholds. A model based on visual mechanisms that were described in the literature was optimized to fit the measured luminance thresholds in all experimental conditions. Our results can be described by a combination of visual mechanisms. We determined how spatial summation changed with eccentricity and how subtractive adaptation changed with eccentricity and background field size. According to our model, photon noise plays a significant role to explain contrast detection thresholds measured with the 1/0.45° background/test size combination at mesopic luminances and at off-axis eccentricities. In these conditions, our data reflect the presence of rod-cone interaction for eccentricities between 6° and 9° and luminances between 0.6 and 5cd/m(2). In spite of the increasing noise effects with eccentricity, results also show that the visual system tends to maintain a constant signal-to-noise ratio in the off-axis detection task over the whole mesopic range. PMID:27210038

  17. Characterization of halogen lamps as secondary standard of luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. A. R.; Sanchez, O., Jr.; Ferreira, A. F. G., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a study of lamps characterization concerning its lamp output, current and voltage drift during seasoning and regarding the use of theses lamps as luminous flux secondary standard. The 200W halogen lamps are seasoned for 30 hours and during the seasoning period the relative drift of the lamp illuminance, current and voltage are measured at each 3 minutes. The illuminance is measured using a photometer with detector head, the lamp voltage is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and the current is measured using a 6.5 digits voltmeter and 0.1 Ohms standard resistor. The lamp current is controlled by a calibrated current power source with stability better than 1 mA. To reduce the stray light, baffles are positioned between the lamp and the detector head. The alignment of experimental assembly is made by a He-Ne Laser. Data of illuminance, current and voltage is acquired by software built in Labview database. Among the 5 lamps seasoned, the best result presents the variation of illuminance of 0.04% per hour. This lamp is chosen to become the secondary standard and its luminous flux is measured using an Ulbricht integrating sphere. This method allows the laboratory to create secondary standard of luminous flux for its routine test and measurements and to supply theses standards for Brazilian industry.

  18. Clear-cornea cataract surgery: pupil size and shape changes, along with anterior chamber volume and depth changes. A Scheimpflug imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate, by high-precision digital analysis of data provided by Scheimpflug imaging, changes in pupil size and shape and anterior chamber (AC) parameters following cataract surgery. Patients and methods The study group (86 eyes, patient age 70.58±10.33 years) was subjected to cataract removal surgery with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation (pseudophakic). A control group of 75 healthy eyes (patient age 51.14±16.27 years) was employed for comparison. Scheimpflug imaging (preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively) was employed to investigate central corneal thickness, AC depth, and AC volume. In addition, by digitally analyzing the black-and-white dotted line pupil edge marking in the Scheimpflug “large maps,” the horizontal and vertical pupil diameters were individually measured and the pupil eccentricity was calculated. The correlations between AC depth and pupil shape parameters versus patient age, as well as the postoperative AC and pupil size and shape changes, were investigated. Results Compared to preoperative measurements, AC depth and AC volume of the pseudophakic eyes increased by 0.99±0.46 mm (39%; P<0.001) and 43.57±24.59 mm3 (36%; P<0.001), respectively. Pupil size analysis showed that the horizontal pupil diameter was reduced by −0.27±0.22 mm (−9.7%; P=0.001) and the vertical pupil diameter was reduced by −0.32±0.24 mm (−11%; P<0.001). Pupil eccentricity was reduced by −39.56%; P<0.001. Conclusion Cataract extraction surgery appears to affect pupil size and shape, possibly in correlation to AC depth increase. This novel investigation based on digital analysis of Scheimpflug imaging data suggests that the cataract postoperative photopic pupil is reduced and more circular. These changes appear to be more significant with increasing patient age. PMID:25368512

  19. Pupil Size Changes as an Active Information Channel for Biofeedback Applications.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Jan; Strauch, Christoph; Georgi, Juliane; Huckauf, Anke

    2016-09-01

    Pupil size is usually regarded as a passive information channel that provides insight into cognitive and affective states but defies any further control. However, in a recent study (Ehlers et al. 2015) we demonstrate that sympathetic activity indexed by pupil dynamics allows strategic interference by means of simple cognitive techniques. Utilizing positive/negative imaginings, subjects were able to expand pupil diameter beyond baseline variations; albeit with varying degrees of success and only over brief periods. The current study provides a comprehensive replication on the basis of considerable changes to the experimental set-up. Results show that stricter methodological conditions (controlled baseline settings and specified user instructions) strengthen the reported effect, whereas overall performance increases by one standard deviation. Effects are thereby not restricted to pupillary level. Parallel recordings of skin conductance changes prove a general enhancement of induced autonomic arousal. Considering the stability of the results across studies, we conclude that pupil size information exceeds affective monitoring and may constitute an active input channel in human-computer interaction. Furthermore, since variations in pupil diameter reliably display self-induced changes in sympathetic arousal, the relevance of this parameter is strongly indicated for future approaches in clinical biofeedback. PMID:27113096

  20. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon. PMID:27500655

  1. Pupil and Salivary Indicators of Autonomic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christa J.; Colombo, John; Unruh, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated tonic pupil size has been reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Among the possible sources of this dysregulation are disruptions in the feedback loop between norepinephrine (NE) and hypothalamic systems. In the current study, we examined afternoon levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a putative correlate of NE) and cortisol (used to assess stress-based responses) in two independent samples of children with ASD. We found a larger pupil size and lower sAA levels in ASD, compared to typical and clinical age-matched controls. This was substantiated at the individual level, as sAA levels were strongly correlated with tonic pupil size. Relatively little diurnal variation in sAA taken in the home environment in the ASD group was also observed, while typical controls showed a significant linear increase throughout the day. Results are discussed in terms of potential early biomarkers and the elucidation of underlying neural dysfunction in ASD. PMID:22644965

  2. Suzuki Meets Polya: Teaching Mathematics to Young Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlewood, Donald G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes how Suzuki's methods of teaching young pupils to play the violin can be combined with Polya's ideas on problem solving to teach mathematics to elementary school pupils. Six references are listed. (YP)

  3. Optimal pupil design for confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Yogesh G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2010-02-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy may enable screening and diagnosis of skin cancers noninvasively and in real-time, as an adjunct to biopsy and pathology. Current instruments are large, complex, and expensive. A simpler, confocal line-scanning microscope may accelerate the translation of confocal microscopy in clinical and surgical dermatology. A confocal reflectance microscope may use a beamsplitter, transmitting and detecting through the pupil, or a divided pupil, or theta configuration, with half used for transmission and half for detection. The divided pupil may offer better sectioning and contrast. We present a Fourier optics model and compare the on-axis irradiance of a confocal point-scanning microscope in both pupil configurations, optimizing the profile of a Gaussian beam in a circular or semicircular aperture. We repeat both calculations with a cylindrical lens which focuses the source to a line. The variable parameter is the fillfactor, h, the ratio of the 1/e2 diameter of the Gaussian beam to the diameter of the full aperture. The optimal values of h, for point scanning are 0.90 (full) and 0.66 for the half-aperture. For line-scanning, the fill-factors are 1.02 (full) and 0.52 (half). Additional parameters to consider are the optimal location of the point-source beam in the divided-pupil configuration, the optimal line width for the line-source, and the width of the aperture in the divided-pupil configuration. Additional figures of merit are field-of-view and sectioning. Use of optimal designs is critical in comparing the experimental performance of the different configurations.

  4. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  5. Differences in Pupil Achievement in Kenya: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors employed multilevel analyses procedures to examine pupil, class and school levels factors that influenced pupil achievement in Kenya. Pupil's age, pupil's socioeconomic background and pupil-teacher ratio were important factors in the prediction of pupil achievement. The provinces with the largest between-school variation…

  6. System and measurement method for binocular pupillometry to study pupil size variability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective and noninvasive examination of pupil size variability can be used to assess the activity of the autonomous nervous system. We designed a system that enables binocular, fast, and accurate recordings of different types of pupil variabilities, which are synchronous with other biosignals. This type of measurement system is needed to extend the scope of pupillometry applications. Methods In the proposed system, the left and right eyes are independently and interchangeably illuminated to generate alternating images, which are successively acquired by a single camera. The system is composed of four functional modules: the image acquisition module, the image processing unit, the light stimulator, and the controller. The proposed image processing algorithm approximates the shape of the pupil using the best-fit ellipse. The user control panel (controller) precisely sets the stimuli parameters and controls the entire measurement procedure. Results The computer-based binocular system records the pupil size during the pupil light reflexes (direct and indirect) and spontaneous pupil size fluctuations, at a sampling rate up to 75 Hz, with a resolution better than 0.02 mm. Our initial laboratory tests confirmed that the new system is fast and precise (system accuracy better than 0.5% and repeatability better than 4%). Conclusions The proposed system’s unique geometry and construction, and the method it uses to detect images from each eye, allows us to monitor the right and left eyes using a single camera with no overlap between the images. The system does not require a very experienced operator, because it is relatively simple and easy to use. Importantly, it is comfortable for the subjects. Additionally, the presented system can operate with other bio-measurement systems using a synchronous signal. These system capabilities can expand the scope of pupillometry research applications. PMID:24899167

  7. Post-illumination pupil response after blue light: Reliability of optimized melanopsin-based phototransduction assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; te Lindert, Bart H W; Bijlenga, Denise; Coppens, Joris E; Gómez-Herrero, Germán; Bruijel, Jessica; Kooij, J J Sandra; Cajochen, Christian; Bourgin, Patrice; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2015-10-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells have recently been shown highly relevant to the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits that regulate alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. A quantitative assessment of functionality of the melanopsin-signaling pathway could be highly relevant in order to mechanistically understand individual differences in the effects of light on these regulatory systems. We here propose and validate a reliable quantification of the melanopsin-dependent Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) after blue light, and evaluated its sensitivity to dark adaptation, time of day, body posture, and light exposure history. Pupil diameter of the left eye was continuously measured during a series of light exposures to the right eye, of which the pupil was dilated using tropicamide 0.5%. The light exposure paradigm consisted of the following five consecutive blocks of five minutes: baseline dark; monochromatic red light (peak wavelength: 630 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)) to maximize the effect of subsequent blue light; dark; monochromatic blue light (peak wavelength: 470 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)); and post-blue dark. PIPR was quantified as the difference between baseline dark pupil diameter and post-blue dark pupil diameter (PIPR-mm). In addition, a relative PIPR was calculated by dividing PIPR by baseline pupil diameter (PIPR-%). In total 54 PIPR assessments were obtained in 25 healthy young adults (10 males, mean age ± SD: 26.9 ± 4.0 yr). From repeated measurements on two consecutive days in 15 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 27.8 ± 4.3 yrs) test-retest reliability of both PIPR outcome parameters was calculated. In the presence of considerable between-subject differences, both outcome parameters had very high test-retest reliability: Cronbach's α > 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.85. In 12 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 26.5

  8. An Exploratory Study on How Primary Pupils Approach Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Marja-Ilona; de Vries, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of systems thinking among 27 primary pupils (8-10 years old) and their teacher. The study included a pre-test for the teacher and the pupils, lesson planning, the actual lesson and a post-test for the pupils. The research focused on finding an answer to three questions: (1) do pupils see a system as a structure…

  9. Oscillations and latency in the clamped pupil light reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, John G.; Ohira, Toru; Steck, Jeff; Crate, John; Longtin, Andre

    1993-11-01

    It is shown that the pupil latency can be estimated from pupil cycling measurements when the pupil light reflex is clamped with piecewise constant negative feedback. The solution of the mathematical model previously shown to describe these oscillations is utilized to develop a variety of strategies to estimate latency and to evaluate the effects of noise on these estimates. The results demonstrate that the pupil latency shows considerable variation.

  10. Influence of high ambient illuminance and display luminance on readability and subjective preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Andrén, Börje; Guo, Yi; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Drott, Anton; Hermann, David S.

    2015-03-01

    Many devices, such as tablets, smartphones, notebooks, fixed and portable navigation systems are used on a (nearly) daily basis, both in in- and outdoor environments. It is often argued that contextual factors, such as the ambient illuminance in relation to characteristics of the display (e.g., surface treatment, screen reflectance, display luminance …) may have a strong influence on the use of such devices and corresponding user experiences. However, the current understanding of these influence factors is still rather limited. In this work, we therefore focus in particular on the impact of lighting and display luminance on readability, visual performance, subjective experience and preference. A controlled lab study (N=18) with a within-subjects design was performed to evaluate two car displays (one glossy and one matte display) in conditions that simulate bright outdoor lighting conditions. Four ambient luminance levels and three display luminance settings were combined into 7 experimental conditions. More concretely, we investigated for each display: (1) whether and how readability and visual performance varied with the different combinations of ambient luminance and display luminance and (2) whether and how they influenced the subjective experience (through self-reported valence, annoyance, visual fatigue) and preference. The results indicate a limited, yet negative influence of increased ambient luminance and reduced contrast on visual performance and readability for both displays. Similarly, we found that the self-reported valence decreases and annoyance and visual fatigue increase as the contrast ratio decreases and ambient luminance increases. Overall, the impact is clearer for the matte display than for the glossy display.

  11. Pupils' Perspectives on the Lived Pedagogy of the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse; Hilppö, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a pedagogical action research initiative that explores what constitutes the "lived pedagogy" of the classroom from the pupils' perspective. Photography and group interviews were utilised to allow pupils to express their perspectives. The results show that pupils considered situations meaningful when they were able…

  12. Pupils and School History in France and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audigier, Francois; Fink, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes five studies, based on questionnaires and interviews with pupils in primary and lower secondary schools, in France and in Switzerland, over the past two decades. It explores the ways in which pupils' attitudes to history change during the transition between primary and secondary school, and investigates pupils' views about the…

  13. Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Yezdan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

  14. Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

  15. Elementary Public School Pupil Rating of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research on elementary school pupils' ratings of teacher effectiveness. Concludes adequate research exists to generalize that pupils can rate reliably, pupils may be no more vulnerable than others to rating leniency and halo, psychometric characteristics and factor structures of rating scales resemble those of college students,…

  16. Modulation of stimulus contrast on the human pupil orienting response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-An; Munoz, Douglas P

    2014-09-01

    The sudden appearance of a novel stimulus initiates a series of responses to orient the body for appropriate actions, including not only shifts of gaze and attention, but also transient pupil dilation. Modulation of pupil dynamics by stimulus properties is less understood, although its effects on other components of orienting have been extensively explored. Microstimulation of the superior colliculus evoked transient pupil dilation, and the initial component of pupil dilation evoked by microstimulation was similar to that elicited by the presentation of salient sensory stimuli, suggesting a coordinated role of the superior colliculus on this behavior, although evidence in humans is yet to be established. To examine pupil orienting responses in humans, we presented visual stimuli while participants fixated on a central visual spot. Transient pupil dilation in humans was elicited after presentation of a visual stimulus in the periphery. The evoked pupil responses were modulated systematically by stimulus contrast, with faster and larger pupil responses triggered by higher contrast stimuli. The pupil response onset latencies for high contrast stimuli were similar to those produced by the light reflex and significantly faster than the darkness reflex, suggesting that the initial component of pupil dilation is probably mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic pathway. The contrast modulation was pronounced under different levels of baseline pupil size. Together, our results demonstrate visual contrast modulation on the orienting pupil response in humans. PMID:24911340

  17. Academic Outcomes in School Classes with Markedly Disruptive Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the degree to which average academic outcomes in secondary school classes are associated with the inclusion of markedly disruptive pupils. Findings are based on two separate studies among pupils in Norwegian secondary schools. The first study included a relatively large sample of 2,332 pupils from…

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 17: Pupil Transportation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 17 of the 10-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on pupil transportation safety. The purpose and objectives of a pupil transportation safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pupil transportation and policies…

  19. Secondary Transition Experiences for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the views and experiences of key stakeholders regarding inclusion into secondary phase schooling for pupils with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs). Six Year 6 pupils met the criteria for admission to a mainstream secondary school with attached specialist provision for ASCs. Three pupils transferred to this school, whilst…

  20. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  1. Learning Mathematics--Letting the Pupils Have Their Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Pupil voice is an emerging force for change and improvement in many UK schools, but what is not fully understood is how best to access pupil voice within the specific context of secondary mathematics departments. This paper presents a research project designed to use pupils as co-researchers in increasing knowledge about how to improve learning in…

  2. Guidelines For Pupil Services. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This guide offers articles giving advice and information about pupil services. It serves to blend theory and practice in reporting on promising practices in the pupil services disciplines in Wisconsin. Material and suggestions are adaptable elsewhere, and serve to stimulate professional activity in the pupil services field. Major articles focus on…

  3. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  4. What Makes an Exemplary Teacher of Science? The Pupils' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen; Mant, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires were completed by 5044 12-year-old pupils in Oxfordshire state schools and initially used to identify classes where the pupils were more positive and enthusiastic about their science lessons than the majority. The teachers of these classes were identified and the views of their pupils as to what happens in their science lessons…

  5. Relationship among Demographic Variables and Pupils' Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adeyinka; Tella, Adedeji; Adika, L. O.; Toyobo, Majekodunmi Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Pupils reasoning ability is a sine-qua-non to the evaluation of their performance in learning and an indicator of their potential predictors of future performance. Method: The study examined the relationship among demographic variables and reasoning ability of primary school pupils. It drew four hundred pupils from ten (10)…

  6. Researching the Pupil Voice: What Makes a Good Teaching Assistant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Ken; Sleightholme, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale research project concerning the views of pupils on what comprises a good teaching assistant (TA). The study indicates that pupils clearly valued the support given to them by TAs. The pupils outlined the main personal and professional characteristics they wanted to see in, as well as the kinds of support they…

  7. Constructions of Racism by British Chinese Pupils and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Francis, Becky

    2005-01-01

    British Chinese pupils stand out as a high achieving group within the British education system and yet very little theoretical or policy attention has been given to these pupils' identities and experiences of education. In this paper we consider British Chinese pupils' (and parents') reports of their experiences of racism/s and their views on the…

  8. On Pupils' Self-Confidence in Mathematics: Gender Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Anu; Hannula, Markku; Maijala, Hanna; Pehkonen, Erkki

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will concentrate on pupils' self-confidence in mathematics, which belongs to pupils' mathematical beliefs in themselves, and beliefs on achievement in mathematics. Research described consists of a survey of more than 3000 fifth-graders and seventh-graders. Furthermore, 40 pupils participated in a qualitative follow-up study…

  9. Adie's Tonic Pupil in Systemic Sclerosis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Anusha; Panda, Bijnya Birajita; Sirka, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare association of Adie's tonic pupil in a patient with systemic sclerosis who was otherwise systemically stable. This paper is an effort to unravel whether the tonic pupil and systemic sclerosis are an association by chance (which may be the case) or systemic sclerosis is the source of the tonic pupil. PMID:26421204

  10. Teacher management behaviors and pupil task involvement during small group laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Warren

    A major concern of many beginning and experienced teachers is that of classroom management and control. This article describes recent research into defining classroom management procedures that are used by high school science teachers and their relationship to pupil ontaskness. The classroom is conceptualized as a manipulable behavioral system. This construct arises directly from Barker's (1968) ecological psychology, the classroom and its occupants being conceptualized as a behavior setting. The behaviors of the teacher and the pupils are an integral part of the unit (behavior setting), which in turn coerces certain behaviors from its participants. Thus settings, and, in particular, subsettings, are seen as more important determiners of social behavior than the personality of individual teacher or pupil. The methodology employed in this research has involved the extensive use of video in naturalistic science classrooms. Tapes of both teacher and pupil behaviors were continuously and independently recorded. Intensive analysis using electronic recording instruments interfaced with the computer has allowed the collection and sophisticated analysis of the observational data. Data relating to teacher management behavior in small group settings have been analyzed and the relationships to pupil task involvement have been explored.